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Sample records for heavily irradiated 5052-0

  1. Positron trapping in heavily irradiated semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, P.; Pautrat, J.L.; Corbel, C.; Hautojarvi, P.

    1985-01-01

    Vacancy processes are studied in several heavily irradiated semiconductors. Specimens are ZnTe, CdTe, CdTe (In), InP, InP (Cr), InP (Zn) and Ge. Irradiations are made at 20 K using a 3 MeV Van de Graaff electron accelerator. Doses are 4 x 10 18 e - /cm 2 . Lifetime measurements are made at 77 K at each step of an isochronal annealing (30 min 20 K). In each specimen, the results show a significant increase of the lifetime (+ 30 at + 50 ps) which anneals out in different steps restoring the initial lifetime. The steps are sharp (ΔT/T=0.3) with the exception of InP, InP(Cr), InP(Zn), (ΔT/T=0.9). Tentative interpretations are given

  2. Explosive phenomena in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denHartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI; Matthews, GE; Williams, RT

    1997-01-01

    In heavily irradiated NaCl crystals explosive phenomena can be initiated during irradiation or afterwards when samples are heated to temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. During irradiation of NaCl Na and Cl-2 precipitates and void structures are produced along with the accumulation of stored

  3. Tracking with heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Barnett, B.M.; Bartalina, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the authors show that a heavily irradiated double-sided silicon microstrip detector recovers its performance when operated at cryogenic temperatures. A DELPHI microstrip detector, irradiated to a fluence of ∼4 x 10 14 p/cm 2 , no longer operational at room temperature, cannot be distinguished from a non-irradiated one when operated at T < 120 K. Besides confirming the previously observed Lazarus effect in single diodes, these results establish, for the first time, the possibility of using standard silicon detectors for tracking applications in extremely demanding radiation environments

  4. Regeneration of cilia in heavily irradiated sea urchin embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustad, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Cilia were removed from blastulae, gastrulae, and plutei of the sea urchins Arbacia punctulata and Lytechinus variegatus by shaking the embryos in hypertonic media. Exposure to 50 krad (and in some experiments 100 krad) of γ radiation either before or after deciliation had no effect on the time of appearance of regenerating cilia. There were no visually obvious differences in the rate of growth of the cilia in control and irradiated embryos. The cilia commenced beating at the same time, but the initial beating sometimes seemed less vigorous following irradiation. The data support the hypothesis that radiation has no major effect on the assembly from mature basal bodies of the microtubules of cilia

  5. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the

  6. Color centers in heavily irradiated CsI(Tl) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, V.; Meleshko, A.; Trefilova, L.

    2008-01-01

    The absorption and luminescence properties of CsI(Tl) crystals colored by irradiation are studied by the method of the time-resolved spectroscopy. The scheme of the electron transitions in CsI(Tl) crystal is suggested to explain the appearance of the color centers under exposure to the near-UV light. It is established that either of the two types activator color centers holds the charge carrier with opposite sign. The model of the hole Tl 2+ v c - activator color center is suggested. According to the model the positive charge of Tl 2+ ion is compensated by the negative charge of a close cation vacancy v c - . The color center emission reveals in the cathode-luminescence spectrum of the colored CsI(Tl) crystal. The high-dose irradiation of CsI(Tl) crystal results in the reduction of the decay time of the near-thallium self-trapped excitons (STE) emission. The decay kinetics of Tl 2+ v c - emission contains the time components typical for the decay kinetics of near-thallium STE emission. The reason of the observed effects is the energy transfer from the near-thallium STE excitons to the color centers via the inductive-resonant mechanism

  7. Charge collection properties of heavily irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramberger, G.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Mandic, I.; Mikuz, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2005-01-01

    Detectors processed on epitaxial silicon seem to be a viable solution for the extreme radiation levels in the innermost layers of tracking detectors at upgraded LHC (SLHC). A set of epitaxial pad detectors of 50 and 75μm thicknesses (ρ=50Ωcm) was irradiated with 24GeV/c protons and reactor neutrons up to equivalent fluences of 10 16 cm -2 . Charge collection for minimum ionizing electrons from a 90 Sr source was measured using a charge sensitive preamplifier and a 25ns shaping circuit. The dependence of collected charge on annealing time and operation temperature was studied. Results were used to predict the performance of fine pitch pixel detectors proposed for SLHC

  8. Charge collection properties of heavily irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramberger, G. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: Gregor.Kramberger@ijs.si; Cindro, V. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dolenc, I. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fretwurst, E. [University of Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Lindstroem, G. [University of Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Mandic, I. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mikuz, M. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zavrtanik, M. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2005-12-01

    Detectors processed on epitaxial silicon seem to be a viable solution for the extreme radiation levels in the innermost layers of tracking detectors at upgraded LHC (SLHC). A set of epitaxial pad detectors of 50 and 75{mu}m thicknesses ({rho}=50{omega}cm) was irradiated with 24GeV/c protons and reactor neutrons up to equivalent fluences of 10{sup 16}cm{sup -2}. Charge collection for minimum ionizing electrons from a {sup 90}Sr source was measured using a charge sensitive preamplifier and a 25ns shaping circuit. The dependence of collected charge on annealing time and operation temperature was studied. Results were used to predict the performance of fine pitch pixel detectors proposed for SLHC.

  9. Density of trapped gas in heavily-irradiated lithium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, R.C. Jr.; Attalla, A.; Souers, P.C.; Folkers, C.L.; McCreary, T.; Snider, G.D.; Vanderhoofven, F.; Tsugawa, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    We review old gamma-irradiated lithium hydride data and also display much new bulk and gas-displacement density and nuclear magnetic resonance data on Li(D, T) and LiT at 296 to 373 K. We find that: (1) Li(D, T) swells because of the formation of internal D-T and 3 He gas bubbles, but probably not because of the precipitation of lithium metal; (2) the gas bubbles are at densities of at least 3 to 4x10 4 mol/m 3 , i.e. thousands of atmospheres; (3) outgassing may be largely the result of bubbles rupturing, although diffusion of 3 He as atoms may occur at long times. (orig.)

  10. Defect formation in heavily doped Si upon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubskaya, V.I.; Kuchinskii, P.V.; Lomako, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The rates of the carrier removal and radiation defect introduction into n- and p-Si in the concentration range of 10 14 to 10 17 cm -3 upon 7-MeV-electron irradiation have been studied. The spectrum of the vacancy-type defects, defining the carrier removal rate in lightly doped crystals has been found. With doping level increase the carrier removal rate grows irrespective of conductivity type, and at n 0 , p 0 > 10 17 cm -3 is close to the total displacement number. At the same time a decrease in the introduction rate of the known vacancy-type defects is observed. x It is shown that a considerable growth of the carrier removal rate is defined neither by introduction of shallow compensating centers, nor by change in the primary defect charge state. It is suggested that at high doping impurity concentrations compensation in Si is due to the introduction of complexes doping impurity-interstitial or (impurity atom-interstitial) + vacancy, which give deep levels. (author)

  11. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the experiments in UHV At the surface of freshly cleaved samples, we have observed sodium nano-precipitates with shapes, which depend on the irradiation dose and the volume fraction of the radiolytic Na...

  12. Operation of heavily irradiated silicon detectors in non-depletion mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitskaya, E.; Eremin, V.; Ilyashenko, I.; Li, Z.; Haerkoenen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.

    2006-01-01

    The non-depletion detector operation mode has generally been disregarded as an option in high-energy physics experiments. In this paper, the non-depletion operation is examined by detailed analysis of the electric field distribution and the current pulse response of heavily irradiated silicon (Si) detectors. The previously reported model of double junction in heavily irradiated Si detector is further developed and a simulation of the current pulse response has been performed. It is shown that detectors can operate in a non-depletion mode due to the fact that the value of the electric field in a non-depleted region is high enough for efficient carrier drift. This electric field originates from the current flow through the detector and a consequent drop of the potential across high-resistivity bulk of a non-depleted region. It is anticipated that the electric field in a non-depleted region, which is still electrically neutral, increases with fluence that improves the non-depleted detector operation. Consideration of the electric field in a non-depleted region allows the explanation of the recorded double-peak current pulse shape of heavily irradiated Si detectors and definition of the requirements for the detector operational conditions. Detailed reconstruction of the electric field distribution gives new information on radiation effects in Si detectors

  13. Pollination with heavily irradiated pollen in Nicotiana: induced parthenogenesis and embryological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musial, K.; Przywara, L.

    1999-01-01

    Nicotiana crosses were pollinated in situ and in vitro with heavily irradiated pollen (500, 700, 1000 Gy) to induce parthenogenesis and to study the development of embryo and endosperm. Haploids were obtained after in situ pollination only; however, parthenogenetic proembryos occurred also after in vitro pollination. It was demonstrated that ovule culture following pollination offers a better chance to produce haploids than undisturbed pollination does. Pollination with irradiated pollen (PwIP) stron gly decreased the number of endosperm cells and the size of embryo sacs, and it affected the development of embryos; no significant differences between applied irradiation doses were found. Ovules with endosperm only, embryo only, and with both embryo and endosperm were observed. The most frequent were the ovules with endosperm only, the rarest with embryo only. A small amount of storage products occurred in the endosperm cells. The diploid chromosome number counted in the endosperm produced after PwIP points to their origin without fertilization. An interesting phenomenon observed after PwIP was vigorous growth of endothelium. (author)

  14. Simulation of Heavily Irradiated Silicon Pixel Sensors and Comparison with Test Beam Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chiochia, Vincenzo; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Swartz, Morris; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Charge collection measurements performed on heavily irradiated p-spray DOFZ pixel sensors with a grazing angle hadron beam provide a sensitive determination of the electric field within the detectors. The data are compared with a complete charge transport simulation of the sensor which includes signal trapping and charge induction effects. A linearly varying electric field based upon the standard picture of a constant type-inverted effective doping density is inconsistent with the data. A two-trap double junction model implemented in the ISE TCAD software can be tuned to produce a doubly-peaked electric field which describes the data reasonably well. The modeled field differs somewhat from previous determinations based upon the transient current technique. The model can also account for the level of charge trapping observed in the data.

  15. The origin of double peak electric field distribution in heavily irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, V; Li, Z

    2002-01-01

    The first observation of double peak (DP) electric field distribution in heavily neutron irradiated (>10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2) semiconductor detectors has been published about 6 yr ago. However, this effect was not quantitatively analyzed up to now. The explanation of the DP electric field distribution presented in this paper is based on the properties of radiation induced deep levels in silicon, which act as deep traps, and on the distribution of the thermally generated free carrier concentration in the detector bulk. In the frame of this model, the earlier published considerations on the so-called 'double junction (DJ) effect' are discussed as well. The comparison of the calculated electric field profiles at different temperatures with the experimental ones allows one to determine a set of deep levels. This set of deep levels, and their charge filling status are essential to the value and the distribution of space charge in the space charge region in the range of 305-240 K, which is actual temperature ran...

  16. The effect of irradiation temperature on the optical attenuation recovery in heavily Ge-doped single mode silica core fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Mabrouk, M.A.; Ferrari, A.; Serra, A.; Viezzoli, G.

    1992-01-01

    The behaviour under irradiation of a single mode fiber heavily doped with germanium has been investigated at 0.85 μm and 1.3 μm under different irradiation temperatures in the range from -65degC to 60degC. The time behaviour of the recovery of the induced attenuation has been described using empirical equations, for different temperatures. An nth order kinetics seems appropriate to describe the results and the order of kinetics has been determined at different temperatures. (orig.)

  17. Charge collection efficiency recovery in heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Da Vià, C; Berglund, P; Borchi, E; Borer, K; Bruzzi, Mara; Buontempo, S; Casagrande, L; Chapuy, S; Cindro, V; Dimcovski, Zlatomir; D'Ambrosio, N; de Boer, Wim; Dezillie, B; Esposito, A P; Granat, V; Grigoriev, E; Heijne, Erik H M; Heising, S; Janos, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Konotov, I; Li, Z; Lourenço, C; Mikuz, M; Niinikoski, T O; Pagano, S; Palmieri, V G; Paul, S; Pirollo, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Ropotar, I; Ruggiero, G; Salmi, J; Seppä, H; Suni, I; Smith, K; Sonderegger, P; Valtonen, M J; Zavrtanik, M

    1998-01-01

    The charge collection efficiency (CCE) of high resistivity silicon detectors, previously neutron irradiated up to 2*10/sup 15/ n/cm/sup 2/, was measured at different cryogenic temperatures and different bias voltages. In order to $9 study reverse annealing (RA) effects, a few samples were heated to 80 degrees C and kept at room temperature for several months after irradiation. For comparison other samples (NRA) where kept at -10 C after irradiation. The RA and $9 NRA samples, measured at 250 V forward and reverse bias voltage, present a common temperature threshold at 150 K. Below 120 K the CCE is constant and ranges between 55and 65 0.000000or the RA and NRA sample respectively. Similar CCE $9 was measured for a device processed with low resistivity contacts (OHMIC), opening the prospect for a consistent reduction of the cost of large area particle tracking. (7 refs).

  18. The release of stored energy in heavily irradiated NaCl explosive reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainshtein, D.; Bemt, M. van den; Seinen, J.; Datema, H.C.; Hartog, H.W. den

    1995-01-01

    During irradiation of NaCl with ionizing radiation at moderate temperatures (50-150 degrees C) irregular structures of very fine Na and Cl nano-precipitates are formed. The increase of the temperature to a value between 50 and 250 degrees C might induce explosive reactions between radiolytic Na and

  19. Preliminary studies on factors controlling the rate of regrowth of heavily x-irradiated rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.; Curtis, S.B.; Woodruff, H.K.; Parks, D.L.; Daniels, S.J.; Crabtree, K.E.; Schilling, W.A.; DeGuzman, R.J.

    1977-12-01

    Following large single doses of x rays, rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumors exhibit a volume response which characteristically has a swelling phase, a regression phase, a rapid ''initial'' regrowth phase and a slow ''late'' regrowth phase. The preliminary experiments reported here were designed to examine three mechanisms that may underlie the reduction in growth rate occurring in the late regrowth phase; heritable non-lethal cellular damage, host immunity, delayed post-irradiation tissue and vascular damage. Based on retransplantation experiments and studies with immunosuppressed rats, neither heritable non-lethal damage nor host immune factors appear to influence the regrowth rate of tumors receiving radiation doses well below the cure level. After an x-ray dose approaching the cure level, regrowing tumors were observed to have a greatly reduced growth rate, possibly reflecting the presence of heritable non-lethal damage and/or an increased antigenicity of the heavily irradiated tumor cells. Morphometric analysis of histological sections did not reveal statistically significant abnormalities at the cellular level during the late regrowth phase, except for an increase in the percentage of necrotic tissue relative to non-irradiated tumors. The morphological resolution of small blood vessels was not adequate to evaluate delayed vascular damage in regrowing irradiated tumors

  20. An automated tensile machine for small specimens heavily neutron irradiated in FFTF/MOTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, Akira; Sato, Shinji; Hamada, Kenichi

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a fully automated tensile machine for post-irradiation examination (PIE) of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF)/Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA) irradiated miniature tension specimens. The anticipated merit of the automated tensile machine is to reduce damage to specimens during specimen handling for PIE and to reduce exposure to radioactive specimens. This machine is designed for testing at elevated temperatures, up to 873 K, in a vacuum or in an inert gas environment. Twelve specimen assemblies are placed in the vacuum chamber that can be tested successively in a fully automated manner. A unique automated tensile machine for the PIE of FFTF/MOTA irradiated specimens, the Monbusho Automated Tensile Machine (MATRON) consists of a test frame with controlling units and an automated specimen-loading apparatus. The qualification of the test frame has been completed, and the results have satisfied the machine specifications. The capabilities of producing creep and relaxation data have been demonstrated for Cu, Al, 316SS, and ferritic steels. The specimen holders for the three-point bending test and the small bulge test (small punch test; SP test) were also designed and produced

  1. Effect of 60Co γ-irradiation on the nature of electronic transport in heavily doped n-type GaN based Schottky photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Khamari, Shailesh K.; Porwal, S.; Kher, S.; Sharma, T. K.

    2018-04-01

    GaN Schottky photodetectors are fabricated on heavily doped n-type GaN epitaxial layers grown by the hydride vapour phase epitaxy technique. The effect of 60Co γ-radiation on the electronic transport in GaN epilayers and Schottky detectors is studied. In contrast to earlier observations, a steady rise in the carrier concentration with increasing irradiation dose is clearly seen. By considering a two layer model, the contribution of interfacial dislocations in carrier transport is isolated from that of the bulk layer for both the pristine and irradiated samples. The bulk carrier concentration is fitted by using the charge balance equation which indicates that no new electrically active defects are generated by γ-radiation even at 500 kGy dose. The irradiation induced rise in the bulk carrier concentration is attributed to the activation of native Si impurities that are already present in an electrically inert form in the pristine sample. Further, the rise in interfacial contribution in the carrier concentration is governed by the enhanced rate of formation of nitrogen vacancies by irradiation, which leads to a larger diffusion of oxygen impurities. A large value of the characteristic tunnelling energy for both the pristine and irradiated Au/Ni/GaN Schottky devices confirms that the dislocation-assisted tunnelling dominates the low temperature current transport even after irradiation. The advantage of higher displacement energy and larger bandgap of GaN as compared to GaAs is evident from the change in leakage current after irradiation. Further, a fast recovery of the photoresponse of GaN photodetectors after irradiation signifies their compatibility to operate in high radiation zones. The results presented here are found to be crucial in understanding the interaction of 60Co γ-irradiation with n+-GaN epilayers.

  2. Ion-channeling analysis of As relocation in heavily doped Si:As irradiated with high-energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulli, G.; Albertazzi, E.; Bianconi, M.; Ferri, M.

    2003-01-01

    Silicon on insulator layers doped with 8x10 20 As cm -3 and thermally equilibrated at 1100 deg. C, have been irradiated with 2 MeV Si + ions. Rutherford backscattering-channeling analysis shows an increase in As disorder upon irradiation significantly larger than the increase in Si disorder, while electrical measurements show a large decrease in electrical activation. Monte Carlo simulation of channeling angular scans suggests that the enhanced As disorder effect is due to the preferential relocation of dopant atoms slightly displaced from lattice sites, which appear the main reason responsible for the electrical deactivation in the unirradiated sample and are believed to be in the form of As-vacancy clusters. Upon 600 deg. C 15 s annealing, the As atoms randomly relocated by ion irradiation almost completely recover their original configuration, probably capturing vacancies and forming, again, the complexes dissociated by ion irradiation

  3. Simulation of tensile stress-strain properties of irradiated type 316 SS by heavily cold-worked material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Yasushi; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Hishinuma, Akimichi

    1995-07-01

    Type 316 stainless steel is one of the most promising candidate materials to be used for the structural parts of plasma facing components in the nuclear fusion reactor. The neutron irradiation make the material brittle and reduces its uniform elongation to almost zero at heavy doses. In order to apply such a material of reduced ductility to structural components, the structural integrity should be examined and assured by the fracture mechanics. The procedure requires a formulated stress-strain relationship. However, the available irradiated tensile test data are very limited at present, so that the cold-worked material was used as a simulated material in this study. Property changes of 316 SS, that is, a reduction of uniform elongation and an enhancement of yield stress are seemingly very similar for both the irradiated 316 SS and the cold-worked one. The specimens made of annealed 316 SS, 20% (or 15%) cold worked one and 40% cold worked one were prepared. After the formulation of stress strain behavior, the equation for the cold-worked 316 SS was fitted to the data on irradiated material under the assumption that the yield stress is the same for both materials. In addition, the upper limit for the plastic strain was introduced using the data on the irradiated material. (author)

  4. Characterization of as-grown and heavily irradiated GaN epitaxial structures by photoconductivity and photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubas, E.; Jurs e-dot nas, S.; Tomasiunas, R.; Vaitkus, J.; Zukauskas, A.; Blue, A.; Rahman, M.; Smith, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of radiation defects on photoconductivity transients and photoluminescence (PL) spectra have been examined in semi-insulating GaN epitaxial layers grown on bulk n-GaN/sapphire substrates. Defects induced by 10-keV X-ray irradiation with a dose of 600Mrad and 100-keV neutrons with fluences of 5x10 14 and 10 16 cm -2 have been revealed through contact photoconductivity and microwave absorption transients. The amplitude of the initial photoconductivity decay is significantly reduced by the radiation defect density. A simultaneous decrease with radiation-induced defect density is also observed in the steady-state PL intensity of yellow, blue and ultraviolet bands peaked at 2.18, 2.85, and 3.42eV, respectively. The decrease of the PL intensity is accompanied by an increase of asymptotic decay lifetime, which is due to excess carrier multi-trapping. The decay can be described by the stretched exponential approximation exp[-(t/τ) α ] with different values of α in as-grown material (α∼0.7) and irradiated samples (α∼0.3). The value of the fracton dimension d s of the disordered structure, evaluated as d s =2α/(1-α), changes from 4.7 to 0.86 for as-grown and irradiated material, respectively, implying percolative carrier motion on an infinite cluster of dislocations net in the as-grown material and cluster fragmentation into finite fractons after irradiation

  5. Test-beam evaluation of heavily irradiated silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of 7.5x1034cm−2s−1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2 in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II and CERN SPS test beam facilities to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before and after irradiation with 8x1014neqcm−2 protons and a total ionising dose of 37.2MRad. The DURA...

  6. Swelling and outgassing of heavily-irradiated lithium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souers, P.C.; Ackerman, F.J.; Biel, T.J.; Bigwood, J.; Brite, V.; Christensen, L.D.; Folkers, C.L.; Gede, V.; Griffith, C.M.; Huss, E.B.; Lindahl, R.; McCreary, T.; Otsuki, H.H.; Pond, R.L.; Snider, G.D.; Stanhope, C.; Stump, R.K.; Vanderhoofven, F.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Anderson, J.L.; Carstens, D.W.H.; Drumhiller, W.L.; Lewis, W.B.; Nasise, J.E.; Pretzel, F.E.; Szklarz, E.G.; Vier, D.T.; Bowman, R.C. Jr.; Attalla, A.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-two years worth of data on lithium deuteride-tritide (Li(D, T)) from three national laboratories is presented. The percent linear swelling and the outgassing of hydrogen isotopes and 3 He for samples stored at 243 to 438 K are presented in summary tables. In some cases, up to a full half-life of tritium (12 years) has been spent in the study. Initial tritium concentrations range from 2 to 98 at%. The precision of the swelling is considered, and the evidence is ambiguous as to whether temperature cycling and handling affects swelling. The early outgassing is all hydrogen, but it turns to helium at long lines. The outgassing levels out for each sample but the amount outgassed varies wildly from sample to sample. At linear swellings beyond 11%, behavior becomes erratic. A maximum linear swelling of 23% is seen for one sample at 5000 days. (orig.)

  7. Conductivity and superconductivity in heavily vacant diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Jafari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   Motivated by the idea of impurity band superconductivity in heavily Boron doped diamond, we investigate the doping of various elements into diamond to address the question, which impurity band can offer a better DOS at the Fermi level. Surprisingly, we find that the vacancy does the best job in producing the largest DOS at the Fermi surface. To investigate the effect of disorder in Anderson localization of the resulting impurity band, we use a simple tight-binding model. Our preliminary study based on the kernel polynomial method shows that the impurity band is already localized at the concentration of 10-3. Around the vacancy concentration of 0.006 the whole spectrum of diamond becomes localized and quantum percolation takes place. Therefore to achieve conducting bands at concentrations on the scale of 5-10 percent, one needs to introduce correlations such as hopping among the vacancies .

  8. Remote Excavation of Heavily Contaminated UXO Sites. The Range Master

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crandall, Alan L

    2007-01-01

    USA Environmental, Inc., and Timberline Environmental Services, Inc., developed the Range Master, a remote controlled scraper with an integrated power screen, to excavate and sift the top 12 inches of heavily contaminated UXO sites...

  9. Thermal analysis of the APT materials irradiation samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloy, S.A.; Willcutt, G.J.; James, M.R.; Teague, J.; Diebe, D.A.; Sommer, W.F.; Ferguson, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) project proposes to use a 1.7 GeV, 100 mA proton beam to produce neutrons from an Inconel 718 clad tungsten target. The neutrons are multiplied and moderated in a lead/water blanket before being captured in He 3 to form tritium. In this process, the materials in the target and blanket region are exposed to a wide range of different fluxes comprised of protons and neutrons with energies into the GeV range. To investigate the effect of irradiation on the mechanical properties of candidate APT materials (Inconel 718, 316L stainless steel, Al 6061-T6, Mod 9Cr-1Mo, 304L stainless steel and Al5052-0), the APT Engineering Design and Development group fielded an extensive materials irradiation using the LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) accelerator, which operates at an energy of 800 MeV and a current of 1 mA. The test set-up was designed to place mechanical test specimens in locations in and near the proton beam where the environment of proton and neutron fluxes and temperatures are prototypic to those expected in the APT target/blanket (50--170 C). After irradiating for about 3,600 hours, the maximum achieved proton fluence was 4--5 x 10 21 p/cm 2 for the materials in the center of the beam. To obtain relevant data on the change in the mechanical properties with fluence, it is essential to know the temperature at which the materials were irradiated. This paper explains the method of determining the specimen temperature and reports some specific examples

  10. Further considerations for damping in heavily insulated pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Lindquist, M.R.; Severud, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years a body of test data has been accumulated which demonstrates that damping in small diameter heavily insulated pipe systems is much larger than presently recommended by Regulatory Guide 1.61. This data is generally based on pipe systems using a stand-off insulation design with a heater annulus. Additional tests have how been completed on similar pipe systems using a strap-on insulation design without the heater annulus. Results indicate some reduction in damping over the stand-off designs. Test data has also been obtained on a larger sixteen-inch diameter heavily insulated pipe system. Results of these two additional test series are presented. Revised damping values for seismic design of heavily insulated pipe systems are then recommended

  11. Further considerations for damping in heavily insulated pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Lindquist, M.R.; Severud, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years a body of test data has been accumulated which demonstrates that damping in small diameter heavily insulated pipe systems is much larger than presently recommended by Regulatory Code 1.61. This data is generally based on pipe systems using a stand-off insulation design with a heater annulus. Additional tests have now been completed on similar pipe systems using a strap-on insulation design without the heater annulus. Results indicate some reduction in damping over the stand-off designs. Test data has also been obtained on a larger sixteen-inch diameter heavily insulated pipe system. Results of these two additional test series are presented. Revised damping values for seismic design for heavily insulated pipe systems are then recommended

  12. a Study of Oxygen Precipitation in Heavily Doped Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, Robert Kurt

    Gettering of impurities with oxygen precipitates is widely used during the fabrication of semiconductors to improve the performance and yield of the devices. Since the effectiveness of the gettering process is largely dependent on the initial interstitial oxygen concentration, accurate measurements of this parameter are of considerable importance. Measurements of interstitial oxygen following thermal cycles are required for development of semiconductor fabrication processes and for research into the mechanisms of oxygen precipitate nucleation and growth. Efforts by industrial associations have led to the development of standard procedures for the measurement of interstitial oxygen in wafers. However practical oxygen measurements often do not satisfy the requirements of such standard procedures. An additional difficulty arises when the silicon wafer has a low resitivity (high dopant concentration). In such cases the infrared light used for the measurement is severely attenuated by the electrons of holes introduced by the dopant. Since such wafers are the substrates used for the production of widely used epitaxial wafers, this measurement problem is economically important. Alternative methods such as Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy or Gas Fusion Analysis have been developed to measure oxygen in these cases. However, neither of these methods is capable of distinguishing interstitial oxygen from precipitated oxygen as required for precipitation studies. In addition to the commercial interest in heavily doped silicon substrates, they are also of interest for research into the role of point defects in nucleation and precipitation processes. Despite considerable research effort, there is still disagreement concerning the type of point defect and its role in semiconductor processes. Studies of changes in the interstitial oxygen concentration of heavily doped and lightly doped silicon wafers could help clarify the role of point defects in oxygen nucleation and precipitation

  13. Heavily nitrogen doped, graphene supercapacitor from silk cocoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Vikrant; Grover, Sonia; Tulachan, Brindan; Sharma, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Gaurav; Roy, Manas; Saxena, Manav; Sethy, Niroj; Bhargava, Kalpana; Philip, Deepu; Kim, Hansung; Singh, Gurmeet; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak; Sharma, Raj Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Doping of graphene with nitrogen is of much interest, since it improves the overall conductivity and supercapacitive properties. Besides conductivity, nitrogen doping also enhances the pseudo-capacitance due to fast and reversible surface redox processes. In this work, we have developed a cheap and easy process for synthesizing heavily nitrogen doped graphene (15% nitrogen) from non-mulberry silk cocoon membrane (Tassar, Antheraea mylitta) by pyrolyzing the cocoon at 400 °C in argon atmosphere. Further we have investigated the performance of this heavily ‘nitrogen doped graphene’ (NDG) in a supercapacitor device. Our results suggest that NDG obtained from cocoon has improved supercapacitor performance. The improved performance is due to the high electronegativity of nitrogen that forms dipoles on the graphene surface. These dipoles consequently enhance the tendency of graphene to attract charged species to its surface. This is a green and clean synthesis approach for developing electronic materials for energy applications

  14. Growth and characterization of heavily doped silicon crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, R.; Porrini, M. [MEMC Electronic Materials SpA, via Nazionale 59, 39012 Merano (Italy); Borionetti, G. [MEMC Electronic Materials SpA, viale Gherzi 31, Novara (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Silicon crystals grown with the Czochralski method are still the most common material used for the production of electronic devices. In recent years, a growing need of large diameter crystals with increasingly higher doping levels is observed, especially to support the expanding market of discrete devices and its trend towards lower and lower resistivity levels for the silicon substrate. The growth of such heavily doped, large-diameter crystals poses several new challenges to the crystal grower, and the presence of a high dopant concentration in the crystal affects significantly its main properties, requiring also the development of dedicated characterization techniques. This paper illustrates the recent advances in the growth and characterization of silicon crystals heavily doped with antimony, arsenic, phosphorus and boron. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Superconductivity in heavily boron-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kriener, Takahiro Muranaka, Junya Kato, Zhi-An Ren, Jun Akimitsu and Yoshiteru Maeno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The discoveries of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond in 2004 and silicon in 2006 have renewed the interest in the superconducting state of semiconductors. Charge-carrier doping of wide-gap semiconductors leads to a metallic phase from which upon further doping superconductivity can emerge. Recently, we discovered superconductivity in a closely related system: heavily boron-doped silicon carbide. The sample used for that study consisted of cubic and hexagonal SiC phase fractions and hence this led to the question which of them participated in the superconductivity. Here we studied a hexagonal SiC sample, free from cubic SiC phase by means of x-ray diffraction, resistivity, and ac susceptibility.

  16. Electrochemical Decontamination of Painted and Heavily Corroded Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczak, S.; Anderson, J.; Dziewinski, J.

    1998-01-01

    The radioactive metal wastes that are generated from nuclear fuel plants and radiochemical laboratories are mainly contaminated by the surface deposition of radioactive isotopes. There are presently several techniques used in removing surface contamination involving physical and chemical processes. However, there has been very little research done in the area of soiled, heavily oxidized, and painted metals. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been developing electrochemical procedures for the decontamination of bare and painted metal objects. These methods have been found to be effective on highly corroded as well as relatively new metals. This study has been successful in decontaminating projectiles and shrapnel excavated during environmental restoration projects after 40+ years of exposure to the elements. Heavily corroded augers used in sampling activities throughout the area were also successfully decontaminated. This process has demonstrated its effectiveness and offers several advantages over the present metal decontamination practices of media blasting and chemical solvents. These advantages include the addition of no toxic or hazardous chemicals, low operating temperature and pressure, and easily scaleable equipment. It is in their future plans to use this process in the decontamination of gloveboxes destined for disposal as TRU waste

  17. Near-infrared free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker-Finch, Simeon C.; McIntosh, Keith R.; Yan, Di; Fong, Kean Chern; Kho, Teng C.

    2014-01-01

    Free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon can have a significant impact on devices operating in the infrared. In the near infrared, the free carrier absorption process can compete with band to band absorption processes, thereby reducing the number of available photons to optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this work, we fabricate 18 heavily doped regions by phosphorus and boron diffusion into planar polished silicon wafers; the simple sample structure facilitates accurate and precise measurement of the free carrier absorptance. We measure and model reflectance and transmittance dispersion to arrive at a parameterisation for the free carrier absorption coefficient that applies in the wavelength range between 1000 and 1500 nm, and the range of dopant densities between ∼10 18 and 3 × 10 20  cm −3 . Our measurements indicate that previously published parameterisations underestimate the free carrier absorptance in phosphorus diffusions. On the other hand, published parameterisations are generally consistent with our measurements and model for boron diffusions. Our new model is the first to be assigned uncertainty and is well-suited to routine device analysis

  18. Comprehensive device Simulation modeling of heavily irradiated silicon detectors at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Moscatelli, F; MacEvoy, B; Hall, G; Passeri, D; Petasecca, M; Pignatel, Giogrio Umberto

    2004-01-01

    Radiation hardness is a critical design concern for present and future silicon detectors in high energy physics. Tracking systems at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are expected to operate for ten years and to receive fast hadron fluences equivalent to 10/sup 15/cm /sup -2/ 1-MeV neutrons. Recently, low temperature operating conditions have been suggested as a means of suppressing the negative effects of radiation damage on detector charge collection properties. To investigate this effect, simulations have been carried out using the ISE-TCAD DESSIS device simulator. The so-called "three-level model" has been used. A comprehensive analysis of the influence of the V/sub 2/, C/sub i/O/sub i/ and V/sub 2/O capture cross sections on the effective doping concentration (N/sub eff/) as a function of temperature and fluence has been carried out. The capture cross sections have been varied in the range 10/sup -18/-10/sup -12/ cm/sup 2/. The simulated results are compared with charge collection spectra obtained wit...

  19. Stored energy and annealing behavior of heavily deformed aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamikawa, Naoya; Huang, Xiaoxu; Kondo, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in previous work that a two-step annealing treatment, including a low-temperature, long-time annealing and a subsequent high-temperature annealing, is a promising route to control the microstructure of a heavily deformed metal. In the present study, structural parameters...... are quantified such as boundary spacing, misorientation angle and dislocation density for 99.99% aluminium deformed by accumulative roll-bonding to a strain of 4.8. Two different annealing processes have been applied; (i) one-step annealing for 0.5 h at 100-400°C and (ii) two-step annealing for 6 h at 175°C...... followed by 0.5 h annealing at 200-600°C, where the former treatment leads to discontinuous recrystallization and the latter to uniform structural coarsening. This behavior has been analyzed in terms of the relative change during annealing of energy stored as elastic energy in the dislocation structure...

  20. Measurement of surface recombination velocity on heavily doped indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, P.; Ghalla-Goradia, M.; Faur, M.; Bailey, S.

    1990-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the published low values of surface recombination velocity (SRV) in n-InP, solidified in recent years when modeling of existing n/p InP solar cells revealed that the front surface SRV had to be higher than 1 x 10 6 cm/sec in order to justify the poor blue response that is characteristic of all n/p InP solar cells. In this paper, SRV on heavily doped (>10 18 cm -3 )n-type and p-type InP is measured as a function of surface treatment. For the limited range of substrates and surface treatments studied, SRV and surface stability depend strongly on the surface treatment. SRVs of ∼10 5 cm/sec in both p-type and n-type InP are obtainable, but in n-type the low SRV surfaces were unstable, and the only stable surfaces on n-type had SRVs of >10 6 cm/sec

  1. Einstein's photoemission emission from heavily-doped quantized structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This monograph solely investigates the Einstein's Photoemission(EP) from Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The EP in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields  that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determinations of different important physical quantities in HD 2D and 3D materials  and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring   physical properties in the presence of intense light waves w...

  2. Comparison on mechanical properties of heavily phosphorus- and arsenic-doped Czochralski silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kang; Sun, Yuxin; Lu, Yunhao; Liang, Xingbo; Tian, Daxi; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2018-04-01

    Heavily phosphorus (P)- and arsenic (As)-doped Czochralski silicon (CZ-Si) wafers generally act as the substrates for the epitaxial silicon wafers used to fabricate power and communication devices. The mechanical properties of such two kinds of n-type heavily doped CZ silicon wafers are vital to ensure the quality of epitaxial silicon wafers and the manufacturing yields of devices. In this work, the mechanical properties including the hardness, Young's modulus, indentation fracture toughness and the resistance to dislocation motion have been comparatively investigated for heavily P- and As-doped CZ-Si wafers. It is found that heavily P-doped CZ-Si possesses somewhat higher hardness, lower Young's modulus, larger indentation fracture toughness and stronger resistance to dislocation motion than heavily As-doped CZ-Si. The mechanisms underlying this finding have been tentatively elucidated by considering the differences in the doping effects of P and As in silicon.

  3. Carrier mobilities in irradiated silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Brodbeck, T J; Sloan, T; Fretwurst, E; Kuhnke, M; Lindström, G

    2002-01-01

    Using laser pulses with <1 ns duration and a 500 MHz digital oscilloscope the current pulses were investigated for p-i-n Si diodes irradiated by neutrons up to 1 MeV equivalent fluences of 2.4x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2. Fitting the current pulse duration as a function of bias voltage allowed measurement of mobility and saturation velocity for both electrons and holes. No significant changes in these parameters were observed up to the maximum fluence. There are indications of a non-uniform space charge distribution in heavily irradiated diodes.

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  6. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  8. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  11. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ~ 0.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength...

  12. Mid-infrared plasmonic resonances exploiting heavily-doped Ge on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, P.; Sakat, E.; Baldassarre, L.; Calandrini, E.; Samarelli, A.; Gallacher, K.; Frigerio, J.; Isella, G.; Paul, D. J.; Ortolani, M.

    2015-03-01

    We address the behavior of mid-infrared localized plasmon resonances in elongated germanium antennas integrated on silicon substrates. Calculations based on Mie theory and on the experimentally retrieved dielectric constant allow us to study the tunability and the figures of merit of plasmon resonances in heavily-doped germanium and to preliminarily compare them with those of the most established plasmonic material, gold.

  13. Gemcitabine and capecitabine for heavily pre-treated metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise G; Pallisgaard, Niels; Andersen, Rikke F

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the efficacy and safety of capecitabine and gemcitabin (GemCap) in heavily pre-treated, therapy-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients and the clinical importance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) measurement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients' inclusion criteria included...

  14. Becoming a Heavily Tattooed Young Body: From a Bodily Experience to a Body Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vitor Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Why some young people start to tattoo their bodies? And why some of them keep going on with this practice, until having all body tattooed? What doing so means to them? These are some of the questions that underlie a qualitative research project carried out in Portugal on heavily tattooed young people. In this article, the author discusses their…

  15. Dual Inhibition of EGFR and VEGF in Heavily Pretreated Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn Ole; Markussen, Alice; Nielsen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    : The combination of irinotecan, bevacizumab, and cetuximab/panitumumab is safe and shows a toxicity profile corresponding to what is expected from the agents alone. The results indicate that the combination in the 4th line may result in a high rate of disease control in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic...

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  18. Irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrington, Hugh

    1988-06-01

    This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

  19. Stem cell migration after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothdurft, W.; Fliedner, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The survival rate of irradiated rodents could be significantly improved by shielding only the small parts of hemopoietic tissues during the course of irradiation. The populations of circulating stem cells in adult organisms are considered to be of some importance for the homeostasis between the many sites of blood cell formation and for the necessary flexibility of hemopoietic response in the face of fluctuating demands. Pluripotent stem cells are migrating through peripheral blood as has been shown for several mammalian species. Under steady state conditions, the exchange of stem cells between the different sites of blood cell formation appears to be restricted. Their presence in blood and the fact that they are in balance with the extravascular stem cell pool may well be of significance for the surveilance of the integrity of local stem cell populations. Any decrease of stem cell population in blood below a critical size results in the rapid immigration of circulating stem cells in order to restore local stem cell pool size. Blood stem cells are involved in the regeneration after whole-body irradiation if the stem cell population in bone marrows is reduced to less than 10% of the normal state. In the animals subjected to partial-body irradiation, the circulating stem cells appear to be the only source for the repopulation of the heavily irradiated, aplastic sites of hemopoietic organs. (Yamashita, S.)

  20. Foodstuff irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Report written on behalf of the Danish Food Institute summarizes national and international rules and developments within food irradiation technology, chemical changes in irradiated foodstuffs, microbiological and health-related aspects of irradiation and finally technological prospects of this conservation form. Food irradiatin has not been hitherto applied in Denmark. Radiation sources and secondary radiation doses in processed food are characterized. Chemical changes due to irradiation are compared to those due to p.ex. food heating. Toxicological and microbiological tests and their results give no unequivocal answer to the problem whether a foodstuff has been irradiated. The most likely application fields in Denmark are for low radiation dosis inhibition of germination, riping delay and insecticide. Medium dosis (1-10 kGy) can reduce bacteria number while high dosis (10-50 kGy) will enable total elimination of microorganisms and viruses. Food irradiation can be acceptable as technological possibility with reservation, that further studies follow. (EG)

  1. Hemibody irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schen, B.C.; Mella, O.; Dahl, O.

    1992-01-01

    In a large number of cancer patients, extensive skeletal metastases or myelomatosis induce vast suffering, such as intolerable pain and local complications of neoplastic bone destruction. Analgetic drugs frequently do not yield sufficient palliation. Irradiation of local fields often has to be repeated, because of tumour growth outside previously irradiated volumes. Wide field irradiation of the lower or upper half of the body causes significant relief of pain in most patients. Adequate pretreatment handling of patients, method of irradiation, and follow-up are of importance to reduce side effects, and are described as they are carried out at the Department of Oncology, Haukeland Hospital, Norway. 16 refs., 2 figs

  2. Addition of sunitinib to cetuximab and irinotecan in patients with heavily pre-treated advanced colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Camilla; Jensen, Benny Vittrup; Jørgensen, Trine Lembrecht

    2010-01-01

    Results of continuous sunitinib, in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan every other week (SIC) for compassionate use in heavily pre-treated patients with mCRC are presented.......Results of continuous sunitinib, in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan every other week (SIC) for compassionate use in heavily pre-treated patients with mCRC are presented....

