WorldWideScience

Sample records for heavily marketed medications

  1. Deconstructing medical practice marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbo, Abe

    2010-01-01

    The healthcare marketing game has radically changed. Medical practices must rely on strategies instead of tactics to better separate themselves from the competition. The Internet has become a disruptive force in marketing, tipping the balance and control of the reputations of medical practices to the patient. Done right, medical practices can harness this new energy to attract new patients and keep current patients loyal.

  2. Medicalization, markets and consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Peter; Leiter, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of changes in the medical marketplace on medicalization in U.S. society. Using four cases (Viagra, Paxil, human growth hormone and in vitro fertilization), we focus on two aspects of the changing medical marketplace: the role of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs and the emergence of private medical markets. We demonstrate how consumers and pharmaceutical corporations contribute to medicalization, with physicians, insurance coverage, and changes in regulatory practices playing facilitating roles. In some cases, insurers attempt to counteract medicalization by restricting access. We distinguish mediated and private medical markets, each characterized by differing relationships with corporations, insurers, consumers, and physicians. In the changing medical environment, with medical markets as intervening factors, corporations and insurers are becoming more significant determinants in the medicalization process.

  3. Launch prices for new pharmaceuticals in the heavily regulated and subsidized Spanish market, 1995-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume; López-Valcárcel, Beatriz González

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the explanatory factors affecting introductory prices of new pharmaceuticals in a heavily regulated and highly subsidized market. We collect a data set consisting of all new chemical entities launched in Spain between 1997 and 2005, and model launch prices following an extended version of previous economic models. We found that, unlike in the US and Sweden, therapeutically "innovative" products are not overpriced relative to "imitative" ones after having controlled for other factors. Price setting is mainly used as a mechanism to adjust for inflation independently of the degree of innovation. The drugs that enter through the centralized EMA approval procedure are overpriced, which may be a consequence of market globalization and international price setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Medical device market in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Philip; Morshed, Bashir I; Mussivand, Tofy

    2015-06-01

    With China's growing old-age population and economic presence on the international stage, it has become important to evaluate its domestic and foreign market contribution to medical devices. Medical devices are instruments or apparatuses used in the prevention, rehabilitation, treatment, or knowledge generation with respect to disease or other abnormal conditions. This article provides information drawn from recent publications to describe the current state of the Chinese domestic market for medical devices and to define opportunities for foreign investment potential therein. Recent healthcare reforms implemented to meet rising demand due to an aging and migrating population are having a positive effect on market growth-a global market with a projected growth of 15% per year over the next decade. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Medical students and drug marketing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Larrañaga, Sara; Rabanaque Hernández, María José

    2014-03-01

    To determine the exposure of medical students to the marketing activities of the pharmaceutical industry, and identify their opinions and attitudes, and also the possible effects this exposure on their training and future professional practice. Descriptive cross-sectional. University of Zaragoza Faculty of Medicine. Third, fourth, fifth and sixth year medical students. The information was obtained using a previously adapted, self-report questionnaire on the exposure, attitudes and perceived suitability of drug marketing activities. Percentages were calculated for the categorical variables, applying the chi squared test for the comparison between the groups. A logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with their attitudes towards these activities. A total of 369 questionnaires were returned (93% of those attending classes). The exposure to marketing activities is high, particularly in the clinical stage (78.6% said to have received a gift non-educational gift). The students recognised the possible biases and repercussions in professional practice, although with ambiguity and contradictions. The most accepted activities are those associated with training, and the most critical attitudes appear in the clinical stage, particularly in the sixth year. Exposure to drug marketing by medical students and its possible training and professional effects is frequent and significant. The training environment is particularly open to promotional activities. The differences observed in the later years suggest the need for a specific curriculum subject and development of reflective attitudes by the students themselves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Key Success Factors in Medical Tourism Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Sheng Yang

    2013-01-01

    The planners in tourism businesses and medical institutes, the evaluation criteria and dimensions for Medical Tourism Marketing are determined by experts through expert interviews. The weights and correlations among the dimensions and criteria are determined by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to construct an evaluating indicator model suitable for Medical Tourism Marketing. By organizing the overall weight of the key success factors in Medical Tourism Marketing, the top five indicators conta...

  7. Ethics in the marketing of medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Stephen R

    2004-09-01

    This paper deals with the ethics of marketing medical services by physicians, medical groups, hospitals and other mainstream medical caregivers in the United States. It does not deal with pharmaceutical marketing, since that raises a number of special issues, some of them legal and some having to do with the unique culture of pharmaceutical marketing, which really ought to be dealt with separately. Nor does it touch on the little-explored field of marketing alternative and complementary medicine. It begins with a general description of what is included in "the marketing process." It then briefly tours some of the difficulties faced by those who would market medical services ethically, and ends with some comments on the relevance of professionalism to ethical marketing.

  8. Marketing analysis of medical tourism in India

    OpenAIRE

    Manhas, Parikshat Singh; Ramjit, Monu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to carry out the marketing analysis and to determine the potential of the medical tourism, to identify the various challenges to the medical tourism in India and to suggest and recommend the marketing strategies to develop the India as the medical tourism destination. The research is primarily based on the secondary sources by searching the various potential academic journals and reports potential articles, with medical tourism in the title...

  9. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leigh

    2012-06-15

    Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, "Liberation therapy" for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1) where in Canada these businesses are located; 2) the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3) the medical procedures they promote; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism companies. Seven other businesses market regional, cross

  10. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1) where in Canada these businesses are located; 2) the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3) the medical procedures they promote; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism companies. Seven other

  11. Characterizing customers at medical center farmers' markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Monroe, Diana L; Fiordalis, Elizabeth; Bates, Erica

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 100 farmers' markets operate on medical center campuses. Although these venues can uniquely serve community health needs, little is known about customer characteristics and outreach efforts. Intercept survey of markets and market customers between August 2010 and October 2011 at three medical centers in different geographic regions of the US (Duke University Medical Center, Cleveland Clinic, and Penn State Hershey Medical Center) were conducted. Markets reported serving 180-2,000 customers per week and conducting preventive medicine education sessions and community health programs. Customers (n = 585) across markets were similar in sociodemographic characteristics--most were middle-aged, white, and female, who were employees of their respective medical center. Health behaviors of customers were similar to national data. The surveyed medical center farmers' markets currently serve mostly employees; however, markets have significant potential for community outreach efforts in preventive medicine. If farmers' markets can broaden their reach to more diverse populations, they may play an important role in contributing to community health.

  12. Marketing the academic medical center group practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, J A; Divis, K L

    1992-01-01

    From a marketing perspective, there are many differences between private and academic medical center (AMC) group practices. Given the growing competition between the two, write John Eudes and Kathy Divis, it is important for the AMC group practice to understand and use these differences to develop a competitive market advantage.

  13. Medical group management: a marketing orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, K D; Allcorn, S

    1986-09-01

    This article considers the pragmatic aspects of conducting a situation/marketing audit for group medical practices. This audit is a key component in the formulation of a competitive strategy and the development of a marketing program. Given are a series of questions that may be used by medical groups to guide assessment of the opportunities and threats present in the environment as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the organization in meeting the environmental challenges. Furthermore, the article provides a framework for thinking about strategy and the variables that should be considered and aligned to achieve effective implementation of strategy. Finally, the parameters are outlined for deciding on a marketing program: the mix of marketing tools (service design, distribution channels, pricing and promotion) that should be employed to offensively and/or defensively position the medical group in the competitive marketplace.

  14. Marketing medical services to an aging America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, L J

    1993-01-01

    Consumers over age 50 currently comprise 40 percent of consumer demand. Medical services provided in the group practice setting must be structured to accommodate the unique needs of their increasing number of elderly patients According to this professional paper, the development of a marketing plan will provide a strategy that will keep the medical group competitive among older consumers.

  15. Air ambulance medical transport advertising and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), and the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) believe that patient care and outcomes are optimized by using air medical transport services that are licensed air ambulance providers with robust physician medical director oversight and ongoing quality assessment and review. Only air ambulance medical transport services with these credentials should advertise/market themselves as air ambulance services.

  16. Clarifications regarding medical tourism destinations marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANCIOIU Aurelia-Felicia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of new types of tourism (stand-alone, connected or components, from marketing experience, implies a broad spectrum of challenges, which, placed in a planned background, has the purpose the creation and then, the development of tourism products that correspond, at least, to consumers’ expectations. In order to optimize the new type of tourism, it is necessary to be correlated with the relevant resources of the destination, which, harmonized, can lead to the elaboration of destination marketing strategies, in this situation being the medical tourism, component of health tourism.

  17. Integrative taxonomy of the ornamental 'peppermint' shrimp public market and population genetics of Lysmata boggessi, the most heavily traded species worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, J Antonio; Behringer, Donald C

    2017-01-01

    The ornamental trade is a worldwide industry worth >15 billion USD with a problem of rampant product misidentification. Minimizing misidentification is critical in the face of overexploitation of species in the trade. We surveyed the peppermint shrimp ornamental marketplace in the southeastern USA, the most intense market for peppermint shrimps worldwide, to characterize the composition of species in the trade, reveal the extent of misidentification, and describe the population genetics of the true target species. Shrimps were bought from aquarium shops in FL, GA, SC, and NC. We demonstrated, contrary to popular belief (information from dealers), that the most heavily traded species in the market was Lysmata boggessi , an endemic species to the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and not Lysmata wurdemanni . Importantly, only when color pattern or genetic markers in conjunction with morphological traits were employed, was it was possible to unequivocally identify L. boggessi as the only species in the trade. The intensity of the market for peppermint shrimps in the USA has led to L. boggessi being the most traded species worldwide. Misidentification in the shrimp aquarium trade is accidental and involuntary, and is explained by remarkable similarity among congeneric species. Using sequences of the 16S-mt-DNA marker, we found no indication of population genetic structure in the endemic L. boggessi across  550 km of linear coast. Therefore, this species can be considered genetically homogeneous and a single fished stock. Still, we argue in favor of additional studies using more powerful markers (e.g., SNPs) capable of revealing genetic structure at a finer spatial-scale. Our results will help advance management and conservation policies in this lucrative yet understudied fishery. Future studies of other ornamental fisheries will benefit from using an integrative taxonomic approach, as we demonstrate here.

  18. Market factors and electronic medical record adoption in medical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir; Mazurenko, Olena; Kazley, Abby Swanson; Diana, Mark L; Ford, Eric W

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies identified individual or practice factors that influence practice-based physicians' electronic medical record (EMR) adoption. Less is known about the market factors that influence physicians' EMR adoption. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between environmental market characteristics and physicians' EMR adoption. The Health Tracking Physician Survey 2008 and Area Resource File (2008) were combined and analyzed. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between three dimensions of the market environment (munificence, dynamism, and complexity) and EMR adoption controlling for several physician and practice characteristics. In a nationally representative sample of 4,720 physicians, measures of market dynamism including increases in unemployment, odds ratio (OR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.91, 0.99], or poverty rates, OR = 0.93, 95% CI [0.89, 0.96], were negatively associated with EMR adoption. Health maintenance organization penetration, OR = 3.01, 95% CI [1.49, 6.05], another measure of dynamism, was positively associated with EMR adoption. Physicians practicing in areas with a malpractice crisis, OR = 0.82, 95% CI [0.71, 0.94], representing environmental complexity, had lower EMR adoption rates. Understanding how market factors relate to practice-based physicians' EMR adoption can assist policymakers to better target limited resources as they work to realize the national goal of universal EMR adoption and meaningful use.

  19. [Marketing as a tool in the medical institution management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, N G; Balokhina, S A

    2009-01-01

    The contemporary social economic conditions dictate the necessity to change tactics and strategy of functioning of medical institutions of different property forms. Marketing, alongside with management is to become a leading concept of administration of medical institutions. It should be a framework for systematic collection, registration and analysis of data relevant to the medical services market. The issues of the implementation of marketing concept in the practical everyday activities of commercial medical organization providing cosmetology services to population of metropolis.

  20. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field.

  1. Growing a medical practice with social media marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Jake

    2012-01-01

    Many medical practices are facing the lack of practice growth that their social media efforts are generating. This article provides concrete ideas that can be put in place by any medical practice to realize sustainable practice growth through social media marketing. In the article, the author demonstrates that social media marketing of the medical practice has become absolutely essential in today's evolving, competitive, and fast-paced environment. This demonstration is made through an exploration of the evolution of what "good" marketing has looked like for medical practices over time. In addition, attention is paid to the shift in the definition of good marketing that is required for the practice that is preparing a social media-marketing plan. Specifically, the article investigates the proven requirements for a balanced blend of unique and engaging promotional and nonpromotional community outreach, which is required on a daily basis to achieve the significant, lasting, and sustainable growth that the practice wishes to achieve.

  2. Characterizing customers at medical center farmers’ markets1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; George, Daniel R.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Monroe, Diana L.; Fiordalis, Elizabeth; Bates, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 100 farmers’ markets operate on medical center campuses. Although these venues can uniquely serve community health needs, little is known about customer characteristics and outreach efforts. Intercept survey of markets and market customers between August 2010-October 2011 at three medical centers in different geographic regions of the US: Duke University Medical Center, Cleveland Clinic, and Penn State Hershey Medical Center were conducted. Markets reported serving 180–2000 customers per week and conducting preventive medicine education sessions and community health programs. Customers (n=585) across markets were similar in sociodemographic characteristics – most were middle-aged, white, and female, who were employees of their respective medical center. Health behaviors of customers were similar to national data. The surveyed medical center farmers’ markets currently serve mostly employees; however, markets have significant potential for community outreach efforts in preventive medicine. If farmers’ markets can broaden their reach to more diverse populations, they may play an important role in contributing to community health. PMID:24421001

  3. Medical tourism market trends - an exploratory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ile Florența Larisa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism is a modern concept, but not a new tourism practice. Even there is still no international consent on the definitions and measurement of this trend, its importance in the development of a tourism destination started to be taken into consideration. In accordance with tourism segment classification depending on journey reasons recommended by World Tourism Organization, one of the main groups is for “medical treatment/health”. Being part of health tourism, medical tourism is often called medical travel because it includes the act of travelling to different countries for medical reasons. An increasing significant element in medical service trade is patient circulation at cross-border level with a view to obtaining necessary health services; this circulation generated a new phenomenon, namely medical tourism. Studying the scientific literature we find new medical tourism trends in connection with globalization and liberalization. The countries that decided to promote this niche tourism are aware of the huge economic benefits brought by this. Analyzing published data by tourism medical organizations associated to indicators of economic development, we find two aspects: the success of a medical tourism destination is influenced by the economical level of the receiving countries, but, at the same time, it is also a growth factor for developing economies if it is included in their national strategy. We intend to find the answer of several questions: trends in medical tourism development are involving only medical service trade, or a combination of specific activities of many sectors? Is the medical tourism acting in favor of developing economies? This study aims to notice the development trends of the medical tourism based on the published figures and on the experience of major destinations and to highlight the importance of the medical tourism for the developing economies.

  4. [Marketing in the system of military-medical facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuchenko, O M; Sviridova, T B

    2014-02-01

    Military medical facilities of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian, have received the right to provide additional services and have been involved in the sphere of market relations. The strong influence of market relations - an objective reality that must be used for the development of military medical institutions and improving quality of care.Effective commercial activity can improve capabilities of the military medical institutions. This requires constant study of market mechanisms to implement and develop their competitive advantage. The paper substantiates the need for the participation of military medical institutions in the provision of health services to the public on the terms of compensation incurred by financial institutions costs (paid medical services, medical assistance program of compulsory and voluntary health insurance). Taking into account the specifics of military medical institutions set out basic principles and recommendations have been implementing marketing approach in their management, the practical application of which will not only increase efficiency, but also create conditions to improve the financial and economic indicators. This knowledge will help the mechanism of functioning health care market and the rules of interaction of market counterparties.

  5. Strategic marketing: an introduction for medical specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexa, Frank James; Berlin, Jonathan

    2006-03-01

    Marketing and branding are 2 of the most important factors for business success in the United States. They are particularly critical in service industries such as diagnostic imaging. However, in spite of their strategic importance in radiology success, a search of the peer-reviewed radiology literature reveals a paucity of published work that addresses marketing for imaging practices. In particular, there is a dearth of literature addressing the role (both direct and indirect) of radiologists in marketing efforts. In this article, the authors attempt to identify and correct some common misconceptions that physicians and other scientific and technical professionals have about marketing. Basic terms and preliminary concepts are introduced to provide a foundational understanding of the topic, allowing the interested reader to move forward and explore these critical issues in greater depth.

  6. Medical tourism market trends - an exploratory research

    OpenAIRE

    Ile Florența Larisa; Țigu Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Medical tourism is a modern concept, but not a new tourism practice. Even there is still no international consent on the definitions and measurement of this trend, its importance in the development of a tourism destination started to be taken into consideration. In accordance with tourism segment classification depending on journey reasons recommended by World Tourism Organization, one of the main groups is for “medical treatment/health”. Being part of health tourism, medical tourism is often...

  7. Marketing 2.0 für Medizinbibliotheken / Marketing 2.0 for medical libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obst, Oliver

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available For medical libraries marketing and public relations are essential factors, which are important for strategic planning. They positively affect the imbedding into the organization and the customer relationship. The decrease of the information monopoly, the flood of information and the increasing competition strengthen the necessity for marketing activities. Fundamental principles of marketing and public relations are described and illustrated with examples from the Branch Library of Medicine at Münster. New methods such as weblog marketing and viral marketing are presented.

  8. Nurse prescribing ethics and medical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J

    This article suggests that nurse prescribers require an awareness of key concepts in ethics, such as deontology and utilitarianism to reflect on current debates and contribute to them. The principles of biomedical ethics have also been influential in the development of professional codes of conduct. Attention is drawn to the importance of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry's code of practice for the pharmaceutical industry in regulating marketing aimed at prescribers.

  9. COMPETITION ON THE WHOLESALE MEDICATION DISTRIBUTION MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wholesale distribution of medicines in Romania was in the constant attention of the competition authority. In order to analyze the operation of the distribution system practiced in Romania, but also changes that may occur in this system on short and medium term, the Competition Council conducted a sector inquiry after which they found some malfunctioning mainly chained to distributors access to certain medications. Conducted on a sample of 23 pharmaceutical groups operating on the Romanian market and holding approximately 80% of the pharmaceutical market in Romania in 2009, the sector inquiry aimed at two objectives, namely: Legislation analysis with impact on the wholesale distribution of drugs; Market analysis of drug distribution.Following the findings of the high concentration of markets analyzed, due to significant market shares held by innovative drugs under investigation were analyzed also the penetration of generics in the market and the factors that led to this situation.

  10. Marketing and the medical specialist in the managed care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, N W

    1997-01-01

    Marketing means more than just communicating or advertising to potential patients; marketing means identifying your customers and working to meet or exceed their expectations. There are five key areas of a marketing plan: (1) Establish the foundation, beginning with your mission statement; (2) Assess your marketing environment by internal and external research; (3) Target your efforts, looking at image and perception; (4) Develop your particular mix of product, price, place of distribution, and promotion; and (5) implement and evaluate your marketing process. This article discusses the importance of a marketing plan for the medical specialist and highlights the features unique to a practice working in a system of capitated reimbursement. Applying these principles will help to demonstrate added value, protect the fundamental role of the patient-physician relationship, ensure that our efforts are aligned with professional missions and goals, and ultimately increase profitability and professional success.

  11. Examination of Market Segmentation among Medical Marijuana Dispensaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Alexis; Freisthler, Bridget; Mulholland, Elycia

    2018-01-05

    As medical marijuana legislation becomes more common, concerns arise about the overconcentration of dispensaries, raising questions about the number of medicinal marijuana dispensaries (MMD) needed to serve medicinal users. This paper applies niche-marketing theory-which suggests dispensaries market to specific types of people-to examine if MMDs might be targeting recreational users. Observed differences between dispensary populations and between dispensary clients and local residents may indicate that dispensaries are drawing in patients based on factors other than medical need. Data were collected via exit surveys with patients at four dispensaries in Long Beach, CA. A total of 132 patients were surveyed regarding demographic data, purchase information, medical condition, and nearest cross street for their home address. Census tract information was collected for every dispensary. Chi-squared tests show significant associations between dispensary visited and race (χ 2 = 31.219, p market segmentation.

  12. Utilization of a Marketing Strategy at Naval Regional Medical Center Great Lakes, Great Lakes, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    22 Analysis of the Mare.....................22 Development of the Marketing Mix .. .......... 29 A Marketing Mix --Recommendations...problem. Marketing strategy, marketing mix and ultimately the marketing orientation will allow hospitals to persevere and possibly thrive in a somewhat...market are currently being met at Naval Regional Medical Center Great Lakes. The fourth objective is to demonstrate an appropriate marketing mix for

  13. Effectively marketing prepaid medical care with decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgionne, G A

    1991-01-01

    The paper reports a decision support system (DSS) that enables health plan administrators to quickly and easily: (1) manage relevant medical care market (consumer preference and competitors' program) information and (2) convert the information into appropriate medical care delivery and/or payment policies. As the paper demonstrates, the DSS enables providers to design cost efficient and market effective medical care programs. The DSS provides knowledge about subscriber preferences, customer desires, and the program offerings of the competition. It then helps administrators structure a medical care plan in a way that best meets consumer needs in view of the competition. This market effective plan has the potential to generate substantial amounts of additional revenue for the program. Since the system's data base consists mainly of the provider's records, routine transactions, and other readily available documents, the DSS can be implemented at a nominal incremental cost. The paper also evaluates the impact of the information system on the general financial performance of existing dental and mental health plans. In addition, the paper examines how the system can help contain the cost of providing medical care while providing better services to more potential beneficiaries than current approaches.

  14. Nonprescription medications for respiratory symptoms: Facts and marketing fictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Miles; Hendeles, Leslie

    2018-05-01

    There are many nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medications available on pharmacy shelves marketed for relief of respiratory symptoms. The number of such medications has been increasing. This review provides an evidence-based examination of OTC products used for respiratory symptoms. Antihistamines, decongestants, mucolytics, antitussives, and intranasal steroids were selected as the most common OTC medications taken by adults and children for various respiratory symptoms. Controlled clinical trials of efficacy were identified by searching a medical literature data base. Those trials and key publications related to the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the products were reviewed. Comparisons of the various OTC antihistamines' ability to suppress the effects of histamine were related to their clinical benefit. Intranasal corticosteroids are the preferred agents for maintenance therapy of persistent nasal congestion and are highly effective for symptoms of inhalant allergy other than allergic conjunctivitis. The disconnect between marketing claims and evidence was demonstrated for antihistamines and oral alpha-1 adrenergic agonist decongestants. Data for OTC mucolytics and antitussives were insufficient to justify their use based on the evidence. There was little relationship between marketing claims and evidence regarding OTC medications used for respiratory symptoms. Analysis of data supported cetirizine, levocetirizine, and fexofenadine as the most effective of the OTC antihistamines. There were no data that supported the use of oral phenylephrine as a decongestant. Neither OTC mucolytics or antitussives provided sufficient evidence to justify their use.

  15. Medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical industry marketing: a survey at one U.S. medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, Melena; McCarthy, Susan; Drevlow, Laurel; Pierach, Claus

    2004-11-01

    While much is known about the interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and physicians, very little is known about pharmaceutical marketing directed toward medical students. This study sought to characterize the extent and forms of medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical industry marketing. In 2001-02, an anonymous, 17-item questionnaire was distributed to 165 preclinical and 116 clinical students at the University of Minnesota Medical School-Twin Cities. The main outcome measures were the number and forms of exposures to pharmaceutical industry marketing reported by medical students and whether students had discussed these exposures with teachers or advisors. Preclinical and clinical students were compared using chi(2) analysis (p marketing. Seventy-six (71.7%) clinical students compared to 38 (33.3%) preclinical students recalled over 20 exposures (p textbook (p marketing with an instructor or advisor; 59 (55.7%) clinical students as compared to 87 (80.6%) preclinical students recalled no such discussion (p marketing during their early years of training. Given existing evidence that such exposure influences physicians' practice and prescribing patterns, the authors propose that medical school curricula include formal instruction to prepare students to critically assess these contacts.

  16. Market Collapse Weighs Heavily on College Endowments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    College endowments earned an average return of minus-3 percent for the 2008 fiscal year and an estimated minus-22.5 percent in the five months after that, two new reports show. More than a quarter of all institutions said they plan to draw less money from their endowment this year than they had expected to spend. After a half-decade of soaring…

  17. Marketing your medical practice with an effective web presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Tammy

    2004-01-01

    The proliferation of the World Wide Web has provided an opportunity for medical practices to sell themselves through low-cost marketing on the Internet. A Web site is a quick and effective way to provide patients with up-to-date treatment and procedure information. This article provides suggestions on what to include on a medical practice's Web site, how the Web can assist office staff and physicians, and cost options for your Web site. The article also discusses design tips, such as Web-site optimization.

  18. [Marketing approval and market surveillance of medical devices in Germany: Where does policy integration take place?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Since 2011 new regulatory measures regarding medical devices have been set up with the aim to eliminate obstacles to innovations and to find more coordinated ways to marketing authorisation and market surveillance. This essay investigates whether these new and existing coordination mechanisms build up to a Joined-up Government approach. The analysis shows that the regulatory process should be adjusted along several dimensions. First, many organisations lack awareness regarding their stakeholders and focus solely on their immediate organisational activities. Second, the regulatory process (marketing authorisation and market surveillance) is too fragmented for an effective communication to take place. Finally, the underlying strategy process is an ad-hoc approach lacking continuity and continued involvement of, in particular, the responsible federal ministries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. [Beyond the horizon of health-care delivery - medical marketing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M; Großterlinden, L G; Rueger, J M; Ruecker, A H

    2014-12-01

    The progress in medical health care and demographic changes cause increasing financial expenses. The rising competitive environment on health-care delivery level calls for economisation and implementation of a professional marketing set-up in order to ensure long-term commercial success. The survey is based on a questionnaire-analysis of 100 patients admitted to a trauma department at a university hospital in Germany. Patients were admitted either for emergency treatment or planned surgical procedures. Competence and localisation represent basic criteria determing hospital choice with a varying focus in each collective. Both collectives realise a trend toward economisation, possibly influencing medical care decision-making. Patients admitted for planned surgical treatment are well informed about their disease, treatment options and specialised centres. The main source of information is the internet. Both collectives claim amenities during their in-hospital stay. Increasing economisation trends call for a sound and distinct marketing strategy. The marketing has to be focused on the stakeholders needs. Concomitant factors are patient satisfaction, the establishment of cooperation networks and maintenance/improvement of medical health-care quality. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Medical Representatives' Intention to Use Information Technology in Pharmaceutical Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Eun-Seon; Chang, Hyejung

    2016-10-01

    Electronic detailing (e-detailing), the use of electronic devices to facilitate sales presentations to physicians, has been adopted and expanded in the pharmaceutical industry. To maximize the potential outcome of e-detailing, it is important to understand medical representatives (MRs)' behavior and attitude to e-detailing. This study investigates how information technology devices such as laptop computers and tablet PCs are utilized in pharmaceutical marketing, and it analyzes the factors influencing MRs' intention to use devices. This study has adopted and modified the theory of Roger's diffusion of innovation model and the technology acceptance model. To test the model empirically, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 221 MRs who were working in three multinational or eleven domestic pharmaceutical companies in Korea. Overall, 28% and 35% of MRs experienced using laptop computers and tablet PCs in pharmaceutical marketing, respectively. However, the rates were different across different groups of MRs, categorized by age, education level, position, and career. The results showed that MRs' intention to use information technology devices was significantly influenced by perceived usefulness in general. Perceived ease of use, organizational and individual innovativeness, and several MR characteristics were also found to have significant impacts. This study provides timely information about e-detailing devices to marketing managers and policy makers in the pharmaceutical industry for successful marketing strategy development by understanding the needs of MRs' intention to use information technology. Further in-depth study should be conducted to understand obstacles and limitations and to improve the strategies for better marketing tools.

  1. The marketing mix and development of medical tourism in shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Alireza; Rahimi Zarchi, Mohammad Kazem; Kavosi, Zahra; Shafaghat, Tahere; Keshtkaran, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, medical tourism market has been raised as one of the income-earning and competitive industries in the world and is considered as a modern field of advanced tourism. Therefore, a great number of countries are seeking to develop this type of tourism and one of the strategies for developing this industry is using the marketing mix elements. This study was a descriptive-analytic and cross sectional one. The research community included all the public and private hospitals of Shiraz among which, 7 public and 9 private hospitals were studied. The study data were collected through a researcher-made check list whose face and content validity was confirmed by the experts. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software. According to the objectives of the study, the descriptive results were presented in frequency tables and Chi-square test was used for data analysis. In addition, Pmedical tourists and developing this industry in Shiraz.

  2. [Industry regulation and its relationship to the rapid marketing of medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    In the market of medical devices, non-Japanese products hold a large part even in Japan. To overcome this situation, the Japanese government has been announcing policies to encourage the medical devices industry, such as the 5-year strategy for medical innovation (June 6, 2012). The Division of Medical Devices has been contributing to rapid marketing of medical devices by working out the standards for approval review and accreditation of medical devices, guidances on evaluation of medical devices with emerging technology, and test methods for biological safety evaluation of medical devices, as a part of practice in the field of regulatory science. The recent outcomes are 822 standards of accreditation for Class II medical devices, 14 guidances on safety evaluation of medical devices with emerging technology, and the revised test methods for biological safety evaluation (MHLW Notification by Director, OMDE, Yakushokuki-hatsu 0301 No. 20 "Basic Principles of Biological Safety Evaluation Required for Application for Approval to Market Medical Devices").

  3. MARKETING RESEARCHES OF THE POPULATIONS HEALTH STATE AS A FACTOR OF DEMAND FORMATION IN THE MARKET OF PAID MEDICAL SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Hrechanyk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The state of health of the population is one of the most important indicators of the well-being of the nation. Important directions of health care reform are optimization of management, rational distribution of limited financial resources, efficient use of material resources, introduction of health insurance, restructuring of treatment and preventive care to the people. Marketing of medical services market is one of the most complex types of marketing. Because it is medical services that are connected with the protection and maintenance of the most important values ​​of a person - life and health. The market for medical services is a combination of socio-economic relations in the healthcare sector. The most important components of the analysis of any market, including the market of medical services, are marketing research, which is a systematic collection, processing, analysis of data and information in order to formulate proposals for effective activities on it. In the field of public health, marketing can be defined as a complex process of planning, economic substantiation and management of the process of provision of medical services, the formation of a pricing policy of the medical-preventive process, ensuring effective communication with patients. The purpose of the study is to identify the health of the population and determine the demand factors for paid health services and their demand. The main task set before market research on the health of the population is the formation and provision of benefits to consumers that meet their needs for qualified medical care and quality of life. The research methods used in the work are based on probabilistic, stratified, quota, representative samples for the entire population of Ivano-Frankivsk and Ivano-Frankivsk region. The obtained results allow us to give a realistic assessment of the main trends and allow us to assess the potential of socio-economic adaptation of the population in the

  4. Canadian medical tourism companies that have exited the marketplace: Content analysis of websites used to market transnational medical travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Medical tourism companies play an important role in promoting transnational medical travel for elective, out-of-pocket medical procedures. Though researchers are paying increasing attention to the global phenomenon of medical tourism, to date websites of medical tourism companies have received limited scrutiny. This article analyzes websites of Canadian medical tourism companies that advertised international healthcare but ultimately exited the marketplace. Using content analysis of company websites as an investigative tool, the article provides a detailed account of medical tourism companies that were based in Canada but no longer send clients to international health care facilities. Methods Internet searches, Google Alerts, searches on Google News Canada and ProQuest Newsstand, and searches of an Industry Canada database were used to locate medical tourism companies located in Canada. Once medical tourism companies were identified, the social science research method of content analysis was used to extract relevant information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to determine: 1) where these businesses were based; 2) the destination countries and medical facilities that they promoted; 3) the health services they advertised; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses marketed air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday excursions in addition to medical procedures. Results In total, 25 medical tourism companies that were based in Canada are now defunct. Given that an estimated 18 medical tourism companies and 7 regional, cross-border medical travel facilitators now operate in Canada, it appears that approximately half of all identifiable medical tourism companies in Canada are no longer in business. 13 of the previously operational companies were based in Ontario, 7 were located in British Columbia, 4 were situated in Quebec, and 1 was based in Alberta. 14 companies marketed medical procedures within a single country, 9

  5. Canadian medical tourism companies that have exited the marketplace: Content analysis of websites used to market transnational medical travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leigh

    2011-10-14

    Medical tourism companies play an important role in promoting transnational medical travel for elective, out-of-pocket medical procedures. Though researchers are paying increasing attention to the global phenomenon of medical tourism, to date websites of medical tourism companies have received limited scrutiny. This article analyzes websites of Canadian medical tourism companies that advertised international healthcare but ultimately exited the marketplace. Using content analysis of company websites as an investigative tool, the article provides a detailed account of medical tourism companies that were based in Canada but no longer send clients to international health care facilities. Internet searches, Google Alerts, searches on Google News Canada and ProQuest Newsstand, and searches of an Industry Canada database were used to locate medical tourism companies located in Canada. Once medical tourism companies were identified, the social science research method of content analysis was used to extract relevant information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to determine: 1) where these businesses were based; 2) the destination countries and medical facilities that they promoted; 3) the health services they advertised; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses marketed air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday excursions in addition to medical procedures. In total, 25 medical tourism companies that were based in Canada are now defunct. Given that an estimated 18 medical tourism companies and 7 regional, cross-border medical travel facilitators now operate in Canada, it appears that approximately half of all identifiable medical tourism companies in Canada are no longer in business. 13 of the previously operational companies were based in Ontario, 7 were located in British Columbia, 4 were situated in Quebec, and 1 was based in Alberta. 14 companies marketed medical procedures within a single country, 9 businesses marketed health care

  6. Canadian medical tourism companies that have exited the marketplace: Content analysis of websites used to market transnational medical travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Leigh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical tourism companies play an important role in promoting transnational medical travel for elective, out-of-pocket medical procedures. Though researchers are paying increasing attention to the global phenomenon of medical tourism, to date websites of medical tourism companies have received limited scrutiny. This article analyzes websites of Canadian medical tourism companies that advertised international healthcare but ultimately exited the marketplace. Using content analysis of company websites as an investigative tool, the article provides a detailed account of medical tourism companies that were based in Canada but no longer send clients to international health care facilities. Methods Internet searches, Google Alerts, searches on Google News Canada and ProQuest Newsstand, and searches of an Industry Canada database were used to locate medical tourism companies located in Canada. Once medical tourism companies were identified, the social science research method of content analysis was used to extract relevant information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to determine: 1 where these businesses were based; 2 the destination countries and medical facilities that they promoted; 3 the health services they advertised; 4 core marketing messages; and 5 whether businesses marketed air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday excursions in addition to medical procedures. Results In total, 25 medical tourism companies that were based in Canada are now defunct. Given that an estimated 18 medical tourism companies and 7 regional, cross-border medical travel facilitators now operate in Canada, it appears that approximately half of all identifiable medical tourism companies in Canada are no longer in business. 13 of the previously operational companies were based in Ontario, 7 were located in British Columbia, 4 were situated in Quebec, and 1 was based in Alberta. 14 companies marketed medical procedures within a

  7. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S; Blount, Katrina L; Ritchie, Jessica D; Hodshon, Beth; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-01-01

    In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA's pre-market approval (PMA) pathway. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%), nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives.

  8. Joint marketing cites excellence: Fairview-University Medical Center advertises cooperatively with University of Minnesota Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Judith D

    2004-01-01

    Fairview-University Medical Center and University of Minnesota Physicians, both in Minneapolis, are enjoying the benefits of a co-branded advertising campaign. It includes print ads, brochures, and other marketing devices.

  9. Four motivations for charitable giving: implications for marketing strategy to attract monetary donations for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S

    1988-06-01

    Medical research foundations can compete more effectively for charitable dollars by being aware of motivations for giving when designing marketing strategy. The study tests the extent to which the motives of reciprocity, income, career, and self-esteem predict monetary giving to medical research. The results indicate that reciprocity and income motives are significant predictors of giving, as are household assets and age. Interpretation of these results leads to several suggestions for marketing strategy.

  10. The efficacy of the Internet and Social Media as Medical Marketing Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Karantinou, Kalipso; Alexiou, Maria; Vlachaki, Athanasia

    2016-01-01

    The role and efficacy of online marketing in healthcare remains underexplored. The present study, focusing on one medical specialty, investigates the perceived role of the Internet and social media as marketing tools from the perspectives of both healthcare providers and patients. It assesses their

  11. Keeping the medical practice financially viable: a marketer's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Michelle L; Capraro, Anthony J; Credito, Candace M

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores a way that medical practices might develop a higher margin revenue source by offering a differentiated service that caters to patients who value more personalized service. Using SERVQUAL, German patients were surveyed to determine if there is a relationship between a desire for personalized service and a willingness to pay a premium for medical care. The results indicate that a greater desire for personalized care distinguishes those who pay a premium for medical care from those who do not. This suggests that medical practices can differentiate their service based on more personalized care and charge a higher fee for this service.

  12. Post market surveillance in the german medical device sector - current state and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, Claus; Bohnet-Joschko, Sabine

    2017-08-01

    Medical devices play a central role in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases but also bring the potential for adverse events, hazards or malfunction with serious consequences for patients and users. Medical device manufacturers are therefore required by law to monitor the performance of medical devices that have been approved by the competent authorities (post market surveillance). Conducting a nationwide online-survey in the German medical device sector in Q2/2014 in order to explore the current status of the use of post market instruments we obtained a total of 118 complete data sets, for a return rate of 36%. The survey included manufacturers of different sizes, producing medical devices of all risk classes. The post market instruments most frequently reported covered the fields of production monitoring and quality management as well as literature observation, regulatory vigilance systems, customer knowledge management and market observation while Post Market Clinical Follow-up and health services research were being used less for product monitoring. We found significant differences between the different risk classes of medical devices produced and the intensity of use of post market instruments. Differences between company size and the intensity of instruments used were hardly detected. Results may well contribute to the development of device monitoring which is a crucial element of the policy and regulatory system to identify device-related safety issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. RESEARCH OF RUSSIAN HIGH TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MARKET: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станислав Сергеевич Отставнов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data obtained from comprehensive study of russian hi-tech medical equipment market. The size and the structure of Russian medical equipment market in 2005-2011 were investigated and market size forecast for 2012-2015 was given. Priority segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market were identified (products with a high degree of visualization, anesthetic and ventilation equipment, patient monitors  based on the analysis of literature sources and morbidity structure. Key players in key segments of the market were identified and their financial performance such as number of employees, revenue, net profit, researches and development expenses were compared (according to actual annual reports.Research allowed to draw the following conclusion: today in the key segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market the leadership of foreign companies  (Hitachi, Philips, Siemens, Toshiba, General Electric, Dräger is indisputable, objective preconditions for the fundamental change of the situation are absent. Import substitution requires the consolidation of domestic producers, adequate funding and human resource.The results can be used in practice by medical industry companies and State authorities on purpose to upgrade the medical industry.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-31

  14. Positioning patient-perceived medical services to develop a marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Hong, Myung-Sun

    2012-01-01

    In today's medical market, marketing philosophy is being rapidly transformed from customer searching to patient satisfaction and service improvement. The principal objective of this study was to contribute to the establishment of a desirable medical marketing strategy, through the factors of customer satisfaction and the positioning of patients' perceptions by marketing institutions. The data were collected from 282 students of the College of Public Health and Medicine in Seoul. The survey tools were developed using the SERVQUAL scale. Analysis in this study involved both statistical and network analysis. The former was used to verify the determinants of service satisfaction as perceived by respondents, via factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. The latter was obtained using a positioning map and 2-mode network analysis with the matrix data converted from raw data. The determining factors for patient satisfaction were identified as facilities, accessibility, process, physicians, and medical staff. The regression equation was significant (R = 0.606), and the most influential variable was the service quality of physicians (β = .569). According to multidimensional scaling, the positioning of medical institutions indicated that patients' perceptions were affected by hospital size and specialization. By recognizing and managing patient satisfaction, medical institutions are able to foster customer loyalty and, in turn, to enhance service quality. It is necessary to develop an adequate marketing mix to provide better medical services and to overcome medical competition among institutions.

  15. Marketing to Develop the Premier Medical Brand in the Huaihai Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peiying; Meng, Qingchao

    2015-06-01

    Based on the practices at Xuzhou Central Hospital, the authors analyzed the improvements in the healthcare quality and economic efficiency after implementing a brand marketing strategy. Using methods including questionnaires and business controlling means, we summarized that the improvements to the healthcare quality and economic efficiency after strategies were implemented in the areas of network, reputation, academic research, and public welfare. After the implementation of a brand marketing campaign, the medical service quality and brand reputation have been greatly improved. Meanwhile, a central hospital group was formed and gradually became the central healthcare provider in the Huaihai Economic Zone. The new marketing facilitated the drastic increase of medical service and brand reputation.

  16. Development of a Marketing Plan at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    advertising, public relations, sales promotion and personal selling (Hillestad et. al., 1991). The healthcare marketer at NMCP could use all aspects...relations is an image focused program to assess the public’s attitude and interest in the organization. Sales promotion is aimed at the end consumers

  17. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross JS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Joseph S Ross, Katrina L Blount, Jessica D Ritchie, Beth Hodshon, Harlan M Krumholz Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA Background: In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA's pre-market approval (PMA pathway. Methods and results: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%, nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Conclusion: Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives. Keywords: FDA, PMA pathway, post-market surveillance

  18. Hospital ownership and medical services: market mix, spillover effects, and nonprofit objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Jill R; Nichols, Austin

    2009-09-01

    Hospitals operate in markets with varied demographic, competitive, and ownership characteristics, yet research on ownership tends to examine hospitals in isolation. Here we examine three hospital ownership types -- nonprofit, for-profit, and government -- and their spillover effects. We estimate the effects of for-profit market share in two ways, on the provision of medical services and on operating margins at the three types of hospitals. We find that nonprofit hospitals' medical service provision systematically varies by market mix. We find no significant effect of market mix on the operating margins of nonprofit hospitals, but find that for-profit hospitals have higher margins in markets with more for-profits. These results fit best with theories in which hospitals maximize their own output.

  19. Marketing aspects of development of medical waste management in health care institutions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inesa Gurinа

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of marketing approach to medical waste management in health care is suggested.The goal of research was to study the state of marketing activities of health care institutions on medical waste management and development trends of   resolution of outstanding issues.Methods. The methods, which were used in the research, are the methods of mathematical statistics, social studies and scientific knowledge.Results. Environmental marketing institutions of healthcare means perfectly safe for the environment provision of health services. The main directions of environmental marketing concept in health care institutions is the acceptance generally binding legal standards of Use Resources, strict control the formation and licensing of medical waste; economic incentives for workers, aimed at minimizing their interest in the volumes of medical waste; financing of R & D relative to the development of new waste and sound technologies; develop a system of taxes and penalties for polluting the environment and so on.Conclusions. As a result of the implementation of marketing strategies for managing medical waste of healthcare institutions are obtained strategic, social, environmental and economic benefits.

  20. Generating demand for pharmacist-provided medication therapy management: identifying patient-preferred marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gladys M; Snyder, Margie E; McGrath, Stephanie Harriman; Smith, Randall B; McGivney, Melissa Somma

    2009-01-01

    To identify effective strategies for marketing pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services to patients in a self-insured employer setting. Qualitative study. University of Pittsburgh during March through May 2008. 26 university employees taking at least one chronic medication. Three focus group sessions were conducted using a semistructured topic guide to facilitate the discussion. Employees' perceived medication-related needs, perceived benefits of pharmacist-provided MTM, potential barriers for employee participation in MTM, and effective strategies for marketing MTM. Participants reported concerns with timing of doses, medication costs, access, and ensuring adherence. Participants generally felt positively toward pharmacists; however, the level of reported patient contact with pharmacists varied among participants. Some participants questioned pharmacists' education and qualifications for this enhanced role in patient care. Perceived benefits of MTM noted by participants included the opportunity to obtain personalized information about their medications and the potential for improved communication among their health providers. Barriers to patient participation were out-of-pocket costs and lack of time for MTM visits. Participants suggested use of alternative words to describe MTM and marketing approaches that involve personal contact. Pharmacists should emphasize parts of MTM that patients feel are most beneficial (i.e., provision of a personal medication record) and use patient-friendly language to describe MTM when marketing their practice. Patients will need greater exposure to the concept of MTM and the pharmacists' role in order to correctly describe and assign value to this type of pharmacist patient care practice.

  1. Variability in market uptake of psychotropic medications in Europe reflects cultural diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hoebert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last 20–30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the effects of cultural diversity on the use of new medications entering the market. As national cultures relate deeply to held values regarding, for example, what is seen as effective versus ineffective or safe versus dangerous, (cultural diversity in decision making around the role of new medications in clinical practice may already be expected from the first day after market authorization. Methods This study examined the relation between cultural diversity, described in Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance, Indulgence and Long-Term Orientation and utilization of three new psychotropic medications, namely aripiprazole, duloxetine and pregabalin in Europe. Country level sales data of the case study medications were correlated to country-specific scores of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. IMS Health’s MIDAS database has been used for sales data (converted to Defined Daily Doses/1000 inhabitants/day for the case study medications from the market authorization date in 2004 until December 2009 for 23 EU member states. Results Consumption of the case study medications was seen in all countries. In general, pregabalin was used more often than aripiprazole and duloxetine. In 2 years after market authorization, approximately 80% of all countries have reported use of all three molecules. Correlations between Hofstede dimensions individualism, long-term orientation and indulgence and total use of the case study medications tended to become stronger over time, but they were only statistically significant for indulgence at two years after market authorization (rho

  2. Variability in market uptake of psychotropic medications in Europe reflects cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebert, J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; Leufkens, H G M; van Dijk, L

    2017-11-06

    In the last 20-30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older) psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the effects of cultural diversity on the use of new medications entering the market. As national cultures relate deeply to held values regarding, for example, what is seen as effective versus ineffective or safe versus dangerous, (cultural) diversity in decision making around the role of new medications in clinical practice may already be expected from the first day after market authorization. This study examined the relation between cultural diversity, described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance, Indulgence and Long-Term Orientation) and utilization of three new psychotropic medications, namely aripiprazole, duloxetine and pregabalin in Europe. Country level sales data of the case study medications were correlated to country-specific scores of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. IMS Health's MIDAS database has been used for sales data (converted to Defined Daily Doses/1000 inhabitants/day) for the case study medications from the market authorization date in 2004 until December 2009 for 23 EU member states. Consumption of the case study medications was seen in all countries. In general, pregabalin was used more often than aripiprazole and duloxetine. In 2 years after market authorization, approximately 80% of all countries have reported use of all three molecules. Correlations between Hofstede dimensions individualism, long-term orientation and indulgence and total use of the case study medications tended to become stronger over time, but they were only statistically significant for indulgence at two years after market authorization (rho = 0.51, p = 0.014) and three years after market

  3. Medical school gift restriction policies and physician prescribing of newly marketed psychotropic medications: difference-in-differences analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Marissa; Essick, Connor; Bearman, Peter; Ross, Joseph S

    2013-01-30

    To examine the effect of attending a medical school with an active policy on restricting gifts from representatives of pharmaceutical and device industries on subsequent prescribing behavior. Difference-in-differences approach. 14 US medical schools with an active gift restriction policy in place by 2004. Prescribing patterns in 2008 and 2009 of physicians attending one of the schools compared with physicians graduating from the same schools before the implementation of the policy, as well as a set of contemporary matched controls. Probability that a physician would prescribe a newly marketed medication over existing alternatives of three psychotropic classes: lisdexamfetamine among stimulants, paliperidone among antipsychotics, and desvenlafaxine among antidepressants. None of these medications represented radical breakthroughs in their respective classes. For two of the three medications examined, attending a medical school with an active gift restriction policy was associated with reduced prescribing of the newly marketed drug. Physicians who attended a medical school with an active conflict of interest policy were less likely to prescribe lisdexamfetamine over older stimulants (adjusted odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.88; P=0.02) and paliperidone over older antipsychotics (0.25, 0.07 to 0.85; P=0.03). A significant effect was not observed for desvenlafaxine (1.54, 0.79 to 3.03; P=0.20). Among cohorts of students who had a longer exposure to the policy or were exposed to more stringent policies, prescribing rates were further reduced. Exposure to a gift restriction policy during medical school was associated with reduced prescribing of two out of three newly introduced psychotropic medications.

  4. The influence of labor market changes on first-time medical school applicant pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, David A; Morrison, Emory

    2014-12-01

    To explore whether the number and composition of first-time applicants to U.S. MD-granting medical schools, which have fluctuated over the past 30 years, are related to changes in labor market strength, specifically the unemployment rate and wages. The authors merged time series data from 1980 through 2010 (inclusive) from five sources and used multivariate time series models to determine whether changes in labor market strength (and several other macro-level factors) were related to the number of the medical school applicants as reported by the American Medical College Application Service. Analyses were replicated across specific sex and race/ethnicity applicant pools. Two results surfaced in the analyses. First, the strength of the labor market was not influential in explaining changes in applicant pool sizes for all applicants, but was strongly influential in explaining changes for black and Hispanic males. Increases of $1,000 in prevailing median wages produced a 1.6% decrease in the white male applicant pool, while 1% increases in the unemployment rate were associated with 4.5% and 3.1% increases in, respectively, the black and Hispanic male applicant pools. Second, labor market strength was a more important determinant in applications from males than in applications from females. Although stakeholders cannot directly influence the overall economic market, they can plan and prepare for fewer applications from males, especially those who are black and Hispanic, when the labor market is strong.

  5. [Health care units image development on the market of medical services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    The cause for this document is to present a deliberation on public health facility image development on the medical services market. Marketization of the health service, growing awareness of Polish citizens and their expectation of high service quality as well as increased competition in the healthcare system market is the reason why health unit managers need to put a lot of strength and effort in sustaining or improving the image of the facility they run. Such action gives a chance for obtaining a competitive advantage.

  6. Medical devices and the Middle East: market, regulation, and reimbursement in Gulf Cooperation Council states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard JJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jason J Howard Division of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Department of Surgery, Sidra Medical and Research Center, Doha, Qatar Abstract: With some of the richest economies in the world, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC is undergoing rapid growth not only in its population but also in health care expenditure. Despite the GCC's abundance of hydrocarbon-based wealth, the drivers of the medical device industry in the GCC are still in flux, with gains yet to be made in areas of infrastructure, regulation, and reimbursement. However, the regional disease burden, expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and a desire to attract skilled expatriate health care providers have led to favorable conditions for the medical device market in the GCC. The purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of the GCC medical device industry, with respect to market, regulation, and reimbursement, paying special attention to the three largest medical device markets: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. The GCC would seem to represent fertile ground for the development of medical technologies, especially those in line with the regional health priorities of the respective member states. Keywords: medical devices, regulation, reimbursement, Middle East 

  7. Growth and characterization of heavily doped silicon crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, R.; Porrini, M. [MEMC Electronic Materials SpA, via Nazionale 59, 39012 Merano (Italy); Borionetti, G. [MEMC Electronic Materials SpA, viale Gherzi 31, Novara (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Silicon crystals grown with the Czochralski method are still the most common material used for the production of electronic devices. In recent years, a growing need of large diameter crystals with increasingly higher doping levels is observed, especially to support the expanding market of discrete devices and its trend towards lower and lower resistivity levels for the silicon substrate. The growth of such heavily doped, large-diameter crystals poses several new challenges to the crystal grower, and the presence of a high dopant concentration in the crystal affects significantly its main properties, requiring also the development of dedicated characterization techniques. This paper illustrates the recent advances in the growth and characterization of silicon crystals heavily doped with antimony, arsenic, phosphorus and boron. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. A qualitative study about self-medication in the community among market vendors in Fuzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yi; Lieber, Eli; Wan, Dai; Hong, Yuanhao

    2011-09-01

    Despite government efforts to increase healthcare insurance and access in China, many individuals, regardless of insurance status, continue to engage in high levels of self-medication. To understand the factors influencing common self-medication behaviour in a community of food market vendors in Fuzhou China, a total of 30 market vendors were randomly recruited from six food markets in 2007. In-depth interviews were conducted with each participant at their market stalls by trained interviewers using a semi-structured open-ended interview protocol. Participants were asked broad questions about their health-seeking behaviours as well as their past experiences with self-medication and hospital care. ATLAS. ti was used to manage and analyse the interview data. The results showed that hospital-based healthcare services were perceived as better quality. However, self-medication was viewed as more affordable in terms of money and time. Other factors prompting self-medication, included confidence in understanding the health problem, the easy accessibility of local pharmacies and the influences of friends/peers and advertising. Three broad domains, attitude, cost and effectiveness, were all seen to determine past decisions and experiences with self-medication. Interestingly, the effective management of self-medication via pharmacy resources raised particular concern because of perceived variation in quality. In conclusion, self-medication was found to be an important and common health-seeking behaviour driven by multiple factors. A sound and comprehensive public health system should systematically attend to these behaviours and the pharmacies, where much of the behaviour occurs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. 'On the doctor's orders': A pilot study of the effects of website marketing for medical specialist providers under gatekeeping arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, S.

    2017-01-01

    Websites from medical specialist providers are becoming increasingly marketing oriented, but there exists a paucity of empirical research on the effects. This experimental study explored effects of exposure to real websites from medical specialist providers among Dutch adults under physician

  10. Global Health, Medical Anthropology, and Social Marketing: Steps to the Ecology of Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Anthropology and global health have long been a focus of research for both biological and medical anthropologists. Research has looked at physiological adaptations to high altitudes, community responses to water-borne diseases, the integration of traditional and biomedical approaches to health, global responses to HIV/AIDS, and more recently, to the application of cultural approaches to the control of the Ebola epidemic. Academic anthropology has employed theory and methods to extend knowledge, but less often to apply that knowledge. However, anthropologists outside of the academy have tackled global health issues such as family planning and breast-feeding by bringing together applied medical anthropology and social marketing. In 2014, that potent and provocative combination resulted in the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida being made the home of an innovative center designed to combine academic and applied anthropology with social marketing in order to facilitate social change. This article discusses how inter- and intra-disciplinary research/application has led to the development of Florida's first World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC), and the first such center to focus on social marketing, social change and non-communicable diseases. This article explains the genesis of the Center and presents readers with a brief overview, basic principles and applications of social marketing by reviewing a case study of a water conservation project. The article concludes with thoughts on the ecology of collaboration among global health, medical anthropology and social marketing practitioners.

  11. Assessing the comparative effectiveness of newly marketed medications: methodological challenges and implications for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, S; Gagne, J J; Glynn, R J; Ruhl, M; Rassen, J A

    2011-12-01

    Comparative-effectiveness research (CER) aims to produce actionable evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of medical products and interventions as they are used outside of controlled research settings. Although CER evidence regarding medications is particularly needed shortly after market approval, key methodological challenges include (i) potential bias due to channeling of patients to the newly marketed medication because of various patient-, physician-, and system-related factors; (ii) rapid changes in the characteristics of the user population during the early phase of marketing; and (iii) lack of timely data and the often small number of users in the first few months of marketing. We propose a mix of approaches to generate comparative-effectiveness data in the early marketing period, including sequential cohort monitoring with secondary health-care data and propensity score (PS) balancing, as well as extended follow-up of phase III and phase IV trials, indirect comparisons of placebo-controlled trials, and modeling and simulation of virtual trials.

  12. Arthritis, Rheumatism and Aging Medical Information System Post-Marketing Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G

    2001-05-01

    The Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Post-Marketing Surveillance Program (ARAMIS-PMS) is a collection of multicenter, prospective, noninterventional, observational longitudinal studies of patients with rheumatic diseases. The ARAMIS-PMS program aims to study patients in normal clinical setting to evaluate the real-life effectiveness, toxicity, and cost effectiveness of various medications used to treat rheumatic diseases.

  13. Marketing to Increase Participation in a Web-Based Continuing Medical Education Cultural Competence Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Carlos A.; Krishnamoorthy, Periyakaruppan; Smith, Ann; Staton, Lisa; Korf, Michele J.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Houston, Thomas K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: CME providers may be interested in identifying effective marketing strategies to direct users to specific content. Online advertisements for recruiting participants into activities such as clinical trials, public health programs, and continuing medical education (CME) have been effective in some but not all studies. The purpose of…

  14. How can cardiothoracic and vascular medical devices stay in the market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kathie A; Hodgson, Luke; Garas, George; Malietzis, George; Markar, Sheraz; Rao, Christopher; von Segesser, Ludwig K; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2016-12-01

    Surgeons, as the consumers, must engage in commercial activity regarding medical devices since it directly has impacts on surgical practice and patient outcomes. Unique features defy traditional economic convention in this specific market partly because consumers do not usually pay directly. Greater involvement with commercial activity means better post-market surveillance of medical devices which leads to improved patient safety. The medical device industry has exhibited astonishing levels of growth and profitability reaching $398 billion on a global scale with new product development focusing on unmet clinical need. The industry has rapidly emerged within the context of an ageing population and a global surge in healthcare spending. But the market remains fragmented. The split of consumer, purchaser and payer leads to clinical need driving demand for new product development. This demand contributes to potentially large profit margins mainly contained by regulatory burden and liability issues. Demographic trends, prevalence of diseases and a huge capacity to absorb technology have sustained near unparalleled growth. To stay in the market, incremental development over the short term is essentially aided by responsiveness to demand. Disruptive product development is now more likely to come from multinational companies, in an increasingly expensive, regulated industry. Understanding healthcare organization can help explain the highly complex process of diffusion of innovations in healthcare that include medical devices. The time has come for surgeons to become actively involved with all aspects of the medical device life cycle including commercial activity and post-market surveillance. This is vital for improving patient care and ensuring patient safety. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. Medical devices and the Middle East: market, regulation, and reimbursement in Gulf Cooperation Council states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jason J

    2014-01-01

    With some of the richest economies in the world, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is undergoing rapid growth not only in its population but also in health care expenditure. Despite the GCC's abundance of hydrocarbon-based wealth, the drivers of the medical device industry in the GCC are still in flux, with gains yet to be made in areas of infrastructure, regulation, and reimbursement. However, the regional disease burden, expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and a desire to attract skilled expatriate health care providers have led to favorable conditions for the medical device market in the GCC. The purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of the GCC medical device industry, with respect to market, regulation, and reimbursement, paying special attention to the three largest medical device markets: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. The GCC would seem to represent fertile ground for the development of medical technologies, especially those in line with the regional health priorities of the respective member states.

  16. Pre-Clinical Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes Toward Pharmaceutical Industry Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Eric H; Vermillion, Michelle L; Uijtdehaage, Sebastian H J

    2007-12-01

    Background - Recent studies have examined the exposures and attitudes of physicians and third- and fourth-year medical students toward pharmaceutical industry marketing, but fewer studies have addressed these topics among pre-clinical medical students. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess pre-clinical students' level of exposure to the pharmaceutical industry and their attitudes toward marketing. Method - First and second-year medical students at UCLA completed a 40-item survey based on previous studies. Results - Over three quarters of pre-clinical students (78.5% or 226 of 288) responded to the survey. Exposure to pharmaceutical industry marketing started very early in medical school. Most second-year students (77%) had received gifts including drug samples after three semesters. Most felt that this would not affect their future prescribing behavior. Conclusions - These findings and findings from related studies, coupled with the students' desire to learn more about the issue, suggest that an early educational intervention addressing this topic may be warranted in American medical schools.

  17. Utilizing national and international registries to enhance pre-market medical device regulatory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lilly Q; Campbell, Gregory; Lu, Nelson; Xu, Yunling; Zuckerman, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory decisions are made based on the assessment of risk and benefit of medical devices at the time of pre-market approval and subsequently, when post-market risk-benefit balance needs reevaluation. Such assessments depend on scientific evidence obtained from pre-market studies, post-approval studies, post-market surveillance studies, patient perspective information, as well as other real world data such as national and international registries. Such registries provide real world evidence and are playing a more and more important role in enhancing the safety and effectiveness evaluation of medical devices. While these registries provide large quantities of data reflecting real world practice and can potentially reduce the cost of clinical trials, challenges arise concerning (1) data quality adequate for regulatory decision-making, (2) bias introduced at every stage and aspect of study, (3) scientific validity of study designs, and (4) reliability and interpretability of study results. This article will discuss related statistical and regulatory challenges and opportunities with examples encountered in medical device regulatory reviews.

  18. Exposure of medical students to pharmaceutical marketing in primary care settings: frequent and influential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Ozlem; Civaner, Murat; Vatansever, Kevser

    2009-12-01

    It is known that interaction between pharmaceutical companies and medical professionals may lead to corruption of professional values, irrational use of medicine, and negative effects on the patient-physician relationship. Medical students frequently interact with pharmaceutical company representatives and increasingly accept their gifts. Considering the move toward early clinical encounters and community-based education, which expose students early to pharmaceutical representatives, the influence of those gifts is becoming a matter of concern. This study examines the frequency and influence of student exposure to drug marketing in primary care settings, as well as student perceptions of physician-pharmaceutical company relationships. This was a two-phase study consisting of qualitative research followed by a cross-sectional survey. Clinical experience logbooks of 280 second-year students in one school were analysed, and the themes that emerged were used to develop a survey that was administered to 308 third-year students from two medical schools. Survey results showed a 91.2% exposure to any type of marketing, and 56.8% of students were exposed to all classes of marketing methods studied. Deliberate targeting of students by pharmaceutical representatives, in particular, was correlated with being less sensitive to the negative effects of and having positive opinions about interactions with pharmaceutical companies. The vast majority of students are exposed to drug marketing in primary care settings, and may become more vulnerable to that strategy. Considering that medical students are vulnerable and are targeted deliberately by pharmaceutical companies, interventions aimed at developing skills in the rational use of medicines and in strategies for coping with drug marketing should be devised.

  19. Rural hospital ownership: medical service provision, market mix, and spillover effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Jill R; Nichols, Austin

    2011-10-01

    To test whether nonprofit, for-profit, or government hospital ownership affects medical service provision in rural hospital markets, either directly or through the spillover effects of ownership mix. Data are from the American Hospital Association, U.S. Census, CMS Healthcare Cost Report Information System and Prospective Payment System Minimum Data File, and primary data collection for geographic coordinates. The sample includes all nonfederal, general medical, and surgical hospitals located outside of metropolitan statistical areas and within the continental United States from 1988 to 2005. We estimate multivariate regression models to examine the effects of (1) hospital ownership and (2) hospital ownership mix within rural hospital markets on profitable versus unprofitable medical service offerings. Rural nonprofit hospitals are more likely than for-profit hospitals to offer unprofitable services, many of which are underprovided services. Nonprofits respond less than for-profits to changes in service profitability. Nonprofits with more for-profit competitors offer more profitable services and fewer unprofitable services than those with fewer for-profit competitors. Rural hospital ownership affects medical service provision at the hospital and market levels. Nonprofit hospital regulation should reflect both the direct and spillover effects of ownership. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Medicare Advantage Market Penetration: Findings From the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven W; Bernell, Stephanie Lazarus; Casim, Faizan M; Wilmott, Jennifer; Pearson, Lindsey; Byler, Caitlin M; Zhang, Zidong

    2015-01-01

    By March 2015, 30% of all Medicare beneficiaries were enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans. Research to date has not explored the impacts of MA market penetration on individual or population health outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationships between MA market penetration and the beneficiary's portfolio of cardiometabolic diagnoses. This study uses 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component data to construct an aggregate index that captures multiple diagnoses in one outcome measure (Chronic Disease Severity Index [CDSI]). The MEPS data for 8089 Medicare beneficiaries are merged with MA market penetration data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Ordinary least squares regressions are run with SAS 9.3 to model the effects of MA market penetration on CDSI. The results suggest that each percentage increase in MA market penetration is associated with a greater than 2-point decline in CDSI (lower burden of cardiometabolic chronic disease). Spill-over effects may be driving improvements in the cardiometabolic health of beneficiary populations in counties with elevated levels of MA market penetration.

  1. Action needed to combat food and drink companies' social media marketing to adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon

    2013-05-01

    Reports have shown how behavioural marketing through social media sites is heavily dominated by soft drink and fast food franchises, with additional concern arising due to the direct targeting of this marketing at 13 to 17-year-olds. Dr Simon Williams from Northwestern University, Chicago, USA suggests ways in which the medical community can tackle this threat to public health.

  2. Curing the disobedient patient: medication adherence programs as pharmaceutical marketing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Matt; Elliott, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies have long focused their marketing strategies on getting doctors to write more prescriptions. But they lose billions in potential sales when patients do not take their prescribed drugs. Getting patients to "adhere" to drug therapies that have unpleasant side effects and questionable efficacy requires more than mere ad campaigns urging patients to talk to their doctors. It requires changing patients' beliefs and attitudes about their medications through repeated contact from people patients trust. Since patients do not trust drug companies, these companies are delivering their marketing messages through nurses, pharmacists, and even other patients--leveraging patients' trust in these intermediaries to persuade them to consume more brand name drugs. Armed with the premise that better adherence improves patients' health, drug companies justify manipulating patients by reframing reasonable decisions to decline therapy as pathological, and promote brand loyalty in the guise of offering medical care. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  3. Medical societies, patient education initiatives, public debate and marketing of unproven stem cell interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel J; Turner, Leigh; Levine, Aaron D; Ikonomou, Laertis

    2018-02-01

    Businesses marketing unproven stem cell interventions proliferate within the U.S. and in the larger global marketplace. There have been global efforts by scientists, patient advocacy groups, bioethicists, and public policy experts to counteract the uncontrolled and premature commercialization of stem cell interventions. In this commentary, we posit that medical societies and associations of health care professionals have a particular responsibility to be an active partner in such efforts. We review the role medical societies can and should play in this area through patient advocacy and awareness initiatives. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of internal marketing on nurse job satisfaction and organizational commitment: example of medical centers in Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Chang, Hsin-Hsin

    2007-12-01

    As nurses typically represent the largest percentage of employees at medical centers, their role in medical care is exceptionally important and becoming more so over time. The quality and functions of nurses impact greatly on medical care quality. The concept of internal marketing, with origins in the field of market research, argues that enterprises should value and respect their employees by treating them as internal customers. Such a marketing concept challenges traditional marketing methods, which focus on serving external customers only. The main objective of internal marketing is to help internal customers (employees) gain greater job satisfaction, which should promote job performance and facilitate the organization accomplishing its ultimate business objectives. A question in the medical service industry is whether internal marketing can similarly increase the job satisfaction of nurses and enhance their commitment to the organization. This study aimed to explore the relational model of nurse perceptions related to internal marketing, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment by choosing nurses from two medical centers in Southern Taiwan as research subjects. Of 450 questionnaire distributed, 300 valid questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 66.7%. After conducting statistical analysis and estimation using structural equation modeling, findings included: (1) job satisfaction has positive effects on organizational commitment; (2) nurse perceptions of internal marketing have positive effects on job satisfaction; and (3) nurse perceptions of internal marketing have positive effects on organizational commitment.

  5. Developing Competitive Advantage in the Private Medical Services Market. The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona BASTURESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Health was, is and will always be a top priority for a country’s stakeholders. The average health expenditure depicts an impressive variability worldwide, with Americans being the top spenders and South East Asia countries being at the bottom of the respective list. This study analyses the existing competitive advantages of the most important players in the private medical services market, in Romania. It traces their development and the factors that determine positioning strategic decisions. The competitive advantage of a business in the private medical services market is a result of a number of factors. The top three criteria of choice for a patient are doctors, medical technology and waiting time for accessing the service. The objectives of this research paper are: 1. to identify the key success factors (KSFs and the drivers of change (DC in the Romanian Medical Industry; 2. to propose a fine tuning in strategy as a response to changes in the macro and micro environment, 3. to re-evaluate existing business models and propose amendments that may lead to future sustainable competitive advantage and 4. to develop a proposition for growth strategies, business strategies and means of implementation that will lead to long term growth.

  6. The concept of marketing in the public-private partnership in the medical system in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcărea, V L; Coculescu, B I; Coculescu, E C

    2014-01-01

    During the transition period, the Romanian medical system, subject (like other areas) to a process of reform, had to go through a difficult path, not without obstacles (malpractice, underfunding, embezzlement scandals in the media etc.). Consequently, Romania has faced (and unfortunately still is still facing) the massive exodus of health professionals to countries where they can benefit from better working conditions and payment, and those who suffer from health care crisis are the patients. Reform means "the people in the system for the people", which requires a change of mindset within the medical staff, especially in the continuous professional development. However, to talk about the quality of the medical act requires that all those involved in the medical system should create appropriate conditions - i.e. advanced technical equipment and appropriate salaries. In addition, as underfunding is the main cause of failure in the health system, that management remains the only tool that can lead to the appropriate use of the existing resources and the quality of health services. Therefore, the idea of public-private partnership - which occurred as a challenge, especially after the EU accession - can be considered a solution designed to improve the quality and cost of health services. In other words, the cooperation of the private sector with the public authority means increasing the rigor of the medical equipment performance, fostering professional competition, and an increased attention to the patient, in a word: performance. Currently, more and more frequently, the management has studied to identify opportunities for innovation in health care services in an attempt to bring together patients and practitioners in the field by resorting to the identification of the ways they can receive health care services promptly, fairly and efficiently. Therefore, a clear and responsible design in the spirit of ethics and medical ethic will help the marketing manager solve many

  7. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. Market impacts of converting to low-enriched uranium targets for medical isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmacott, Chad; Cameron, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. At present, most of the global production of 99 Mo is from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, all major 99 Mo-producing countries have recently agreed to convert to using low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets to advance important non-proliferation goals, a decision that will have implications for the global supply chain of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and the long-term supply reliability of these medical isotopes. This study provides the findings and analysis from an extensive examination of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply chain by the OECD/NEA High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). It presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impacts of converting to the use of LEU targets for 99 Mo production on the global 99 Mo/ 99m Tc market in terms of costs and available production capacity, and the corresponding implications for long-term supply reliability. In this context, the study also briefly discusses the need for policy action by governments in their efforts to ensure a stable and secure long-term supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc

  8. Marketing to increase participation in a Web-based continuing medical education cultural competence curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Carlos A; Krishnamoorthy, Periyakaruppan; Smith, Ann; Staton, Lisa; Korf, Michele J; Allison, Jeroan J; Houston, Thomas K

    2011-01-01

    CME providers may be interested in identifying effective marketing strategies to direct users to specific content. Online advertisements for recruiting participants into activities such as clinical trials, public health programs, and continuing medical education (CME) have been effective in some but not all studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of 2 marketing strategies in the context of an online CME cultural competence curriculum (www.c-comp.org). In an interrupted time-series quasi-experimental design, 2 marketing strategies were tested: (1) wide dissemination to relevant organizations over a period of approximately 4 months, and (2) Internet paid search using Google Ads (5 consecutive 8-week periods--control 1, cultural/CME advertisement, control 2, hypertension/ content advertisement, control 3). Outcome measures were CME credit requests, Web traffic (visits per day, page views, pages viewed per visit), and cost. Overall, the site was visited 19,156 times and 78,160 pages were viewed. During the wide dissemination phase, the proportion of visits requesting CME credit decreased between the first (5.3%) and second (3.3%) halves of this phase (p = .04). During the Internet paid search phase, the proportion of visits requesting CME credit was highest during the cultural/CME advertisement period (control 1, 1.4%; cultural/CME ad, 4.3%; control 2, 1.5%; hypertension/content ad, 0.6%; control 3, 0.8%; p advertisement periods. The incremental cost for the cultural advertisement per CME credit requested was US $0.64. Internet advertisement focusing on cultural competence and CME was associated with about a threefold increase in requests for CME credit at an incremental cost of under US $1; however, Web traffic changes were independent of the advertisement strategy. Copyright © 2011 The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical

  9. Relationship between National Institutes of Health research awards to US medical schools and managed care market penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, E; Mazzaschi, A J; Levin, R J; Blake, D A; Griner, P F

    1997-07-16

    Medical research conducted in academic medical centers is often dependent on support from clinical revenues generated in these institutions. Anecdotal evidence suggests that managed care has the potential to affect research conducted in academic medical centers by challenging these clinical revenues. To examine whether empirical evidence supports a relationship between managed care and the ability of US medical schools to sustain biomedical research. Data on annual extramural research grants awarded to US medical schools by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) from fiscal years 1986 to 1995 were obtained, and each medical school was matched to a market for which information about health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration in 1995 was available. Growth in total NIH awards, traditional research project (R01) awards, R01 awards to clinical and basic science departments, and changes in institutional ranking by NIH awards were compared among schools located in markets with low, medium, and high managed care penetration. Medical schools in all markets had comparable rates of growth in NIH awards from 1986 to 1990. Thereafter, medical schools in markets with high managed care penetration had slower growth in the dollar amounts and numbers of NIH awards compared with schools in markets with low or medium managed care penetration. This slower growth for schools in high managed care markets was associated with loss of share of NIH awards, equal to $98 million in 1995, and lower institutional ranking by NIH awards. Much of this revenue loss can be explained by the slower growth of R01 awards to clinical departments in medical schools in high managed care markets. These findings provide evidence of an inverse relationship between growth in NIH awards during the past decade and managed care penetration among US medical schools. Whether this association is causal remains to be determined.

  10. The market of medical imagery. Innovations, new entrants, redesign of business models: which perspectives for the market and the competitive landscape by 2020?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-10-01

    The medical imagery market is a promising one because of constant innovations and perspectives of diagnosis and therapeutic applications, notably in France where an effort of updating heavy equipment (MRI, scanners, PET) is on the way. However, measures of expense reduction in the health sector, and purchase grouping and optimisation by hospitals put the pressure on manufacturers in terms of prices and requirements. This report proposes a detailed overview of this medical imagery market, its situation, its evolution and its actors. It proposes an analysis and a presentation of its perspectives: determining factors, situation until 2016 (world market, European market, French market, turnover of the French sector, dynamics of its segments), and a provisional scenario by 2020 which discusses opportunities and threats on the medium term. The next part proposes a detailed analysis of the market environment: economic and demographic environment (health systems and expenses in OECD countries, population ageing), demand in medical imagery, role of public authorities, organisation of the access to the market, analysis of the equipment fleet situation and evolution in France. The third part analyses the supply evolution and axes of development of actors: technological evolution, business model evolution, development of the application of information technology to medical imagery, improvement of distribution channels, and repositioning on the chain value. The fourth part gives an overview of actors: ranking and positioning of manufacturers per speciality, focus on some specific markets, description of the competitive context, identity sheets of some key actors (foreign actors, French actors and specialised actors in contrast products and tracers). The last part proposes sheets of information on companies, and tables which provide a comparison between 200 operators according to 5 key indicators

  11. Abortion choices among women in Cambodia after introduction of a socially marketed medicated abortion product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotheary, Khim; Long, Dianna; Mundy, Gary; Madan, Yasmin; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    To assess whether a social marketing initiative focusing on medicated abortion via a mifepristone/misoprostol "combipack" has contributed to reducing unsafe abortion in Cambodia. In a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, annual household surveys were conducted across 13 Cambodian provinces in 2010, 2011, and 2012. One married woman of reproductive age who was not pregnant and did not wish to be within the next 2 years in each randomly selected household was approached for inclusion. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by 1843 women in 2010, 2068 in 2011, and 2059 in 2012. Manual vacuum aspiration was reported by 61 (72.6%) of 84 women surveyed in 2010 who reported an abortion in the previous 12 months, compared with only 28 (52.8%) of 53 in 2012 (P=0.001). The numbers of women undergoing medicated abortion increased from 22 (26.2%) of 84 in 2010 to 27 (49.1%) of 53 in 2012 (P=0.003), whereas the numbers undergoing unsafe abortion decreased from 4 (4.8%) in 2010 to 0 in 2012 (P=0.051). Social marketing of medication abortion coupled with provider training in clinical and behavioral change could have contributed to a reduction in the prevalence of unsafe abortion and shifted the types of abortion performed in Cambodia, while not increasing the overall number of abortions. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  12. Towards a Confucian virtue bioethics: reframing Chinese medical ethics in a market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2006-01-01

    This essay addresses a moral and cultural challenge facing health care in the People's Republic of China: the need to create an understanding of medical professionalism that recognizes the new economic realities of China and that can maintain the integrity of the medical profession. It examines the rich Confucian resources for bioethics and health care policy by focusing on the Confucian tradition's account of how virtue and human flourishing are compatible with the pursuit of profit. It offers the Confucian account of the division of labor and the financial inequalities this produces with special attention to China's socialist project of creating the profession of barefoot doctors as egalitarian peasant physicians and why this project failed. It then further develops the Confucian acknowledgement of the unequal value of different services and products and how this conflicts with the current system of payment to physicians which has led to the corruption of medical professionalism through illegal supplementary payments. It further gives an account the oblique intentionality of Confucian moral psychology that shows how virtuous persons can pursue benevolent actions while both foreseeing profit and avoiding defining their character by greed. This account of Confucian virtue offers the basis for a medical professionalism that can function morally within a robustly profit-oriented market economy. The paper concludes with a summary of the characteristics of Confucian medical professionalism and of how it places the profit motive within its account of virtue ethics.

  13. Using marketing research concepts to investigate specialty selection by medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Charles; Schroeder, Josh; Elchalal, Uriel; Weiss, Yoram; Tandeter, Howard; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Y

    2012-10-01

    This study was intended to examine whether a marketing research approach improves understanding of medical specialty selection by medical students. This approach likens students to consumers who are deciding whether or not to purchase a product (specialty). This approach proposes that when consumers' criteria match their perceptions of a product's features, the likelihood that they will purchase it (select the specialty) increases. This study examines whether exploring students' selection criteria and perceptions of various specialties provides additional insights into the selection process. Using a consumer behaviour model as a framework, a questionnaire was designed and administered to Year 6 (final-year) students in 2008 and 2009 to elicit information on their knowledge about and interests in various specialties, the criteria they used in specialty selection, and their perceptions of six specialties. A total of 132 (67%) questionnaires were returned. In many instances, consistency between selection criteria and perceptions of a specialty was accompanied by interest in pursuing the specialty. Exceptions were noted and pointed to areas requiring additional research. For example, although > 70% of female students replied that the affordance of a controllable lifestyle was an important selection criterion, many were interested in obstetrics and gynaecology despite the fact that it was not perceived as providing a controllable lifestyle. Minimal overlap among students reporting interest in primary specialties that possess similar characteristics (e.g. paediatrics and family medicine) demonstrated the need to target marketing (recruitment) efforts for each specialty individually. Using marketing research concepts to examine medical specialty selection may precipitate a conceptual shift among health care leaders which acknowledges that, to attract students, specialties must meet students' selection criteria. Moreover, if consumers (students) deem a product (specialty

  14. Families, markets, and medicalization: the role of paid support for childbirth and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jennifer M C

    2015-07-01

    Much attention has been given to the commercialization of care and its relationship to the outsourcing of family life, as well as larger social and cultural processes that can change the nature of caring. I engage with this question of why certain aspects of care are provided by the market, using 72 interviews with lactation consultants, doulas, clients, and clinicians, as well as 150 hours of ethnographic observation in the USA. Examining how participants understood the role of these services in the maternity care system and the reasons why clients turned to these services, I found that, in several ways, these forms of care work reflected outsourcing trends. However, lactation consultants and doulas were also acting as advocates and guides, helping their clients navigate the complex medical maternity system. This reflects a fundamental transformation in the nature of maternity support, attributed to the impact of medicalization, both historically and currently. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Promoting medical tourism to India: messages, images, and the marketing of international patient travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Snyder, Jeremy; Johnston, Rory; Kingsbury, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The practice of medical tourism depends on successfully informing potential patients about procedure options, treatment facilities, tourism opportunities, travel arrangements, and destination countries. The promotion of medical tourism includes a wide range of marketing materials such as flyers, booklets, and websites. Yet, there is a paucity of knowledge about the dissemination, content, and reception of these promotional materials. Drawing on a thematic content analysis of the promotional print material distributed at the first medical tourism trade show in Canada in 2009, the main purpose of this article is to identify and understand the messages and images that companies use to market India as a global destination. While researchers and news media frequently cite low cost procedures as a key determinant for international patient travel, particularly to developing nations, our analysis reveals few low cost-related images or messages in the promotional materials distributed at the trade show. To help explain this surprising disjuncture, we consider four related issues: (1) promotional materials may be designed to be circulated amongst potential patients' concerned family and friends who privilege knowing about things such as the use of advanced technologies; (2) developing nations need to portray safe and advanced treatment facilities in order to dispel potential patients' suspicions that their medical care is inferior; (3) companies may avoid making cost saving claims that cannot be fulfilled for all of their international patients, especially those traveling from developing nations; and (4) messages of low cost may detract from and even undermine messages about quality. We conclude by identifying numerous avenues for future research by social and health scientists, and by considering the implications of our findings for existing knowledge gaps and debates within health geography specifically. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Can inbound and domestic medical tourism improve your bottom line? Identifying the potential of a U.S. tourism market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, Myron D; Malvey, Donna; Asi, Yara; Kirchner, Sarah; Warren, Natalia A

    2014-01-01

    In large part due to current economic conditions and the political uncertainties of healthcare reform legislation, hospitals need to identify new sources of revenue. Two potentially untapped sources are inbound (international) and domestic (within the United States) medical tourists. This case study uses data from a large, urban healthcare system in the southeastern United States to quantify its potential market opportunities for medical tourism. The data were mined from electronic health records, and descriptive frequency analysis was used to provide a preliminary market assessment. This approach permits healthcare systems to move beyond anecdotal information and assess the relative market potential of their particular geographic area and the diagnostic services they offer for attracting inbound and domestic medical tourists. Implications for healthcare executives and guidance on how they can focus marketing efforts are discussed.

  17. Marketing Medical Education: An Examination of Recruitment Web Sites for Traditional and Combined-Degree M.D. Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Roberta L.

    2004-01-01

    The Internet has the potential to reshape college recruiting; however, little research has been done to see the impact of the Internet on marketing graduate programs, including medical schools. This paper explores the Web sites of 20 different medical schools, including traditional four-year and bachelor's-M.D. degree programs, to ascertain…

  18. Learning from Marketing: Rapid Development of Medication Messages that Engage Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yank, Veronica; Tribett, Erika; Green, Lydia; Pettis, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To adapt marketing approaches in a health services environment. Methods Researchers and advertising professionals partnered in developing advertising-style messages designed to activate patients pre-identified as having chronic kidney disease to ask providers about recommended medications. We assessed feasibility of the development process by evaluating partnership structure, costs, and timeframe. We tested messages with patients and providers using preliminary surveys to refine initial messages and subsequent focus groups to identify the most persuasive ones. Results The partnership achieved an efficient structure, $14,550 total costs, and 4-month timeframe. The advertising team developed 11 initial messages. The research team conducted surveys and focus groups with a total of 13 patients and 8 providers to identify three messages as most activating. Focus group themes suggested the general approach of using advertising-style messages was acceptable if it supported patient-provider relationships and had a credible evidence base. Individual messages were more motivating if they elicited personal identification with imagery, particular emotions, active patient role, and message clarity. Conclusion We demonstrated feasibility of a research-advertising partnership and acceptability and likely impact of advertising-style messages on patient medication-seeking behavior. Practice Implications Healthcare systems may want to replicate our adaptation of marketing approaches to patients with chronic conditions. PMID:25913245

  19. Learning from marketing: Rapid development of medication messages that engage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yank, Veronica; Tribett, Erika; Green, Lydia; Pettis, Jasmine

    2015-08-01

    To adapt marketing approaches in a health services environment. Researchers and advertising professionals partnered in developing advertising-style messages designed to activate patients pre-identified as having chronic kidney disease to ask providers about recommended medications. We assessed feasibility of the development process by evaluating partnership structure, costs, and timeframe. We tested messages with patients and providers using preliminary surveys to refine initial messages and subsequent focus groups to identify the most persuasive ones. The partnership achieved an efficient structure, $14,550 total costs, and 4-month timeframe. The advertising team developed 11 initial messages. The research team conducted surveys and focus groups with a total of 13 patients and 8 providers to identify three messages as most activating. Focus group themes suggested the general approach of using advertising-style messages was acceptable if it supported patient-provider relationships and had a credible evidence base. Individual messages were more motivating if they elicited personal identification with imagery, particular emotions, active patient role, and message clarity. We demonstrated feasibility of a research-advertising partnership and acceptability and likely impact of advertising-style messages on patient medication-seeking behavior. Healthcare systems may want to replicate our adaptation of marketing approaches to patients with chronic conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  1. The Development of a Marketing Program for Womack Army Medical Center Fort Bragg, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Its successful implementation requires organizational commitment to market -based principles . This research assesses the design, function, and success...Concept of Marketing ," Journal of Marketing , (January 1969): 10-15. 60 Kotler , Philip and Gerald Zaltman. "Social Marketing : An Approach to Planned... market based enterprise. Its successful implementation requires organizational commitment to market -based principles . This research assesses the design

  2. Positron trapping in heavily irradiated semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, P.; Pautrat, J.L.; Corbel, C.; Hautojarvi, P.

    1985-01-01

    Vacancy processes are studied in several heavily irradiated semiconductors. Specimens are ZnTe, CdTe, CdTe (In), InP, InP (Cr), InP (Zn) and Ge. Irradiations are made at 20 K using a 3 MeV Van de Graaff electron accelerator. Doses are 4 x 10 18 e - /cm 2 . Lifetime measurements are made at 77 K at each step of an isochronal annealing (30 min 20 K). In each specimen, the results show a significant increase of the lifetime (+ 30 at + 50 ps) which anneals out in different steps restoring the initial lifetime. The steps are sharp (ΔT/T=0.3) with the exception of InP, InP(Cr), InP(Zn), (ΔT/T=0.9). Tentative interpretations are given

  3. Conductivity and superconductivity in heavily vacant diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Jafari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   Motivated by the idea of impurity band superconductivity in heavily Boron doped diamond, we investigate the doping of various elements into diamond to address the question, which impurity band can offer a better DOS at the Fermi level. Surprisingly, we find that the vacancy does the best job in producing the largest DOS at the Fermi surface. To investigate the effect of disorder in Anderson localization of the resulting impurity band, we use a simple tight-binding model. Our preliminary study based on the kernel polynomial method shows that the impurity band is already localized at the concentration of 10-3. Around the vacancy concentration of 0.006 the whole spectrum of diamond becomes localized and quantum percolation takes place. Therefore to achieve conducting bands at concentrations on the scale of 5-10 percent, one needs to introduce correlations such as hopping among the vacancies .

  4. Inadequately marketing our brand: Medical student awareness of acute care surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Stephanie C; Privette, Alicia R; Ferguson, Pamela L; Mirdamadi, Meena; Fakhry, Samir M

    2015-11-01

    Despite focused national efforts to promote acute care surgery (ACS), little is known about medical student awareness of ACS as a career choice. The impending shortage of general surgeons emphasizes the need to increase interest in this comprehensive surgical specialty. The goal of this study was to determine whether students would be more likely to consider choosing ACS if they were aware of the specialty and its benefits. A survey was distributed electronically to medical students at our institution, a Level I trauma center with an active ACS service. The survey asked questions regarding specialty choice and factors that were used in making that decision. Also included were questions regarding their familiarity and affinity for ACS. The survey was returned by 518 students. Each medical school year was proportionately represented. Twenty-one percent of the students reported surgery as their career choice; however, women were half as likely to choose surgery as men. When asked to define ACS, 23% of all students gave the correct response. Only 8.9% of the students in the preclinical years correctly defined ACS. Even in the clinical years, 54% were unaware of ACS as a specialty. Students reported that the top factors that influenced their choice were controllable lifestyle, predictable schedule, and a positive medical school role model. When asked to identify what would make ACS appealing, a 50-hour work week was deemed most influential. When given the definition of ACS with approximate pay and on-call hours, 41.5% of the students and 75% of those interested in surgery would be likely to choose ACS as a career. This study highlights that awareness of ACS as a specialty is lacking. This may reflect inadequate marketing of our "brand" both locally and nationally. Focused efforts at familiarizing students with ACS and increased role modeling may increase interest in ACS.

  5. Medical and Social Determinants of Subsequent Labour Market Marginalization in Young Hospitalized Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Tinghög, Petter; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Wilcox, Holly C; Gould, Madelyn; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with a history of suicide attempt have a high risk for subsequent labour market marginalization. This study aimed at assessing the effect of individual and parental factors on different measures of marginalization. Prospective cohort study based on register linkage of 5 649 individuals who in 1994 were 16-30 years old, lived in Sweden and were treated in inpatient care for suicide attempt during 1992-1994. Hazard ratios (HRs) for labour market marginalization defined as long-term unemployment (>180 days), sickness absence (>90 days), or disability pension in 1995-2010 were calculated with Cox regression. Medical risk factors, particularly any earlier diagnosed specific mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia: HR 5.4 (95% CI: 4.2, 7.0), personality disorders: HR 3.9, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.9), repetitive suicide attempts (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) were associated with a higher relative risk of disability pension. Individual medical factors were of smaller importance for long-term sickness absence, and of only marginal relevance to long-term unemployment. Country of birth outside Europe had an opposite effect on disability pension (HR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.8) and long-term unemployment (HR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.8). Female sex was positively correlated with long-term sickness absence (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.7), and negatively associated with long-term unemployment (HR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 0.9). As compared to disability pension, long-term sickness absence and unemployment was more strongly related to socio-economic variables. Marginalization pathways seemed to vary with migration status and sex. These findings may contribute to the development of intervention strategies which take the individual risk for marginalization into account.

  6. Pre-market clinical evaluations of innovative high-risk medical devices in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulstaert, Frank; Neyt, Mattias; Vinck, Imgard; Stordeur, Sabine; Huić, Mirjana; Sauerland, Stefan; Kuijpers, Marja R; Abrishami, Payam; Vondeling, Hindrik; Flamion, Bruno; Garattini, Silvio; Pavlovic, Mira; van Brabandt, Hans

    2012-07-01

    High-quality clinical evidence is most often lacking when novel high-risk devices enter the European market. At the same time, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is often initiated as a requirement for obtaining market access in the US. Should coverage in Europe be postponed until RCT data are available? We studied the premarket clinical evaluation of innovative high-risk medical devices in Europe compared with the US, and with medicines, where appropriate. The literature and regulatory documents were checked. Representatives from industry, Competent Authorities, Notified Bodies, Ethics Committees, and HTA agencies were consulted. We also discuss patient safety and the transparency of information. In contrast to the US, there is no requirement in Europe to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of high-risk devices in the premarket phase. Patients in Europe can thus have earlier access to a potentially lifesaving device, but at the risk of insufficiently documented efficacy and safety. Variations in the stringency of clinical reviews, both at the level of Notified Bodies and Competent Authorities, do not guarantee patient safety. We tried to document the design of premarket trials in Europe and number of patients exposed, but failed as this information is not made public. Furthermore, the Helsinki Declaration is not followed with respect to the registration and publication of premarket trials. For innovative high-risk devices, new EU legislation should require the premarket demonstration of clinical efficacy and safety, using an RCT if possible, and a transparent clinical review, preferably centralized.