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  5. Irradiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira

    1977-01-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures. (Kanao, N.)

  6. Irradiation proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, A [Osaka Kita Tsishin Hospital (Japan)

    1977-06-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures.

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  8. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  9. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecher, O.

    1979-01-01

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  12. Nice Guys Finish Last: Are People with Higher Tax Morale Taxed more Heavily?

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Doerrenberg; Denvil Duncan; Clemens Fuest; Andreas Peichl

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first to provide evidence of efficient taxation of groups with heterogeneous levels of 'tax morale'. We set up an optimal income tax model where high tax morale implies a high subjective cost of evading taxes. The model predicts that 'nice guys finish last': groups with higher tax morale will be taxed more heavily, simply because taxing them is less costly. Based on unique cross-country micro data and an IV approach to rule out reverse causality, we find empirical support fo...

  13. Thermal conductivity of high-porosity heavily doped biomorphic silicon carbide prepared from sapele wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Mucha, J.; Jezowski, A.; Cabezas-Rodriguez, R.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2012-08-01

    The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of high-porosity (˜52 vol %, channel-type pores) bio-SiC samples prepared from sapele wood biocarbon templates have been measured in the temperature range 5-300 K. An analysis has been made of the obtained results in comparison with the data for bio-SiC samples based on beech and eucalyptus, as well as for polycrystalline β-SiC. The conclusion has been drawn that the electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of bio-SiC samples based on natural wood are typical of heavily doped polycrystalline β-SiC.

  14. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh; Hai, Pham Nam; Anh, Le Duc; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    We show high-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga_1_−_x,Fe_x)Sb (x = 23% and 25%) thin films grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements indicate intrinsic ferromagnetism of these samples. The Curie temperature reaches 300 K and 340 K for x = 23% and 25%, respectively, which are the highest values reported so far in intrinsic III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  15. In situ observation of triple junction motion during recovery of heavily deformed aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hughes, Darcy A.; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    -junctions are pinned by deformation-induced interconnecting and lamellar boundaries, which slow down the recovery process and lead to a stop-go migration pattern. This pinning mechanism stabilizes the deformation microstructure, i.e. the structure is stabilized by balancing the driving and pinning forces controlling......Microstructural evolution during in situ annealing of heavily cold-rolled aluminum has been studied by transmission electron microscopy, confirming that an important recovery mechanism is migration of triple junctions formed by three lamellar boundaries (Y-junctions). The migrating Y...

  16. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City 748242 (Viet Nam); Hai, Pham Nam [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-0033 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Anh, Le Duc [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaaki [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-05-09

    We show high-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb (x = 23% and 25%) thin films grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements indicate intrinsic ferromagnetism of these samples. The Curie temperature reaches 300 K and 340 K for x = 23% and 25%, respectively, which are the highest values reported so far in intrinsic III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  17. An X-ray wave theory for heavily distorted crystals. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, T.; Hashimoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction theory is developed of monochromatic waves having spherical wave front, which is applicable to an interpretation of divergent X-ray diffraction images of crystals containing arbitral types of strain field. The theory is divided into two parts. In part I, Takagi's theory is expanded by introducing amplitude and phase correction functions and a new improved representation for the X-ray diffraction theory is given. In part II dispersion surfaces in heavily distorted crystals are discussed, and in the discussion the resonance shift functions are introduced. These formulations can lead to a complete understanding of the extinction phenomena. (author)

  18. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved...... sequential 90 deg rotations about the normal direction (ND) between passes. The microstructure in the center of these plates, and especially the extent of microstructural heterogeneity, has been characterized quantitatively and compared with that in bar samples extruded via either route A or route Bc with 90...... Bc. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012...

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  1. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  2. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  3. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  6. Marine reserves and reproductive biomass: a case study of a heavily targeted reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Taylor

    Full Text Available Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.

  7. Cytogenetic abnormalities of the descendants of permanent residents of heavily contaminated East Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Madiyeva, Madina; Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Noso, Yoshihiro; Takeichi, Nobuo; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Urazalina, Nailya; Dovgal, Galina; Rymbaeva, Tamara; Tokanova, Sholpan; Beisengazina, Meruert; Kembayeva, Kulypash; Inoue, Ken

    2017-11-01

    More than 400 nuclear explosion tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) and significant radioactive substances were released. The long-term consequences of the activities at the SNTS and the appearance of any hereditary effects remain insufficiently studied about 25 years after the test site was closed. The population living in villages near the SNTS are considered to have been heavily exposed to external and internal radiation. This study aims to perform an assessment and comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of the inhabitants living near the SNTS, and their first-(F1) and second-(F2) generation children. Residents of the East Kazakhstan region living in the area covered by the former SNTS were included in the study. To evaluate the hereditary effects of nuclear testing, comprehensive chromosome analyses were performed in lymphocytes using conventional Giemsa and fluorescent in situ hybridization methods in 115 F1 and F2 descendants in the villages of Dolon and Sarzhal, which were heavily contaminated. The parents of the subjects had permanently lived in the villages. A higher number of stable-type chromosome aberrations such as translocations was found in these residents than in 80 residents of the control area, Kokpecty, which indicates the possibility that radiation had biological effects on the exposed subjects.

  8. Long-Term Stability of Oxide Nanowire Sensors via Heavily Doped Oxide Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Takahashi, Tsunaki; Kanai, Masaki; Zhang, Guozhu; He, Yong; Nagashima, Kazuki; Yanagida, Takeshi

    2017-12-22

    Long-term stability of a chemical sensor is an essential quality for long-term collection of data related to exhaled breath, environmental air, and other sources in the Internet of things (IoT) era. Although an oxide nanowire sensor has shown great potential as a chemical sensor, the long-term stability of sensitivity has not been realized yet due to electrical degradation under harsh sensing conditions. Here, we report a rational concept to accomplish long-term electrical stability of metal oxide nanowire sensors via introduction of a heavily doped metal oxide contact layer. Antimony-doped SnO 2 (ATO) contacts on SnO 2 nanowires show much more stable and lower electrical contact resistance than conventional Ti contacts for high temperature (200 °C) conditions, which are required to operate chemical sensors. The stable and low contact resistance of ATO was confirmed for at least 1960 h under 200 °C in open air. This heavily doped oxide contact enables us to realize the long-term stability of SnO 2 nanowire sensors while maintaining the sensitivity for both NO 2 gas and light (photo) detections. The applicability of our method is confirmed for sensors on a flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. Since the proposed fundamental concept can be applied to various oxide nanostructures, it will give a foundation for designing long-term stable oxide nanomaterial-based IoT sensors.

  9. Yield strength of a heavily drawn Cu-20% Nb filamentary microcomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.I.

    1998-01-01

    It has been well documented that heavily-drawn, copper-niobium microcomposites possess high strength and high conductivity. Since niobium has little solubility in copper, the conductivity of the copper is not strongly affected by the addition of niobium. Following extensive mechanical deformation of Cu-Nb, niobium dendrites transform into fine niobium ribbons as a result of the niobium texture upon drawing. This nanostructure contributes to the ultrahigh strength of Cu-Nb microcomposites. The strength of heavily deformed Cu-Nb exceeds that predicted by the rule-of-mixtures (ROM), and a fundamental understanding of the strengthening mechanisms involved has been the subject of much discussion. Spitzig and his coworkers suggests a barrier strengthening model while Funkenbusch and Courtney believe that stored dislocations have a role in substructural hardening. Hangen and Raabe recently proposed an analytical model for the calculation of the yield strength of Cu-Nb microcomposite. The model of Hangen and Raabe and that of Spitzig and his coworkers have a great deal of resemblance since both models attribute the strength to the difficulty of propagating plastic flow through the interface. The purpose of this study was to enhance the understanding of the strengthening mechanisms associated with Cu-Nb microcomposites by examining the previous studies on mechanical and microstructural stability of Cu-based microcomposites

  10. Studies on the immune response to fixed antigens. Preferential induction of helper function with heavily trinitrophenylated sheep erythrocytes, and glutaraldehyde-treated sheep erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahan, M.; Berman-Goldman, R.; Saltoun, R.; Naor, D.

    1976-01-01

    Mice primed with heavily trinitrophenylated sheep red cells (TNP 128 SRC) or glutaraldehyde-treated sheep red cells (G-SRC) developed an early helper function mediated by thymus-derived cells. Such mice were able to produce high secondary responses to both hapten and carrier after challenge 2 days after priming, with lightly trinitrophenylated SRC (TNP 0 . 14 SRC). However, the primary response of the TNP 128 SRC or G-SRC-primed mice were very low to undetectable, and their secondary responses were also low when the challenge antigen was administered 4 days after priming or later. Inhibitory humoral factor(s) which were induced in the primed animals appeared responsible for the decreased capacity of primed mice to mount a secondary response when challenged later than 2 days after priming. Transfer of spleen cells from TNP 128 SRC-primed mice to sublethally irradiated recipients circumvents their exposure to inhibitory humoral factor(s) present in intact animals allowing them to react with challenge antigen. Enriched populations of T cells, but not B cells, were able to transfer this early immunologic memory to irradiated recipients. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed

  11. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu.

    1989-01-01

    In an irradiation device for irradiating radiation rays such as electron beams to pharmaceuticals, etc., since the distribution of scanned electron rays was not monitored, the electron beam intensity could be determined only indirectly and irradiation reliability was not satisfactory. In view of the above, a plurality of monitor wires emitting secondary electrons are disposed in the scanning direction near a beam take-out window of a scanning duct, signals from the monitor wires are inputted into a display device such as a cathode ray tube, as well as signals from the monitor wires at the central portion are inputted into counting rate meters to measure the radiation dose as well. Since secondary electrons are emitted when electron beams pass through the monitor wires and the intensity thereof is in proportion with the intensity of incident electron beams, the distribution of the radiation dose can be monitored by measuring the intensity of the emitted secondary electrons. Further, uneven irradiation, etc. can also be monitored to make the radiation of irradiation rays reliable. (N.H.)

  12. Structural coarsening during annealing of an aluminum plate heavily deformed using ECAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, A.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure and softening behaviour have been investigated in an aluminum plate heavily deformed by equal channel angular extrusion and subsequently annealed at 170 °C. It is found that at this temperature the microstructure evolves by coarsening with no apparent signs of recrystallization...... even after 2 h of annealing. Both coarsening and softening are rapid within first 10 minutes of annealing followed by a slower evolution with increasing annealing duration. Evidence of triple junction (TJ) motion during coarsening is obtained by inspecting the microstructure in one region using...... the electron backscatter diffraction technique both before and after annealing for 10 minutes. The fraction of fast-migrating TJs is found to strongly depend of the type of boundaries composing a junction. The greatest fraction of fast-migrating TJs is in the group, where all boundaries forming a junction...

  13. Anomalous transmission through heavily doped conducting polymer films with periodic subwavelength hole array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Agrawal, Amit; Nahata, Ajay; Menon, Reghu

    2006-08-01

    We observed resonantly enhanced (or anomalous transmission) terahertz transmission through two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures with various periodicities fabricated on metallic organic conducting polymer films of polypyrrole heavily doped with PF 6 molecules [PPy(PF6)]. The anomalous transmission spectra are in good agreement with a model involving surface plasmon polariton excitations on the film surfaces. We also found that the resonantly enhanced transmission peaks are broader in the exotic metallic PPy(PF6) films compared to those formed in 2D aperture array in regular metallic films such as silver, indicating that the surface plasmon polaritons on the PPy(PF6) film surfaces have higher attenuation.

  14. Heavily doped GaAs:Te layers grown by MOVPE using diisopropyl telluride as a source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniltsev, V. M.; Demidov, E. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N., E-mail: drozdyu@ipmras.ru; Kraev, S. A.; Surovegina, E. A.; Shashkin, V. I.; Yunin, P. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The capabilities of GaAs epitaxial layers extremely heavily doped with tellurium by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy using diisopropyl telluride as a source are studied. It is shown that tellurium incorporation into GaAs occurs to an atomic concentration of 10{sup 21} cm{sup –3} without appreciable diffusion and segregation effects. Good carrier concentrations (2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}) and specific contact resistances of non-alloyed ohmic contacts (1.7 × 10{sup –6} Ω cm{sup 2}) give grounds to use such layers to create non-alloyed ohmic contacts in electronic devices. A sharp decrease in the electrical activity of Te atoms, a decrease in the electron mobility, and an increase in the contact resistance at atomic concentrations above 2 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –3} are detected.

  15. Spin relaxation through lateral spin transport in heavily doped n -type silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M.; Oka, T.; Fujita, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Saito, Y.; Hamaya, K.

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally study temperature-dependent spin relaxation including lateral spin diffusion in heavily doped n -type silicon (n+-Si ) layers by measuring nonlocal magnetoresistance in small-sized CoFe/MgO/Si lateral spin-valve (LSV) devices. Even at room temperature, we observe large spin signals, 50-fold the magnitude of those in previous works on n+-Si . By measuring spin signals in LSVs with various center-to-center distances between contacts, we reliably evaluate the temperature-dependent spin diffusion length (λSi) and spin lifetime (τSi). We find that the temperature dependence of τSi is affected by that of the diffusion constant in the n+-Si layers, meaning that it is important to understand the temperature dependence of the channel mobility. A possible origin of the temperature dependence of τSi is discussed in terms of the recent theories by Dery and co-workers.

  16. Defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Mikado, Tomohisa.

    1994-01-01

    Vacancy-type defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured for the epitaxial films grown on the Si substrates by plasma chemical vapor deposition. For the as-deposited film, divacancy-phosphorus complexes were found with high concentration. After 600degC annealing, vacancy clusters were formed near the Si/Si interface, while no drastic change in the depth distribution of the divacancy-phosphorus complexes was observed. By 900degC annealing, the vacancy clusters were annealed out; however, the average number of phosphorus atoms coupled with divacancies increased. The relationship between the vacancy-type defects probed by the positron annihilation technique and the carrier concentration was confirmed. (author)

  17. Defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Mikado, Tomohisa

    1994-11-01

    Vacancy-type defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured for the epitaxial films grown on the Si substrates by plasma chemical vapor deposition. For the as-deposited film, divacancy-phosphorus complexes were found with high concentration. After 600degC annealing, vacancy clusters were formed near the Si/Si interface, while no drastic change in the depth distribution of the divacancy-phosphorus complexes was observed. By 900degC annealing, the vacancy clusters were annealed out; however, the average number of phosphorus atoms coupled with divacancies increased. The relationship between the vacancy-type defects probed by the positron annihilation technique and the carrier concentration was confirmed. (author).

  18. Launch prices for new pharmaceuticals in the heavily regulated and subsidized Spanish market, 1995-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume; López-Valcárcel, Beatriz González

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the explanatory factors affecting introductory prices of new pharmaceuticals in a heavily regulated and highly subsidized market. We collect a data set consisting of all new chemical entities launched in Spain between 1997 and 2005, and model launch prices following an extended version of previous economic models. We found that, unlike in the US and Sweden, therapeutically "innovative" products are not overpriced relative to "imitative" ones after having controlled for other factors. Price setting is mainly used as a mechanism to adjust for inflation independently of the degree of innovation. The drugs that enter through the centralized EMA approval procedure are overpriced, which may be a consequence of market globalization and international price setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Facilitating political decisions using species distribution models to assess restoration measures in heavily modified estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuner, Maike; Weber, Arnd; Schröder, Uwe; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Schröder, Boris

    2016-09-15

    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological potential for heavily modified water bodies. This standard has not been reached for most large estuaries by 2015. Management plans for estuaries fall short in linking implementations between restoration measures and underlying spatial analyses. The distribution of emergent macrophytes - as an indicator of habitat quality - is here used to assess the ecological potential. Emergent macrophytes are capable of settling on gentle tidal flats where hydrodynamic stress is comparatively low. Analyzing their habitats based on spatial data, we set up species distribution models with 'elevation relative to mean high water', 'mean bank slope', and 'length of bottom friction' from shallow water up to the vegetation belt as key predictors representing hydrodynamic stress. Effects of restoration scenarios on habitats were assessed applying these models. Our findings endorse species distribution models as crucial spatial planning tools for implementing restoration measures in modified estuaries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chromosome aberrations of bone marrow cells in heavily exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Ohkita, Takeshi

    1986-01-01

    Seven hundred and ten bone marrow cells from 13 A-bomb survivors, who were heavily exposed to atomic radiation, were examined using chromosome banding method. An average frequency of chromosome aberrations was 17 %. The most common structural abnormality was translocation (47 %), followed by complex aberrations involving three or more chromosomes (32 %). These abnormalities were frequently seen in A-bomb survivors exposed to estimated doses of 3.5 - 4.0 Gy. Eighty two percent of the structural aberrations were stable. Diploid cells were seen in 0.4 % and tetraploid cells were seen in 0.7 %. The frequency of breakpoint sites was high in chromosomes 1 and 17; while it was low in chromosomes 3, 6, 9, and 11. Abnormal clones were seen in one of the 13 survivors. Chromosome aberrations common to the bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocytes were not seen in the same individual. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Induction hardening of tool steel for heavily loaded aircraft engine components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokicki P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Induction hardening is an innovative process allowing modification of the materials surface with more effective, cheaper and more reproducible way to compare with conventional hardening methods used in the aerospace industry. Unfortunately, high requirements and strict regulation concerning this branch of the industry force deep research allowing to obtain results that would be used for numerical modelling of the process. Only by this way one is able to start the industrial application of the process. The main scope of presented paper are results concerning investigation of microstructure evolution of tool steel after single-frequency induction hardening process. The specimens that aim in representing final industrial products (as heavily loaded gears, were heat- -treated with induction method and subjected to metallographic preparation, after which complex microstructure investigation was performed. The results obtained within the research will be a basis for numerical modelling of the process of induction hardening with potential to be introduced for the aviation industrial components.

  2. Effect of impurity correlation on the density of states in slightly compensated heavily doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Nhat Quang; Nguyen Nhu Dat; Dinh Van An

    1993-07-01

    A theory is developed of the electron density of states (DOS) in slightly compensated heavily doped semiconductors which undergo a thermal treatment. The calculation is carried out within the semiclassical approach to the random impurity field, taking adequately into account high-temperature correlation among the impurities and low temperature screening due to the free carriers as well. Then, a simple analytic expression for the DOS is obtained which exhibits the same energy dependence as in the case of a random impurity distribution, but now with some correlation-induced changes in the coefficients. A numerical estimation on non-compensated n-type sample of GaAs at a doping level of 5 x 10 18 cm -3 shows that in the tail region the correlated DOS turns out to be somewhat larger and cut less sharply than the random one. (author). 45 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  3. AN AMELIORATED DETECTION STATISTICS FOR ADAPTIVE MASK MEDIAN FILTRATION OF HEAVILY NOISED DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Hanji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Noise reduction is an important area of research in image processing applications. The performance of the digital image noise filtering method primarily depends upon the accuracy of noise detection scheme. This paper presents an effective detector based, adaptive mask, median filtration of heavily noised digital images affected with fixed value (or salt and pepper impulse noise. The proposed filter presents a novel approach; an ameliorated Rank Ordered Absolute Deviation (ROAD statistics to judge whether the input pixel is noised or noise free. If a pixel is detected as corrupted, it is subjected to adaptive mask median filtration; otherwise, it is kept unchanged. Extensive experimental results and comparative performance evaluations demonstrate that the proposed filter outperforms the existing decision type, median based filters with powerful noise detectors in terms of objective performance measures and visual retrieviation accuracy.

  4. Optical Gaps in Pristine and Heavily Doped Silicon Nanocrystals: DFT versus Quantum Monte Carlo Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derian, R; Tokár, K; Somogyi, B; Gali, Á; Štich, I

    2017-12-12

    We present a time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) study of the optical gaps of light-emitting nanomaterials, namely, pristine and heavily B- and P-codoped silicon crystalline nanoparticles. Twenty DFT exchange-correlation functionals sampled from the best currently available inventory such as hybrids and range-separated hybrids are benchmarked against ultra-accurate quantum Monte Carlo results on small model Si nanocrystals. Overall, the range-separated hybrids are found to perform best. The quality of the DFT gaps is correlated with the deviation from Koopmans' theorem as a possible quality guide. In addition to providing a generic test of the ability of TDDFT to describe optical properties of silicon crystalline nanoparticles, the results also open up a route to benchmark-quality DFT studies of nanoparticle sizes approaching those studied experimentally.

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  6. Vinca irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymery, R.

    1976-10-01

    The development programme of the VINCA radiosterilisation centre involves plans for an irradiator capable of working in several ways. Discontinuous operation. The irradiator is loaded for a certain period then runs automatically until the moment of unloading. This method is suitable as long as the treatment capacity is relatively small. Continuous operation with permanent batch loading and unloading carried out either manually or automatically (by means of equipment to be installed later). Otherwise the design of the apparatus is highly conventional. The source is a vertical panel submersible in a pool. The conveyor is of the 'bucket' type, with 4 tiers to each bucket. The batches pass successively through all possible irradiation positions. Transfert into and out of the cell take place through a maze, which also provides access to the cell when the sources are in storage at the bottom of the pool [fr

  7. Rapid enhancement of nodal quasiparticle mass with heavily underdoping in Bi2212

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Hiroaki; Arita, Masashi; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Shin-ichi; Ino, Akihiro

    2018-05-01

    We report substantial advance of our low-energy angle-resolved photoemission study of nodal quasiparticles in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The new data cover the samples from underdoped down to heavily underdoped levels. We also present the nodal Fermi velocities that determined by using an excitation-photon energy of hν = 7.0 eV over a wide doping range. The consistency between the results with hν = 8.1 and 7.0 eV allows us to rule out the effect of photoemission matrix elements. In comparison with the data previously reported, the nodal effective mass increases by a factor of ∼ 1.5 in going from optimally doped to heavily underdoped levels. We find a rapid enhancement of the nodal quasiparticle mass at low doping levels near the superconductor-to-insulator transition. The effective coupling spectrum, λ (ω) , is extracted directly from the energy derivatives of the quasiparticle dispersion and scattering rate, as a causal function of the mass enhancement factor. A steplike increase in Reλ (ω) around ∼ 65 meV is demonstrated clearly by the Kramers-Kronig transform of Imλ (ω) . To extract the low-energy renormalization effect, we calculated a simple model for the electron-boson interaction. This model reveals that the contribution of the renormalization at | ω | ≤ 15 meV to the quasiparticle mass is larger than that around 65 meV in underdoped samples.

  8. Ecophysiological characterization of early successional biological soil crusts in heavily human-impacted areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyja, Michelle; Büdel, Burkhard; Colesie, Claudia

    2018-04-01

    Ecophysiological characterizations of photoautotrophic communities are not only necessary to identify the response of carbon fixation related to different climatic factors, but also to evaluate risks connected to changing environments. In biological soil crusts (BSCs), the description of ecophysiological features is difficult, due to the high variability in taxonomic composition and variable methodologies applied. Especially for BSCs in early successional stages, the available datasets are rare or focused on individual constituents, although these crusts may represent the only photoautotrophic component in many heavily disturbed ruderal areas, such as parking lots or building areas with increasing surface area worldwide. We analyzed the response of photosynthesis and respiration to changing BSC water contents (WCs), temperature and light in two early successional BSCs. We investigated whether the response of these parameters was different between intact BSC and the isolated dominating components. BSCs dominated by the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and dominated by the green alga Zygogonium ericetorum were examined. A major divergence between the two BSCs was their absolute carbon fixation rate on a chlorophyll basis, which was significantly higher for the cyanobacterial crust. Nevertheless, independent of species composition, both crust types and their isolated organisms had convergent features such as high light acclimatization and a minor and very late-occurring depression in carbon uptake at water suprasaturation. This particular setup of ecophysiological features may enable these communities to cope with a high variety of climatic stresses and may therefore be a reason for their success in heavily disturbed areas with ongoing human impact. However, the shape of the response was different for intact BSC compared to separated organisms, especially in absolute net photosynthesis (NP) rates. This emphasizes the importance of measuring intact BSCs under natural

  9. Relationship between levels of serum creatinine and perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erden, Ayse, E-mail: ayse.erden@medicine.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Sahin, Burcu Savran, E-mail: bsavrans@hotmail.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Orgodol, Horolsuren, E-mail: hoogii99@yahoo.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Erden, Ilhan, E-mail: erden@medicine.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Biyikli, Zeynep, E-mail: zeynep.biyikli@gmail.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To determine the frequency of perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted images and to evaluate its relationship with serum creatinine levels. Subjects and methods: Axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo images which have been originally obtained for MR cholangiopancreatography in 150 subjects were examined by two observers individually for the presence of perirenal hyperintensity. The morphologic properties of perirenal hyperintensity (peripheral rim-like, discontinuous, polar) were recorded. Chi square test was used to test whether the frequencies of bilateral perirenal hyperintensity differ significantly in subjects with high serum creatinine levels and those with normal creatinine levels. This test was also used to compare the frequencies of perirenal hyperintensity in patients with and without renal cysts and in patients with and without corticomedullary differentiation. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The perirenal hyperintensity was identified in 40 of 150 cases (26.6%) on heavily T2-weighted image. Serum creatinine levels were high in 18 of 150 cases (12%). The perirenal hyperintensity was present in 11 of 18 subjects (61%) with high serum creatinine levels and 26 of 132 subjects (19.7%) with normal creatinine levels. The difference of rates in two groups was statistically significant. Odds ratio was 6407 (95% confidence interval 2264-18,129). The frequency of perirenal hyperintensity was also significantly higher in subjects with renal cyst or cysts in whom serum creatinine levels were normal (p < 0.05) (37.5% vs. 11.8%). Conclusion: Perirenal hyperintensities are more frequent in patients with high serum creatinine levels. They are also more common in patients with simple renal cysts.

  10. Relationship between levels of serum creatinine and perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erden, Ayse; Sahin, Burcu Savran; Orgodol, Horolsuren; Erden, Ilhan; Biyikli, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted images and to evaluate its relationship with serum creatinine levels. Subjects and methods: Axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo images which have been originally obtained for MR cholangiopancreatography in 150 subjects were examined by two observers individually for the presence of perirenal hyperintensity. The morphologic properties of perirenal hyperintensity (peripheral rim-like, discontinuous, polar) were recorded. Chi square test was used to test whether the frequencies of bilateral perirenal hyperintensity differ significantly in subjects with high serum creatinine levels and those with normal creatinine levels. This test was also used to compare the frequencies of perirenal hyperintensity in patients with and without renal cysts and in patients with and without corticomedullary differentiation. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The perirenal hyperintensity was identified in 40 of 150 cases (26.6%) on heavily T2-weighted image. Serum creatinine levels were high in 18 of 150 cases (12%). The perirenal hyperintensity was present in 11 of 18 subjects (61%) with high serum creatinine levels and 26 of 132 subjects (19.7%) with normal creatinine levels. The difference of rates in two groups was statistically significant. Odds ratio was 6407 (95% confidence interval 2264-18,129). The frequency of perirenal hyperintensity was also significantly higher in subjects with renal cyst or cysts in whom serum creatinine levels were normal (p < 0.05) (37.5% vs. 11.8%). Conclusion: Perirenal hyperintensities are more frequent in patients with high serum creatinine levels. They are also more common in patients with simple renal cysts.

  11. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  12. Preservation of crab meat by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.; Prompubesara, C.; Kraisorn, K.; Noochpramool, K.

    1972-01-01

    Fresh crab meat from swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus, Linn.) was irradiated at doses of 0.075, 0.15 and 0.25 Mrad and held at 3 0 C. The storage life of non-irradiated crab meat was approximately 7 days compared with 14 days for crab meat irradiated at 0.075 Mrad and 28 days for samples receiving 0.15 or 0.25 Mrad treatment. Total aerobic count, trimethylamine nitrogen, total volatile basic nitrogen, and ammonia contents were used as objective indices of freshness in comparison with sensory evaluation of the crab meat. All objective indices correlated well with the sensory judgement of the samples. The crab meat used in the study was heavily contaminated with microorganisms. Irradiation at 0.15 and 0.25 Mrad reduced approximately 2 log cycles in the total count. Acinetobacter (Achromobacter) was predominated in irradiated crab meat, especially after prolonged storage. High coagulase positive staphylococci count was detected in only non-irradiated crab meat

  13. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  14. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  15. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  16. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Rosanna M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  17. Industrial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Production lines for rubber gloves would not appear to have much in common with particle physics laboratories, but they both use accelerators. Electron beam irradiation is often used in industry to improve the quality of manufactured goods or to reduce production cost. Products range from computer disks, shrink packaging, tyres, cables, and plastics to hot water pipes. Some products, such as medical goods, cosmetics and certain foodstuffs, are sterilized in this way. In electron beam irradiation, electrons penetrate materials creating showers of low energy electrons. After many collisions these electrons have the correct energy to create chemically active sites. They may either break molecular bonds or activate a site which promotes a new chemical linkage. This industrial irradiation can be exploited in three ways: breaking down a biological molecule usually renders it useless and kills the organism; breaking an organic molecule can change its toxicity or function; and crosslinking a polymer can strengthen it. In addition to traditional gamma irradiation using isotopes, industrial irradiation uses three accelerator configurations, each type defining an energy range, and consequently the electron penetration depth. For energies up to 750 kV, the accelerator consists of a DC potential applied to a simple wire anode and the electrons extracted through a slot in a coaxially mounted cylindrical cathode. In the 1-5 MeV range, the Cockcroft-Walton or Dynamitron( R ) accelerators are normally used. To achieve the high potentials in these DC accelerators, insulating SF6 gas and large dimension vessels separate the anode and cathode; proprietary techniques distinguish the various commercial models available. Above 5 MeV, the size of DC accelerators render them impractical, and more compact radiofrequency-driven linear accelerators are used. Irradiation electron beams are actually 'sprayed' over the product using a magnetic deflection system. Lower energy beams of

  18. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerens, H [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Saint-Lebe, L

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment.

  19. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransohoff, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Carriers, after being loaded with product to be irradiated, are transported by an input-output conveyor system into an irradiation chamber where they are received in a horizontal arrangement on racks which may support different sizes and numbers of carriers. The racks are moved by a chamber conveyor system in an endless rectangular path about a radiation source. Packers shift the carriers on the racks to maintain nearest proximity to the radiation source. The carriers are shifted in position on each rack during successive rack cycles to produce even radiation exposure. The carriers may be loaded singly onto successive racks during a first cycle of movement thereof about the source, with loading of additional carriers, and/or unloading of carriers, onto each rack occurring on subsequent rack cycles of movement

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  2. Endolymphatic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, M.M.; Ianhez, L.E.; Sabbaga, E.

    1982-01-01

    The authors analysed the clinical evolution and the result of renal transplantation some years after irradiation in 24 patients (group I) who received endolymphatic 131 I as a pre-transplantation immunesuppresive measure. The control group (group II) consisted of 24 non-irradiated patients comparable to group I in age, sex, primary disease, type of donor and immunesuppressive therapy. Significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding such factors a incidence and reversibility of rejection crises in the first 60 post-transplantation days, loss of kidney due to rejection, and dosage of azathioprine. The authors conclude that this method, besides being harmless, has prolonged immunesuppressive action, its administration being advised for receptores of cadaver kidneys, mainly those who show positive cross-match against HLA antigens for painel. (Author) [pt

  3. Precise Th/U-dating of small and heavily coated samples of deep sea corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomitschka, Michael; Mangini, Augusto

    1999-07-01

    Marine carbonate skeletons like deep-sea corals are frequently coated with iron and manganese oxides/hydroxides which adsorb additional thorium and uranium out of the sea water. A new cleaning procedure has been developed to reduce this contamination. In this further cleaning step a solution of Na 2EDTA (Na 2H 2T B) and ascorbic acid is used which composition is optimised especially for samples of 20 mg of weight. It was first tested on aliquots of a reef-building coral which had been artificially contaminated with powdered ferromanganese nodule. Applied on heavily contaminated deep-sea corals (scleractinia), it reduced excess 230Th by another order of magnitude in addition to usual cleaning procedures. The measurement of at least three fractions of different contamination, together with an additional standard correction for contaminated carbonates results in Th/U-ages corrected for the authigenic component. A good agreement between Th/U- and 14C-ages can be achieved even for extremely coated corals.

  4. High critical currents in heavily doped (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, V; Gharahcheshmeh, MH; Xu, A; Galstyan, E; Delgado, L; Cantoni, C

    2015-01-19

    REBa2Cu3Ox ((REBCO), RE = rare earth) superconductor tapes with moderate levels of dopants have been optimized for high critical current density in low magnetic fields at 77 K, but they do not exhibit exemplary performance in conditions of interest for practical applications, i.e., temperatures less than 50K and fields of 2-30 T. Heavy doping of REBCO tapes has been avoided by researchers thus far due to deterioration in properties. Here, we report achievement of critical current densities (J(c)) above 20 MA/cm(2) at 30 K, 3 T in heavily doped (25 mol.% Zr-added) (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes, which is more than three times higher than the J(c) typically obtained in moderately doped tapes. Pinning force levels above 1000 GN/m(3) have also been attained at 20 K. A composition map of lift factor in J(c) (ratio of J(c) at 30 K, 3 T to the J(c) at 77 K, 0 T) has been developed which reveals the optimum film composition to obtain lift factors above six, which is thrice the typical value. A highly c-axis aligned BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumn defect density of nearly 7 x 10(11) cm(-2) as well as 2-3 nm sized particles rich in Cu and Zr have been found in the high J(c) films. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  5. Heavily T2-weighted MR myelography vs CT myelography in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-F; Lirng, J-F; Fuh, J-L; Hseu, S-S; Wang, S-J

    2009-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Patients with SIH were recruited prospectively, and first underwent MRM and then computed tomographic myelography (CTM). The results of MRM were validated with the gold standard, CTM, focusing on 1) CSF leaks along the nerve roots, 2) epidural CSF collections, and 3) high-cervical (C1-3) retrospinal CSF collections. Comparisons of these 3 findings between the 2 studies were made by kappa statistics and agreement rates. Targeted epidural blood patches (EBPs) were placed at the levels of CSF leaks if supportive treatment failed. Nineteen patients (6 men and 13 women, mean age 37.9 +/- 8.6 years) with SIH completed the study. MRM did not differ from CTM in the detection rates of CSF leaks along the nerve roots (84% vs 74%, p = 0.23), high-cervical retrospinal CSF collections (32% vs 16%, p = 0.13), and epidural CSF collections (89% vs 79%, p = 0.20). MRM demonstrated more spinal levels of CSF leaks (2.2 +/- 1.7 vs 1.5 +/- 1.5, p = 0.011) and epidural collections (12.2 +/- 5.9 vs 7.1 +/- 5.8, p localizing CSF leaks for patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. This noninvasive technique may be an alternative to computed tomographic myelography before targeted epidural blood patches.

  6. Misdiagnosis of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa in a choroideremia patient with heavily pigmented fundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, A; Salvetti, A P; Martinez-Fernandez de la Camara, C; MacLaren, R E

    2018-06-01

    Inherited retinal diseases are thought to be the leading cause of sight loss in the working age population. Mutations found in the RPGR and CHM genes cause retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and choroideremia, respectively. In the first instance, an X-linked family history of visual field loss commonly raises the suspicion of one of these two genes. In choroideremia, the classic description of a white fundal reflex secondary to the widespread chorioretinal degeneration was made over a hundred years ago in Caucasians. But, it is not so obvious in heavily pigmented fundi. Hence, the clinical diagnosis of CHM in non-Caucasian patients may be challenging in the first stages of the disease. Here we report a case of a Southeast Asian gentleman who has a family history of X-linked retinal degeneration and was found to have a confirmed in-frame deletion of 12 DNA nucleotides in exon 15 of the RPGR gene. Later in life, however, his fundal appearance showed unusual areas of circular pigment hypertrophy and clumping. He was therefore tested for carrying a disease-causing mutation in the CHM gene and a null mutation was found. Since gene therapy trials are ongoing for both of these conditions, it has now become critically important to establish the correct genetic diagnosis in order to recruit suitable candidates. Moreover, this case demonstrates the necessity to remain vigilant in the interpretation of genetic results which are inconsistent with clinical features.

  7. Bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products: composition of the microbial consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA S. MILIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation, a process that utilizes the capability of microorganism to degrade toxic waste, is emerging as a promising technology for the treatment of soil and groundwater contamination. The technology is very effective in dealing with petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. The aim of this study was to examine the composition of the microbial consortium during the ex situ experiment of bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products from the Oil Refinery Pančevo, Serbia. After a 5.5-month experiment with biostimulation and bioventilation, the concentration of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH had been reduced from 29.80 to 3.29 g/kg (89 %. In soil, the dominant microorganism population comprised Gram-positive bacteria from actinomycete-Nocardia group. The microorganisms which decompose hydrocarbons were the dominant microbial population at the end of the process, with a share of more than 80 % (range 107 CFU/g. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that a stable microbial community had been formed after initial fluctuations.

  8. Do the VOCs that evaporate from a heavily polluted river threaten the health of riparian residents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juang, Der-Fong; Lee, Chao-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Chin; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2010-01-01

    To understand the potential threat of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the health of residents living close to a heavily polluted river, this study investigated the species and the concentration of VOCs evaporating from a river and surveyed the health condition of the nearby residents. Air samples were taken seasonally at the upstream, midstream, and downstream water surfaces of the river, and at different locations at certain distances from the river. These samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively through gas chromatography and electron capture detector (GC/ECD) for chlorinated organic compounds, and through gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC/FID) for ordinary hydrocarbons. The health data obtained from valid health questionnaires of 908 residents were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Twenty-six species of VOCs were identified in the environment adjacent the river, many of which are carcinogenic or believed to be carcinogenic to humans. However, results of this study shows that the VOCs evaporating from the polluted river have not been definitively identified as a major factor of cancer in the residents. However, the risk of suffering from certain chronic diseases may increase in residents living less than 225 m away from the river due to the high levels of evaporated VOCs. Residents living less than 225 m away from the river and with nearby specific industries are 3.130 times more at risk of suffering from chronic diseases than those with no nearby specific industries.

  9. Quantifying the importance of diffuse minewater pollution in a historically heavily coal mined catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayes, W.M.; Gozzard, E.; Potter, H.A.B.; Jarvis, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable progress in developing treatment systems for point sources of minewater pollution in recent years; however, there remains a knowledge gap in the characterisation and remediation of diffuse minewater sources. Data are presented from the River Gaunless catchment, a historically heavily coal mined catchment in the northeast of England. Instream iron (Fe) loadings were monitored alongside loadings arising from point minewater discharges over a 12-month period to assess the dynamic importance of diffuse sources of minewater pollution. In low flow, diffuse sources account for around 50% of instream loading, a proportion which increases to 98% in high flow conditions. The low flow sources appear to be dominated by direct discharge of contaminated groundwater to surface waters in lower reaches of the catchment. In high flow, resuspended Fe-rich sediments, which are both naturally occurring and derived from historic mining, become the dominant diffuse source of Fe in the water column. - Diffuse sources of minewater pollution significantly contribute to instream contaminant loadings under varying flow conditions

  10. Road Environments: Impact of Metals on Human Health in Heavily Congested Cities of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiec, Ewa

    2017-06-29

    Road dust as a by-product of exhaust and non-exhaust emissions can be a major cause of systemic oxidative stress and multiple disorders. Substantial amounts of road dust are repeatedly resuspended, in particular at traffic lights and junctions where more braking is involved, causing potential threat to pedestrians, especially children. In order to determine the degree of contamination in the heavily traffic-congested cities of Poland, a total of 148 samples of road dust (RD), sludge from storm drains (SL) and roadside soil (RS) were collected. Sixteen metals were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in all samples. Chemical evaluation followed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that road environments have been severely contaminated with traffic-related elements. Concentration of copper in all road-environment samples is even higher, exceeding even up to 15 times its average concentrations established for the surrounding soils. Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment revealed that the hazard index (HI) for children in all road-environment samples exceeds the safe level of 1. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to potential health risks caused by the ingestion of traffic-related particles during outdoor activities.

  11. Comparative study and quantification of cementite decomposition in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamontagne, A. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Massardier, V., E-mail: veronique.massardier@insa-lyon.fr [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Kléber, X. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Sauvage, X. [University of Rouen, GPM, UMR CNRS 6634, BP 12, Avenue de l’Université, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Mari, D. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 3, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland)

    2015-09-17

    Heavily cold-drawing was performed on a pearlitic steel wire and on an ultra-low carbon (ULC) steel wire in order to highlight and quantify the microstructural changes caused by this type of deformation. Both global techniques (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, internal fiction background) and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography) were combined for this study. It was shown that two distinct stages have to be taken into account during the cold-drawing of pearlitic steels. The first stage (below a true strain of 1.5) was attributed mainly to the lamellar alignment, while the second stage (above a true strain of 1.5) was unambiguously interpreted as being due to a gradual enrichment of the carbon content of ferrite arising from the strain induced cementite decomposition. The carbon content in solid solution in ferrite was assessed as a function of the true strain. All the techniques showed that this carbon content exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in the ferrite above a true strain of 2.2. A correlation between the increase in the carbon content of ferrite and the increase in yield strength was also highlighted. Moreover, a scenario was proposed to explain the microstructural changes caused by drawing.

  12. Comparative study and quantification of cementite decomposition in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamontagne, A.; Massardier, V.; Kléber, X.; Sauvage, X.; Mari, D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavily cold-drawing was performed on a pearlitic steel wire and on an ultra-low carbon (ULC) steel wire in order to highlight and quantify the microstructural changes caused by this type of deformation. Both global techniques (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, internal fiction background) and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography) were combined for this study. It was shown that two distinct stages have to be taken into account during the cold-drawing of pearlitic steels. The first stage (below a true strain of 1.5) was attributed mainly to the lamellar alignment, while the second stage (above a true strain of 1.5) was unambiguously interpreted as being due to a gradual enrichment of the carbon content of ferrite arising from the strain induced cementite decomposition. The carbon content in solid solution in ferrite was assessed as a function of the true strain. All the techniques showed that this carbon content exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in the ferrite above a true strain of 2.2. A correlation between the increase in the carbon content of ferrite and the increase in yield strength was also highlighted. Moreover, a scenario was proposed to explain the microstructural changes caused by drawing

  13. Atmospheric depositions around a heavily industrialized area in a seasonally dry tropical environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2005-01-01

    Clear and throughfall bulk depositions were collected in the downwind of a highly industrialized region in Sonbhadra district of India to estimate the influence of anthropogenic activities on chemical composition of depositions. Significant spatial and temporal variations in depositions of cations and anions were observed. Depositions were higher near the thermal power stations and coalmines as compared to distantly situated site. Seasonally summer samples showed maximum cation and anion depositions followed by winter and minimum in rainy season. The mean pH of the depositions indicates that rainfall in the area is alkaline. Among the anions, maximum deposition was recorded for SO 4 2- followed by NO 3 - and minimum for Cl - . Among the cations, Ca 2+ deposition was maximum followed by NH 4 + . Na + , K + and Mg 2+ deposition rates showed more or less similar values. The depositions of cations and anions as well as pH were higher in throughfall than clearfall samples. Results of the present study suggest that atmospheric depositions are strongly modified due to thermal power stations and coal mines in the area. - Atmospheric abundance of cations have neutralized the acidity of depositions around a heavily industrialized area in India

  14. Boron deactivation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal: Atomic level understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Chao; Dong, Peng; Yi, Jun; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren; Lu, Yunhao

    2014-01-01

    The changes in hole concentration of heavily boron (B)-doped Czochralski silicon subjected to high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and following conventional furnace anneal (CFA) have been investigated. It is found that decrease in hole concentration, namely, B deactivation, is observed starting from 1050 °C and increases with RTA temperature. The following CFA at 300–500 °C leads to further B deactivation, while that at 600–800 °C results in B reactivation. It is supposed that the interaction between B atoms and silicon interstitials (I) thus forming BI pairs leads to the B deactivation during the high temperature RTA, and, moreover, the formation of extended B 2 I complexes results in further B deactivation in the following CFA at 300–500 °C. On the contrary, the dissociation of BI pairs during the following CFA at 600–800 °C enables the B reactivation. Importantly, the first-principles calculation results can soundly account for the above-mentioned supposition

  15. Boron deactivation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal: Atomic level understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Chao; Dong, Peng; Yi, Jun; Ma, Xiangyang, E-mail: luyh@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: mxyoung@zju.edu.cn; Yang, Deren [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lu, Yunhao, E-mail: luyh@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: mxyoung@zju.edu.cn [International Center for New-Structured Materials and Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-01-20

    The changes in hole concentration of heavily boron (B)-doped Czochralski silicon subjected to high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and following conventional furnace anneal (CFA) have been investigated. It is found that decrease in hole concentration, namely, B deactivation, is observed starting from 1050 °C and increases with RTA temperature. The following CFA at 300–500 °C leads to further B deactivation, while that at 600–800 °C results in B reactivation. It is supposed that the interaction between B atoms and silicon interstitials (I) thus forming BI pairs leads to the B deactivation during the high temperature RTA, and, moreover, the formation of extended B{sub 2}I complexes results in further B deactivation in the following CFA at 300–500 °C. On the contrary, the dissociation of BI pairs during the following CFA at 600–800 °C enables the B reactivation. Importantly, the first-principles calculation results can soundly account for the above-mentioned supposition.

  16. Epibenthic diversity and productivity on a heavily trawled Barents Sea bank (Tromsøflaket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kędra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Shallow Arctic banks have been observed to harbour rich communities of epifaunal organisms, but have not been well-studied with respect to composition or function due to sampling challenges. In order to determine how these banks function in the Barents Sea ecosystem, we used a combination of video and trawl/dredge sampling at several locations on a heavily trawled bank, Tromsøflaket – located at the southwestern entrance to the Barents Sea. We describe components of the benthic community, and calculate secondary production of dominant epifaunal organisms. Forty-six epibenthic taxa were identified, and sponges were a significant part of the surveyed benthic communities. There were differences in diversity and production among areas, mainly related to the intensity of trawling activities. Gamma was the most diverse and productive area, with highest species abundance and biomass. Trawled areas had considerably lower species numbers, and significant differences in epifaunal abundance and biomass were found between all trawled and untrawled areas. Trawling seems to have an impact on the sponge communities: mean individual poriferan biomass was higher in untrawled areas, and, although poriferans were observed in areas subjected to more intensive trawling, they were at least five times less frequent than in untrawled areas.

  17. Comparison of the Thermal Degradation of Heavily Nb-Doped and Normal PZT Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong-Suong; Kang, YunSung; Kang, Inyoung; Lim, SeungMo; Shin, Seung-Joo; Lee, JungWon; Hur, Kang Heon

    2017-03-01

    The degradation of niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and two types of PZT thin films were investigated. Undoped PZT, two-step PZT, and heavily Nb-doped PZT (PNZT) around the morphotropic phase boundary were in situ deposited under optimum condition by RF-magnetron sputtering. All 2- [Formula: see text]-thick films had dense perovskite columnar grain structure and self-polarized (100) dominant orientation. PZT thin films were deposited on Pt/TiO x bottom electrode on Si wafer, and PNZT thin film was on Ir/TiW electrode with the help of orientation control. Sputtered PZT films formed on microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope and the degradation rates were compared at different temperatures. PNZT showed the best resistance to the thermal degradation, followed by two-step PZT. To clarify the effect of oxygen vacancies on the degradation of the film at high temperature, photoluminescence measurement was conducted, which confirmed that oxygen vacancy rate was the lowest in heavy PNZT. Nb-doping PZT thin films suppressed the oxygen deficit and made high imprint with self-polarization. This defect distribution and high internal field allowed PNZT thin film to make the piezoelectric sensors more stable and reliable at high temperature, such as reflow process of MEMS packaging.

  18. Experiment and simulation on the thermal instability of a heavily deformed Cu-Fe composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Lei; Wang Engang; Zuo Xiaowei; Zhang Lin; He Jicheng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Fe fibers undergo thermal instability at temperature above 600 deg. C. → Longitudinal boundary splitting is the dominant instability process. → Instability of cylindrical fibers is controlled by breakup, growth and coarsening. → Breakup times can be predicted by Rayleigh perturbation model accurately. → The increase of fiber diameters is due to the coarsening and growth. - Abstract: The thermal instability of the Fe fibers in the heavily deformed Cu-12.8 wt.%Fe composites is investigated experimentally and numerically. The fiber evolution is characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results show that the dominant instability of the Fe fibers is the longitudinal boundary splitting which is determined by the greater cross sectional aspect ratio (width/thickness, w/t) and the larger ratio of boundary to interfacial energy (γ B /γ S ). The longitudinal boundary splitting makes the ribbon-like Fe fibers evolve into a series of cylindrical fibers. Then the cylindrical Fe fibers undergo the instability process in terms of the breakup, growth and coarsening concurrently. The breakup times are accurately predicted by the Rayleigh perturbation model. The growth process primarily contributes to the higher increasing rate of the fiber radius during isothermal annealing at 700 deg. C than that calculated by the coarsening theory developed for cylindrical fibers, since the Cu-matrix of composites is highly supersaturated after casting/cold-working process.

  19. Thermal oxidation effect on structural and optical properties of heavily doped phosphorus polycrystalline silicon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birouk, B.; Madi, D. [Universite de Jijel, Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Modelisation en Electrotechnique (LAMEL), Cite Ouled Aissa, BP 98, Jijel (Algeria)

    2011-08-15

    The study reported in this paper contributes to better understanding the thermal oxidation effect on structural and optical properties of polycrystalline silicon heavily in situ P-LPCVD films. The deposits, doped at levels 3 x 10{sup 19} and 1.6 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, have been elaborated from silane decomposition (400 mTorrs, 605 C) on monosilicon substrate oriented left angle 111 right angle. The thermal oxidation was performed at temperatures: 850 C during 1 hour, 1000, 1050, and 1100 C during 15 minutes. The XRD spectra analysis pointed out significant left angle 111 right angle texture evolution, while in the case of left angle 220 right angle and left angle 311 right angle textures, the intensities are practically invariant (variations fall in the uncertainty intervals). The optical characterizations showed that refractive index and absorption coefficient are very sensitive to the oxidation treatment, mainly when the doping level is not very high. We think that atomic oxygen acts as defects passivating agent leading to carriers' concentration increasing. Besides, the optical behavior is modeled in visible and near infrared, by a seven-term polynomial function n {sup 2}=f({lambda} {sup 2}), with alternate signs, instead of theoretically unlimited terms number from Drude's model. It has been shown that fitting parameters fall on Gaussian curves like they do in the theoretical model. (orig.)

  20. Heavily-doped 2D-quantized structures and the Einstein relation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya P

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the Einstein Relation(ER) in two-dimensional (2-D) Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The ER in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestion for the experimental determination of HD 2D and 3D ERs and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nanodevices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) are also discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing ma...

  1. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  2. One unit-cell seed layer induced epitaxial growth of heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T L; Hirose, Y; Hitosugi, T; Hasegawa, T [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: chen@ksp.or.jp

    2008-03-21

    We present a novel way to obtain heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films by using a solid-state nitrogen source. Epitaxial growth of the films was realized by introducing one unit-cell seed layer, which was indicated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction as intensity oscillation. Results of x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the films were in the anatase phase heavily doped with nitrogen of {approx}15 at%. The films obtained exhibited considerable narrowing of the optical bandgap, resulting in an enhancement of absorption in the visible-light region. (fast track communication)

  3. Pollination with gamma-irradiated pollen and seed development in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musial, K.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The effects of pollen irradiation at 70 and 90 kr on seed set were studied in Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa. Pollination with irradiated pollen affected seed development and contents. Rising irradiation doses increased the percentages of empty seeds and decreased the percentages of seeds containing embryos with endosperm. Moreover, pollination with heavily irradiated pollen led to the formation of seeds containing the endosperm only. Embryo and endosperm size was also strongly influenced by irradiated pollen. The length of endosperms was reduced at all levels of pollen irradiation compared to the non-irradiated controls; the embryo development was conspicuously retarded. Cells in endosperm resulting from the treatments differed in the presence and number of starch grains. (author)

  4. TOSCA simulation of some effects observed in irradiated silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moszczynski, A.S.

    2001-12-01

    TOSCA package has been used to simulate some effects observed recently in heavily irradiated silicon detectors. In particular, unexpected possibility of α-particle registration at p+ contact has been explained without presented elsewhere assumption that there was p-n junction of unknown origin beneath p+ layer. Performed simulations showed that assumption on relaxation-like character of irradiated silicon material is also not necessary to explain such effects like low-voltage capacitance peak in reverse bias and negative capacitance in forward bias. (author)

  5. High critical currents in heavily doped (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Gharahcheshmeh, M. Heydari; Xu, A.; Galstyan, E.; Delgado, L.; Cantoni, C.

    2015-01-01

    REBa 2 Cu 3 O x ((REBCO), RE = rare earth) superconductor tapes with moderate levels of dopants have been optimized for high critical current density in low magnetic fields at 77 K, but they do not exhibit exemplary performance in conditions of interest for practical applications, i.e., temperatures less than 50 K and fields of 2–30 T. Heavy doping of REBCO tapes has been avoided by researchers thus far due to deterioration in properties. Here, we report achievement of critical current densities (J c ) above 20 MA/cm 2 at 30 K, 3 T in heavily doped (25 mol. % Zr-added) (Gd,Y)Ba 2 Cu 3 O x superconductor tapes, which is more than three times higher than the J c typically obtained in moderately doped tapes. Pinning force levels above 1000 GN/m 3 have also been attained at 20 K. A composition map of lift factor in J c (ratio of J c at 30 K, 3 T to the J c at 77 K, 0 T) has been developed which reveals the optimum film composition to obtain lift factors above six, which is thrice the typical value. A highly c-axis aligned BaZrO 3 (BZO) nanocolumn defect density of nearly 7 × 10 11  cm −2 as well as 2–3 nm sized particles rich in Cu and Zr have been found in the high J c films

  6. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ∼ 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Moro, A. Del; Gandhi, P.; Aird, J. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Assef, R. J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Baloković, M.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 East California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Elvis, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W 120th Street, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Koss, M., E-mail: g.b.lansbury@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2014-04-10

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength diagnostics, their X-ray absorbing column densities (N {sub H}) are poorly known. In this analysis, (1) we study X-ray emission at >10 keV, where X-rays from the central black hole are relatively unabsorbed, in order to better constrain N {sub H}. (2) We further characterize the physical properties of the sources through broad-band near-UV to mid-IR spectral energy distribution analyses. One of the quasars is detected with NuSTAR at >8 keV with a no-source probability of <0.1%, and its X-ray band ratio suggests near Compton-thick absorption with N {sub H} ≳ 5 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}. The other two quasars are undetected, and have low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratios in both the low-energy (2-10 keV) and high-energy (10-40 keV) X-ray regimes that are consistent with extreme, Compton-thick absorption (N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}). We find that for quasars at z ∼ 0.5, NuSTAR provides a significant improvement compared to lower energy (<10 keV) Chandra and XMM-Newton observations alone, as higher column densities can now be directly constrained.

  7. Oral etoposide in heavily pre-treated metastatic breast cancer: A retrospective series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, G; Milani, A; Ghisoni, E; Genta, S; Mittica, G; Montemurro, F; Valabrega, G

    2018-04-01

    Patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) can derive clinical benefit from several subsequent lines of chemotherapy. However, in heavily pre-treated patients, agents with clinical activity, a favourable side effects profile and a convenient administration modality are preferred. We retrospectively analyzed 110 patients with previously treated MBC, who received oral etoposide at the dose of 50 mg/day for 20 days in 28 days cycles, between 2003 and 2017. Because this was not a prospectively planned study, to describe the clinical performance of oral etoposide we adopted the approach suggested by Dzimitrowicz and colleagues (J Clin Oncol. 2016; 34:3511-17); Tumour Response (TR) was defined as the proportion of physician-reported clinical or imaging response; Prolonged Duration on Therapy (PDT) as the proportion of non-progressing patients whose treatment lasted more than 6 months. Furthermore, we evaluated median duration on therapy (TD) and median Overall Survival (OS) by the Kaplan Meier method. The median number of previous chemotherapy lines was 5 (range 2-8). TR, PDT, median TD and median OS were 6.4%, 18.2% 4 (range 3.5-4.5) and 10.6 (range 8.4-12.8) months respectively. Interestingly, etoposide activity was unrelated to the number of previous lines and type of metastatic involvement. Oral etoposide was well tolerated with only two patients discontinuing therapy due to toxicity. In this large, single Institution, real practice analysis oral etoposide is a valuable and safe option for pre-treated metastatic breast cancer patients and might be considered in patients failing other approaches, but still suitable for chemotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk ranking of environmental contaminants in Xiaoqing River, a heavily polluted river along urbanizing Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Yueqing; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Pei; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajayakesavalu; Meng, Jing; Zhou, Yunqiao; Liang, Ruoyu; Khan, Kifayatullah

    2018-08-01

    Xiaoqing River, located in the Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, is heavily polluted by various pollutants including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), bisphenol A (BPA) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The aim of this study is to identify the relative risks of such contaminants that currently affect the coastal ecosystem. The median and highest concentrations of PFAAs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were 3.23 μg L -1 and 325.28 μg L -1 , and 0.173 μg L -1 and 276.24 μg L -1 , respectively, which were ranked higher when compared with global level concentrations. To assess the relative risk levels of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), PFOA, and other contaminants in the upstream and downstream of the Xiaoqing River and in its tributary, a risk ranking analysis was carried out. Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) showed the highest risk values in the Xiaoqing River, while the relative risks of PFOA and PFOS differed across the various segments. The risk ranking of PFOA was the second highest in the tributary and the fourth highest in the downstream portion of the river, whereas the PFOS was found to be the lowest in all the segments. Heavy metals and PFOA are the main chemicals that should be controlled in the Xiaoqing River. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the potential ecological risks of the contaminants in Xiaoqing River. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the use of polymer modified bitumen in the production of high modulus asphalt for heavily-trafficked roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enrobé à Module Élevé (EME) technology, a High Modulus Asphalt (HiMA), has been introduced to South Africa to provide an optimum solution for the design and construction of heavily trafficked roads. Implementation of EME technology in South Africa...

  10. The nature of the torus in the heavily obscured AGN Markarian 3: an X-ray study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guainazzi, M.; Risaliti, G.; Awaki, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of an X-ray monitoring campaign on the heavily obscured Seyfert galaxy, Markarian 3, carried out between the fall of 2014 and the spring of 2015 with NuSTAR, Suzaku and XMM–Newton. The hard X-ray spectrum of Markarian 3 is variable on all the time-scales probe...

  11. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papastergis, E.; Adams, E. A. K.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the Arecibo legacy fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M∗ ≳ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former

  12. Age standardized cancer mortality ratios in areas heavily exposed to methyl mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Kawakami, Norito

    2007-08-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) was discharged from a chemical factory in Minamata, and consequently spread throughout the Shiranui Sea in Kumamoto, Japan. Although many studies have focused on MeHg-induced neurological disorders, the association between MeHg and malignant neoplasms has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, we explored this association using the age standardized mortality ratio (ASMR) in an ecologic study over a wide area allowing for a long empirical induction period. The subjects were residents in areas around the Shiranui Sea. We divided these areas into exposure groups 1 (Minamata and Ashikita regions) and 2 (Amakusa region). Exposure group 1 was contaminated from the late 1930s, and exposure group 2 was contaminated from the late 1950s. In addition, exposure group 1 was contaminated more heavily than exposure group 2. There were 92,525 and 152,541 residents in each group in 1960, respectively. We analyzed the cancer ASMR in both exposure groups using data from two reference populations (Japan and Kumamoto prefecture) from 1961 to 1997. There were 94,301,494 and 1,856,192 people in each reference group in 1960, respectively. We abstracted population and mortality data from the censuses and the vital statistics of the prefecture and Japan. An increased leukemia ASMR and a decreased gastric cancer ASMR were observed in both exposure groups, while other ASMRs were around unity and less precise. Furthermore, the leukemia ASMRs were elevated differently between the two exposure groups: the leukemia ASMR was already elevated early in the study period in exposure group 1 and increased gradually in exposure group 2. While the negative association between MeHg and gastric cancer might be explained by salt intake, the positive association between MeHg and leukemia could not be explained by potential confounders. Despite some limitations mainly due to its ecologic design, this study indicates the necessity of an individual-level study evaluating the

  13. Electrical activation of nitrogen heavily implanted 3C-SiC(1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fan, E-mail: f.li.1@warwick.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Sharma, Yogesh; Shah, Vishal; Jennings, Mike [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Pérez-Tomás, Amador [ICN2 – Institut Catala de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Myronov, Maksym [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Fisher, Craig [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Leadley, David [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mawby, Phil [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Nitrogen is fully activated by 1175 °C annealing for 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} doped 3C-SiC. • Free donor concentration is found to readily saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. • 3C-SiC is found to have complete donor thermal ionization above 150 K. • Donor in 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} nitrogen implanted 3C-SiC has an energy level ∼15 meV. • The SiO{sub 2} cap is found to have a bigger influence on low and medium doped samples. - Abstract: A degenerated wide bandgap semiconductor is a rare system. In general, implant levels lie deeper in the band-gap and carrier freeze-out usually takes place at room temperature. Nevertheless, we have observed that heavily doped n-type degenerated 3C-SiC films are achieved by nitrogen implantation level of ∼6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} at 20 K. According to temperature dependent Hall measurements, nitrogen activation rates decrease with the doping level from almost 100% (1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}, donor level 15 meV) to ∼12% for 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Free donors are found to saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The implanted film electrical performances are characterized as a function of the dopant doses and post implantation annealing (PIA) conditions by fabricating Van der Pauw structures. A deposited SiO{sub 2} layer was used as the surface capping layer during the PIA process to study its effect on the resultant film properties. From the device design point of view, the lowest sheet resistivity (∼1.4 mΩ cm) has been observed for medium doped (4 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) sample with PIA 1375 °C 2 h without a SiO{sub 2} cap.

  14. GEMINI/GeMS Observations Unveil the Structure of the Heavily Obscured Globular Cluster Liller 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.; Miocchi, P.; Massari, D.

    2015-06-01

    By exploiting the exceptional high-resolution capabilities of the near-IR camera GSAOI combined with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive System at the GEMINI South Telescope, we investigated the structural and physical properties of the heavily obscured globular cluster Liller 1 in the Galactic bulge. We have obtained the deepest and most accurate color-magnitude diagram published so far for this cluster, reaching {{K}s}˜ 19 (below the main-sequence turnoff level). We used these data to redetermine the center of gravity of the system, finding that it is located about 2.″2 southeast from the literature value. We also built new star density and surface brightness profiles for the cluster and rederived its main structural and physical parameters (scale radii, concentration parameter, central mass density, total mass). We find that Liller 1 is significantly less concentrated (concentration parameter c=1.74) and less extended (tidal radius {{r}t}=298\\prime\\prime and core radius {{r}c}=5\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 39) than previously thought. By using these newly determined structural parameters, we estimated the mass of Liller 1 to be {{M}tot}=2.3+0.3-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } ({{M}tot}=1.5+0.2-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } for a Kroupa initial mass function), which is comparable to that of the most massive clusters in the Galaxy (ω Centari and Terzan 5). Also, Liller 1 has the second-highest collision rate (after Terzan 5) among all star clusters in the Galaxy, thus confirming that it is an ideal environment for the formation of collisional objects (such as millisecond pulsars). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da

  15. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Patients with Heavily Pretreated Liver Metastases and Liver Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanciano, Rachelle; Lamond, John; Yang, Jun; Feng, Jing; Arrigo, Steve; Good, Michael; Brady, Luther, E-mail: rlancmd@gmail.com [Philadelphia CyberKnife, Drexel University, Havertown, PA (United States)

    2012-03-09

    We present our initial experience with CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in a heavily pretreated group of patients with liver metastases and primary liver tumors. From October 2007 to June 2009, 48 patients were treated at the Philadelphia CyberKnife Center for liver metastases or primary liver tumors. We report on 30 patients with 41 discrete lesions (1–4 tumors per patient) who received an ablative radiation dose (BED ≥ 79.2 Gy10 = 66 Gy EQD2). The treatment goal was to achieve a high SBRT dose to the liver tumor while sparing at least 700 cc of liver from radiation doses above 15 Gy. Twenty-three patients were treated with SBRT for metastatic cancer to the liver; the remainder (n = 7) were primary liver tumors. Eighty-seven percent of patients had prior systemic chemotherapy with a median 24 months from diagnosis to SBRT; 37% had prior liver directed therapy. Local control was assessed for 28 patients (39 tumors) with 4 months or more follow-up. At a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 10–40 months), 14/39 (36%) tumors had documented local failure. A decrease in local failure was found with higher doses of SBRT (p = 0.0237); 55% of tumors receiving a BED ≤ 100 Gy10 (10/18) had local failure compared with 19% receiving a BED > 100 Gy10 (4/21). The 2-year actuarial rate of local control for tumors treated with BED > 100 Gy10 was 75% compared to 38% for those patients treated with BED ≤ 100 Gy10 (p = 0.04). At last follow-up, 22/30 patients (73%) had distant progression of disease. Overall, seven patients remain alive with a median survival of 20 months from treatment and 57 months from diagnosis. To date, no patient experienced persistent or severe adverse effects. Despite the heavy pretreatment of these patients, SBRT was well tolerated with excellent local control rates when adequate doses (BED > 100 Gy10) were used. Median survival was limited secondary to development of further metastatic disease in the majority of patients.

  16. Historical data reveal 30-year persistence of benthic fauna associations in heavily modified waterbody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Callaway

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseline surveys form the cornerstone of coastal impact studies where altered conditions, for example through new infrastructure development, are assessed against a temporal reference state. They are snapshots taken before construction. Due to scarcity of relevant data prior to baseline surveys long-term trends can often not be taken into account. Particularly in heavily modified waterbodies this would however be desirable to control for changes in anthropogenic use over time as well as natural ecological variation. Here, the benthic environment of an industrialized embayment was investigated (Swansea Bay, Wales, UK where it is proposed to build a tidal lagoon that would generate marine renewable energy from the tidal range. Since robust long-term baseline data was not available, the value of unpublished historical benthos information from 1984 by a regional water company was assessed with the aim to improve certainty about the persistence of current benthic community patterns. A survey of 101 positions in 2014 identified spatially discrete benthic communities with areas of high and low diversity. Habitat characteristics including sediment properties and the proximity to a sewage outfall explained 17-35% of the variation in the community structure. Comparing the historical information from 1984 with 2014 revealed striking similarity in the benthic communities between those years, not just in their spatial distribution but also to a large extent in the species composition. The 30-year-old information confirmed spatial boundaries of discrete species associations and pinpointed a similar diversity hotspot. A group of five common species was found to be particularly persistent over time (Nucula nitidosa, Spisula elliptica, Spiophanes bombyx, Nephtys hombergii, Diastylis rathkei. According to the Infauna Quality Index (IQI linked to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD the average ecological status for 2014 was ‘moderate’, but eleven samples

  17. Biology of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents his arguments for food scientists and biologists that the hazards of food irradiation outweigh the benefits. The subject is discussed in the following sections: introduction (units, mutagenesis, seed viability), history of food irradiation, effects of irradiation on organoleptic qualities of staple foods, radiolytic products and selective destruction of nutrients, production of microbial toxins in stored irradiated foods and loss of quality in wheat, deleterious consequences of eating irradiated foods, misrepresentation of the facts about food irradiation. (author)

  18. Theoretical investigation of the heavily-doped semiconductor aspect of ultra-dilute GaAsN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukpitak, Jessada; Sa-yakanit, Virulh

    2015-12-01

    The model of GaAs1- y N y ( y = 0.001) as a heavily-doped semiconductor in the ultra-dilute region is attentively examined. The model enables GaAsN to be viewed as a disordered assembly of three-dimensional quantum dots (potential wells) caused by random potential fluctuations from nitrogen pairs in the system. Consequently, Feynman's path-integration technique is applied in order to quantify the density of states (DOS) in the vicinity of the conduction band edge. The obtained DOS tail, even though overestimated, still clearly shows a much shorter tail than that the experimental result does. This shows that the heavily-doped semiconductor viewpoint is not proper for GaAsN, not even in the ultra-dilute region. Furthermore, this also suggests that the impurity wave function overlap is not a basic mechanism of band gap reduction.

  19. Predominance of heavily calcified coccolithophores at low CaCO3 saturation during winter in the Bay of Biscay

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Helen E. K.; Tyrrell, Toby; Charalampopoulou, Anastasia; Dumousseaud, Cynthia; Legge, Oliver J.; Birchenough, Sarah; Pettit, Laura R.; Garley, Rebecca; Hartman, Sue E.; Hartman, Mark C.; Sagoo, Navjit; Daniels, Chris J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Hydes, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Coccolithophores are an important component of the Earth system, and, as calcifiers, their possible susceptibility to ocean acidification is of major concern. Laboratory studies at enhanced pCO2 levels have produced divergent results without overall consensus. However, it has been predicted from these studies that, although calcification may not be depressed in all species, acidification will produce “a transition in dominance from more to less heavily calcified coccolithophores” [Ridgwell A,...

  20. Stereoselective, nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascades for the direct synthesis of heavily decorated 5-nitropiperidin-2-ones and related heterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Jakubec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A versatile nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascade for the direct stereoselective synthesis of heavily decorated 5-nitropiperidin-2-ones and related heterocycles has been developed. A highly enantioenriched substituted 5-nitropiperidin-2-one was synthesised in a four component one-pot reaction combining an enantioselective organocatalytic Michael addition with the diastereoselective nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascade. Protodenitration and chemoselective reductive manipulation of the heterocycles was used to install contiguous and fully substituted stereocentres in the synthesis of substituted piperidines.

  1. Irradiation behavior of graphite shielding materials for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tadashi; Kaito, Takeji; Onose, Shoji; Shibahara, Itaru

    1994-01-01

    Thirteen kinds of isotropic graphites with different density and maximum grain size were irradiated in the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' to fluences from 2.11 to 2.86x10 26 n/m 2 (E>0.1 MeV) at temperatures from 549 to 597degC. Postirradiation examination was carried out on dimensional change, elastic modulus, and the thermal conductivity. The result of measurement of dimensional change indicated that the graphites irradiated at lower fluences showed shrinkage upon neutron irradiation followed by increase with increasing neutron fluences, irrespective of differences in material parameters. The Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio increased to two to three times of unirradiated values. A large scatter found in Poisson's ratio of unirradiated materials became very small and a linear dependency on density was obtained after irradiation. The thermal conductivity decreased to one-fifth to one-tenth of unirradiated values, but the change in specific heat was negligibly small. The results of postirradiation examination indicated that the changes in physical properties of high density, isotropic graphites were mainly dominated by the irradiation condition rather than their material parameters. Namely, the effects of irradiation induced defects on physical properties of heavily neutron-irradiated graphites are much larger than that of defects associated with as-fabricated specimens. (author)

  2. Functional State of Haemopoietic Stem Cells in the Irradiated Mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silini, G.; Pozzi, Laura V. [Laboratorio di Radiobiologica Animale, Centro Studi Nucleari, Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    1968-08-15

    The repopulation kinetics of bone marrow in irradiated (C3H x C57BL) F{sub 1} hybrid mice were followed at different time intervals after a single whole-body dose of 150 rad X -rays. The changes in the number of total nucleated cells and of colony-forming cells were estimated and expressed as number of cells per femur shaft of fixed length. For the evaluation of the progenitor cell compartment an exogenous test of transplantation into heavily irradiated hosts followed by spleen colony counts was employed. In an attempt to distinguish between cycling and dormant cells in the progenitor pool, vinblastine was also administered under various schedules of treatment with respect to time and dosage to follow the changes induced by this drug in the irradiated recovering marrow. The depopulation of total bone-m arrow cells caused by vinblastine proceeded at a comparable rate in both the irradiated and the normal mouse. On the other hand, depopulation of the colony-formers is faster in animals irradiated 1 -2 days previously as compared with normal animals or mice irradiated 1 week or 2 weeks earlier. The data were interpreted to show that in the marrow of a newly-irradiated animal more cells are in a fast cycle than in a normal or a recovering animal. Data are finally presented and discussed concerning the use of vinblastine for studies of stem cell kinetics in haemopoietic tissues. (author)

  3. Structural changes in the regenerating rat thymus after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Tetsuo; Wang, Yu-Hsueh; Hashimoto, Noriko; Tokuda, Nobuko; Sawada, Tomoo [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-11-01

    The structural changes of the rat thymus after irradiation were examined. Thymocytes regenerate rapidly after irradiation and the mechanism responsible for this rapid regeneration was examined analyzing vascular and immunohistochemical changes in the thymus. Following results were obtained: Vascular fine mesh works in the cortex were destroyed on day 3 after 6 Gy irradiation, while on day 5 these changes appeared to be restored to almost normal. Massive macrophage accumulations were observed in the cortex on day 3-5 after irradiation. This may be due to clean up the damaged thymocytes, although other possibility, as production of cytokines which may contribute to the rapid proliferation must be intensively examined. Immunohistochemical staining with anti MHC class II molecule showed relatively strong staining in the medulla compared to the cortex in the normal thymus, while this finding was reversed and cortex stained heavily compared to the medulla on day 5-7 after irradiation suggesting the importance of the cortical MHC class II positive thymic epithelial cells in regeneration of thymocytes. Anti FTS antibody stained relatively strongly in the irradiated and recovering thymus compared to the normal. These results may partly explain the abrupt proliferation of thymocytes after irradiation and further studies on cytokine message changes and thymic epithelial characterization responsible to produce the cytokines for the effective thymocyte proliteration are on the way of analysis. (author)

  4. Irradiation Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Fabich, Adrian; Garcia, Alia, Ruben; Glaser, Maurice; Gorine, Georgi; Jaekel, Martin, Richard; Mateu,Suau, Isidre; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Fabio; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-01-01

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in many scientific fields. This paper summarizes the facilities currently operating for proton, gamma, mixed-field and electron irradiations, including their main usage, characteristics and information about their operation. The new CERN irradiation facilities database is also presented. This includes not only CERN facilities but also irradiation facilities available worldwide.

  5. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  6. Whole bone marrow irradiation for the treatment of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, M.; Saletan, S.; Wolf, D.; Nisce, L.; Wasser, J.; McIntyre, O.R.; Tulloh, M.

    1982-01-01

    Nine patients with multiple myeloma were treated with whole bone marrow irradiation. Six had heavily pretreated disease refractory to chemotherapy. Three had stable disease lightly pretreated by chemotherapy. A modification of the ''three and two'' total nodal radiation technique was employed. Although varying and often severe treatment related cytopenia occurred, infectious complications, clinical bleeding, and nonhematalogic complications were minimal. Five of nine patients showed a decrease in monoclonal protein components, and one showed an increase during treatment. These preliminary results indicate that a reduction of tumor cell burden may occur in patients following whole bone marrow irradiation and that the technique is feasible. Whole bone marrow irradiation combined with chemotherapy represents a new conceptual therapeutic approach for multiple myeloma

  7. Ultraviolet irradiation disrupts somatic pili structure and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverblatt, F.J.

    1979-09-01

    Three piliated bacterial species were exposed to ultraviolet light and the effect of increasing duration of irradiation on the integrity of the somatic pili was quantitated by negative-stain electron microscopy. Heavily piliated Proteus mirabilis became devoid of pili after 20 min of irradiation, but Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae required 40 min for complete depiliation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that new, small molecular weight fragments appeared after irradiation of purified E. coli pili, suggesting that cleavage of the peptide chain rather than dissociation of pilin monomers accounted for the loss of pili structure. These observations indicate that the ultrastructural integrity and function of pili can be disrupted by ultraviolet light.

  8. Mechanical properties of low temperature proton irradiated single crystal copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildcrout, M.

    1975-01-01

    Single crystal copper samples, of varying degrees of cold work, were irradiated near either liquid helium or liquid nitrogen temperature by 10.1-MeV protons. The internal friction and dynamic Young's modulus were observed as a function of either temperature or integrated proton flux. The primary effect of irradiation was to produce dislocation pinning. The initial pinning rate was found to be very sensitive to cold work. During irradiation it was found that heavily cold worked samples (25 percent compression) exhibited, almost exclusively, exponential pinning given by Y = e/sup --lambda phi/. This is attributed to the immobilization, rather than shortening, of loop lengths and is characterized by the pinning constant lambda. Exponential pinning was also found, to a smaller degree, in less heavily cold worked samples. Cold work appears to reduce the ''effective volume'' within which the defect clusters produced by irradiation, can immobilize dislocation segments. The bulk effect was observed after dislocation pinning was completed. Expressed in terms of the fractional change in Young's modulus per unit concentration of irradiation induced defects, it was measured at liquid helium temperature to be --18.5 +- 3. An anelastic process occurring near 10 0 K for low kHz frequencies and due to stress-induced ordering of point defects produced by irradiation has also been studied. The peak height per unit fluence was found to decrease with increasing cold work. The peak was not observed in samples compressed 25 percent. For the most carefully handled sample the activation energy was (1.28 +- 0.05) x 10 -2 eV, the attempt frequency was 10/sup 11.6 +- .8/ s -1 , the shape factor was 0.20, and the half width of the peak was 11 percent larger than the theoretical value calculated from the Debye equation for a single relaxation process

  9. Electron beam irradiating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, K

    1969-12-20

    The efficiency of an electron beam irradiating device is heightened by improving the irradiation atmosphere and the method of cooling the irradiation window. An irradiation chamber one side of which incorporates the irradiation windows provided at the lower end of the scanner is surrounded by a suitable cooling system such as a coolant piping network so as to cool the interior of the chamber which is provided with circulating means at each corner to circulate and thus cool an inert gas charged therewithin. The inert gas, chosen from a group of such gases which will not deleteriously react with the irradiating equipment, forms a flowing stream across the irradiation window to effect its cooling and does not contaminate the vacuum exhaust system or oxidize the filament when penetrating the equipment through any holes which the foil at the irradiation window may incur during the irradiating procedure.

  10. Path-integral calculation of the density of states in heavily doped strongly compensated semiconductors in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koinov, Z.G.; Yanchev, I.Y.

    1981-09-01

    The density of states in heavily doped strongly compansated semiconductors in a strong magnetic field is calculated by using the path-integral method. The case is considered when correlation exists in the impurity positions owing to the Coulomb interactions between the charged donors and acceptors during the high-temperature preparation of the samples. The semiclassical formula is rederived and corrections to it due to the long-range character of the potential and its short-range fluctuations are obtained. The density of states in the tail is studied and analytical results are given in the classical and quantum cases. (author)

  11. Resonantly-enhanced transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures in heavily-doped conducting polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Agrawal, Amit; Nahata, Ajay; Menon, Reghu

    2006-02-01

    We observed resonantly-enhanced terahertz transmission through two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures with various periodicities fabricated on metallic organic conducting polymer films of polypyrrole heavily doped with PF6 molecules [PPy(PF6)]. The "anomalous transmission" spectra are in good agreement with a model involving surface plasmon polariton excitations on the film surfaces. We also found that the `anomalous transmission' peaks are broader in the exotic metallic PPy (PF6) films compared to those formed in 2D aperture array in regular metallic films such as silver, showing that the surface plasmon polaritons on the PPy (PF6) film surfaces have higher attenuation.

  12. The nature of the torus in the heavily obscured AGN Markarian 3: an X-ray study

    OpenAIRE

    Guainazzi, M.; Risaliti, G.; Awaki, H.; Arevalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Bianchi, S.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W. W.; Forster, K.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F.; Koss, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of an X-ray monitoring campaign on the heavily obscured Seyfert galaxy, Markarian 3, carried out between the fall of 2014 and the spring of 2015 with NuSTAR, Suzaku and XMM–Newton. The hard X-ray spectrum of Markarian 3 is variable on all the time-scales probed by our campaign, down to a few days. The observed continuum variability is due to an intrinsically variable primary continuum seen in transmission through a large, but still Compton-thin column dens...

  13. Very heavily electron-doped CrSi2 as a high-performance high-temperature thermoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, David; Singh, David J

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the thermoelectric behavior, using first principles and Boltzmann transport calculations, of very heavily electron-doped CrSi 2 and find that at temperatures of 900-1250 K and electron dopings of 1-4 × 10 21 cm -3 , thermopowers as large in magnitude as 200 μV K -1 may be found. Such high thermopowers at such high carrier concentrations are extremely rare, and suggest that excellent thermoelectric performance may be found in these ranges of temperature and doping. (paper)

  14. Irradiation of goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.

    1992-01-01

    The necessary dose and the dosage limits to be observed depend on the kind of product and the purpose of irradiation. Product density and density distribution, product dimensions, but also packaging, transport and storage conditions are specific parameters influencing the conditions of irradiation. The kind of irradiation plant - electron accelerator or gamma plant - , its capacity, transport system and geometric arrangement of the radiation field are factors influencing the irradiation conditions as well. This is exemplified by the irradiation of 3 different products, onions, deep-frozen chicken and high-protein feed. Feasibilities and limits of the irradiation technology are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  15. Features of the band structure and conduction mechanisms of n-HfNiSn heavily doped with Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V. A., E-mail: vromaka@polynet.lviv.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Pidstryhach Institute for Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Universitet Wien, Institut für Physikalische Chemie (Austria); Romaka, V. V. [National University “Lvivska Politechnika” (Ukraine); Kaczorowski, D. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research (Poland); Krayovskyy, V. Ya. [National University “Lvivska Politechnika” (Ukraine); Stadnyk, Yu. V.; Horyn, A. M. [Ivan Franko Lviv National University (Ukraine)

    2017-02-15

    The crystalline and electronic structures, energy, kinetic, and magnetic characteristics of n-HfNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with Y acceptor impurity are studied in the ranges: T = 80–400 K, N{sub A}{sup Y} ≈ 1.9 × 10{sup 20}–5.7 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –3} (x = 0.01–0.30), and H ≤ 10 kG. The nature of the mechanism of structural defect generation is determined, which leads to a change in the band gap and the degree of semiconductor compensation, the essence of which is the simultaneous reduction and elimination of structural donor-type defects as a result of the displacement of ~1% of Ni atoms from the Hf (4a) site, and the generation of structural acceptor-type defects by substituting Hf atoms with Y atoms at the 4a site. The results of calculations of the electronic structure of Hf{sub 1–x}Y{sub x}NiSn are in agreement with the experimental data. The discussion is performed within the Shklovskii–Efros model of a heavily doped and compensated semiconductor.

  16. Simultaneous rota-stenting and transcatheter aortic valve implantation for patients with heavily calcified coronary stenosis and aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tsai Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that coronary artery disease (CAD in octogenarians undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI often presents with more complex lesions and extensive calcification, rotational atherectomy (RA may be needed in some cases before stenting. However, data regarding the feasibility and safety of simultaneous RA during TAVI using the Medtronic CoreValve (MCV; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA system are lacking. Three out of 107 (2.8% patients (2 females, average age 85.6 years, mean aortic valve area 0.5 cm2, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 39%, mean Logistic EuroScore 70%, with complex, heavily calcified coronary stenosis, and severe valvular aortic stenosis (AS were treated with TAVI and RA due to high surgical risk. After balloon valvuloplasty, all coronary lesions were successfully treated with RA and stenting, immediately followed by transfemoral TAVI with a self-expandable MCV. Our data suggested that in the very elderly patients with severe and heavily calcified CAD and AS who were turned down for cardiac surgery, RA and stenting followed by TAVI may be performed successfully in a combined, single-stage procedure.