  7. Is the medical loss ratio a good target measure for regulation in the individual market for health insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Abraham, Jean M; Simon, Kosali

    2015-01-01

    Effective January 1, 2011, individual market health insurers must meet a minimum medical loss ratio (MLR) of 80%. This law aims to encourage 'productive' forms of competition by increasing the proportion of premium dollars spent on clinical benefits. To date, very little is known about the performance of firms in the individual health insurance market, including how MLRs are related to insurer and market characteristics. The MLR comprises one component of the price-cost margin, a traditional gauge of market power; the other component is percent of premiums spent on administrative expenses. We use data from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (2001-2009) to evaluate whether the MLR is a good target measure for regulation by comparing the two components of the price-cost margin between markets that are more competitive versus those that are not, accounting for firm and market characteristics. We find that insurers with monopoly power have lower MLRs. Moreover, we find no evidence suggesting that insurers' administrative expenses are lower in more concentrated insurance markets. Thus, our results are largely consistent with the interpretation that the MLR could serve as a target measure of market power in regulating the individual market for health insurance but with notable limited ability to capture product and firm heterogeneity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Canadian medical tourism companies that have exited the marketplace: Content analysis of websites used to market transnational medical travel

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Leigh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Medical tourism companies play an important role in promoting transnational medical travel for elective, out-of-pocket medical procedures. Though researchers are paying increasing attention to the global phenomenon of medical tourism, to date websites of medical tourism companies have received limited scrutiny. This article analyzes websites of Canadian medical tourism companies that advertised international healthcare but ultimately exited the marketplace. Using content a...

  9. ["What do physicians really read?" Medical journals and pharma-marketing between 1900 and the late 1970s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Scientific Journals are widely used sources in the history science. First and foremost they are analyzed under the aspect of professionalization and the development of scientific topics. However, the impact of the increasing number of advertisements on the journals has been almost systematically excluded from historical analysis. The paper analyses the relations between pharma marketing and medical journals. However, the emphasis here is not so much on the development of print advertisements. Instead the paper uses sources, which were produced in the process of marketing to access the history of the medical scientific journal, its change and its reception by physicians.

  10. "On the doctor's orders": A pilot study of the effects of website marketing for medical specialist providers under gatekeeping arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Websites from medical specialist providers are becoming increasingly marketing oriented, but there exists a paucity of empirical research on the effects. This experimental study explored effects of exposure to real websites from medical specialist providers among Dutch adults under physician gatekeeper arrangements. Exposure led to a stronger intention to seek treatment from the specialist provider and motivation to rely on the providers' claims. Weaker to absent effects were found for intention to question the physician gatekeeper's referral and this was chiefly motivated by the belief that "the doctor knows best." Implications for specialist provider marketing under gatekeeping arrangements are discussed.

  11. Design and Implementation of a Portal for the Medical Equipment Market: MEDICOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Dimitris; Panou-Diamandi, Ourania; Zeelenberg, Cees; van Nimwegen, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Background The MEDICOM (Medical Products Electronic Commerce) Portal provides the electronic means for medical-equipment manufacturers to communicate online with their customers while supporting the Purchasing Process and Post Market Surveillance. The Portal offers a powerful Internet-based search tool for finding medical products and manufacturers. Its main advantage is the fast, reliable and up-to-date retrieval of information while eliminating all unrelated content that a general-purpose search engine would retrieve. The Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System (UMDNS) registers all products. The Portal accepts end-user requests and generates a list of results containing text descriptions of devices, UMDNS attribute values, and links to manufacturer Web pages and online catalogues for access to more-detailed information. Device short descriptions are provided by the corresponding manufacturer. The Portal offers technical support for integration of the manufacturers' Web sites with itself. The network of the Portal and the connected manufacturers' sites is called the MEDICOM system. Objective To establish an environment hosting all the interactions of consumers (health care organizations and professionals) and providers (manufacturers, distributors, and resellers of medical devices). Methods The Portal provides the end-user interface, implements system management, and supports database compatibility. The Portal hosts information about the whole MEDICOM system (Common Database) and summarized descriptions of medical devices (Short Description Database); the manufacturers' servers present extended descriptions. The Portal provides end-user profiling and registration, an efficient product-searching mechanism, bulletin boards, links to on-line libraries and standards, on-line information for the MEDICOM system, and special messages or advertisements from manufacturers. Platform independence and interoperability characterize the system design. Relational Database

  12. Design and implementation of a portal for the medical equipment market: MEDICOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamas, S; Kalivas, D; Panou-Diamandi, O; Zeelenberg, C; van Nimwegen, C

    2001-01-01

    The MEDICOM (Medical Products Electronic Commerce) Portal provides the electronic means for medical-equipment manufacturers to communicate online with their customers while supporting the Purchasing Process and Post Market Surveillance. The Portal offers a powerful Internet-based search tool for finding medical products and manufacturers. Its main advantage is the fast, reliable and up-to-date retrieval of information while eliminating all unrelated content that a general-purpose search engine would retrieve. The Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System (UMDNS) registers all products. The Portal accepts end-user requests and generates a list of results containing text descriptions of devices, UMDNS attribute values, and links to manufacturer Web pages and online catalogues for access to more-detailed information. Device short descriptions are provided by the corresponding manufacturer. The Portal offers technical support for integration of the manufacturers Web sites with itself. The network of the Portal and the connected manufacturers sites is called the MEDICOM system. To establish an environment hosting all the interactions of consumers (health care organizations and professionals) and providers (manufacturers, distributors, and resellers of medical devices). The Portal provides the end-user interface, implements system management, and supports database compatibility. The Portal hosts information about the whole MEDICOM system (Common Database) and summarized descriptions of medical devices (Short Description Database); the manufacturers servers present extended descriptions. The Portal provides end-user profiling and registration, an efficient product-searching mechanism, bulletin boards, links to on-line libraries and standards, on-line information for the MEDICOM system, and special messages or advertisements from manufacturers. Platform independence and interoperability characterize the system design. Relational Database Management Systems are used for

  13. Effect of educational interventions and medical school policies on medical students' attitudes toward pharmaceutical marketing practices: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Audiey C; Braddock, Clarence; Clay, Maria; Elliott, Donna; Epstein, Scott K; Filstead, William; Hotze, Tim; May, Win; Reenan, Jennifer

    2011-11-01

    To determine the effect of educational interventions on medical students' attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry marketing practices and whether restrictive medical school policies governing medicine-industry interactions are associated with student support for banning such interactions. Prospective cohort study involving the graduating classes of 2009 (intervention, n=474) and 2010 (control, n=459) at four U.S. medical schools. Intervention students experienced a former pharmaceutical representative's presentation, faculty debate, and a Web-based course. Both groups completed baseline and follow-up attitude surveys about pharmaceutical marketing. A total of 482 students (51.6%) completed both surveys. In regression analyses, intervention students were more likely than control students to think that physicians are strongly or moderately influenced by pharmaceutical marketing (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.46-3.59) and believed they would be more likely to prescribe a company's drug if they accepted that company's gifts and food (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.12-2.52). Intervention students were more likely to support banning interactions between pharmaceutical representatives and students (OR, 4.82; 95% CI, 3.02-7.68) and with physicians (OR, 6.88; 95% CI, 4.04-11.70). Students from schools with more restrictive policies were more likely to support banning interactions between pharmaceutical representatives and students (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.26-3.16) and with physicians (OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 2.05-5.79). Education about pharmaceutical marketing practices and more restrictive policies governing medicine-industry interactions seem to increase medical students' skepticism about the appropriateness of such marketing practices and disapproval of pharmaceutical representatives in the learning environment.

  14. How to market an affiliation. St. Elizabeth Hospital and Mercy Medical Center affiliate to create Affinity Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    When Wisconsin's St. Elizabeth Hospital and Mercy Medical Center affiliated to create Affinity Health System, Inc., strategic planning and a solid marketing plan carefully executed were instrumental in its success. A corporate identity campaign and product line identification were follow-up phases to the merger approval.

  15. Marketing information goods and services in medical libraries and information centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Kazempour, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Marketing is one of the essential parts of any business corporation in the modern management. One can see the difference between corporations in gaining their goals, considering their marketing methods. Gaining more advantage or acquiring more funds can be of reasons for marketing, but these are not all the reasons. Perhaps the most important reason for marketing is increasing the customer satisfaction. This, in turn, leads to more willingness in payment and using services. Nowadays, due to rapid growth in ICT, changes in budgets, rapid growth in development and use of knowledge, variety of users and their needs, marketing has become an important factor in any library activities. Libraries are now more responsible in this regard, because marketing is now an important tool in improving users' satisfaction in using library services. Hence, marketing is now very important for libraries to survive in the increasing pressures of competitive conditions of the information market. This article is tapping on issues such as information marketing, principles of marketing, marketing techniques, developing markets, and marketing skills. Some recommendations are also presented for marketing in libraries.

  16. Marketing information goods and services in medical libraries and information centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Kazempour, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Marketing is one of the essential parts of any business corporation in the modern management. One can see the difference between corporations in gaining their goals, considering their marketing methods. Gaining more advantage or acquiring more funds can be of reasons for marketing, but these are not all the reasons. Perhaps the most important reason for marketing is increasing the customer satisfaction. This, in turn, leads to more willingness in payment and using services. Nowadays, due to rapid growth in ICT, changes in budgets, rapid growth in development and use of knowledge, variety of users and their needs, marketing has become an important factor in any library activities. Libraries are now more responsible in this regard, because marketing is now an important tool in improving users’ satisfaction in using library services. Hence, marketing is now very important for libraries to survive in the increasing pressures of competitive conditions of the information market. This article is tapping on issues such as information marketing, principles of marketing, marketing techniques, developing markets, and marketing skills. Some recommendations are also presented for marketing in libraries. PMID:23555112

  17. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility. PMID:23039098

  18. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epstein Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility.

  19. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard J; Epstein, Stephen D

    2012-10-05

    Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility.

  20. Gender discrimination weighs heavily down on babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, L M

    1995-12-30

    During a pediatric conference in New Delhi, India, physicians compared their experiences with various diseases to the body of knowledge contained in Western-oriented medical textbooks. One physician noted that the most important longterm intervention to prevent low birth weight babies and congenital malformations is social and involves reducing discrimination against women in India. Many childhood disorders, such as thalassemia, can be prevented by proper genetic screening. Children with thalassemia depend upon blood transfusions to survive, yet they can contract serious and life-threatening illness from an unsafe blood supply. Another physician implicated improper handling by parents in habit disorders such as thumb sucking. A report on childhood epilepsy noted that 20% of the cases are resistant to therapy. A session on nephrotic syndrome relayed the practical experiences of the pediatricians. The fact that this syndrome recurs until puberty and, thus, requires longterm management makes it an important pediatric topic. Asthma was described as a condition which is increasing and which parents are afraid to acknowledge. Another physician suggested adding childbirth to the list of medical emergencies in India, since 75% of them are attended by untrained personnel who may contribute to the incidence of death from neonatal tetanus.

  1. Marketing strategies for vascular practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satiani, Anand; Satiani, Bhagwan

    2009-09-01

    A common misconception is that marketing is synonymous with advertising. Marketing by physicians has undergone a transformation from the earlier unacceptable slick sales pitches to a more common sense, tasteful, comprehensive, and well thought out plan to reach potential patients. Marketing is a much broader concept comprising four aspects: product, price, promotion, and place. Marketing activities for a medical practice include not only external but internal tactics. Publicly available resources are available to assist physicians in developing and targeting the plan towards a narrow patient demographic. The marketing process includes: determining objectives, identifying resources, defining target population, honing a message, outlining a media plan, implementing the plan, and finally, evaluating the success or failure of the marketing campaign. A basic knowledge of marketing combined with a common sense approach can yield dividends for those practices that need the service. For surgical practices that exist in heavily populated urban areas with significant competition, a well thought out marketing plan can assist the practice in reaching out to new groups of patients and maintaining the existing patient base.

  2. West Angeles Community Development Corporation final technical report on export market feasibility planning and research for the solar medical autoclave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, G.D.

    1998-04-20

    This report summarizes core findings from an investigation performed by the staff of West Angeles Community Development Corporation (CDC) regarding the feasibility of marketing the Solar Medical Autoclave (``autoclave``) in South Africa. The investigation was completed during 1997, the period prescribed by the Grant Award made by the U.S. Department of Energy on January 1, 1997, and was monitored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  3. Assessing the relationship between healthcare market competition and medical care quality under Taiwan's National Health Insurance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chih-Hsien; Lu, Ning; Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Chang, Hui-Chih; Huang, Kuo-Cherh

    2018-06-04

    There is still significant uncertainty as to whether market competition raises or lowers clinical quality in publicly funded healthcare systems. We attempted to assess the effects of market competition on inpatient care quality of stroke patients in a retrospective study of the universal single-payer health insurance system in Taiwan. In this 11-year population-based study, we conducted a pooled time-series cross-sectional analysis with a fixed-effects model and the Hausman test approach by utilizing two nationwide datasets: the National Health Insurance Research Database and the National Hospital and Services Survey in Taiwan. Patients who were admitted to a hospital for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were enrolled. After excluding patients with a previous history of stroke and those with different types of stroke, 247 379 ischemic and 79 741 hemorrhagic stroke patients were included in our analysis. Four outcome indicators were applied: the in-hospital mortality rate, 30-day post-operative complication rate, 14-day re-admission rate and 30-day re-admission rate. Market competition exerted a negative or negligible effect on the medical care quality of stroke patients. Compared to hospitals located in a highly competitive market, in-hospital mortality rates for hemorrhagic stroke patients were significantly lower in moderately (β = -0.05, P markets (β = -0.05, P market competition on the quality of care of ischemic stroke patients was insignificant. Simply fostering market competition might not achieve the objective of improving the quality of health care. Other health policy actions need to be contemplated.

  4. Remote Excavation of Heavily Contaminated UXO Sites. The Range Master

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crandall, Alan L

    2007-01-01

    USA Environmental, Inc., and Timberline Environmental Services, Inc., developed the Range Master, a remote controlled scraper with an integrated power screen, to excavate and sift the top 12 inches of heavily contaminated UXO sites...

  5. Medical Underwriting In Long-Term Care Insurance: Market Conditions Limit Options For Higher-Risk Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Portia Y; Grabowski, David C; Cohen, Marc; Shi, Xiaomei; Stevenson, David G

    2016-08-01

    A key feature of private long-term care insurance is that medical underwriters screen out would-be buyers who have health conditions that portend near-term physical or cognitive disability. We applied common underwriting criteria based on data from two long-term care insurers to a nationally representative sample of individuals in the target age range (50-71 years) for long-term care insurance. The screening criteria put upper bounds on the current proportion of Americans who could gain coverage in the individual market without changes to medical underwriting practice. Specifically, our simulations show that in the target age range, approximately 30 percent of those whose wealth meets minimum industry standards for suitability for long-term care insurance would have their application for such insurance rejected at the underwriting stage. Among the general population-without considering financial suitability-we estimated that 40 percent would have their applications rejected. The predicted rejection rates are substantially higher than the rejection rates of about 20-25 percent of applicants in the actual market. In evaluating reforms for long-term care financing and their potential to increase private insurance rates, as well as to reduce financial pressure on public safety-net programs, policy makers need to consider the role of underwriting in the market for long-term care insurance. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Medically Unexplained Symptoms and the risk of loss of labor market participation - A prospective study in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løngaard, Katja; Bjorner, Jacob Bue; Fink, Per

    2015-01-01

    follow-up. MUS participants also showed an elevated RR with regard to risk of disability pensioning, however this association was not statistically significant (RR = 2.06, 95% CI = 0.77-5.52). CONCLUSION: MUS seem to have a negative effect on labor market participation defined by LTSA and unemployment......BACKGROUND: Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS) are frequently encountered in general practice. However, little is known whether MUS affects labor market participation. We investigated the prospective association between MUS at baseline and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), unemployment...... treatment. Participants were classified with MUS if they: a) had reported three or more symptoms during the last month, and b) did not have a chronic condition, neither in the self-reported nor the register data. We assessed LTSA, unemployment, and disability pensioning by linking our data with National...

  7. COM1/348: Design and Implementation of a Portal for the Market of the Medical Equipment (MEDICOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamas, S; Vlachos, I; Panou-Diamandi, O; Marinos, G; Kalivas, D; Zeelenberg, C; Nimwegen, C; Koutsouris, D

    1999-01-01

    Introduction The MEDICOM system provides the electronic means for medical equipment manufacturers to communicate online with their customers supporting the Purchasing Process and the Post Market Surveillance. The MEDICOM service will be provided over the Internet by the MEDICOM Portal, and by a set of distributed subsystems dedicated to handle structured information related to medical devices. There are three kinds of these subsystems, the Hypermedia Medical Catalogue (HMC), Virtual Medical Exhibition (VME), which contains information in a form of Virtual Models, and the Post Market Surveillance system (PMS). The Universal Medical Devices Nomenclature System (UMDNS) is used to register all products. This work was partially funded by the ESPRIT Project 25289 (MEDICOM). Methods The Portal provides the end user interface operating as the MEDICOM Portal, acts as the yellow pages for finding both products and providers, providing links to the providers servers, implements the system management and supports the subsystem database compatibility. The Portal hosts a database system composed of two parts: (a) the Common Database, which describes a set of encoded parameters (like Supported Languages, Geographic Regions, UMDNS Codes, etc) common to all subsystems and (b) the Short Description Database, which contains summarised descriptions of medical devices, including a text description, the codes of the manufacturer, UMDNS code, attribute values and links to the corresponding HTML pages of the HMC, VME and PMS servers. The Portal provides the MEDICOM user interface including services like end user profiling and registration, end user query forms, creation and hosting of newsgroups, links to online libraries, end user subscription to manufacturers' mailing lists, online information for the MEDICOM system and special messages or advertisements from manufacturers. Results Platform independence and interoperability characterise the system design. A general purpose RDBMS is used

  8. Variability in market uptake of psychotropic medications in Europe reflects cultural diversity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; Leufkens, H G M; van Dijk, L

    2017-01-01

    In the last 20-30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older) psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the

  9. Exposure of Medical Students to Pharmaceutical Marketing in Primary Care Settings: Frequent and Influential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Ozlem; Civaner, Murat; Vatansever, Kevser

    2009-01-01

    It is known that interaction between pharmaceutical companies and medical professionals may lead to corruption of professional values, irrational use of medicine, and negative effects on the patient-physician relationship. Medical students frequently interact with pharmaceutical company representatives and increasingly accept their gifts.…

  10. High theory/mass markets: Newsweek magazine and the circuits of medical culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Medicine is driven by much more than science and reason (ethics); it is also driven by the circuits of culture within which it operates. This article examines how postmodern theory deconstructs standard ideals of science and reason and allows medical humanities scholars to better contextualize the world of medicine. As such, postmodern theory provides an invaluable tool for understanding the circuits of popular culture and medicine's place within these circuits. Using a recent issue of Newsweek magazine devoted to health and technology to illustrate the main points, this essay argues that contemporary popular influences on medicine are deeply problematic, and that through an appreciation of the dynamics of culture, medical humanities scholars can join the struggle over medical culture. This perspective allows medical humanities to make important contributions toward alternative circuits of medical representation, consumption, and identification.

  11. Further considerations for damping in heavily insulated pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Lindquist, M.R.; Severud, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years a body of test data has been accumulated which demonstrates that damping in small diameter heavily insulated pipe systems is much larger than presently recommended by Regulatory Guide 1.61. This data is generally based on pipe systems using a stand-off insulation design with a heater annulus. Additional tests have how been completed on similar pipe systems using a strap-on insulation design without the heater annulus. Results indicate some reduction in damping over the stand-off designs. Test data has also been obtained on a larger sixteen-inch diameter heavily insulated pipe system. Results of these two additional test series are presented. Revised damping values for seismic design of heavily insulated pipe systems are then recommended

  12. Further considerations for damping in heavily insulated pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Lindquist, M.R.; Severud, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years a body of test data has been accumulated which demonstrates that damping in small diameter heavily insulated pipe systems is much larger than presently recommended by Regulatory Code 1.61. This data is generally based on pipe systems using a stand-off insulation design with a heater annulus. Additional tests have now been completed on similar pipe systems using a strap-on insulation design without the heater annulus. Results indicate some reduction in damping over the stand-off designs. Test data has also been obtained on a larger sixteen-inch diameter heavily insulated pipe system. Results of these two additional test series are presented. Revised damping values for seismic design for heavily insulated pipe systems are then recommended

  13. Dover AFB Catchment Area TRICARE Marketing Plan, 436th Medical Group, Dover AFB, Delaware,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    cosmetic changes (Nadiu, Kleimenhagen, and Pillari 1992). Berkowitz classifies the debate in terms of eras. During the production era, the function was to...facilities in Smyrna and Fenton , Delaware. KGH has aggressive marketing and community education programs which include classes on: cardiopulmonary

  14. THE METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATING OF LABOR COSTS OF MEDICAL PERSONNEL IN MARKET CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Katasonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the approximate calculations of working time of physician to work with the patient and documentation. On the base of these calculations they outline the possible ways to optimize the work of the medical staff.

  15. Heroin in brown, black and white: structural factors and medical consequences in the US heroin market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarone, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Heroin coming into the United States historically comes from three widely dispersed geographical regions: Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia and Mexico. A fourth source of US-bound heroin, from Colombia, originated in the early 1990s. The fact that the four heroin sources produce differing morphologies and qualities of heroin has not been critically examined. In addition, it is not well established how the contemporary competing dynamics of interdiction, or restriction of heroin flows across international boundaries, and neoliberal, e.g., global expansion of free trade, policies are affecting heroin markets. This paper will highlight changes in the US heroin market, including source trends, the political economy of the now dominant source and the resultant effects on the heroin risk environment by US region. Using a structural and historical framework this paper examines two decades of secondary data sources, including government and drug control agency documents, on heroin flows together with published work on the political and economic dynamics in Latin America. Co-occurring neoliberal economic reforms may have contributed to paradoxical effects of US/Colombian interdiction efforts. Since entering the US market, heroin from Colombia has been distributed at a much higher quality and lower retail price. An increasingly exclusive market has developed with Mexican and Colombian heroin gaining market share and displacing Asian heroin. These trends have had dramatic effects on the risk environment for heroin consumers. An intriguing factor is that different global sources of heroin produce substantially different products. Plausible associations exist between heroin source/form and drug use behaviours and harms. For example, cold water-soluble powdered heroin (sources: Asia, Colombia) may be associated with higher HIV prevalence in the US, while low-solubility "black tar" heroin (BTH; source: Mexico) is historically used in areas with reduced HIV prevalence. BTH is

  16. Heroin in brown, black and white: Structural factors and medical consequences in the US heroin market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarone, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Background Heroin coming into the United States historically comes from three widely dispersed geographical regions: Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia and Mexico. A fourth source of US-bound heroin, from Colombia, originated in the early 1990s. The fact that the four heroin sources produce differing morphologies and qualities of heroin has not been critically examined. In addition, it is not well established how the contemporary competing dynamics of interdiction, or restriction of heroin flows across international boundaries, and neoliberal, e.g., global expansion of free trade, policies are affecting heroin markets. This paper will highlight changes in the US heroin market, including source trends, the political economy of the now dominant source and the resultant effects on the heroin risk environment by US region. Methods Using a structural and historical framework this paper examines two decades of secondary data sources, including government and drug control agency documents, on heroin flows together with published work on the political and economic dynamics in Latin America. Results Co-occurring neoliberal economic reforms may have contributed to paradoxical effects of US/Colombian interdiction efforts. Since entering the US market, heroin from Colombia has been distributed at a much higher quality and lower retail price. An increasingly exclusive market has developed with Mexican and Colombian heroin gaining market share and displacing Asian heroin. These trends have had dramatic effects on the risk environment for heroin consumers. An intriguing factor is that different global sources of heroin produce substantially different products. Plausible associations exist between heroin source/form and drug use behaviours and harms. For example, cold water-soluble powdered heroin (sources: Asia, Colombia) may be associated with higher HIV prevalence in the US, while low-solubility “black tar” heroin (BTH; source: Mexico) is historically used in areas with reduced

  17. Expanding insurance coverage through tax credits, consumer choice, and market enhancements: the American Medical Association proposal for health insurance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Donald J; Emmons, David W; Wozniak, Gregory D

    2004-05-12

    Recent reports showing an increase in the number of uninsured individuals in the United States have given heightened attention to increasing health insurance coverage. The American Medical Association (AMA) has proposed a system of tax credits for the purchase of individually owned health insurance and enhancements to individual and group health insurance markets as a means of expanding coverage. Individually owned insurance would enable people to maintain coverage without disruption to existing patient-physician relationships, regardless of changes in employers or in work status. The AMA's plan would empower individuals to choose their health plan and give patients and their physicians more control over health care choices. Employers could continue to offer employment-based coverage, but employees would not be limited to the health plans offered by their employer. With a tax credit large enough to make coverage affordable and the ability to choose their own coverage, consumers would dramatically transform the individual and group health insurance markets. Health insurers would respond to the demands of individual consumers and be more cautious about increasing premiums. Insurers would also tailor benefit packages and develop new forms of coverage to better match the preferences of individuals and families. The AMA supports the development of new health insurance markets through legislative and regulatory changes to foster a wider array of high-quality, affordable plans.

  18. United States academic medical centers: priorities and challenges amid market transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Irene M; Anason, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    United States academic medical centers (AMCs) have upheld their long-standing reputation for excellence by teaching and training the next generation of physicians, supporting medical research, providing world-class medical care, and offering breakthrough treatments for highly complex medical cases. In recent years, the pace and direction of change reshaping the American health care industry has created a set of new and profound challenges that AMC leaders must address in order to sustain their institutions. University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) is an alliance of 116 leading nonprofit academic medical centers and 276 of their affiliated hospitals, all of which are focused on delivering world-class patient care. Formed in 1984, UHC fosters collaboration with and among its members through its renowned programs and services in the areas of comparative data and analytics, performance improvement, supply chain management, strategic research, and public policy. Each year, UHC surveys the executives of its member institutions to understand the issues they view as most critical to sustaining the viability and success of their organizations. The results of UHC's most recent 2011 member survey, coupled with a 2012 Strategic Health Perspectives Harris Interactive presentation, based in parton surveys of major health care industry stakeholders reveal the most important and relevant issues and opportunities that hospital leaders face today, as the United States health care delivery system undergoes a period of unprecedented transformation.

  19. Selling medical travel to US patient-consumers: the cultural appeal of website marketing messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobo, Elisa J; Herlihy, Elizabeth; Bicker, Mary

    2011-04-01

    More US-based patients than ever are travelling abroad for medical or dental services. Beyond financial incentives, what cultural factors have supported this trend? Because of their interest in selling medical travel, medical travel agencies (MTAs) have vested interests in this question. To find out how they are answering it, an ethnographic content analysis of MTA websites was undertaken. Beyond themes promoting a 'worry-free experience' of 'legitimate services', themes linking healthcare consumerism to culturally specific identity ideals and self-creation/representation processes predominated. Themes relating to the demonstration of social position, savvy expression of good consumer judgment, and achievement of libertarian ideals figured highly. However, various inconsistencies (including an appeal to tourism in some but not other situations) suggested that medical travel involves, for the US-based consumer, a complex act of juggling context-specific self-identity desires and expectations in relation to healthcare. The potential impact of prevailing discourses on 'self-construction-in-practice' was explored. Findings enhance understanding of the care seeking process as experienced within the context of globalized, mass-mediated healthcare consumerism. They also point to the need for finer-grained distinctions than the global gloss 'medical travel' offers.

  20. Explosive phenomena in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denHartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI; Matthews, GE; Williams, RT

    1997-01-01

    In heavily irradiated NaCl crystals explosive phenomena can be initiated during irradiation or afterwards when samples are heated to temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. During irradiation of NaCl Na and Cl-2 precipitates and void structures are produced along with the accumulation of stored

  1. Funding of Graduate Medical Education in a Market-Based Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Barbara L

    2017-02-01

    The graduate medical education (GME) process in the United States is considered the most respected model for high-quality education of graduate physicians in the world. With substantial funding through government and private insurers and through structured educational accreditation standards, the American Board of Medical Specialists-certified physicians are recognized for their expertise in delivering high-quality medical care. However, under fiscal constraints and changing social expectations, questions are continually posed about the process of funding and whether the "physician outcomes" are sufficient to continue with the investment. This article reviews the history of postgraduate physician education, the multiple funding pathways, disruptions to a placid educational system and changing social expectations. The ultimate issues involve the core goals of GME and how much GME should shoulder responsibility for changing the healthcare system. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  3. Impact of FDA Actions, DTCA, and Public Information on the Market for Pain Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, W David; Kleit, Andrew N

    2015-07-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most important classes of prescription drugs used by primary care physicians to manage pain. The NSAID class of products has a somewhat controversial history, around which a complex regulatory and informational environment has developed. This history includes a boxed warning mandated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for all NSAIDs in 2005. We investigate the impact that various information shocks have had on the use of prescription medications for pain in primary care in the USA. We accomplish this by extracting data on nearly 600,000 patients from a unique nationwide electronic medical record database and estimate the probability of any active prescription for the four types of pain medications as a function of FDA actions, advertising, media coverage, and patient characteristics. We find that even after accounting for multiple sources of information, the FDA label changes and boxed warnings had a significant effect on pain medication prescribing. The boxed warning did not have the same impact on the use of all NSAID inhibitors. We find that the boxed warning reduced the use of NSAID COX-2 inhibitor use, which was the focus of much of the press attention. In contrast, however, the warning actually increased the use of non-COX-2 NSAID inhibitors. Thus, the efficacy of the FDA's black box warning is clearly mixed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Internet marketing of bariatric surgery: contemporary trends in the medicalization of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Talya; Santry, Heena P

    2006-05-01

    In the context of political, economic, and scientific anxiety around the 'epidemic' rise in obesity in the US, the social and historical forces engendering the medicalization of obesity have been widely discussed. However, the recent growth of bariatric-weight loss-surgery and the expanding presence of advertising for bariatric surgery on the Internet suggest the possible emergence of new loci and languages of medicalization. We sought to identify the nature and extent to which web advertising of bariatric surgery contributes to the medicalization of obesity by examining the design and textual content of 100 bariatric surgery center websites. We found that websites, through strategic use of text and images, consistently describe obesity as a serious disease that requires professional ascertainment and supervision, entails substantial individual suffering, and is remedied through the transformative yet low risk effects of bariatric surgery. In the process, social normalcy and risk reduction come to replace physical criteria as the basis for determining health. Further, websites draw upon contradictory discourses of medicalization; that is, they insist upon 'external' (e.g. genetics, environment) causes of obesity to legitimize surgical intervention while implicating individual behaviors in surgical failure. From this, we suggest that the economic and professional motivations underlying website advertisements for bariatric surgery may result in confusing messages being sent to prospective patients as well as the perpetuation of gendered notions of obesity and the entrenchment of health disparities.

  5. Post-marketing withdrawal of analgesic medications because of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Heneghan, Carl J; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2018-01-01

    Many analgesics have been withdrawn from the market because of adverse drug reactions. Controversy still surrounds the use of some approved analgesics for pain management. However, the trends and reasons for withdrawal of analgesics when harms are attributed to their use have not been systematically assessed. Areas covered: We conducted searches in PubMed; Embase; Google Scholar; clinicaltrials.gov; WHO databases of withdrawn products; websites of the European Medicines Agency, the US Food and Drug Administration, the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency; Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs; Stephens' Detection of New Adverse Drug Reactions; the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Encyclopedia; and the Merck Index. We included licensed analgesics that were withdrawn after marketing because of adverse reactions between 1950 and March 2017. We excluded herbal products, non-human medicines, and non-prescription medicines. We used the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine criteria to document the levels of evidence, and chi-squared tests to compare withdrawal patterns across geographical regions. Expert opinion: Pharmacovigilance systems in low-resource settings should be strengthened. Greater co-ordination across regulatory authorities in assessing and interpreting the benefit-harm balance of new analgesics should be encouraged. Future reporting of harms in clinical trials of analgesics should follow standardized guidelines.

  6. a Study of Oxygen Precipitation in Heavily Doped Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, Robert Kurt

    Gettering of impurities with oxygen precipitates is widely used during the fabrication of semiconductors to improve the performance and yield of the devices. Since the effectiveness of the gettering process is largely dependent on the initial interstitial oxygen concentration, accurate measurements of this parameter are of considerable importance. Measurements of interstitial oxygen following thermal cycles are required for development of semiconductor fabrication processes and for research into the mechanisms of oxygen precipitate nucleation and growth. Efforts by industrial associations have led to the development of standard procedures for the measurement of interstitial oxygen in wafers. However practical oxygen measurements often do not satisfy the requirements of such standard procedures. An additional difficulty arises when the silicon wafer has a low resitivity (high dopant concentration). In such cases the infrared light used for the measurement is severely attenuated by the electrons of holes introduced by the dopant. Since such wafers are the substrates used for the production of widely used epitaxial wafers, this measurement problem is economically important. Alternative methods such as Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy or Gas Fusion Analysis have been developed to measure oxygen in these cases. However, neither of these methods is capable of distinguishing interstitial oxygen from precipitated oxygen as required for precipitation studies. In addition to the commercial interest in heavily doped silicon substrates, they are also of interest for research into the role of point defects in nucleation and precipitation processes. Despite considerable research effort, there is still disagreement concerning the type of point defect and its role in semiconductor processes. Studies of changes in the interstitial oxygen concentration of heavily doped and lightly doped silicon wafers could help clarify the role of point defects in oxygen nucleation and precipitation

  7. Heavily nitrogen doped, graphene supercapacitor from silk cocoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Vikrant; Grover, Sonia; Tulachan, Brindan; Sharma, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Gaurav; Roy, Manas; Saxena, Manav; Sethy, Niroj; Bhargava, Kalpana; Philip, Deepu; Kim, Hansung; Singh, Gurmeet; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak; Sharma, Raj Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Doping of graphene with nitrogen is of much interest, since it improves the overall conductivity and supercapacitive properties. Besides conductivity, nitrogen doping also enhances the pseudo-capacitance due to fast and reversible surface redox processes. In this work, we have developed a cheap and easy process for synthesizing heavily nitrogen doped graphene (15% nitrogen) from non-mulberry silk cocoon membrane (Tassar, Antheraea mylitta) by pyrolyzing the cocoon at 400 °C in argon atmosphere. Further we have investigated the performance of this heavily ‘nitrogen doped graphene’ (NDG) in a supercapacitor device. Our results suggest that NDG obtained from cocoon has improved supercapacitor performance. The improved performance is due to the high electronegativity of nitrogen that forms dipoles on the graphene surface. These dipoles consequently enhance the tendency of graphene to attract charged species to its surface. This is a green and clean synthesis approach for developing electronic materials for energy applications

  8. Superconductivity in heavily boron-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kriener, Takahiro Muranaka, Junya Kato, Zhi-An Ren, Jun Akimitsu and Yoshiteru Maeno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The discoveries of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond in 2004 and silicon in 2006 have renewed the interest in the superconducting state of semiconductors. Charge-carrier doping of wide-gap semiconductors leads to a metallic phase from which upon further doping superconductivity can emerge. Recently, we discovered superconductivity in a closely related system: heavily boron-doped silicon carbide. The sample used for that study consisted of cubic and hexagonal SiC phase fractions and hence this led to the question which of them participated in the superconductivity. Here we studied a hexagonal SiC sample, free from cubic SiC phase by means of x-ray diffraction, resistivity, and ac susceptibility.

  9. USING ONLINE MARKETING TO INCREASE PARTICIPATION IN A WEB-BASED CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION CULTURAL COMPETENCE CURRICULUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Carlos A.; Krishnamoorthy, Periyakaruppan; Smith, Ann; Staton, Lisa; Korf, Michele J.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Houston, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction CME providers may be interested in identifying effective marketing strategies to direct users to specific content. The use of online advertisements to recruit participants for clinical trials, public health programs, and Continuing Medical Education (CME) has been shown to be effective in some but not all studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of two marketing strategies in the context of an online CME cultural competence curriculum (www.c-comp.org). Methods In an interrupted time-series quasi-experimental design, two marketing strategies were tested: a) wide dissemination to relevant organizations over a period of approximately four months, and b) Internet paid search using Google Ads (five consecutive eight-week periods--control 1, cultural/ CME advertisement, control 2, hypertension/ content advertisement, control 3). Outcome measures were CME credit requests, Web traffic (visits per day, page views, pages viewed per visit), and cost. Results Overall, the site was visited 19,156 times and 78,160 pages were viewed. During the wide dissemination phase, the proportion of visits requesting CME credit decreased between the first (5.3%) and second halves (3.3%) of this phase (p= .04). During the Internet paid search phase, the proportion of visits requesting CME credit was highest during the cultural/ CME advertisement period (control 1, 1.4%; cultural/CME ad, 4.3%; control 2, 1.5%; hypertension/content ad, 0.6%; control 3, 0.8%; p<.001). All measures of Web traffic changed during the Internet paid search phase (p<.01); however, changes were independent of the advertisement periods. The incremental cost for the cultural advertisement per CME credit requested was $0.64US. Discussion Internet advertisement focusing on cultural competence and CME was associated with about a three-fold increase in requests for CME credit at an incremental cost of under $1; however, Web traffic changes were independent of the advertisement strategy. PMID

  10. Medically unexplained symptoms and the risk of loss of labor market participation--a prospective study in the Danish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loengaard, Katja; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Fink, Per Klausen; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner

    2015-09-02

    Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS) are frequently encountered in general practice. However, little is known whether MUS affects labor market participation. We investigated the prospective association between MUS at baseline and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), unemployment, and disability pensioning in a 5-year-follow-up study. In the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study 2005, 8187 randomly selected employees from the Danish general population answered a questionnaire on work and health. Responses were linked with national registers on prescribed medication and hospital treatment. Participants were classified with MUS if they: a) had reported three or more symptoms during the last month, and b) did not have a chronic condition, neither in the self-reported nor the register data. We assessed LTSA, unemployment, and disability pensioning by linking our data with National registers of social transfer payments. Of the 8187 participants, 272 (3.3%) were categorized with MUS. Compared to healthy participants, participants with MUS had an increased risk of LTSA (Rate ratio (RR) = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.28-2.42), and of unemployment (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.02-2.15) during follow-up. MUS participants also showed an elevated RR with regard to risk of disability pensioning, however this association was not statistically significant (RR = 2.06, 95% CI = 0.77-5.52). MUS seem to have a negative effect on labor market participation defined by LTSA and unemployment, whereas it is more uncertain whether MUS affects risk of disability pensioning.

  11. Post-marketing surveillance in the published medical and grey literature for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty catheters: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisena, Julie; Forster, Alan J; Cimon, Karen; Rabb, Danielle

    2013-10-10

    Post-marketing surveillance (PMS) may identify rare serious incidents or adverse events due to the long-term use of a medical device, which was not captured in the pre-market process. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is a non-surgical procedure that uses a balloon-tipped catheter to enlarge a narrowed artery. In 2011, 1,942 adverse event reports related to the use of PTCA catheters were submitted to the FDA by the manufacturers, an increase from the 883 reported in 2008. The primary research objective is to conduct a systematic review of the published and grey literature published between 2007 and 2012 for the frequency of incidents, adverse events and malfunctions associated with the use of PTCA catheters in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Grey literature has not been commercially published. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed for medical literature on PMS for PTCA catheters in patients with CAD published between January 2007 and July 2012. We also searched the grey literature. This review included 11 studies. The in-hospital adverse events reported were individual cases of myocardial infarction and hematoma. In studies of patients with coronary perforation, more patients with balloon angioplasty were identified compared with patients who required stenting. Our systematic review illustrates that the volume and quality of PMS studies associated with the use of PTCA catheters in patients with CAD are low in the published and grey literature, and may not be useful sources of information for decisions on safety. In most studies, the objectives were not to monitor the long-term safety of the use of PTCA catheters in clinical practice. Future studies can explore the strengths and limitations of PMS databases administered by regulatory authorities.

  12. PRE-MARKET CLINICAL EVALUATIONS OF INNOVATIVE HIGH-RISK MEDICAL DEVICES IN EUROPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulstaert, F.; Neyt, M.; Vinck, I.

    2012-01-01

    data are available? We studied the premarket clinical evaluation of innovative high-risk medical devices in Europe compared with the US, and with medicines, where appropriate. Methods: The literature and regulatory documents were checked. Representatives from industry, Competent Authorities, Notified...... of premarket trials in Europe and number of patients exposed, but failed as this information is not made public. Furthermore, the Helsinki Declaration is not followed with respect to the registration and publication of premarket trials. Conclusions: For innovative high-risk devices, new EU legislation should...

  13. Risk Management Post-Marketing Surveillance for the Abuse of Medications Acting on the Central Nervous System: Expert Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Balster, Robert L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Schuster, Charles R.; Anthony, James C.; Barthwell, Andrea G.; Coleman, John J.; Dart, Richard C.; Gorodetzky, Charles W.; O’Keeffe, Charles; Sellers, Edward M.; Vocci, Frank; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    The abuse and diversion of medications is a significant public health problem. This paper is part of a supplemental issue of Drug and Alcohol Dependence focused on the development of risk management plans and post-marketing surveillance related to minimizing this problem. The issue is based on a conference that was held in October, 2008. An Expert Panel was formed to provide a summary of the conclusions and recommendations that emerged from the meeting involving drug abuse experts, regulators and other government agencies, pharmaceutical companies and professional and other non-governmental organizations. This paper provides a written report of this Expert Panel. Eleven conclusions and eleven recommendations emerged concerning the state of the art of this field of research, the regulatory and public health implications and recommendations for future directions. It is concluded that special surveillance tools are needed to detect the emergence of medication abuse in a timely manner and that risk management tools can be implemented to increase the benefit to risk ratio. The scientific basis for both the surveillance and risk management tools is in its infancy, yet progress needs to be made. It is also important that the unintended consequences of increased regulation and the imposition of risk management plans be minimized. PMID:19783383

  14. Corrupt practices in chinese medical care: the root in public policies and a call for Confucian-market approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2007-06-01

    This paper argues that three salient corrupt practices that mark contemporary Chinese health care, namely the over-prescription of indicated drugs, the prescription of more expensive forms of medication and more expensive diagnostic work-ups than needed, and illegal cash payments to physicians-i.e., red packages-result not from the introduction of the market to China, but from two clusters of circumstances. First, there has been a loss of the Confucian appreciation of the proper role of financial reward for good health care. Second, misguided governmental policies have distorted the behavior of physicians and hospitals. The distorting policies include (1) setting very low salaries for physicians, (2) providing bonuses to physicians and profits to hospitals from the excessive prescription of drugs and the use of more expensive drugs and unnecessary expensive diagnostic procedures, and (3) prohibiting payments by patients to physicians for higher quality care. The latter problem is complicated by policies that do not allow the use of governmental insurance and funds from medical savings accounts in private hospitals as well as other policies that fail to create a level playing field for both private and government hospitals. The corrupt practices currently characterizing Chinese health care will require not only abolishing the distorting governmental policies but also drawing on Confucian moral resources to establish a rightly directed appreciation of the proper place of financial reward in the practice of medicine.

  15. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. 2015 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99Mo/99mTc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2015-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, Kevin; )

    2015-08-01

    Medical diagnostic imaging techniques using technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures, representing 30-40 million examinations Worldwide every year. Disruptions in the supply chain of these medical isotopes - which have half-lives of 66 hours for molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and only 6 hours for 99m Tc, and thus must be produced continuously - can lead to cancellations or delays in important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has been challenged over the past decade due to unexpected shutdowns and extended refurbishment periods at some of the mostly ageing, 99 Mo-producing research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have at times created conditions for extended global supply shortages (e.g. 2009-2010). At the request of its member countries, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) became involved in global efforts to ensure a secure supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data available from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of potential reduced supply and to underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a M o supply and demand forecast up to 2030, identifying periods of potential low supply relative to demand. That 2012 forecast was updated with a report 'Medical Isotope Supply in the Future: Production Capacity and Demand Forecast for the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Market 2015-2020' (NEA, 2014) in 2014 that focused on the much shorter 2015-2020 period. This report updates the 2014 report, and continues to focus on the potentially critical 2015

  16. [How are consumers, service and market factors related to customer loyalty in medical service? Targeting the medical consumer in a city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhee; Kim, Hyunmi; Kim, Juhye; Ha, Gwiyeom

    2008-09-01

    This study was performed to explore customer loyalty and the related factors. 900 households (a 1% sample) were randomly selected from the total population of K city located in Kangwon province. An interview survey was performed with using a structured questionnaire for the subjects (923 persons) who had used medical service during the year before the survey, and the survey was done September, 2002. When comparing the relating factors related with customer loyalty according to the sociodemographic characteristics, the older group showed a significantly higher level of recognition for service quality, service reputation, internal customers.attitudes and switching cost. The lower income group showed a higher level of recognition for service quality, service image and switching cost. The lower educated group showed a higher level of recognition for service reputation, service image and internal customers.attitudes. The higher educated group showed a higher level of recognition for perceived risk, and seeking variety. In addition, the expert group or the service and manufacturing workers group showed a higher level of recognition for service involvement. On multiple regression analysis, internal customers' attitudes, service image, service reputation, service quality, switching cost, and substitutability showed significant relations with customer loyalty. This study showed that customer loyalty was significantly influenced by service factors like internal customers' attitudes, service image, service reputation, and service quality, and by market factors like switching cost, and substitutability. The results of this study can be used as a baseline for developing strategies to create and keep customers with high loyalty.