  17. A model for describing the eutrophication in a heavily regulated coastal lagoon. Application to the Albufera of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio Fernández, Pilar; Gómez, Andrés García; Alba, Javier García; Díaz, César Álvarez; Revilla Cortezón, José Antonio

    2012-12-15

    A simplified two-dimensional eutrophication model was developed to simulate temporal and spatial variations of chlorophyll-a in heavily regulated coastal lagoons. This model considers the hydrodynamics of the whole study area, the regulated connexion of the lagoon with the sea, the variability of the input and output nutrient loads, the flux from the sediments to the water column, the phytoplankton growth and mortality kinetics, and the zooplankton grazing. The model was calibrated and validated by applying it to the Albufera of Valencia, a hypertrophic system whose connection to the sea is strongly regulated by a system of sluice-gates. The calibration and validation results presented a significant agreement between the model and the data obtained in several surveys. The accuracy was evaluated using a quantitative analysis, in which the average uncertainty of the model prediction was less than 6%. The results confirmed an expected phytoplankton bloom in April and October, achieving mean maximum values around 250 μg l(-1) of chlorophyll-a. A mass balance revealed that the eutrophication process is magnified by the input loads of nutrients, mainly from the sediments, as well as by the limited connection of the lagoon with the sea. This study has shown that the developed model is an efficient tool to manage the eutrophication problem in heavily regulated coastal lagoons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Facts about food irradiation: Food irradiation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food irradiation facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food irradiation process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments also bring consumer benefits in terms of availability, storage life and improved hygiene. 2 refs

  19. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  20. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  1. Irradiation and flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineccius, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Flavor will not be a significant factor in determining the success of irradiated foods entering the U.S. market. The initial applications will use low levels of irradiation that may well result in products with flavor superior to that of products from alternative processing techniques (thermal treatment or chemical fumigation). The success of shelf-stable foods produced via irradiation may be much more dependent upon our ability to deal with the flavor aspects of high levels of irradiation

  2. Food irradiation makes progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1984-01-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses

  3. Containers in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolumen, S.; Espinosa, R.

    1997-01-01

    The preservation of food by irradiation is promising technology which increases industrial application. Packaging of irradiated foods is an integral part of the process. Judicious selection of the package material for successful trade is essential. In this paper is presented a brief review of important aspects of packaging in food irradiation [es

  4. Irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Foodstuffs are irradiated to make them keep better. The ionizing radiation is not so strong as to cause radioactivity in the foodstuffs. At least so far, irradiation has not gained acceptance among consumers, although it has been shown to be a completely safe method of preservation. Irradiation causes only slight chemical changes in food. What irradiation does, however, is to damage living organisms, such as bacteria, DNA and proteins, thereby making the food keep longer. Irradiation can be detected from the food afterwards; thus it can be controlled effectively. (orig.)

  5. Backward diodes using heavily Mg-doped GaN growth by ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hironori; Martin, Denis; Malinverni, Marco; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    We grew heavily Mg-doped GaN using ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy. The use of low growth temperature (740 °C) allows decreasing the incorporation of donor-like defects (p-type doping compensation. As a result, a net acceptor concentration of 7 × 1019 cm-3 was achieved, and the hole concentration measured by Hall effect was as high as 2 × 1019 cm-3 at room temperature. Using such a high Mg doping level, we fabricated GaN backward diodes without polarization-assisted tunneling. The backward diodes exhibited a tunneling-current density of 225 A/cm2 at a reverse bias of -1 V at room temperature.

  6. Soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of heavily boron-doped superconducting diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokoya, T. Nakamura, T. Matushita, T. Muro, H. Okazaki, M. Arita, K. Shimada, H. Namatame, M. Taniguchi, Y. Takano, M. Nagao, T. Takenouchi, H. Kawarada and T. Oguchi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SXARPES of microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition diamond films with different B concentrations in order to study the origin of the metallic behavior of superconducting diamond. SXARPES results clearly show valence band dispersions with a bandwidth of ~23 eV and with a top of the valence band at gamma point in the Brillouin zone, which are consistent with the calculated valence band dispersions of pure diamond. Boron concentration-dependent band dispersions near the Fermi level (EF exhibit a systematic shift of EF, indicating depopulation of electrons due to hole doping. These SXARPES results indicate that diamond bands retain for heavy boron doping and holes in the diamond band are responsible for the metallic states leading to superconductivity at low temperature. A high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy spectrum near EF of a heavily boron-doped diamond superconductor is also presented.

  7. Impaired serum inhibin-B and number of germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism following heavily gestational maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildorf, Simone; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Dong, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    heavily (>10 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy with age matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers (1:6). We studied: birthweight, germ-cell number/tubular cross section, frequency of germ cells positive for placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), gonadotropins and inhibin-B. RESULTS: 501 boys...... were sons of nonsmokers, 72 boys of intermittent smokers and 28 boys of heavy smokers. 39%, 44% and 61% respectively had bilateral cryptorchidism. Compared to age-matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers, sons of heavy smokers had lower birthweight (p = 0.006), germ-cell number/tubular cross...... could add detailed knowledge to the impact of maternal gestational smoking on pathogenesis of cryptorchidism. METHODS: 601 cryptorchid boys aged 4 months to 14 years old were included. Because normal hormones have a pronounced age dependency, we compared results from boys whose mothers had smoked...

  8. Successful Chemotherapy with Nab-Paclitaxel in a Heavily Treated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Ishihara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for the majority of all lung cancers. A 69-year-old female with postoperatively recurrent NSCLC was treated weekly with nanoparticle-albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel monotherapy every 4 weeks as a tenth line chemotherapy, and stable disease was achieved by seven cycles of this regimen. The patient developed grade 4 neutropenia and grade 3 leukopenia, but none of the other toxicities, including febrile neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy, were severe, and thus she was able to tolerate this salvage chemotherapy. To our knowledge this is the first report of the efficacy of nab-paclitaxel monotherapy in a heavily treated NSCLC patient.

  9. Preliminary Results From a Heavily Instrumented Engine Ice Crystal Icing Test in a Ground Based Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Oliver, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results from the heavily instrumented ALF502R-5 engine test conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory are discussed. The effects of ice crystal icing on a full scale engine is examined and documented. This same model engine, serial number LF01, was used during the inaugural icing test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory facility. The uncommanded reduction of thrust (rollback) events experienced by this engine in flight were simulated in the facility. Limited instrumentation was used to detect icing on the LF01 engine. Metal temperatures on the exit guide vanes and outer shroud and the load measurement were the only indicators of ice formation. The current study features a similar engine, serial number LF11, which is instrumented to characterize the cloud entering the engine, detect/characterize ice accretion, and visualize the ice accretion in the region of interest. Data were acquired at key LF01 test points and additional points that explored: icing threshold regions, low altitude, high altitude, spinner heat effects, and the influence of varying the facility and engine parameters. For each condition of interest, data were obtained from some selected variations of ice particle median volumetric diameter, total water content, fan speed, and ambient temperature. For several cases the NASA in-house engine icing risk assessment code was used to find conditions that would lead to a rollback event. This study further helped NASA develop necessary icing diagnostic instrumentation, expand the capabilities of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory, and generate a dataset that will be used to develop and validate in-house icing prediction and risk mitigation computational tools. The ice accretion on the outer shroud region was acquired by internal video cameras. The heavily instrumented engine showed good repeatability of icing responses when compared to the key LF01 test points and during day-to-day operation. Other noticeable

  10. Replacing Heavily Damaged Teeth by Third Molar Autotransplantation With the Use of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Rapid Prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Jop P; Anssari Moin, David; Wismeijer, Daniel; van Merkesteyn, J P Richard

    2017-09-01

    This article describes the autotransplantation of third molars to replace heavily damaged premolars and molars. Specifically, this article reports on the use of preoperative cone-beam computed tomographic planning and 3-dimensional (3D) printed replicas of donor teeth to prepare artificial tooth sockets. In the present case, an 18-year-old patient underwent autotransplantation of 3 third molars to replace 1 premolar and 2 molars that were heavily damaged after trauma. Approximately 1 year after the traumatic incident, autotransplantation with the help of 3D planning and rapid prototyping was performed. The right maxillary third molar replaced the right maxillary first premolar. The 2 mandibular wisdom teeth replaced the left mandibular first and second molars. During the surgical procedure, artificial tooth sockets were prepared with the help of 3D printed donor tooth copies to prevent iatrogenic damage to the actual donor teeth. These replicas of the donor teeth were designed based on the preoperative cone-beam computed tomogram and manufactured with the help of 3D printing techniques. The use of a replica of the donor tooth resulted in a predictable and straightforward procedure, with extra-alveolar times shorter than 2 minutes for all transplantations. The transplanted teeth were placed in infraocclusion and fixed with a suture splint. Postoperative follow-up showed physiologic integration of the transplanted teeth and a successful outcome for all transplants. In conclusion, this technique facilitates a straightforward and predictable procedure for autotransplantation of third molars. The use of printed analogues of the donor teeth decreases the risk of iatrogenic damage and the extra-alveolar time of the transplanted tooth is minimized. This facilitates a successful outcome. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. TEM study of damage recovery in SiC by swift Xe ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratov, V.A., E-mail: skuratov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); O’Connell, J. [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Sohatsky, A.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Neethling, J. [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    The microstructure of 4H–SiC samples subsequently irradiated with low energy He (10 keV), Ti (220 keV) and high energy (167 MeV) Xe ions has been studied using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. It was found that xenon ions with fluences above 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} restore crystallinity in a heavily damaged partially amorphous zone. No, or negligible damage recovery is observed in fully amorphized layers of silicon carbide.

  12. TEM study of damage recovery in SiC by swift Xe ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuratov, V.A.; O’Connell, J.; Sohatsky, A.S.; Neethling, J.

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure of 4H–SiC samples subsequently irradiated with low energy He (10 keV), Ti (220 keV) and high energy (167 MeV) Xe ions has been studied using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. It was found that xenon ions with fluences above 10 13 cm −2 restore crystallinity in a heavily damaged partially amorphous zone. No, or negligible damage recovery is observed in fully amorphized layers of silicon carbide

  13. Chronic radiation exposure as an ecological factor: Hypermethylation and genetic differentiation in irradiated Scots pine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, P Yu; Geras'kin, S A; Horemans, N; Makarenko, E S; Saenen, E; Duarte, G T; Nauts, R; Bondarenko, V S; Jacobs, G; Voorspoels, S; Kudin, M

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes were investigated in chronically irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations from territories that were heavily contaminated by radionuclides as result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In comparison to the reference site, the genetic diversity revealed by electrophoretic mobility of AFLPs was found to be significantly higher at the radioactively contaminated areas. In addition, the genome of pine trees was significantly hypermethylated at 4 of the 7 affected sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensory properties of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plestenjak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is a simple and effective preservation technique. The changes caused by irradiation depend on composition of food, on the absorbed dose, the water content and temperature during and after irradiation. In this paper the changes of food components caused by irradiation, doses for various food irradiation treatments, foods and countries where the irradiation is allowed, and sensory properties of irradiated food are reviewed

  15. Charge collection efficiency of irradiated silicon detector operated at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Janos, S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Dezillie, B.; Li, Z.; Collins, P.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Lourenco, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Pirollo, S.; Granata, V.; Pagano, S.; Chapuy, S.; Dimcovski, Z.; Grigoriev, E.; Bell, W.; Devine, S.R.H.; O'Shea, V.; Smith, K.; Berglund, P.; Boer, W. de; Hauler, F.; Heising, S.; Jungermann, L.; Casagrande, L.; Cindro, V.; Mikuz, M.; Zavartanik, M.; Via, C. da; Esposito, A.; Konorov, I.; Paul, S.; Schmitt, L.; Buontempo, S.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Pagano, S.; Ruggiero, G.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.

    2000-01-01

    The charge collection efficiency (CCE) of heavily irradiated silicon diode detectors was investigated at temperatures between 77 and 200 K. The CCE was found to depend on the radiation dose, bias voltage value and history, temperature, and bias current generated by light. The detector irradiated to the highest fluence 2x10 15 n/cm 2 yields a MIP signal of at least 15000 e - both at 250 V forward bias voltage, and at 250 V reverse bias voltage in the presence of a light-generated current. The 'Lazarus effect' was thus shown to extend to fluences at least ten times higher than was previously studied

  16. Luminescence from {gamma}-irradiated humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraczko, Wieslaw [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Radio- and Photochemistry Department, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Slawinski, Janusz [Institute of Ecotechnology, State Higher Vocational School, ul. Ks. Kard. S.Wyszynskiego 38, 62-200 Gniezno (Poland)

    2008-07-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the ultraweak delayed radiochemiluminescence (RCL) spectra, kinetics and spectroscopic properties of humic acids (HAs) after {gamma}-radiation exposure (absorbed doses of 1-10 kGy, Co-60) in model systems. The kinetics and spectral distribution of RCL (340-650 nm) were measured using the single photon counting (SPC) method and cut-off filters. The intensity of fluorescence ({lambda}{sub ex}=390, 440, 490 and 540 nm) covering the spectral range 400-580 nm was heavily dependent on the {lambda}{sub ex} and slightly increased with the absorbed dose of {gamma}-radiation. Absorption spectra (the range 240-800 nm) and color coefficients E{sub 2.6/4} and E{sub 4/6} of irradiated solutions indicated that post-radiative degradation/polymerization processes take place in the HA, changing their macromolecule size or properties. Comparison of FTIR spectra and elemental analysis proved an increased O and decreased C atoms in irradiated samples. The data indicate on the radiolysis-induced degradation of native HA into fulvic-like acids with higher hydrophilicity and lower molecular size.

  17. Luminescence from γ-irradiated humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goraczko, Wieslaw; Slawinski, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the ultraweak delayed radiochemiluminescence (RCL) spectra, kinetics and spectroscopic properties of humic acids (HAs) after γ-radiation exposure (absorbed doses of 1-10 kGy, Co-60) in model systems. The kinetics and spectral distribution of RCL (340-650 nm) were measured using the single photon counting (SPC) method and cut-off filters. The intensity of fluorescence (λ ex =390, 440, 490 and 540 nm) covering the spectral range 400-580 nm was heavily dependent on the λ ex and slightly increased with the absorbed dose of γ-radiation. Absorption spectra (the range 240-800 nm) and color coefficients E 2.6/4 and E 4/6 of irradiated solutions indicated that post-radiative degradation/polymerization processes take place in the HA, changing their macromolecule size or properties. Comparison of FTIR spectra and elemental analysis proved an increased O and decreased C atoms in irradiated samples. The data indicate on the radiolysis-induced degradation of native HA into fulvic-like acids with higher hydrophilicity and lower molecular size

  18. Energy stored in irradiated NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidiard, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    Recently reported measurements of the energy stored in heavily irradiated NaCl are reviewed in the light of recent understanding of radiation-damage processes in this material. It is shown that, in the ranges of temperatures and dose rates of these experiments, the F-centres produced by the irradiation are retained principally in the form of colloids: the stored energy is thus a direct measure of the number of F-centres retained in this form. Comparison of these results with the prediction of the recently proposed theory of colloid growth shows that the predictions of the dependence of colloid growth rates upon temperature and dose rate are qualitatively correct. The dependence of stored energy dose, however, appears to require the inclusion of a thermally activated back-reaction and possible modifications to the theory are briefly discussed. However, further experiments in this range of temperatures and dose rates are necessary for more quantitative tests of the theory. This reconsideration of the data does not alter the broad conclusion as to the relative insignificance of stored energy in a natural salt formation used as a radioactive waste repository, although more extensive measurements permitting a more exact test of theory would allow better predictions to be made for such applications. (author)

  19. Irradiation - who needs it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoular, C.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the public's attitudes to the irradiation of food to ensure it is bacteria free and to prolong shelf-life are considered. The need to label irradiated food and to educate the public about its implications are emphasised. The opinions of the large food retailers who maintain that high standards in food processing, hygiene and refrigeration eliminate the need for food irradiation are discussed. (UK)

  20. Identification of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelberg, A.; Heide, L.; Boegl, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.) [de

  1. Food irradiation - now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Food irradiation technology in South Africa is about to take its rightful place next to existing food preservation methods in protecting food supplies. This is as a result of several factors, the most important of which is the decision by the Department of Health and Population Development to introduce compulsory labelling of food irradiation. The factors influencing food irradiation technology in South Africa are discussed

  2. Development of blood irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This project is designed to improve the techniques of blood irradiation through the development of improved and portable blood irradiators. A portable blood irradiator, consisting of a vitreous carbon body and thulium-170 radiation source, was attached to dogs via a carotid-jugular shunt, and its effects on the immune system measured. The device has demonstrated both significant suppression of circulating lymphocytes and prolonged retention of skin allografts

  3. Irradiation-induced mutation experiments with eiploid and tetraploid tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tomato mutation experiments are described. The tomatoes used in the experiment were the diploid Reziszta and its autotetraploid variety. The experimental plants were exposed to an irradiation of 5000 rsd for 1-2 days, and after transplantation into the gamma field, to chronic irradiation during the whole growing season. The chronic treatment heavily reduced fertility in the generations of tetraploid tomato plants. Recurrent treatment of tetraploid led to further deterioration in fertility. Several berries were formed with few seeds or with no seeds at all. After three irradiations, the chlorophyll mutation frequency increased in the diploid and tetraploid tomato plants. For diploids, treatment applied at the seedling stage gave a lower chlorophyll mutation frequency. With tetraploids the same treatment induced similar chlorophyll mutation frequency. As regards to phenotypic variability of quantitative characteristics in diploid and tetraploid tomatoes, the single and repeated chronic irradiation induced no increase in the variability of properties like flowering time, weight, height etc. (author)

  4. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of luminous, heavily obscured, WISE-selected quasars at z ∼ 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Assef, R. J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Brandt, W. N.; Griffith, R. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Baloković, M.; Bridge, C. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Benford, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blain, A. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Brightman, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany); Christensen, F. E. [Danish Technical University, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A., E-mail: daniel.k.stern@jpl.nasa.gov [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); and others

    2014-10-20

    We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ∼ 2 across a broad X-ray band (0.1 – 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4 μm (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) bands but bright at 12 μm (W3) and 22 μm (W4), are extremely rare, with only ∼1000 so-called 'W1W2-dropouts' across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of νL {sub ν}(6 μm) ∼ 6 × 10{sup 46} erg s{sup –1} and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 14} L {sub ☉}. The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10 keV) ∼ 4 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup –1} for typical quasar templates. These are among the most AGNs known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even at rest-frame 1.5 μm. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N {sub H} ≤ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. In fact, the sources prove to be fainter than these predictions. Two of the sources were observed by both NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, with neither being detected by NuSTAR (f {sub 3-24} {sub keV} ≲ 10{sup –13} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}), and one being faintly detected by XMM-Newton (f {sub 0.5-10} {sub keV} ∼ 5 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}). A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection (f {sub 0.5-10} {sub keV} ∼ 7 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}). The X-ray data imply these sources are either X-ray weak, or are heavily obscured by column densities N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. The combined X-ray and mid-IR analysis seems to favor this second possibility, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton

  5. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of luminous, heavily obscured, WISE-selected quasars at z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Assef, R. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Griffith, R. L.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Bridge, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ∼ 2 across a broad X-ray band (0.1 – 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4 μm (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) bands but bright at 12 μm (W3) and 22 μm (W4), are extremely rare, with only ∼1000 so-called 'W1W2-dropouts' across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of νL ν (6 μm) ∼ 6 × 10 46 erg s –1 and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L bol ∼ 10 14 L ☉ . The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10 keV) ∼ 4 × 10 45 erg s –1 for typical quasar templates. These are among the most AGNs known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even at rest-frame 1.5 μm. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N H ≤ 10 24 cm –2 . In fact, the sources prove to be fainter than these predictions. Two of the sources were observed by both NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, with neither being detected by NuSTAR (f 3-24 keV ≲ 10 –13 erg cm –2 s –1 ), and one being faintly detected by XMM-Newton (f 0.5-10 keV ∼ 5 × 10 –15 erg cm –2 s –1 ). A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection (f 0.5-10 keV ∼ 7 × 10 –15 erg cm –2 s –1 ). The X-ray data imply these sources are either X-ray weak, or are heavily obscured by column densities N H ≳ 10 24 cm –2 . The combined X-ray and mid-IR analysis seems to favor this second possibility, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton-thick, luminous quasars. The discovery of a significant population of heavily obscured, extremely luminous AGNs would not conform to the standard

  6. Irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.; Danielsson-Tham, M.L.; Hoel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A committee has on instructions from the swedish government made an inquiry into the possible effects on health and working environment from irradition of food. In this report, a review is presented on the known positiv and negative effects of food irradiation Costs, availabilty, shelf life and quality of irradiated food are also discussed. According to the report, the production of radiolysis products during irradiation is not easily evaluated. The health risks from irradiation of spices are estimated to be lower than the risks associated with the ethenoxid treatment presently used. (L.E.)

  7. Gamma irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, Gabor; Stenger, Vilmos.

    1983-01-01

    The main parameters and the preparation procedures of the gamma radiation sources frequently applied for irradiation purposes are discussed. In addition to 60 Co and 137 Cs sources also the nuclear power plants offer further opportunities: spent fuel elements and products of certain (n,γ) reactions can serve as irradiation sources. Laboratory scale equipments, pilot plant facilities for batch or continuous operation, continuous industrial irradiators and special multipurpose, mobile and panorama type facilities are reviewed including those in Canada, USA, India, the Soviet Union, Hungary, UK, Japan and Australia. For irradiator design the source geometry dependence of the spatial distribution of dose rates can be calculated. (V.N.)

  8. Immunocytoadherence and sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumariage, M.L.; Hiesche, K.; Revesz, L.; Haot, J.

    1975-01-01

    In sublethally irradiated CBA mice, the relative and absolute numbers of spontaneous rosette forming cells against sheep erythrocytes are markedly decreased in bone marrow. The decrease of the absolute number of spontaneous RFC is also important in the spleen in spite of an increase of the RFC relative number above the normal values between the 8th and 12th day after irradiation. The graft of normal bone marrow cells immediately after irradiation or the shielding of a medullary area during irradiation promotes the recovery of the immunocytoadherence capacity of the bone marrow cells but not of the spleen cells [fr

  9. Fluorescence of irradiated hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulis, I.G.; Evdokimenko, V.M.; Lapkovskij, M.P.; Petrov, P.T.; Gulis, I.M.; Markevich, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    A visible fluorescence has been found out in γ-irradiated aqueous of carbohydrates. Two bands have been distinguished in fluorescence spectra of the irradiated solution of dextran: a short-wave band lambdasub(max)=140 nm (where lambda is a wave length) at lambdasub(β)=380 nm and a long-wave band with lambdasub(max)=540 nm at lambdasub(β)=430 nm. A similar form of the spectrum has been obtained for irradiated solutions of starch, amylopectin, lowmolecular glucose. It has been concluded that a macromolecule of polysaccharides includes fluorescent centres. A relation between fluorescence and α-oxiketon groups formed under irradiation has been pointed out

  10. Planning of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caha, A; Krystof, V [Vyzkumny Ustav Klinicke a Experimentalni Onkologie, Brno (Czechoslovakia)

    1979-07-01

    The principles are discussed of the planning of irradiation, ie., the use of the various methods of location of a pathological focus and the possibility of semiautomatic transmission of the obtained data on a two-dimensional or spatial model. An efficient equipment is proposed for large irradiation centres which should cooperate with smaller irradiation departments for which also a range of apparatus is proposed. Irradiation planning currently applied at the Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Oncology in Brno is described. In conclusion, some of the construction principles of semi-automatic operation of radiotherapy departments are discussed.

  11. Reconstructing historical trends in metal input in heavily-disturbed, contaminated estuaries: studies from Bilbao, Southampton Water and Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cundy, A.B.; Croudace, I.W.; Cearreta, A.; Irabien, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Estuaries may be important reservoirs for contaminants as they tend to act as sinks for fine, contaminant-reactive sediments, and, historically, they have acted as centres for industrial and urban development. Analysis of dated sediment cores from these areas may allow historical trends in heavy metal input to be reconstructed, and recent and historical inputs of metal contaminants to be compared. Undisturbed saltmarsh settings have been used widely in the reconstruction of historical trends in metal input as saltmarshes provide a stable, vegetated substrate of dominantly fine sediments, and are less prone to erosion and reworking than adjacent mudflat areas. In comparison, much less research on historical pollution trends has been undertaken at estuarine sites which are prone to severe local disturbance, such as intertidal areas which are routinely dredged or where sedimentary processes have been modified by human activities such as shipping, salt working, port activities, land claim etc. This paper assesses the usefulness of 210 Pb and 137 Cs dating, combined with geochemical studies, in reconstructing historical trends in heavy metal input and sediment accretion in 3 heavily-modified, industrialised estuarine areas in Europe: the Bilbao estuary (Spain), Southampton Water (UK), and the Mulinello estuary (Sicily). Of these sites, only a salt marsh core from the Mulinello estuary provides a high-resolution record of recent heavy metal inputs. In Southampton Water only a partial record of changing metal inputs over time is retained due to land-claim and possible early-diagenetic remobilisation, while at Bilbao the vertical distribution of heavy metals in intertidal flats is mainly controlled by input on reworked sediment particles and variations in sediment composition. Where 137 Cs and 210 Pb distributions with depth allow a chronology of sediment deposition to be established, and early-diagenetic remobilisation has been minimal, mudflat and saltmarsh cores from

  12. Food irradiation: fiction and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (IGCFI), sponsored by World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the intention to provide to governments, especially those of developing countries, scientifically correct information about food irradiation, decided to organize a file and questions of general public interest. The document is composed by descriptive files related with the actual situation and future prospective, technical and scientific terms, food irradiation and the radioactivity, chemical transformations in irradiated food, genetic studies, microbiological safety of irradiated food, irradiation and harmlessness, irradiation and additives, packing, irradiation facilities control, process control, irradiation costs and benefits as well as consumers reaction

  13. Facts about food irradiation: Chemical changes in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet addresses the safety of irradiated food. The irradiation process produces very little chemical change in food, and laboratory experiments have shown no harmful effects in animals fed with irradiated milk powder. 3 refs

  14. Modelling property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to predict the irradiation induced property changes in nuclear; graphite, including the effect of a change in irradiation temperature. The currently used method; to account for changes in irradiation temperature, the scaled...

  15. Highly efficient and heavily-doped organic light-emitting devices based on an orange phosphorescent iridium complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shunliang; Wang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Ming [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Heavily doped and highly efficient phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs) had been fabricated by utilizing an orange iridium complex, bis[2-(3′,5′-di-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2'}]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)], as a phosphor. When the doping concentration of [(tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)] reached as high as 15 wt%, the PhOLEDs exhibited a power efficiency, current efficiency, and external quantum efficiency of 24.5 lm/W, 32.1 cd/A, 15.7%, respectively, implying a promising quenching-resistant characteristics of this novel phosphor. Furthermore, the efficient white PhOLEDs had been obtained by employing (tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) as a self-host orange emitter, indicating that (tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) could serve as a promising phosphor to fabricate white organic light-emitting devices with simplified manufacturing process. - Highlights: • Efficient phosphorescent devices were fabricated. • Optimized phosphor doping ratio reached as high as 15 wt%. • The results proved a promising quench-resistant property of the phosphor. • Efficient white devices based on this phosphor as self-host layer had been realized.

  16. High-efficiency and heavily doped organic light-emitting devices based on quench-resistant red iridium complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhao, Juan; Wang, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Ming [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices had been fabricated using a new iridium complex, bis[2-(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl) benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2'}]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)] as phosphor. With a high doping concentration of 15 wt%, the device exhibited a maximum luminance efficiency, power efficiency and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 35.2 cd/A, 21.3 lm/W, 18.2%, respectively, indicating an excellent quench-resistant property of (fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac). The results are appealing towards the development of 'easy-to-make' OLEDs. It has been demonstrated that the high efficiency arises from more balanced charge carriers in the emissive layer. - Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained efficient OLEDs based on newly synthesized quench-resistant phosphor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak performance was obtained with 15 wt% (fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) doped device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our devices gave one of the best performance among heavily-doped red devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Balanced carrier transport is crucial for the high performance of our devices.

  17. Contribution to the study, by magnetic resonance, of the properties of heavily doped silicon at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.

    1965-10-01

    The magnetic properties of heavily doped silicon at low temperature have been studied in a range of concentration on either side of the Mott transition. For impurity densities less than that of the transition a magnetic double resonance method allows the exchange coupling between localized donors to be measured, and in addition the existence of paramagnetic centers (pairs of neutral and ionized donors) is demonstrated. The behaviour of the spin-lattice relaxation of 29 Ci is explained in terms of the dipolar coupling between nuclei and paramagnetic centers. In the range of concentration 10 16 -10 17 impurities/cm 3 , the concentration dependent relaxation of donors is studied experimentally. A theoretical explanation is proposed for the latter mechanism, the basis of which is the presence of ionized pairs of donors. At increasing impurity concentrations the electronic delocalization increases. For the concentration of 2.5 X 10 18 P/cm 3 the hyperfine coupling is responsible for the 29 Si relaxation. It is shown that the electron density has a very large maximum near the impurities in the metallic domain of concentrations. An estimation of the impurity band width (19 deg. K) is deduced from the measurement of the paramagnetic part of the electronic susceptibility at low temperature. (author) [fr

  18. Microbial Diversity of a Heavily Polluted Microbial Mat and Its Community Changes following Degradation of Petroleum Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Raeid M. M.; Safi, Nimer M. D.; Köster, Jürgen; de Beer, Dirk; El-Nahhal, Yasser; Rullkötter, Jürgen; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2002-01-01

    We studied the microbial diversity of benthic cyanobacterial mats inhabiting a heavily polluted site in a coastal stream (Wadi Gaza) and monitored the microbial community response induced by exposure to and degradation of four model petroleum compounds in the laboratory. Phormidium- and Oscillatoria-like cyanobacterial morphotypes were dominant in the field. Bacteria belonging to different groups, mainly the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteriodes group, the γ and β subclasses of the class Proteobacteria, and the green nonsulfur bacteria, were also detected. In slurry experiments, these communities efficiently degraded phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene completely in 7 days both in the light and in the dark. n-Octadecane and pristane were degraded to 25 and 34% of their original levels, respectively, within 7 days, but there was no further degradation until 40 days. Both cyanobacterial and bacterial communities exhibited noticeable changes concomitant with degradation of the compounds. The populations enriched by exposure to petroleum compounds included a cyanobacterium affiliated phylogenetically with Halomicronema. Bacteria enriched both in the light and in the dark, but not bacteria enriched in any of the controls, belonged to the newly described Holophaga-Geothrix-Acidobacterium phylum. In addition, another bacterial population, found to be a member of green nonsulfur bacteria, was detected only in the bacteria treated in the light. All or some of the populations may play a significant role in metabolizing the petroleum compounds. We concluded that the microbial mats from Wadi Gaza are rich in microorganisms with high biodegradative potential. PMID:11916684

  19. Evolution of carbon distribution and mechanical properties during the static strain ageing of heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamontagne, A.; Massardier, V.; Sauvage, X.; Kléber, X.; Mari, D.

    2016-01-01

    The static strain ageing of heavily cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires was investigated using both global techniques and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography (APT)), in order to highlight how the cold-drawn destabilized microstructure returns to a more stable state during post-drawing treatments between 20 °C and 150 °C. The global techniques (thermoelectric power, differential scanning calorimetry) clearly showed that ageing occurs in three successive ageing stages and is due to a redistribution of the carbon atoms coming from the strain-induced cementite dissolution. The first ageing stage was unambiguously attributed to the carbon segregation to the defects, while the second and third stages were interpreted as being due to the precipitation of intermediate carbides (2nd stage) and cementite (3rd stage). The true strain was not found to significantly affect the ageing kinetics and mechanisms but appeared to play a role in the amount of carbon atoms involved in the different ageing stages. APT analyses confirmed that ageing is governed by the carbon depletion of strain-induced supersaturated ferrite. The strengthening mechanisms associated with the different ageing stages were also discussed.

  20. Highly efficient and heavily-doped organic light-emitting devices based on an orange phosphorescent iridium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shunliang; Wang, Qi; Li, Ming; Lu, Zhiyun; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-01-01

    Heavily doped and highly efficient phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs) had been fabricated by utilizing an orange iridium complex, bis[2-(3′,5′-di-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)benzothiazolato-N,C 2' ]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac)], as a phosphor. When the doping concentration of [(tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac)] reached as high as 15 wt%, the PhOLEDs exhibited a power efficiency, current efficiency, and external quantum efficiency of 24.5 lm/W, 32.1 cd/A, 15.7%, respectively, implying a promising quenching-resistant characteristics of this novel phosphor. Furthermore, the efficient white PhOLEDs had been obtained by employing (tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac) as a self-host orange emitter, indicating that (tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac) could serve as a promising phosphor to fabricate white organic light-emitting devices with simplified manufacturing process. - Highlights: • Efficient phosphorescent devices were fabricated. • Optimized phosphor doping ratio reached as high as 15 wt%. • The results proved a promising quench-resistant property of the phosphor. • Efficient white devices based on this phosphor as self-host layer had been realized

  1. Coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor with He plasma treated heavily doped layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ho-young [Advanced Display Research Center, Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); LG Display R and D Center, 245 Lg-ro, Wollong-myeon, Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do 413-811 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bok-young; Lee, Young-jang; Lee, Jung-il; Yang, Myoung-su; Kang, In-byeong [LG Display R and D Center, 245 Lg-ro, Wollong-myeon, Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do 413-811 (Korea, Republic of); Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin, E-mail: jjang@khu.ac.kr [Advanced Display Research Center, Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-13

    We report thermally stable coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with heavily doped n{sup +} a-IGZO source/drain regions. Doping is through He plasma treatment in which the resistivity of the a-IGZO decreases from 2.98 Ω cm to 2.79 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm after treatment, and then it increases to 7.92 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm after annealing at 300 °C. From the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the concentration of oxygen vacancies in He plasma treated n{sup +}a-IGZO does not change much after thermal annealing at 300 °C, indicating thermally stable n{sup +} a-IGZO, even for TFTs with channel length L = 4 μm. Field-effect mobility of the coplanar a-IGZO TFTs with He plasma treatment changes from 10.7 to 9.2 cm{sup 2}/V s after annealing at 300 °C, but the performance of the a-IGZO TFT with Ar or H{sub 2} plasma treatment degrades significantly after 300 °C annealing.

  2. Coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor with He plasma treated heavily doped layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho-young; Lee, Bok-young; Lee, Young-jang; Lee, Jung-il; Yang, Myoung-su; Kang, In-byeong; Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    We report thermally stable coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with heavily doped n + a-IGZO source/drain regions. Doping is through He plasma treatment in which the resistivity of the a-IGZO decreases from 2.98 Ω cm to 2.79 × 10 −3 Ω cm after treatment, and then it increases to 7.92 × 10 −2 Ω cm after annealing at 300 °C. From the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the concentration of oxygen vacancies in He plasma treated n + a-IGZO does not change much after thermal annealing at 300 °C, indicating thermally stable n + a-IGZO, even for TFTs with channel length L = 4 μm. Field-effect mobility of the coplanar a-IGZO TFTs with He plasma treatment changes from 10.7 to 9.2 cm 2 /V s after annealing at 300 °C, but the performance of the a-IGZO TFT with Ar or H 2 plasma treatment degrades significantly after 300 °C annealing

  3. Surface modification by vacuum annealing for field emission from heavily phosphorus-doped homoepitaxial (1 1 1) diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takatoshi; Nebel, Christoph E.; Somu, Kumaragurubaran; Shikata, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between field emission properties and C 1s core level shifts of heavily phosphorus-doped homoepitaxial (1 1 1) diamond is investigated as a function of annealing temperature in order to optimize surface carbon bonding configurations for device applications. A low field emission threshold voltage is observed from surfaces annealed at 800 deg. C for hydrogen-plasma treated surface, while a low field emission threshold voltage of wet-chemical oxidized surface is observed after annealing at 900 deg. C. The C 1s core level by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed a shoulder peak at 1 eV below the main peak over 800 and 900 deg. C annealing temperature for hydrogen-plasma treated and wet-chemical oxidized surfaces, respectively. When the shoulder peak intensity is less than 10% of the main peak intensity, lower threshold voltages are observed. This is due to the carbon-reconstruction which gives rise to a small positive electron affinity. By increasing annealing temperature, the shoulder peak ratios also increase, which indicates that a surface graphitization takes place. This leads to higher threshold voltages

  4. Phytoextraction of nitrogen and phosphorus by crops grown in a heavily manured Dark Brown Chernozem under contrasting soil moisture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agomoh, Ikechukwu; Hao, Xiying; Zvomuya, Francis

    2018-01-02

    Phytoextraction of excess nutrients by crops in soils with a long history of manure application may be a viable option for reducing the nutrient levels. This greenhouse study examined the effectiveness of six growth cycles (40 d each) of barley, canola, corn, oat, pea, soybean, and triticale at extracting nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from a Dark Brown Chernozem that had received 180 Mg ha -1 (wet wt.) of beef cattle feedlot manure annually for 38 years. Moisture content during the study was maintained at either 100% or 50% soil field capacity (SFC). Repeated cropping resulted in an overall decrease in dry matter yield (DMY). The decrease in N and P uptake relative to Cycle 1 was fastest for the cereal grains and less pronounced for the two legumes. However, cumulative N uptake values were significantly greater for corn than the other crops under both moisture regimes. The reduction in soil N was greater under the 100% than the 50% SFC. These results indicate that repeated cropping can be a useful management practice for reducing N and P levels in a heavily manured soil. The extent of reduction will be greater for crops with high biomass production under adequate moisture supply.

  5. Prospective high thermoelectric performance of the heavily p-doped half-Heusler compound CoVSn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Hongliang; Ming, Wenmei; Parker, David S.; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The electronic structure and transport properties of the half-Heusler compound CoVSn are studied in this paper systematically by combining first-principles electronic structure calculations and Boltzmann transport theory. The band structure at the valence-band edge is complex with multiple maxima derived from hybridized transition element d states. The result is a calculated thermopower larger than 200 μV /Κ within a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures for heavily doped p-type CoVSn. The thermoelectric properties additionally benefit from the corrugated shapes of the hole pockets in our calculated isoenergy surfaces. Our calculated power factor S"2σ/τ (with respect to an average unknown scattering time) of CoVSn is comparable to that of FeNbSb. A smaller lattice thermal conductivity can be expected from the smaller group velocities of acoustical modes compared to FeNbSb. Finally, overall, good thermoelectric performance for CoVSn can be expected by considering the electronic transport and lattice thermal conductivity.

  6. Two cases of acute leukemia in heavily exposed a-bomb survivors following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Motoko; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao; Ohkita, Takeshi; Sawada, Hisao.

    1980-03-01

    Two cases of acute leukemia in heavily exposed atomic bomb survivors following postoperative 60 Co radiotherapy for breast cancer are presented. Case 1, a female who received an estimated dose of 364 rad from the A-bomb at the age of 22, was diagnosed as having left breast cancer 17 years later. At the age of 48, about 8 years after undergoing postoperative 60 Co radiotherapy, she developed acute monocytic leukemia. Case 2, a female who received an estimated dose of 594 rad from the A-bomb at the age of 37, was diagnosed as having right breast cancer 22 years later. At the age of 63, 4 years after postoperative 60 Co radiotherapy, she was found to have acute erythroleukemia. Both cases had been exposed to the A-bomb in Hiroshima and to therapeutic radiation after developing breast cancer presumably induced by A-bomb exposure. Thus it is proposed that acute leukemia was induced by exposure to large doses of radiation from two sources. (author)

  7. Effects of flexibility and soil-structure interaction on a completely buried structure with a heavily loaded roof system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, R.C.; Maryak, M.E.; Mulliken, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    A completely buried structure with a heavily loaded roof system has been analyzed for seismic forces. The seismic input was a site-specific spectrum shape anchored at 0.2g zero period acceleration in the horizontal directions, and the vertical input was prescribed at two thirds of the horizontal input. Models of the structure were developed to account for the flexibility of the base mat, walls, and roof, and were analyzed for the above seismic input with uncertainties in the soil properties considered. The results indicate that horizontal rigid body soil-structure interaction effects are negligible and the seismic amplifications are dominated by the soil-structure system natural frequencies. In addition, the analysis shows that the flexibility of the structure and soil-structure interaction cause considerable amplification of the vertical structural response of the facility's roof system. Finally it was shown that the computer program SASSI can be used to predict the soil-structure interaction responses of a completely buried structure

  8. Increasing costs due to ocean acidification drives phytoplankton to be more heavily calcified: optimal growth strategy of coccolithophores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Irie

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is potentially one of the greatest threats to marine ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores have received special attention because their calcite precipitation plays a significant role in alkalinity flux to the deep ocean (i.e., inorganic carbon pump. Currently, empirical effort is devoted to evaluating the plastic responses to acidification, but evolutionary considerations are missing from this approach. We thus constructed an optimality model to evaluate the evolutionary response of coccolithophorid life history, assuming that their exoskeleton (coccolith serves to reduce the instantaneous mortality rates. Our model predicted that natural selection favors constructing more heavily calcified exoskeleton in response to increased acidification-driven costs. This counter-intuitive response occurs because the fitness benefit of choosing a better-defended, slower growth strategy in more acidic conditions, outweighs that of accelerating the cell cycle, as this occurs by producing less calcified exoskeleton. Contrary to the widely held belief, the evolutionarily optimized population can precipitate larger amounts of CaCO(3 during the bloom in more acidified seawater, depending on parameter values. These findings suggest that ocean acidification may enhance the calcification rates of marine organisms as an adaptive response, possibly accompanied by higher carbon fixation ability. Our theory also provides a compelling explanation for the multispecific fossil time-series record from ∼200 years ago to present, in which mean coccolith size has increased along with rising atmospheric CO(2 concentration.

  9. Irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugyaki, L.

    1977-01-01

    The author studies the criteria for the harmlessness of irradiation as a food-preservation process. The glucose and proteins of bacto-tryptone, irradiated at 5 Mrads, do not increase the Escherichia Coli C 600 lysogenous bacteriophages, compared to the induction produced by direct irradiation of the strain or to the exposition to nitrogenous yperite. The possible mutagenic effect is therefore different. Wheat flour freshly irradiated at 5 Mrads shows physico-chemical changes. When given to mice as 50% of their ration, it leads to a higher incidence of tumours and a greater number of meiotic chromosome alteration (besides some discreet physio-pathological changes in fertility and longevity). Immunoelectrophoresis in agar or agarose gel does not allow any detection of irradiation of meat, fish or eggs. A vertical electrophoresis in starch gel can lead to a differentiation between frozen or chilled meat and the one that is irradiated at 0.5 or 5 Mrads, but the same thing can't be said for fish or eggs. Lastly an irradiated mushroom shows every sign of freshness but, when planted in a suitable medium, its cuttings do not present any cell proliferation which could give a rapid and simple method of detecting the irradiation. (G.C.)

  10. Materials modified by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Application of radiation in pharmaceutical sciences and cosmetology, polymer materials, food industry, environment, health camre products and packing production is described. Nano-technology is described more detailed, because it is less known as irradiation using technology. Economic influence of the irradiation on the materials value addition is shown

  11. Special irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomez, Gerard; Veyrat, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation trials conducted on materials-testing reactors should provide a better understanding of the phenomena which characterize the working and evolution in time of electricity-generating nuclear reactors. The authors begin by outlining the objectives behind experimental irradiation (applied to the various nuclear chains) and then describe the special techniques deployed to achieve these objectives [fr

  12. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tony; Lang, Tim

    1987-01-01

    The London Food Commission summarizes its concerns about the use of food irradiation in the U.K. resulting from its working group surveys of general public opinion, trading standard officers and the food industry in the U.K., and from experience in countries already permitting irradiation to a variety of foods. (U.K.)

  13. Progress in food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The volume contains reports from 19 countries on the state of the project in the field of food irradiation (fruit, vegetables, meat, spices) by means of gamma rays. The tests ran up to 1982. Microbiological radiosensitivity and mutagenicity tests provide a yard stick for irradiation efficiency.

  14. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.

    1990-01-01

    The author explains in simple question and answer form what is entailed in the irradiation of food and attempts to dispel some of the anxieties surrounding the process. Benefits and limitations, controls, labelling safety, and tests for the detection of the use irradiation in food preparation are some of the topics dealt with in outline. (author)

  15. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue

  16. Food Irradiation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, T.

    1981-09-15

    Since 1967 research activities on food irradiation in Japan have been carried out under the National Food Irradiation Programme by the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission. The programme has been concentrated on the technological and economical feasibility and wholesomeness testings of seven irradiated food items of economic importance to the country, i.e. potatoes, onions, wheat, rice, 'kamaboko' (fish-paste products), 'Vienna' sausages and mandarin oranges. By now most studies, including wholesomeness testings of these irradiated food items, have been completed. In Japan, all foods or food additives for sale are regulated by the Food Sanitation Law enforced in 1947. Based on studies made by the national programme, irradiated potatoes were given 'unconditional acceptance' for human consumption in 1972. At present, irradiated potatoes are the only food item which has so far been approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Unless the Minister of Health and Welfare has declared that items are not harmful to human health on obtaining comments from the Food Sanitation Investigation Council, no irradiated food can be processed or sold. In addition, the import of irradiated foodstuffs other than potatoes from foreign countries is prohibited by law.

  17. Post irradiation conical keratosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestey, J.P.; Hunter, J.A.A.; Mallet, R.B.; Rodger, A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have recently seen 3 patients affected by a widespread eruption of minute keratoses confined to areas of irradiated skin with clinical and histologial features of which they have been unable to find previous literary descriptions. A fourth patient with similar clinical and histopathological features occurring after exposure only to actinic irradiation is described. (author)

  18. Post irradiation conical keratosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestey, J.P.; Hunter, J.A.A. (Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK)); Mallet, R.B. (Westminster Hospital, London (UK)); Rodger, A. (Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (UK))

    1989-03-01

    The authors have recently seen 3 patients affected by a widespread eruption of minute keratoses confined to areas of irradiated skin with clinical and histologial features of which they have been unable to find previous literary descriptions. A fourth patient with similar clinical and histopathological features occurring after exposure only to actinic irradiation is described. (author).

  19. Irradiation damage in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Most superconductors are quite sensitive to irradiation defects. Critical temperatures may be depressed, critical currents may be increased, by irradiation, but other behaviours may be encountered. In compounds, the sublattice in which defects are created is of significant importance. 24 refs

  20. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  1. Food irradiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review is given of the control and monitoring of food irradiation with particular emphasis on the UK situation. After describing legal aspects, various applications of food irradiation in different countries are listed. Other topics discussed include code of practice for general control for both gamma radiation and electron beam facilities, dose specification, depth dose distribution and dosimetry. (U.K.)

  2. Uniformly irradiated polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiated film having substantial uniformity in the radiation dosage profile is produced by irradiating the film within a trough having lateral deflection blocks disposed adjacent the film edges for deflecting electrons toward the surface of the trough bottom for further deflecting the electrons toward the film edge

  3. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  4. Irradiation of goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunt, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Mechanical handling apparatus is adapted to handle goods, such as boxed fruit, during a process of irradiation, in palletized form. Palletized goods are loaded onto wheeled vehicles in a loading zone. Four vehicles are wheeled on a track into an irradiation zone via a door in a concrete shield. The vehicles are arranged in orthogonal relationship around a source of square section. Turntables are positioned at corners of the square shaped rail truck around the source selectively to turn the vehicles to align then with track sections. Mechanical manipulating devices are positioned in the track sections opposed to sides of the source. During irradiation, the vehicles and their palletized goods are cylically moved toward the source to offer first sides of the goods for irradiation and are retraced from the source and are pivoted through 90 0 to persent succeeding sides of the goods for irradiation

  5. Irradiation of packaged food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is used to improve the safety of food by killing insects and microorganisms, to inhibit sprouting in crops such as onions and potatoes and to control ripening in agricultural produce. In order to prevent re-infestation and re-contamination it is essential that the food is suitably packed. Consequently, the packaging material is irradiated whilst in contact with the food, and it is important that the material is resistant to radiation-induced changes. In this paper the nature of the irradiation process is reviewed briefly, together with the known effects of irradiation on packaging materials and their implications for the effective application of food irradiation. Recent research carried out at the Leatherhead Food RA on the possibility of taint transfer into food is described. (author)

  6. Issues in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.

    1987-04-01

    This discussion paper has two goals: first, to raise public awareness of food irradiation, an emerging technology in which Canada has the potential to build a new industry, mainly oriented to promising overseas markets; and second, to help build consensus among government and private sector decision makers about what has to be done to realize the domestic and export potential. The following pages discuss the potential of food irradiation; indicate how food is irradiated; outline the uses of food irradiation; examine questions of the safety of the equipment and both the safety and nutritional value of irradiated food; look at international commercial developments; assess the current and emerging domestic scene; and finally, draw some conclusions and offer suggestions for action

  7. Extracorporeal irradiation -Physicist perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaprabhu, N.; Saravanan, K.S.; Gunaseelan; Vivekanandam, S.; Reddy, K.S.; Parthasarathy; Mourougan, S.; Elangovan, K.

    2008-01-01

    Extracorporeal irradiation (ECI) involves irradiation of body tissues, particularly malignant bones of the extremities, outside the body. This involves en bloc resection of the tumour, extracorporeal irradiation of the bone segment with a single dose of 50 Gy or more, and reimplantation of the irradiated bone with fixation devices. Bone tumours like Ewing's Sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma and Oesteosarcoma; in the involved sites like femur, tibia, humerus, ilium and sacrum can be treated with ECI. The reimplanted bone simply acts as a framework for appositional bone growth from surrounding healthy bones. The conventional indications for postoperative irradiation are still applied. The major advantages of ECI are the precise anatomic fit of the reimplanted bone segment, preservation of joint mobility and its potential in avoiding the growth discrepancy commonly seen in prosthetic replacement. The use of ECI was first described in 1968 and practiced in Australia since 1996. In our center, we have completed six ECIs

  8. Radiation-disorder and aperiodicity in irradiated ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    This final technical report documents the accomplishments of the program of research entitled ''Radiation Disorder and Aperiodicity in Irradiated Ceramics'' for the period June 22, 1989--June 21, 1992. This research forms the latest part on an on-going program, begun at MIT in 1983 under DOE support, which has had as its objectives investigation of the responses in radiation environments of ceramics heavily-irradiated with electrons, neutrons and ions, with potential applications to fusion energy technology and high-level nuclear waste storage. Materials investigated have included SiO 2 , MgAl 2 O 4 , Al 23 O 27 N 5 , SiC, BeO, LiAlO 2 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , CaTiO 3 KTaO 3 and Ca(Zr, Pu)Ti 2 O 7 . The program initially proposed for 1989 had as its major objectives two main thrusts: (1) research on defect aggregation in irradiated non-oxide ceramics, and (2) research on irradiation-induced amorphization of network silicas and phosphates

  9. Optical properties of electron-irradiated gallium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailovskii, E.Yu.; Grigoryan, N.E.; Eritsyan, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    Results of optical absorption and photoconductivity measurements in the 0.1 to 2.4 eV range of GaP crystals irradiated with 7.5 and 50 MeV electrons are presented. The absorption of irradiated crystals near the edge can be represented by two exponential regions. In the free carrier absorption region one can observe as a result of irradiation a decrease of the power index p in the dependence α proportional to lambdap. Photoconductivity with long-time relaxation takes place in the spectral interval where the additional absorption is observed. The quenching of residual conductivity can be observed at hν=1.0eV. Variations in absorption and photoconductivity are attributed to the 'tails' of density states near the zone edges arising at introduction of both point defects and disordered regions. At hν=2.1eV one can observe a resonance band which is attributed to intra-centre transitions on point defects. A recovery of the optical properties of GaP at annealing is studied. In heavily irradiated GaP crystals point defects can form gatherings which display themselves as disordered regions. (author)

  10. Cathodoluminescence studies of anomalous ion implantation defect introduction in lightly and heavily doped liquid phase epitaxial GaAs:Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.B.; Barnes, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    The anomalous postrange defect introduction produced by shallow ion implantation in GaAs has been investigated in Sn-doped liquid phase epitaxial (LPE) material using depth-resolved cathodoluminescence in conjunction with layer removal by chemical etching. 100-keV Ne + or 200-keV Zn + ions were implanted into lightly or heavily Sn-doped LPE layers at temperatures between 80 and 300 K. All implantations were subsequently annealed at 300 K. Although the projected ion ranges for the implants were on the order of 1000 A, significant postrange damage was observed at far greater depths. At depths up to several microns, the damage introduction produced severe nonradiative recombination but simultaneously caused an apparent increase in the concentration of incumbent luminescence centers responsible for an extrinsic band near 1.39 eV. A weak damage-related band near 1.2 eV could also be seen in one instance. At depths of 5--30 μm, the postrange damage had the opposite effect of annihilating incumbent 1.39-eV luminescence centers. The efficiency of the damage introduction has a complicated temperature dependence which is significantly different for the ion/substrate combinations investigated. However, no conditions were found for which the damage introduction could be inhibited. While our measurements are the most extensive to date concerning the anomalous ion implant damage introduction in GaAs, the detailed mechanisms responsible for this effect still remain obscure owing in part to the limited understanding of defects in GaAs

  11. The status of coastal oceanography in heavily impacted Yellow and East China Sea: Past trends, progress, and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Cho, Yang-Ki; Guo, Xinyu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhou, Junliang

    2015-09-01

    Coastal environments are a key location for transport, commercial, residential and defence infrastructure, and have provided conditions suitable for economic growth. They also fulfil important cultural, recreational and aesthetic needs; have intrinsic ecosystem service values; and provide essential biogeochemical functions such as primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water filtration. The rapid expansion in economic development and anticipated growth of the population in the coastal zones along the Yellow and East China Sea basin has placed this region under intense multiple stresses. Here we aim to: 1) synthesize the new knowledge/science in coastal oceanography since 2010 within the context of the scientific literature published in English; 2) report on a citation analysis that assesses whether new research topics have emerged and integrated over time, indicate the location of modelling and field-based studies; and 3) suggest where the new research should develop for heavily impacted estuaries and coastal seas of East Asia. The conclusions of the synthesis include: 1) China has emerged as a dominant force in the region in producing scientific literature in coastal oceanography, although the area of publications has shifted from its traditional fields such as physical oceanography; 2) there has been an increasing number of publications with cross-disciplinary themes between physical oceanography and other fields of the biological, chemical, and geological disciplines, but vigorous and systematic funding mechanisms are still lacking to ensure the viability of large scale multi-disciplinary teams and projects in order to support trans-disciplinary research and newly emerging fields; 3) coastal oceanography is responding to new challenges, with many papers studying the impacts of human activities on marine environment and ecology, but so far very few studying management and conservation strategies or offering policy solutions.

  12. Anodic oxidation of wastewater containing the Reactive Orange 16 Dye using heavily boron-doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorini, F.L.; Braga, N.A.; Alves, S.A.; Lanza, M.R.V.; Baldan, M.R.; Ferreira, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electrochemical advanced oxidation process was studied using BDD based anodes with different boron concentrations. → The difference between the non-active and active anodes for organics degradation. → The influence of morphologic and structural properties of BDD electrodes on the RO-16 dye degradation. - Abstract: Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films grown on the titanium substrate were used to study the electrochemical degradation of Reactive Orange (RO) 16 Dye. The films were produced by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique using two different boron concentrations. The growth parameters were controlled to obtain heavily doped diamond films. They were named as E1 and E2 electrodes, with acceptor concentrations of 4.0 and 8.0 x 10 21 atoms cm -3 , respectively. The boron levels were evaluated from Mott-Schottky plots also corroborated by Raman's spectra, which characterized the film quality as well as its physical property. Scanning Electron Microscopy showed well-defined microcrystalline grain morphologies with crystal orientation mixtures of (1 1 1) and (1 0 0). The electrode efficiencies were studied from the advanced oxidation process (AOP) to degrade electrochemically the Reactive Orange 16 azo-dye (RO16). The results were analyzed by UV/VIS spectroscopy, total organic carbon (TOC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. From UV/VIS spectra the highest doped electrode (E2) showed the best efficiency for both, the aromaticity reduction and the azo group fracture. These tendencies were confirmed by the TOC and chromatographic measurements. Besides, the results showed a direct relationship among the BDD morphology, physical property, and its performance during the degradation process.

  13. Assessment of heavy metals in sediment in a heavily polluted urban river in the Chaohu Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shiguang; Xue, Lianqing; Liu, Cheng; Shang, Jingge; Wang, Zhaode; He, Xiang; Fan, Chengxin

    2016-05-01

    The Nanfei River (Anhui Province, China) is a severely polluted urban river that flows into Chaohu Lake. In the present study, sediments were collected from the river and analyzed for their heavy metal contents. Multivariate statistics and the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method were used to determine the sources of pollution, the current pollution status, and spatial and temporal variations in heavy metal pollution in sediments. The concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in sediments ranged from 5.67-113, 0.08-40.2, 41.6-524, 15.5-460, 0.03-4.84, 13.5-180, 18.8-250, and 47.9-1 996 mg/kg, and the average concentrations of each metal were 1.7, 38.7, 1.8, 5.5, 18.8, 1.3, 2.5, and 11.1 times greater than the background values, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that Hg, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Ni may have originated from industrial activities, whereas As and Pb came from agricultural activities. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment method, based on the fuzzy mathematics theory, was used to obtain a detailed assessment of the sediment quality in the Nanfei River watershed. The results indicated that the pollution was moderate in the downstream tributaries of the Nianbu and Dianbu Rivers, but was severe in the main channel of the Nanfei River and in the upstream tributaries of the Sili and Banqiao Rivers. Therefore, sediments in the Nanfei River watershed are heavily polluted and urgent measures should be taken to remedy the status.

  14. The Nature of the Torus in the Heavily Obscured AGN Markarian 3: an X-Ray Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guainazzi, M.; Risaliti, G.; Awaki, H.; Arevalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Bianchi, S.; Boggs, S.E; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of an X-ray monitoring campaign on the heavily obscured Seyfert galaxy, Markarian 3, carried out between the fall of 2014 and the spring of 2015 with NuSTAR, Suzaku and XMMNewton. The hard X-ray spectrum of Markarian 3 is variable on all the time-scales probed by our campaign, down to a few days. The observed continuum variability is due to an intrinsically variable primary continuum seen in transmission through a large, but still Compton-thin column density (N(sub H) approx. 0.8-1.1 x 10(exp 24)/sq cm). If arranged in a spherical-toroidal geometry, the Compton scattering matter has an opening angle approx. 66deg, and is seen at a grazing angle through its upper rim (inclination angle approx. 70deg). We report a possible occultation event during the 2014 campaign. If the torus is constituted by a system of clouds sharing the same column density, this event allows us to constrain their number (17 +/- 5) and individual column density, [approx. (4.9 +/- 1.5) x 10(exp 22)/ sq cm]. The comparison of IR and X-ray spectroscopic results with state-of-the art torus models suggests that at least two-thirds of the X-ray obscuring gas volume might be located within the dust sublimation radius. We report also the discovery of an ionized absorber, characterized by variable resonant absorption lines due to He- and H-like iron. This discovery lends support to the idea that moderate column density absorbers could be due to clouds evaporated at the outer surface of the torus, possibly accelerated by the radiation pressure due to the central AGN emission leaking through the patchy absorber.

  15. The '333' integrated strategy for effective pollution control and its application to the heavily polluted Jialu River in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Sun, Jie; Li, Aimin; Xie, Xianchuan

    2018-05-01

    In this study, an integrated approach named the '333' strategy was applied to pollution control in the Jialu River, in northern China, which is heavily burdened with anthropogenic pollution. Due to a deficiency of the natural ecological inflow, the Jialu River receives predominantly industrial and municipal effluent. The '333' strategy is composed of three steps of pollution control including industrial point-source pollution control, advanced treatment of municipal wastewater, and ecological restoration; three increased stringency emission standards; and three stages of reclamation. Phase 1 of the '333' strategy focuses on industrial point-source pollution control; phase 2 aims to harness municipal wastewater and minimize sewage effluents using novel techniques for advanced water purification; phase 3 of the '333' strategy focuses on the further purification of effluents flowing into Jialu River with the employment of an engineering-based ecological restoration project. The application of the '333' strategy resulted in the development of novel techniques for water purification including modified magnetic resins (NDMP resin), a two-stage internal circulation anaerobic reactor (IC reactor) and an ecological restoration system. The results indicate that water quality in the river was significantly improved, with increased concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO), as well as reduction of COD by 42.8% and NH 3 -N by 61.4%. In addition, it was observed that the total population of phytoplankton in treated river water notably increased from only one prior to restoration to 8 following restoration. This system also provides a tool for pollution control of other similar industrial and anthropogenic source polluted rivers.

  16. Ethics of using language editing services in an era of digital communication and heavily multi-authored papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, George A

    2014-06-01

    Scientists of many countries in which English is not the primary language routinely use a variety of manuscript preparation, correction or editing services, a practice that is openly endorsed by many journals and scientific institutions. These services vary tremendously in their scope; at one end there is simple proof-reading, and at the other extreme there is in-depth and extensive peer-reviewing, proposal preparation, statistical analyses, re-writing and co-writing. In this paper, the various types of service are reviewed, along with authorship guidelines, and the question is raised of whether the high-end services surpass most guidelines' criteria for authorship. Three other factors are considered. First, the ease of collaboration possible in the internet era allows multiple iterations between the author(s) and the "editing service", so essentially, papers can be co-written. Second, "editing services" often offer subject-specific experts who comment not only on the language, but interpret and improve scientific content. Third, the trend towards heavily multi-authored papers implies that the threshold necessary to earn authorship is declining. The inevitable conclusion is that at some point the contributions by "editing services" should be deemed sufficient to warrant authorship. Trying to enforce any guidelines would likely be futile, but nevertheless, it might be time to revisit the ethics of using some of the high-end "editing services". In an increasingly international job market, awareness of this problem might prove increasingly important in authorship disputes, the allocation of research grants, and hiring decisions.

  17. Community level offset of rain use- and transpiration efficiency for a heavily grazed ecosystem in inner Mongolia grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying Z; Giese, Marcus; Gao, Qiang; Brueck, Holger; Sheng, Lian X; Yang, Hai J

    2013-01-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) is a key indicator to assess ecosystem adaptation to water stress. Rain use efficiency (RUE) is usually used as a proxy for WUE due to lack of transpiration data. Furthermore, RUE based on aboveground primary productivity (RUEANPP) is used to evaluate whole plant water use because root production data is often missing as well. However, it is controversial as to whether RUE is a reliable parameter to elucidate transpiration efficiency (TE), and whether RUEANPP is a suitable proxy for RUE of the whole plant basis. The experiment was conducted at three differently managed sites in the Inner Mongolia steppe: a site fenced since 1979 (UG79), a winter grazing site (WG) and a heavily grazed site (HG). Site HG had consistent lowest RUEANPP and RUE based on total net primary productivity (RUENPP). RUEANPP is a relatively good proxy at sites UG79 and WG, but less reliable for site HG. Similarly, RUEANPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on aboveground net primary productivity (TEANPP) at sites UG79 and WG but not for site HG. However, if total net primary productivity is considered, RUENPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on total net primary productivity (TENPP) for all sites. Although our measurements indicate decreased plant transpiration and consequentially decreasing RUE under heavy grazing, productivity was relatively compensated for with a higher TE. This offset between RUE and TE was even enhanced under water limited conditions and more evident when belowground net primary productivity (BNNP) was included. These findings suggest that BNPP should be considered when studies fucus on WUE of more intensively used grasslands. The consideration of the whole plant perspective and "real" WUE would partially revise our picture of system performance and therefore might affect the discussion on the C-sequestration and resilience potential of ecosystems.

  18. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  19. Food irradiation 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation principles; its main applications, advantages and limitations; wholesomeness, present activities at Ezeiza Atomic Centre; research coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency; capacity building; and some aspects on national and international regulations, standards and commercialization are briefly described. At present 56 countries authorize the consumption of varied irradiated foods; trade is performed in 32 countries, with about 200 irradiation facilities. Argentina pioneered nuclear energy knowledge and applications in Latin America, food irradiation included. A steady growth of food industrial volumes treated in two gamma facilities can be observed. Food industry and producers show interest towards new facilities construction. However, a 15 years standstill in incorporating new approvals in the Argentine Alimentary Code, in spite of consecutive request performed either by CNEA or some food industries restricts, a wider industrial implementation, which constitute a drawback to future regional commercialization in areas such as MERCOSUR, where Brazil since 2000 freely authorize food irradiation. Besides, important chances in international trade with developed countries will be missed, like the high fresh fruits and vegetables requirements United States has in counter-season, leading to convenient sale prices. The Argentine food irradiation facilities have been designed and built in the country. Argentina produces Cobalt-60. These capacities, unusual in the world and particularly in Latin America, should be protected and enhanced. Being the irradiation facilities scarce and concentrated nearby Buenos Aires city, the possibilities of commercial application and even research and development are strongly limited for most of the country regions. (author) [es

  20. Clonal variation in survival and growth of hybrid poplar and willow in an in situ trial on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Edmund O. Bauer; Richard B. Hall; Jill A. Zalesny; Joshua Kunzman; Chris J. Rog; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2005-01-01

    Species and hybrids between species belonging to the genera Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) have been used successfully for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate the potential for establishing genotypes of poplar and willow on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and 2)...

  1. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs

  2. Irradiation of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevanovic, M.

    1965-10-01

    Based on the review of the available literature concerned with UO 2 irradiation, this paper describes and explains the phenomena initiated by irradiation of the UO 2 fuel in a reactor dependent on the burnup level and temperature. A comprehensive review of UO 2 radiation damage studies is given as a broad research program. This part includes the abilities of our reactor as well as needed elements for such study. The third part includes the definitions of the specific power, burnup level and temperature in the center of the fuel element needed for planning and performing the irradiation. Methods for calculating these parameters are included [sr

  3. Analysis of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.

    1991-01-01

    Foods, e.g. chicken, shrimps, frog legs, spices, different dried vegetables, potatoes and fruits are legally irradiated in many countries and are probably also exported into countries, which do not permit irradiation of any food. Therefore all countries need analytical methods to determine whether food has been irradiated or not. Up to now, two physical (ESR-spectroscopy and thermoluminescence) and two chemical methods (o-tyrosine and volatile compounds) are available for routine analysis. Several results of the application of these four mentioned methods on different foods are presented and a short outlook on other methods (chemiluminescence, DNA-changes, biological assays, viscometric method and photostimulated luminescence) will be given. (author)

  4. Irradiation and pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouraqui, A; Creuzillet, C; Barrat, J [Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1985-04-21

    Every single person is exposed to natural (7 rads) or artificail (7.25 rads) irradiation throughout life. To which must be added, for many, irradiation from radiological examinations, which may cause malformations, genetic defects or cancer. The management of irradiated pregnant women depends on the dose received and on the age of pregnancy and requires, when the patient is seen, close co-operation between genetician, radiologist and gynaecologist. A radiological examination may be irreplaceable for diagnostic purposes, but the benefits to be expected from it should not lead to problems, particularly human problems, that are extremely difficult to solve. Non-urgent X-ray examinations should be performed outside pregnancy.

  5. Intercomparison of graphite irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, H; Perio, P; Seguin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    While fast neutrons only are effective in damaging graphite, results of irradiations are more or less universally expressed in terms of thermal neutron fluxes. This paper attempts to correlate irradiations made in different reactors, i.e., in fluxes of different spectral compositions. Those attempts are based on comparison of 1) bulk length change and volume expansion, and 2) crystalline properties (e.g., lattice parameter C, magnetic susceptibility, stored energy, etc.). The methods used by various authors for determining the lattice constants of irradiated graphite are discussed. (author)

  6. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiated foods and the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet discusses market testing of irradiate food, consumer response to irradiated products has always been positive, and in some countries commercial quantities of some irradiated food items have been sold on a regular basis. Consumers have shown no reluctance to buy irradiated food products. 4 refs

  7. Packing for food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  8. Packing for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  9. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztasiran, I.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H 3 0+ and H 2 O 2 . Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  10. Alloys under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Bellon, P.; Soisson, F.

    1997-01-01

    During the last two decades, some effort has been devoted to establishing a phenomenology for alloys under irradiation. Theoretically, the effects of the defect supersaturation, sustained defect fluxes and ballistic mixing on solid solubility under irradiation can now be formulated in a unified manner, at least for the most simple cases: coherent phase transformations and nearest-neighbor ballistic jumps. Even under such restrictive conditions, several intriguing features documented experimentally can be rationalized, sometimes in a quantitative manner and simple qualitative rules for alloy stability as a function of irradiation conditions can be formulated. A quasi-thermodynamic formalism can be proposed for alloys under irradiation. However, this point of view has limits illustrated by recent computer simulations. (orig.)

  11. Food irradiation in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henon, Y.M.

    1995-01-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the ''prerequisite'' became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance. (Author)

  12. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitch, J.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the cost competitiveness of the food irradiation process. An analysis of the principal factors--the product, physical plant, irradiation source, and financing--that impact on cost is made. Equations are developed and used to calculate the size of the source for planned product throughput, efficiency factors, power requirements, and operating costs of sources, radionuclides, and accelerators. Methods of financing and capital investment are discussed. A series of tables show cost breakdowns of sources, buildings, equipment, and essential support facilities for both a cobalt-60 and a 10-MeV electron accelerator facility. Additional tables present irradiation costs as functions of a number of parameters--power input, source size, dose, and hours of annual operation. The use of the numbers in the tables are explained by examples of calculations of the irradiation costs for disinfestation of grains and radicidation of feed

  13. Food irradiation now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    From the start the Netherlands has made an important contribution to the irradiation of food through microbiological and toxicological research as well as through the setting-up of a pilot plant by the government and through the practical application of 'Gammaster' on a commercial basis. The proceedings of this tenth anniversary symposium of 'Gammaster' present all aspects of food irradiation and will undoubtedly help to remove the many misunderstandings. They offer information and indicate to the potential user a method that can make an important contribution to the prevention of decay and spoilage of foodstuffs and to the exclusion of food-borne infections and food poisoning in man. The book includes 8 contributions and 4 panel discussions in the field of microbiology; technology; legal aspects; and consumer aspects of food irradiation. As an appendix, the report 'Wholesomeness of irradiated food' of a joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee has been added. (orig./G.J.P.)

  14. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Frias, L.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  15. Food irradiation and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, David

    1988-01-01

    This outline review was written for 'Food Manufacture'. It deals with the known effects of irradiation on current packaging materials (glass, cellulosics, organic polymers and metals), and their implications for the effective application of the process. (U.K.)

  16. Application of irradiated wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, I.; Kozima, K.; Suzuki, S.; Tada, S.; Torisu, S.; Veno, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rubber insulated wires are still useful for internal wiring in motor vehicles and electrical equipment because of flexibility and toughness. Irradiated cross-linked rubber materials have been successfully introduced for use with fusible link wire and helically coiled cord

  17. The ARBOR irradiation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, C. E-mail: claus.petersen@imf.fzk.de; Shamardin, V.; Fedoseev, A.; Shimansky, G.; Efimov, V.; Rensman, J

    2002-12-01

    The irradiation project 'ARBOR', for 'Associated Reactor Irradiation in BOR 60', includes 150 mini-tensile/low cycle fatigue specimens and 150 mini-Charpy (KLST) specimens of nine different RAFM steels. Specimens began irradiation on 22 November 2000 in an specially designed irradiation rig in BOR 60, in a fast neutron flux (>0.1 MeV) of 1.8x10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2} s and with direct sodium cooling at a temperature less than 340 deg. C. Tensile, low cycle fatigue and Charpy specimens of the following materials are included: EUROFER 97, F82H mod., OPTIFER IVc, EUROFER 97 with different boron contents, ODS-EUROFER 97, as well as EUROFER 97 electron-beam welded and reference bulk material, from NRG, Petten.

  18. The ARBOR irradiation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, C.; Shamardin, V.; Fedoseev, A.; Shimansky, G.; Efimov, V.; Rensman, J.

    2002-01-01

    The irradiation project 'ARBOR', for 'Associated Reactor Irradiation in BOR 60', includes 150 mini-tensile/low cycle fatigue specimens and 150 mini-Charpy (KLST) specimens of nine different RAFM steels. Specimens began irradiation on 22 November 2000 in an specially designed irradiation rig in BOR 60, in a fast neutron flux (>0.1 MeV) of 1.8x10 15 n/cm 2 s and with direct sodium cooling at a temperature less than 340 deg. C. Tensile, low cycle fatigue and Charpy specimens of the following materials are included: EUROFER 97, F82H mod., OPTIFER IVc, EUROFER 97 with different boron contents, ODS-EUROFER 97, as well as EUROFER 97 electron-beam welded and reference bulk material, from NRG, Petten

  19. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.C.; Beyers, M.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation can be used to eliminate harmful bacteria in frozen products without thawing them. It can also replace chemicals or extended cold storage as a means of killing insect pests in export commodities

  20. Preliminary investigation on the extension of shelf-life of boiled Chub mackerel by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P; Prombubesara, C; Songprasertchai, S

    1971-12-31

    The influence of irradiation on the extension of shelf-life of boiled Chub mackerel stored at room temperature (25-30{sup 0}C) was investigated. It was found that boiled Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 Mrad could be kept with good organoleptic properties at room temperature for 5, 8, and 11 days respectively; while the unirradiated sample could be kept for only 2 days. Boiled Chub mackerel used in this study was found to be heavily contaminated with microorganisms. Irradiation at doses mentioned caused reduction of more than 99% of bacteria. Bacillus and Acinetobacter were found to predominate in the irradiated boiled mackerel. The predominant flora in unirradiated boiled mackerel included Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, and Proteus. E. coli was always detected in unirradiated samples and was occasionally detected only in samples irradiated at 0.1 Mrad. Trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) content, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content, and total bacterial count (TBC) were used as indices of decomposition of both irradiated and unirradiated samples. TMA-N and TBC were found to be good indices of quality of only unirradiated boiled Chub mackerel, whereas TVB-N was found to be a good index of quality of both irradiated and unirradiated samples.

  1. Formation of austenite in high Cr ferritic/martensitic steels by high fluence neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Faulkner, R. G.; Morgan, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    High Cr ferritic/martensitic steels are leading candidates for structural components of future fusion reactors and new generation fission reactors due to their excellent swelling resistance and thermal properties. A commercial grade 12%CrMoVNb ferritic/martensitic stainless steel in the form of parent plate and off-normal weld materials was fast neutron irradiated up to 33 dpa (1.1 × 10 -6 dpa/s) at 400 °C and 28 dpa (1.7 × 10 -6 dpa/s) at 465 °C, respectively. TEM investigation shows that the fully martensitic weld metal transformed to a duplex austenite/ferrite structure due to high fluence neutron irradiation, the austenite was heavily voided (˜15 vol.%) and the ferrite was relatively void-free; whilst no austenite phases were detected in plate steel. Thermodynamic and phase equilibria software MTDATA has been employed for the first time to investigate neutron irradiation-induced phase transformations. The neutron irradiation effect is introduced by adding additional Gibbs free energy into the system. This additional energy is produced by high energy neutron irradiation and can be estimated from the increased dislocation loop density caused by irradiation. Modelling results show that neutron irradiation reduces the ferrite/austenite transformation temperature, especially for high Ni weld metal. The calculated results exhibit good agreement with experimental observation.

  2. Change in physical properties of high density isotropic graphites irradiated in the ?JOYO? fast reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, T.; Kaito, T.; Onose, S.; Shibahara, I.

    1995-08-01

    Thirteen kinds of isotropic graphites with different density and maximum grain size were irradiated in the experimental fast reactor "JOYO" to fluences from 2.11 to 2.86 × 10 26 n/m 2 ( E > 0.1 MeV) at temperatures from 549 to 597°C. Postirradiation examination was carried out on the dimensional changes, elastic modulus, and thermal conductivity of these materials. Dimensional change results indicate that the graphites irradiated at lower fluences showed shrinkage upon neutron irradiation followed by increase with increasing neutron fluences, irrespective of differences in material parameters. The Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio increased by two to three times the unirradiated values. The large scatter found in Poisson's ratio of unirradiated materials became very small and a linear dependence on density was obtained after irradiation. The thermal conductivity decreased to one-fifth to one-tenth of unirradiated values, with a negligible change in specific heat. The results of postirradiation examination indicated that the changes in physical properties of high density, isotropic graphites were mainly dominated by the irradiation condition rather than their material parameters. Namely, the effects of irradiation induced defects on physical properties of heavily neutron-irradiated graphites are much larger than that of defects associated with as-fabricated specimens.

  3. Change in physical properties of high density isotropic graphites irradiated in the ''JOYO'' fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.; Kaito, T.; Onose, S.; Shibahara, I.

    1995-01-01

    Thirteen kinds of isotropic graphites with different density and maximum grain size were irradiated in the experimental fast reactor ''JOYO'' to fluences from 2.11 to 2.86x10 26 n/m 2 (E>0.1 MeV) at temperatures from 549 to 597 C. Postirradiation examination was carried out on the dimensional changes, elastic modulus, and thermal conductivity of these materials. Dimensional change results indicate that the graphites irradiated at lower fluences showed shrinkage upon neutron irradiation followed by increase with increasing neutron fluences, irrespective of differences in material parameters. The Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio increased by two to three times the unirradiated values. The large scatter found in Poisson's ratio of unirradiated materials became very small and a linear dependence on density was obtained after irradiation. The thermal conductivity decreased to one-fifth to one-tenth of unirradiated values, with a negligible change in specific heat. The results of postirradiation examination indicated that the changes in physical properties of high density, isotropic graphites were mainly dominated by the irradiation condition rather than their material parameters. Namely, the effects of irradiation induced defects on physical properties of heavily neutron-irradiated graphites are much larger than that of defects associated with as-fabricated specimens. (orig.)

  4. Detection of irradiated spice in blend of irradiated and un-irradiated spices using thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Yamazaki, Masao; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyahara, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Five blended spice sample were prepared by mixing irradiated and un-irradiated black pepper and paprika at different ratios. Blended black pepper containing 2%(w/w) of 5.4 kGy-irradiated black pepper showed no maximum at glow1. Irradiated black pepper samples, mixed to 5 or 10%(w/w), were identified as 'irradiated' or 'partially irradiated' or 'un-irradiated'. All samples with un-irradiated pepper up to 20%(w/w) were identified as irradiated'. In the case 5.0 kGy-irradiated paprika were mixed with un-irradiated paprika up to 5%(w/w), all samples were identified as irradiated'. The glow1 curves of samples, including irradiated paprika at 0.2%(w/w) or higher, exhibited a maximum between 150 and 250degC. The results suggest the existence of different critical mixing ratio for the detection of irradiation among each spices. Temperature range for integration of the TL glow intensity were compared between 70-400degC and approximate 150-250degC, and revealed that the latter temperature range was determined based on the measurement of TLD100. Although TL glow ratio in 150-250degC was lower than that of 70-400degC range, identification of irradiation was not affected. Treatment of un-irradiated black pepper and paprika with ultraviolet rays had no effect on the detection of irradiation. (author)

  5. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergis, E.; Adams, E. A. K.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the Arecibo legacy fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M∗ ≳ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former property ensures that the error on the galactic baryonic mass is small, despite the large systematic uncertainty involved in galactic stellar mass estimates. The latter property means that rotational velocities can be derived directly from the width of the 21 cm emission line, without any need for inclination corrections. We measure a slope for the linewidth-based BTFR of α = 3.75 ± 0.11, a value that is somewhat steeper than (but in broad agreement with) previous literature results. The relation is remarkably tight, with almost all galaxies being located within a perpendicular distance of ± 0.1 dex from the best fit line. The low observational error budget for our sample enables us to establish that, despite its tightness, the measured linewidth-based BTFR has some small (I.e., non-zero) intrinsic scatter. We furthermore find a systematic difference in the BTFR of galaxies with "double-horned" 21 cm line profiles - suggestive of flat outer galactic rotation curves - and those with "peaked" profiles - suggestive of rising rotation curves. When we restrict our sample of galaxies to objects in the former category, we measure a slightly steeper slope of α = 4.13 ± 0.15. Overall, the high-accuracy measurement of the BTFR presented in this article is intended as a reliable observational benchmark against which to test theoretical expectations. Here we consider a representative set of semi-analytic models and hydrodynamic simulations in the lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) context, as well as modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). In the near future, interferometric follow-up observations of several sample members will enable us to further refine the BTFR measurement, and

  6. Mobility and Device Applications of Heavily Doped Silicon and Strained SILICON(1-X) Germanium(x) Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carns, Timothy Keith

    With the advent of Si molecular beam epitaxy (Si -MBE), a significant amount of research has occurred to seek alternative high conductivity Si-based materials such as rm Si_{1-x}Ge_ {x} and delta-doped Si. These materials have brought improvements in device speeds and current drives with the added advantage of monolithic integration into Si VLSI circuits. The bulk of research in Si-based materials has been devoted to the implementation of strained rm Si_{1-x}Ge_{x} as the base layer of a rm Si_ {1-x}Ge_{x}/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Because of the valence band offset, the rm Si_{1-x}Ge _{x} layer can be heavily doped, leading to lower base sheet resistances and hence, improved speed performances. The Ge content in the base can also be graded to increase the drift field in the base. However, very few hole mobility measurements have been done in these strained layers, leading to limitations in device modeling and in understanding the transport behavior in this important material. In addition to rm Si_{1 -x}Ge_{x}, much potential also exists in using delta-doping in Si for improved conductivities over those of bulk Si. However, as of yet, delta-doped Si has received little attention. Therefore, this dissertation is dedicated to the investigation of both of these Si-based materials (strained rm Si_{1-x}Ge_{x } and delta-doped Si and rm Si_{1-x}Ge_ {x}) for the purpose of obtaining higher conductivities than comparably doped bulk Si. This work is divided into three parts to accomplish this objective. The first part is contained in Chapter 3 and is comprised of a comprehensive characterization of the hole mobility in compressively strained rm Si_{1 -x}Ge_{x}. Few results have been obtained prior to this research which has led to many inaccuracies in device modeling. The second part of this dissertation in Chapters 4 and 5 is devoted to the study of the mobility behavior in both boron and antimony delta-doped Si and rm Si_ {1-x}Ge_{x}. The important

  7. Annual budget of Gd and related Rare Earth Elements in a river basin heavily disturbed by anthropogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter; Guignard, Cédric; François Iffly, Jean; Pfister, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    budget of the REE in the particulate and dissolved fractions of the river water and the waste water treatment plant effluents. Enrichments in Gd have been observed for the dissolved fraction of the water during low water levels. This enrichment has not been detected in the surrounding soils of the basin and can be related to the effluents of the waste water treatment plants, which control the REE chemistry of the dissolved fraction during the low water period. When flood events occur, the Gd anomaly progressively disappears and gives way to the chemical signature of the basin soils. The REE and intense hydrological monitoring we performed at the same time allowed for the annual quantification of the anthropogenic vs. natural REE fluxes in the river water of this heavily polluted basin.

  8. Food irradiation: progress in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada; non-regulatory developments (poultry irradiation; fish irradiation; Government willingness to fund industry initiated projects; Government willingness to establish food irradiation research and pilot plant facilities; food industry interest is increasing significantly; Canadian Consumers Association positive response; the emergence of new consulting and entrepreneurial firms). (U.K.)