  17. Sustainable clinical research, health economic aspects and medical marketing: drivers of product innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Ferdinand; Klassen-Wigger, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Marketing-driven innovation in the field of pediatric nutrition, in particular in the infant formula segment is not sustainable. New benefits of products must be scientifically proven and safety and efficacy of new formulae established in clinical trials. The scientific innovation process of three infant formulae is described. Improvement in protein quality allowed to reduce the protein concentration in whey-based infant formula. Weight gain and BMI of infants fed those formulae corresponds to breastfed infants and is lower than in infants fed traditional formulae with higher protein concentration. A meta-analysis indicates associations between rapid weight gain in infancy and obesity later in life. If infants cannot be exclusively breastfed until 4-6 months of age, feeding low-protein formulae may contribute to positive long-term health outcome with potentially important health economic effects. A partially hydrolyzed whey based formula for prevention of allergic symptoms in children with hereditary risk for allergic diseases was developed more than 25 years ago. The most recent meta-analysis which included 15 randomized clinical trials indicates that the risk of all allergic diseases and atopic dermatitis/eczema is significantly reduced in infants at risk when the partially hydrolyzed formula is fed. The partially hydrolyzed formula had the same protective effect as casein-based high-degree extensively hydrolyzed formula. Because of substantial price differences between the two formulae, feeding the partially hydrolyzed whey formula is cost saving. Hypoallergenic claims can be made in many countries, and international nutrition committees have positively commented the preventive effect of those formulae. Acidified formulae have been widely used during the last decade in replacement feeding programs for infants whose mothers are HIV positive. The formula was innovated by improving whey protein quality and lowering protein concentration. The bacteriostatic

  18. A Study to Restructure the Marketing Plan at Dwight David Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Fort Gordon, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    term plan. The components are the audit, market segmentation, marketing mix , implementation, evaluation and control. Dienemann and Wintz (1992) state...discuss the marketing mix as a separate element in their marketing plan and also use different terminology for two of the P’s. 17 They use in lieu of...definition of the marketing mix under the component of StrateQies does much to explain the four separate elements of the mix but does not state the

  19. A Project to Develop a Marketing Plan in Support of William Beaumont Army Medical Center, Fort Bliss, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    stressed by the Texas Hospital Association (1982), "the key to success in applying and understanding the marketing mix lies in the concept of rightness...alternatives 8. Develop the marketing mix 9. Select a strategy option Phase III (Finalization)’ 10. Design the tactics 11. Present the plan 12. Write the plan...usage incentive Marketing mix Product, price, distribution [place], marketing communication [promotion] Contingency strategies Marketing Budget (How Much

  20. Tracking with heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Barnett, B.M.; Bartalina, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the authors show that a heavily irradiated double-sided silicon microstrip detector recovers its performance when operated at cryogenic temperatures. A DELPHI microstrip detector, irradiated to a fluence of ∼4 x 10 14 p/cm 2 , no longer operational at room temperature, cannot be distinguished from a non-irradiated one when operated at T < 120 K. Besides confirming the previously observed Lazarus effect in single diodes, these results establish, for the first time, the possibility of using standard silicon detectors for tracking applications in extremely demanding radiation environments

  1. Connecting pre-marketing clinical research and medical practice : opinion-based study of core issues and possible changes in drug regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, N.F; Peschar, J.L.; Denig, P; de Graeff, P.A.; Vos, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To identify core issues that contribute to the gap between pre-marketing clinical research and practice as seen from the perspective of medical practice, as well as possible changes and potential barriers for closing this gap. Methods: Interviews with 47 physicians and pharmacists who

  2. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. 2016 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99Mo/99mTc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2016-2021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, Kevin; )

    2016-03-01

    Medical diagnostic imaging techniques using technetium-99m ( 99 mTc) account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures, representing 30-40 million examinations Worldwide every year. Disruptions in the supply chain of these medical isotopes - which have half-lives of 66 hours for molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and only 6 hours for 99m Tc, and thus must be produced continuously - can lead to cancellations or delays in important medical testing services. Supply reliability has been challenged over the past decade due to unexpected shutdowns and extended refurbishment periods at some of the 99 Mo-producing research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have at times created conditions for extended global supply shortages (e.g. 2009-2010). At the request of its member countries, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) became involved in global efforts to ensure a secure supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo supply situation periodically, to highlight periods of potential reduced supply and to underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a 99 Mo supply and demand forecast up to 2030, identifying periods of potential low supply relative to demand. That 2012 forecast was updated with a report in 2014 that focused on the much shorter 2015-2020 period. That report was updated in 2015 with a report, '2015 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2015-2020' (NEA, 2015), which focused on the same period. This report updates the 2015 report, and focuses on the important 2016-2021 period. At the end of 2015, the OSIRIS reactor

  3. Electrochemical Decontamination of Painted and Heavily Corroded Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczak, S.; Anderson, J.; Dziewinski, J.

    1998-01-01

    The radioactive metal wastes that are generated from nuclear fuel plants and radiochemical laboratories are mainly contaminated by the surface deposition of radioactive isotopes. There are presently several techniques used in removing surface contamination involving physical and chemical processes. However, there has been very little research done in the area of soiled, heavily oxidized, and painted metals. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been developing electrochemical procedures for the decontamination of bare and painted metal objects. These methods have been found to be effective on highly corroded as well as relatively new metals. This study has been successful in decontaminating projectiles and shrapnel excavated during environmental restoration projects after 40+ years of exposure to the elements. Heavily corroded augers used in sampling activities throughout the area were also successfully decontaminated. This process has demonstrated its effectiveness and offers several advantages over the present metal decontamination practices of media blasting and chemical solvents. These advantages include the addition of no toxic or hazardous chemicals, low operating temperature and pressure, and easily scaleable equipment. It is in their future plans to use this process in the decontamination of gloveboxes destined for disposal as TRU waste

  4. Near-infrared free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker-Finch, Simeon C.; McIntosh, Keith R.; Yan, Di; Fong, Kean Chern; Kho, Teng C.

    2014-01-01

    Free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon can have a significant impact on devices operating in the infrared. In the near infrared, the free carrier absorption process can compete with band to band absorption processes, thereby reducing the number of available photons to optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this work, we fabricate 18 heavily doped regions by phosphorus and boron diffusion into planar polished silicon wafers; the simple sample structure facilitates accurate and precise measurement of the free carrier absorptance. We measure and model reflectance and transmittance dispersion to arrive at a parameterisation for the free carrier absorption coefficient that applies in the wavelength range between 1000 and 1500 nm, and the range of dopant densities between ∼10 18 and 3 × 10 20  cm −3 . Our measurements indicate that previously published parameterisations underestimate the free carrier absorptance in phosphorus diffusions. On the other hand, published parameterisations are generally consistent with our measurements and model for boron diffusions. Our new model is the first to be assigned uncertainty and is well-suited to routine device analysis

  5. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  6. Proposed Industry Best Practices in Development and Marketing of Medical Foods for the Management of Chronic Conditions and Diseases while Awaiting Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Bruce; Levy, Robert M

    Ideal therapeutics have low toxicity and can effectively manage condition(s) or disease(s). The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) marketing category of therapeutics called “medical foods” (MFs) meets such a definition. Medical foods have existed in Federal law since passage the Orphan Drug Act in 1988, which created a category of nutritional therapeutics separate from drugs. Unfortunately, MFs are not widely understood by the medical community or utilized in all patients who need them due to lack of a FDA-approval process, unclear and contradictory guidance especially with regard for need for an investigational new drug (IND) application, and no clear regulations regarding their development and marketing. The goals of this article are to propose “Best Practices” to guide the medical food industry in the development and marketing of products as well as to serve as a starting point for suggestions regarding further FDA regulation so that therapeutics which are shown to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS), provide food ingredients to meet a distinctive nutritional requirement for a specific condition/disease and are proven effective for the management for that condition/disease can be used to benefit patients who need them.

  7. Accuracy of drug advertisements in medical journals under new law regulating the marketing of pharmaceutical products in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Macarena Gonzalez; Bucher, Heiner C; Nordmann, Alain J

    2008-12-31

    New legal regulations for the marketing of pharmaceutical products were introduced in 2002 in Switzerland. We investigated whether claims in drug advertisements citing published scientific studies were justified by these studies after the introduction of these new regulations. In this cross-sectional study, two independent reviewers screened all issues of six major Swiss medical journals published in the year 2005 to identify all drug advertisements for analgesic, gastrointestinal and psychopharmacologic drugs and evaluated all drug advertisements referring to at least one publication. The pharmaceutical claim was rated as being supported, being based on a potentially biased study or not to be supported by the cited study according to pre-specified criteria. We also explored factors likely to be associated with supported advertisement claims. Of 2068 advertisements 577 (28%) promoted analgesic, psychopharmacologic or gastrointestinal drugs. Among them were 323 (56%) advertisements citing at least one reference. After excluding multiple publications of the same drug advertisement and advertisements with non-informative references, there remained 29 unique advertisements with at least one reference to a scientific study. These 29 advertisements contained 78 distinct pairs of claims of analgesic, gastrointestinal and psychopharmacologic drugs and referenced studies. Thirty-seven (47%) claims were supported, 16 (21%) claims were not supported by the corresponding reference, and 25 (32%) claims were based on potentially biased evidence, with no relevant differences between drug groups. Studies with conflict of interest and studies stating industry funding were more likely to support the corresponding claim (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.07-2.17 and RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.98-2.28) than studies without identified conflict of interest and studies without information on type of funding. Following the introduction of new regulations for drug advertisement in Switzerland, 53% of all assessed

  8. [Actual medical care situation and therapeutic needs in multiple sclerosis: Impact of the Pharmaceutical Market Restructuring Act (AMNOG)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, S; Meuth, S G

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with constantly rising costs for the healthcare system and pharmaceuticals constitute 60 % of the direct medical costs. The Pharmaceutical Market Restructuring Act (Arzneimittelmarkt-Neuordnungsgesetz, AMNOG) came into force on 1 January 2011 with the aim of limiting the costs of pharmaceuticals by obligating newly approved products to be subjected to an early evaluation of the additional benefits by the Federal Joint Committee (FJC, Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G‑BA). The majority of products evaluated up to October 2015 in neurology (5 out of 8) were approved for treatment of MS. Has the AMNOG been able to fulfill the original aims? Analysis of available information on MS therapies evaluated by the FJC between December 2010 and October 2015. For various reasons an additional benefit could be shown in only 2 out of 5 assessment procedures for MS drugs. It is obvious that some methodological shortcomings of the process have to be improved. Additionally requirements for pivotal clinical trials have to be harmonized with AMNOG requirements taking the best available evidence and real-life data into consideration (e.g. non-interventional studies) and a closer collaboration between the FJC, healthcare providers and the neurological societies is necessary. The AMNOG procedure currently only partially fulfills the original aims, which could be the reason why guidelines play a more important role for therapy decision-making than FJC decisions. As the early evaluation procedure is an adaptive process methodological shortcomings might be overcome in the future; however, this requires a much closer collaboration between the FJC and neurological societies.

  9. Stored energy and annealing behavior of heavily deformed aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamikawa, Naoya; Huang, Xiaoxu; Kondo, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in previous work that a two-step annealing treatment, including a low-temperature, long-time annealing and a subsequent high-temperature annealing, is a promising route to control the microstructure of a heavily deformed metal. In the present study, structural parameters...... are quantified such as boundary spacing, misorientation angle and dislocation density for 99.99% aluminium deformed by accumulative roll-bonding to a strain of 4.8. Two different annealing processes have been applied; (i) one-step annealing for 0.5 h at 100-400°C and (ii) two-step annealing for 6 h at 175°C...... followed by 0.5 h annealing at 200-600°C, where the former treatment leads to discontinuous recrystallization and the latter to uniform structural coarsening. This behavior has been analyzed in terms of the relative change during annealing of energy stored as elastic energy in the dislocation structure...

  10. Measurement of surface recombination velocity on heavily doped indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, P.; Ghalla-Goradia, M.; Faur, M.; Bailey, S.

    1990-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the published low values of surface recombination velocity (SRV) in n-InP, solidified in recent years when modeling of existing n/p InP solar cells revealed that the front surface SRV had to be higher than 1 x 10 6 cm/sec in order to justify the poor blue response that is characteristic of all n/p InP solar cells. In this paper, SRV on heavily doped (>10 18 cm -3 )n-type and p-type InP is measured as a function of surface treatment. For the limited range of substrates and surface treatments studied, SRV and surface stability depend strongly on the surface treatment. SRVs of ∼10 5 cm/sec in both p-type and n-type InP are obtainable, but in n-type the low SRV surfaces were unstable, and the only stable surfaces on n-type had SRVs of >10 6 cm/sec

  11. Einstein's photoemission emission from heavily-doped quantized structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This monograph solely investigates the Einstein's Photoemission(EP) from Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The EP in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields  that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determinations of different important physical quantities in HD 2D and 3D materials  and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring   physical properties in the presence of intense light waves w...

  12. Medical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as medical books, journals, magazines, pharma or biotech marketing, films, online video, exhibits, posters, wall charts, educational ... of the health career profession with strong communication skills, medical illustrators work closely with clients to interpret ...

  13. Pre-market approval and post-market direct-to-consumer advertising of medical devices in Australia: a case study of breast cancer screening and diagnostic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreugdenburg, T D; Willis, C D; Mundy, L; Hiller, J E

    2013-01-01

    While research investigating direct-to-consumer advertising of therapeutic goods in Australia has historically focused on prescription medicines, recent action taken by regulators against companies promoting medical devices has placed the industry into the spotlight. Despite the need to effectively regulate direct-to-consumer advertising of medical devices due to its potential harms, inadequacies in the current regulatory system have been noted. Under the present system, devices with a questionable evidence base may enter the Australian marketplace without an evaluation of their effectiveness, and regulators are reliant on industry self-regulation and consumer complaints to draw attention to cases of advertising misconduct. Although some successes in the present system have been observed, we argue that the outlined inadequacies continue to enable the promotion of medical devices to consumers without thorough or sufficient examination of evidence. © 2011 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Common market but divergent regulatory practices: exploring European regulation and the effect on regulatory uncertainty in the marketing authorization of medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Nupur

    2013-01-01

    The medical product sector is characterised by a regulatory patchwork of European and national laws and guidelines operating concurrently with each other. Each of these sectors are characterised by different levels of regulatory uncertainty that may undermine the effectiveness of the regulatory

  15. Safe space. How you can define fair market value for medical-office building lease agreements with hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Chuck

    2007-04-01

    When entering into office-space lease agreements with hospitals, physician practice administrators need to pay close attention to the federal antikick-back statute and the Stark law. Compliance with these regulations calls for adherence to fair market value and commercial reasonableness--blurry terms open to interpretation. This article provides you with a framework for defining fair market value and commercial reasonableness in regard to real-estate transactions with hospitals.

  16. Social marketing self-esteem: a socio-medical approach to high-risk and skin tone alteration activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelas, Gregory D

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes social marketing as a tool to build individual self-esteem and thus prevent the uptake of activities that pose risk to health. Evidence supporting this approach can be drawn from pioneer social marketing campaigns of the last 30 years that successfully addressed the prevention, treatment and stigmatization of skin cancer and leprosy with a fraction of the communication and media tools available today. Focusing primarily on the practices of skin tanning and lightening, this paper builds on studies that validate the ties between self-esteem and behavior, and addresses popular conceptions of skin color as drivers for individual behavior. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Oil jobs have big impact on heavily populated Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-09-01

    Labor force interdependence creates a complex pattern among countries in the Middle East. Oil-rich countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) must import two-thirds of their labor force, including 80% of their professional and technical workers. These migrant workers come from Egypt (60%), Jordan, Yemen, Sudan, and South Asia, and the money they send home is a major factor in the economies of their native lands. Many Arabs who are considered foreign laborers have spent their entire lives, or have even been born, in the oil-rich countries; they have no hope of attaining citizenship. South Asians compete with Arabs for work in the Gulf States and tend to accept less-desirable jobs and lower wages. South Asian workers migrate from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Middle Eastern women have social constraints on labor force participation, and most of the women working n the Gulf States are Asian; they often work as domestics. The women of the Middle East are an untapped resource for this labor market.

  18. Market power in electricity markets: Beyond concentration measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borenstein, S.; Bushnell, J.; Knittel, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    The wave of electricity market restructuring both within the US and abroad has brought the issue of horizontal market power to the forefront of energy policy. Traditionally, estimation and prediction of market power has relied heavily on concentration measures. In this paper, the authors discuss the weaknesses of concentration measures as a viable measure of market power in the electricity industry, and they propose an alternative method based on market simulations that take advantage of existing plant level data. The authors discuss results from previous studies they have performed, and present new results that allow for the detection of threshold demand levels where market power is likely to be a problem. In addition, the authors analyze the impact of that recent divestitures in the California electricity market will have on estimated market power. They close with a discussion of the policy implications of the results

  19. Comparison on mechanical properties of heavily phosphorus- and arsenic-doped Czochralski silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kang; Sun, Yuxin; Lu, Yunhao; Liang, Xingbo; Tian, Daxi; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2018-04-01

    Heavily phosphorus (P)- and arsenic (As)-doped Czochralski silicon (CZ-Si) wafers generally act as the substrates for the epitaxial silicon wafers used to fabricate power and communication devices. The mechanical properties of such two kinds of n-type heavily doped CZ silicon wafers are vital to ensure the quality of epitaxial silicon wafers and the manufacturing yields of devices. In this work, the mechanical properties including the hardness, Young's modulus, indentation fracture toughness and the resistance to dislocation motion have been comparatively investigated for heavily P- and As-doped CZ-Si wafers. It is found that heavily P-doped CZ-Si possesses somewhat higher hardness, lower Young's modulus, larger indentation fracture toughness and stronger resistance to dislocation motion than heavily As-doped CZ-Si. The mechanisms underlying this finding have been tentatively elucidated by considering the differences in the doping effects of P and As in silicon.

  20. Early assessment of medical technologies to inform product development and market access: A review of methods and applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, billions of dollars are invested in medical product development and there is an increasing pressure to maximize the revenues of these investments. That is, governments need to be informed about the benefits of spending public resources, companies need more information to manage their

  1. Proposed changes to the reimbursement of pharmaceuticals and medical devices in Poland and their impact on market access and the pharmaceutical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badora, Karolina; Caban, Aleksandra; Rémuzat, Cécile; Dussart, Claude; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Poland, two proposed amendments to the reimbursement act are currently in preparation; these are likely to substantially change the pricing and reimbursement landscape for both drugs and medical devices. Proposed changes include: alignment of medical device reimbursement with that of pharmaceuticals; relaxing the strict reimbursement criteria for ultra-orphan drugs; establishment of an additional funding category for vaccines; introduction of compassionate use, and a simplified reimbursement pathway for well-established off-label indications; appreciation of manufacturers’ innovation and research and development efforts by creating a dedicated innovation budget; introduction of a mechanism preventing excessive parallel import; prolonged duration of reimbursement decisions and reimbursement lists; and increased flexibility in defining drug programmes. Both amendments are still at a draft stage and many aspects of the new regulations remain unclear. Nonetheless, the overall direction of some of the changes is already evident and warrants discussion due to their high expected impact on pharmaceutical and device manufacturers. Here we evaluate the main changes proposed to the reimbursement of drugs, vaccines, and medical devices, and examine the impact they are likely to have on market access and pharmaceutical industry in Poland. PMID:29081924

  2. [Marketing for hospitals--an issue?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Achim W; Schindler, Nicola; Vagts, Dierk

    2007-09-01

    Since economization of medicine continues, marketing is becoming more and more important. To shape marketing activities in correspondence with their professional ethics, physicians need some basic knowledge about marketing. The process of marketing consists of SWOT-analysis, market segmentation, market differentiation, positioning and the marketing-mix with ist most important component, the marketing communication. Specific aspects in the marketing of medical services derive from their nature as a service and the determinants of perceived service quality.

  3. The Supply of Medical Isotopes - An Assessment of the Market Economics, Alternative Technologies and Proposed Policy Approach to Achieving Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R.; Lokhov, A.Y.; Westmacott, C. [Nuclear Development Division, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 12, boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2011-07-01

    At the request of its member countries, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has become involved in global efforts to ensure a reliable supply of molybdenum-99 ({sup 99}Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc), the most widely used medical radioisotope. The NEA established the High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). The main objective of the HLG-MR is to strengthen the reliability of {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc supply in the short, medium and long term. In order to reach this objective, the group has been reviewing the {sup 99}Mo supply chain, working to identify the key areas of vulnerability, the issues that need to be addressed and the mechanisms that could be used to help resolve them. The collective efforts of HLG-MR members and nuclear medicine stakeholders have allowed for a comprehensive assessment of the key areas of vulnerability in the supply chain and an identification of the issues that need to be addressed. As a result of the work undertaken to date, the NEA has released three reports under the new The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes series. These reports discuss the uneconomical situation of the supply chain, other vulnerabilities within the supply chain and alternative technologies to produce {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc. From this work, the NEA Secretariat and the HLG-MR have started to develop the policy approach and recommendations for governments, industry and other stakeholders that will outline the foundation for ensuring the long-term supply of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc. (author)

  4. Public health care providers and market competition: the case of Finnish occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanpää, Eila; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Valtonen, Hannu

    2011-02-01

    As reforms in publicly funded health systems rely heavily on competition, it is important to know if and how public providers react to competition. In many European countries, it is empirically difficult to study public providers in different markets, but in Finnish occupational health services, both public and private for-profit and non-profit providers co-exist. We studied possible differences in public providers' performance (price, intensity of services, service mix-curative medical services/prevention, productivity and revenues) according to the competitiveness of the market. The Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) collected data on clients, services and personnel for 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000 and 2004 from occupational health services (OHS) providers. Employers defray the costs of OHS and apply for reimbursement from the Social Insurance Institution (SII). The SII data was merged with FIOH's questionnaire. The unbalanced panel consisted of about 230 public providers, totalling 1,164 observations. Local markets were constructed from several municipalities based on commuting practices and regional collaboration. Competitiveness of the market was measured by the number of providers and by the Herfindahl index. The effect of competition was studied by ordinary least square regression analysis and panel models. The more competitive the environment was for a public provider the higher were intensity, productivity and the share of medical care. Fixed panel models showed that these differences were not due to differences and changes in the competitiveness of the market. Instead, in more competitive markets public providers had higher unit prices and higher revenues.

  5. Review of segmentation process in consumer markets

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2013-01-01

    Although there has been a considerable debate on market segmentation over five decades, attention was merely devoted to single stages of the segmentation process. In doing so, stages as segmentation base selection or segments profiling have been heavily covered in the extant literature, whereas stages as implementation of the marketing strategy or market definition were of a comparably lower interest. Capitalizing on this shortcoming, this paper strives to close the gap and provide each step...

  6. Propaganda de medicamentos: como conciliar uso racional e a permanente necessidade de expandir mercado? Medication advertising: how to reconcile rational use and the permanent need for market expansions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Nascimento

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A indústria farmacêutica, agências de publicidade, empresas de comunicação e o comércio varejista têm implementado uma intensa estratégia de marketing com vistas a elevar o consumo de medicamentos. A revolução científica e tecnológica, por sua vez, altera o padrão de enfrentamento terapêutico de doenças e seu impacto no setor saúde faz surgir o fenômeno da medicalização e da lógica de que estes bens e serviços devam ser considerados mercadorias como as demais. Esta realidade impõe um desafio: na utilização de medicamentos, até onde prevalece a exigência terapêutica estritamente voltada para o controle de enfermidades e começa a pressão mercadológica a estimular o seu consumo? A exploração do valor simbólico do medicamento pela grande mídia passa a representar um poderoso instrumento de indução de hábitos para elevar seu consumo. A magnitude do problema levou a que o Estado há muito busque regular a propaganda de medicamentos por meio de leis, decretos e códigos, que vêm sendo desrespeitados ao longo do tempo. Em 30 de novembro de 2000, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa publica a Resolução de Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 102, tentando novamente impor limites ao setor. Para além de um maior esforço fiscalizador, este trabalho discute o próprio modelo regulador adotado, que não tem conseguido alcançar o objetivo a que se propõe.The pharmaceutical industry, advertising agencies, communication companies, and the retail market have implemented an intense marketing strategy aimed at boosting medication consumption. The scientific and technological revolution, in turn, changed illnesses treatment standards and its impact on the health sector gave rise both to the medicalization phenomenon and to the logic that these goods and services should be considered as merchandise, as any other. This fact brings a challenge about: in medication use, to what extent should therapeutic requirements aimed

  7. Risk management and post-marketing surveillance for the abuse of medications acting on the central nervous system: expert panel report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Balster, Robert L; Henningfield, Jack E; Schuster, Charles R; Anthony, James C; Barthwell, Andrea G; Coleman, John J; Dart, Richard C; Gorodetzky, Charles W; O'Keeffe, Charles; Sellers, Edward M; Vocci, Frank; Walsh, Sharon L

    2009-12-01

    The abuse and diversion of medications is a significant public health problem. This paper is part of a supplemental issue of Drug and Alcohol Dependence focused on the development of risk management plans and post-marketing surveillance related to minimizing this problem. The issue is based on a conference that was held in October 2008. An Expert Panel was formed to provide a summary of the conclusions and recommendations that emerged from the meeting involving drug abuse experts, regulators and other government agencies, pharmaceutical companies and professional and other non-governmental organizations. This paper provides a written report of this Expert Panel. Eleven conclusions and 11 recommendations emerged concerning the state of the art of this field of research, the regulatory and public health implications and recommendations for future directions. It is concluded that special surveillance tools are needed to detect the emergence of medication abuse in a timely manner and that risk management tools can be implemented to increase the benefit to risk ratio. The scientific basis for both the surveillance and risk management tools is in its infancy, yet progress needs to be made. It is also important that the unintended consequences of increased regulation and the imposition of risk management plans be minimized.

  8. Private-sector research ethics: marketing or good conflicts management? The 2005 John J. Conley Lecture on Medical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies are major sponsors of biomedical research. Most scholars and policymakers focus their attention on government and academic oversight activities, however. In this article, I consider the role of pharmaceutical companies' internal ethics statements in guiding decisions about corporate research and development (R&D). I review materials from drug company websites and contributions from the business and medical ethics literature that address ethical responsibilities of businesses in general and pharmaceutical companies in particular. I discuss positive and negative uses of pharmaceutical companies' ethics materials and describe shortcomings in the companies' existing ethics programs. To guide employees and reassure outsiders, companies must add rigor, independence, and transparency to their R&D ethics programs.

  9. Which way ahead?: I want my doctor to.... The mechanics of market research for medics in the millenium: special communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, A

    2004-12-01

    A brief description is given of the changing politico-social structure today involving medicine and especially the cosy personal doctor-patient relationship of the past which has now become triangular involving Managed Health Care Organisations in many cases. The Medical Practitioners' and Dentists' Board (the Board) appointed the Ethics Conference Committee largely composed of non-Board members to collect and collate information of what doctors, paramedics and the lay public expected from their doctors today. It is planned that the Committee's Report summarising this information would form the basis of the new guidelines to modern ethics to be published by the Board later. In this paper the mechanics, funding and production of the report are described but not the contents of the report which is still being considered by the new Board.

  10. Marketing medicines: charting the rise of modern therapeutics through a systematic review of adverts in UK medical journals (1950-1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A Richard; Haddad, Peter M; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2018-02-14

    To examine how pharmaceutical products that were first marketed between 1950 and 1980 were promoted to physicians through advertisements and briefly review advertising regulations and accuracy of the advertisements in the light of modern knowledge. We systematically reviewed advertisements promoting drugs for specific therapeutic areas, namely central nervous system disorders (anxiety and sleep disorders, depression, psychoses, and Parkinson's disease), respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, and gastrointestinal disorders. We examined about 800 issues of the British Medical Journal (1950-1980) and about 150 issues of World Medicine (1965-1984). Advertising material was minimally regulated until the mid-1970s. Many drugs were marketed with little preclinical or clinical knowledge and some with the expectation that prescribers would obtain further data. The peak of advertising occurred in parallel with the surge in the release of novel drugs during the 1960s, but declined markedly after the mid-1970s. Advertisements generally contained little useful prescribing information. The period we investigated saw the release of many novel pharmaceuticals in the therapeutic areas we examined, and many (or their class successors) still play important therapeutic roles, including benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazines, levodopa, selective and non-selective β-adrenoceptor antagonists, thiazide diuretics, β-adrenoceptor agonists, and histamine H 2 receptor antagonists. Advertising pharmaceuticals in the BMJ and World Medicine in 1950-1980 was poorly regulated and often lacked rigour. However, advertisements were gradually modified in the light of increasing clinical pharmacological knowledge, and they reflect an exciting period for the introduction of many drugs that continue to be of benefit today. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Pharmaceutical marketing in a new age. Effective campaigns still need to focus on what customers want.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sanjay K

    2002-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has focused heavily on marketers' ability to market new products more efficiently. However, a more streamlined marketing approach can help address customers' needs and ease the pressure on drug companies to discover new drugs with blockbuster appeal. Through discussion and a detailed example, this article describes a stream-lined approach to creating more effective marketing and sales force strategies.

  12. Medical device development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panescu, Dorin

    2009-01-01

    The development of a successful medical product requires not only engineering design efforts, but also clinical, regulatory, marketing and business expertise. This paper reviews items related to the process of designing medical devices. It discusses the steps required to take a medical product idea from concept, through development, verification and validation, regulatory approvals and market release.

  13. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ~ 0.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength...

  14. Mid-infrared plasmonic resonances exploiting heavily-doped Ge on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, P.; Sakat, E.; Baldassarre, L.; Calandrini, E.; Samarelli, A.; Gallacher, K.; Frigerio, J.; Isella, G.; Paul, D. J.; Ortolani, M.

    2015-03-01

    We address the behavior of mid-infrared localized plasmon resonances in elongated germanium antennas integrated on silicon substrates. Calculations based on Mie theory and on the experimentally retrieved dielectric constant allow us to study the tunability and the figures of merit of plasmon resonances in heavily-doped germanium and to preliminarily compare them with those of the most established plasmonic material, gold.

  15. Gemcitabine and capecitabine for heavily pre-treated metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise G; Pallisgaard, Niels; Andersen, Rikke F

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the efficacy and safety of capecitabine and gemcitabin (GemCap) in heavily pre-treated, therapy-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients and the clinical importance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) measurement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients' inclusion criteria included...

  16. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the

  17. Becoming a Heavily Tattooed Young Body: From a Bodily Experience to a Body Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vitor Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Why some young people start to tattoo their bodies? And why some of them keep going on with this practice, until having all body tattooed? What doing so means to them? These are some of the questions that underlie a qualitative research project carried out in Portugal on heavily tattooed young people. In this article, the author discusses their…

  18. Dual Inhibition of EGFR and VEGF in Heavily Pretreated Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn Ole; Markussen, Alice; Nielsen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    : The combination of irinotecan, bevacizumab, and cetuximab/panitumumab is safe and shows a toxicity profile corresponding to what is expected from the agents alone. The results indicate that the combination in the 4th line may result in a high rate of disease control in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic...

  19. Money: A Market Microstructure Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Malte

    2008-01-01

    The current discussion about the future of the financial system draws heavily on a set of theories known as the ‘New Monetary Economics’. The New Monetary Economics predicts that deregulation and financial innovation will lead to a moneyless world. This paper uses a market microstructure approach to show that a common medium of exchange that serves as unit of account will remain a necessary instrument to reduce transaction costs. This finding is supported by empirical evidence from foreign...

  20. Positioning marketing in the hospital's power structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, D

    1984-08-01

    Although hospitals are increasingly recognizing the importance of marketing, many have difficulty assimilating what has been primarily an industrial concern into a health care environment. The author explains the function of marketing in health care, the outlook and expectations of a good marketing executive, and why hospital management and the medical staff may have difficulty accepting marketing and the expectations of the marketing executive.

  1. Structure of an urban Christmas tree market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Pendleton; Lawrence D. Garrett; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1973-01-01

    The retail Christmas tree market in Winston-Salem, N.C., was studied 3 years. Types of retailers and their sales are described. Best sales were made by dealers who had lots on heavily traveled streets in business districts, had ample parking facilities, advertised, and displayed their trees well.

  2. Informational segmentation in international capital markets

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Jack E.

    1988-01-01

    The economic influence of barriers to international information acquisition and, hence, of informational segmentation in international capital markets depends heavily upon the prevailing level of risk aversion. We find that these barriers are likely to have second order economic impact only. Furthermore, improving international informational integration is likely to Increase all asset prices when causing less heterogeneity of international subjective probability beliefs.

  3. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  4. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  5. European oil demand and 1993 Common Market potential effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Unification of the energy european market will heavily enhance external energy dependence and inter-energy competition. In order to respond to these new challenges, petroleum industry will have to change, probably in the direction of an increased integration concentration. Petroleum market share, moreover, will depend largely from environmental trends in EEC politics and regulations

  6. ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT TRENDS OF THE MARKET NANOCOSMETICS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Korzh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, nanotechnology has become one of the strategic directions of economic development of the leading countries. According to literary sources, it is established that more than 50 countries of the world are adopting national programs in this field of new knowledge, and various methods of nanotechnology have received the greatest development and application in microelectronics, aerospace, chemical, medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. It should be noted, that beauty is the most represented products with the use of nanotechnologies in the world. On the evaluation of the European Commission in 2009, the specific weight of cosmetics with nanoparticles amounted to 5%. The aim of the work was to assess the current trends of the market nanocosmetic photoprotectors development. In the last years in Ukraine the market of cosmetics is developing dynamically. Manufacturers of medical cosmetics invest heavily in scientific researches, patents, improvement of existing technologies. To determine the status of the security of the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine, we have analyzed the volume of sales and range of medical cosmetics, presented at the domestic market. In terms of sales volume in money terms of therapeutic cosmetics every year loses its position. Thus, the volume of sales in 2011, has decreased on 1,1 % in comparison with 2009. In Ukraine cosmetics of native production occupies 8% of the total volume of sales, cosmetics of foreign production - 92%. At the next stage of the research we have analyzed the medical cosmetic means, which are used for the prevention of photo-aging of the skin. In General, the Ukrainian market of medicinal cosmetics contains 125 trademarks of foreign and native manufacture. The largest share in the market of Ukraine belongs to the French medical cosmetics - 48,6 % of the total number of medical cosmetic means. It is represented by the various lines of medical cosmetics brands such: Vichy, Avene, RoC, Uriage

  7. Marketing Is Not a Luxury - Marketing Is a Necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2017-10-01

    Physicians who work in small practices constantly face a basic marketing question: What's the best way to sell myself and my business to the community? Because few physicians studied business principles, many won't know the answer. That's why the Texas Medical Association is publishing a book titled Marketing Smart: A Guide for Medical Practices.

  8. Livestock Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  9. Operation of heavily irradiated silicon detectors in non-depletion mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitskaya, E.; Eremin, V.; Ilyashenko, I.; Li, Z.; Haerkoenen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.

    2006-01-01

    The non-depletion detector operation mode has generally been disregarded as an option in high-energy physics experiments. In this paper, the non-depletion operation is examined by detailed analysis of the electric field distribution and the current pulse response of heavily irradiated silicon (Si) detectors. The previously reported model of double junction in heavily irradiated Si detector is further developed and a simulation of the current pulse response has been performed. It is shown that detectors can operate in a non-depletion mode due to the fact that the value of the electric field in a non-depleted region is high enough for efficient carrier drift. This electric field originates from the current flow through the detector and a consequent drop of the potential across high-resistivity bulk of a non-depleted region. It is anticipated that the electric field in a non-depleted region, which is still electrically neutral, increases with fluence that improves the non-depleted detector operation. Consideration of the electric field in a non-depleted region allows the explanation of the recorded double-peak current pulse shape of heavily irradiated Si detectors and definition of the requirements for the detector operational conditions. Detailed reconstruction of the electric field distribution gives new information on radiation effects in Si detectors

  10. Addition of sunitinib to cetuximab and irinotecan in patients with heavily pre-treated advanced colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Camilla; Jensen, Benny Vittrup; Jørgensen, Trine Lembrecht

    2010-01-01

    Results of continuous sunitinib, in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan every other week (SIC) for compassionate use in heavily pre-treated patients with mCRC are presented.......Results of continuous sunitinib, in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan every other week (SIC) for compassionate use in heavily pre-treated patients with mCRC are presented....

  11. Medical Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Mahieu, H.F.; Geertsema, A.A.; Hermann, I.F.; van Horn, J.R.; Hummel, J. Marjan; van Loon, J.P.; Mihaylov, D.; van der Plaats, A.; Schraffordt Koops, H.; Schutte, H.K.; Veth, R.P.H.; de Vries, M.P.; Rakhorst, G.; Shi, Donglu

    2004-01-01

    The development of new medical devices is a very time-consuming and costly process. Besides the time between the initial idea and the time that manufacturing and testing of prototypes takes place, the time needed for the development of production facilities, production of test series, marketing,

  12. Medical Malpractice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    MM first came to the attention of policy makers primarily in the USA where, from the 1970s, healthcare providers denounced problems in getting insurance for medical liability, pointing out to a crisis in the MM insurance market (Sage WM (2003) Understanding the first malpractice crisis of the 21th...

  13. Nice Guys Finish Last: Are People with Higher Tax Morale Taxed more Heavily?

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Doerrenberg; Denvil Duncan; Clemens Fuest; Andreas Peichl

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first to provide evidence of efficient taxation of groups with heterogeneous levels of 'tax morale'. We set up an optimal income tax model where high tax morale implies a high subjective cost of evading taxes. The model predicts that 'nice guys finish last': groups with higher tax morale will be taxed more heavily, simply because taxing them is less costly. Based on unique cross-country micro data and an IV approach to rule out reverse causality, we find empirical support fo...

  14. Thermal conductivity of high-porosity heavily doped biomorphic silicon carbide prepared from sapele wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Mucha, J.; Jezowski, A.; Cabezas-Rodriguez, R.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2012-08-01

    The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of high-porosity (˜52 vol %, channel-type pores) bio-SiC samples prepared from sapele wood biocarbon templates have been measured in the temperature range 5-300 K. An analysis has been made of the obtained results in comparison with the data for bio-SiC samples based on beech and eucalyptus, as well as for polycrystalline β-SiC. The conclusion has been drawn that the electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of bio-SiC samples based on natural wood are typical of heavily doped polycrystalline β-SiC.

  15. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh; Hai, Pham Nam; Anh, Le Duc; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    We show high-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga_1_−_x,Fe_x)Sb (x = 23% and 25%) thin films grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements indicate intrinsic ferromagnetism of these samples. The Curie temperature reaches 300 K and 340 K for x = 23% and 25%, respectively, which are the highest values reported so far in intrinsic III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  16. In situ observation of triple junction motion during recovery of heavily deformed aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hughes, Darcy A.; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    -junctions are pinned by deformation-induced interconnecting and lamellar boundaries, which slow down the recovery process and lead to a stop-go migration pattern. This pinning mechanism stabilizes the deformation microstructure, i.e. the structure is stabilized by balancing the driving and pinning forces controlling......Microstructural evolution during in situ annealing of heavily cold-rolled aluminum has been studied by transmission electron microscopy, confirming that an important recovery mechanism is migration of triple junctions formed by three lamellar boundaries (Y-junctions). The migrating Y...

  17. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the experiments in UHV At the surface of freshly cleaved samples, we have observed sodium nano-precipitates with shapes, which depend on the irradiation dose and the volume fraction of the radiolytic Na...

  18. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City 748242 (Viet Nam); Hai, Pham Nam [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-0033 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Anh, Le Duc [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaaki [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-05-09

    We show high-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb (x = 23% and 25%) thin films grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements indicate intrinsic ferromagnetism of these samples. The Curie temperature reaches 300 K and 340 K for x = 23% and 25%, respectively, which are the highest values reported so far in intrinsic III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  19. An X-ray wave theory for heavily distorted crystals. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, T.; Hashimoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction theory is developed of monochromatic waves having spherical wave front, which is applicable to an interpretation of divergent X-ray diffraction images of crystals containing arbitral types of strain field. The theory is divided into two parts. In part I, Takagi's theory is expanded by introducing amplitude and phase correction functions and a new improved representation for the X-ray diffraction theory is given. In part II dispersion surfaces in heavily distorted crystals are discussed, and in the discussion the resonance shift functions are introduced. These formulations can lead to a complete understanding of the extinction phenomena. (author)

  20. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved...... sequential 90 deg rotations about the normal direction (ND) between passes. The microstructure in the center of these plates, and especially the extent of microstructural heterogeneity, has been characterized quantitatively and compared with that in bar samples extruded via either route A or route Bc with 90...... Bc. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012...

  1. Ethics of using language editing services in an era of digital communication and heavily multi-authored papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, George A

    2014-06-01

    Scientists of many countries in which English is not the primary language routinely use a variety of manuscript preparation, correction or editing services, a practice that is openly endorsed by many journals and scientific institutions. These services vary tremendously in their scope; at one end there is simple proof-reading, and at the other extreme there is in-depth and extensive peer-reviewing, proposal preparation, statistical analyses, re-writing and co-writing. In this paper, the various types of service are reviewed, along with authorship guidelines, and the question is raised of whether the high-end services surpass most guidelines' criteria for authorship. Three other factors are considered. First, the ease of collaboration possible in the internet era allows multiple iterations between the author(s) and the "editing service", so essentially, papers can be co-written. Second, "editing services" often offer subject-specific experts who comment not only on the language, but interpret and improve scientific content. Third, the trend towards heavily multi-authored papers implies that the threshold necessary to earn authorship is declining. The inevitable conclusion is that at some point the contributions by "editing services" should be deemed sufficient to warrant authorship. Trying to enforce any guidelines would likely be futile, but nevertheless, it might be time to revisit the ethics of using some of the high-end "editing services". In an increasingly international job market, awareness of this problem might prove increasingly important in authorship disputes, the allocation of research grants, and hiring decisions.

  2. Inbound marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Popek, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    In my work I focus on Inbound Marketing, which represents a new perspective on marketing, that has not been given the attention it deserves. It is a combination of existing and proven marketing methods that are used to obtain new customers with minimal marketing costs to the organization. The first section of my work is devoted to defining the concept of Inbound Marketing definitions and explanations. Furthermore, I present a list of instruments used in Inbound Marketing, and showcase the def...

  3. Marine reserves and reproductive biomass: a case study of a heavily targeted reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Taylor

    Full Text Available Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.

  4. Cytogenetic abnormalities of the descendants of permanent residents of heavily contaminated East Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Madiyeva, Madina; Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Noso, Yoshihiro; Takeichi, Nobuo; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Urazalina, Nailya; Dovgal, Galina; Rymbaeva, Tamara; Tokanova, Sholpan; Beisengazina, Meruert; Kembayeva, Kulypash; Inoue, Ken

    2017-11-01

    More than 400 nuclear explosion tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) and significant radioactive substances were released. The long-term consequences of the activities at the SNTS and the appearance of any hereditary effects remain insufficiently studied about 25 years after the test site was closed. The population living in villages near the SNTS are considered to have been heavily exposed to external and internal radiation. This study aims to perform an assessment and comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of the inhabitants living near the SNTS, and their first-(F1) and second-(F2) generation children. Residents of the East Kazakhstan region living in the area covered by the former SNTS were included in the study. To evaluate the hereditary effects of nuclear testing, comprehensive chromosome analyses were performed in lymphocytes using conventional Giemsa and fluorescent in situ hybridization methods in 115 F1 and F2 descendants in the villages of Dolon and Sarzhal, which were heavily contaminated. The parents of the subjects had permanently lived in the villages. A higher number of stable-type chromosome aberrations such as translocations was found in these residents than in 80 residents of the control area, Kokpecty, which indicates the possibility that radiation had biological effects on the exposed subjects.

  5. Long-Term Stability of Oxide Nanowire Sensors via Heavily Doped Oxide Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Takahashi, Tsunaki; Kanai, Masaki; Zhang, Guozhu; He, Yong; Nagashima, Kazuki; Yanagida, Takeshi

    2017-12-22

    Long-term stability of a chemical sensor is an essential quality for long-term collection of data related to exhaled breath, environmental air, and other sources in the Internet of things (IoT) era. Although an oxide nanowire sensor has shown great potential as a chemical sensor, the long-term stability of sensitivity has not been realized yet due to electrical degradation under harsh sensing conditions. Here, we report a rational concept to accomplish long-term electrical stability of metal oxide nanowire sensors via introduction of a heavily doped metal oxide contact layer. Antimony-doped SnO 2 (ATO) contacts on SnO 2 nanowires show much more stable and lower electrical contact resistance than conventional Ti contacts for high temperature (200 °C) conditions, which are required to operate chemical sensors. The stable and low contact resistance of ATO was confirmed for at least 1960 h under 200 °C in open air. This heavily doped oxide contact enables us to realize the long-term stability of SnO 2 nanowire sensors while maintaining the sensitivity for both NO 2 gas and light (photo) detections. The applicability of our method is confirmed for sensors on a flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. Since the proposed fundamental concept can be applied to various oxide nanostructures, it will give a foundation for designing long-term stable oxide nanomaterial-based IoT sensors.

  6. Yield strength of a heavily drawn Cu-20% Nb filamentary microcomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.I.

    1998-01-01

    It has been well documented that heavily-drawn, copper-niobium microcomposites possess high strength and high conductivity. Since niobium has little solubility in copper, the conductivity of the copper is not strongly affected by the addition of niobium. Following extensive mechanical deformation of Cu-Nb, niobium dendrites transform into fine niobium ribbons as a result of the niobium texture upon drawing. This nanostructure contributes to the ultrahigh strength of Cu-Nb microcomposites. The strength of heavily deformed Cu-Nb exceeds that predicted by the rule-of-mixtures (ROM), and a fundamental understanding of the strengthening mechanisms involved has been the subject of much discussion. Spitzig and his coworkers suggests a barrier strengthening model while Funkenbusch and Courtney believe that stored dislocations have a role in substructural hardening. Hangen and Raabe recently proposed an analytical model for the calculation of the yield strength of Cu-Nb microcomposite. The model of Hangen and Raabe and that of Spitzig and his coworkers have a great deal of resemblance since both models attribute the strength to the difficulty of propagating plastic flow through the interface. The purpose of this study was to enhance the understanding of the strengthening mechanisms associated with Cu-Nb microcomposites by examining the previous studies on mechanical and microstructural stability of Cu-based microcomposites

  7. Comparative cardiovascular safety of dementia medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Peterson, Eric D; Holm, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark.......To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark....