  9. Prospects for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, David

    1990-01-01

    Recent legislation will permit the introduction of food irradiation in the UK. This development has been met with protests from consumer groups, and some wariness among retailers. David Kilcast, of the Leatherhead Food Research Association, explains the basic principles and applications of food irradiation, and argues that a test marketing campaign should be initiated. The consumer, he says, will have the final say in the matter. (author)

  10. Irradiation of chilled lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    Chilled, vacuum-packed New Zealand lamb loins have been irradiated at doses between 1-8 kGy. The report outlines the methods used and provides dosimetry details. An appendix summarises the results of a taste trial conducted on the irradiated meat by the Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand. This showed that, even at 1 kGy, detectable flavours were induced by the radiation treatment

  11. Food irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ghazali Hj Abd Rahman.

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has recently been visited as a technology that can contribute to the solution of problems associated with food preservation of Malaysia's agriculture produce and products thereby improving the economic status of the rural sector. However, the history of food irradiation in Malaysia is very recent. Research carried out on food irradiation only began in 1974 as a result of the installation of a 60 Co facility (initially 10,000 Ci) at the National University of Malaysia. Since its installation several studies have been carried out pertaining to the food irradiation. Presently its development has been slow. Research in this area has been confined to laboratory scale and purely academic. This limitation is due to a number of reasons, among others are: a) limited number of facilities; b) lack of expertise to conduct its research; c) other preservation methods can be improved with lower capital output. An important step towards its development was made when Malaysia actively participated in the RCA/IAEA food irradiation project, viz. the irradiation of pepper which was carried out at the National University of Malaysia in the 80's. As a result of this venture, research and development activities in food irradiation have been geared toward semi-plot scale with the view ot commercialization in the future. In 1982, a group of researchers was formed to conduct feasibility studies using irradiation techniques in trying to overcome several problems associated with our local paddy and rice. Another group is being organized by the National University of Malaysia to look into the problems associated with the preservation of frozen shrimps. (author)

  12. AGC-2 Irradiation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Windes, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled, very high temperature reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. In past applications, graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) designs.[ , ] Nuclear graphite H 451, used previously in the United States for nuclear reactor graphite components, is no longer available. New nuclear graphites have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for the new NGNP reactor design. To support the design and licensing of NGNP core components within a commercial reactor, a complete properties database must be developed for these current grades of graphite. Quantitative data on in service material performance are required for the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of each graphite grade with a specific emphasis on data related to the life limiting effects of irradiation creep on key physical properties of the NGNP candidate graphites. Based on experience with previous graphite core components, the phenomenon of irradiation induced creep within the graphite has been shown to be critical to the total useful lifetime of graphite components. Irradiation induced creep occurs under the simultaneous application of high temperatures, neutron irradiation, and applied stresses within the graphite components. Significant internal stresses within the graphite components can result from a second phenomenon—irradiation induced dimensional change. In this case, the graphite physically changes i.e., first shrinking and then expanding with increasing neutron dose. This disparity in material volume change can induce significant internal stresses within graphite components. Irradiation induced creep relaxes these large internal stresses, thus reducing the risk of crack formation and component failure. Obviously, higher irradiation creep levels tend to relieve more internal stress, thus allowing the

  13. Fully portable blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    A fully portable blood irradiator was developed using the beta emitter thulium-170 as the radiation source and vitreous carbon as the body of the irradiator, matrix for isotope encapsulation, and blood interface material. These units were placed in exteriorized arteriovenous shunts in goats, sheep, and dogs and the effects on circulating lymphocytes and on skin allograft retention times measured. The present work extends these studies by establishing baseline data for skin graft rejection times in untreated animals

  14. Food irradiation: global aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinning, G.

    1988-01-01

    As a commercial activity, food irradiation is twenty years old, but is backed by nearly eighty years of research on gamma irradiation and sixty years knowledge of application of the technology to food. An overview is given of the global boom and then the hiatus in its legislative and commercial applications. It is emphasised that in Australia, the overseas experience provides a number of models for proceeding further for food manufacturers, consumers and Government. 13 refs

  15. IAEA and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    1995-01-01

    IAEA was founded in 1957. 122 countries take part in it. It is operated with the yearly ordinary budget of about 20 billion yen and the technical cooperation budget of about 6 billion yen and by 2200 personnel. Its two important roles are the promotion of the peaceful utilization of atomic energy and the prevention of nuclear proliferation. The activities of IAEA are shown. The cooperation with developing countries and the international research cooperation program are the important activities. The securing of foods is an urgent subject, and the utilization of radiation and isotopes has been promoted, aiming at sustaining agriculture. The necessity of food irradiation is explained, and at present, commercial food irradiation is carried out in 28 countries including Japan. The irradiation less than 10 kGy does not cause poisonous effect in any food, according to JECFI. The new international agreement is expected to be useful for promoting the international trade of irradiated foods. The international cooperation for the spread of food irradiation and the public acceptance of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Food irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1995-01-01

    The basic research on food irradiation in Japan was begun around 1955 by universities and national laboratories. In 1967, food irradiation was designated to the specific general research on atomic energy, and the national project on large scale was continued until 1983. As the result, the treatment of germination prevention for potatoes was approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1972. The Co-60 gamma ray irradiation facility of Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative is famous as the facility that succeeded in the practical use of food irradiation for the first time in the world. But the practical use of food irradiation stagnates and the research activities were reduced in Japan due to the circumstances thereafter. The effect of radiation to foods and living things is explained. The features of the radiation treatment of foods are small temperature rise, large transmissivity, no residue, the small loss of nutrition and large quantity, continuous treatment. The safety of irradiated foods is explained. The subjects for hereafter are discussed. (K.I.)

  17. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  18. Irradiating strand material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, J.R.; Brown, M.J.; Loan, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Conductors covered with insulation which is to be irradiated are passed between two groups of coaxial sheaves mounted rotatably individually. Successive sections of the conductors are advanced past the window of one accelerator head, around the associated sheave or sheaves, and then past the window of another accelerator head. The accelerators face in substantially opposite directions and are staggered along the paths of the conductors to avoid any substantial overlap of the electron beams associated therewith. The windows extend vertically to encompass all the generally horizontal passes of the conductors as between the two groups of sheaves. Preferably, conductors are strung-up between the sheaves in a modified figure eight pattern. The pattern is a figure eight modified to intermittently include a pass between the sheaves which is parallel to a line joining the axes of the two groups of sheaves. This reverses the direction of travel of the conductors and optimizes the uniformity of exposure of the cross sectional area of the insulation of the conductors to irradiation. The use of a figure eight path for the conductors causes the successive sections of the conductor to turn about the longitudinal axes thereof as they are advanced around the sheaves. In this way the insulation is more uniformly irradiated. In a preferred embodiment, twisted conductor pairs may be irradiated. The twist accentuates the longitudinal turning of the conductor pair. The irradiation of twisted pairs achieves obvious manufacturing economies while avoiding the necessity of having to twist irradiation cross-linked conductors

  19. Irradiation sequels of retinoblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benk, V.; Habrand, J.L.; Bloch Michel, E.; Soussaline, M.; Sarrazin, D.

    1993-01-01

    From 1975 to 1985, 34 children with a non-metastatic retinoblastoma were irradiated at the Institut Gustave-Roussy. After enucleation, 19 bilateral tumors were irradiated by two lateral opposed fields and 15 unilateral tumors by one lateral and anterior field, in the case of optic nerve being histologically positive. Dose was 45 Gy, 1.8 Gy per fraction. The 10-year-survival rate for unilateral and bilateral retinoblastomas was 79%. Long term sequels were available for 25 patients: 88% retained one functional eye. Three children with bilateral retinoblastomas developed a cataract in the residual eye between 2 and 5 years after irradiation, none with unilateral tumor. Nine patients (36%), seven with unilateral and two with bilateral tumor developed a cosmetical problem that required multiple surgical rehabilitation between 3 and 14 years after irradiation. Nine children (36%), five with unilateral and four with bilateral tumors developed growth hormone deficit between 2 and 8 years after irradiation that required hormone replacement. Their pituitary gland received 22 to 40 Gy. No osteosarcoma occurred in this population. Among long-term sequels, following irradiation for retinoblastoma, cosmetical deformities represent disabling sequels that could justify new approaches in radiotherapy, as protontherapy combined with 3-D-treatment planning

  20. food irradiation: activities and potentialities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

    1985-01-01

    After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. (author)

  1. Detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyakova, A.; Tsvetkova, E.; Nikolova, R.

    2005-01-01

    In connection with the ongoing world application of irradiation as a technology in Food industry for increasing food safety, it became a need for methods of identification of irradiation. It was required to control international trade of irradiated foods, because of the certain that legally imposed food laws are not violated; supervise correct labeling; avoid multiple irradiation. Physical, chemical and biological methods for detection of irradiated foods as well principle that are based, are introducing in this summary

  2. Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described

  3. Irradiated produce reaches Midwest market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszczola, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    In March 1992, the Chicago-area store gave its shoppers a choice between purchasing irradiated and nonirradiated fruits. The irradiated fruits were treated at Vindicator Inc., the first U.S. food irradiation facility (starting up on January 10, 1992). The plant, located in Mulberry, Fla., then shipped the fruits in trucks to the store where they were displayed under a hand-lettered sign describing the irradiated fruits and showing the irradiation logo

  4. Change of mechanical properties of irradiated silicon iron in dependence of preliminary deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirkina, L.A.; Okovit, V.S.; Khinkis, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the data on the influence of the 225 MeV electron irradiation on flow limit and specific elongation of silicon iron specimens preliminary deformed by slipping and twinning. The irradiaton was carried out at the temperature up to 350 K with integral dose up to 7x10 18 el/cm 2 . The specimens were tested in the temperature range of 4-450 K. It is found that the ductile brittle transition temperature Tsub(c) and plastic deformation mode of the irradiated material heavily depends on the preliminary deformation mode. The irradiation of specimens deformed by slipping leads to the increase in transition temperature (Tsub(c)) by 80 deg and it reaches 420 K. The preliminary deformation by twinning results in the Tsub(c) increase up to 320 K

  5. A New High-intensity Proton Irradiation Facility at the CERN PS East Area

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, B; Lima, P; Matli, E; Moll, M; Ravotti, F

    2014-01-01

    and IRRAD2), were heavily and successfully used for irradiation of particle detectors, electronic components and materials since 1992. These facilities operated with particle bursts - protons with momentum of 24GeV/c - delivered from the PS accelerator in “spills” of about 400ms (slow extraction). With the increasing demand of irradiation experiments, these facilities suffered from a number of restrictions such as the space availability, the maximum achievable particle flux and several access constraints. In the framework of the AIDA project, an upgrade of these facilities has been realized during the CERN long shutdown (LS1). While the new proton facility (IRRAD) will continue to be mainly devoted to the radiation hardness studies for the High Energy Physics (HEP) experimental community, the new mixed-field facility (CHARM) will mainly host irradiation experiments for the validation of electronic systems used in a...

  6. Investigation of the stability of polysilicon layers in SOI-structures under irradiation by electrons and hard magnetic field influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoverko Yu. N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The properties of recrystallized polysilicon on insulator layers of p-type conductive SOI-structures with different carrier concentration irradiated with high-energy electrons flow about 1017 сm–2 in temperature range 4,2—300 К and high magnetic fields were investigated. It was found that heavily doped laser recrystallized polysilicon on insulator layers show its radiation resistance under irradiation with high-energy electrons and magnetoresistance of such material remains quite low in magnetic field about 14 T does not exceed 1—2%. Such qulity can be applied in designing of microelectronic sensors of mechanical values operable in hard conditions of exploitation.

  7. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    During the course of external radiation exposures of burros to establish a dose-response curve for acute mortality after total irradiation, some of the animals at the three lowest exposures to gamma photons survived. These groups of 10, 9, and 10 burros were exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively. There were 10 unirradiated controls. In 1953, 20 burros were exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/week increments without acute mortality and were added to the life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros were exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons, and 14 controls were added. The total number of irradiated burros in the study was increased to 88 by the addition of 6 animals irradiated with 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a Godiva-type reactor in 1959. In this experiment two acute deaths occurred which were not included in the analysis. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures, there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia, obviously related to radiation-induced bone-marrow damage. After that period, however, deaths were from common equine diseases; no death has resulted from a malignant neoplasm. Of the original 112 burros, 15 survive (10 irradiated and 5 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma- and gamma-irradiated burros showed significant differences. The mean survival times were: controls, 28 years; gamma irradiation only, 26 years; and neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 years. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Positive ion irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Many questions about the mechanisms of the response of cells to ionizing radiation can best be investigated using monoenergetic heavy charged particle beams. Questions of the role of different types of damage in the LET effect, for example, are being answered by comparing repair kinetics for damage induced by electrons with that produced by helium ions. However, as the models become more sophicated, the differences between models can be detected only with more precise measurements, or by combining high- and low-LET irradiations in split-dose experiments. The design of the authors present cell irradiation beam line has limited the authors to irradiating cells in a partial vacuum. A new way to mount the dishes and bring the beam to the cells was required. Several means of irradiating cells in mylar-bottom dishes have been used at other laboratories. For example at the RARAF Facility, the dual ion experiments are done with the dish bottom serving as the beam exit window but the cells are in a partial vacuum to prevent breaking the window. These researchers have chosen instead to use the dish bottom as the beam window and to irradiate the entire dish in a single exposure. A special, very fast pumping system will be installed at the end of the beam line. This system will make it possible to irradiate cells within two minutes of installing them in the irradiation chamber. In this way, the interaction of electron and ion-induced damage in Chlamydomonas can be studied with time between doses as short as 5 minutes

  9. The X-ray to [Ne V]3426 flux ratio: discovering heavily obscured AGN in the distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilli, R.; Vignali, C.; Mignoli, M.; Iwasawa, K.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the possibility of using the ratio between the 2-10 keV flux and the [Ne V]3426 emission line flux (X/NeV) as a diagnostic diagram to discover heavily obscured, possibly Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the distant Universe. While it is on average about one order of magnitude fainter than the more commonly used [O III]5007 emission line, the [Ne V]3426 line can be observed with optical spectroscopy up to z~1.5, whereas the [O III]5007 line is redshifted out of the optical bands already at z~0.8. First, we calibrated a relation between X/NeV and the cold absorbing column density NH using a sample of 74 bright, nearby Seyferts with both X-ray and [Ne V] data available in the literature and for which the column density is determined unambiguously. Similar to what is found for the X-ray to [O III]5007 flux ratio (X/OIII), we found that the X/NeV ratio decreases towards high column densities, as expected if [Ne V]3426 emission is a good tracer of the AGN intrinsic power. Essentially all local Seyferts with X/NeV values below 15 are found to be Compton-thick objects. At X/NeV values below 100, the percentage of Compton-thick nuclei decreases to ~50%, but ~80% of the considered sample is still absorbed with NH > 1023 cm-2. Second, we applied this diagnostic diagram to different samples of distant obscured and unobscured QSOs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). SDSS blue, unobscured, type-1 QSOs in the redshift range z = [0.1-1.5] indeed show X/NeV values typical of unobscured Seyfert 1s in the local Universe. Conversely, SDSS type-2 QSOs at z~0.5 classified either as Compton-thick or Compton-thin on the basis of their X/OIII ratio, would have mostly been classified in the same way based on the X/NeV ratio. We applied the X/NeV diagnostic diagram to 9 SDSS obscured QSOs in the redshift range z = [0.85-1.31], selected by means of their prominent [Ne V]3426 line (rest EW > 4 Å) and observed with Chandra ACIS-S for 10ks each (8 of them as part

  10. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as third- or later-line therapy in patients with heavily treated metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Q

    2015-09-01

    , patients with a primary colon tumor might have had a longer overall survival than patients with a primary rectal tumor (18.8 months vs 11.1 months, respectively; P=0.037. Common chemotherapy-related toxicities were nausea/vomiting (48.6%, fatigue (34.3%, leucopenia (40%, neutropenia (42.9%, and anemia (42.9%, with one patient with grade 3 neutropenia, and two patients with grade 3 thrombocytopenia. The common bevacizumab-associated toxicity was hypertension (31.4%. None of the patients discontinued therapy or died because of bevacizumab-associated toxicities.Conclusion: Our data showed that adding bevacizumab to third- or later-line therapy might lead to tumor control and improved survival in heavily pretreated mCRC patients. In addition, preliminary data suggested that primary colon cancer was more likely to benefit from bevacizumab-containing regimens. Toxicities were acceptable, and no new toxicity was identified. Further studies are needed to validate these findings.Keywords: bevacizumab, chemotherapy, metastatic colorectal cancer

  11. Mechanisms of vegetation removal by floods on bars of a heavily managed gravel bed river (The Isere River, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Camille; Belleudy, Philippe; Tal, Michal; Malavoi, Jean-René

    2016-04-01

    In natural alpine gravel bed rivers, floods and their associated bedload transport maintain channels active and free of mature woody vegetation. In managed rivers, where flood regime and sediment supply have been modified by hydroelectric infrastructures and sediment mining, river beds tend to stabilize. As a result, in the recent past, mature vegetation has established on gravel bars of many gravel bed rivers worldwide. This established vegetation increases the risk of flooding by decreasing flow velocity and increasing water levels. In addition, the associated reduction in availability of pioneer habitats characteristic of these environments typically degrades biodiversity. Managing hydrology in a way that would limit vegetation establishment on bars presents an interesting management option. In this context, our study aims at understanding the impacts of floods of varying magnitude on vegetation removal, and identifying and quantifying the underlying mechanisms. Our study site is the Isère River, a heavily managed gravel bed river flowing in the western part of the French Alps. We studied the impact of floods on sediment transport and vegetation survival at the bar scale through field monitoring from 2014 to 2015, focusing on young salicaceous vegetation (chains, and topographic surveys. Hourly water discharge was obtained from the national gauging network. The hydraulics of monitored floods was characterized using a combination of field measurements and 2D hydraulic modeling: water levels were measured with pressure sensors and Large Scale Particle Velocimetry was used to measure flow velocities. These data were used to calibrate 2D hydrodynamic model using TELEMAC2D. At the reach scale, removal of mature vegetation was assed using a series of historical aerial photographs between 2001 and 2015. Our monitoring period covered a series of floods with recurrence intervals of 2 to 4 times per year, as well as one large flood with a 10 year return period. Only the

  12. Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch; Eamsiri, Jarurut; Pongpat, Suchada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

  13. Performance of the ALIBAVA portable readout system with irradiated and non-irradiated microstrip silicon sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco-Hernadez, R.

    2009-01-01

    A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors has been developed as a result of collaboration among the University of Liverpool, the CNM of Barcelona and the IFIC of Valencia. The name of this collaboration is ALIBAVA and it is integrated in the RD50 Collaboration. This system is able to measure the collected charge in one or two microstrip silicon sensors by reading out all the channels of the sensor(s), up to 256, as an analogue measurement. The system uses two Beetle chips to read out the detector(s). The Beetle chip is an analogue pipelined readout chip used in the LHCb experiment. The system can operate either with non-irradiated and irradiated sensors as well as with n-type and p-type microstrip silicon sensors. Heavily irradiated sensors will be used at the SLHC, so this system is being to research the performance of microstrip silicon sensors in conditions as similar as possible to the SLHC operating conditions. The system has two main parts: a hardware part and a software part. The hardware part acquires the sensor signals either from external trigger inputs, in case of a radioactive source setup is used, or from a synchronised trigger output generated by the system, if a laser setup is used. This acquired data is sent by USB to be stored in a PC for a further processing. The hardware is a dual board based system. The daughterboard is a small board intended for containing two Beetle readout chips as well as fan-ins and detector support to interface the sensors. The motherboard is intended to process the data, to control the whole hardware and to communicate with the software by USB. The software controls the system and processes the data acquired from the sensors in order to store it in an adequate format file. The main characteristics of the system will be described. Results of measurements acquired with n-type and p-type irradiated and non-irradiated detectors using both the laser and the radioactive source setup will be also presented and discussed

  14. Insect disinfestation of pulses by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiya, A.D.; Ahmed, M.; Rezaur, R.; Seal, D.R.; Nahar, G.; Islam, M.M.; Islam, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were carried out on four varieties of pulses, namely, mosur or lentil (Lens esculenta), mung (Phaseolus aureus), chola or gram (Cirecer aricitinum), and mashkalai (Phaseolus radiatus). Two major burchid betles, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and Callosobruchus analis (Fab.), were found to infest different varieties of pulses. Radiation sensitivity of the two pulse beetles was determined at different developmental stages (i.e., eggs, larvae, and pupae). Emergence of adults from eggs totally stopped at a dose of 0.04 kGy. Doses of 0.28 and 0.32 kGy, respectively, were required for complete inhibition of adult emergence from irradiated fourth instar larvae of C. analis and C. chinensis. Studies revealed that the experimental gram was heavily infested (65-91 percent) as compared to other pulses after 8 months of storage in all packaging materials used (gunny bag, gunny bag lined with polyethylene, polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride bags). Mashkalai showed insignificant damage (2-5 percent) by the insects. Reinfestation in the treated products was observed in polyethylene and gunny bags

  15. Interstitial irradiation for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlas, O.; Bayindir, C.; Can, M.

    2000-01-01

    The results of interstitial irradiation treatment for craniopharyngioma in two patients with six year follow-ups are presented. Stereotactic interstitial irradiation with iodine-125 sources as sole therapy was employed in two adult patients who refused surgical resection. The diagnoses were confirmed by stereotactic biopsy. The first tumour which underwent interstitial irradiation was solid and 4 cm in diameter, and the second, 2.7 cm in diameter, had both cystic and solid components. The implanted iodine-125 seeds delivered 67 Gy and 60 Gy to tumour periphery at the rate of 12 and 14 cGy/h, respectively, were removed at the end of designated radiation periods. Tumour shrinkage and central hypo density, first observed 3 months after irradiation, continued until one tumour shrank to less than 1 cm at 12 months, and the other disappeared completely at 24 months. In both cases functional integrity was restored, and neither radiation induced toxicity nor recurrence has occurred six years after treatment. The results in these two cases suggest that solid craniopharyngiomas are sensitive to interstitial irradiation. (author)

  16. Post-irradiation diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerwaldt, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    In radiotherapy of pelvic cancers, the X-ray dose to be delivered to the tumour is limited by the tolerance of healthy surrounding tissue. In recent years, a number of serious complications of irradiation of pelvic organs were encountered. Modern radiotherapy necessitates the acceptance of a calculated risk of complications in order to achieve a better cure rate. To calculate these risks, one has to know the radiation dose-effect relationship of normal tissues. Of the normal tissues most at risk when treating pelvic tumours only the bowel is studied. In the literature regarding post-irradiation bowel complications, severe and mild complications are often mixed. In the present investigation the author concentrated on the group of patients with relatively mild symptoms. He studied the incidence and course of post-irradiation diarrhea in 196 patients treated for carcinoma of the uterine cervix or endometrium. The aims of the present study were: 1) to determine the incidence, course and prognostic significance of post-irradiation diarrhea; 2) to assess the influence of radiotherapy factors; 3) to study the relation of bile acid metabolism to post-irradiation diarrhea; 4) to investigate whether local factors (reservoir function) were primarily responsible. (Auth.)

  17. Quality characteristics of irradiated sesame seeds during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailam, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of using gamma radiation 60 Co on the microbial load , presence of some pathogens, viscosity, oil, fatty acids and amino acids properties of sesame seeds were investigated.The condition storage at ambient temperature (20-28 deg c) was held for one year. Pre-packaged sesame seeds were found to be heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. The total bacterial counts were 1,9x10 4 cfu/g,whereas total fungal counts were 3.4x10 4 cfu/g.Samples showed low number of the pathogenic bacterial in control . It was found that the microbiological population greatly reduced with a dose of 10 kGy without affecting their quality attributes , irradiation doses used linearly reduced the viscosity of sesame seeds samples. These irradiation doses caused a decrease in the content of some fatty acids and amino acids and increase in others. At the end of storage period, it is clear that , irradiation dose of 10 kGy greatly reduced the counts of total bacterial count, total fungal count and spore former bacterial to less than 10 cfu/ g. The average counts of faecal coliforms , staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus faecalis did not detected in samples receiving 5 and 10 kGy . the flow index (n) and consistency index (k) were decreased after 12 month of storage in irradiated sesame with 10 kGy. Also, there was a slight increase in acid and peroxide value of oil extracted from sesame seeds treatment with 10 kGy. Meanwhile, there was a decrease in iodine, saponification value and very little decrease in the refractive index. It was found that slightly decreased in total unsaturated fatty acid (0.12%) and total amino acid (0.63%)in sesame irradiated at 10 kGy . so, it can be concluded that 10 kGy of γ-radiation suffice the purpose of this work

  18. High Thermoelectric Performance by Convergence of Bands in IV-VI Semiconductors, Heavily Doped PbTe, and Alloys/Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Pei, Yanzhong (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention teaches an effective mechanism for enhancing thermoelectric performance through additional conductive bands. Using heavily doped p-PbTe materials as an example, a quantitative explanation is disclosed, as to why and how these additional bands affect the figure of merit. A high zT of approaching 2 at high temperatures makes these simple, likely more stable (than nanostructured materials) and Tl-free materials excellent for thermoelectric applications.

  19. Near-Field Imaging of Free Carriers in ZnO Nanowires with a Scanning Probe Tip Made of Heavily Doped Germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakat, Emilie; Giliberti, Valeria; Bollani, Monica; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Pea, Marialilia; Finazzi, Marco; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Melli, Mauro; Sassolini, Simone; Cabrini, Stefano; Biagioni, Paolo; Ortolani, Michele; Baldassarre, Leonetta

    2017-11-01

    A novel scanning probe tip made of heavily doped semiconductor is fabricated and used instead of standard gold-coated tips in infrared scattering-type near-field microscopy. Midinfrared near-field microscopy experiments are conducted on ZnO nanowires with a lateral resolution better than 100 nm, using tips made of heavily electron-doped germanium with a plasma frequency in the midinfrared (plasma wavelength of 9.5 μ m ). Nanowires embedded in a dielectric matrix are imaged at two wavelengths, 11.3 and 8.0 μ m , above and below the plasma wavelength of the tips. An opposite sign of the imaging contrasts between the nanowire and the dielectric matrix is observed at the two infrared wavelengths, indicating a clear role of the free-electron plasma in the heavily doped germanium tip in building the imaging contrast. Electromagnetic simulations with a multispherical dipole model accounting for the finite size of the tip are well consistent with the experiments. By comparison of the simulated and measured imaging contrasts, an estimate for the local free-carrier density in the investigated ZnO nanowires in the low 1019 cm-3 range is retrieved. The results are benchmarked against the scattering intensity and phase maps obtained on the same sample with a gold-coated probe tip in pseudoheterodyne detection mode.

  20. High-resolution heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic neurohypophysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanharawi, Imane El; Tzarouchi, Loukia [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Cardoen, Liesbeth [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Martinerie, Laetitia; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude [Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service d' Endocrinologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Elmaleh-Berges, Monique [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Alison, Marianne [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France)

    2017-05-15

    In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI data of 14 children diagnosed with ectopic posterior pituitary gland between 2010 and 2014. We evaluated the presence of a pituitary stalk using a sagittal high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence and a 1.5-mm sagittal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence before and after contrast medium administration. A pituitary stalk was present on at least one of the sequences in 10 of the 14 children (71%). T2-weighted sequence depicted the pituitary stalk in all 10 children, whereas the 1.5-mm-thick T1-weighted sequence depicted 2/10 (20%) before contrast injection and 8/10 (80%) after contrast injection (P=0.007). Compared with 1.5-mm-thick contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence demonstrates better sensitivity in detecting the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland, suggesting that contrast injection is unnecessary to assess the presence of a pituitary stalk in this setting. (orig.)

  1. Self-Assembled Formation of Well-Aligned Cu-Te Nano-Rods on Heavily Cu-Doped ZnTe Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Cheng, Man Kit; Lai, Ying Hoi; Wei, Guanglu; Yang, Sean Derman; Wang, Gan; Ho, Sut Kam; Tam, Kam Weng; Sou, Iam Keong

    2016-11-01

    Cu doping of ZnTe, which is an important semiconductor for various optoelectronic applications, has been successfully achieved previously by several techniques. However, besides its electrical transport characteristics, other physical and chemical properties of heavily Cu-doped ZnTe have not been reported. We found an interesting self-assembled formation of crystalline well-aligned Cu-Te nano-rods near the surface of heavily Cu-doped ZnTe thin films grown via the molecular beam epitaxy technique. A phenomenological growth model is presented based on the observed crystallographic morphology and measured chemical composition of the nano-rods using various imaging and chemical analysis techniques. When substitutional doping reaches its limit, the extra Cu atoms favor an up-migration toward the surface, leading to a one-dimensional surface modulation and formation of Cu-Te nano-rods, which explain unusual observations on the reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns and apparent resistivity of these thin films. This study provides an insight into some unexpected chemical reactions involved in the heavily Cu-doped ZnTe thin films, which may be applied to other material systems that contain a dopant having strong reactivity with the host matrix.

  2. High-resolution heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic neurohypophysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sanharawi, Imane; Tzarouchi, Loukia; Cardoen, Liesbeth; Martinerie, Laetitia; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude; Elmaleh-Berges, Monique; Alison, Marianne

    2017-05-01

    In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI data of 14 children diagnosed with ectopic posterior pituitary gland between 2010 and 2014. We evaluated the presence of a pituitary stalk using a sagittal high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence and a 1.5-mm sagittal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence before and after contrast medium administration. A pituitary stalk was present on at least one of the sequences in 10 of the 14 children (71%). T2-weighted sequence depicted the pituitary stalk in all 10 children, whereas the 1.5-mm-thick T1-weighted sequence depicted 2/10 (20%) before contrast injection and 8/10 (80%) after contrast injection (P=0.007). Compared with 1.5-mm-thick contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence demonstrates better sensitivity in detecting the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland, suggesting that contrast injection is unnecessary to assess the presence of a pituitary stalk in this setting.

  3. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, M.

    1978-01-01

    In November, 1977, an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation was held at Wageningen, the Netherlands. About 200 participants attended the Symposium which was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization; a reflection of the active interest which is being shown in food irradiation processing, particularly among developing countries. The 75 papers presented provided an excellent review of the current status of food irradiation on a wide range of different topics, and the Symposium also afforded the valuable opportunity for informal discussion among the participants and for developing personal contacts. A brief survey of the salient aspects discussed during the course of the meeting are reported on. (orig.) [de

  4. Food irradiation - general aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes research and development experience in food irradiation followed by commercial utilisation of multi-purpose plants. The main design objectives should be high efficiency and uniform dose. Particular care must be given to dosimetry and the use of plastic dosimeters is described. Capital outlay for a 1 MCi Cobalt 60 irradiator is estimated to be 2.5 million dollars giving a unit processing cost of 0.566 dollars/ft 3 of throughput for 8000 hour/year use at a dose of 25 kGy. (2.5 Mrad). The sale of irradiated food for human consumption in Britain is not yet permitted but it is expected that enabling legislation will be introduced towards the end of 1985

  5. Energy and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1978-01-01

    The energy used in food systems in the US amounts to about 16.5% of total US energy. An analysis has been made of the energy used in the many steps of the food-irradiation process. It is found that irradiation pasteurization uses only 21kJ/kg and radappertization 157kJ/kg, which is much less than the energy used in the other food processes. A comparison has also been made with other methods of preserving, distributing and preparing the meat for servings. It is found that the food irradiation can save significant amounts of energy. In the case of heat-sterilized and radiation-sterilized meats the largest fraction of the energy is used in the packaging, while in the frozen meats the largest energy consumption is by refrigeration in the distribution channels and in the home. (author)

  6. Precipitates in irradiated Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.

    1985-10-01

    Precipitates in high-burnup (>20 MWd/kg U) Zircaloy spent-fuel cladding discharged from commercial boiling- and pressurized-water reactors have been characterized by TEM-HVEM. Three classes of primary precipitates were observed in the irradiated Zircaloys: Zr 3 O (2 to 6 nm), cubic-ZrO 2 (greater than or equal to 10 nm), and delta-hydride (35 to 100 nm). The former two precipitations appears to be irradiation induced in nature. Zr(Fe/sub x/Cr/sub 1-x/) 2 and Zr 2 (Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 1-x/) intermetallics, which are the primary precipitates in unirradiated Zircaloys, were largely dissolved after the high burnup. It seems, therefore, that the influence of the size and distribution of the intermetallics on the corrosion behavior may be quite different for the irradiated Zircaloys

  7. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, P; Hodgson, P; Marin-Reyes, H; Wilson, J

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1 x 1 cm^2 ) silicon sensors.

  8. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervan, P.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Wilson, J.

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1×1 cm 2 ) silicon sensors

  9. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of food irradiation is to extend shelf-life of food commodities by delaying fruit ripening, inhibition of vegetable sprouting, desinfestation of grains and seeds, and in general by controlling microbial or parasitic food-transmitted infections. It was stated by the 1980 Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee that food irradiated up to 10 kGy does not pose any human health or nutritional problems. Following this recommendation, irradiation programmes are being developed at a good pace in several countries. It is hoped that commercial drawbacks now existing, such as psychological apprehension of consumers to radiation-treated products and innovative inertia to changes of the food chain, will be removed through appropriate information schemes and legislative advancement. (author)

  10. Irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, J.; Stanbrook, I.; Shersby, M.

    1989-01-01

    The House of Commons was asked to support the Government's intention to allow the use of the irradiation of foodstuffs under conditions that will fully safeguard the interests of the consumer. The Government, it was stated, regards this process as a useful additional way to ensure food safety. The effect of the radiation in killing bacteria will enhance safety standards in poultry meat, in some shell-fish and in herbs and spices. The problem of informing the public when the food has been irradiated, especially as there is no test to detect the irradiation, was raised. The subject was debated for an hour and a half and is reported verbatim. The main point raised was over whether the method gave safer food as not all bacteria were killed in the process. The motion was carried. (U.K.)

  11. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-five years of development work on the preservation of food by irradiation have shown that this technology has the potential to reduce post-harvest losses and to produce safe foods. The technological feasibility has been established but general acceptance of food irradiation by national regulatory bodies and consumers requires attention. The positive aspects of food preservation by irradiation include: the food keeps its freshness and its physical state, agents which cause spoilage (bacteria, etc.) are eliminated, recontamination does not take place, provided packaging materials are impermeable to bacteria and insects. It inhibits sprouting of root crops, kills insects and parasites, inactivates bacteria, spores and moulds, delays ripening of fruit, improves the technological properties of food. It makes foods biologically safe, allows the production of shelf-stable foods and is excellent for quarantine treatment, and generally improves food hygiene. The dose ranges needed for effective treatment are given

  12. Irradiation dose of cosmonauts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makra, Zs.

    1978-01-01

    The results obtained by determining the irradiation dose during the spaceflights of Apollo as well as the Sojouz-3 and Sojouz-9 spacecrafts have been compared in the form of tables. In case of Apollo astronauts the irradiation dose was determined by two methods and its sources were also pointed out, in tables. During Sojouz spacetravels the cosmonauts were exposed to a negligible dose. In spite of this fact the radiation danger is considerable. The small irradiation doses noticed so far are due to the fact that during the spaceflights there was no big proturberance. However, during the future long-range spacetravels a better radiation shielding than the one used up to now will be necessary. (P.J.)

  13. Studies of blood irradiator application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenhong; Lu Yangqiao

    2004-01-01

    Transfusion is an important means for medical treatment, but it has many syndromes such as transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease, it's occurrence rate of 5% and above 90% death-rate. Now many experts think the only proven method is using blood irradiator to prevent this disease. It can make lymphocyte of blood product inactive, so that it can not attack human body. Therefore, using irradiation blood is a trend, and blood irradiator may play an important role in medical field. This article summarized study of blood irradiator application, including the meaning of blood irradiation, selection of the dose for blood irradiation and so on

  14. Facts about food irradiation: Nutritional quality of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet briefly considers the nutritional value of irradiated foods. Micronutrients, especially vitamins, are sensitive to any food processing method, but irradiation does not cause any special nutritional problems in food. 4 refs

  15. Radiation therapy is an effective modality in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma, even in heavily pretreated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Waqar; Voong, K Ranh; Shihadeh, Ferial; Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Mazloom, Ali; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Romaguera, Jorge; Rodriguez, Alma; Wang, Michael; Allen, Pamela; Dabaja, Bouthaina

    2014-12-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma has an aggressive clinical course and continuous relapse pattern with a median survival of 3 to 7 years. Multiple courses of chemotherapy are the basis of treatment. Radiotherapy is underutilized in this disease. We undertook this study to assess the role of radiation therapy. A total of 41 consecutive patients with mantle cell lymphoma diagnosed from December, 1999 to January, 2010 who received radiation therapy were reviewed retrospectively. The main endpoint was in-field lymphoma response at each irradiated disease site. There were 39 evaluable patients (68 symptomatic sites). Sites treated included: nodal stations (n = 31), soft tissue (n = 13), mucosal sites (n = 11), central nervous system (n = 10), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), and bone (n = 1). Median maximum tumor size at presentation was 3.5 cm (range, 1.3 cm-9.6 cm). The median dose of radiation was 30.6 Gy (range 18-40 Gy). Median follow-up post radiation per site was 12.3 months (range, 0.6-80.9 months). Response to treatment was complete in 47 sites (69.1%), partial in 16 sites (23.5%), and 5 sites (7.4%) had stable disease. In 9 (13.2%) sites local relapse occurred (median 7 months; range 2-21). The mean size of lymphoma at time of RT correlated with relapse, with tumors with local relapse larger than those without a local relapse (P = .005). Our data add to accumulating evidence that mantle cell lymphoma is a radio-sensitive disease with excellent responses to relatively low radiation doses, even in patients with chemo-refractory disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ban irradiation of food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Hatijah bt; Gnanamuthu, E

    1986-12-31

    Irradiation of food has been promoted as a new technology in the preservation of food. Several countries have already introduced the technology for selected food items. However, there remain several questions that have yet to be answered. Foremost is the question of its safety. Proponents have argued that it is safe. Others cast doubts on these studies and the interpretations of their results. Second is the question of the nutritive value of the food that is irradiated. These and many other questions related to safety will be discussed in this paper

  17. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  18. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-01-01

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins

  19. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  20. Gamma irradiation of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputra, T S; Harsoyo,; Sudarman, H [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1982-07-01

    An experiment has been done to determine the effect of irradiation and reduction of moisture content on the keeping quality of commercial spices, i.e. nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), black and white pepper (Piper ningrum). The results showed that a dose of 5 kGy could reduce the microbial load of spices as much as 2-4 log cycles for the total plate count and 1-3 log cycles for the total mould and yeast counts. The microbial reduction due to the irradiation treatment was found to be lower in more humid products. Prolonged storage enhanced the microbial reduction.

  1. Microstructure of irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, I.M.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of the symposium was on the changes produced in the microstructure of metals, ceramics, and semiconductors by irradiation with energetic particles. the symposium brought together those working in the different material systems, which revealed that there are a remarkable number of similarities in the irradiation-produced microstructures in the different classes of materials. Experimental, computational and theoretical contributions were intermixed in all of the sessions. This provided an opportunity for these groups, which should interact, to do so. Separate abstracts were prepared for 58 papers in this book

  2. Irradiation of dehydrated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterhuyse, A; Esterhuizen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The reason for radurization was to decreased the microbial count of dehydrated vegetables. The average absorbed irradiation dose range between 2kGy and 15kGy. The product catagories include a) Green vegetables b) White vegetables c) Powders of a) and b). The microbiological aspects were: Declining curves for the different products of T.P.C., Coliforms, E. Coli, Stap. areus, Yeast + Mold at different doses. The organoleptical aspects were: change in taste, flavour, texture, colour and moisture. The aim is the marketing of irradiated dehydrated vegetables national and international basis

  3. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.; Steeves, C.; Beaulieu, D.

    1993-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. (author)

  4. Ban irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, Hatijah bt; Gnanamuthu, E.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of food has been promoted as a new technology in the preservation of food. Several countries have already introduced the technology for selected food items. However, there remain several questions that have yet to be answered. Foremost is the question of its safety. Proponents have argued that it is safe. Others cast doubts on these studies and the interpretations of their results. Second is the question of the nutritive value of the food that is irradiated. These and many other questions related to safety will be discussed in this paper

  5. Consumer opinions in Argentina on food irradiation: irradiated onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Croci, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Two surveys were carried out in Buenos Aires of consumer attitudes towards irradiated onions [no data given]. The first investigated the general level of consumer knowledge concerning food irradiation, whilst the second (which covered consumers who had actually bought irradiated onions) examined reasons for purchase and consumer satisfaction. Results reveal that more than 90% of consumers surveyed had a very limited knowledge of food irradiation

  6. Economics of gamma irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Toshio

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-ray irradiation business started at the Takasaki Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The irradiation facilities were constructed thereafter at various sites. The facilities must accept various types of irradiation, and must be constructed as multi-purpose facilities. The cost of irradiation consists of the cost of gamma sources, construction expense, personnel expense, management expense, and bank interest. Most of the expenses are considered to be fixed expense, and the amount of irradiation treatment decides the original costs of work. The relation between the irradiation dose and the construction expense shows the larger facility is more economical. The increase of amount of treatment reduces the original cost. The utilization efficiency becomes important when the amount of treatment and the source intensity exceed some values. The principal subjects of gamma-ray irradiation business are the sterilization of medical tools and foods for aseptic animals, the improvement of quality of plastic goods, and the irradiation of foods. Among them, the most important subject is the sterilization of medical tools. The cost of gamma irradiation per m 3 in still more expensive than that by ethylene oxide gas sterilization. However, the demand of gamma-ray irradiation is increasing. For the improvement of quality of plastic goods, electron irradiation is more favourable than the gamma irradiation. In near future, the economical balance of gamma irradiation can be achieved. (Kato, T.)

  7. Mechanical and irradiation properties of zirconium alloys irradiated in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Oh Hyun; Eom, Kyong Bo; Kim, Jae Ik; Suh, Jung Min; Jeon, Kyeong Lak

    2011-01-01

    These experimental studies are carried out to build a database for analyzing fuel performance in nuclear power plants. In particular, this study focuses on the mechanical and irradiation properties of three kinds of zirconium alloy (Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) irradiated in the HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor), one of the leading multipurpose research reactors in the world. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were measured to determine the mechanical properties before and after irradiation, while irradiation growth was measured for the irradiation properties. The samples for irradiation testing are classified by texture. For the irradiation condition, all samples were wrapped into the capsule (07M-13N) and irradiated in the HANARO for about 100 days (E > 1.0 MeV, 1.1 10 21 n/cm 2 ). These tests and results indicate that the mechanical properties of zirconium alloys are similar whether unirradiated or irradiated. Alloy B has shown the highest yield strength and tensile strength properties compared to other alloys in irradiated condition. Even though each of the zirconium alloys has a different alloying content, this content does not seem to affect the mechanical properties under an unirradiated condition and low fluence. And all the alloys have shown the tendency to increase in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Transverse specimens of each of the zirconium alloys have a slightly lower irradiation growth tendency than longitudinal specimens. However, for clear analysis of texture effects, further testing under higher irradiation conditions is needed

  8. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-09-01

    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair-as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) 'in-the-city-control' people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  9. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-01-01

    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair—as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) ‘in-the-city-control’ people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher.

  10. Progress in food irradiation: Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, F G

    1978-12-01

    Durability and tolerability of several vegetable sorts such as potatoes, onions, and garlick after irradiation with gamma radiation are investigated. In questioning the consumers, a positive attitude of the consumers towards irradiated products was noted.

  11. Food irradiation and consumer values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.; Schutz, H.G.; Sommer, R.

    1988-01-01

    A mail survey technique was used to determine if value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters could distinguish between subjects expressing different levels of concern and willingness to buy irradiated food. Concern toward irradiated food was lower than concern for other food safety issues, probably because many expressed uncertainty regarding irradiation. Those ranking the value “an ecologically balanced world” expressed the greatest irradiation concern. Factors which could predict high irradiation concern were being highly concerned about the use of chemical sprays on food, completing more formal education and being female; those believing that life was controlled by luck were less concerned. Irradiation concern was a principal factor determining willingness to buy irradiated foods. Innovative consumers were more likely to try irradiated foods than noninnovative. Implications for consumer education are presented

  12. Progress in food irradiation: Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, F.G.

    1978-01-01

    Durability and tolerability of several vegetable sorts such as potatoes, onions, and garlick after irradiation with gamma radiation are investigated. In questioning the consumers, a positive attitude of the consumers towards irradiated products was noted. (AJ) [de

  13. Regulatory aspect of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison Aziz

    1985-01-01

    Interest in the process of food irradiation is reviewed once again internationally. Although food irradiation has been thoroughly investigated, global acceptance is still lacking. Factors which impede the progress of the technology are discussed here. (author)

  14. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The unique radioresistance of burros has resulted in a large-animal life-span study that began in 1951. During the course of radiation exposures, some animals at three low exposures to gamma photons survived (10, 10, and 9 exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively). In 1953, 20 burros exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/wk increments were added to this life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons were added. Six burros exposed to 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a ''Godiva-type'' reactor were added in 1959 along with 22 controls. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures (320-545 R), there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia). Afterward, however, all deaths have been attributable to common equine diseases; none from malignancies. Today, 20 of the original 112 burros in these studies survive (13 irradiated and 7 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma and gamma-only irradiated burros show significant differences. Median survival time: controls, 28 yrs; gamma irradiation, 26 yrs; neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 yrs. A Weibull probability analysis predicts maximum life-span to be 42 yrs

  15. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported. (U.S.)

  16. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported

  17. CERN IRRADIATION FACILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Fabio; Garcia Alia, Ruben; Brugger, Markus; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Gkotse, Blerina; Richard Jaekel, Martin; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-09-28

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in dosimetry, metrology, intercomparison of radiation protection devices, benchmark of Monte Carlo codes and radiation damage studies to electronics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Starch degradation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruzinec, J.; Hola, O.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of high energy irradiation on various starch samples was studied. The radiation dose varied between 43 and 200.9 kGy. The viscosity of starch samples were determined by Hoeppler's method. The percentual solubility of the matter in dry starch was evaluated. The viscosity and solubility values are presented. (author) 14 refs

  19. Irradiation of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.; Ehlermann, D.; Gruenewald, T.; Harmuth-Hoene, A.E.; Muenzner, R.

    1978-01-01

    The present issue of the bibliographic series contains 227 items. The main headings of the content are basics of food irradiation, applications at low dose levels, applications at higher dose levels, effects on foods and on components of foods, and microbiology. (MG) [de

  20. Irradiated uranium reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, I.

    1961-12-01

    Task concerned with reprocessing of irradiated uranium covered the following activities: implementing the method and constructing the cell for uranium dissolving; implementing the procedure for extraction of uranium, plutonium and fission products from radioactive uranium solutions; studying the possibilities for using inorganic ion exchangers and adsorbers for separation of U, Pu and fission products

  1. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  2. Profitability of irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Gonzalez F, C.; Liceaga C, G.; Ortiz A, G.

    1997-01-01

    In any industrial process it is seek an attractive profit from the contractor and the social points of view. The use of the irradiation technology in foods allows keep their hygienically, which aid to food supply without risks for health, an increment of new markets and a losses reduction. In other products -cosmetics or disposable for medical use- which are sterilized by irradiation, this process allows their secure use by the consumers. The investment cost of an irradiation plant depends mainly of the plant size and the radioactive material reload that principally is Cobalt 60, these two parameters are in function of the type of products for irradiation and the selected doses. In this work it is presented the economic calculus and the financial costs for different products and capacities of plants. In general terms is determined an adequate utility that indicates that this process is profitable. According to the economic and commercial conditions in the country were considered two types of credits for the financing of this projects. One utilizing International credit resources and other with national sources. (Author)

  3. Centurion -- a revolutionary irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Dan; Perrins, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The facility characteristics for irradiation of red meat and poultry differ significantly from those of medical disposables. This paper presents the results of the market requirement definition which resulted in an innovative conceptual design. The process and the 'state of the art tools' used to bring this abstract idea into a proof of concept are presented. (author)

  4. Process for irradiation of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, George.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation of polyethylene affects its processabiltiy in the fabrication of products and affects the properties of products already fabricated. The present invention relates to a process for the irradiation of polyethylene, and especially to a process for the irradiation of homopolymers of ethylene and copolymers of ethylene and higher α-olefins, in the form of granules, with low levels of electron or gamma irradiation in the presence of an atomsphere of steam

  5. Sewage sludge irradiation with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The disinfection of sewage sludge by irradiation has been discussed very intensively in the last few months. Powerful electron accelerators are now available and the main features of the irradiation of sewage sludge with fast electrons are discussed and the design parameters of such installations described. AEG-Telefunken is building an irradiation plant with a 1.5 MeV, 25 mA electron accelerator, to study the main features of electron irradiation of sewage sludge. (author)

  6. Potato irradiation technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)

  7. Food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    1999-01-01

    Trade in food and agricultural products is important to all countries, the economies of many developing countries would be significantly improved if they were able to export more food and agricultural products. Unfortunately, many products can not be traded because they are infested with, or hosts to, harmful pests, contaminated with microorganisms, or spoil quickly. Foods contaminated with microorganisms cause economic losses, widespread illness and death. Several technologies and products have been developed to resolve problems in trading food and to improve food safety, but none can provide all the solutions. Irradiation is an effective technology to resolve technical problems in trade of many food and agricultural products, either as a stand- alone technology or in combination with others. As a disinfestation treatment it allows different levels of quarantine security to be targeted and it is one of few methods to control internal pests. The ability of irradiation virtually to eliminate key pathogenic organisms from meat, poultry, and spices is an important public health advantage. In addition to controlling pests and eliminating harmful bacteria, irradiation also extends the storage life of many foods. In the laboratories of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, many research projects were completed on the effects of gamma irradiation to the storage life of chicken meat, anchovy, Turkish fermented sausage, dried and fresh fruits and vegetables and also research projects were conducted on the effects of gamma irradiation on microorganisms (Salmonella, Campylo-bacteria, E.coli and S.aureus in white and red meat) and parasites (food-borne, trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodes spp.)

  8. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, John A.; Olson, Dennis G.

    1998-01-01

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  9. EPR measurements in irradiated polyacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hola, O.; Foeldesova, M.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of γ-irradiation on the paramagnetic properties of polyacetylene, and the dependence of the EPR spectra on the radiation dose in samples of irradiated polyacetylene were studied. The measurements show that no essential changes of the spin mobility occurred during irradiation. (author) 3 refs.; 2 figs

  10. Onion irradiation - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.

    1988-01-01

    The irradiation of onions (Allium cepa L.) serves to prevent sprouting associated with long-term storage or transport and storage of onions in climatic conditions which stimulate sprouting. JECFI the Joint Expert Committee for Food Irradiation of FAO/IAEA/WHO, recommended the application of an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy for sprout inhibition with onions. (author)

  11. Food irradiation: Activities and potentialities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

    After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. The new principle of bulk-cargo irradiation allows the integration of this technology into the usual harvest technology for onions on the way from field to storage. Scientific and applied research work has been carried out in the past 3 yr on the irradiation of spices, potatoes, eviscerated chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. In connection with the irradiation of eviscerated chicken, fodder yeast and animal feeds the basis of an antisalmonella programme has been discussed. Germ-count-reduced spices were employed for the production of test charges of preserves and tinned products. The results have led to the decision to design and build a new multipurpose irradiator for food irradiation. In order to cover the legal aspects of food irradiation the Ministry of Health issued regulations concerning the recommendation of irradiated food in the G.D.R.

  12. Canadian perspectives on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1988-01-01

    Canada has been in the forefront of irradiation technology for some 30 years. Nearly 90 of the 140 irradiators used worldwide are Canadian-built, yet Canadian food processors have been very slow to use the technology. The food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada, the factors that influence it, and some significant non-regulatory developments are reviewed. (author)

  13. Post irradiation test report of irradiated DUPIC simulated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Jung, I. H.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2001-12-01

    The post-irradiation examination of irradiated DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) simulated fuel in HANARO was performed at IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) in KAERI during 6 months from October 1999 to March 2000. The objectives of this post-irradiation test are i) the integrity of the capsule to be used for DUPIC fuel, ii) ensuring the irradiation requirements of DUPIC fuel at HANARO, iii) performance verification in-core behavior at HANARO of DUPIC simulated fuel, iv) establishing and improvement the data base for DUPIC fuel performance verification codes, and v) establishing the irradiation procedure in HANARO for DUPIC fuel. The post-irradiation examination performed are γ-scanning, profilometry, density, hardness, observation the microstructure and fission product distribution by optical microscope and electron probe microanalyser (EPMA)

  14. Regolith irradiation stratigraphy at the Apollo 16 and 17 landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozaz, G.

    1978-01-01

    Additional fossil track measurements in the Apollo 17 deep drill stem, as well as detailed track studies in section 3 of the Apollo 16 deep drill core are reported. Although the upper part of the Apollo 17 core seems to have accreted rapidly, no evidence for a rapid accretion of the lower part, as postulated by some authors, is found. Despite the apparent inhomogeneity of section 60003, its track record is unexpectedly homogeneous; all levels are heavily irradiated and emplacement of big slabs of material is not favored.

  15. Commercial food irradiation in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemhorst, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Dutch research showed great interest in the potential of food irradiation at an early stage. The positive research results and the potential applications for industry encouraged the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries to construct a Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation. In 1967 the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation in Wageningen came into operation. The objectives of the plant were: research into applications of irradiation technology in the food industry and agricultural industry; testing irradiated products and test marketing; information transfer to the public. (author)

  16. The return of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerton, K.

    1992-01-01

    In discussing the need for food irradiation the author examines the problems that arise in processing foods of different kinds: spices, meat, fruits and vegetables. It is demonstrated that the relatively low dose of radiation required to eliminate the reproductive capacity of the pest can be tolerated by most fruits and vegetables without damage. Moreover the safety of irradiated food is acknowledged by major national and international food organizations and committees. The author agreed that when food irradiation has been approved by a country, consumers should be able to choose between irradiated and non-irradiated food. To enable the choice, clear and unambiguous labelling must be enforced. 13 refs., 1 tab., ills

  17. Market Trials of Irradiated Spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoen, Saovapong; Eemsiri, Jaruratana; Sajjabut, Surasak

    2009-07-01

    Full text: The objectives of the experiment were to disseminate irradiated retail foods to the domestic publics and to test consumer acceptance on irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper. Market trials of irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper were carried out at 2 local markets and 4 in Bangkok and Nontaburi in 2005-2007. Before the start of the experiment, processing room, gamma irradiation room and labels of the products were approved by Food and Drug Administration, Thailand. 50 grams of irradiated products were packaged in plastic bags for the market trials. 688 and 738 bags of ground chilli and ground pepper were sold, respectively. Questionnaires distributed with the products were commented by 59 consumers and statistically analyzed by experimental data pass program. 88.1 and 91.4 percents of the consumers were satisfied with the quality and the price, respectively. 79.7% of the consumers chose to buy irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper because they believed that the quality of irradiated products were better than that of non-irradiated ones. 91.5% of the consumers would certainly buy irradiated chilli and pepper again. Through these market trials, it was found that all of the products were sold out and the majority of the consumers who returned the questionnaires was satisfied with the irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper and also had good attitude toward irradiated foods

  18. Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, J F [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and margarine continued to increase during storage for 4-8 weeks in presence of air. Thus, vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 0/sup 0/C instead of at ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -80/sup 0/C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperature.

  19. Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, J F [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and magarine continued to increase during storage for 4-8 weeks in presence of air. Thus, vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 0/sup 0/C instead of ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -80/sup 0/C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperature.

  20. Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and margarine continued to increase during storage for 4-8 weeks in presence of air. Thus, vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 0 0 C instead of at ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -80 0 C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperture. (orig.) [de

  1. Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and magarine continued to increase during storage for 4-8 weeks in presence of air. Thus, vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 0 0 C instead of ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -80 0 C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperature. (orig.) [de

  2. Irradiation of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Although irradiation is being investigated for the last more than 50 years for the application in preservation of food, it has not yet been exploited commercially in some countries like India. No other food processing technique has undergone such close scrutiny. There are many advantages to this process, which few others can claim. The temperature remains ambient during the process and the form of the food does not change resulting in very few changes in the sensory and nutritive quality of the food product. At the same time the microorganisms are effectively destroyed. Most of the spoilage and pathogenic organisms are sensitive to irradiation. Fortunately, most governments are supportive for the process and enacting laws permitting the process for foods

  3. Irradiation and electrostatic separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for collecting pollutants in which a passageway is formed to define a path for industrial gases passing therethrough is described. A plurality of isotope sources extend along at least a portion of the path followed by the industrial gases to provide a continuing irradiation zone for pollutants in the gases. Collecting electrode plates are associated with such an irradiation zone to efficiently collect particulates as a result of an electrostatic field established between such plates, particularly very small particulates. The series of isotope sources are extended for a length sufficient to attain material improvement in the efficiency of collecting the pollutants. Such an effective length is established along a substantially unidirectional path of the gases, or preferably a reversing path in a folded conduit assembly to attain further efficiency by allowing more compact apparatus structures

  4. Thermoluminescence of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes developments and applications of the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis of mineral contaminants in foods. Procedures are presented to obtain minerals from most different products such as pepper, mangos, shrimps and mussels. The effect of light exposure during the storage of foods on the TL intensity of minerals is examined and corresponding conclusions for routine control are drawn. It is also shown that the normalization of TL intensities - the essential step to identify irradiated samples - can not only be achieved by γ, X or β rays but also by UV radiation. The results allow the conclusion that a clear identification of any food which has been irradiated with more than 1 kGy is possible if enough minerals can be isolated. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Papers presented at the UKAEA Conference on Materials Analysis by Physical Techniques (1987) covered a wide range of techniques as applied to the analysis of irradiated materials. These varied from reactor component materials, materials associated with the Authority's radwaste disposal programme, fission products and products associated with the decommissioning of nuclear reactors. An invited paper giving a very comprehensive review of Laser Ablation Microprobe Mass Spectroscopy (LAMMS) was included in the programme. (author)

  6. Applications of neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yasuo

    1999-01-01

    The present state of art of applications of neutron irradiation is overviewed taking neutron activation analysis, prompt gamma-ray analysis, fission/alpha track methods, boron neutron capture therapy as examples. What is common among them is that the technologies are nearly matured for wide use by non- nuclear scientists. But the environment around research reactors is not prospective. These applications should be encouraged by incorporating in the neutron science society. (author)

  7. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  8. Consequences of childhood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinfeld, A.D.

    1978-01-01

    Many patients as children or adolescents received treatment for nonmalignant conditions with therapeutic-range doses of ionizing radiation. Great interest exists in this group of patients because of the possible long-term adverse effects of such irradiation. A thorough physical examination should be performed, and a careful history, listing any instances of radiation exposure, should be taken. Photographic documentation of skin and/or mucosal changes is beneficial

  9. Dislocation damping during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdett, C.F.; Rahmatalla, H.

    1977-01-01

    The results of Simpson et al (Simpson, H.M., Sosin, A., Johnston, D.F., Phys.Rev. B, 5:1393 (1972)) on the damping produced during electron irradiation of copper are re-examined and it is shown that they can be explained in terms of the model of Granato and Lucke (Granato, A., Lucke, K., J.Appl.Phys., 27:583,789 (1958)). (author)

  10. Irradiation of nitrile preforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salame, M.; Steingiser, S.

    1982-01-01

    The process of forming containers from preforms of thermoplastic material comprising at least 20 weight percent of polymerized nitrile group containing monomer is claimed. The preforms are exposed to low dosage electron beam radiation and then, while at molding temperature, distended into containers in a mold. The radiaton causes polymerization of nitrile group containing monomers and the distending causes HCN generated during irradiation to be reduced in the thermoplastic material

  11. Electron irradiation of zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.X.; Wang, L.M.; Ewing, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Three different zeolites (analcime, natrolite, and zeolite-Y) were irradiated with 200 keV and 400 keV electrons. All zeolites amorphized under a relatively low electron fluence. The transformation from the crystalline-to-amorphous state was continuous and homogeneous. The electron fluences for amorphization of the three zeolites at room temperature were: 7.0 x 10 19 e - /cm 2 (analcime), 1.8 x 10 20 e - /cm 2 (natrolite), and 3.4 x 10 20 e - /cm 2 (zeolite-Y). The different susceptibilities to amorphization are attributed to the different channel sizes in the structures which are the pathways for the release of water molecules and Na + . Natrolite formed bubbles under electron irradiation, even before complete amorphization. Analcime formed bubbles after amorphization. Zeolite-Y did not form bubbles under irradiation. The differences in bubble formation are attributed to the different channel sizes of the three zeolites. The amorphization dose was also measured at different temperatures. An inverse temperature dependence of amorphization dose was observed for all three zeolites: electron dose for amorphization decreased with increasing temperature. This unique temperature effect is attributed to the fact that zeolites are thermally unstable. A semi-empirical model was derived to describe the temperature effect of amorphization in these zeolites

  12. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  13. Irradiation of dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Al-Charchafchy, F.; Al-Shaikhaly, M.H.; Mirjan, J.; Auda, H.

    1974-01-01

    Testing of the technical feasibility of radurization of fresh dates was attempted. In addition preliminary studies were carried out to investigate the applicability of gamma rays to date syrup manufacture. The varieties Zahdi, Lelwi and Tabarzel were studied at different stages of ripening. The eating quality of fresh dates was not affected significantly by irradiation even with doses of 270 and 540 krad. The duration of the softening process, after-ripening, of dates was prolonged by low doses of 10-30 krad in the majority of the experimental batches. The time period of after-ripening was reduced with 270 krad, as well as with 540 krad as a result of shortening of the induction period, i.e. the time after which the date begins to soften. The microbial spoilage of khalaal Lelwi dates was considerably reduced by irradiation with doses above 90 krad. The dibis yield of fully rutab dates was highly increased by the radiation doses of 375 to 2000 krad. The darkness and viable cell count of dibis pressed from irradiated dates were significantly lower than that of untreated dates. (F.J.)

  14. Surface segregation during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, L.E.; Lam, N.Q.

    1985-10-01

    Gibbsian adsorption is known to alter the surface composition of many alloys. During irradiation, four additional processes that affect the near-surface alloy composition become operative: preferential sputtering, displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation. Because of the mutual competition of these five processes, near-surface compositional changes in an irradiation environment can be extremely complex. Although ion-beam induced surface compositional changes were noted as long as fifty years ago, it is only during the past several years that individual mechanisms have been clearly identified. In this paper, a simple physical description of each of the processes is given, and selected examples of recent important progress are discussed. With the notable exception of preferential sputtering, it is shown that a reasonable qualitative understanding of the relative contributions from the individual processes under various irradiation conditions has been attained. However, considerably more effort will be required before a quantitative, predictive capability can be achieved. 29 refs., 8 figs

  15. Gamma irradiation of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitburn, K.D.; Hoffman, M.Z.; Taub, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    In ''A Re-Evaluation of the Products of Gamma Irradiation of Beef Ferrimyoglobin'', J. Food Sci. 46:1814 (1981), authors Whitburn, Hoffman and Taub state that color pigment myoglobin (Mb) undergoes chemical changes during irradiation that cause color changes in meat. They also state that they are in disagreement with Giddings and Markakis, J. Food Sci. 47:361 (1972) in regard to generation of MbO 2 in deaerated solutions, claiming their analysis demonstrates only Mb and Mb(IV) production. Giddings, in a letter, suggests that Whitburn, et al may have used differing systems and approaches which critically changed the radiation chemistry. He also states that radiation sterilization of aerobically packaged meats affects color only slightly. Whitburn, in a reply, shares Dr. Giddings concern for caution in interpretation of results for this system. The compositional changes are dependent on identity of free radicals, dose, O 2 and the time of analysis after irradiation. The quantification of these parameters in pure systems, sarcoplasma extracts and in meat samples should lead to a better understanding of color change mechanisms and how to minimize them

  16. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  17. Genomic instability following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker-Klom, U.B.; Goehde, W.

    2001-01-01

    Ionising irradiation may induce genomic instability. The broad spectrum of stress reactions in eukaryontic cells to irradiation complicates the discovery of cellular targets and pathways inducing genomic instability. Irradiation may initiate genomic instability by deletion of genes controlling stability, by induction of genes stimulating instability and/or by activating endogeneous cellular viruses. Alternatively or additionally it is discussed that the initiation of genomic instability may be a consequence of radiation or other agents independently of DNA damage implying non nuclear targets, e.g. signal cascades. As a further mechanism possibly involved our own results may suggest radiation-induced changes in chromatin structure. Once initiated the process of genomic instability probably is perpetuated by endogeneous processes necessary for proliferation. Genomic instability may be a cause or a consequence of the neoplastic phenotype. As a conclusion from the data available up to now a new interpretation of low level radiation effects for radiation protection and in radiotherapy appears useful. The detection of the molecular mechanisms of genomic instability will be important in this context and may contribute to a better understanding of phenomenons occurring at low doses <10 cSv which are not well understood up to now. (orig.)

  18. The natural aging of austenitic stainless steels irradiated with fast neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofman, O. V.; Maksimkin, O. P.; Tsay, K. V.; Koyanbayev, Ye. T.; Short, M. P.

    2018-02-01

    Much of today's research in nuclear materials relies heavily on archived, historical specimens, as neutron irradiation facilities become ever more scarce. These materials are subject to many processes of stress- and irradiation-induced microstructural evolution, including those during and after irradiation. The latter of these, referring to specimens "naturally aged" in ambient laboratory conditions, receives far less attention. The long and slow set of rare defect migration and interaction events during natural aging can significantly change material properties over decadal timescales. This paper presents the results of natural aging carried out over 15 years on austenitic stainless steels from a BN-350 fast breeder reactor, each with its own irradiation, stress state, and natural aging history. Natural aging is shown to significantly reduce hardness in these steels by 10-25% and partially alleviate stress-induced hardening over this timescale, showing that materials evolve back towards equilibrium even at such a low temperature. The results in this study have significant implications to any nuclear materials research program which uses historical specimens from previous irradiations, challenging the commonly held assumption that materials "on the shelf" do not evolve.

  19. Stromal cell migration precedes hemopoietic repopulation of the bone marrow after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werts, E.D.; Gibson, D.P.; Knapp, S.A.; DeGowin, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Circulation of hemopoietic stem cells into an irradiated site has been thoroughly documented, but migration of stromal cells to repair radiation damage has not. We determined the radiosensitivity of mouse bone marrow stroma and evaluated stromal and hemopoietic repopulation in x-irradiated marrow. The D 0 for growth of colonies of marrow stromal cells (MSC) was 215 to 230 rad. Total-body irradiation (TB) obliterated marrow stromal and hemopoietic cells within 3 days. In contrast, 1 day after 1000 rad leg irradiation (LI), MSC rose to 80% of normal, but fell to 34% by 3 days and recovered to 72% by 30 days. However, femoral nucleated cells diminished to 20% by 3 days and recovered to 74% of normal by 30 days. Likewise, differentiated marrow cells and hemopoietic stem cells were initially depleted. With 1000 rad LI followed 3 h later by 1000 rad to the body while shielding the leg, MSC and femoral nucleated cells recovered to values intermediate between 1000 rad TB and 1000 rad LI. We concluded that: (1) the D 0 for MSC was 215 to 230 rad, (2) stromal repopulation preceded hemopoietic recovery, and (3) immigration of stromal cells from an unirradiated sanctuary facilitated hemopoietic repopulation of a heavily irradiated site

  20. Magnetic resonance thermometry for monitoring photothermal effects of interstitial laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Jessica; Jose, Jessnie; Figueroa, Daniel; Le, Kelvin; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.; Hode, Tomas; Chen, Wei R.

    2012-03-01

    Selective photothermal interaction using dye-assisted non-invasive laser irradiation has limitations when treating deeper tumors or when the overlying skin is heavily pigmented. We developed an interstitial laser irradiation method to induce the desired photothermal effects. An 805-nm near-infrared laser with a cylindrical diffuser was used to treat rat mammary tumors by placing the active tip of the fiber inside the target tumors. Three different power settings (1.0 to 1.5 watts) were applied to treat animal tumors with an irradiation duration of 10 minutes. The temperature distributions of the treated tumors were measured by a 7.1-Tesla magnetic resonance imager using proton resonance frequency (PRF) method. Three-dimensional temperature profiles were reconstructed and assessed using PRF. This is the first time a 7.1-Tesla magnetic resonance imager has been used to monitor interstitial laser irradiation via PRF. This study provides a basic understanding of the photothermal interaction needed to control the thermal damage inside tumor using interstitial laser irradiation. It also shows that PRF can be used effectively in monitoring photothermal interaction. Our long-term goal is to develop a PRF-guided laser therapy for cancer treatment.

  1. IRRAD: The New 24GeV/c Proton Irradiation Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Moll, Michael; Ravotti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The proton and mixed-field irradiation facilities at the CERN PS East Area (known as IRRAD1 and IRRAD2), have been heavily exploited for irradiation of particle detectors, electronic components and materials since 1992. With the increasing demand of irradiation experiments, and in view of the High-Luminosity upgrade of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), these facilities suffered of a number of unpleasant restrictions such as the space availability, the maximum achievable particle flux and several access constraints. In the framework of the AIDA project, an upgrade of these facilities was carried out during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) of the CERN accelerator complex. The new combined East Area IRRADiation facility (EA-IRRAD) started the commissioning in October 2014. While the new proton facility (IRRAD) continue to be mainly devoted to the radiation hardness studies for the High Energy Physics community, the new mixed-field facility (CHARM) mainly hosts irradiation experiments for the validation of electr...

  2. Unusual near-band-edge photoluminescence at room temperature in heavily-doped ZnO:Al thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Yeon, Deuk Ho; Das, Sachindra Nath; Kwak, Ji Hye; Yoon, Kyung Hoon; Cho, Yong Soo

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) properties of heavily-doped ZnO:Al thin films (with carrier concentration n in the range of 5–20 × 10 20 cm −3 ) prepared by pulsed laser deposition have been investigated. Despite their high carrier concentration, the films exhibited strong room temperature near-band-edge bound excitons at ∼3.34 eV and an unusual peak at ∼3.16 eV, and negligible deep-level emission even for the films deposited at a temperature as low as 25 °C. The radiative efficiency of the films increased with growth temperature as a result of increased n and improved crystallinity. A large blue shift of optical band gap was observed, which is consistent with the n-dependent Burstein–Moss and band gap-renormalization effects. Comparison of the results of the PL and optical measurements revealed a large Stokes shift that increased with increase in n. It has been explained by a model based on local potential fluctuations caused by randomly-distributed doping impurities. - Highlights: • Studied PL properties of heavily-doped ZnO:Al films grown by PLD. • Unusual strong near-band-edge emissions and negligible deep-level emission at RT. • Increased optical band gap with growth temperature and thus carrier concentration. • Stokes shift and PL peak width increased with carrier concentration. • Results explained by a model based on local potential fluctuations

  3. Heavily doped n-type a-IGZO by F plasma treatment and its thermal stability up to 600 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Jae Gwang; Jang, Jin

    2018-04-01

    We report the electrical properties and thermal stability of heavily doped, amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) treated with fluorine (F) plasma. When the F doping concentration in a-IGZO is 17.51 × 1021/cm-3, the a-IGZO exhibits a carrier concentration of 6 × 1019 cm-3, a resistivity of 3 × 10-3 Ω cm, and a Hall mobility of 20 cm2/V s. This indicates that F is a suitable n-type dopant in a-IGZO. The similarity of the ionic radius of F to that of oxygen (O) allows substitutional doping by replacing O with F or the occupation of the oxygen vacancy (VO) site by F and consequent reduction in defect density. The semiconducting property of a-IGZO can change into metallic behavior by F doping. The defect passivation by F incorporation is confirmed by the XPS depth profile, which reveals the significant reduction in the VO concentration due to the formation of In-F bonds. The heavily doped a-IGZO exhibits thermally stable conductivity up to 600 °C annealing and thus can be widely used for the ohmic contact of a-IGZO devices.

  4. NuSTAR J033202-2746.8: direct constraints on the Compton reflection in a heavily obscured quasar at z ≈ 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Moro, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Alexander, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of NuSTAR J033202-2746.8, a heavily obscured, radio-loud quasar detected in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, the deepest layer of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey (∼400 ks, at its deepest). NuSTAR J033202-2746.8 is reliably......-2746.8, indicating that this source is a heavily obscured quasar (NH = 5.6+−0.80.9 × 1023 cm−2) with luminosity L10-40 keV ≈ 6.4 × 1044 erg s−1. Although existing optical and near-infrared (near-IR) data, as well as follow-up spectroscopy with the Keck and VLT telescopes, failed to provide a secure redshift......-Newton data alone. The measured reflection fraction is higher than the R∼0 typically observed in bright radio-loud quasars such as NuSTAR J033202-2746.8, which has L1.4 GHz≈1027 W Hz−1. Constraining the spectral shape of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including bright quasars, is very important...

  5. Carrier compensation mechanism in heavily Nb-doped anatase Ti{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 2+{delta}} epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogawa, H; Chikamatsu, A; Hirose, Y; Hasegawa, T [Department of Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakao, S [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); Kumigashira, H; Oshima, M, E-mail: chikamatsu@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2011-09-14

    We investigated the electronic structures of anatase Ti{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 2+{delta}} (TNO) thin films as a function of Nb concentration x using photoemission spectroscopy (PES) measurements to elucidate the origin of the abrupt decrease in carrier activation in heavily Nb-doped regime. The existing intensity ratio of Nb{sup 5+} evaluated from Nb 3d core-level PES spectra maintained a constant value of {approx}0.8 at x = 0.06-0.3, implying that electron carriers generated by Nb doping are compensated by p-type defects. Ti 2p-3d and O1s-2p resonant PES measurements of x = 0.06-0.3 films revealed that the in-gap states positioned {approx}1 eV below the Fermi level (E{sub F}) have a mixed character of Ti 3d and O 2p orbitals, whereas the states at E{sub F} mainly have a Ti 3d nature. We proposed a carrier compensation mechanism that interstitial oxygen atoms strongly combined with surrounding Nb atoms kill conduction electrons in heavily Nb-doped anatase TiO{sub 2}.

  6. Estimation of irradiation temperature within the irradiation program Rheinsberg

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, I; Prokert, F; Scholz, A

    2003-01-01

    The temperature monitoring within the irradiation programme Rheinsberg II was performed by diamond powder monitors. The method bases on the effect of temperature on the irradiation-induced increase of the diamond lattice constant. The method is described by a Russian code. In order to determine the irradiation temperature, the lattice constant is measured by means of a X-ray diffractometer after irradiation and subsequent isochronic annealing. The kink of the linearized temperature-lattice constant curves provides a value for the irradiation temperature. It has to be corrected according to the local neutron flux. The results of the lattice constant measurements show strong scatter. Furthermore there is a systematic error. The results of temperature monitoring by diamond powder are not satisfying. The most probable value lays within 255 C and 265 C and is near the value estimated from the thermal condition of the irradiation experiments.

  7. Austin: austenitic steel irradiation E 145-02 Irradiation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, F.; Konrad, J.

    1987-01-01

    Safety measures for nuclear reactors require that the energy which might be liberated in a reactor core during an accident should be contained within the reactor pressure vessel, even after very long irradiation periods. Hence the need to know the mechanical properties at high deformation velocity of structure materials that have received irradiation damage due to their utilization. The stainless steels used in the structures of reactors undergo damage by both thermal and fast neutrons, causing important changes in the mechanical properties of these materials. Various austenitic steels available as structural materials were irradiated or are under irradiation in various reactors in order to study the evolution of the mechanical properties at high deformation velocity as a function of the irradiation damage rate. The experiment called AUSTIN (AUstenitic STeel IrradiatioN) 02 was performed by the JRC Petten Establishment on behalf of Ispra in support of the reactor safety programme

  8. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, M.H.; Scholten, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    Although the first experiments on food irradiation were carried out in 1916 in Sweden, food irradiation, is for consumers, a relatively new technology. From the sixties food irradiation has been applied more and more, so that the consumer movement has become alert to this technology. Since then a lot of controversies have arisen in the literature about wholesomeness, safety, effects, etc. Food irradiation is currently permitted on a small scale in about 30 countries; in some countries or states food irradiation has been put under a ban (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, New Jersey). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have, however, chosen food irradiation as a safe and sound method for preserving and improving the safety of food. Reactions on the part of the consumer organizations of many countries are however not in favour of or are even opposed to food irradiation. In this chapter consumer acceptance related to technological developments is described, then the convergence of the consumer movement on public opinion and concern on food irradiation is discussed. The need for labelling of irradiated food products is discussed and finally recommendations are given of ways to change consumers attitudes to food irradiation. (author)

  9. Food irradiation development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, T.

    1981-01-01

    In Japan, the first food irradiation research was carried out on the preservation of fish and fishery products. In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission of the Japanese Government (JAEC) decided to promote the National Project on Food Irradiation and, in 1967, the Steering Committee on food irradiation research in the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, selected the following food items as of economic importance to the country, i.e., potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, ''Vienna'' sausage, ''kamaboko'' (fish meat jelly products) and mandarin oranges. The National Project is expected to finish at the end of the 1981 fiscal year. Based on the studies by the National Project, irradiated potatoes were given ''unconditional acceptance'' for human consumption in 1972. Already in 1973, a commercial potato irradiator was built at Shihoro, Hokkaido. In 1980, the Steering Committee submitted a final report on the effectiveness and wholesomeness studies on irradiated onions to the JAEC. This paper gives a brief explanation of the legal aspects of food irradiation in Japan, and the present status of wholesomeness studies on the seven items of irradiated foods. In addition, topics concerning food irradiation research on ''kamaboko'', especially on the effectiveness and a new detecting method for the irradiation treatment of these products, are outlined. (author)

  10. Gemstone dedicated gamma irradiation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omi, Nelson M.; Rela, Paulo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: nminoru@ipen.br; prela@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The gemstones gamma irradiation process to enhance the color is widely accepted for the jewelry industry. These gems are processed in conventional industrial gamma irradiation plant which are optimized for other purposes, using underwater irradiation devices with high rejection rate due to its poor dose uniformity. A new conception design, which states the working principles and manufacturing ways of the device, was developed in this work. The suggested device's design is based on the rotation of cylindrical baskets and their translation in circular paths inside and outside a cylindrical source rack as a planetary system. The device is meant to perform the irradiation in the bottom of the source storage pool, where the sources remain always shielded by the water layer. The irradiator matches the Category III IAEA classification. To verify the physical viability of the basic principle, tests with rotating cylindrical baskets were performed in the Multipurpose Irradiator constructed in the CTR, IPEN. Also, simulations using the CADGAMMA software, adapted to simulate underwater irradiations, were performed. With the definitive optimized irradiator, the irradiation quality will be enhanced with better dose control and the production costs will be significantly lower than market prices due to the intended treatment device's optimization. This work presents some optimization parameters and the expected performance of the irradiator. (author)

  11. The wholesomeness of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, P.S.; Matsuyama, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is apparent that there is a need for protection of the consumer and a need for governmental authorities to insure a safe and wholesome food supply for the population. Based on objective and scientific evidence regarding the safety of food irradiation, national and international health authorities are able to determine whether irradiated food is acceptable for human consumption. Following a thorough review of all available data, the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee unconditionally approved wheat and ground wheat products and papaya irradiated for disingestation at a maximum dose of 100 krad, potatoes irradiated for sprout control at a maximum dose not exceeding 15 krad, and chicken irradiated at a maximum dose of 700 krad to reduce microbiological spoilage. Lastly, it unconditionally approved strawberries irradiated at a maximum dose of 300 krad to prolong storage. Onions at irradiated for sprout control at a maximum dose of 15 krad were temporarily approved, subject to preparation of further data on multigeneration reproduction studies on rats. Codfish and redfish eviscerated after irradiation at a maximum dose of 220 krad to reduce microbiological spoilage were also approved, based on the results of various studies in progress. Temporary, conditional approval of rice irradiated for insect disinfestation at a maximum dose of 100 krad was based on results of long-term studies on rats and monkies, available in the next review. Due to insufficient data, no decision regarding irradiated mushrooms was made. (Bell, E.)

  12. Facts about food irradiation: Microbiological safety of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet considers the microbiological safety of irradiated food, with especial reference to Clostridium botulinum. Irradiated food, as food treated by any ''sub-sterilizing'' process, must be handled, packaged and stored following good manufacturing practices to prevent growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. Food irradiation does not lead to increased microbiological hazards, nor can it be used to save already spoiled foods. 4 refs

  13. Property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.J.; Haag, G.

    1979-07-01

    Design data for irradiated graphite are usually presented as families of isothermal curves showing the change in physical property as a function of fast neutron fluence. In this report, procedures for combining isothermal curves to predict behavior under changing irradiation temperatures are compared with experimental data on irradiation-induced changes in dimensions, Young's modulus, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansivity. The suggested procedure fits the data quite well and is physically realistic

  14. Process and apparatus for irradiating film, and irradiated film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A process for irradiating film is described, which consists of passing the film through an electron irradiation zone having an electron reflection surface disposed behind and generally parallel to the film; and disposing within the irradiation zone adjacent the edges of the film a lateral reflection member for reflecting the electrons toward the reflection surface to further reflect the reflected electrons towards the adjacent edges of the film. (author)

  15. Neutron irradiation facility and its characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio; Noda, Kenji

    1995-01-01

    A neutron irradiation facility utilizing spallation reactions with high energy protons is conceived as one of the facilities in 'Proton Engineering center (PEC)' proposed at JAERI. Characteristics of neutron irradiation field of the facility for material irradiation studies are described in terms of material damage parameters, influence of the pulse irradiation, irradiation environments other than neutronics features, etc., comparing with the other sorts of neutron irradiation facilities. Some perspectives for materials irradiation studies using PEC are presented. (author)

  16. Irradiation probe and laboratory for irradiated material evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutny, S.; Kupca, L.; Beno, P.; Stubna, M.; Mrva, V.; Chmelo, P.

    1975-09-01

    The survey and assessment are given of the tasks carried out in the years 1971 to 1975 within the development of methods for structural materials irradiation and of a probe for the irradiation thereof in the A-1 reactor. The programme and implementation of laboratory tests of the irradiation probe are described. In the actual reactor irradiation, the pulse tube length between the pressure governor and the irradiation probe is approximately 20 m, the diameter is 2.2 mm. Temperature reaches 800 degC while the pressure control system operates at 20 degC. The laboratory tests (carried out at 20 degC) showed that the response time of the pressure control system to a stepwise pressure change in the irradiation probe from 0 to 22 at. is 0.5 s. Pressure changes were also studied in the irradiation probe and in the entire system resulting from temperature changes in the irradiation probe. Temperature distribution in the body of the irradiation probe heating furnace was determined. (B.S.)

  17. Chronic radiation exposure as an ecological factor: Hypermethylation and genetic differentiation in irradiated Scots pine populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkova, P.Yu.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Horemans, N.; Makarenko, E.S.; Saenen, E.; Duarte, G.T.; Nauts, R.; Bondarenko, V.S.; Jacobs, G.; Voorspoels, S.; Kudin, M.

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes were investigated in chronically irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations from territories that were heavily contaminated by radionuclides as result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In comparison to the reference site, the genetic diversity revealed by electrophoretic mobility of AFLPs was found to be significantly higher at the radioactively contaminated areas. In addition, the genome of pine trees was significantly hypermethylated at 4 of the 7 affected sites. - Highlights: • Chronic radiation exposure changes the genetic structure of plant populations. • Genomes of irradiated pines are hypermethylated. • The level of hypermethylation does not depend on annual dose. - These results indicate that even relatively low levels of chronic radiation exposure can influence on the genetic characteristics and the methylation status of natural pine populations and that it should be considered as an important ecological factor reflecting the anthropogenic impact on ecosystems.

  18. Proton irradiation induced defects in Cd and Zn doped InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybicki, G.C.; Williams, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Proton irradiation induced defects in Zn and Cd doped InP have been studied by deep level transient spectroscopy, (DLTS). After 2 MeV proton irradiation the defects H4 and H5 were observed in lightly Zn doped InP, while the defects H3 and H5 were observed in more heavily Zn and Cd doped InP. The defect properties were not affected by the substitution of Cd for Zn, but the introduction rate of H5 was lower in Cd doped InP. The annealing rate of defects was also higher in Cd doped InP. The use of Cd doped InP may thus result in an InP solar cell with even greater radiation resistance

  19. Cytogenetic study of skin fibroblasts in a case of accidental acute irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouthuy, M.; Dutrillaux, B.

    1982-01-01

    The cytogenetic study of skin fibroblasts from a young boy, heavily irradiated by handling of an iridium-192 source of 25 curies is reported. About half of the cells examined had chromosomal abnormalities. The same clone, with multiple chromosome rearrangement, was observed in cultures from biopsies obtained 25 and 35 months after the accident. Several other clones were detected in vitro. The results obtained from cultures of biopsies from different locations show that no direct relationships were found between the absorbed dose and the frequency of stable chromosomal rearrangements. The comparison of the intrachromosomal rearrangements, mostly inversions, observed in this study with those detected in human pathology, in irradiation experiments in vitro, and in various species of primates indicates that these rearrangements do not occur at random. (orig.)