  8. Marketing ethics, functions, and content: a health education/marketing survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P D; King, K K

    1985-01-01

    Survey data were used to evaluate the role of marketing in the nonprofit arena of health promotion. Questionnaires utilizing a Likert type scale were sent to 106 marketers and 247 health educators soliciting their opinions about health care marketing. Both groups agreed that marketing was appropriate for both profit and non-profit organizations, but were not in total agreement on specific aspects of the marketing process. Marketers were adamant that marketing is not confined to promotional, advertising and communication functions, while health educators were neutral. Marketers were strong in their disagreement that marketing is selling; health educators were still neutral but in slight disagreement. Marketers did not believe that marketing uses gimmickry heavily, while health educators agreed that it does use gimmickry. A significant finding from the survey is that the major ethical issue for health educators is their view that marketing manipulates society. Both community and school health educators agreed that using marketing techniques is a step forward manipulation of a society, while the group of marketers disagreed.

  9. Marketing to physicians in a digital world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Christopher; Ross, Joseph S; Grande, David

    2014-11-13

    Pharmaceutical marketing can lead to overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and overuse of medications. Digital advertising creates new pathways for reaching physicians, allowing delivery of marketing messages at the point of care, when clinical decisions are being made.

  10. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  11. All-Round Marketing Increases Hospital Popularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziqi, Tao

    2015-06-01

    Xuzhou Center Hospital is in a competing medical market in Xuzhou city. This hospital has been dedicating to improve the medical skills and provide professional and individualized service to the patients in order to improve the patient's experience and increase the patient's satisfaction. On the other side, this hospital has provided an all-round marketing campaign to build up the social influence and public reputation through public-praise marketing, web marketing, media marketing, and scholar marketing. Besides, this hospital has been cooperating with foreign medical institutions and inviting foreign medical specialists to academic communication. With the combined effects of improving medical service and all-round marketing, the hospital's economic performance has been enhanced significantly and laid a solid foundation for its ambition to become the first-class hospital in Huaihai Economic Zone.

  12. Physicians' perceptions of medical representative visits in Yemen: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Areefi, Mahmoud Abdullah; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham b Mohamed

    2013-08-20

    The pharmaceutical industry invests heavily in promotion, and it uses a variety of promotional strategies to influence physicians' prescribing decisions. Within this context, medical representatives (MRs) are the key personnel employed in promoting their products. One significant consequence of the interactions between physicians and medical representatives is a conflict of interests which may contribute to the over prescribing of medications and thus negative effects on patients' health and economics. There is limited detailed information published on the reasons why physicians interact with pharmaceutical representatives. This study aims to qualitatively explore physicians' attitudes about interactions with medical representatives and their reasons for accepting the medical representatives' visits. In-depth interviews were used to gain a better understanding of physicians' perceptions of medical representative visits. A total of 32 physicians from both private and public hospitals were interviewed. The recordings of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and subject to thematic analysis using a framework analysis approach. The present qualitative study found that the majority of the physicians had positive interactions with medical representatives. The physicians' main reasons stated for allowing medical representatives' visits are the social contacts and mutual benefits they will gain from these representatives. They also emphasized that the meeting with representatives provides educational and scientific benefits. A few physicians stated that the main reasons behind refusing the meeting with medical representatives were lack of conviction about the product and obligation to prescribe medicine from the representative company. Most of the physicians believed that they were under marketing pressure to prescribe certain medicines. Although physicians are aware that the medical representatives could influence their prescribing decision, they welcome

  13. Advancing regulatory science to bring novel medical devices for use in emergency care to market: the role of the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Christopher G; Forrest, Shawn; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne B; Strauss, David G

    2015-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) performs regulatory science to provide science-based medical product regulatory decisions. This article describes the types of scientific research the FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health performs and highlights specific projects related to medical devices for emergency medicine. In addition, this article discusses how results from regulatory science are used by the FDA to support the regulatory process as well as how the results are communicated to the public. Regulatory science supports the FDA's mission to assure safe, effective, and high-quality medical products are available to patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. TRICARE Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-21

    definitive. It stated that: Marketing is much more than advertising or promotion materials. Marketing is a foundation for building a business strategy ; it...objectives, and strategies for marketing TRICARE. However, the Director provided the plan for information; none of the recipients of the plan were...overarching goal and extensively in the marketing strategies section. Specifically, the Marketing Plan states that strategies employed to accomplish

  15. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  16. Internet marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zelený, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  17. Money Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marvin Goodfriend

    2011-01-01

    Money markets offer monetary services and short-term finance in the capital market with the credit support of institutional sponsors. Investors finance money market instruments at low interest because their salability on short notice confers an implicit monetary services yield. Low interest attracts borrowers to money markets. The fragile equilibrium depends on collective confidence in the credit quality of instruments supplied to the market. Federal Reserve monetary and credit policies have ...

  18. Structural coarsening during annealing of an aluminum plate heavily deformed using ECAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, A.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure and softening behaviour have been investigated in an aluminum plate heavily deformed by equal channel angular extrusion and subsequently annealed at 170 °C. It is found that at this temperature the microstructure evolves by coarsening with no apparent signs of recrystallization...... even after 2 h of annealing. Both coarsening and softening are rapid within first 10 minutes of annealing followed by a slower evolution with increasing annealing duration. Evidence of triple junction (TJ) motion during coarsening is obtained by inspecting the microstructure in one region using...... the electron backscatter diffraction technique both before and after annealing for 10 minutes. The fraction of fast-migrating TJs is found to strongly depend of the type of boundaries composing a junction. The greatest fraction of fast-migrating TJs is in the group, where all boundaries forming a junction...

  19. Anomalous transmission through heavily doped conducting polymer films with periodic subwavelength hole array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Agrawal, Amit; Nahata, Ajay; Menon, Reghu

    2006-08-01

    We observed resonantly enhanced (or anomalous transmission) terahertz transmission through two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures with various periodicities fabricated on metallic organic conducting polymer films of polypyrrole heavily doped with PF 6 molecules [PPy(PF6)]. The anomalous transmission spectra are in good agreement with a model involving surface plasmon polariton excitations on the film surfaces. We also found that the resonantly enhanced transmission peaks are broader in the exotic metallic PPy(PF6) films compared to those formed in 2D aperture array in regular metallic films such as silver, indicating that the surface plasmon polaritons on the PPy(PF6) film surfaces have higher attenuation.

  20. Heavily doped GaAs:Te layers grown by MOVPE using diisopropyl telluride as a source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniltsev, V. M.; Demidov, E. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N., E-mail: drozdyu@ipmras.ru; Kraev, S. A.; Surovegina, E. A.; Shashkin, V. I.; Yunin, P. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The capabilities of GaAs epitaxial layers extremely heavily doped with tellurium by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy using diisopropyl telluride as a source are studied. It is shown that tellurium incorporation into GaAs occurs to an atomic concentration of 10{sup 21} cm{sup –3} without appreciable diffusion and segregation effects. Good carrier concentrations (2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}) and specific contact resistances of non-alloyed ohmic contacts (1.7 × 10{sup –6} Ω cm{sup 2}) give grounds to use such layers to create non-alloyed ohmic contacts in electronic devices. A sharp decrease in the electrical activity of Te atoms, a decrease in the electron mobility, and an increase in the contact resistance at atomic concentrations above 2 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –3} are detected.

  1. Spin relaxation through lateral spin transport in heavily doped n -type silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M.; Oka, T.; Fujita, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Saito, Y.; Hamaya, K.

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally study temperature-dependent spin relaxation including lateral spin diffusion in heavily doped n -type silicon (n+-Si ) layers by measuring nonlocal magnetoresistance in small-sized CoFe/MgO/Si lateral spin-valve (LSV) devices. Even at room temperature, we observe large spin signals, 50-fold the magnitude of those in previous works on n+-Si . By measuring spin signals in LSVs with various center-to-center distances between contacts, we reliably evaluate the temperature-dependent spin diffusion length (λSi) and spin lifetime (τSi). We find that the temperature dependence of τSi is affected by that of the diffusion constant in the n+-Si layers, meaning that it is important to understand the temperature dependence of the channel mobility. A possible origin of the temperature dependence of τSi is discussed in terms of the recent theories by Dery and co-workers.

  2. Defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Mikado, Tomohisa.

    1994-01-01

    Vacancy-type defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured for the epitaxial films grown on the Si substrates by plasma chemical vapor deposition. For the as-deposited film, divacancy-phosphorus complexes were found with high concentration. After 600degC annealing, vacancy clusters were formed near the Si/Si interface, while no drastic change in the depth distribution of the divacancy-phosphorus complexes was observed. By 900degC annealing, the vacancy clusters were annealed out; however, the average number of phosphorus atoms coupled with divacancies increased. The relationship between the vacancy-type defects probed by the positron annihilation technique and the carrier concentration was confirmed. (author)

  3. Defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Mikado, Tomohisa

    1994-11-01

    Vacancy-type defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured for the epitaxial films grown on the Si substrates by plasma chemical vapor deposition. For the as-deposited film, divacancy-phosphorus complexes were found with high concentration. After 600degC annealing, vacancy clusters were formed near the Si/Si interface, while no drastic change in the depth distribution of the divacancy-phosphorus complexes was observed. By 900degC annealing, the vacancy clusters were annealed out; however, the average number of phosphorus atoms coupled with divacancies increased. The relationship between the vacancy-type defects probed by the positron annihilation technique and the carrier concentration was confirmed. (author).

  4. Facilitating political decisions using species distribution models to assess restoration measures in heavily modified estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuner, Maike; Weber, Arnd; Schröder, Uwe; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Schröder, Boris

    2016-09-15

    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological potential for heavily modified water bodies. This standard has not been reached for most large estuaries by 2015. Management plans for estuaries fall short in linking implementations between restoration measures and underlying spatial analyses. The distribution of emergent macrophytes - as an indicator of habitat quality - is here used to assess the ecological potential. Emergent macrophytes are capable of settling on gentle tidal flats where hydrodynamic stress is comparatively low. Analyzing their habitats based on spatial data, we set up species distribution models with 'elevation relative to mean high water', 'mean bank slope', and 'length of bottom friction' from shallow water up to the vegetation belt as key predictors representing hydrodynamic stress. Effects of restoration scenarios on habitats were assessed applying these models. Our findings endorse species distribution models as crucial spatial planning tools for implementing restoration measures in modified estuaries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chromosome aberrations of bone marrow cells in heavily exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Ohkita, Takeshi

    1986-01-01

    Seven hundred and ten bone marrow cells from 13 A-bomb survivors, who were heavily exposed to atomic radiation, were examined using chromosome banding method. An average frequency of chromosome aberrations was 17 %. The most common structural abnormality was translocation (47 %), followed by complex aberrations involving three or more chromosomes (32 %). These abnormalities were frequently seen in A-bomb survivors exposed to estimated doses of 3.5 - 4.0 Gy. Eighty two percent of the structural aberrations were stable. Diploid cells were seen in 0.4 % and tetraploid cells were seen in 0.7 %. The frequency of breakpoint sites was high in chromosomes 1 and 17; while it was low in chromosomes 3, 6, 9, and 11. Abnormal clones were seen in one of the 13 survivors. Chromosome aberrations common to the bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocytes were not seen in the same individual. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Induction hardening of tool steel for heavily loaded aircraft engine components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokicki P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Induction hardening is an innovative process allowing modification of the materials surface with more effective, cheaper and more reproducible way to compare with conventional hardening methods used in the aerospace industry. Unfortunately, high requirements and strict regulation concerning this branch of the industry force deep research allowing to obtain results that would be used for numerical modelling of the process. Only by this way one is able to start the industrial application of the process. The main scope of presented paper are results concerning investigation of microstructure evolution of tool steel after single-frequency induction hardening process. The specimens that aim in representing final industrial products (as heavily loaded gears, were heat- -treated with induction method and subjected to metallographic preparation, after which complex microstructure investigation was performed. The results obtained within the research will be a basis for numerical modelling of the process of induction hardening with potential to be introduced for the aviation industrial components.

  7. Effect of impurity correlation on the density of states in slightly compensated heavily doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Nhat Quang; Nguyen Nhu Dat; Dinh Van An

    1993-07-01

    A theory is developed of the electron density of states (DOS) in slightly compensated heavily doped semiconductors which undergo a thermal treatment. The calculation is carried out within the semiclassical approach to the random impurity field, taking adequately into account high-temperature correlation among the impurities and low temperature screening due to the free carriers as well. Then, a simple analytic expression for the DOS is obtained which exhibits the same energy dependence as in the case of a random impurity distribution, but now with some correlation-induced changes in the coefficients. A numerical estimation on non-compensated n-type sample of GaAs at a doping level of 5 x 10 18 cm -3 shows that in the tail region the correlated DOS turns out to be somewhat larger and cut less sharply than the random one. (author). 45 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  8. Simulation of Heavily Irradiated Silicon Pixel Sensors and Comparison with Test Beam Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chiochia, Vincenzo; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Swartz, Morris; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Charge collection measurements performed on heavily irradiated p-spray DOFZ pixel sensors with a grazing angle hadron beam provide a sensitive determination of the electric field within the detectors. The data are compared with a complete charge transport simulation of the sensor which includes signal trapping and charge induction effects. A linearly varying electric field based upon the standard picture of a constant type-inverted effective doping density is inconsistent with the data. A two-trap double junction model implemented in the ISE TCAD software can be tuned to produce a doubly-peaked electric field which describes the data reasonably well. The modeled field differs somewhat from previous determinations based upon the transient current technique. The model can also account for the level of charge trapping observed in the data.

  9. AN AMELIORATED DETECTION STATISTICS FOR ADAPTIVE MASK MEDIAN FILTRATION OF HEAVILY NOISED DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Hanji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Noise reduction is an important area of research in image processing applications. The performance of the digital image noise filtering method primarily depends upon the accuracy of noise detection scheme. This paper presents an effective detector based, adaptive mask, median filtration of heavily noised digital images affected with fixed value (or salt and pepper impulse noise. The proposed filter presents a novel approach; an ameliorated Rank Ordered Absolute Deviation (ROAD statistics to judge whether the input pixel is noised or noise free. If a pixel is detected as corrupted, it is subjected to adaptive mask median filtration; otherwise, it is kept unchanged. Extensive experimental results and comparative performance evaluations demonstrate that the proposed filter outperforms the existing decision type, median based filters with powerful noise detectors in terms of objective performance measures and visual retrieviation accuracy.

  10. Optical Gaps in Pristine and Heavily Doped Silicon Nanocrystals: DFT versus Quantum Monte Carlo Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derian, R; Tokár, K; Somogyi, B; Gali, Á; Štich, I

    2017-12-12

    We present a time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) study of the optical gaps of light-emitting nanomaterials, namely, pristine and heavily B- and P-codoped silicon crystalline nanoparticles. Twenty DFT exchange-correlation functionals sampled from the best currently available inventory such as hybrids and range-separated hybrids are benchmarked against ultra-accurate quantum Monte Carlo results on small model Si nanocrystals. Overall, the range-separated hybrids are found to perform best. The quality of the DFT gaps is correlated with the deviation from Koopmans' theorem as a possible quality guide. In addition to providing a generic test of the ability of TDDFT to describe optical properties of silicon crystalline nanoparticles, the results also open up a route to benchmark-quality DFT studies of nanoparticle sizes approaching those studied experimentally.

  11. Rapid enhancement of nodal quasiparticle mass with heavily underdoping in Bi2212

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Hiroaki; Arita, Masashi; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Shin-ichi; Ino, Akihiro

    2018-05-01

    We report substantial advance of our low-energy angle-resolved photoemission study of nodal quasiparticles in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The new data cover the samples from underdoped down to heavily underdoped levels. We also present the nodal Fermi velocities that determined by using an excitation-photon energy of hν = 7.0 eV over a wide doping range. The consistency between the results with hν = 8.1 and 7.0 eV allows us to rule out the effect of photoemission matrix elements. In comparison with the data previously reported, the nodal effective mass increases by a factor of ∼ 1.5 in going from optimally doped to heavily underdoped levels. We find a rapid enhancement of the nodal quasiparticle mass at low doping levels near the superconductor-to-insulator transition. The effective coupling spectrum, λ (ω) , is extracted directly from the energy derivatives of the quasiparticle dispersion and scattering rate, as a causal function of the mass enhancement factor. A steplike increase in Reλ (ω) around ∼ 65 meV is demonstrated clearly by the Kramers-Kronig transform of Imλ (ω) . To extract the low-energy renormalization effect, we calculated a simple model for the electron-boson interaction. This model reveals that the contribution of the renormalization at | ω | ≤ 15 meV to the quasiparticle mass is larger than that around 65 meV in underdoped samples.

  12. Ecophysiological characterization of early successional biological soil crusts in heavily human-impacted areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyja, Michelle; Büdel, Burkhard; Colesie, Claudia

    2018-04-01

    Ecophysiological characterizations of photoautotrophic communities are not only necessary to identify the response of carbon fixation related to different climatic factors, but also to evaluate risks connected to changing environments. In biological soil crusts (BSCs), the description of ecophysiological features is difficult, due to the high variability in taxonomic composition and variable methodologies applied. Especially for BSCs in early successional stages, the available datasets are rare or focused on individual constituents, although these crusts may represent the only photoautotrophic component in many heavily disturbed ruderal areas, such as parking lots or building areas with increasing surface area worldwide. We analyzed the response of photosynthesis and respiration to changing BSC water contents (WCs), temperature and light in two early successional BSCs. We investigated whether the response of these parameters was different between intact BSC and the isolated dominating components. BSCs dominated by the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and dominated by the green alga Zygogonium ericetorum were examined. A major divergence between the two BSCs was their absolute carbon fixation rate on a chlorophyll basis, which was significantly higher for the cyanobacterial crust. Nevertheless, independent of species composition, both crust types and their isolated organisms had convergent features such as high light acclimatization and a minor and very late-occurring depression in carbon uptake at water suprasaturation. This particular setup of ecophysiological features may enable these communities to cope with a high variety of climatic stresses and may therefore be a reason for their success in heavily disturbed areas with ongoing human impact. However, the shape of the response was different for intact BSC compared to separated organisms, especially in absolute net photosynthesis (NP) rates. This emphasizes the importance of measuring intact BSCs under natural

  13. Relationship between levels of serum creatinine and perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erden, Ayse, E-mail: ayse.erden@medicine.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Sahin, Burcu Savran, E-mail: bsavrans@hotmail.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Orgodol, Horolsuren, E-mail: hoogii99@yahoo.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Erden, Ilhan, E-mail: erden@medicine.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Biyikli, Zeynep, E-mail: zeynep.biyikli@gmail.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To determine the frequency of perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted images and to evaluate its relationship with serum creatinine levels. Subjects and methods: Axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo images which have been originally obtained for MR cholangiopancreatography in 150 subjects were examined by two observers individually for the presence of perirenal hyperintensity. The morphologic properties of perirenal hyperintensity (peripheral rim-like, discontinuous, polar) were recorded. Chi square test was used to test whether the frequencies of bilateral perirenal hyperintensity differ significantly in subjects with high serum creatinine levels and those with normal creatinine levels. This test was also used to compare the frequencies of perirenal hyperintensity in patients with and without renal cysts and in patients with and without corticomedullary differentiation. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The perirenal hyperintensity was identified in 40 of 150 cases (26.6%) on heavily T2-weighted image. Serum creatinine levels were high in 18 of 150 cases (12%). The perirenal hyperintensity was present in 11 of 18 subjects (61%) with high serum creatinine levels and 26 of 132 subjects (19.7%) with normal creatinine levels. The difference of rates in two groups was statistically significant. Odds ratio was 6407 (95% confidence interval 2264-18,129). The frequency of perirenal hyperintensity was also significantly higher in subjects with renal cyst or cysts in whom serum creatinine levels were normal (p < 0.05) (37.5% vs. 11.8%). Conclusion: Perirenal hyperintensities are more frequent in patients with high serum creatinine levels. They are also more common in patients with simple renal cysts.

  14. Relationship between levels of serum creatinine and perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erden, Ayse; Sahin, Burcu Savran; Orgodol, Horolsuren; Erden, Ilhan; Biyikli, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted images and to evaluate its relationship with serum creatinine levels. Subjects and methods: Axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo images which have been originally obtained for MR cholangiopancreatography in 150 subjects were examined by two observers individually for the presence of perirenal hyperintensity. The morphologic properties of perirenal hyperintensity (peripheral rim-like, discontinuous, polar) were recorded. Chi square test was used to test whether the frequencies of bilateral perirenal hyperintensity differ significantly in subjects with high serum creatinine levels and those with normal creatinine levels. This test was also used to compare the frequencies of perirenal hyperintensity in patients with and without renal cysts and in patients with and without corticomedullary differentiation. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The perirenal hyperintensity was identified in 40 of 150 cases (26.6%) on heavily T2-weighted image. Serum creatinine levels were high in 18 of 150 cases (12%). The perirenal hyperintensity was present in 11 of 18 subjects (61%) with high serum creatinine levels and 26 of 132 subjects (19.7%) with normal creatinine levels. The difference of rates in two groups was statistically significant. Odds ratio was 6407 (95% confidence interval 2264-18,129). The frequency of perirenal hyperintensity was also significantly higher in subjects with renal cyst or cysts in whom serum creatinine levels were normal (p < 0.05) (37.5% vs. 11.8%). Conclusion: Perirenal hyperintensities are more frequent in patients with high serum creatinine levels. They are also more common in patients with simple renal cysts.

  15. Cogema looks to wider markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruikshank, A.

    1984-01-01

    As the pace of the French nuclear programme slackens off, Cogema is planning to compete even more vigorously in world fuel cycle markets. The company believes the foundations for success lie in its comprehensive range of fuel cycle activities, its status as a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, and its experience in fulfilling the bulk of French fuel cycle needs. To build on these foundations, Cogema is exploring for uranium, investing heavily in new plant, and strengthening its commercial management. (author)

  16. Use of endpoint adjudication to improve the quality and validity of endpoint assessment for medical device development and post marketing evaluation: Rationale and best practices. A report from the cardiac safety research consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Jonathan H; Heise, Ted; Carson, Peter; Canos, Daniel; Hiatt, Jo Carol; Vranckx, Pascal; Christen, Thomas; Cutlip, Donald E

    2017-08-01

    This white paper provides a summary of presentations, discussions and conclusions of a Thinktank entitled "The Role of Endpoint Adjudication in Medical Device Clinical Trials". The think tank was cosponsored by the Cardiac Safety Research Committee, MDEpiNet and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and was convened at the FDA's White Oak headquarters on March 11, 2016. Attention was focused on tailoring best practices for evaluation of endpoints in medical device clinical trials, practical issues in endpoint adjudication of therapeutic, diagnostic, biomarker and drug-device combinations, and the role of adjudication in regulatory and reimbursement issues throughout the device lifecycle. Attendees included representatives from medical device companies, the FDA, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), end point adjudication specialist groups, clinical research organizations, and active, academically based adjudicators. The manuscript presents recommendations from the think tank regarding (1) rationale for when adjudication is appropriate, (2) best practices establishment and operation of a medical device adjudication committee and (3) the role of endpoint adjudication for post market evaluation in the emerging era of real world evidence. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  18. Politisk marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  19. To market, to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Senator Lieberman and three fellow members of Congress introduced the CO 2 Offset Policy Efficiency Act (COPE), which incorporates the use of marketable permits to reduce CO 2 emissions. For COPE to be fully effective, however, several key criteria must be met: (1) establishing initial baselines will be critical to ensure that emission reductions are credited properly; (2) accurate plant-by-plant monitoring must be in place to ensure that claimed reductions have actually occurred; (3) the program must include a strong enforcement provision to prevent evasion and to punish violators with substantial automatic fines. COPE imposes a sanction equal to roughly four times the estimated cost of offsets; the sanctions would be paid before enforcement proceedings commence. The urgency and complexity of global warming requires us to break with the past and develop new ways of delaying with pollution, Senator Lieberman feels by giving the market a chance to work on behalf of the environment, the sale of emission allowance will reduce CO 2 emissions in the most-efficient cost-effective way possible

  20. Marketing aspect of paramedical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugalić Sretenka L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available That's how the primary medical and ecological reasons as the well being for humanity came out of the satisfaction of specific health needs. Through operationally of these outcomes it tried to prove the need and the intentions of the customers, and through methodologies and strategies which stand to our service. Further developing activity acted as a useful to the innovation of the product and vertical structure of marketing, through the change in the way of thinking of the medical and pharmaceutical profession. The paper is concepted so that the received material inserted to the content part, do the following: 1. Meaning, characteristics and developing possibilities of phytotherapy; 2. Dimensions of market in managing of phytotherapic assortment. By observing the final results, which were obtained through means of representative sources and other research of phytotherapic products, it can be expected that the same can be applicable to broader spectrum in practice with kind input to the marketing ideas. Models, presented here, is meant to be for innovative applications in the medical marketing concept, by the results of wide spending in the food service industry (domain of dietetics, at manufacture of food for children at the manufacture of 'medical cosmetics' and cosmetic-druggist assortments (products for hygiene, shampoos, soap, creams and bubbles for bath.

  1. SPORT MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović

    2010-01-01

    Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...

  2. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  3. Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrýsková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to examine current marketing efforts of AARON - the leading seller of digital cameras. I will analyze current marketing tools and suggest improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of these tools. Marketing strategy is a method of managing and coordinating efforts in marketing field so that the goals can be reached. The aim is to increase sales, turnover, revenues, profits, drive out competition and also to build up a corporate image and corporate culture. I will a...

  4. Marketing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  5. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hottest financial market topic of the moment could be the subprime loan crisis in the United States. The crisis has stormed the U.S. stock market, dragging it to its biggest falls in a single trading day. Other markets, such as Japan’s, were also vul

  6. Auto Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    <正> Editor’s notes: As China’s WTO entry is drawing near, Chinese people are witnessing the marketing activities of foreign automakers in China: establishing new firms and promoting new vehicles, etc. In face of the enormous Chinese market, foreign automakers are busy in establishing their brand images, fostering consumption population in order to take more market shares in the future.

  7. Service marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić-Hodović Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of postindustrial society and services revolution created numerous changes in size of consumer demand, consumer reaction and priorities. Continuous change on the side of demand and offer must follow changes in marketing orientation. Leader in that change is services marketing which by knowing services range and all the changes builds a new concept called Relationship Marketing.

  8. The "Journal of Marketing Education": Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Deborah M.; Peltier, James W.; Schibrowsky, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The "Journal of Marketing Education" ("JME") was launched almost 35 years ago. In this invited article, we review "JME"'s long and distinguished history. For historical perspective, we will lean heavily on the words of "JME" editors (including special issue editors); this focus adds context for the past and helps project the future. As a…

  9. Regulating the Dutch pharmaceutical market: improving efficiency or controlling costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de P.; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Rutten, F.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Dutch pharmaceutical market, which is heavily regulated by the government. Through the regulation of prices and promoting prudent use, the Dutch government tries to bring down the cost of pharmaceuticals, which increases every year at a higher rate than total health

  10. Australian Educational Institutions International Markets: A Correspondence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarol, Timothy W.; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The global market for international students have become highly competitive and many institutions, particularly higher education institutions, rely heavily on fee income from overseas students. This study aims to examine the countries from which Australian education institutions draw such students and used this information to better…

  11. Precise Th/U-dating of small and heavily coated samples of deep sea corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomitschka, Michael; Mangini, Augusto

    1999-07-01

    Marine carbonate skeletons like deep-sea corals are frequently coated with iron and manganese oxides/hydroxides which adsorb additional thorium and uranium out of the sea water. A new cleaning procedure has been developed to reduce this contamination. In this further cleaning step a solution of Na 2EDTA (Na 2H 2T B) and ascorbic acid is used which composition is optimised especially for samples of 20 mg of weight. It was first tested on aliquots of a reef-building coral which had been artificially contaminated with powdered ferromanganese nodule. Applied on heavily contaminated deep-sea corals (scleractinia), it reduced excess 230Th by another order of magnitude in addition to usual cleaning procedures. The measurement of at least three fractions of different contamination, together with an additional standard correction for contaminated carbonates results in Th/U-ages corrected for the authigenic component. A good agreement between Th/U- and 14C-ages can be achieved even for extremely coated corals.

  12. High critical currents in heavily doped (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, V; Gharahcheshmeh, MH; Xu, A; Galstyan, E; Delgado, L; Cantoni, C

    2015-01-19

    REBa2Cu3Ox ((REBCO), RE = rare earth) superconductor tapes with moderate levels of dopants have been optimized for high critical current density in low magnetic fields at 77 K, but they do not exhibit exemplary performance in conditions of interest for practical applications, i.e., temperatures less than 50K and fields of 2-30 T. Heavy doping of REBCO tapes has been avoided by researchers thus far due to deterioration in properties. Here, we report achievement of critical current densities (J(c)) above 20 MA/cm(2) at 30 K, 3 T in heavily doped (25 mol.% Zr-added) (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes, which is more than three times higher than the J(c) typically obtained in moderately doped tapes. Pinning force levels above 1000 GN/m(3) have also been attained at 20 K. A composition map of lift factor in J(c) (ratio of J(c) at 30 K, 3 T to the J(c) at 77 K, 0 T) has been developed which reveals the optimum film composition to obtain lift factors above six, which is thrice the typical value. A highly c-axis aligned BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumn defect density of nearly 7 x 10(11) cm(-2) as well as 2-3 nm sized particles rich in Cu and Zr have been found in the high J(c) films. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  13. Heavily T2-weighted MR myelography vs CT myelography in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-F; Lirng, J-F; Fuh, J-L; Hseu, S-S; Wang, S-J

    2009-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Patients with SIH were recruited prospectively, and first underwent MRM and then computed tomographic myelography (CTM). The results of MRM were validated with the gold standard, CTM, focusing on 1) CSF leaks along the nerve roots, 2) epidural CSF collections, and 3) high-cervical (C1-3) retrospinal CSF collections. Comparisons of these 3 findings between the 2 studies were made by kappa statistics and agreement rates. Targeted epidural blood patches (EBPs) were placed at the levels of CSF leaks if supportive treatment failed. Nineteen patients (6 men and 13 women, mean age 37.9 +/- 8.6 years) with SIH completed the study. MRM did not differ from CTM in the detection rates of CSF leaks along the nerve roots (84% vs 74%, p = 0.23), high-cervical retrospinal CSF collections (32% vs 16%, p = 0.13), and epidural CSF collections (89% vs 79%, p = 0.20). MRM demonstrated more spinal levels of CSF leaks (2.2 +/- 1.7 vs 1.5 +/- 1.5, p = 0.011) and epidural collections (12.2 +/- 5.9 vs 7.1 +/- 5.8, p localizing CSF leaks for patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. This noninvasive technique may be an alternative to computed tomographic myelography before targeted epidural blood patches.

  14. Pollination with heavily irradiated pollen in Nicotiana: induced parthenogenesis and embryological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musial, K.; Przywara, L.

    1999-01-01

    Nicotiana crosses were pollinated in situ and in vitro with heavily irradiated pollen (500, 700, 1000 Gy) to induce parthenogenesis and to study the development of embryo and endosperm. Haploids were obtained after in situ pollination only; however, parthenogenetic proembryos occurred also after in vitro pollination. It was demonstrated that ovule culture following pollination offers a better chance to produce haploids than undisturbed pollination does. Pollination with irradiated pollen (PwIP) stron gly decreased the number of endosperm cells and the size of embryo sacs, and it affected the development of embryos; no significant differences between applied irradiation doses were found. Ovules with endosperm only, embryo only, and with both embryo and endosperm were observed. The most frequent were the ovules with endosperm only, the rarest with embryo only. A small amount of storage products occurred in the endosperm cells. The diploid chromosome number counted in the endosperm produced after PwIP points to their origin without fertilization. An interesting phenomenon observed after PwIP was vigorous growth of endothelium. (author)

  15. Misdiagnosis of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa in a choroideremia patient with heavily pigmented fundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, A; Salvetti, A P; Martinez-Fernandez de la Camara, C; MacLaren, R E

    2018-06-01

    Inherited retinal diseases are thought to be the leading cause of sight loss in the working age population. Mutations found in the RPGR and CHM genes cause retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and choroideremia, respectively. In the first instance, an X-linked family history of visual field loss commonly raises the suspicion of one of these two genes. In choroideremia, the classic description of a white fundal reflex secondary to the widespread chorioretinal degeneration was made over a hundred years ago in Caucasians. But, it is not so obvious in heavily pigmented fundi. Hence, the clinical diagnosis of CHM in non-Caucasian patients may be challenging in the first stages of the disease. Here we report a case of a Southeast Asian gentleman who has a family history of X-linked retinal degeneration and was found to have a confirmed in-frame deletion of 12 DNA nucleotides in exon 15 of the RPGR gene. Later in life, however, his fundal appearance showed unusual areas of circular pigment hypertrophy and clumping. He was therefore tested for carrying a disease-causing mutation in the CHM gene and a null mutation was found. Since gene therapy trials are ongoing for both of these conditions, it has now become critically important to establish the correct genetic diagnosis in order to recruit suitable candidates. Moreover, this case demonstrates the necessity to remain vigilant in the interpretation of genetic results which are inconsistent with clinical features.

  16. Bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products: composition of the microbial consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA S. MILIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation, a process that utilizes the capability of microorganism to degrade toxic waste, is emerging as a promising technology for the treatment of soil and groundwater contamination. The technology is very effective in dealing with petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. The aim of this study was to examine the composition of the microbial consortium during the ex situ experiment of bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products from the Oil Refinery Pančevo, Serbia. After a 5.5-month experiment with biostimulation and bioventilation, the concentration of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH had been reduced from 29.80 to 3.29 g/kg (89 %. In soil, the dominant microorganism population comprised Gram-positive bacteria from actinomycete-Nocardia group. The microorganisms which decompose hydrocarbons were the dominant microbial population at the end of the process, with a share of more than 80 % (range 107 CFU/g. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that a stable microbial community had been formed after initial fluctuations.

  17. Do the VOCs that evaporate from a heavily polluted river threaten the health of riparian residents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juang, Der-Fong; Lee, Chao-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Chin; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2010-01-01

    To understand the potential threat of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the health of residents living close to a heavily polluted river, this study investigated the species and the concentration of VOCs evaporating from a river and surveyed the health condition of the nearby residents. Air samples were taken seasonally at the upstream, midstream, and downstream water surfaces of the river, and at different locations at certain distances from the river. These samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively through gas chromatography and electron capture detector (GC/ECD) for chlorinated organic compounds, and through gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC/FID) for ordinary hydrocarbons. The health data obtained from valid health questionnaires of 908 residents were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Twenty-six species of VOCs were identified in the environment adjacent the river, many of which are carcinogenic or believed to be carcinogenic to humans. However, results of this study shows that the VOCs evaporating from the polluted river have not been definitively identified as a major factor of cancer in the residents. However, the risk of suffering from certain chronic diseases may increase in residents living less than 225 m away from the river due to the high levels of evaporated VOCs. Residents living less than 225 m away from the river and with nearby specific industries are 3.130 times more at risk of suffering from chronic diseases than those with no nearby specific industries.

  18. The origin of double peak electric field distribution in heavily irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, V; Li, Z

    2002-01-01

    The first observation of double peak (DP) electric field distribution in heavily neutron irradiated (>10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2) semiconductor detectors has been published about 6 yr ago. However, this effect was not quantitatively analyzed up to now. The explanation of the DP electric field distribution presented in this paper is based on the properties of radiation induced deep levels in silicon, which act as deep traps, and on the distribution of the thermally generated free carrier concentration in the detector bulk. In the frame of this model, the earlier published considerations on the so-called 'double junction (DJ) effect' are discussed as well. The comparison of the calculated electric field profiles at different temperatures with the experimental ones allows one to determine a set of deep levels. This set of deep levels, and their charge filling status are essential to the value and the distribution of space charge in the space charge region in the range of 305-240 K, which is actual temperature ran...

  19. Quantifying the importance of diffuse minewater pollution in a historically heavily coal mined catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayes, W.M.; Gozzard, E.; Potter, H.A.B.; Jarvis, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable progress in developing treatment systems for point sources of minewater pollution in recent years; however, there remains a knowledge gap in the characterisation and remediation of diffuse minewater sources. Data are presented from the River Gaunless catchment, a historically heavily coal mined catchment in the northeast of England. Instream iron (Fe) loadings were monitored alongside loadings arising from point minewater discharges over a 12-month period to assess the dynamic importance of diffuse sources of minewater pollution. In low flow, diffuse sources account for around 50% of instream loading, a proportion which increases to 98% in high flow conditions. The low flow sources appear to be dominated by direct discharge of contaminated groundwater to surface waters in lower reaches of the catchment. In high flow, resuspended Fe-rich sediments, which are both naturally occurring and derived from historic mining, become the dominant diffuse source of Fe in the water column. - Diffuse sources of minewater pollution significantly contribute to instream contaminant loadings under varying flow conditions

  20. Road Environments: Impact of Metals on Human Health in Heavily Congested Cities of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiec, Ewa

    2017-06-29

    Road dust as a by-product of exhaust and non-exhaust emissions can be a major cause of systemic oxidative stress and multiple disorders. Substantial amounts of road dust are repeatedly resuspended, in particular at traffic lights and junctions where more braking is involved, causing potential threat to pedestrians, especially children. In order to determine the degree of contamination in the heavily traffic-congested cities of Poland, a total of 148 samples of road dust (RD), sludge from storm drains (SL) and roadside soil (RS) were collected. Sixteen metals were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in all samples. Chemical evaluation followed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that road environments have been severely contaminated with traffic-related elements. Concentration of copper in all road-environment samples is even higher, exceeding even up to 15 times its average concentrations established for the surrounding soils. Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment revealed that the hazard index (HI) for children in all road-environment samples exceeds the safe level of 1. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to potential health risks caused by the ingestion of traffic-related particles during outdoor activities.

  1. Comparative study and quantification of cementite decomposition in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamontagne, A. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Massardier, V., E-mail: veronique.massardier@insa-lyon.fr [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Kléber, X. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Sauvage, X. [University of Rouen, GPM, UMR CNRS 6634, BP 12, Avenue de l’Université, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Mari, D. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 3, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland)

    2015-09-17

    Heavily cold-drawing was performed on a pearlitic steel wire and on an ultra-low carbon (ULC) steel wire in order to highlight and quantify the microstructural changes caused by this type of deformation. Both global techniques (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, internal fiction background) and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography) were combined for this study. It was shown that two distinct stages have to be taken into account during the cold-drawing of pearlitic steels. The first stage (below a true strain of 1.5) was attributed mainly to the lamellar alignment, while the second stage (above a true strain of 1.5) was unambiguously interpreted as being due to a gradual enrichment of the carbon content of ferrite arising from the strain induced cementite decomposition. The carbon content in solid solution in ferrite was assessed as a function of the true strain. All the techniques showed that this carbon content exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in the ferrite above a true strain of 2.2. A correlation between the increase in the carbon content of ferrite and the increase in yield strength was also highlighted. Moreover, a scenario was proposed to explain the microstructural changes caused by drawing.

  2. Comparative study and quantification of cementite decomposition in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamontagne, A.; Massardier, V.; Kléber, X.; Sauvage, X.; Mari, D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavily cold-drawing was performed on a pearlitic steel wire and on an ultra-low carbon (ULC) steel wire in order to highlight and quantify the microstructural changes caused by this type of deformation. Both global techniques (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, internal fiction background) and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography) were combined for this study. It was shown that two distinct stages have to be taken into account during the cold-drawing of pearlitic steels. The first stage (below a true strain of 1.5) was attributed mainly to the lamellar alignment, while the second stage (above a true strain of 1.5) was unambiguously interpreted as being due to a gradual enrichment of the carbon content of ferrite arising from the strain induced cementite decomposition. The carbon content in solid solution in ferrite was assessed as a function of the true strain. All the techniques showed that this carbon content exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in the ferrite above a true strain of 2.2. A correlation between the increase in the carbon content of ferrite and the increase in yield strength was also highlighted. Moreover, a scenario was proposed to explain the microstructural changes caused by drawing

  3. Atmospheric depositions around a heavily industrialized area in a seasonally dry tropical environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2005-01-01

    Clear and throughfall bulk depositions were collected in the downwind of a highly industrialized region in Sonbhadra district of India to estimate the influence of anthropogenic activities on chemical composition of depositions. Significant spatial and temporal variations in depositions of cations and anions were observed. Depositions were higher near the thermal power stations and coalmines as compared to distantly situated site. Seasonally summer samples showed maximum cation and anion depositions followed by winter and minimum in rainy season. The mean pH of the depositions indicates that rainfall in the area is alkaline. Among the anions, maximum deposition was recorded for SO 4 2- followed by NO 3 - and minimum for Cl - . Among the cations, Ca 2+ deposition was maximum followed by NH 4 + . Na + , K + and Mg 2+ deposition rates showed more or less similar values. The depositions of cations and anions as well as pH were higher in throughfall than clearfall samples. Results of the present study suggest that atmospheric depositions are strongly modified due to thermal power stations and coal mines in the area. - Atmospheric abundance of cations have neutralized the acidity of depositions around a heavily industrialized area in India

  4. Boron deactivation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal: Atomic level understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Chao; Dong, Peng; Yi, Jun; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren; Lu, Yunhao

    2014-01-01

    The changes in hole concentration of heavily boron (B)-doped Czochralski silicon subjected to high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and following conventional furnace anneal (CFA) have been investigated. It is found that decrease in hole concentration, namely, B deactivation, is observed starting from 1050 °C and increases with RTA temperature. The following CFA at 300–500 °C leads to further B deactivation, while that at 600–800 °C results in B reactivation. It is supposed that the interaction between B atoms and silicon interstitials (I) thus forming BI pairs leads to the B deactivation during the high temperature RTA, and, moreover, the formation of extended B 2 I complexes results in further B deactivation in the following CFA at 300–500 °C. On the contrary, the dissociation of BI pairs during the following CFA at 600–800 °C enables the B reactivation. Importantly, the first-principles calculation results can soundly account for the above-mentioned supposition

  5. Boron deactivation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal: Atomic level understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Chao; Dong, Peng; Yi, Jun; Ma, Xiangyang, E-mail: luyh@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: mxyoung@zju.edu.cn; Yang, Deren [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lu, Yunhao, E-mail: luyh@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: mxyoung@zju.edu.cn [International Center for New-Structured Materials and Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-01-20

    The changes in hole concentration of heavily boron (B)-doped Czochralski silicon subjected to high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and following conventional furnace anneal (CFA) have been investigated. It is found that decrease in hole concentration, namely, B deactivation, is observed starting from 1050 °C and increases with RTA temperature. The following CFA at 300–500 °C leads to further B deactivation, while that at 600–800 °C results in B reactivation. It is supposed that the interaction between B atoms and silicon interstitials (I) thus forming BI pairs leads to the B deactivation during the high temperature RTA, and, moreover, the formation of extended B{sub 2}I complexes results in further B deactivation in the following CFA at 300–500 °C. On the contrary, the dissociation of BI pairs during the following CFA at 600–800 °C enables the B reactivation. Importantly, the first-principles calculation results can soundly account for the above-mentioned supposition.

  6. Epibenthic diversity and productivity on a heavily trawled Barents Sea bank (Tromsøflaket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kędra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Shallow Arctic banks have been observed to harbour rich communities of epifaunal organisms, but have not been well-studied with respect to composition or function due to sampling challenges. In order to determine how these banks function in the Barents Sea ecosystem, we used a combination of video and trawl/dredge sampling at several locations on a heavily trawled bank, Tromsøflaket – located at the southwestern entrance to the Barents Sea. We describe components of the benthic community, and calculate secondary production of dominant epifaunal organisms. Forty-six epibenthic taxa were identified, and sponges were a significant part of the surveyed benthic communities. There were differences in diversity and production among areas, mainly related to the intensity of trawling activities. Gamma was the most diverse and productive area, with highest species abundance and biomass. Trawled areas had considerably lower species numbers, and significant differences in epifaunal abundance and biomass were found between all trawled and untrawled areas. Trawling seems to have an impact on the sponge communities: mean individual poriferan biomass was higher in untrawled areas, and, although poriferans were observed in areas subjected to more intensive trawling, they were at least five times less frequent than in untrawled areas.

  7. Comparison of the Thermal Degradation of Heavily Nb-Doped and Normal PZT Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong-Suong; Kang, YunSung; Kang, Inyoung; Lim, SeungMo; Shin, Seung-Joo; Lee, JungWon; Hur, Kang Heon

    2017-03-01

    The degradation of niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and two types of PZT thin films were investigated. Undoped PZT, two-step PZT, and heavily Nb-doped PZT (PNZT) around the morphotropic phase boundary were in situ deposited under optimum condition by RF-magnetron sputtering. All 2- [Formula: see text]-thick films had dense perovskite columnar grain structure and self-polarized (100) dominant orientation. PZT thin films were deposited on Pt/TiO x bottom electrode on Si wafer, and PNZT thin film was on Ir/TiW electrode with the help of orientation control. Sputtered PZT films formed on microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope and the degradation rates were compared at different temperatures. PNZT showed the best resistance to the thermal degradation, followed by two-step PZT. To clarify the effect of oxygen vacancies on the degradation of the film at high temperature, photoluminescence measurement was conducted, which confirmed that oxygen vacancy rate was the lowest in heavy PNZT. Nb-doping PZT thin films suppressed the oxygen deficit and made high imprint with self-polarization. This defect distribution and high internal field allowed PNZT thin film to make the piezoelectric sensors more stable and reliable at high temperature, such as reflow process of MEMS packaging.

  8. Experiment and simulation on the thermal instability of a heavily deformed Cu-Fe composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Lei; Wang Engang; Zuo Xiaowei; Zhang Lin; He Jicheng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Fe fibers undergo thermal instability at temperature above 600 deg. C. → Longitudinal boundary splitting is the dominant instability process. → Instability of cylindrical fibers is controlled by breakup, growth and coarsening. → Breakup times can be predicted by Rayleigh perturbation model accurately. → The increase of fiber diameters is due to the coarsening and growth. - Abstract: The thermal instability of the Fe fibers in the heavily deformed Cu-12.8 wt.%Fe composites is investigated experimentally and numerically. The fiber evolution is characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results show that the dominant instability of the Fe fibers is the longitudinal boundary splitting which is determined by the greater cross sectional aspect ratio (width/thickness, w/t) and the larger ratio of boundary to interfacial energy (γ B /γ S ). The longitudinal boundary splitting makes the ribbon-like Fe fibers evolve into a series of cylindrical fibers. Then the cylindrical Fe fibers undergo the instability process in terms of the breakup, growth and coarsening concurrently. The breakup times are accurately predicted by the Rayleigh perturbation model. The growth process primarily contributes to the higher increasing rate of the fiber radius during isothermal annealing at 700 deg. C than that calculated by the coarsening theory developed for cylindrical fibers, since the Cu-matrix of composites is highly supersaturated after casting/cold-working process.

  9. Thermal oxidation effect on structural and optical properties of heavily doped phosphorus polycrystalline silicon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birouk, B.; Madi, D. [Universite de Jijel, Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Modelisation en Electrotechnique (LAMEL), Cite Ouled Aissa, BP 98, Jijel (Algeria)

    2011-08-15

    The study reported in this paper contributes to better understanding the thermal oxidation effect on structural and optical properties of polycrystalline silicon heavily in situ P-LPCVD films. The deposits, doped at levels 3 x 10{sup 19} and 1.6 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, have been elaborated from silane decomposition (400 mTorrs, 605 C) on monosilicon substrate oriented left angle 111 right angle. The thermal oxidation was performed at temperatures: 850 C during 1 hour, 1000, 1050, and 1100 C during 15 minutes. The XRD spectra analysis pointed out significant left angle 111 right angle texture evolution, while in the case of left angle 220 right angle and left angle 311 right angle textures, the intensities are practically invariant (variations fall in the uncertainty intervals). The optical characterizations showed that refractive index and absorption coefficient are very sensitive to the oxidation treatment, mainly when the doping level is not very high. We think that atomic oxygen acts as defects passivating agent leading to carriers' concentration increasing. Besides, the optical behavior is modeled in visible and near infrared, by a seven-term polynomial function n {sup 2}=f({lambda} {sup 2}), with alternate signs, instead of theoretically unlimited terms number from Drude's model. It has been shown that fitting parameters fall on Gaussian curves like they do in the theoretical model. (orig.)

  10. Heavily-doped 2D-quantized structures and the Einstein relation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya P

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the Einstein Relation(ER) in two-dimensional (2-D) Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The ER in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestion for the experimental determination of HD 2D and 3D ERs and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nanodevices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) are also discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing ma...

  11. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  12. International Isotopes Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Z. Zhiznin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies world markets of stable and radioactive isotopes. Isotopes have found various applications in science, industry, agriculture and other sectors of the economy, but especially - in medicine. Nuclear medicine is developing intensively all over the world thanks to the success in the treatment of various diseases with the help of radioactive pharmaceuticals (radiopharmaceuticals. The article uses empirical data from a forecast study of the global radiopharmaceuticals market made in 2015 by a research company «Markets and Markets» for the European, North American and global markets. The paper also analyzes the statistical data on the global export and import of natural uranium, enriched and depleted uranium, plutonium, thorium and some stable isotopes of non-medical purposes, presented by a company «Trend economy» in 2014. Despite a unique industrial base for the production of isotopes created in the Soviet Union Russia occupies a modest position on the world market of nuclear medicine except for certain areas. More than 80% of isotopes, produced in USSR were consumed domestically, the export of the stable and radioactive isotopes was in equal proportions. Now the country's domestic radiopharmaceuticals market is poorly developed. To radically change the situation, it is necessary to carry out reforms that stimulate the development of nuclear medicine.

  13. FinTech Market Development Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmykova, Ekaterina Yurievna; Ryabova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Fast development of technologies has led to emergence of the new market – FinTech – which is very attractive for investors today. By now this market has a great number of different concepts: P2P-crediting, E-wallets, Bitcoins, mPOS-acquiring, T-commerce, mobile banks, etc. Many of these tools have already heavily entered our ordinary life. People can obtain any credits through special services on the Internet from other users without participation of banks, pay by credit card using mobile dev...

  14. Modelling Danish local CHP on market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2004-01-01

    with the liberalisation process of the energy sectors of the EU countries, it is however anticipated that Danish local CHP are to begin operating on market conditions within the year 2005. This means that the income that the local CHPs previously gained from selling electricity at the feed-in tariff is replaced in part...... the consequences of acting in a liberalised market for a given CHP plant, based on the abovementioned bottom-up model. The key assumption determining the bottom line is the electricity spot price. The formation of the spot price in the Nordic area depends heavily upon the state of the water reservoirs in Norway...

  15. Essays on the Marketing and Packaging of Cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Leas, Eric Craig

    2017-01-01

    Background: To curb smoking rates, the World Health Organizations’ Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends that countries ban all forms of tobacco advertising and restrict the use of certain terminology on packaging and branding. However, in many countries, including the United States, tobacco remains one of the most heavily marketed consumer goods. Through a series of studies I explore several issues pertaining to the marketing of tobacco products including: whether some brands ac...

  16. Marketing maloobchodu

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the situation of retail marketing in Czech republic, with a special focus on in-store marketing instruments and activities. The goal of this work is to evaluate the application of these marketing instruments in a specific retail store. This chosen store is supermarket Billa. The first part of the thesis is offering theoretical base for in-store marketing activities and also presents the history of retail marketing in Czech republic. The second part is focusing on the situ...

  17. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  18. Medical Total Force Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Facilities (MTFs). For specialties that are common in civilian labor markets , civilian providers generally cost less than military providers. While the...produced in Military Treatment Facilities (MTFs). For specialties that are common in civilian labor markets , civilian providers generally cost less...Attracting Fully Trained Medical Personnel,” CRM D0013237.A2 (Alexandria, VA: CNA Corporation, 2006). 66

  19. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-01-01

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  20. One unit-cell seed layer induced epitaxial growth of heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T L; Hirose, Y; Hitosugi, T; Hasegawa, T [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: chen@ksp.or.jp

    2008-03-21

    We present a novel way to obtain heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films by using a solid-state nitrogen source. Epitaxial growth of the films was realized by introducing one unit-cell seed layer, which was indicated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction as intensity oscillation. Results of x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the films were in the anatase phase heavily doped with nitrogen of {approx}15 at%. The films obtained exhibited considerable narrowing of the optical bandgap, resulting in an enhancement of absorption in the visible-light region. (fast track communication)

  1. Market formation and market selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raalte, C.L.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The organization of markets is an important field of inquiry in modern economic theory. This monograph analyzes models which consider the formation and selection of markets. In these models, markets are organized by middlemen and used by traders. In Part I of the monograph, coalitions of middlemen

  2. Market Survey Turkey. Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The present market survey presents the Turkish power market and derives business opportunities and prospects for Dutch trade and industry. This market survey has been carried out for the following four, from time to time overlapping, sectors that have been identified by EVD as potential opportunities for Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SME): renewable energy, energy efficiency, electricity generation, electricity distribution

  3. World market of marketing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels John

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of the total world market market research in the year 2001 was US$15,890 million, a 2.8% increase on the previous year. This is the first of several articles to be published in Research World on the results from ESOMAR's latest annual study on the market research sector worldwide

  4. Doktor Kot, Doktor Sla - book doctors, plant doctors and the segmentation of the medical market place in Meghalaya, northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Sandra; Porter, John; Green, Judith

    2017-10-16

    Despite decades of research on India's plural health care market, the practices of many local health traditions outside the allopathic and codified traditions are under-studied. Drawing on interview and observational data, this paper explores the space in which indigenous traditional Khasi healers in Meghalaya state, northeast India, practice. Khasi indigenous healers describe themselves as doktor sla, plant doctors, to distinguish themselves from doktor kot, or book doctors. This distinction operates as a rhetorical resource, utilised to carve a distinct sphere of expertise in relation to the allopathic sector, and to mark claims for the specifically local appropriateness of traditional practices within a shifting market of state-sponsored provision. Khasi healers are a heterogeneous group who treat a wide variety of conditions, including physical ailments which have no obvious correlates in biomedical systems, and musculoskeletal disorders, with which they have recognised expertise. In addition to claiming these discrete strengths, healers also present themselves as accommodating deficiencies in biomedicine, including inherent generic weaknesses of allopathic care as well as specific local gaps in rural health care provision. Thus, the expertise niches of traditional healers have evolved through their interactions with, and the needs of, the community, but also through managing a shifting boundary with biomedical practitioners, who are explicitly sceptical of their efficacy, but tacitly accepting of the ways in which they manage the gaps in biomedical provision. While codified non-biomedical traditions in India have engaged in universalising professionalising projects, in this setting at least, non-codified practitioners have instead utilised discourses of localism.

  5. Accuracy of marketing claims by providers of stereotactic radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Amol K; Lam, Edwin; Makary, Martin A; Deweese, Theodore L; Pawlik, Timothy M; Pronovost, Peter J; Herman, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising by industry has been criticized for encouraging overuse of unproven therapies, but advertising by health care providers has not been as carefully scrutinized. Stereotactic radiation therapy is an emerging technology that has sparked controversy regarding the marketing campaigns of some manufacturers. Given that this technology is also being heavily advertised on the Web sites of health care providers, the accuracy of providers' marketing claims should be rigorously evaluated. We reviewed the Web sites of all U.S. hospitals and private practices that provide stereotactic radiation using two leading brands of stereotactic radiosurgery technology. Centers were identified by using data from the manufacturers. Centers without Web sites were excluded. The final study population consisted of 212 centers with online advertisements for stereotactic radiation. Web sites were evaluated for advertisements that were inconsistent with advertising guidelines provided by the American Medical Association. Most centers (76%) had individual pages dedicated to the marketing of their brand of stereotactic technology that frequently contained manufacturer-authored images (50%) or text (55%). Advertising for the treatment of tumors that have not been endorsed by professional societies was present on 66% of Web sites. Centers commonly claimed improved survival (22%), disease control (20%), quality of life (17%), and toxicity (43%) with stereotactic radiation. Although 40% of Web sites championed the center's regional expertise in delivering stereotactic treatments, only 15% of Web sites provided data to support their claims. Provider advertisements for stereotactic radiation were prominent and aggressive. Further investigation of provider advertising, its effects on quality of care, and potential oversight mechanisms is needed.

  6. AREVA: Operating performance shows distinct improvement; Results heavily impacted by the cost of remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 results illustrate the progress AREVA made in 2015 and open up favorable prospects for 2016 and the following years in view of its fundamentals. The group's competitiveness plan had a very positive impact on its costs and cash, despite the heavy net loss situation which continues and in a market environment that remained difficult in 2015. Half of this loss of 2 billion Euro is due to additional provisions for OL3 and half to provisions for restructuring and impairment related to market conditions. Concerning the group's liquidity, 2016 is funded and the capital increase which will be launched in the coming months will enable AREVA to gradually regain the group's positive profile. A new phase awaits the Group in 2016 with clarity and confidence in the implementation of the restructuring announced in 2015 and in particular the autonomy of AREVA NP and the creation of New AREVA

  7. High critical currents in heavily doped (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Gharahcheshmeh, M. Heydari; Xu, A.; Galstyan, E.; Delgado, L.; Cantoni, C.

    2015-01-01

    REBa 2 Cu 3 O x ((REBCO), RE = rare earth) superconductor tapes with moderate levels of dopants have been optimized for high critical current density in low magnetic fields at 77 K, but they do not exhibit exemplary performance in conditions of interest for practical applications, i.e., temperatures less than 50 K and fields of 2–30 T. Heavy doping of REBCO tapes has been avoided by researchers thus far due to deterioration in properties. Here, we report achievement of critical current densities (J c ) above 20 MA/cm 2 at 30 K, 3 T in heavily doped (25 mol. % Zr-added) (Gd,Y)Ba 2 Cu 3 O x superconductor tapes, which is more than three times higher than the J c typically obtained in moderately doped tapes. Pinning force levels above 1000 GN/m 3 have also been attained at 20 K. A composition map of lift factor in J c (ratio of J c at 30 K, 3 T to the J c at 77 K, 0 T) has been developed which reveals the optimum film composition to obtain lift factors above six, which is thrice the typical value. A highly c-axis aligned BaZrO 3 (BZO) nanocolumn defect density of nearly 7 × 10 11  cm −2 as well as 2–3 nm sized particles rich in Cu and Zr have been found in the high J c films

  8. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ∼ 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Moro, A. Del; Gandhi, P.; Aird, J. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Assef, R. J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Baloković, M.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 East California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Elvis, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W 120th Street, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Koss, M., E-mail: g.b.lansbury@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2014-04-10

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength diagnostics, their X-ray absorbing column densities (N {sub H}) are poorly known. In this analysis, (1) we study X-ray emission at >10 keV, where X-rays from the central black hole are relatively unabsorbed, in order to better constrain N {sub H}. (2) We further characterize the physical properties of the sources through broad-band near-UV to mid-IR spectral energy distribution analyses. One of the quasars is detected with NuSTAR at >8 keV with a no-source probability of <0.1%, and its X-ray band ratio suggests near Compton-thick absorption with N {sub H} ≳ 5 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}. The other two quasars are undetected, and have low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratios in both the low-energy (2-10 keV) and high-energy (10-40 keV) X-ray regimes that are consistent with extreme, Compton-thick absorption (N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}). We find that for quasars at z ∼ 0.5, NuSTAR provides a significant improvement compared to lower energy (<10 keV) Chandra and XMM-Newton observations alone, as higher column densities can now be directly constrained.

  9. Oral etoposide in heavily pre-treated metastatic breast cancer: A retrospective series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, G; Milani, A; Ghisoni, E; Genta, S; Mittica, G; Montemurro, F; Valabrega, G

    2018-04-01

    Patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) can derive clinical benefit from several subsequent lines of chemotherapy. However, in heavily pre-treated patients, agents with clinical activity, a favourable side effects profile and a convenient administration modality are preferred. We retrospectively analyzed 110 patients with previously treated MBC, who received oral etoposide at the dose of 50 mg/day for 20 days in 28 days cycles, between 2003 and 2017. Because this was not a prospectively planned study, to describe the clinical performance of oral etoposide we adopted the approach suggested by Dzimitrowicz and colleagues (J Clin Oncol. 2016; 34:3511-17); Tumour Response (TR) was defined as the proportion of physician-reported clinical or imaging response; Prolonged Duration on Therapy (PDT) as the proportion of non-progressing patients whose treatment lasted more than 6 months. Furthermore, we evaluated median duration on therapy (TD) and median Overall Survival (OS) by the Kaplan Meier method. The median number of previous chemotherapy lines was 5 (range 2-8). TR, PDT, median TD and median OS were 6.4%, 18.2% 4 (range 3.5-4.5) and 10.6 (range 8.4-12.8) months respectively. Interestingly, etoposide activity was unrelated to the number of previous lines and type of metastatic involvement. Oral etoposide was well tolerated with only two patients discontinuing therapy due to toxicity. In this large, single Institution, real practice analysis oral etoposide is a valuable and safe option for pre-treated metastatic breast cancer patients and might be considered in patients failing other approaches, but still suitable for chemotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk ranking of environmental contaminants in Xiaoqing River, a heavily polluted river along urbanizing Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Yueqing; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Pei; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajayakesavalu; Meng, Jing; Zhou, Yunqiao; Liang, Ruoyu; Khan, Kifayatullah

    2018-08-01

    Xiaoqing River, located in the Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, is heavily polluted by various pollutants including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), bisphenol A (BPA) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The aim of this study is to identify the relative risks of such contaminants that currently affect the coastal ecosystem. The median and highest concentrations of PFAAs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were 3.23 μg L -1 and 325.28 μg L -1 , and 0.173 μg L -1 and 276.24 μg L -1 , respectively, which were ranked higher when compared with global level concentrations. To assess the relative risk levels of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), PFOA, and other contaminants in the upstream and downstream of the Xiaoqing River and in its tributary, a risk ranking analysis was carried out. Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) showed the highest risk values in the Xiaoqing River, while the relative risks of PFOA and PFOS differed across the various segments. The risk ranking of PFOA was the second highest in the tributary and the fourth highest in the downstream portion of the river, whereas the PFOS was found to be the lowest in all the segments. Heavy metals and PFOA are the main chemicals that should be controlled in the Xiaoqing River. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the potential ecological risks of the contaminants in Xiaoqing River. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 42 CFR 438.104 - Marketing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... State government, or similar entity. (c) State agency review. In reviewing the marketing materials... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing activities. 438.104 Section 438.104... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Enrollee Rights and Protections § 438.104 Marketing...

  12. Marketing and medicine: a questionable mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E; Baum, Neil H

    2012-01-01

    Historically, medicine has been an evolving art and science. It never remains the same. Only in the past few decades has it been acceptable for doctors to market and promote their practices. This article will review the history of medical marketing and provide ethical examples of marketing that might be available to any physician, in any practice, and in any geographic location.

  13. Today's markets for superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The worldwide market for superconductive products may exceed $1 billion in 1987. These products are expanding the frontiers of science, revolutionizing the art of medical diagnosis, and developing the energy technology of the future. In general, today's customers for superconductive equipment want the highest possible performance, almost regardless of cost. The products operate within a few degrees of absolute zero, and virtually all are fabricated from niobium or niobium alloys-so far the high-temperature superconductors discovered in 1986 and 1987 have had no impact on these markets. The industry shows potential and profound societal impact, even without the new materials

  14. Evaluation of the use of polymer modified bitumen in the production of high modulus asphalt for heavily-trafficked roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enrobé à Module Élevé (EME) technology, a High Modulus Asphalt (HiMA), has been introduced to South Africa to provide an optimum solution for the design and construction of heavily trafficked roads. Implementation of EME technology in South Africa...

  15. The nature of the torus in the heavily obscured AGN Markarian 3: an X-ray study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guainazzi, M.; Risaliti, G.; Awaki, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of an X-ray monitoring campaign on the heavily obscured Seyfert galaxy, Markarian 3, carried out between the fall of 2014 and the spring of 2015 with NuSTAR, Suzaku and XMM–Newton. The hard X-ray spectrum of Markarian 3 is variable on all the time-scales probe...

  16. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papastergis, E.; Adams, E. A. K.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the Arecibo legacy fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M∗ ≳ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former

  17. Marketization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    2016-01-01

    out; Benchmarking and yardstick competition; and Public-Private collaboration. On the basis of the review of the seven articles, it is found that all elements in all marketization models are firmly embedded but also under dynamic change within public service delivery systems. The review also......Purpose: The purpose of this introduction article to the IJPSM special issue on marketization is to clarify the conceptual foundations of marketization as a phenomenon within the public sector and to gauge current marketization trends on the basis of the seven articles in the special issue. Design....../methodology/approach: Conceptual clarification and cross-cutting review of seven articles analysing marketization in six countries in three policy areas at the level of local government. Findings: Four ideal-type models are deduced: Quasi-markets, involving both provider competition and free choice for users; Classic contracting...

  18. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  19. SPORT MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Špirtović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.

  20. Sport Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  1. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  2. Online marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zrůst, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate pay per click marketing as suitable marketing tool for promotion and distribution of a given product. The paper describes basic vocabulary related to PPC advertising, common metrics, tools used by online marketers, and logic of running PPC campaigns. The paper also tries to quantify impact of Internet on economies. The second part applies the theory to analysis of consumers' conversion path while searching online in common search engines where PPC marketi...

  3. Affiliate marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ureš, Michal

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis focuses on the topic of online affiliate marketing from the perspective of an internet entrepreneur. In the first, theoretical part, it characterizes the affiliate marketing, describes different, significant affiliate solutions in the Czech market and opportunities for their implementations. In the second, practical part, it concentrates mainly on an affiliate program of a company called GameLeader, s.r.o. It analyses expectations of the business from the implementation...

  4. Power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, F.P.; Altman, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most significant developments in the US electric power industry in recent years has been the phenomenal growth of power marketing. What was barely a blimp on the radar screen in 1992 has turned out to be a jumbo jet. This article explains what is power marketing who are power marketers, what role play these players and what will be their longer-term impact on the traditional industry [it

  5. Marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  6. Developing markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Bernardo; Chelekis, Jessica; DeBerry-Spence, Benet

    2015-01-01

    acknowledging complex, systemic interdependencies between markets, marketing, and society. Based on a critical review of the meaning of development and an interrogation of various developmental discourses, the authors develop a conceptual framework that brings together issues of development, wellbeing......, and social inequalities. We suggest that these issues are better understooda nd addressed when examined via grounded investigations of the role of markets in shaping the management of resources, consumer agency, power inequalities and ethics. The use of markets as units of analysis may lead to further cross...

  7. An Exploratory Investigation of the Periodic Performance Evaluation Processes for Marketing Faculty: A Comparison of Doctoral-Granting and Non-Doctoral-Granting Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, C. David; Carley, Susan S.; Stuart, Randy S.

    2009-01-01

    Whether a first entrant into the academic job market or a seasoned professional, career outcomes for marketing educators depend heavily on the evaluation process used at their institutions. This research explores the periodic performance evaluation process for marketing faculty members using data collected from a national sample of marketing…

  8. Muddling up the Market: New Exempt- Market Regulations may do more Harm than Good to the Integrity of Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2014-11-01

    protect investors from the higher risks that are presumed of exempt markets. However, there is no evidence — given the paucity of information about them — that exempt markets necessarily pose a greater risk of fraud or poorer returns and losses than do heavily regulated public markets. And if risk is indeed higher in the exempt markets, one would expect these proposed regulations to assist highquality firms from distinguishing themselves in the exempt market from low-quality firms. However, these regulations may actually have the opposite effect, making it harder for better-quality firms to signal their worthiness to investors. Canadian productivity — which continues to lag relative to other developed economies — relies heavily on businesses being able to acquire capital for investing in new technologies. Canadian companies and investors appear to be voting with their feet for exempt markets in raising that capital, possibly discouraged from public markets by regulatory costs and inefficiencies. For policy-makers to layer additional regulation on top of exempt markets without fully understanding the impact that it will have, could well result in making Canadian markets, and Canada’s economy, weaker, rather than stronger.

  9. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medication in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Duggal, Rishi; Menkes, David B

    2014-08-29

    The last decade has seen increasing measures aimed at regulating the influence of 'Big Pharma' following a number of scandals relating to unethical marketing. Despite these international trends, New Zealand continues to tolerate direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medication, a controversial pharmaceutical marketing strategy that has been prohibited in all but two countries in the industrialised world. While the pharmaceutical industry asserts that DTCA is informational and empowers consumers, in this viewpoint article we argue that DTCA is a heavily biased source of health information that favours representation of benefits over harms, and is associated with unnecessary prescribing, iatrogenic harm and increased costs to the taxpayer. In this paper, we show that DTCA provides unbalanced information to consumers who may misconstrue DTCA as public health messages, and fail to recognise inherent commercial bias. We describe how DTCA has been linked with inappropriate prescribing and overtreatment, with evidence indicating that patients request and receive specific medications in response to DTCA, even when treatment is not clinically indicated. This exposes patients to unnecessary adverse effects and iatrogenic harm, and increases costs for the health-care sector through the prescription of expensive branded medication. We use local examples to illustrate these points. New Zealand remains an outlier in allowing DTCA to continue which, in our view, is a controversial and harmful practice. The available evidence suggests that consumers and health care professionals are generally opposed to DTCA. Therefore, we believe that the New Zealand government should review its stance on DTCA.

  10. Age standardized cancer mortality ratios in areas heavily exposed to methyl mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Kawakami, Norito

    2007-08-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) was discharged from a chemical factory in Minamata, and consequently spread throughout the Shiranui Sea in Kumamoto, Japan. Although many studies have focused on MeHg-induced neurological disorders, the association between MeHg and malignant neoplasms has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, we explored this association using the age standardized mortality ratio (ASMR) in an ecologic study over a wide area allowing for a long empirical induction period. The subjects were residents in areas around the Shiranui Sea. We divided these areas into exposure groups 1 (Minamata and Ashikita regions) and 2 (Amakusa region). Exposure group 1 was contaminated from the late 1930s, and exposure group 2 was contaminated from the late 1950s. In addition, exposure group 1 was contaminated more heavily than exposure group 2. There were 92,525 and 152,541 residents in each group in 1960, respectively. We analyzed the cancer ASMR in both exposure groups using data from two reference populations (Japan and Kumamoto prefecture) from 1961 to 1997. There were 94,301,494 and 1,856,192 people in each reference group in 1960, respectively. We abstracted population and mortality data from the censuses and the vital statistics of the prefecture and Japan. An increased leukemia ASMR and a decreased gastric cancer ASMR were observed in both exposure groups, while other ASMRs were around unity and less precise. Furthermore, the leukemia ASMRs were elevated differently between the two exposure groups: the leukemia ASMR was already elevated early in the study period in exposure group 1 and increased gradually in exposure group 2. While the negative association between MeHg and gastric cancer might be explained by salt intake, the positive association between MeHg and leukemia could not be explained by potential confounders. Despite some limitations mainly due to its ecologic design, this study indicates the necessity of an individual-level study evaluating the

  11. Electrical activation of nitrogen heavily implanted 3C-SiC(1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fan, E-mail: f.li.1@warwick.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Sharma, Yogesh; Shah, Vishal; Jennings, Mike [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Pérez-Tomás, Amador [ICN2 – Institut Catala de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Myronov, Maksym [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Fisher, Craig [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Leadley, David [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mawby, Phil [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Nitrogen is fully activated by 1175 °C annealing for 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} doped 3C-SiC. • Free donor concentration is found to readily saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. • 3C-SiC is found to have complete donor thermal ionization above 150 K. • Donor in 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} nitrogen implanted 3C-SiC has an energy level ∼15 meV. • The SiO{sub 2} cap is found to have a bigger influence on low and medium doped samples. - Abstract: A degenerated wide bandgap semiconductor is a rare system. In general, implant levels lie deeper in the band-gap and carrier freeze-out usually takes place at room temperature. Nevertheless, we have observed that heavily doped n-type degenerated 3C-SiC films are achieved by nitrogen implantation level of ∼6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} at 20 K. According to temperature dependent Hall measurements, nitrogen activation rates decrease with the doping level from almost 100% (1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}, donor level 15 meV) to ∼12% for 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Free donors are found to saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The implanted film electrical performances are characterized as a function of the dopant doses and post implantation annealing (PIA) conditions by fabricating Van der Pauw structures. A deposited SiO{sub 2} layer was used as the surface capping layer during the PIA process to study its effect on the resultant film properties. From the device design point of view, the lowest sheet resistivity (∼1.4 mΩ cm) has been observed for medium doped (4 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) sample with PIA 1375 °C 2 h without a SiO{sub 2} cap.

  12. GEMINI/GeMS Observations Unveil the Structure of the Heavily Obscured Globular Cluster Liller 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.; Miocchi, P.; Massari, D.

    2015-06-01

    By exploiting the exceptional high-resolution capabilities of the near-IR camera GSAOI combined with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive System at the GEMINI South Telescope, we investigated the structural and physical properties of the heavily obscured globular cluster Liller 1 in the Galactic bulge. We have obtained the deepest and most accurate color-magnitude diagram published so far for this cluster, reaching {{K}s}˜ 19 (below the main-sequence turnoff level). We used these data to redetermine the center of gravity of the system, finding that it is located about 2.″2 southeast from the literature value. We also built new star density and surface brightness profiles for the cluster and rederived its main structural and physical parameters (scale radii, concentration parameter, central mass density, total mass). We find that Liller 1 is significantly less concentrated (concentration parameter c=1.74) and less extended (tidal radius {{r}t}=298\\prime\\prime and core radius {{r}c}=5\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 39) than previously thought. By using these newly determined structural parameters, we estimated the mass of Liller 1 to be {{M}tot}=2.3+0.3-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } ({{M}tot}=1.5+0.2-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } for a Kroupa initial mass function), which is comparable to that of the most massive clusters in the Galaxy (ω Centari and Terzan 5). Also, Liller 1 has the second-highest collision rate (after Terzan 5) among all star clusters in the Galaxy, thus confirming that it is an ideal environment for the formation of collisional objects (such as millisecond pulsars). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da

  13. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Patients with Heavily Pretreated Liver Metastases and Liver Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanciano, Rachelle; Lamond, John; Yang, Jun; Feng, Jing; Arrigo, Steve; Good, Michael; Brady, Luther, E-mail: rlancmd@gmail.com [Philadelphia CyberKnife, Drexel University, Havertown, PA (United States)

    2012-03-09

    We present our initial experience with CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in a heavily pretreated group of patients with liver metastases and primary liver tumors. From October 2007 to June 2009, 48 patients were treated at the Philadelphia CyberKnife Center for liver metastases or primary liver tumors. We report on 30 patients with 41 discrete lesions (1–4 tumors per patient) who received an ablative radiation dose (BED ≥ 79.2 Gy10 = 66 Gy EQD2). The treatment goal was to achieve a high SBRT dose to the liver tumor while sparing at least 700 cc of liver from radiation doses above 15 Gy. Twenty-three patients were treated with SBRT for metastatic cancer to the liver; the remainder (n = 7) were primary liver tumors. Eighty-seven percent of patients had prior systemic chemotherapy with a median 24 months from diagnosis to SBRT; 37% had prior liver directed therapy. Local control was assessed for 28 patients (39 tumors) with 4 months or more follow-up. At a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 10–40 months), 14/39 (36%) tumors had documented local failure. A decrease in local failure was found with higher doses of SBRT (p = 0.0237); 55% of tumors receiving a BED ≤ 100 Gy10 (10/18) had local failure compared with 19% receiving a BED > 100 Gy10 (4/21). The 2-year actuarial rate of local control for tumors treated with BED > 100 Gy10 was 75% compared to 38% for those patients treated with BED ≤ 100 Gy10 (p = 0.04). At last follow-up, 22/30 patients (73%) had distant progression of disease. Overall, seven patients remain alive with a median survival of 20 months from treatment and 57 months from diagnosis. To date, no patient experienced persistent or severe adverse effects. Despite the heavy pretreatment of these patients, SBRT was well tolerated with excellent local control rates when adequate doses (BED > 100 Gy10) were used. Median survival was limited secondary to development of further metastatic disease in the majority of patients.

  14. Historical data reveal 30-year persistence of benthic fauna associations in heavily modified waterbody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Callaway

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseline surveys form the cornerstone of coastal impact studies where altered conditions, for example through new infrastructure development, are assessed against a temporal reference state. They are snapshots taken before construction. Due to scarcity of relevant data prior to baseline surveys long-term trends can often not be taken into account. Particularly in heavily modified waterbodies this would however be desirable to control for changes in anthropogenic use over time as well as natural ecological variation. Here, the benthic environment of an industrialized embayment was investigated (Swansea Bay, Wales, UK where it is proposed to build a tidal lagoon that would generate marine renewable energy from the tidal range. Since robust long-term baseline data was not available, the value of unpublished historical benthos information from 1984 by a regional water company was assessed with the aim to improve certainty about the persistence of current benthic community patterns. A survey of 101 positions in 2014 identified spatially discrete benthic communities with areas of high and low diversity. Habitat characteristics including sediment properties and the proximity to a sewage outfall explained 17-35% of the variation in the community structure. Comparing the historical information from 1984 with 2014 revealed striking similarity in the benthic communities between those years, not just in their spatial distribution but also to a large extent in the species composition. The 30-year-old information confirmed spatial boundaries of discrete species associations and pinpointed a similar diversity hotspot. A group of five common species was found to be particularly persistent over time (Nucula nitidosa, Spisula elliptica, Spiophanes bombyx, Nephtys hombergii, Diastylis rathkei. According to the Infauna Quality Index (IQI linked to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD the average ecological status for 2014 was ‘moderate’, but eleven samples

  15. Sexual Markets or Black Markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2014-01-01

    sex with sugar-daddies, called sponsors or patrons, who provide for them in exchange for sex while male peers often become street vendors, street artists or petty criminals engaged in the so-called ‘black’ markets of theft, sale of counterfeits, and circulation of stolen goods, alcohol and drugs. As I...... show, these gendered markets are highly entangled and interdependent, and as I argue, male and female markets use many of the same technologies, sources and circuits of exchange...

  16. Marketing Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009......Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009...

  17. Market shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  18. Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  19. Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of digitization has had a profound impact on the art market and its institutions. In this chapter, we focus on the market for visual arts as it finds its expression in (among other) paintings, prints, drawings, photographs, sculpture and the like. These artistic disciplines

  20. Direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  1. Tourism Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  2. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  3. Crossover marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of a deregulated energy market on customers in Ontario was discussed. In particular, the way in which Sunoco will deal with energy convergence and how Sunoco plans to generate interest among residential consumers in a deregulated and competitive energy market was described. Integrated energy solutions that offer customers value-added heating, ventilating and air conditioning products and services, inclusive of equipment sales, installation, repair, rental, leasing, financing, warranty, insurance and maintenance is the ultimate goal of Sunoco. The major retail issues in the energy market such as licensing of marketers, customer mobility, transfer of utility assets to affiliates, Ontario Hydro's market power in electrical generation, distribution of stranded debt charges, and a timetable for deregulation were also addressed. figs

  4. MARKETING PLANNING IN HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobeica Ana Amaria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a perspective on what is important or critical to the discipline of healthcare marketing by analyzing the marketing plan from the institutional (or organizational perspective. This “salience issue” is complicated by the structural problems in healthcare such as new advertising programs, advances in medical technology, and the escalating costs of care in the recent economic situation of world economic crisis. Reviewing a case study, the paper examines how marketing managers face increasingly difficult management and it emphasizes one more time the importance of marketing in the internal organizational structure. Also it shows the direct connection between the marketing strategy, the Quality of Healthcare and marketing planning in the internal organization of Private Healthcare Practice in Romania. Also it concludes that marketing planning in healthcare has to be very precised in order to achieve some major objectives: customer care, financial stability, equilibrium between stakeholders and shareholders and future improvement in communication to customers. The marketing strategies and programs discussed in this paper follow the analysis of the 4Ps of Healthcare Marketing Services and propose call to action plans and possibilities that might result in a more particular case study analysis of the Romanian Healthcare Market.

  5. Marketing is Dead! Long Live Marketing!

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The contents of the lectures included: Why marketing? Citizen, Consumer, Customer (Behavior) Who is the Father of Marketing? Some Antecedents of Marketing When Did Marketing Start? The Contributors of Marketing Where Did Marketing Start? Job Positions in Today’s Marketing Organization The Role of the Chief Marketing Officer Four Different CEO Views of Marketing Reality – Truth – Challenge (Why Can’t We Make It?) The Strong and Steady Progress of Marketi...

  6. Theoretical investigation of the heavily-doped semiconductor aspect of ultra-dilute GaAsN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukpitak, Jessada; Sa-yakanit, Virulh

    2015-12-01

    The model of GaAs1- y N y ( y = 0.001) as a heavily-doped semiconductor in the ultra-dilute region is attentively examined. The model enables GaAsN to be viewed as a disordered assembly of three-dimensional quantum dots (potential wells) caused by random potential fluctuations from nitrogen pairs in the system. Consequently, Feynman's path-integration technique is applied in order to quantify the density of states (DOS) in the vicinity of the conduction band edge. The obtained DOS tail, even though overestimated, still clearly shows a much shorter tail than that the experimental result does. This shows that the heavily-doped semiconductor viewpoint is not proper for GaAsN, not even in the ultra-dilute region. Furthermore, this also suggests that the impurity wave function overlap is not a basic mechanism of band gap reduction.

  7. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Luengo Cascudo, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este proyecto es explicar y entender la importancia del Mobile Marketing como nueva herramienta de negocio en el Marketing empresarial. Para ello, el primer objetivo es entender los dos factores que para mí son la clave de su importancia: la evolución del entorno tecnológico y el cambio en los hábitos del consumidor. Debido a la novedad de esta nueva forma de Marketing y al hecho de que está en constante definición, es básico exponer de la forma más cla...

  8. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    竹安, 数博; Takeyasu, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with one of the modern trends in marketing communication, which is mobile marketing. Towards the end of 2008, several projects which use mobile phones for target marketing communication were launched. Commercial SMS´s are sent on the base of agreement or registration of the consumers on special websites, for example hellomobil.cz. The benefit for the consumers is the bonus which can have more forms - not only sending money to the account, free SMS´s/MMS´s and minutes but al...

  9. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The government vows to control the real estate market after a year of robust growth.To diversify financial investment tools,the regulatory authorities approved the launch of stock index futures,and short selling and margin trading to allow investors to hedge against risks.China overtakes the United States to become the world’s biggest auto market in2009.The country is also expected to become the largest consumer market in the world by2020.Google threatens to halt its China operations if it cannot reach a censorship agreement with the government.

  10. Uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.A.; Asem, M.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The historical development of the uranium market is present in two periods: The initial period 1947-1970 and from 1970 onwards, with the establishment of a commercial market. The world uranium requirements are derived from the corresponding forecast of nuclear generating capacity, with, particular emphasis to the brazilian requirements. The forecast of uranium production until the year 2000 is presented considering existing inventories and the already committed demand. The balance between production and requirements is analysed. Finally the types of contracts currently being used and the development of uranium prices in the world market are considered. (author)

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China vows to keep a stringent handle on the industrial overcapacity that is draining life from the economic revival. China Mobile pushes forward OPhone and its operating system in an aggressive push into the 3G market. As its tight grip over the market slips, the wireless titan cannot wait to regain lost ground. China’s manufacturing sector continues to pick up steam as evidenced by the climbing PMI. Soaring prices of pork and eggs reignite fears over inflation. The buoyant real estate market appears to be nearing a turning point as sales cool down.

  12. Predominance of heavily calcified coccolithophores at low CaCO3 saturation during winter in the Bay of Biscay

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Helen E. K.; Tyrrell, Toby; Charalampopoulou, Anastasia; Dumousseaud, Cynthia; Legge, Oliver J.; Birchenough, Sarah; Pettit, Laura R.; Garley, Rebecca; Hartman, Sue E.; Hartman, Mark C.; Sagoo, Navjit; Daniels, Chris J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Hydes, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Coccolithophores are an important component of the Earth system, and, as calcifiers, their possible susceptibility to ocean acidification is of major concern. Laboratory studies at enhanced pCO2 levels have produced divergent results without overall consensus. However, it has been predicted from these studies that, although calcification may not be depressed in all species, acidification will produce “a transition in dominance from more to less heavily calcified coccolithophores” [Ridgwell A,...

  13. Stereoselective, nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascades for the direct synthesis of heavily decorated 5-nitropiperidin-2-ones and related heterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Jakubec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A versatile nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascade for the direct stereoselective synthesis of heavily decorated 5-nitropiperidin-2-ones and related heterocycles has been developed. A highly enantioenriched substituted 5-nitropiperidin-2-one was synthesised in a four component one-pot reaction combining an enantioselective organocatalytic Michael addition with the diastereoselective nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascade. Protodenitration and chemoselective reductive manipulation of the heterocycles was used to install contiguous and fully substituted stereocentres in the synthesis of substituted piperidines.

  14. "Location is surprisingly a lot more important than you think": a critical thematic analysis of push and pull factor messaging used on Caribbean offshore medical school websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jeffrey; Crooks, Valorie A; Sampson, Carla Jackie; Snyder, Jeremy

    2017-06-02

    Offshore medical schools are for-profit, private enterprises located in the Caribbean that provide undergraduate medical education to students who must leave the region for postgraduate training and also typically to practice. This growing industry attracts many medical students from the US and Canada who wish to return home to practice medicine. After graduation, international medical graduates can encounter challenges obtaining residency placements and can face other barriers related to practice. We conducted a qualitative thematic analysis to discern the dominant messages found on offshore medical school websites. Dominant messages included frequent references to push and pull factors intended to encourage potential applicants to consider attending an offshore medical school. We reviewed 38 English-language Caribbean offshore medical school websites in order to extract and record content pertaining to push and pull factors. We found two push and four pull factors present across most offshore medical school websites. Push factors include the: shortages of physicians in the US and Canada that require new medical trainees; and low acceptance rates at medical schools in intended students' home countries. Pull factors include the: financial benefits of attending an offshore medical school; geographic location and environment of training in the Caribbean; training quality and effectiveness; and the potential to practice medicine in one's home country. This analysis contributes to our understanding of some of the factors behind students' decisions to attend an offshore medical school. Importantly, push and pull factors do not address the barriers faced by offshore medical school graduates in finding postgraduate residency placements and ultimately practicing elsewhere. It is clear from push and pull factors that these medical schools heavily focus messaging and marketing towards students from the US and Canada, which raises questions about who benefits from this

  15. Pay-as-bid based reactive power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, N.; Rabiee, A.; Shayanfar, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    In energy market clearing, the offers are stacked in increasing order and the offer that intersects demand curve, determines the market clearing price (MCP). In reactive power market, the location of reactive power compensator is so important. A low cost reactive producer may not essentially be favorable if it is far from the consumer. Likewise, a high cost local reactive compensator at a heavily loaded demand center of network could be inevitably an alternative required to produce reactive power to maintain the integrity of power system. Given the background, this paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market based on pay-as-bid (PAB) mechanism. Generators expected payment function (EPF) is used to construct a bidding framework. Then, total payment function (TPF) of generators is used as the objective function of optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the PAB based market. The CIGRE-32 bus test system is used to examine the effectiveness of the proposed reactive power market.

  16. Pay-as-bid based reactive power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjady, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabiee, A., E-mail: Rabiee@iust.ac.i [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    In energy market clearing, the offers are stacked in increasing order and the offer that intersects demand curve, determines the market clearing price (MCP). In reactive power market, the location of reactive power compensator is so important. A low cost reactive producer may not essentially be favorable if it is far from the consumer. Likewise, a high cost local reactive compensator at a heavily loaded demand center of network could be inevitably an alternative required to produce reactive power to maintain the integrity of power system. Given the background, this paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market based on pay-as-bid (PAB) mechanism. Generators expected payment function (EPF) is used to construct a bidding framework. Then, total payment function (TPF) of generators is used as the objective function of optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the PAB based market. The CIGRE-32 bus test system is used to examine the effectiveness of the proposed reactive power market.

  17. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Gause, Matěj

    2012-01-01

    The goal of bachelor's thesis on the theme "Mobile marketing" is to outline its development and why is this new phenomen so important for all modern companies around the world. The work is not about simple description of mobile marketing media but it vividly informs about the latest trends and news from the world of mobile apps and games. It presents the most successful mobile apps which registered more than billion downloads and from their unique characteristics it unveils great potential of...

  18. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s manufacturing activities keep slowing down.The"big four"state-owned commercial banks have reaped juicy profits,though capital adequacy remains a concern.In striking contrast,the steelmakers are struggling to make ends meet as costs inflation erodes profit margins.The consumer market booms as usual during the May Day holiday.The search engine Baidu benefits from torrid traffic growth and a diversified market strategy.

  19. Entrepreneurial Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the youngest disciplines in the area of business administration. Hence, there is a special need for literature that can be used in teaching and that can serve as a basis for research. This article reviews five textbooks and three research-oriented books on entrepreneurial marketing, which is regarded as one of the key areas of entrepreneurship. As the review shows, there is no textbook that covers all relevant aspects of entrepreneurial marketing in sufficient bread...

  20. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing industry shows signs of recovery as reflected by a rebounding PMI. The initial public offerings market withers due to less than favorable stock markets. Chinese shipbuilders reel from decreasing orders as external demands falter. The mobile payment industry bursts with vitality, though the security issue remains an acute concern. Foreign banks in China lag behind their local competitors in terms of profitability owing to limited ability to attract deposits.

  1. Market scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Nova Scotia's Energy Strategy is aimed at opening the electricity market to wholesale competition, allowing eligible wholesale customers (such as municipal distribution utilities) to buy their electricity from competitive sources. The Nova Scotia Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee (EMGC) is concerned that this will not promote long-term competition because these eligible customers form only a very small fraction (1.6 per cent) of the total electricity demand in the province. This report examines the possible extensions of competition beyond the minimum specified in the Energy Strategy. It also identifies approaches that the EMGC may consider, including other potential levels of competition and their associated issues. The report discussed the issue of implementing wholesale competition as it relates to unbundling of the transmission tariff from the cost of energy supply and from the cost of distribution in retail marketing. The stages of expanding the market scope were also described with reference to large industrial customers, medium industrial and large commercial customers, and small commercial and residential customers. The report states that it is unlikely that the transition to an open access transmission market will need to be reversed, as it is likely to be an essential component of any further development. The EMGC feels it could minimize future transition costs and promote future evolution of competition by recommending for an institutional and market structure that is compatible with a broader competitive market

  2. Marketing strategy determinants in rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H L; Haley, D; Piland, N F

    1993-01-01

    Rural hospitals confront an inauspicious environment due to changes in patient reimbursement and medical practice. Facing a situation of declining revenues, marketing presents an option for rural hospitals to adapt to the growing constraints. This paper analyzes the determinants of marketing strategy emphasis in rural hospitals. The conceptual model adopted in this study predicts that prior performance and contextual variables explain marketing strategy emphasis. The relationships are examined in a case study of rural New Mexico hospitals. Results suggest that prior performance and several contextual variables explain variations in marketing strategy emphasis. In particular, higher gross patient revenues are associated with more emphasis on television and radio advertising. Furthermore, rural New Mexico hospitals with high numbers of licensed beds and medical staff members, or that are affiliated with a chain organization, place greater emphasis on market research and market planning. The implications for marketing practice in rural hospitals are discussed.

  3. Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing. A comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Varfan, Mona; Shima, Alfa

    2008-01-01

    Title: Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing: A comparison Problem: Marketing is an important strategy for businesses and it contains numerous effective tools. Traditional marketing has been in use for many years and nowadays Internet has brought new ways of doing business for companies and that has affected marketing. What are the main differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing? Which one of the two approaches contains the most used and effective marketing tools ...

  4. Market Development of Video Games : Video game markets and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This diploma work focus on analysing the markets and marketing of video game industry. After the research of this study, I found out that console game markets are growing dramatically in the recent years. On the other hand, PC game markets (excluding online game markets) are growing slowly due to the problem of illegal copies. So my study will then focus on the development of console game markets and marketing. A new concept called Three Parties is introduced in chapter 5 to help ...

  5. Retail competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defeuilley, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of competition into retail electricity supply gave rise to great expectations. However, to date, its performance has proven less than stellar, owing primarily to the theoretical concepts underpinning this reform, which draw heavily on the Austrian school. Neither consumers' decision processes nor this sector's technical paradigm were adequately accounted for, leading to an uncorrect estimation of the expected impact of opening to competition. Short- and medium-term prospects for the evolution of retail markets must be reconsidered from the perspective of greater stability: not a generalization of competition, but rather a persistent segmentation between active and inactive clients; not a large and rapid diffusion of radical innovations in commercialisation, with the potential for undermining the incumbents' positions

  6. Retail competition in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defeuilley, Christophe [LARSEN and EDF R and D, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2009-02-15

    The introduction of competition into retail electricity supply gave rise to great expectations. However, to date, its performance has proven less than stellar, owing primarily to the theoretical concepts underpinning this reform, which draw heavily on the Austrian school. Neither consumers' decision processes nor this sector's technical paradigm were adequately accounted for, leading to an uncorrect estimation of the expected impact of opening to competition. Short- and medium-term prospects for the evolution of retail markets must be reconsidered from the perspective of greater stability: not a generalization of competition, but rather a persistent segmentation between active and inactive clients; not a large and rapid diffusion of radical innovations in commercialisation, with the potential for undermining the incumbents' positions. (author)

  7. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, M.; Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Wang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts

  8. Ontario perspective on interregional markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, A.

    2003-01-01

    On May 1, 2002, wholesale and retail electricity markets in Ontario were opened to competition. The industry structure has been completely unbundled into separate entities for power generation, distribution and transmission. There are currently 20 generators, 90 distributors and 4 transmitters in Ontario. Trade with neighbouring jurisdictions has increased and now accounts for 10 to 15 per cent of demand on summer peak days. Import/export capability with the United States (northeast and midwest) and other Canadian provinces (Quebec and Manitoba) is 4,000 to 6,000 MW. Ontario has not had new generation or transmission capacity in several years and the heat waves of summer 2002 resulted in a heavier power demand than forecasted. The province had to rely heavily on power imports resulting in high and volatile electricity prices. In response to customer complaints, the Ontario government froze retail rates and in a recent policy directive announced a public ownership policy for transmission with further consultation on improving supply competition in Ontario. FERC order 888 and the increased role of independent power producers has improved trading opportunities between Canada and the United States. The presentation highlighted recent trade trends and outlined the specific impact of the Standard Market Design on Canadian markets. It was noted that Ontario should work on ensuring power reliability, transmission planning, inter-regional coordination, and joint investments with neighbouring jurisdictions. 9 figs

  9. Solution to marketing; Marketing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y.; Fukushima, T.; Kanezuka, A. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-10

    Fuji Electric in cooperation with Citation Japan Co., Ltd. and Asahi Arthur Andersen Limited has developed the 'marketing analysis support system' which supports the integrated analysis of evaluation factors of various dimensions and efficient commodity development and demand estimation in the enterprise. With this system, more precise marketing analysis and estimation are made possible by analyzing a commodity into evaluation factors from psychological and physical points of view and further making various multivariate analyses. (author)

  10. "Unusual brain stone": heavily calcified primary neoplasm with some features suggestive of angiocentric glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Jahangir; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Bermingham, Niamh; Marks, Charles; Keohane, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    This 40-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of progressive right-sided headache associated with visual blurring. He also had a history of epilepsy but had been seizure free with medication for the past 10 years. An initial CT scan of his brain performed 16 years previously had revealed a small area of calcification in the right parietal region. In the current presentation, he had a left-sided homonymous hemianopia but no other neurological deficits. A CT scan of his brain showed a much larger calcified, partly cystic lesion in the right parietal region. Because he was symptomatic, the lesion was excised and the cyst was drained. Histological examination of the excised tissue showed an unusual primary tumor that was difficult to classify but had some features of angiocentric glioma. The heavy calcification, mixed-density cell population, and regions with features of angiocentric glioma were most unusual. The patient remained asymptomatic 5 years after surgery, and follow-up scans did not show recurrence.

  11. Marketing insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiemer, Carolin; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Jespersen, Kristjan

    2018-01-01

    In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood is a mar......In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood...... is a marketing term for nutrient-packed foods, which are successfully promoted to Western consumers with the promises of health, well-being and beauty. However, the increase in the demand in the West is argued to cause negative social, environmental, economic and cultural consequences – externalities – felt...

  12. Prediction Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Christian Franz; Ivens, Bjørn Sven; Ohneberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Prediction Markets gained growing interest as a forecasting tool among researchers as well as practitioners, which resulted in an increasing number of publications. In order to track the latest development of research, comprising the extent and focus of research, this article...... provides a comprehensive review and classification of the literature related to the topic of Prediction Markets. Overall, 316 relevant articles, published in the timeframe from 2007 through 2013, were identified and assigned to a herein presented classification scheme, differentiating between descriptive...... works, articles of theoretical nature, application-oriented studies and articles dealing with the topic of law and policy. The analysis of the research results reveals that more than half of the literature pool deals with the application and actual function tests of Prediction Markets. The results...

  13. MARKETING CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gómez Ramírez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la definición de "Marketing" Cultural y la adaptación y beneficios del "marketing" tradicional respecto al conjunto de manifestaciones artísticas de las diversas industrias involucradas en el sector cultural o artístico; asimismo, se desagregan los conceptos básicos que lo componen como factor de éxito en dichas empresas. Se hace uso de la exposición de casos específicos para ilustrar la articulación de estos dos conceptos aparentemente contrapuestos, cultura y "marketing", y registra algunas reflexiones para que el lector se involucre en la construcción del concepto aquí presentado.

  14. Postmodernist marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radenković-Šošić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The traits of postmodernist communication with consumers are based on the transmission of postmodernist concepts in the area of marketing and communication with consumers. The paper offers an overview of the basic semiological points of interpretation of commercial messages, especially the semiotic square pioneered by Jean-Marie Floch, as well as offering an analysis of commercial messages according to the most prominent traits of postmodernist marketing: creating the effect of hyperreality, fragmentary communication, and displacement of reality, bringing opposites together and accepting difference. The results of the analysis confirm the hypothesized high level of congruence of certain postmodernist traits of marketing with messages which emphasize the ludist and utopian values of products.

  15. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    After four days of breathtaking plunges, the Chinese stock market recovered to a period of steady growth thanks to encouragement from various government departments. The Chinese central bank will probably raise the interest rate in June after food prices increased dramatically in May. More good news for foreign banks. Early this month, the central bank allowed foreign banks to trade gold on the Chinese gold market and they are now able to issue bankcards in the country. Lenovo Group, China’s leading PC producer, is dedicated to exploring the rural market to boost its competitiveness. China Mobile will seek bidders to offer cell-phone handsets, a package worth 4-6 billion yuan.

  16. Market Sociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian; Lange, Ann-Christina

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical systematic discussion of Shiller’s writings from the late 1970s to the present, as well as an examination of the social-psychological assumptions on which his work is built. We argue that Shiller’s work displays a tension between mimetic and anti-mimetic tendencies......, i.e. between understanding financial markets as captured by fads and fashions (mimesis), and at the same time understanding such markets on the basis of a notion of homo economicus (an essentially anti-mimetic figure). Identifying that tension not only sheds novel light on Shiller’s work, but also...... allows us to critically discuss Mirowski’s negative appraisal of Shiller’s behavioural finance programme. Further, we argue that the mimetic/anti-mimetic tension in Shiller’s work can equally be identified in a broader range of theories about financial markets, and that attending to it therefore opens up...

  17. Pollutant loads and water quality in streams of heavily populated and industrialised towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntengwe, F. W.

    The availability of portable water is often taken for granted and water allowed to get polluted. Industries, settlements, farms, markets, leaking sewer lines, poor hygiene practices are all potential sources of pollution. Each pollutant has its own effect on water and the environment. A study was conducted in Kitwe Stream in order to establish whether engineering and other human activities affect water quality. Samples were collected at ten points, the first point being at the source while the tenth point was at the confluence with the Kafue River. The samples were analysed for physical, chemical and biological parameters. The results revealed high levels of concentration and loads of total suspended solids (TSS). The points with high TSS values were P4 (118 mg/l) and P6 (140 mg/l) representing daily loads of 7.74 and 8.71 tonnes, respectively. The highest values of coliform were found at points P9 (2099), P10 (2558) followed by P4 (1149), P5 (1256) and P6 (1370). High values of nitrites were found at points P4 (34 mg/l), P5 (32 mg/l), P6 (21 mg/l) and P10 (12.4 mg/l). Chlorides were also found to be high at points P4, P5 and P6 with values of 70 mg/l, 80 mg/l and 87 mg/l, respectively. These parameters exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 100 mg/l for TSS, 1 mg/l for nitrites, 500/100 ml for coliform in Zambia. The conductivity and coliform were also found to be high (>500 μS/cm, >500). The benthic study revealed a normal diversity of invertebrates but chironomidae was found to be on average 60% of total species counted. The fish activity was high upstream and low downstream at the mouth of the stream where it joins the Kafue River. There was no fish activity at the middle points. The planktons (phytoplankton and zooplankton) count revealed a high count (15-30 per ml) in places where there was high fish activity and a low count (1-5 per ml) where there was no activity. The stream water quality was therefore affected by the human activities.

  18. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing activities continue to lose steam as the purchasing managers index drops for the third consecutive month. The U.S.retail giant Best Buy trims its China presence after struggling to survive amidcut-throat competition. But an increasing number of U.S. companies are still expanding into China to cash in on the vibrant market. The aluminum behemoth Chalco jumps back into the black due to growing prices of thelight metal. China’s leading portal website Sina makes a push into the online shopping market by acquiring a stake in an online apparel retailer.

  19. Marketing relacional

    OpenAIRE

    Lahuerta Cuartero, Ainara

    2015-01-01

    El Marketing Relacional es una herramienta de marketing a través del cual las empresas tratan de fidelizar a sus clientes mediante determinados programas de fidelización. Se deben tener en cuenta una serie de aspectos a la hora de llevas a cabo esta herramienta como por ejemplo, la imagen de marca, la comunicación o la credibilidad de la empresa. Renfe es una empresa que se preocupa por la satisfacción de los clientes y por ello pone a disposición de estos multitud de ventajas (descuentos, pr...

  20. EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE CARALICEA-MĂRCULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging markets are winning the currency war, because at this very moment its the battle of global financial institutions , as to who is more vulnerable and more exposed to the debt crisis and have their hands in more risky assets. US and Euro with their intertwining the financial stuff of the nation, the banks and the corporations are in a deep mess. One goes down, takes the other ones too. Right now , they all are struggling and getting beaten up , while the emerging markets are quiet and not really expressing their stands on the current situation except are reacting by all only putting their own houses in order.

  1. Marketing percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, J.; Libai, B.; Solomon, S.; Jan, N.; Stauffer, D.

    2000-09-01

    A percolation model is presented, with computer simulations for illustrations, to show how the sales of a new product may penetrate the consumer market. We review the traditional approach in the marketing literature, which is based on differential or difference equations similar to the logistic equation (Bass, Manage. Sci. 15 (1969) 215). This mean-field approach is contrasted with the discrete percolation on a lattice, with simulations of "social percolation" (Solomon et al., Physica A 277 (2000) 239) in two to five dimensions giving power laws instead of exponential growth, and strong fluctuations right at the percolation threshold.

  2. Mobil marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Engelová, Kateřina

    2006-01-01

    Mobil marketing - reklama a podpora prodeje prostřednictvím mobilních telefonů. Technologické a kulturní předpoklady vzniku tohoto odvětví. Mobil marketing a marketingový mix, možnosti synergie. Nástroje mobil marketingu - reklamní SMS a MMS, lokační služby, soutěže, ankety a hlasování, věrnostní systémy, mobilní obsah. Subjekty mobil marketingu. M-komerce. Využití pro podnikové aplikace.

  3. Digital Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Wind; Vijay Mahajan

    2002-01-01

    The digital revolution has shaken marketing to its core with consumers being offered greater price transparency and often even the chance to dictate the price. What does pricing mean in a world in which customers propose their own prices (as at priceline.com) or buyers and sellers haggle independently in auctions (as at e-Bay)? The most significant changes in the digital marketing show the emergence of 'cyber consumers', the cyber business-to-business world and the changing reality of an incr...

  4. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    TO THE POINT: China’s foreign trade records monthly drop again, with February’s deficit reaching $7.3 billion. The feverish auto market is calming down, with February sales dropping 33.1 percent from a month ago. Chinese thermal power generators are facing serious head- winds as the coal price increases. Ernst & Young’s report shows China racing ahead of other countries in renewable energy investments. The U.S. coupon website Groupon.com extends its reach into China, but its prospects remain uncertain. Digital advertiser Focus Media is faring well thanks to a booming advertising market in China.

  5. Path-integral calculation of the density of states in heavily doped strongly compensated semiconductors in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koinov, Z.G.; Yanchev, I.Y.

    1981-09-01

    The density of states in heavily doped strongly compansated semiconductors in a strong magnetic field is calculated by using the path-integral method. The case is considered when correlation exists in the impurity positions owing to the Coulomb interactions between the charged donors and acceptors during the high-temperature preparation of the samples. The semiclassical formula is rederived and corrections to it due to the long-range character of the potential and its short-range fluctuations are obtained. The density of states in the tail is studied and analytical results are given in the classical and quantum cases. (author)

  6. Resonantly-enhanced transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures in heavily-doped conducting polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Agrawal, Amit; Nahata, Ajay; Menon, Reghu

    2006-02-01

    We observed resonantly-enhanced terahertz transmission through two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures with various periodicities fabricated on metallic organic conducting polymer films of polypyrrole heavily doped with PF6 molecules [PPy(PF6)]. The "anomalous transmission" spectra are in good agreement with a model involving surface plasmon polariton excitations on the film surfaces. We also found that the `anomalous transmission' peaks are broader in the exotic metallic PPy (PF6) films compared to those formed in 2D aperture array in regular metallic films such as silver, showing that the surface plasmon polaritons on the PPy (PF6) film surfaces have higher attenuation.

  7. The nature of the torus in the heavily obscured AGN Markarian 3: an X-ray study

    OpenAIRE

    Guainazzi, M.; Risaliti, G.; Awaki, H.; Arevalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Bianchi, S.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W. W.; Forster, K.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F.; Koss, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of an X-ray monitoring campaign on the heavily obscured Seyfert galaxy, Markarian 3, carried out between the fall of 2014 and the spring of 2015 with NuSTAR, Suzaku and XMM–Newton. The hard X-ray spectrum of Markarian 3 is variable on all the time-scales probed by our campaign, down to a few days. The observed continuum variability is due to an intrinsically variable primary continuum seen in transmission through a large, but still Compton-thin column dens...

  8. Very heavily electron-doped CrSi2 as a high-performance high-temperature thermoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, David; Singh, David J

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the thermoelectric behavior, using first principles and Boltzmann transport calculations, of very heavily electron-doped CrSi 2 and find that at temperatures of 900-1250 K and electron dopings of 1-4 × 10 21 cm -3 , thermopowers as large in magnitude as 200 μV K -1 may be found. Such high thermopowers at such high carrier concentrations are extremely rare, and suggest that excellent thermoelectric performance may be found in these ranges of temperature and doping. (paper)

  9. The effect of irradiation temperature on the optical attenuation recovery in heavily Ge-doped single mode silica core fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Mabrouk, M.A.; Ferrari, A.; Serra, A.; Viezzoli, G.

    1992-01-01

    The behaviour under irradiation of a single mode fiber heavily doped with germanium has been investigated at 0.85 μm and 1.3 μm under different irradiation temperatures in the range from -65degC to 60degC. The time behaviour of the recovery of the induced attenuation has been described using empirical equations, for different temperatures. An nth order kinetics seems appropriate to describe the results and the order of kinetics has been determined at different temperatures. (orig.)

  10. Mites and fungi in heavily infested stores in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, J; Stejskal, V; Munzbergová, Z; Kubátová, A; Vánová, M; Zd'árková, E

    2004-12-01

    Toxigenic and allergen-producing fungi represent a serious hazard to human food and animal feed safety. Ninety-four fungal species were isolated from mite-infested samples of seeds taken from Czech seed stores. Fungi were isolated from the surface of four kinds of seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, and mustard) and from the gut and external surface of five species of mites (i.e., Acarus siro L., 1758, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides (Zachvatkin, 1973), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank, 1781), Tyrophagus putrescentnae (Schrank, 1781) and Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans 1903) separately. Multivariate analysis of fungi complex composition showed that the frequency of fungal was species significantly influenced by the kind of seed. Fungal frequencies differed between mites gut and exoskeleton surface and between the surfaces of mites and seeds. Three groups of fungal species were recognized: 1) mite surface-associated fungi: Penicillium brevicompactum, Alternaria alternata, and Aspergillus versicolor; 2) mite surface- and seed-associated fungi: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus flavus; and 3) seed-associated fungi: Cladosporium herbarum, Mucor dimorphosporus f. dimorphosporus, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium griseofulvum, and Eurotium repens. Mite-carried species of microfungi are known to produce serious mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin B1, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, ochratoxin A, and nephrotoxic glycopeptides) as well as allergen producers (e.g., A. alternata and P. brevicompactum). Storage mites may play an important role in the spread of some medically hazardous micromycetes. In addition, these mite-fungi associations may heighten the risk of occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed stuffs and cause mixed contamination by fungal and mite allergens.

  11. Connecting with prospective medical tourists online

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghavvemi, Sedigheh; Ormond, M.E.; Musa, Ghazali; Isa Mohammed, Che Ruhana; Thirumoorthi, Thinaranjeney; Mustapha, Bin Mohd Zulkhairi; Kanapathy, Kanagi; Chiremel Chandy, Jacob John

    2017-01-01

    Websites of private hospitals promoting medical tourism are important marketing channels for showcasing and promoting destinations' medical facilities and their array of staff expertise, services, treatments and equipment to domestic and foreign patient-consumers alike. This study examines the

  12. 6 Tips to Avoid Medication Mistakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use. Computerized Medication Box FDA has cleared for marketing the Electronic Medication Management Assistant (EMMA), a programmable ... for You Sign up for Consumer Updates by E-mail Page Last Updated: 04/02/2018 Note: If ...

  13. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK.

  14. The market for magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, L.

    1990-01-01

    The medical market is, at present, the most dominant market for low T c superconductors. Indeed, without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), there would hardly be a low T c superconductor market at all. According to the author, any development that can expand the medical market for MRI machines would be a welcome one. This paper reports how the recent advances in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are such a development. While the principle of MRS has bee around as long as MRI, only recently have advances in technique, computer programming and magnet technology allowed MRS to advance to a point where it may become an important technology-one that could increase the medical market for superconductors. The author discussed how MRS can be used to analyze oil core samples for their oil content, oil/water ratios, how the oil is bound and how to extract it

  15. Marketing deportivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Montaña, Nelson Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    El marketing deportivo en nuestro país y sus repercusiones en el mundo, es una clara herramienta para el desarrollo del mercadeo, y muestra las tendencias mundiales que ejemplifican de alguna forma el desarrollo de la industria deportiva como también el apoyo a sponsorizacion en los deportes

  16. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ Online Ad Boom According to a report delivered by iResearch Consulting Group, a market researcher that specializes in Web-related studies, the Chinese online advertisement value in 2009 soared 21.2 percent year on year to reach 20.61 billion yuan($3 billion).

  17. Market Power in Laboratory Emission Permit Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godby, R.

    2002-01-01

    Many proposals suggesting the use of markets to control pollution assume markets will be competitive. When markets do not exhibit competitive characteristics, however, should they still be expected to result in efficiency improvement relative to traditional approaches? This paper employs experimental economic methods to examine the effect of market structure on the use of marketable emissions permits. Results indicate that in a market with one dominant firm and a number of fringe firms, strategic manipulation occurs repeatedly in the laboratory as predicted by market power models, undermining the allocative and dynamic efficiency benefits such markets offer. When firms compete in a downstream product market dominated by the same single firm, market efficiency can actually be reduced with the implementation of permit markets. Final market efficiencies reflect initial endowments and are influenced by competitive conditions elsewhere in the economy, indicating that policy-makers should carefully consider whether markets are appropriate in such circumstances

  18. Features of the band structure and conduction mechanisms of n-HfNiSn heavily doped with Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V. A., E-mail: vromaka@polynet.lviv.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Pidstryhach Institute for Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Universitet Wien, Institut für Physikalische Chemie (Austria); Romaka, V. V. [National University “Lvivska Politechnika” (Ukraine); Kaczorowski, D. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research (Poland); Krayovskyy, V. Ya. [National University “Lvivska Politechnika” (Ukraine); Stadnyk, Yu. V.; Horyn, A. M. [Ivan Franko Lviv National University (Ukraine)

    2017-02-15

    The crystalline and electronic structures, energy, kinetic, and magnetic characteristics of n-HfNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with Y acceptor impurity are studied in the ranges: T = 80–400 K, N{sub A}{sup Y} ≈ 1.9 × 10{sup 20}–5.7 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –3} (x = 0.01–0.30), and H ≤ 10 kG. The nature of the mechanism of structural defect generation is determined, which leads to a change in the band gap and the degree of semiconductor compensation, the essence of which is the simultaneous reduction and elimination of structural donor-type defects as a result of the displacement of ~1% of Ni atoms from the Hf (4a) site, and the generation of structural acceptor-type defects by substituting Hf atoms with Y atoms at the 4a site. The results of calculations of the electronic structure of Hf{sub 1–x}Y{sub x}NiSn are in agreement with the experimental data. The discussion is performed within the Shklovskii–Efros model of a heavily doped and compensated semiconductor.

  19. Simultaneous rota-stenting and transcatheter aortic valve implantation for patients with heavily calcified coronary stenosis and aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tsai Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that coronary artery disease (CAD in octogenarians undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI often presents with more complex lesions and extensive calcification, rotational atherectomy (RA may be needed in some cases before stenting. However, data regarding the feasibility and safety of simultaneous RA during TAVI using the Medtronic CoreValve (MCV; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA system are lacking. Three out of 107 (2.8% patients (2 females, average age 85.6 years, mean aortic valve area 0.5 cm2, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 39%, mean Logistic EuroScore 70%, with complex, heavily calcified coronary stenosis, and severe valvular aortic stenosis (AS were treated with TAVI and RA due to high surgical risk. After balloon valvuloplasty, all coronary lesions were successfully treated with RA and stenting, immediately followed by transfemoral TAVI with a self-expandable MCV. Our data suggested that in the very elderly patients with severe and heavily calcified CAD and AS who were turned down for cardiac surgery, RA and stenting followed by TAVI may be performed successfully in a combined, single-stage procedure.

  20. A model for describing the eutrophication in a heavily regulated coastal lagoon. Application to the Albufera of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio Fernández, Pilar; Gómez, Andrés García; Alba, Javier García; Díaz, César Álvarez; Revilla Cortezón, José Antonio

    2012-12-15

    A simplified two-dimensional eutrophication model was developed to simulate temporal and spatial variations of chlorophyll-a in heavily regulated coastal lagoons. This model considers the hydrodynamics of the whole study area, the regulated connexion of the lagoon with the sea, the variability of the input and output nutrient loads, the flux from the sediments to the water column, the phytoplankton growth and mortality kinetics, and the zooplankton grazing. The model was calibrated and validated by applying it to the Albufera of Valencia, a hypertrophic system whose connection to the sea is strongly regulated by a system of sluice-gates. The calibration and validation results presented a significant agreement between the model and the data obtained in several surveys. The accuracy was evaluated using a quantitative analysis, in which the average uncertainty of the model prediction was less than 6%. The results confirmed an expected phytoplankton bloom in April and October, achieving mean maximum values around 250 μg l(-1) of chlorophyll-a. A mass balance revealed that the eutrophication process is magnified by the input loads of nutrients, mainly from the sediments, as well as by the limited connection of the lagoon with the sea. This study has shown that the developed model is an efficient tool to manage the eutrophication problem in heavily regulated coastal lagoons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Marketing research activities in hospitals. Satisfaction surveys of inpatients and outpatients are the most widely used application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubeau, P R; Jantzen, R

    1998-01-01

    Virtually unheard of in health care 30 years ago, marketing research by hospitals is expanding at a notable rate, particularly among larger institutions located in highly competitive urban markets. Research applications are particularly pronounced at for-profit institutions, those heavily involved in managed care programs, and hospitals that are part of an integrated delivery system. However, the majority of hospital administrators surveyed indicated they do not invest in marketing research to track the effectiveness of their own institution's advertising.

  2. From physical marketing to web marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the criticism of the 4P marketing mix framework as the basis of traditional and virtual marketing planning. Argues that the customary marketing management approach, based on the popular marketing mix 4Ps paradigm, is inadequate in the case of virtual marketing. Identifies two main

  3. Marketing Optimization for B2B Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kaynova Tatyana V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents market definition B2B, the necessity to optimize marketing B2B market, provides a system for B2B-marketing and developed stages of its formation. On this basis it was identified key factors of customer loyalty and are the stages of development of loyalty programs for customers market B2B.

  4. Utilizing of marketing research for marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Bielová, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    The subject of bachelor's thesis "Utilizing of marketing research for marketing communication" is analyze problematic of marketing communications in sector of educational services. The aims are potential clients of education. I will try to make out import of marketing research for marketing communication of the company.

  5. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  6. Entrepreneurship and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship marketing and entrepreneurship. Marketing considered as an integral part of entrepreneurship. Commit role in relationship marketing and entrepreneurship innovation. The role of marketing in the search for potential market demand of innovation as the scope of latent or unmet needs of customers. Shown the lack of marketing in today's special marketing tools for entrepreneurs.

  7. Photonic crystal fibres in the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Laurila, Marko; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) emerged as a research topic in the mid 1990'ies [1]. Today, 15 years later, these fibres are increasing deployed in various commercial markets. Here, we will address three of these markets; medical imaging, materials processing and sensors. We will describe how...... the PCFs provide radical improvements and illustrate the strong diversity in the evolution of PCFs to serve these different markets....

  8. Marketing your practice in a social world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ashley; Grundin, Erica; Harrison, Dash; Espinoza, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Social media use has moved beyond just being a way for family and friends to keep in touch. Now it is imperative that all businesses implement a social media strategy into their overall marketing plan. Medical practices are no exception. Using social media within your medical practice will allow you take your marketing to a new level of success. It also allows you to connect with patients on a more personal, less corporate level.

  9. Market Structure and Market Access

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Francois; Ian Wooton

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine an issue at the nexus of domestic competition policy and international trade, the interaction between goods trade and market power in domestic trade and distribution sectors. Theory suggests a set of linkages between service-sector competition and goods trade supported by econometrics involving imports of 22 OECD countries compared with 69 exporters. Competition in serv...

  10. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The drought in southwest China casts an ominous shadow over the prospects of many listed power and chemical companies suffering from the disaster.Taiwan’s economy is expected to draw strength from a shopping spree by mainland businessmen starting in April.In an effort to take heat out of the burning hot real estate sector,China is forcing 78 centrally administered state-owned enterprises out of the property market.Air China gains control of Shenzhen Airlines in a move to enhance its market presence in Guangdong Province.China Unicom reports slim profits due to rising 3G network spending.Alibaba.com,the country’s largest e-commerce website,taps the booming small and medium-sized enterprise sector of Brazil.

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to November economic figures, the Chinese economy is on track for recovery on all fronts. The logistics industry recoups its strength, though woes on the trade front require more time to fully recover. By partly withdrawing tax incentives for prospective real estate and auto buyers, China aims to calm the bubbling markets. Auto behemoth General Motors forges a joint venture with Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. Group to maneuver into the emerging Indian auto market. Canadian handset maker RIM launches a version of the BlackBerry that supports the TD network of China Mobile for millions of individual users in China. Siemens makes a push into green business in China with a 2-billion-yuan ($293 million) sale.

  12. Recognizing misleading pharmaceutical marketing online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2014-01-01

    In light of decision-making psychology, this article details how drug marketing operates across established and novel web domains and identifies some common misleading trends and influences on prescribing and patient-initiated medication requests. The Internet has allowed pharmaceutical marketing to become more salient than ever before. Although the Internet's growth has improved the dissemination of pharmaceutical information, it has also led to the increased influence of misleading pharmaceutical marketing. Such mismarketing is of concern, especially in psychiatry, since psychotropics generate considerable revenue for drug companies. In a climate of resource-limited drug regulation and time-strapped physicians, we recommend improving both independent monitoring and consumer awareness of Internet-enabled, potentially misleading, pharmaceutical marketing influences. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  13. Marketing orientation in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošić Danica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies are major stakeholders in the global health agenda Virtually all drugs used by patients in Europe reach markets through the promotion tactics of a small number of corporations with a tremendous impact on global health. The sector is both fast growing and highly profitable. Effective marketing strategies are a crucial ingredient in making sure pharmaceutical products and profits flow in a virtuous cycle. At first glance, the relationship between doctors and drug companies, as well as advertising practices for over-the-counter medication, appears tightly regulated. According to many consumer organizations, drug promotion in Europe today can be characterized as nice and friendly marketing. This refers to the creation of a false sense of trust that consumers associate with branded pharmaceutical products, as a result of pharmaceutical marketing efforts disguised as genuine corporate responsibility.

  14. Risk Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Boutang , Jérôme; De Lara , Michel

    2016-01-01

    In a modern world increasingly perceived as uncertain, the mere purchase of a household cleaning product, or a seemingly harmless bottle of milk, conveys interrogations about potential hazards, from environmental to health impacts. The main purpose of this article is to suggest that risk could be considered as one of the major dimensions of choice for a wide range of concerns and markets, alongside aspiration/satisfaction, and tackled efficiently by mobilizing the recent findings of cognitive...

  15. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT: The Chinese central bank raised the interest rate for the fifth time this year but this had little impact on the property and stock mar- kets. Foreign direct investment and fixed asset investment saw moderate increases in the first eight months, partly because of the government’s tightening policies. Gold futures will be traded on the market. Online traders are now required to acquire business licenses from regulative bodies.

  16. Auto Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    <正> Editor’s notes: the "online investigation of the updated condition of auto market in China", organized by BAGAE together with 7 websites, ended recently. The participants were from 32 provinces, cities and autonomous regions throughout China. Diplomas of the 4,657 participants were generally high, of which college or/over accounted for 80.7%; the participants were mainly middle-aged and young people in which 92.1% were below 40 years old.

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By expanding yuan settlement in cross-border trade andallowing cross-border direct investment in the yuan, China aims to pushforward the internationalization of its currency. House prices are still holding up inChina, but property developers are under increasing pressures. China’s goldmarket bursts with vitality as investors seek safety amid soaringinflation. The automaker BYD faces serious headwinds due to a plunge insales. The telecom giant China Mobile faces slower growth in its customerbase due to cutthroat market competition.

  18. Academic Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Daniela ZECA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Academic Marketing is an investment in a future dominated by The Forth Industrial Revolution and Globalization and not an expense. This aspect will basically alter our way to teach and to learn. In its dimensions, arguably changes will be like anything we has seen before. We try to assess how will be all unfold but, anyway, academic field response at this challenge should be integrated and comprehensive, involving all stakeholders both public and private sectors, because these changes herald upheaval of whole organizations. The educational service is a special one, delivered today but with effects in the future, the future of the individual, the future of generation, the future of nations. The educational service policy adapted to the requirements of time, brings to the front the opportunity of academic marketing. To analyze demand in a professional way, to measure trends and correlated university programs with the forecast demand for jobs, it is the subject. In the case of academic education, we are talking also about cost, distribution and promotion policies, but being a special service we also discuss about ethic boundaries. This work is an open chapter focusing studies on academic megamarketing, the work keeping up with the pace of change, students enrolment mobility, overtakes job market, and an imposed win-win-win formula, applied for students, local community and academic field.

  19. Growth in HMO share of the Medicare market, 1989-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, W P

    1996-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1994 the health maintenance organization (HMO) share of the Medicare market grew rapidly. It is still heavily concentrated geographically, however. The most influential factor in this growth is HMO penetration into an area's general health care market. Medicare payment rates and prior Medicare HMO penetration also have an impact, but their effects are much weaker. Thus, payment rate reform is likely to have only a modest impact on Medicare HMO growth in the short term. In the longer term, the HMO share of the Medicare market will continue to grow, because HMO penetration in the general health care market is growing rapidly.

  20. From Servicescape to Loyalty in the Medical Tourism Industry: A Medical Clinic’s Service Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Minseong; Koo, Dong-Woo; Shin, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sae-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Medical tourism organizations have increasingly recognized that loyalty makes a medical clinic a marketing success. To increase understanding of the importance of medical clinics, this study examined the roles of servicescapes, emotions, and satisfaction in the development of customer loyalty toward medical clinics and destination. Data were collected among international medical tourists visiting Korea. Results identified that dimensions of medical clinics’ servicescape (ie, medical clinic en...

  1. From physical marketing to web marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the criticism of the 4P marketing mix framework as the basis of traditional and virtual marketing planning. Argues that the customary marketing management approach, based on the popular marketing mix 4Ps paradigm, is inadequate in the case of virtual marketing. Identifies two main limitations of the marketing mix when applied in online environments namely the role of the Ps in a virtual commercial setting and the lack of any strategic elements in the model. Identifies the critical fac...

  2. Does Online Marketing Truly Replace Traditional Marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Emilia Margareth

    2013-01-01

    This review explains the way how online marketing has been replacing traditional marketing in terms of marketing mix. This replacement might happen, because online marketing can give advantages, i.e., offering on-time delivery, increasing effectiveness of two way interactions between buyer and seller, and creating online communities (Szmigin, et al, 2005). The transition of atoms to bits format reflects that tangible products in traditional marketing is being digitalized. The marketing strate...

  3. Toward a Theory of Entrepreneurial Rents: a Simulation of the Market Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyhani, M; Levesque, M.; Madhok, A.

    2015-01-01

    While strategy theory relies heavily on equilibrium theories of economic rents such as Ricardian and monopoly rents, we do not yet have a comprehensive theory of disequilibrium or entrepreneurial rents. We use cooperative game theory to structure computer simulations of the market process in which

  4. Superconductors and medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, Guy

    2011-01-01

    After difficult beginnings in the 1970's, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved to become nowadays the jewel in the crown of medical technology. Superconductors have been a key factor for the extraordinary expansion of MRI which in turn represents about 75 % of their total market. After recalling some basic principles, this article traces their common history and refers to future developments. (author)

  5. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Backward diodes using heavily Mg-doped GaN growth by ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hironori; Martin, Denis; Malinverni, Marco; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    We grew heavily Mg-doped GaN using ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy. The use of low growth temperature (740 °C) allows decreasing the incorporation of donor-like defects (p-type doping compensation. As a result, a net acceptor concentration of 7 × 1019 cm-3 was achieved, and the hole concentration measured by Hall effect was as high as 2 × 1019 cm-3 at room temperature. Using such a high Mg doping level, we fabricated GaN backward diodes without polarization-assisted tunneling. The backward diodes exhibited a tunneling-current density of 225 A/cm2 at a reverse bias of -1 V at room temperature.

  7. Soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of heavily boron-doped superconducting diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokoya, T. Nakamura, T. Matushita, T. Muro, H. Okazaki, M. Arita, K. Shimada, H. Namatame, M. Taniguchi, Y. Takano, M. Nagao, T. Takenouchi, H. Kawarada and T. Oguchi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SXARPES of microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition diamond films with different B concentrations in order to study the origin of the metallic behavior of superconducting diamond. SXARPES results clearly show valence band dispersions with a bandwidth of ~23 eV and with a top of the valence band at gamma point in the Brillouin zone, which are consistent with the calculated valence band dispersions of pure diamond. Boron concentration-dependent band dispersions near the Fermi level (EF exhibit a systematic shift of EF, indicating depopulation of electrons due to hole doping. These SXARPES results indicate that diamond bands retain for heavy boron doping and holes in the diamond band are responsible for the metallic states leading to superconductivity at low temperature. A high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy spectrum near EF of a heavily boron-doped diamond superconductor is also presented.

  8. Impaired serum inhibin-B and number of germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism following heavily gestational maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildorf, Simone; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Dong, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    heavily (>10 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy with age matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers (1:6). We studied: birthweight, germ-cell number/tubular cross section, frequency of germ cells positive for placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), gonadotropins and inhibin-B. RESULTS: 501 boys...... were sons of nonsmokers, 72 boys of intermittent smokers and 28 boys of heavy smokers. 39%, 44% and 61% respectively had bilateral cryptorchidism. Compared to age-matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers, sons of heavy smokers had lower birthweight (p = 0.006), germ-cell number/tubular cross...... could add detailed knowledge to the impact of maternal gestational smoking on pathogenesis of cryptorchidism. METHODS: 601 cryptorchid boys aged 4 months to 14 years old were included. Because normal hormones have a pronounced age dependency, we compared results from boys whose mothers had smoked...

  9. Successful Chemotherapy with Nab-Paclitaxel in a Heavily Treated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Ishihara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for the majority of all lung cancers. A 69-year-old female with postoperatively recurrent NSCLC was treated weekly with nanoparticle-albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel monotherapy every 4 weeks as a tenth line chemotherapy, and stable disease was achieved by seven cycles of this regimen. The patient developed grade 4 neutropenia and grade 3 leukopenia, but none of the other toxicities, including febrile neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy, were severe, and thus she was able to tolerate this salvage chemotherapy. To our knowledge this is the first report of the efficacy of nab-paclitaxel monotherapy in a heavily treated NSCLC patient.

  10. Dislocations in FX Swap and Money Markets in Hong Kong and Policy Actions during the Financial Crisis of 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Fung; Ip-wing Yu

    2009-01-01

    When US dollar interbank markets malfunctioned during the global financial crisis of 2008, many non-US financial institutions relied heavily on the foreign-exchange (FX) swap markets for US-dollar funds. This one-sided market induced a risk premium of the FX swap-implied US-dollar rate across a range of funding currencies, i.e. a deviation from the covered interest parity (CIP) condition. The turbulence in the global interbank markets therefore spilled over to the FX swap markets, including t...

  11. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  12. Market efficiency in foreign exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in financial market data, using the approximate entropy(ApEn) method for a quantification of randomness in time series. We used the global foreign exchange market indices for 17 countries during two periods from 1984 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2004 in order to study the efficiency of various foreign exchange markets around the market crisis. We found that on average, the ApEn values for European and North American foreign exchange markets are larger than those for African and Asian ones except Japan. We also found that the ApEn for Asian markets increased significantly after the Asian currency crisis. Our results suggest that the markets with a larger liquidity such as European and North American foreign exchange markets have a higher market efficiency than those with a smaller liquidity such as the African and Asian markets except Japan.

  13. Preliminary Results From a Heavily Instrumented Engine Ice Crystal Icing Test in a Ground Based Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Oliver, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results from the heavily instrumented ALF502R-5 engine test conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory are discussed. The effects of ice crystal icing on a full scale engine is examined and documented. This same model engine, serial number LF01, was used during the inaugural icing test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory facility. The uncommanded reduction of thrust (rollback) events experienced by this engine in flight were simulated in the facility. Limited instrumentation was used to detect icing on the LF01 engine. Metal temperatures on the exit guide vanes and outer shroud and the load measurement were the only indicators of ice formation. The current study features a similar engine, serial number LF11, which is instrumented to characterize the cloud entering the engine, detect/characterize ice accretion, and visualize the ice accretion in the region of interest. Data were acquired at key LF01 test points and additional points that explored: icing threshold regions, low altitude, high altitude, spinner heat effects, and the influence of varying the facility and engine parameters. For each condition of interest, data were obtained from some selected variations of ice particle median volumetric diameter, total water content, fan speed, and ambient temperature. For several cases the NASA in-house engine icing risk assessment code was used to find conditions that would lead to a rollback event. This study further helped NASA develop necessary icing diagnostic instrumentation, expand the capabilities of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory, and generate a dataset that will be used to develop and validate in-house icing prediction and risk mitigation computational tools. The ice accretion on the outer shroud region was acquired by internal video cameras. The heavily instrumented engine showed good repeatability of icing responses when compared to the key LF01 test points and during day-to-day operation. Other noticeable

  14. Replacing Heavily Damaged Teeth by Third Molar Autotransplantation With the Use of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Rapid Prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Jop P; Anssari Moin, David; Wismeijer, Daniel; van Merkesteyn, J P Richard

    2017-09-01

    This article describes the autotransplantation of third molars to replace heavily damaged premolars and molars. Specifically, this article reports on the use of preoperative cone-beam computed tomographic planning and 3-dimensional (3D) printed replicas of donor teeth to prepare artificial tooth sockets. In the present case, an 18-year-old patient underwent autotransplantation of 3 third molars to replace 1 premolar and 2 molars that were heavily damaged after trauma. Approximately 1 year after the traumatic incident, autotransplantation with the help of 3D planning and rapid prototyping was performed. The right maxillary third molar replaced the right maxillary first premolar. The 2 mandibular wisdom teeth replaced the left mandibular first and second molars. During the surgical procedure, artificial tooth sockets were prepared with the help of 3D printed donor tooth copies to prevent iatrogenic damage to the actual donor teeth. These replicas of the donor teeth were designed based on the preoperative cone-beam computed tomogram and manufactured with the help of 3D printing techniques. The use of a replica of the donor tooth resulted in a predictable and straightforward procedure, with extra-alveolar times shorter than 2 minutes for all transplantations. The transplanted teeth were placed in infraocclusion and fixed with a suture splint. Postoperative follow-up showed physiologic integration of the transplanted teeth and a successful outcome for all transplants. In conclusion, this technique facilitates a straightforward and predictable procedure for autotransplantation of third molars. The use of printed analogues of the donor teeth decreases the risk of iatrogenic damage and the extra-alveolar time of the transplanted tooth is minimized. This facilitates a successful outcome. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Marketing reporting system

    OpenAIRE

    Hanić Hasan M.

    2004-01-01

    The main components of a developed and good organized marketing information system are: internal reporting system, marketing reporting system, market research system and analytical marketing system. Marketing reporting system provides data and information about changes in business and micro marketing environment. This component of MIS ensures that marketing managers are up-to-date with what is going on, and to be informed about changes in company marketing environment.

  16. Marketing reporting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanić Hasan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main components of a developed and good organized marketing information system are: internal reporting system, marketing reporting system, market research system and analytical marketing system. Marketing reporting system provides data and information about changes in business and micro marketing environment. This component of MIS ensures that marketing managers are up-to-date with what is going on, and to be informed about changes in company marketing environment.

  17. Integrated marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    St. John Health consists of nine hospitals throughout southern Michigan. Recently, in an attempt to brand the system as the state's premiere place for medical services, the system launched 'Real Medicine', a campaign that brands all nine hospitals together. Using print, radio, and television spots, the effort also integrates direct mail collateral and brochures to reach consumers.

  18. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Pork prices in Beijing remained relatively stable despite the swine flu outbreak in Mexico. China’s job market is still in the doldrums with the registered urban jobless rising slightly in the first quarter. The government is preparing to issue the third tranche of its stimulus package. China Minmetals Corp. received approval from the Australian Treasury to buy the assets of Oz Minerals Ltd. There were signs that international hot money has started to leave China. Surveys indicate that new Chinese parents are shunning foreign baby-care products.

  19. Outperforming markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Rimmel, Gunnar; Yosano, Tadanori

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the effects of disclosure practices of Japanese IPO prospectuses on long-term stock performance and bid-ask spread, as a proxy for cost of capital, after a company is admitted to the stock exchange. A disclosure index methodology is applied to 120 IPO prospectuses from 2003....... Intellectual capital information leads to significantly better long-term performance against a reference portfolio, and is thus important to the capital market. Further, superior disclosure of IC reduces bid-ask spread in the long-term, indicating that such disclosures are important in an IPO setting. Analysts...

  20. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As illustrated by the current session of the Canton Fair,China’s exports are staging a swift comeback,though uncertainties lie ahead. In its drive toward a more sustainable economy,the country bumps up lending for the western regions and small businesses. Foreign banks are losing ground in China due to a lending spree by local rivals. Online travel agents scramble to pledge the lowest prices for hotels as they tap an over-crowded market. Also under pressure is China Mobile that recorded slower profit growth for the first quarter of the year. China launches an international commodities trading platform in Beijing on April 20.

  1. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT: The Chinese Government, concerned about the stumbling domestic stock markets, has repeatedly emphasized the importance of "maintaining stability." China National Petroleum Corp. reported losses in its oil refinery business during the first half of the year. Domestic consumption, a major pillar of economic growth, rose substantially in June, up 23 percent year on year. Dabao, a well-known Chinese cosmetics brand, was officially acquired by Johnson & Johnson. China now plans to spend more money to help small and medium-sized companies boost employment.

  2. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Economic data for July indicated that pillar forces of the economy remained strong in July.Fixed-asset investment and retail sales are still soaring.Exports are also recouping some strength,growing over 38 percent in July.The CPI went up by 3.3 percent,a reflection of simmering inflationary jitters.House prices in 70 large and medium-sized cities rose 10.3 percent,the slowest pace in half a year.International grain prices head north,and threaten to filter through the Chinese market.

  3. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Controversies proliferate over Chinese automaker Geely’s plan to buy the Swedish car brand Volvo, as analysts discount the prospect over its ability to integrate with the up-scale car manufacturer. China plans a pilot program that equalizes on-grid tariffs for hydro-and coal-fired power. Centrally-administered property developers join the real estate craze to scoop up land in big cities, adding to looming concerns over the property bubble that is waiting to burst. The domestic tourism market continues to gather momentum, offsetting downturns of inbound travel. Digital advertiser Focus Media loses its shine, reporting a painful loss between April and June.

  4. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Canton Fair, a barometer of the country’s export health, continued to send worrying signals as foreign buyers skimped on orders for Chinese products. The country’s fund managers cashed in on the stock market euphoria of the first quarter. The central state-owned enterprises bounced back from their previous dismal financial situation. China Mobile, the country’s largest mobile service provider, saw slower profit growth in the first quarter. The first domestic auto financing company with no foreign ownership opened in Shanghai.

  5. Ebonyi Medical Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes original research findings, reviews, case reports and letters to the editor in clinical and basic medical sciences to disseminate same to medical doctors, ... Each paper is reviewed by the editorial board before review by two assessors for peer review (anonymous). ... Circulating/Marketing: Dr JO Mbazor

  6. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite chilly headwinds in the international market,Chinese domestic consumption grew a robust 20.8 percent in November year on year,the ninth consecutive month of growth of more than 20 percent.But bad news quickly followed.Industrial value-added output grew merely 5.4 percent in November,the second instance of single-digit growth since 2002.Centrally administered state-owned enterprises(SOEs) saw their profits plunge 26 percent last month.The harsh job environ-ment prompted the government to ensure there would be no layoffs at the SOEs,but salaries may be cut to offset the profit drops.Ping An,the country’s second largest insurer,had huge losses from its investment in the troubled Belgian financial giant Fortis NV.The Chinese currency took its first step into the international market as the central banks of China and South Korea signed a bilateral currency-swap agreement.

  7. Emerging Market Firms’ Acquisitions in Advanced Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stucchi, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    markets. These antecedents can influence emerging market firms’ capacities to absorb or exploit technological and/or marketing advantages in advanced markets. In order to be successful, emerging market firms have to undertake those upmarket acquisitions that best “fit” their antecedents. Four mutually......This study draws upon the resource-based view and the institution-based view of the firm to provide a comprehensive overview of how different resource-, institution- and industry-based antecedents affect the motivations guiding the acquisitions that emerging market firms undertake in advanced...... exclusive acquisition strategies are derived, which are then illustrated using examples of Indian firms’ acquisitions in advanced markets....

  8. Medicine, morality, and the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, D

    1984-07-07

    In extracts from a lecture given at McGill University, the author describes the rise of a marketing or corporate ethos in medicine, stemming from economic constraints and the demographic pressures of aging populations in the U.S., Canada, and the United Kingdom. To counter the trend to corporate rather than public policy making in medicine, he advocates a holistic approach to health care, a revival of interest in preventive health, and encouragement of the self-help movement. Owen calls for a reorientation of medical attitudes so that traditional moral values of medicine present a "counterweight to the mechanistic, technological, cost-effectiveness of the market place."

  9. [Social marketing and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  10. Implications of Medical Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2018-06-01

    Medical tourism is an emerging industry that facilitates travel to another country for people who seek medical, surgical, or dental care that is unavailable or more affordable than in their home countries. Rapid advances in electronic communication and the ease of international travel have fueled the growth of this industry. More than half of medical travelers are women, especially for services related to cosmetic or reproductive conditions. Medical tourism creates both opportunities and challenges for nurses and other health care providers. Consumers' increased access to the global health care market necessitates the development of a structure that shapes the medical tourism industry and addresses evolving ethical, political, and human rights concerns related to this industry. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Commoditization of the international teleradiology market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Telemedicine improves access to medical care. However, telemedicine will also increase market volatility because of its ability to stimulate price competition and the insidious way it shifts liability for providing medical services. To cope with increased volatility, other economic sectors have evolved commodities markets by making greater use of standardized forward/future contracts. In the past, the need for medical services to be produced and consumed locally and a lack of an objective definition for medical quality, prohibited the use of forward contracts for health-care services. However, telemedicine, and the increasing use of statistical definitions of medical quality now make standardized forward contracts for health-care services conceivable. Commoditization of teleradiology would offer several advantages including increasing market transparency, a mechanism for ensuring medical quality, and a means for bringing capital into the health-care sector. To reap the benefits of a commodities market in teleradiology, the key will be for market stakeholders to overcome their fear of the unknown in order to organize a central exchange.

  12. Food Marketing Technology and Contingency Market Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Garth J. Holloway; Anthony C. Zwart

    1993-01-01

    Marketing activities are introduced into a rational expectations model of the food marketing system. The model is used to evaluate effects of alternative marketing technologies on the distribution of the benefits of contingency markets in agriculture. Benefits depend on two parameters: the cost share of farm inputs and the elasticity of substitution between farm and nonfarm inputs in food marketing. Over a broad spectrum of technologies, consumers are likely to be the net beneficiaries and fa...

  13. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė; Borisas Melnikas

    2013-01-01

    The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current c...

  14. Forms of Functioning of the Modern Market of Addictive Goods Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Yu. Skokov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The classification of forms of markets for addictive goods was made according to the criterion of exchange (absent, emerging, free, oligopolistic, monopolistic, monopoly. There were systematized approaches to argument for the state monopolization of the markets. Reducing the supply, increasing prices, reducing the influence of the motive of private profit are crucial. There was made the classification and analysis of prevailing forms of state markets for addictive goods in the international practice. They are: state monopolistic, competitive, prohibitionists, medical, antiprohibitionists mixed. Based on this there were marked modern features of their state regulation due to the consumer culture, religious prohibitions, the effectiveness of measures in demand reducing, diametrically different approaches to new markets, international split in the prohibition of the drug market. Domestic specifics associated with skimping on experience of regulation of the alcoholic market in a similar pattern of consumption in the Nordic countries, inadequate implementation capacity of state regulation of demand for tobacco products, with the creation of barriers to the development of gambling and new markets for addictive goods, with a veto on the liberalization of the drug market. Based on a comprehensive assessment of the market potential of business entities in specific markets there were offered socially appropriate forms of their states: in the markets of gambling and drugs a combination of the policy of prohibition and monopoly-oligopolistic proposals, in oligopolistic markets tobacco products and energy drinks the monopoly, in the markets of alcoholic products the differentiated approach.

  15. Marketized philanthropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    attention has been devoted to the ways in which the newly emergent philanthropic ideologies and practices are ‘marketed’ to and adopted by the broader audience of philanthropic givers. In response, we explore the ideological elements that make lending through Kiva, an emergent microfinance charity......As the impact of market actors and their doctrines on philanthropy gradually increases, the debate between the proponents and the critics of ‘marketization’ of philanthropy intensifies. Curiously, the debate has largely centred on ‘philanthrocapitalists’ and philanthropic professionals, while less......, meaningful to its creators and supporters. A combination of interpretive methods is used to outline Kiva’s ideology of entrepreneurial philanthropy. This utopian ideology is found to legitimize ‘marketized’ philanthropic practices by invoking alternative conceptions of poverty, social progress...

  16. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    TO THE POINT: Expectations are high for China’s online advertising market after a successful ad year in 2009. Thermal power generators are feeling the chill of snow storms that are causing coal prices to increase.Small steel makers have come under financial pressures as the demands for their steel bars diminish. The overall manufacturing sector has maintained an upward momentum, as evidenced by surges of purchasing managers’index. The National Energy Administration issued a report detailing the energy composition of the country at the end of 2009. China’s top consumer-to-consumer auction site, Taobao.com, entered an agreement with Hunan Satellite Television Station in an effort to diversify its online shopping busi-ness. A report from China Export & Credit Insurance Corp. cautions of asecond economic down turn in Europe and sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Price hikes in cooking oil fuel worries over inflation and the dominance of foreign gurus over the country’s grain markets. With an explosion of box office successes, leading Chinese movie studios gear up for share floats to support expansion. Exports in November showed signs of bottoming out as the sector prepares for a more prosperous year in 2010. Despite its reputation as a nation of savers, China’s online consumption is burning hot as consumers enjoy the comfort of shopping from home. The aviation industry basks in the glow of the strong economic recovery as airlines transport a soaring number of passengers. Chinese companies press ahead with outbound mergers and acquisitions while overseas strategic investors remained relatively inactive in China.

  18. MARKETING INFORMACIJA

    OpenAIRE

    Mecanović, Ivan

    1991-01-01

    Informacija se sve više pojavljuje kao roba na tržištu. Bez obzira ima li ona status medijske vijesti, ili informacije, koja se dobiva iz informatičkog sistema, informacija se proizvodi; sortira, čuva i lansira, te na taj način postaje proizvod, koji ima svoju cijenu koštanja, kao i svoju prodajnu cijenu, svoje potrošače i svoje tržište. Zbog toga je potrebno stvarati i marketing informacija. No, informacija je specifična roba osobne potrošnje. Korištenjem, ili spoznajnošču informacije od poj...

  19. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of luminous, heavily obscured, WISE-selected quasars at z ∼ 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Assef, R. J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Brandt, W. N.; Griffith, R. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Baloković, M.; Bridge, C. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Benford, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blain, A. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Brightman, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany); Christensen, F. E. [Danish Technical University, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A., E-mail: daniel.k.stern@jpl.nasa.gov [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); and others

    2014-10-20

    We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ∼ 2 across a broad X-ray band (0.1 – 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4 μm (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) bands but bright at 12 μm (W3) and 22 μm (W4), are extremely rare, with only ∼1000 so-called 'W1W2-dropouts' across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of νL {sub ν}(6 μm) ∼ 6 × 10{sup 46} erg s{sup –1} and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 14} L {sub ☉}. The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10 keV) ∼ 4 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup –1} for typical quasar templates. These are among the most AGNs known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even at rest-frame 1.5 μm. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N {sub H} ≤ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. In fact, the sources prove to be fainter than these predictions. Two of the sources were observed by both NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, with neither being detected by NuSTAR (f {sub 3-24} {sub keV} ≲ 10{sup –13} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}), and one being faintly detected by XMM-Newton (f {sub 0.5-10} {sub keV} ∼ 5 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}). A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection (f {sub 0.5-10} {sub keV} ∼ 7 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}). The X-ray data imply these sources are either X-ray weak, or are heavily obscured by column densities N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. The combined X-ray and mid-IR analysis seems to favor this second possibility, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton

  20. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of luminous, heavily obscured, WISE-selected quasars at z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Assef, R. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Griffith, R. L.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Bridge, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ∼ 2 across a broad X-ray band (0.1 – 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4 μm (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) bands but bright at 12 μm (W3) and 22 μm (W4), are extremely rare, with only ∼1000 so-called 'W1W2-dropouts' across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of νL ν (6 μm) ∼ 6 × 10 46 erg s –1 and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L bol ∼ 10 14 L ☉ . The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10 keV) ∼ 4 × 10 45 erg s –1 for typical quasar templates. These are among the most AGNs known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even at rest-frame 1.5 μm. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N H ≤ 10 24 cm –2 . In fact, the sources prove to be fainter than these predictions. Two of the sources were observed by both NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, with neither being detected by NuSTAR (f 3-24 keV ≲ 10 –13 erg cm –2 s –1 ), and one being faintly detected by XMM-Newton (f 0.5-10 keV ∼ 5 × 10 –15 erg cm –2 s –1 ). A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection (f 0.5-10 keV ∼ 7 × 10 –15 erg cm –2 s –1 ). The X-ray data imply these sources are either X-ray weak, or are heavily obscured by column densities N H ≳ 10 24 cm –2 . The combined X-ray and mid-IR analysis seems to favor this second possibility, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton-thick, luminous quasars. The discovery of a significant population of heavily obscured, extremely luminous AGNs would not conform to the standard

  1. Profitable marketing: marketing for non marketing managers. Ceuta Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Kilburn, David

    2005-01-01

    This workshop was conducted with 20 Managers from Ceuta Healthcare to raise their awareness of the power of marketing and give them a set of marketing tools to improve the success rate of their business development activities

  2. The Marketing Concept

    OpenAIRE

    G. Nazan Gunay

    2001-01-01

    Since the term "Market Orientation" is recognised as the critical factor in business success there has been an overwhelming increase in research issues linking market orientation with company performance. The term market orientation has been employed by scholars to indicate the implementation of the marketing concept. In order to understand market orientation, one believes that there is a need to recall what the marketing concept is. Therefore, this study reviews the "marketing concept" as a ...

  3. Social Guerilla marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hejkalová, Tereza

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the social guerrilla marketing and its aim is to analyze the social guerrilla campaigns and to evaluate the suitability of the guerilla marketing for the social issues. The theoretical part describes marketing communications, new trends in communication, including guerrilla marketing, and also social marketing and social guerrilla marketing. The practical part includes the market research of guerrilla campaigns. The chosen campaigns are introduced and afterwards ...

  4. Marketing Auditing Services

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomivirta, Olga

    2009-01-01

    The study is done as a part of a bachelor’s study in Marketing at Laurea University of Applied Sciences. Marketing as a science appeared more than 50 years ago and is still developing. The purpose of the thesis work is to collect knowledge via marketing research, to understand how marketing is implemented by the case company–provider and compare the result to professional services marketing theory. Marketing professional services is difficult because services differ from goods. Marketing ...

  5. Becoming an Educational Leader--Exploring Leadership in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander Laksov, Klara; Tomson, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Research on educational leadership emphasizes the importance of having institutional leaders heavily involved with advanced instructional programming. Best practices for developing educational leadership in higher education health care and medical faculties have to be better understood. Within the framework of a seminar series, researchers and…

  6. 2011 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    This report details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. This third edition since this report was started in 2008 offers several marked improvements relative to its predecessors. Most significantly, where earlier editions of this report focused on supplying information through an examination of market drivers, new vehicle trends, and supplier data, this edition uses a different structure. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. In addition to making this sectional re-alignment, this year s edition of the report also takes a different approach to communicating information. While previous editions relied heavily on text accompanied by auxiliary figures, this third edition relies primarily on charts and graphs to communicate trends. Any accompanying text serves to introduce the trends communication by the graphic and highlight any particularly salient observations. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 11 through 13 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 20 and 21 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 26 through 33 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 38 through 43 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and

  7. Reconstructing historical trends in metal input in heavily-disturbed, contaminated estuaries: studies from Bilbao, Southampton Water and Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cundy, A.B.; Croudace, I.W.; Cearreta, A.; Irabien, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Estuaries may be important reservoirs for contaminants as they tend to act as sinks for fine, contaminant-reactive sediments, and, historically, they have acted as centres for industrial and urban development. Analysis of dated sediment cores from these areas may allow historical trends in heavy metal input to be reconstructed, and recent and historical inputs of metal contaminants to be compared. Undisturbed saltmarsh settings have been used widely in the reconstruction of historical trends in metal input as saltmarshes provide a stable, vegetated substrate of dominantly fine sediments, and are less prone to erosion and reworking than adjacent mudflat areas. In comparison, much less research on historical pollution trends has been undertaken at estuarine sites which are prone to severe local disturbance, such as intertidal areas which are routinely dredged or where sedimentary processes have been modified by human activities such as shipping, salt working, port activities, land claim etc. This paper assesses the usefulness of 210 Pb and 137 Cs dating, combined with geochemical studies, in reconstructing historical trends in heavy metal input and sediment accretion in 3 heavily-modified, industrialised estuarine areas in Europe: the Bilbao estuary (Spain), Southampton Water (UK), and the Mulinello estuary (Sicily). Of these sites, only a salt marsh core from the Mulinello estuary provides a high-resolution record of recent heavy metal inputs. In Southampton Water only a partial record of changing metal inputs over time is retained due to land-claim and possible early-diagenetic remobilisation, while at Bilbao the vertical distribution of heavy metals in intertidal flats is mainly controlled by input on reworked sediment particles and variations in sediment composition. Where 137 Cs and 210 Pb distributions with depth allow a chronology of sediment deposition to be established, and early-diagenetic remobilisation has been minimal, mudflat and saltmarsh cores from

  8. THE MEDICAL AND WELLNESS TOURISM PERCEPTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soare Ionica

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism or geriatric-medical and wellness tourism are market segments that lately have registered significant increases. The need to define, organize, and promote these sectors. This item is intended to synthesize developments and challenges market growth wellness and medical tourism. For the industry spa these developments may represent an opportunity to take full advantage of wellness and medical tourism.

  9. DIGITAL MARKETING FOR FOREIGN MARKETS. CASE: LOST IN KAJAANI

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmetyanova, Yulia

    2016-01-01

    Different marketing researches report that participation in adventure races had grown over the last 2-3 years. However, adventure races have received relatively little attention in academic literature. The focus of existing studies in this field tends to be on accidents or medical issues. At the same time social media networks have become popular. The purpose of this thesis was to describe how increased social media activity would affect awareness of the Lost in Kajaani (LiK) adventure race. ...

  10. Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Islamic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    Among the limited publications on marketing in emerging markets this book focuses on regional specifics of Islamic Countries and the appropriate approaches for reaching their markets with effective and efficient marketing strategies. Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Islamic Countries...

  11. Electricity market pricing, risk hedging and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xu

    In this dissertation, we investigate the pricing, price risk hedging/arbitrage, and simplified system modeling for a centralized LMP-based electricity market. In an LMP-based market model, the full AC power flow model and the DC power flow model are most widely used to represent the transmission system. We investigate the differences of dispatching results, congestion pattern, and LMPs for the two power flow models. An appropriate LMP decomposition scheme to quantify the marginal costs of the congestion and real power losses is critical for the implementation of financial risk hedging markets. However, the traditional LMP decomposition heavily depends on the slack bus selection. In this dissertation we propose a slack-independent scheme to break LMP down into energy, congestion, and marginal loss components by analyzing the actual marginal cost of each bus at the optimal solution point. The physical and economic meanings of the marginal effect at each bus provide accurate price information for both congestion and losses, and thus the slack-dependency of the traditional scheme is eliminated. With electricity priced at the margin instead of the average value, the market operator typically collects more revenue from power sellers than that paid to power buyers. According to the LMP decomposition results, the revenue surplus is then divided into two parts: congestion charge surplus and marginal loss revenue surplus. We apply the LMP decomposition results to the financial tools, such as financial transmission right (FTR) and loss hedging right (LHR), which have been introduced to hedge against price risks associated to congestion and losses, to construct a full price risk hedging portfolio. The two-settlement market structure and the introduction of financial tools inevitably create market manipulation opportunities. We investigate several possible market manipulation behaviors by virtual bidding and propose a market monitor approach to identify and quantify such

  12. Analysis of the Marketing Mix of a Chosen Pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Trnka, Štěpán

    2011-01-01

    This Bachelor's Thesis studies application of marketing to a pharmacy in a small to medium sized town. The theoretical part addresses marketing elements that are relevant for this field of entrepreneurship. I also add the specifics of marketing in the field of medical care. The analysis deals mainly with marketing mix in a traditional sense and competiton in the area. The Theoretical part also includes specifics of operation of a pharmacy. The Practical part contains basic information about t...

  13. Marketing in nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, S B

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of chapter 3 is to provide a conceptual framework for understanding marketing. Although it is often considered to be, marketing is not really a new activity for nursing organizations. What is perhaps new to most nursing organizations is the conduct of marketing activities as a series of interrelated events that are part of a strategic marketing process. The increasingly volatile nursing environment requires a comprehensive approach to marketing. This chapter presents definitions of marketing, the marketing mix, the characteristics of nonprofit marketing, the relationship of strategic planning and strategic marketing, portfolio analysis, and a detailed description of the strategic marketing process. While this chapter focuses on marketing concepts, essential components, and presentation of the strategic marketing process, chapter 4 presents specific methods and techniques for implementing the strategic marketing process.

  14. Market power and storage in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaar, Jostein

    2004-05-01

    Market power in liberalised electricity markets dominated by hydropower is analyzed in four chapters. The existing literature on competition in hydropower markets is briefly presented and examined. Chapter 1 discusses the effects of market power in the context of acquisitions in a situation where transmission capacity is constrained. Chapter 2 and 3 elaborate on the issue of competition and market power when water inflow is uncertain, and finally Chapter 4 focuses on the supply function equilibrium model in the context of a hydropower market

  15. Healthcare market research examined. Relevant, rigorous and highly regulated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Douglas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available [The abstract of this article is not available. Here are the first sentences of the article. The full text is freely available upon registration]Market research is invariably confused with marketing – but, in fact, the two disciplines are very different. Put in its simplest terms, marketing is about promotion whilst market research is about understanding. Accordingly, data collected for market research purposes are used in a completely different way to that gathered for marketing, with research practices heavily regulated to ensure high ethical standards.Let’s begin with a definition of what, exactly, market research is. According to the ICC/ESOMAR International Code 2007 (a definition also adopted by the European Pharmaceutical Market Research Association, it is: «the systematic gathering and interpretation of information about individuals or organisations using the statistical and analytical methods and techniques of the applied social sciences to gain insight or support decision-making. The identity of respondents will not be revealed to the user of the information without explicit consent and no sales approach will be made to them as a direct result of their having provided information».

  16. Highly efficient and heavily-doped organic light-emitting devices based on an orange phosphorescent iridium complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shunliang; Wang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Ming [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Heavily doped and highly efficient phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs) had been fabricated by utilizing an orange iridium complex, bis[2-(3′,5′-di-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2'}]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)], as a phosphor. When the doping concentration of [(tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)] reached as high as 15 wt%, the PhOLEDs exhibited a power efficiency, current efficiency, and external quantum efficiency of 24.5 lm/W, 32.1 cd/A, 15.7%, respectively, implying a promising quenching-resistant characteristics of this novel phosphor. Furthermore, the efficient white PhOLEDs had been obtained by employing (tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) as a self-host orange emitter, indicating that (tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) could serve as a promising phosphor to fabricate white organic light-emitting devices with simplified manufacturing process. - Highlights: • Efficient phosphorescent devices were fabricated. • Optimized phosphor doping ratio reached as high as 15 wt%. • The results proved a promising quench-resistant property of the phosphor. • Efficient white devices based on this phosphor as self-host layer had been realized.

  17. High-efficiency and heavily doped organic light-emitting devices based on quench-resistant red iridium complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhao, Juan; Wang, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Ming [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices had been fabricated using a new iridium complex, bis[2-(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl) benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2'}]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)] as phosphor. With a high doping concentration of 15 wt%, the device exhibited a maximum luminance efficiency, power efficiency and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 35.2 cd/A, 21.3 lm/W, 18.2%, respectively, indicating an excellent quench-resistant property of (fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac). The results are appealing towards the development of 'easy-to-make' OLEDs. It has been demonstrated that the high efficiency arises from more balanced charge carriers in the emissive layer. - Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained efficient OLEDs based on newly synthesized quench-resistant phosphor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak performance was obtained with 15 wt% (fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) doped device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our devices gave one of the best performance among heavily-doped red devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Balanced carrier transport is crucial for the high performance of our devices.

  18. Contribution to the study, by magnetic resonance, of the properties of heavily doped silicon at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.

    1965-10-01

    The magnetic properties of heavily doped silicon at low temperature have been studied in a range of concentration on either side of the Mott transition. For impurity densities less than that of the transition a magnetic double resonance method allows the exchange coupling between localized donors to be measured, and in addition the existence of paramagnetic centers (pairs of neutral and ionized donors) is demonstrated. The behaviour of the spin-lattice relaxation of 29 Ci is explained in terms of the dipolar coupling between nuclei and paramagnetic centers. In the range of concentration 10 16 -10 17 impurities/cm 3 , the concentration dependent relaxation of donors is studied experimentally. A theoretical explanation is proposed for the latter mechanism, the basis of which is the presence of ionized pairs of donors. At increasing impurity concentrations the electronic delocalization increases. For the concentration of 2.5 X 10 18 P/cm 3 the hyperfine coupling is responsible for the 29 Si relaxation. It is shown that the electron density has a very large maximum near the impurities in the metallic domain of concentrations. An estimation of the impurity band width (19 deg. K) is deduced from the measurement of the paramagnetic part of the electronic susceptibility at low temperature. (author) [fr

  19. Microbial Diversity of a Heavily Polluted Microbial Mat and Its Community Changes following Degradation of Petroleum Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Raeid M. M.; Safi, Nimer M. D.; Köster, Jürgen; de Beer, Dirk; El-Nahhal, Yasser; Rullkötter, Jürgen; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2002-01-01

    We studied the microbial diversity of benthic cyanobacterial mats inhabiting a heavily polluted site in a coastal stream (Wadi Gaza) and monitored the microbial community response induced by exposure to and degradation of four model petroleum compounds in the laboratory. Phormidium- and Oscillatoria-like cyanobacterial morphotypes were dominant in the field. Bacteria belonging to different groups, mainly the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteriodes group, the γ and β subclasses of the class Proteobacteria, and the green nonsulfur bacteria, were also detected. In slurry experiments, these communities efficiently degraded phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene completely in 7 days both in the light and in the dark. n-Octadecane and pristane were degraded to 25 and 34% of their original levels, respectively, within 7 days, but there was no further degradation until 40 days. Both cyanobacterial and bacterial communities exhibited noticeable changes concomitant with degradation of the compounds. The populations enriched by exposure to petroleum compounds included a cyanobacterium affiliated phylogenetically with Halomicronema. Bacteria enriched both in the light and in the dark, but not bacteria enriched in any of the controls, belonged to the newly described Holophaga-Geothrix-Acidobacterium phylum. In addition, another bacterial population, found to be a member of green nonsulfur bacteria, was detected only in the bacteria treated in the light. All or some of the populations may play a significant role in metabolizing the petroleum compounds. We concluded that the microbial mats from Wadi Gaza are rich in microorganisms with high biodegradative potential. PMID:11916684

  20. Evolution of carbon distribution and mechanical properties during the static strain ageing of heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamontagne, A.; Massardier, V.; Sauvage, X.; Kléber, X.; Mari, D.

    2016-01-01

    The static strain ageing of heavily cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires was investigated using both global techniques and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography (APT)), in order to highlight how the cold-drawn destabilized microstructure returns to a more stable state during post-drawing treatments between 20 °C and 150 °C. The global techniques (thermoelectric power, differential scanning calorimetry) clearly showed that ageing occurs in three successive ageing stages and is due to a redistribution of the carbon atoms coming from the strain-induced cementite dissolution. The first ageing stage was unambiguously attributed to the carbon segregation to the defects, while the second and third stages were interpreted as being due to the precipitation of intermediate carbides (2nd stage) and cementite (3rd stage). The true strain was not found to significantly affect the ageing kinetics and mechanisms but appeared to play a role in the amount of carbon atoms involved in the different ageing stages. APT analyses confirmed that ageing is governed by the carbon depletion of strain-induced supersaturated ferrite. The strengthening mechanisms associated with the different ageing stages were also discussed.

  1. Highly efficient and heavily-doped organic light-emitting devices based on an orange phosphorescent iridium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shunliang; Wang, Qi; Li, Ming; Lu, Zhiyun; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-01-01

    Heavily doped and highly efficient phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs) had been fabricated by utilizing an orange iridium complex, bis[2-(3′,5′-di-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)benzothiazolato-N,C 2' ]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac)], as a phosphor. When the doping concentration of [(tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac)] reached as high as 15 wt%, the PhOLEDs exhibited a power efficiency, current efficiency, and external quantum efficiency of 24.5 lm/W, 32.1 cd/A, 15.7%, respectively, implying a promising quenching-resistant characteristics of this novel phosphor. Furthermore, the efficient white PhOLEDs had been obtained by employing (tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac) as a self-host orange emitter, indicating that (tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac) could serve as a promising phosphor to fabricate white organic light-emitting devices with simplified manufacturing process. - Highlights: • Efficient phosphorescent devices were fabricated. • Optimized phosphor doping ratio reached as high as 15 wt%. • The results proved a promising quench-resistant property of the phosphor. • Efficient white devices based on this phosphor as self-host layer had been realized

  2. Coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor with He plasma treated heavily doped layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ho-young [Advanced Display Research Center, Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); LG Display R and D Center, 245 Lg-ro, Wollong-myeon, Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do 413-811 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bok-young; Lee, Young-jang; Lee, Jung-il; Yang, Myoung-su; Kang, In-byeong [LG Display R and D Center, 245 Lg-ro, Wollong-myeon, Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do 413-811 (Korea, Republic of); Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin, E-mail: jjang@khu.ac.kr [Advanced Display Research Center, Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-13

    We report thermally stable coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with heavily doped n{sup +} a-IGZO source/drain regions. Doping is through He plasma treatment in which the resistivity of the a-IGZO decreases from 2.98 Ω cm to 2.79 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm after treatment, and then it increases to 7.92 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm after annealing at 300 °C. From the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the concentration of oxygen vacancies in He plasma treated n{sup +}a-IGZO does not change much after thermal annealing at 300 °C, indicating thermally stable n{sup +} a-IGZO, even for TFTs with channel length L = 4 μm. Field-effect mobility of the coplanar a-IGZO TFTs with He plasma treatment changes from 10.7 to 9.2 cm{sup 2}/V s after annealing at 300 °C, but the performance of the a-IGZO TFT with Ar or H{sub 2} plasma treatment degrades significantly after 300 °C annealing.

  3. Coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor with He plasma treated heavily doped layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho-young; Lee, Bok-young; Lee, Young-jang; Lee, Jung-il; Yang, Myoung-su; Kang, In-byeong; Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    We report thermally stable coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with heavily doped n + a-IGZO source/drain regions. Doping is through He plasma treatment in which the resistivity of the a-IGZO decreases from 2.98 Ω cm to 2.79 × 10 −3 Ω cm after treatment, and then it increases to 7.92 × 10 −2 Ω cm after annealing at 300 °C. From the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the concentration of oxygen vacancies in He plasma treated n + a-IGZO does not change much after thermal annealing at 300 °C, indicating thermally stable n + a-IGZO, even for TFTs with channel length L = 4 μm. Field-effect mobility of the coplanar a-IGZO TFTs with He plasma treatment changes from 10.7 to 9.2 cm 2 /V s after annealing at 300 °C, but the performance of the a-IGZO TFT with Ar or H 2 plasma treatment degrades significantly after 300 °C annealing

  4. Surface modification by vacuum annealing for field emission from heavily phosphorus-doped homoepitaxial (1 1 1) diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takatoshi; Nebel, Christoph E.; Somu, Kumaragurubaran; Shikata, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between field emission properties and C 1s core level shifts of heavily phosphorus-doped homoepitaxial (1 1 1) diamond is investigated as a function of annealing temperature in order to optimize surface carbon bonding configurations for device applications. A low field emission threshold voltage is observed from surfaces annealed at 800 deg. C for hydrogen-plasma treated surface, while a low field emission threshold voltage of wet-chemical oxidized surface is observed after annealing at 900 deg. C. The C 1s core level by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed a shoulder peak at 1 eV below the main peak over 800 and 900 deg. C annealing temperature for hydrogen-plasma treated and wet-chemical oxidized surfaces, respectively. When the shoulder peak intensity is less than 10% of the main peak intensity, lower threshold voltages are observed. This is due to the carbon-reconstruction which gives rise to a small positive electron affinity. By increasing annealing temperature, the shoulder peak ratios also increase, which indicates that a surface graphitization takes place. This leads to higher threshold voltages

  5. Phytoextraction of nitrogen and phosphorus by crops grown in a heavily manured Dark Brown Chernozem under contrasting soil moisture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agomoh, Ikechukwu; Hao, Xiying; Zvomuya, Francis

    2018-01-02

    Phytoextraction of excess nutrients by crops in soils with a long history of manure application may be a viable option for reducing the nutrient levels. This greenhouse study examined the effectiveness of six growth cycles (40 d each) of barley, canola, corn, oat, pea, soybean, and triticale at extracting nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from a Dark Brown Chernozem that had received 180 Mg ha -1 (wet wt.) of beef cattle feedlot manure annually for 38 years. Moisture content during the study was maintained at either 100% or 50% soil field capacity (SFC). Repeated cropping resulted in an overall decrease in dry matter yield (DMY). The decrease in N and P uptake relative to Cycle 1 was fastest for the cereal grains and less pronounced for the two legumes. However, cumulative N uptake values were significantly greater for corn than the other crops under both moisture regimes. The reduction in soil N was greater under the 100% than the 50% SFC. These results indicate that repeated cropping can be a useful management practice for reducing N and P levels in a heavily manured soil. The extent of reduction will be greater for crops with high biomass production under adequate moisture supply.

  6. Prospective high thermoelectric performance of the heavily p-doped half-Heusler compound CoVSn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Hongliang; Ming, Wenmei; Parker, David S.; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The electronic structure and transport properties of the half-Heusler compound CoVSn are studied in this paper systematically by combining first-principles electronic structure calculations and Boltzmann transport theory. The band structure at the valence-band edge is complex with multiple maxima derived from hybridized transition element d states. The result is a calculated thermopower larger than 200 μV /Κ within a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures for heavily doped p-type CoVSn. The thermoelectric properties additionally benefit from the corrugated shapes of the hole pockets in our calculated isoenergy surfaces. Our calculated power factor S"2σ/τ (with respect to an average unknown scattering time) of CoVSn is comparable to that of FeNbSb. A smaller lattice thermal conductivity can be expected from the smaller group velocities of acoustical modes compared to FeNbSb. Finally, overall, good thermoelectric performance for CoVSn can be expected by considering the electronic transport and lattice thermal conductivity.

  7. Two cases of acute leukemia in heavily exposed a-bomb survivors following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Motoko; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao; Ohkita, Takeshi; Sawada, Hisao.

    1980-03-01

    Two cases of acute leukemia in heavily exposed atomic bomb survivors following postoperative 60 Co radiotherapy for breast cancer are presented. Case 1, a female who received an estimated dose of 364 rad from the A-bomb at the age of 22, was diagnosed as having left breast cancer 17 years later. At the age of 48, about 8 years after undergoing postoperative 60 Co radiotherapy, she developed acute monocytic leukemia. Case 2, a female who received an estimated dose of 594 rad from the A-bomb at the age of 37, was diagnosed as having right breast cancer 22 years later. At the age of 63, 4 years after postoperative 60 Co radiotherapy, she was found to have acute erythroleukemia. Both cases had been exposed to the A-bomb in Hiroshima and to therapeutic radiation after developing breast cancer presumably induced by A-bomb exposure. Thus it is proposed that acute leukemia was induced by exposure to large doses of radiation from two sources. (author)

  8. Effects of flexibility and soil-structure interaction on a completely buried structure with a heavily loaded roof system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, R.C.; Maryak, M.E.; Mulliken, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    A completely buried structure with a heavily loaded roof system has been analyzed for seismic forces. The seismic input was a site-specific spectrum shape anchored at 0.2g zero period acceleration in the horizontal directions, and the vertical input was prescribed at two thirds of the horizontal input. Models of the structure were developed to account for the flexibility of the base mat, walls, and roof, and were analyzed for the above seismic input with uncertainties in the soil properties considered. The results indicate that horizontal rigid body soil-structure interaction effects are negligible and the seismic amplifications are dominated by the soil-structure system natural frequencies. In addition, the analysis shows that the flexibility of the structure and soil-structure interaction cause considerable amplification of the vertical structural response of the facility's roof system. Finally it was shown that the computer program SASSI can be used to predict the soil-structure interaction responses of a completely buried structure

  9. Increasing costs due to ocean acidification drives phytoplankton to be more heavily calcified: optimal growth strategy of coccolithophores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Irie

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is potentially one of the greatest threats to marine ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores have received special attention because their calcite precipitation plays a significant role in alkalinity flux to the deep ocean (i.e., inorganic carbon pump. Currently, empirical effort is devoted to evaluating the plastic responses to acidification, but evolutionary considerations are missing from this approach. We thus constructed an optimality model to evaluate the evolutionary response of coccolithophorid life history, assuming that their exoskeleton (coccolith serves to reduce the instantaneous mortality rates. Our model predicted that natural selection favors constructing more heavily calcified exoskeleton in response to increased acidification-driven costs. This counter-intuitive response occurs because the fitness benefit of choosing a better-defended, slower growth strategy in more acidic conditions, outweighs that of accelerating the cell cycle, as this occurs by producing less calcified exoskeleton. Contrary to the widely held belief, the evolutionarily optimized population can precipitate larger amounts of CaCO(3 during the bloom in more acidified seawater, depending on parameter values. These findings suggest that ocean acidification may enhance the calcification rates of marine organisms as an adaptive response, possibly accompanied by higher carbon fixation ability. Our theory also provides a compelling explanation for the multispecific fossil time-series record from ∼200 years ago to present, in which mean coccolith size has increased along with rising atmospheric CO(2 concentration.

  10. Preliminary studies on factors controlling the rate of regrowth of heavily x-irradiated rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.; Curtis, S.B.; Woodruff, H.K.; Parks, D.L.; Daniels, S.J.; Crabtree, K.E.; Schilling, W.A.; DeGuzman, R.J.

    1977-12-01

    Following large single doses of x rays, rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumors exhibit a volume response which characteristically has a swelling phase, a regression phase, a rapid ''initial'' regrowth phase and a slow ''late'' regrowth phase. The preliminary experiments reported here were designed to examine three mechanisms that may underlie the reduction in growth rate occurring in the late regrowth phase; heritable non-lethal cellular damage, host immunity, delayed post-irradiation tissue and vascular damage. Based on retransplantation experiments and studies with immunosuppressed rats, neither heritable non-lethal damage nor host immune factors appear to influence the regrowth rate of tumors receiving radiation doses well below the cure level. After an x-ray dose approaching the cure level, regrowing tumors were observed to have a greatly reduced growth rate, possibly reflecting the presence of heritable non-lethal damage and/or an increased antigenicity of the heavily irradiated tumor cells. Morphometric analysis of histological sections did not reveal statistically significant abnormalities at the cellular level during the late regrowth phase, except for an increase in the percentage of necrotic tissue relative to non-irradiated tumors. The morphological resolution of small blood vessels was not adequate to evaluate delayed vascular damage in regrowing irradiated tumors

  11. Innovative Marketing by Argyle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese hotel industry is increasingly integrating into the international market,and marketing awareness has developed quickly in China.Successful marketing can ensure a hotel maintains a competitive edge.The marketing strategy by Argyle Management Group (Australia) focuses on consumer demand and market demand.This innovative strategy has kept the group in an invincible position amid fierce competition.

  12. Gold-Stock Market Relationship: Emerging Markets versus Developed Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Seifoddini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We perform a comparative study on the gold-stock market relationship in U.S. stock market as a developed market and in Iran stock market as an emerging market. By considering appropriate variables for emerging markets and by providing a more proper methodology, we improve earlier studies. According to our findings, the relationship between stock market returns and gold price returns does not follow any specific regimes and that this relationship changes in short and long term returns. It is necessary to mention that in the present research, we did not consider this relationship in major structural changes in the economies and instead considered usual economic circumstances that investors are regularly faced with in their investment decisions.

  13. Marketing. Market research, the key to success; Marketing. Erfolgsfaktor Marktforschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongers, U. [VSE AG, Saarbruecken (Germany); Borch, G. [Berliner Kraft- und Licht (BEWAG)-AG, Berlin (Germany); Edelmann, H. [Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG (VEW), Dortmund (Germany); Hermann, E. [Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke AG, Hamburg (Germany); Nickel, M. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke e.V. (VDEW), Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The brochure explains why market research has become an essential activity for the business management of electric utilities in the competitive market environment. The document gives advice on integrating information obtained from market research into the organizational planning of the marketing activities of electric utilities that are newcomers in the deregulated European energy markets. The brochure was elaborated by a working group for 'market research and organisational statistics' of the VDEW. (orig./CB) [German] Die vorliegende Broschuere stellt die neue Bedeutung der Marktforschung fuer die Informationsgewinnung und das Marketing der Stromunternehmen dar und gibt Hinweise auf die organisatorische Einbindung der Marktforschung. Sie wurde von einer Projektgruppe des VDEW-Fachausschusses 'Marktforschung und Unternehmensstatistik' erarbeitet. Die Broschuere ist vor allem fuer die Unternehmen gedacht, die ihre Marktforschung aufbauen oder ausbauen wollen. (orig./CB)

  14. From Servicescape to Loyalty in the Medical Tourism Industry: A Medical Clinic’s Service Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Dong-Woo; Shin, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sae-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Medical tourism organizations have increasingly recognized that loyalty makes a medical clinic a marketing success. To increase understanding of the importance of medical clinics, this study examined the roles of servicescapes, emotions, and satisfaction in the development of customer loyalty toward medical clinics and destination. Data were collected among international medical tourists visiting Korea. Results identified that dimensions of medical clinics’ servicescape (ie, medical clinic environment, medical treatment, staff, and doctor) influenced emotions and satisfaction among international medical tourists. Also, positive emotions and the 2 dimensions of satisfaction with a medical clinic and doctor mediate the influence of medical clinics’ servicescapes on 2 types of loyalty (the medical clinic and Korea for medical care). Overall, these findings indicate that the interrelationship of servicescapes, positive emotion, and satisfaction is essential in influencing international medical tourists’ loyalty to a medical clinic. PMID:29233057

  15. From Servicescape to Loyalty in the Medical Tourism Industry: A Medical Clinic's Service Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseong; Koo, Dong-Woo; Shin, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sae-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Medical tourism organizations have increasingly recognized that loyalty makes a medical clinic a marketing success. To increase understanding of the importance of medical clinics, this study examined the roles of servicescapes, emotions, and satisfaction in the development of customer loyalty toward medical clinics and destination. Data were collected among international medical tourists visiting Korea. Results identified that dimensions of medical clinics' servicescape (ie, medical clinic environment, medical treatment, staff, and doctor) influenced emotions and satisfaction among international medical tourists. Also, positive emotions and the 2 dimensions of satisfaction with a medical clinic and doctor mediate the influence of medical clinics' servicescapes on 2 types of loyalty (the medical clinic and Korea for medical care). Overall, these findings indicate that the interrelationship of servicescapes, positive emotion, and satisfaction is essential in influencing international medical tourists' loyalty to a medical clinic.

  16. Motherhood, Marketization, and Consumer Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Prothero, Andrea; Sørensen, Elin

    2010-01-01

    This article explores consumer vulnerability and the role of public policy by focusing on new mothers. Developing the consumer vulnerability model of Baker, Gentry, and Rittenburg, the authors consider how medical contexts, political and legal factors, economic resources, societal prescriptions...... a time of physical and psychological changes in mothers-to-be. This article illustrates that the extended market logic dominating contemporary mothering environments both contributes to and has the potential to exacerbate new mothers’ vulnerability, raising important challenges for public policy, both...

  17. Risky markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Export Development Corporation (EDC) supports Canadian exporters and investors in international projects by providing export credit insurance for commodities and by providing financing for projects ranging from chemical plants to pipeline projects. EDC has been an active participant in financing projects in 'risky markets' in China, Columbia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia and Venezuela. This presentation reviewed the origins and dimensions of the Asian crisis and how the spillover effects are showing up in most regions of the world. It was suggested that the factors which contributed to the crisis were: (1) growing macroeconomic imbalances, (2) excessive private capital inflows financing risky and low-profitability ventures, (3) financial sector mismanagement, (4) political uncertainty, and (5) decline in investor confidence. The Asian financial crisis will affect other developing countries in the following ways: (1) shrinking foreign private capital flows, (2) widening spreads for foreign and private borrowers, (3) reduced trade volumes due to import compression, (4) lower prices for traded goods, (5) depressed international interest rates. As a result of the Asian crisis, banks in Japan, Korea, Singapore, Europe and North America have cancelled or restructured several billion dollars in loans. Several projects are now under review, have been delayed or cancelled. It was suggested that significant changes in risk management strategies must be made in order for the countries of Asia to restructure their economies. Putting an end to 'cronyism' establishing well-supervised banking, legal and court systems that are up-to-date and transparent, are also essential ingredients of recovery

  18. Market integration in the crustaceans market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Bronnmann, Julia

    2018-01-01

    are substitutes. Price determination processes for the shrimp markets vary with the level of the value chain. The results imply that the wild and farmed crustaceans markets are interacting through substitution effects. Hence, the markets have the capability to shield volatile and rising prices that would emanate......In this paper the price dynamics and the degree of market integration in the German crustaceans market is examined using cointegration methods. The study focuses on wild caught cold water shrimp, farmed warm water shrimp as well as lobster and derives implications for the fisheries sector....... In the analysis, both the import market and the retail market price reactions are distinguished. Therefore, it is evaluated how price changes affect competing commodities within and between the value chain of a given crustaceans commodity. Evidence of partial market integration is found for all species under...

  19. Relationship marketing as a modern marketing concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolotnaya Oksana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific and practical justification of the relevance of using the concept of marketing of relations in modern market conditions and identifies the content and factors of customer loyalty.

  20. Experiential Marketing: Growing Importance in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Tümer Kabadayı

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of experience entered in the field of marketing in 1982, this concept has now become a key constituent of understanding consumer behaviour. In recent years, a great deal of research has examined this concept is a foundation of economy and future of marketing. From this point of view the purpose of this study is to discuss concept of experience, experiential marketing and related concepts in a holistic perspective and moreover some marketing implications have been given.