  20. Excimer laser irradiation of metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Grant

    In this work a new method of enhancing CO2 laser processing by modifying the radiative properties of a metal surface is studied. In this procedure, an excimer laser (XeCl) or KrF) exposes the metal surface to overlapping pulses of high intensity, 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) W cm(exp -2), and short pulse duration, 30 nsec FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum), to promote structural and chemical change. The major processing effect at these intensities is the production of a surface plasma which can lead to the formation of a laser supported detonation wave (LSD wave). This shock wave can interact with the thin molten layer on the metal surface influencing to a varying degree surface oxidation and roughness features. The possibility of the expulsion, oxidation and redeposition of molten droplets, leading to the formation of micron thick oxide layers, is related to bulk metal properties and the incident laser intensity. A correlation is found between the expulsion of molten droplets and a Reynolds number, showing the interaction is turbulent. The permanent effects of these interactions on metal surfaces are observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transient calorimetric measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Observed surface textures are related to the scanning procedures used to irradiate the metal surface. Fundamental radiative properties of a metal surface, the total hemispherical emissivity, the near-normal spectral absorptivity, and others are examined in this study as they are affected by excimer laser radiation. It is determined that for heavily exposed Al surface, alpha' (10.6 microns) can be increased to values close to unity. Data relating to material removal rates and chemical surface modification for excimer laser radiation is also discussed. The resultant reduction in the near-normal reflectivity solves the fundamental problem of coupling laser radiation into highly reflective and conductive metals such as copper and aluminum. The

  1. Irradiation of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, David

    1987-01-01

    There is likely to be less economic incentive to irradiate fruits and vegetables compared with applications which increase the safety of foods such as elimination of Salmonella or decontamination of food ingredients. Of the fruit and vegetable applications, irradiation of mushrooms may offer the clearest economic benefits in North-Western Europe. The least likely application appears to be sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, because of the greater efficiency and flexibility of chemical sprout inhibitors. In the longer-term, combinations between irradiation/MAP/other technologies will probably be important. Research in this area is at an early stage. Consumer attitudes to food irradiation remain uncertain. This will be a crucial factor in the commercial application of the technology and in the determining the balance between utilisation of irradiation and of technologies which compete with irradiation. (author)

  2. Status of irradiation capsule design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Yamaura, Takayuki; Nagao, Yoshiharu

    2013-01-01

    For the irradiation test after the restart of JMTR, further precise temperature control and temperature prediction are required. In the design of irradiation capsule, particularly sophisticated irradiation temperature prediction and evaluation are urged. Under such circumstance, among the conventional design techniques of irradiation capsule, the authors reviewed the evaluation method of irradiation temperature. In addition, for the improvement of use convenience, this study examined and improved FINAS/STAR code in order to adopt the new calculation code that enables a variety of analyses. In addition, the study on the common use of the components for radiation capsule enabled the shortening of design period. After the restart, the authors will apply this improved calculation code to the design of irradiation capsule. (A.O.)

  3. Food irradiation scenario in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Over 3 decades of research and developmental effort in India have established the commercial potential for food irradiation to reduce post-harvest losses and to ensure food safety. Current regulations permit irradiation of onions, potatoes and spices for domestic consumption and operation of commercial irradiators for treatment of food. In May 1997 draft rules have been notified permitting irradiation of several additional food items including rice, wheat products, dry fruits, mango, meat and poultry. Consumers and food industry have shown a positive attitude to irradiated foods. A prototype commercial irradiator for spices set up by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) is scheduled to commence operation in early 1998. A commercial demonstration plant for treatment of onions is expected to be operational in the next 2 years in Lasalgaon, Nashik district. (author)

  4. International document on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This international document highlights the major issues related to the acceptance of irradiated food by consumers, governmental and intergovernmental activities, the control of the process, and trade. The conference recognized that: Food irradiation has the potential to reduce the incidence of foodborne diseases. It can reduce post-harvest food losses and make available a larger quantity and a wider variety of foodstuffs for consumers. Regulatory control by competent authorities is a necessary prerequisite for introduction of the process. International trade in irradiated foods would be facilitated by harmonization of national procedures based on internationally recognized standards for the control of food irradiation. Acceptance of irradiated food by the consumer is a vital factor in the successful commercialization of the irradiation process, and information dissemination can contribute to this acceptance

  5. Market testing of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Ho Minh

    2001-01-01

    Viet Nam has emerged as one of the three top producers and exporters of rice in the world. Tropical climate and poor infrastructure of preservation and storage lead to huge losses of food grains, onions, dried fish and fishery products. Based on demonstration irradiation facility pilot scale studies and marketing of irradiated rice, onions, mushrooms and litchi were successfully undertaken in Viet Nam during 1992-1998. Irradiation technology is being used commercially in Viet Nam since 1991 for insect control of imported tobacco and mould control of national traditional medicinal herbs by both government and private sectors. About 30 tons of tobacco and 25 tons of herbs are irradiated annually. Hanoi Irradiation Centre has been continuing open house practices for visitors from school, universities and various different organizations and thus contributed in improved public education. Consumers were found to prefer irradiated rice, onions, litchi and mushrooms over those nonirradiated. (author)

  6. Gamma irradiation service in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liceaga C, G.; Martinez A, L.; Mendez T, D.; Ortiz A, G.; Olvera G, R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1980 it was installed in Mexico, on the National Institute of Nuclear Research, an irradiator model J S-6500 of a canadian manufacture. Actually, this is the greatest plant in the Mexican Republic that offers a gamma irradiation process at commercial level to diverse industries. However, seeing that the demand for sterilize those products were not so much as the irradiation capacity it was opted by the incursion in other types of products. During 17 years had been irradiated a great variety of products grouped of the following form: dehydrated foods, disposable products for medical use, cosmetics, medicaments, various. Nowadays the capacity of the irradiator is saturated virtue of it is operated the 24 hours during the 365 days of the year and only its operation is suspended by the preventive and corrective maintenance. However, the fresh food market does not be attended since this irradiator was designed for doses greater than 10 kGy (1.0 Mrad)

  7. Food irradiation: chemistry and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, B.R.; Singh, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of the most extensively and thoroughly studied methods of food preservation. Despite voluminous data on safety and wholesomeness of irradiated foods, food irradiation is still a “process in waiting.” Although some countries are allowing the use of irradiation technology on certain foods, its full potential is not recognized. Only 37 countries worldwide permit the use of this technology. If used to its full potential, food irradiation can save millions of human lives being lost annually due to food‐borne diseases or starvation and can add billions of dollars to the world economy. This paper briefly reviews the history and chemistry of food irradiation along with its main applications, impediments to its adoption, and its role in improving food availability and health situation, particularly in developing countries of the world

  8. Irradiation creep models - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.R.; Finnis, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The modelling of irradiation creep is now highly developed but many of the basic processes underlying the models are poorly understood. A brief introduction is given to the theory of cascade interactions, point defect clustering and dislocation climb. The range of simple irradiation creep models is reviewed including: preferred nucleation of interstitial loops; preferred absorption of point defects by dislocations favourably orientated to an applied stress; various climb-enhanced glide and recovery mechanisms, and creep driven by internal stresses produced by irradiation growth. A range of special topics is discussed including: cascade effects; creep transients; structural and induced anisotropy; and the effect of impurities. The interplay between swelling and growth with thermal and irradiation creep is emphasized. A discussion is given on how irradiation creep theory should best be developed to assist the interpretation of irradiation creep observations and the requirements of reactor designers. (orig.)

  9. Gamma irradiation of fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1983-08-01

    At a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) meeting held in 1976, recommendations were made to rationalize the unnecessarily elaborate wholesomeness evaluation procedures for irradiated foodstuffs. Irradiation at the commercially recommended doses did not adversely affect the constituents of mangoes, papayas, litchis and strawberries at the edible-ripe stage. These favourable radiation-chemical results justified the development of a theoretical model mango which could be used for extrapolation of wholesomeness data from an individual fruit species to all others within the same diet class. Several mathematical models of varying orders of sophistication were evolved. In all of them, it was assumed that the radiant energy entering the system reacted solely with water. The extent of the reaction of the other components of the model fruit with the primary water radicals was then determined. No matter which mathematical treatment was employed, it was concluded that the only components which would undergo significant modification would be the sugars. In order to extrapolate these data from the mango to other fruits, mathematical models of three fruits containing less sugar than the mango, viz. the strawberry, tomato and lemon, were compiled. With these models, the conclusion was reached that the theoretical degradation spectra of these fruits were qualitatively similar to the degradation pattern of the model mango. Theory was again substantiated by the practical demonstration of the protective effect of the sugars in the tomato and lemon. The decrease in radiation damage was enhanced by the mutual protection of the components of the whole synthetic fruits with ultimate protection being afforded by the biological systems of the real fruits

  10. Irradiation device using radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraudin, Claude; Amarge, Edmond; Guiho, J.-P.; Horiot, J.-C.; Taniel, Gerard; Viel, Georges; Brethon, J.-P.

    1981-01-01

    The invention refers to an irradiation appliance making use of radioactive sources such as cobalt 60. This invention concerns an irradiation appliance delivering an easily adjustable irradiation beam in accurate dimensions and enabling the radioactive sources to be changed without making use of intricate manipulations at the very place where the appliance has to be used. This kind of appliance is employed in radiotherapy [fr

  11. Irradiance sensors for solar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storch, A.; Schindl, J. [Oesterreichisches Forschungs- und Pruefzentrum Arsenal GesmbH, Vienna (Austria). Business Unit Renewable Energy

    2004-07-01

    The presented project surveyed the quality of irradiance sensors used for applications in solar systems. By analysing an outdoor measurement, the accuracies of ten commercially available irradiance sensors were evaluated, comparing their results to those of a calibrated Kipp and Zonen pyranometer CM21. Furthermore, as a simple method for improving the quality of the results, for each sensor an irradiance-calibration was carried out and examined for its effectiveness. (orig.)

  12. Dose Distribution of Gamma Irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Woo; Shin, Sang Hun; Son, Ki Hong; Lee, Chang Yeol; Kim, Kum Bae; Jung, Hai Jo; Ji, Young Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Gamma irradiator using Cs-137 have been widely utilized to the irradiation of cell, blood, and animal, and the dose measurement and education. The Gamma cell 3000 Elan (Nordion International, Kanata, Ontario, Canada) irradiator was installed in 2003 with Cs-137 and dose rate of 3.2 Gy/min. And the BioBeam 8000 (Gamma-Service Medical GmbH, Leipzig, Germany) irradiator was installed in 2008 with Cs-137 and dose rate of 3.5 Gy/min. Our purpose was to evaluate the practical dosimetric problems associated with inhomogeneous dose distribution within the irradiated volume in open air state using glass dosimeter and Gafchromic EBT film dosimeter for routine Gamma irradiator dosimetry applications at the KIRAMS and the measurements were compared with each other. In addition, an user guideline for useful utilization of the device based on practical dosimetry will be prepared. The measurement results of uniformity of delivered dose within the device showed variation more than 14% between middle point and the lowest position at central axis. Therefore, to maintain dose variation within 10%, the criteria of useful dose distribution, for research radiation effects, the irradiated specimen located at central axis of the container should be placed within 30 mm from top and bottom surface, respectively. In addition, for measurements using the film, the variations of dose distribution were more then 50% for the case of less than 10 second irradiation, mostly within 20% for the case of more than 20 second irradiation, respectively. Therefore, the irradiation experiments using the BioBeam 8000 irradiator are recommended to be used for specimen required at least more than 20 second irradiation time.

  13. Progress in food irradiation: Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, P A

    1982-11-01

    Progress in food irradiation treatment of Australian commodities, such as meat, pepper, honey, fruit is described. Irradiation took place with /sup 60/Co gamma radiation while testing for radiation sensitivity of Staphyllococcus in meat, of Bacillus aureus in pepper, of Streptococcus plutin and Bacillus larvae in honey, and of the fruitfly Dacus tryoni infesting fruit. So far, two State Health Commissions in Australia have authorised irradiation of shrimps with their sale being restricted to the State authorising treatment.

  14. Progress in food irradiation: Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M

    1982-11-01

    The Bangladesh contribution deals with fish preservation by irradiation and, in this context, with the radiosensitivity of mesophilic and psychophilic microorganisms. Sprouting inhibition is studied with potatoes and onions. A further part deals with irradiation of spices. Mutagenicity tests were carried on rats and mice fed with irradiated fish. The tests were performed at the Institute for Food and Radiation Biology, near Dacca in December 1981.

  15. Irradiation of spices and herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiss, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma irradiation has been extensively studied as a means of reducing the microbial contamination of spices. Experiments indicate that spices, with water contents of 4.5-12%, are very resistant to physical or chemical change when irradiated. Since spices are used primarily as food flavoring agents, their flavor integrity must not be changed by the process. Sensory and food applications analysis indicate no significant difference between irradiated samples and controls for all spices tested

  16. Progress in food irradiation: Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in food irradiation treatment of Australian commodities, such as meat, pepper, honey, fruit is described. Irradiation took place with 60 Co gamma radiation while testing for radiation sensitivity of Staphyllococcus in meat, of Bacillus aureus in pepper, of Streptococcus plutin and Bacillus larvae in honey, and of the fruitfly Dacus tryoni infesting fruit. Sofar, two State Health Commissions in Australia have authorised irradiation of shrimps with their sale being restricted to the State authorising treatment. (AJ) [de

  17. Desinfestation of soybeans by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Prieto, E.; Mesa, J.; Fraga, R.; Fung, V.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irradiation with the doses 0.5 and 1.0 kGy on desinfestation of soy beans and on important chemical compounds of this product was studied in this paper. The results showed the effectiveness of applied doses in the control of insect pests of soy beans during its storage and total proteins, fat and moisture and also the identity and quality characteristics of oil extrated from irradiated product which were not change by irradiation [es

  18. National symposium on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    This report contains abstracts of papers delivered at the National symposium on food irradiation held in Pretoria. The abstracts have been grouped into the following sections: General background, meat, agricultural products, marketing and radiation facilities - cost and plant design. Each abstract has been submutted separately to INIS. Tables listing irradiated food products cleared for human consumption in different countries are given as well as a table listing those irradiated food items that have been cleared in South Africa

  19. Canadian perspectives on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada has been in the forefront of irradiation technology for over 30 years. Some 83 of the 147 irradiators used worldwide are Canadian-built, yet Canadian food processors have been very slow to use the technology. This paper is an update on the food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada and the factors that influence it. It also reviews some significant non-regulatory developments. (author)

  20. Shiva target irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manes, K.R.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Coleman, L.W.; Storm, E.K.; Glaze, J.A.; Hurley, C.A.; Rienecker, F.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    The first laser/plasma studies performed with the Shiva laser system will be two sided irradiations extending the data obtained by other LLL lasers to higher powers. The twenty approximately 1 TW laser pulses will reach the target simultaneously from above and below in nested pentagonal clusters. The upper and lower clusters of ten beams each are radially polarized so that they strike the target in p-polarization and maximize absorption. This geometry introduces laser system isolation problems which will be briefly discussed. The layout and types of target diagnostics will be described and a brief status report on the facility given

  1. Perspectives of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.K.

    1974-01-01

    Food preservation by means of ionizing radiation has been technically feasible for more than a decade. Its utilization could increase food safety, extend the transport and shell life of foods, cut food losses, and reduce dependence upon chemical additives. The prime obstacles have been the strict safety requirements set by health authorities to this preservation method and the high costs of the long-term animal tests necessary to fulfil these requirements. An International Food Irradiation Project, expected to establish the toxicological safety of 10 foods by about 1976, is described in some detail. (author)

  2. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes body irradiation (TBI) being used increasingly as consolidation treatment in the management of leukaemia, lymphoma and various childhood tumours with the aim of sterilizing any malignant cells or micrometastases. Systemic radiotherapy as an adjunct to chemotherapy offers several possible benefits. There are no sanctuary sites for TBI; some neoplastic cells are very radiosensitive, and resistance to radiation appears to develop less readily than to drugs. Cross-resistance between chemotherapy and radiotherapy does not seem to be common and although plateau effects may be seen with chemotherapy there is a linear dose-response curve for clonogenic cell kill with radiation

  3. Neutron irradiation therapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Conventional neutron irradiation therapy machines, based on the use of cyclotrons for producing neutron beams, use a superconducting magnet for the cyclotron's magnetic field. This necessitates complex liquid He equipment and presents problems in general hospital use. If conventional magnets are used, the weight of the magnet poles considerably complicates the design of the rotating gantry. Such a therapy machine, gantry and target facilities are described in detail. The use of protons and deuterons to produce the neutron beams is compared and contrasted. (U.K.)

  4. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlatescu, Ioana, E-mail: scarlatescuioana@gmail.com; Avram, Calin N. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Virag, Vasile [County Hospital “Gavril Curteanu” - Oradea (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  5. Feasibility of Helical Tomotherapy for Debulking Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Malignant Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargari, Cyrus; Vernant, Jean-Paul; Tamburini, Jerome; Zefkili, Sofia; Fayolle, Maryse; Campana, Francois; Fourquet, Alain; Kirova, Youlia M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary clinical experience has suggested that radiation therapy (RT) may be effectively incorporated into conditioning therapy before transplant for patients with refractory/relapsed malignant lymphoma. We investigated the feasibility of debulking selective lymph node irradiation before autologous and/or allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) using helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods and Materials: Six consecutive patients with refractory malignant lymphoma were referred to our institution for salvage HT before SCT. All patients had been previously heavily treated but had bulky residual tumor despite chemotherapy (CT) intensification. Two patients had received previous radiation therapy. HT delivered 30-40 Gy in the involved fields (IF), using 6 MV photons, 2 Gy per daily fraction. Total duration of treatment was 28 to 35 days. Results: Using HT, doses to critical organs (heart, lungs, esophagu, and parotids) were significantly decreased and highly conformational irradiation could be delivered to all clinical target volumes. HT delivery was technically possible, even in patients with lesions extremely difficult to irradiate in other conditions or in patients with previous radiation therapy. No Grade 2 or higher toxicity occurred. Four months after the end of HT, 5 patients experienced complete clinical, radiologic, and metabolic response and were subsequently referred for SCT. Conclusions: By more effectively sparing critical organs, HT may contribute to improving the tolerance of debulking irradiation before allograft. Quality of life may be preserved, and doses to the heart may be decreased. This is particularly relevant in heavily treated patients who are at risk for subsequent heart disease. These preliminary results require further prospective assessment.

  6. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent positive developments in regulatory matters involving food irradiation appear to be opening the door to commercial implementation of the technology. Experience gained over five years in operating multi-purpose food irradiation facilities in the United States have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of the radiation preservation of food for a wide variety of purposes. Public education regarding food irradiation has been intensified especially with the growing favorable involvement of food trade associations, the USDA, and the American Medical Association. After 41 years of development effort, food irradiation will become a commercial reality in 1985. (author)

  7. Irradiation's promise: fewer foodborne illnesses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.

    1986-01-01

    Food irradiation offers a variety of potential benefits to the food supply. It can delay ripening and sprouting of fruits and vegetables, and substitute for chemical fumigants to kill insects. However, one of the most important benefits of food irradiation is its potential use for destroying microbial pathogens that enter the food supply, including the two most common disease causing bacteria: salmonella and campylobacter. Animal products are one of the primary carriers of pathogens. Food borne illnesses are on the rise, and irradiation of red meats and poultry could significantly reduce their occurrence. Food irradiation should be examined more closely to determine its possible benefits in curtailing microbial diseases

  8. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  9. Spices, irradiation and detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, A.M.; Manninen, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is about microbiological aspects of spices and microbiological methods to detect irradiated food. The proposed method is a combination of the Direct Epifluorescence Filter Technique (DEFT) and the Aerobic Plate Count (APC). The evidence for irradiation of spices is based on the demonstration of a higher DEFT count than the APC. The principle was first tested in our earlier investigation in the detection of irradiation of whole spices. The combined DEFT+APC procedure was found to give a fairly reliable indication of whether or not a whole spice sample had been irradiated. The results are given (8 figs, 22 refs)

  10. Food irradiation and the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival. (author)

  11. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  12. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  13. Societal benefits of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Food irradiation has a direct impact on society by reducing the occurrence of food-borne illness, decreasing food spoilage and waste, and facilitating global trade. Food irradiation is approved in 40 countries around the world to decontaminate food of disease and spoilage causing microorganisms, sterilize insect pests, and inhibit sprouting. A recent estimate suggests that 500,000 metric of food is currently irradiated worldwide, primarily to decontaminate spices. Since its first use in the 1960s the use of irradiation for food has grown slowly, but it remains the major technology of choice for certain applications. The largest growth sector in recent years has been phytosanitary irradiation of fruit to disinfest fruit intended for international shipment. For many countries which have established strict quarantine standards, irradiation offers as an effective alternative to chemical fumigants some of which are being phased out due to their effects on the ozone layer. Insects can be sterilized at very low dose levels, thus quality of fruit can be maintained. Irradiation is also highly effective in destroying microbial pathogens such as Salmonella spp., E. coli, and Listeria, hence its application for treatment of spices, herbs, dried vegetables, frozen seafood, poultry, and meat and its contribution to reducing foodborne illnesses. Unfortunately the use of irradiation for improving food safety has been under-exploited. This presentation will provide details on the use, benefits, opportunities, and challenges of food irradiation. (author)

  14. Status of food irradiation worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1992-01-01

    The past four decades have witnessed the steady development of food irradiation technology - from laboratory-scale research to full-scale commercial application. The present status of this technology, approval for processing food items in 37 countries and commerical use of irradiated food in 24 countries, will be discussed. The trend in the use of irradiation to overcome certain trade barriers such as quarantine and hygiene will be presented. Emphasis will be made on the use of irradiation as an alternative to chemical treatments of food. (orig.) [de

  15. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiation and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet focusses on the question of whether irradiation can be used to make spoiled food good. No food processing procedures can substitute for good hygienic practices, and good manufacturing practices must be followed in the preparation of food whether or not the food is intended for further processing by irradiation or any other means. 3 refs

  16. Facts about food irradiation: Packaging of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet considers the effects on packaging materials of food irradiation. Extensive research has shown that almost all commonly used food packaging materials toted are suitable for use. Furthermore, many packaging materials are themselves routinely sterilized by irradiation before being used. 2 refs

  17. Irradiated film material and method of the irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The irradiation of polymer film material is a strengthening procedure. To obtain a substantial uniformity in the radiation dosage profile, the film is irradiated in a trough having lateral deflection blocks adjacent to the film edges. These deflect the electrons towards the surface of the trough bottom for further deflection towards the film edge. (C.F.)

  18. Cesium glass irradiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The precipitation process for the decontamination of soluble SRP wastes produces a material whose radioactivity is dominated by 137 Cs. Potentially, this material could be vitrified to produce irradiation sources similar to the Hanford CsCl sources. In this report, process steps necessary for the production of cesium glass irradiation sources (CGS), and the nature of the sources produced, are examined. Three options are considered in detail: direct vitrification of precipitation process waste; direct vitrification of this waste after organic destruction; and vitrification of cesium separated from the precipitation process waste. Direct vitrification is compatible with DWPF equipment, but process rates may be limited by high levels of combustible materials in the off-gas. Organic destruction would allow more rapid processing. In both cases, the source produced has a dose rate of 2 x 10 4 rads/hr at the surface. Cesium separation produces a source with a dose rate of 4 x 10 5 at the surface, which is nearer that of the Hanford sources (2 x 10 6 rads/hr). Additional processing steps would be required, as well as R and D to demonstrate that DWPF equipment is compatible with this intensely radioactive material

  19. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  20. Food irradiation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25 to 70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning in achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70 to 80 0 C (bacon to 53 0 C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurrence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40 0 C to -20 0 C). Radappertized foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for 'wholesomeness' (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effects of radappertization on the 'wholesomeness' characteristics of these foods. (author)

  1. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-01-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. - Highlights: ► The history of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is given. ► Generic PI treatments in use today are discussed. ► Suggestions for future research are presented. ► A dose of 250 Gy for most insects may suffice.

  2. Direct identification of interstitial Mn in heavily p-type doped GaAs and evidence of its high thermal stability

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, LMC; Correia, JG; Decoster, S; da Silva, MR; Araújo, JP; Vantomme, A

    2011-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of Mn in heavily p-type doped GaAs by means of $\\beta^{-}$-emission channeling from the decay of $^{56}$Mn. The majority of the Mn atoms substitute for Ga and up to 31% occupy the tetrahedral interstitial site with As nearest neighbors. Contrary to the general belief, we find that interstitial Mn is immobile up to 400$^{\\circ}$C, with an activation energy for diffusion of 1.7–2.3 eV. Such high thermal stability of interstitial Mn has significant implications on the strategies and prospects for achieving room temperature ferromagnetism in Ga$_{1−x}$Mn$_{x}$As.

  3. Effects of thin heavily Mg-doped GaN capping layer on ohmic contact formation of p-type GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L L; Zhao, D G; Jiang, D S; Chen, P; Le, L C; Li, L; Liu, Z S; Zhang, S M; Zhu, J J; Wang, H; Zhang, B S; Yang, H

    2013-01-01

    The growth condition of thin heavily Mg-doped GaN capping layer and its effect on ohmic contact formation of p-type GaN were investigated. It is confirmed that the excessive Mg doping can effectively enhance the Ni/Au contact to p-GaN after annealing at 550 °C. When the flow rate ratio between Mg and Ga gas sources is 6.4% and the layer width is 25 nm, the capping layer grown at 850 °C exhibits the best ohmic contact properties with respect to the specific contact resistivity (ρ c ). This temperature is much lower than the conventional growth temperature of Mg-doped GaN, suggesting that the deep-level-defect induced band may play an important role in the conduction of capping layer. (paper)

  4. Gear Tooth Root Stresses of a Very Heavily Loaded Gear Pair-Case Study: Orbiter Body Flap Actuator Pinion and Ring Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter's body flap actuator gearing was assessed as a case study of the stresses for very heavily loaded external-internal gear pairs (meshing pinion and ring gear). For many applications, using the high point of single tooth contact (HPSTC) to locate the position of the tooth force is adequate for assessing the maximum tooth root stress condition. But for aerospace gearing such an approach may be inadequate for assessing the stress condition while also simultaneously minimizing mass. In this work specialized contact analyses and finite element methods were used to study gear tooth stresses of body flap actuator gears. The analytical solutions considered the elastic deformations as an inherent part of the solutions. The ratio for the maximum tooth stresses using the HPSTC approach solutions relative to the contact analysis and finite element solutions were 1.40 for the ring gear and 1.28 for the pinion gear.

  5. Growth parameter optimization and interface treatment for enhanced electron mobility in heavily strained GaInAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoryshyn, Yuriy; Ostinelli, Olivier; Alt, Andreas; Pallin, Angel; Bolognesi, Colombo R.

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of heavily strained Ga 0.25 In 0.75 As/Al 0.48 In 0.52 As high electron mobility transistor structures is discussed in detail. The growth parameters and the channel layer interfaces were optimized in order to maximize the mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. Structures composed of an 11 nm thick channel layer and a 4 nm thick spacer layer exhibited electron mobilities as high as 15 100 cm 2 /Vs and 70 000 cm 2 /Vs at 300 and 77 K, respectively, for channels including InAs strained layers. The sheet carrier density was kept above 2.5 × 10 12  cm −2 throughout the entire study

  6. Storage tests with irradiated and non-irradiated onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, T.; Rumpf, G.; Troemel, I.; Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe

    1978-07-01

    The results of several test series on the storage of irradiated and non-irradiated German grown onion are reported. Investigated was the influence of the irradiation conditions such as time and dose and of the storage conditions on sprouting, spoilage, browning of the vegetation centres, composition of the onions, strength and sensorial properties of seven different onion varieties. If the onions were irradiated during the dormancy period following harvest, a dose of 50 Gy (krad) was sufficient to prevent sprouting. Regarding the irradiated onions, it was not possible by variation of the storage conditions within the limits set by practical requirements to extend the dormancy period or to prevent browning of the vegetation centres, however. (orig.) 891 MG 892 RSW [de

  7. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, I.B.; Resurreccion, A.V.A.; McWatters, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either 'somewhat necessary' or 'very necessary' to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test

  8. Food irradiation development: Malaysian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainon Othman

    1997-01-01

    Malaysia recognised the potential of food irradiation as a technology that can contribute to solving some preservation problems associated with local agricultural produce. Research studies in this technology were initiated in late 1970s and since 1985, all activities pertaining to R and D applications, adoption and technology transfer of food irradiation were coordinated by The National Working Committee on Food Irradiation which comprises of members from research institutes, universities, regulatory agencies and consumer association. To date, technical feasibility studies conducted on 7 food items / agricultural commodities of economic importance demonstrated the efficacy of irradiation in extending shelf-life, improving hygienic quality and overcoming quarantine barriers in trade. Presently, 1 multipurpose Co-60 irradiator (I MCi), 2 gammacells and an electron beam machine (3 MeV) are available at MINT for research and commercial runs. The Malaysian Standards on Guidelines for Irradiation of Food was formulated in 1992 to facilitate application by local food industries. However, Malaysia has not yet commercially adopt the technology. Among many factors contributing to the situation is the apparent lack of interest by food industries and consumers. Consumer attitude study indicated majority of consumers are still unaware of the benefits of the technology and expressed concern for the safety of process and irradiated products due to limited knowledge and adverse publicity by established consumer groups. Although the food processors indicate positive attitude towards food irradiation, there remain many factors delaying its commercial application such as limited knowledge, cost-benefit, logistics and consumer acceptance. On the regulatory aspect, approval is required from the Director-General of Ministry of Health prior to application of irradiation on food and sale of irradiated food but efforts are being geared towards approving irradiation of certain food

  9. The wholesomeness of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    The acceptance of food irradiation as a safe process of preservation by national authorities concerned with the safety of foodstuffs has hitherto made slow progress. The technology has existed for some 25 years but the general attitude towards official acceptance of the process has been marred by irrational and unscientific fears. As may have been mentioned by previous speakers,'the basic process of food irradiation does not differ in the physical sense from any other food processing techniques which involve the application of radiation energy to food. The energy level used in food irradiation is too low ever to lead to any production of radioactivity in the irradiated food, hence wholesomeness considerations can totally exclude this aspect. The uniqueness of food irradiation rests inherently on the particular type of energy employed and has aroused special attention because of this fact. The wholesomeness of food treated by heat or microwaves has not been questioned to the same extent, yet the very same question has been raised in relation to treatment by gamma rays and electron beams. Being a new process it requires not only a toxicological but also a microbiological as well as nutritional approach to the assessment of the wholesomeness of irradiated food. Studies on the radiation chemistry of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, the main constituents of foods, when irradiated in the Mrad range, have yielded information which shows that these substances react in a reasonably uniform manner to irradiation. Many of the irradiation-induced compounds identified in irradiated foods can also be found in various non-irradiated foods. For those products that have been identified, the quantities found are in the parts per million range or less. Available data on the structures of radiation chemical products in food and the very low concentrations at which they occur, suggest the general conclusion that the health hazard they might represent is negligible

  10. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  11. Replicative phenotyping adds value to genotypic resistance testing in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected individuals - the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinetti Gladys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replicative phenotypic HIV resistance testing (rPRT uses recombinant infectious virus to measure viral replication in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. Due to its high sensitivity of detection of viral minorities and its dissecting power for complex viral resistance patterns and mixed virus populations rPRT might help to improve HIV resistance diagnostics, particularly for patients with multiple drug failures. The aim was to investigate whether the addition of rPRT to genotypic resistance testing (GRT compared to GRT alone is beneficial for obtaining a virological response in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected patients. Methods Patients with resistance tests between 2002 and 2006 were followed within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS. We assessed patients' virological success after their antiretroviral therapy was switched following resistance testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with SHCS centre as a random effect were used to investigate the association between the type of resistance test and virological response (HIV-1 RNA Results Of 1158 individuals with resistance tests 221 with GRT+rPRT and 937 with GRT were eligible for analysis. Overall virological response rates were 85.1% for GRT+rPRT and 81.4% for GRT. In the subgroup of patients with >2 previous failures, the odds ratio (OR for virological response of GRT+rPRT compared to GRT was 1.45 (95% CI 1.00-2.09. Multivariate analyses indicate a significant improvement with GRT+rPRT compared to GRT alone (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.31-2.15. Conclusions In heavily pre-treated patients rPRT-based resistance information adds benefit, contributing to a higher rate of treatment success.

  12. Morphological differences in the response of mouse small intestine to radiobiologically equivalent doses of X and neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, K.E.; Hamlet, R.; Nias, A.H.; Watt, C.

    1984-01-01

    A scale has been developed to describe the effects of radiation on small intestinal villi. The scale has been used to compare the damage done to the villi in the period 0-5 days after irradiation by X-irradiation or neutron irradiation, using 10 Gy X-rays and 5 Gy neutrons, doses which are radiobiologically equivalent when assessed by the microcolony assay method. Use of the scale indicates that the damage done to the villi by neutrons is greater than that produced by X-rays. This has implications for the interpretation of radiobiological equivalent doses (R.B.E.). Resin light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (T.E.M.) have also been used to examine small intestinal damage after 10 Gy X-irradiation and 5 Gy neutron irradiation. Differences include variations in crypt shape, mitotic activity and the proportion of crypts which are heavily parasitised. As well as the differences in villous shape which have been reflected in the different values on the scoring system, there are also variations in the response of the constituent cells of the epithelial compartment of the villi. In general, the effect of the neutron irradiation is more severe than that of the X-rays, particularly as would be suggested by a simple quantitation of crypt regeneration

  13. Detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponta, C C; Cutrubinis, M; Georgescu, R [IRASM Center, Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, PO Box MG-6, RO-077125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Mihai, R [Life and Environmental Physics Department, Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, PO Box MG-6, RO-077125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Secu, M [National Institute of Materials Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: Food irradiation has, in certain circumstances, an important role to play both in promoting food safety and in reducing food losses. The safety and availability of nutritious food are essential components of primary health care. WHO actively encourages the proper use of food irradiation in the fight against foodborne diseases and food losses. To this end, it collaborates closely with FAO and IAEA. Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including delay of ripening and prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, helminths, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored unrefrigerated for long periods. The 1990s witnessed a significant advancement in food irradiation processing. As a result, progress has been made in commercialization of the technology, culminating in greater international trade in irradiated foods and the implementation of differing regulations relating to its use in many countries. Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foodstuffs and Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Irradiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods regulate food irradiation at international level. At European Union level there are in power Directive 1999/2/EC and Directive1999/3/EC. Every particular country has also its own regulations regarding food irradiation. In Romania, since 2002 the Norms Regarding Foodstuffs and Food Ingredients Treated by Ionizing Radiation are in power. These Norms are in fact the Romanian equivalent law of the European Directives 1999/2/EC and 1999/3/EC. The greater international trade in irradiated foods has led to the demand by consumers that irradiated food should be clearly labeled as such and that methods capable of differentiating between irradiated and nonirradiated products should be available. Thus a practical basis was sought to allow consumers to exercise a free choice as to which food they purchase. If a

  14. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

  15. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  16. The PHENIX experimental irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.; Courcon, P.; Coulon, P.

    1985-03-01

    The PHENIX experimental irradiation program represents a substancial volume of work. For example, more than forty experiments were in the core during the 33rd PHENIX irradiation cycle at the end of 1984. This program ensures the implementation, optimization and qualification of new solutions for the future developpment of French LMFBRs in three significant areas: fissile, fertile and absorber elements

  17. Food irradiation and bacterial toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranter, H.S.; Modi, N.K.; Hambleton, P.; Melling, J.; Rose, S.; Stringer, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors' findings indicate that irradiation confers no advantage over heat processing in respect of bacterial toxins (clostridium botulinum, neurotoxin A and staphylococcal enterotoxin A). It follows that irradiation at doses less than the ACINF recommended upper limit of 10 kGy could not be used to improve the ambient temperature shelf life on non-acid foods. (author)

  18. Nutritional aspects of irradiated shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1989-11-01

    Data available in the literature on the nutritional aspects of irradiated shrimp are reviewed and the indication is that irradiation of shrimp at doses up to about 3.2 kGy does not significantly affect the levels of its protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash. There are no reports on the effect of irradiation of shrimp above 3.2 kGy on these components. Limited information available indicates that there are some minor changes in the fatty acid composition of shrimp as a result of irradiation. Irradiation also causes some changes in the amino acid composition of shrimp; similar changes occur due to canning and hot-air drying. Some of the vitamins in shrimp, such as thiamine, are lost as a result of irradiation but the loss is less extensive than in thermally processed shrimp. Protein quality of shrimp, based on the growth of rats as well as that of Tetrahymena pyriformis, is not affected by irradiation. No adverse effects attributed to irradiation were found either in short-term or long-term animal feeding tests

  19. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey

    2007-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  20. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  1. ASEAN workshop on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This proceedings was organized by the ASEAN Food Handling Bureau in Collaboration with the Thai Atomic Energy Commission for Peace. Experts from ASEAN and overseas were invited to present a series of papers covering the state of the art of irradiation technology and the important issues relating to food irradiation

  2. Progress in food irradiation: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    The report on German results of irradiation of food covers the period from 1975 to 1978. Special attention is paid to the radiation-chemical changes of food, radiation microbiology with regard to clostridium botulinum, the enzymatic behaviour, physical alterations in several sorts of meat and vegetables after irradiation, tolerability investigations, mutagenicity tests, and, finally, legal aspects. (AJ) [de

  3. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1994-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  4. National symposium on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.; Brodrick, H.T.; Van Niekerk, W.C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains proceedings of papers delivered at the national symposium on food irradiation held in Pretoria. The proceedings have been grouped into the following sections: general background; meat; agricultural products; marketing; and radiation facilities - cost and plant design. Each paper has been submitted separately to INIS. Tables listing irradiated food products cleared for human consumption in different countries are given

  5. Electron irradiation of power transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hower, P.L.; Fiedor, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method for reducing storage time and gain parameters in a semiconductor transistor includes the step of subjecting the transistor to electron irradiation of a dosage determined from measurements of the parameters of a test batch of transistors. Reduction of carrier lifetime by proton bombardment and gold doping is mentioned as an alternative to electron irradiation. (author)

  6. An overview of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    This outline survey reviews the subject of food irradiation under the following headings:- brief history, the process (sources, main features of a food processing facility, interaction of radiation with food, main applications of the technology, packaging) consumer concerns (safety, nutritional changes, labelling, detection), international use of food irradiation and legal aspects. (UK)

  7. The safety of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selman, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This state of the art outline review written for 'Food Manufacture' looks at the wholesomeness of irradiated foods, and makes a comparison with conventionally treated products. Topics mentioned are doses, radioresistance of microorganisms especially clostudium botulinum and the problem of bacterial toxins, storage conditions, nutrition, especially vitamin loss, and detection of irradiation. (U.K.)

  8. Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

  9. Food irradiation: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandes, N.K.; Vital, H. de C.; Sabaa-Srur, A.U.O.

    2003-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical method of processing food (e.g. freezing, canning). It has been thoroughly researched over the last four decades and is recognized as a safe and wholesome method. It has the potential both of disinfesting dried food to reduce storage losses and disinfesting fruits and vegetables to meet quarantine requirements for export trade. Low doses of irradiation inhibit spoilage losses due to sprouting of root and tuber crops. Food- borne diseases due to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms and parasites of meat, poultry, fish, fishery products and spices are on the increase. Irradiation of these solid foods can decontaminate them of pathogenic organisms and thus provide safe food to the consumer. Irradiation can successfully replace the fumigation treatment of cocoa beans and coffee beans and disinfest dried fish, dates, dried fruits, etc. One of the most important advantages of food irradiation processing is that it is a coldprocess which does not significantly alter physico-chemical characters of the treated product. It can be applied to food after its final packaging. Similar to other physical processes of food processing, (e.g. canning, freezing), irradiation is a capital intensive process. Thus, adequate product volume must be made available in order to maximize the use of the facility and minimize the unit cost of treatment. Lack of harmonization of regulations among the countries which have approved irradiated foods hampers the introduction of this technique for international trade. Action at the international level has to be taken in order to remedy this situation. One of the important limitations of food irradiation processing is its slow acceptance by consumers, due inter alia to a perceived association with radioactivity. The food industry tends to be reluctant to use the technology in view of uncertainties regarding consumer acceptance of treated foods. Several market testing and consumer acceptance studies have been carried

  10. Dosimetry of blood irradiator - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhatre, Sachin G.V.; Shinde, S.H.; Bhat, R.M.; Rao, Suresh; Sharma, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Blood transfusion to an immunodeficient or immunosuppressed patient has a high risk involved due to occurrence of Transfusion Graft Versus Host Disease (T-GVHD). In order to eliminate this problem, blood is routinely exposed to ionizing radiation (gamma) prior to transfusion. Doses ranging from 15 Gy to 50 Gy can prevent T-GVHD. Aim of the present work was to perform dosimetry of 60 Co Blood Irradiator-2000 developed by Board of Radiation and isotope Technology (BRIT), India; using FBX dosimetric system. Dose-rate measured by FBX dosimeter was intercompared with Fricke dosimeter, which is a Reference Standard dosimeter. Experiments included measurement of dose-rate at the centre of irradiation volume, dose mapping in the central vertical plane within the irradiation volume and measurement of average dose received by blood sample using blood bags filled with FBX dosimeter by simulating actual irradiation conditions. During irradiation, the sample chamber is retracted into a cylindrical source cage, so that the sample is irradiated from all sides uniformly. Blood irradiator-2000 has sample rotation facility for increasing the dose uniformity during irradiation. The performance of this was investigated by measuring the central vertical plane dose profile in stationary state as well in rotation using the sample rotation facility (60 rpm). FBX being an aqueous dosimetric system fills container of irregular shape being irradiated hence can be used to integrate the dose over the volume. Dose-rate measured by FBX dosimeter was intercompared with Fricke dosimeter, which was in good agreement. Average dose-rate at the centre of irradiation volume and within the blood bag was measured by FBX and Fricke dosimeters. It was observed that dose profiles measured by FBX and Fricke dosimeters agreed within ± 2%. Dose uniformity within the irradiation volume was found to reduce from 21% to 17% when the sample rotation facility was used. Thus, it is suggested by the

  11. Mechanical properties of irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeston, J.M.; Longhurst, G.R.; Wallace, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    Beryllium is planned for use as a neutron multiplier in the tritium breeding blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). After fabricating samples of beryllium at densities varying from 80 to 100% of the theoretical density, we conducted a series of experiments to measure the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties, especially strength and ductility. Samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a neutron fluence of 2.6 x 10 25 n/m 2 (E > MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 75deg C. These samples were subsequently compression-tested at room temperature, and the results were compared with similar tests on unirradiated specimens. We found that the irradiation increased the strength by approximately four times and reduced the ductility to approximately one fourth. Failure was generally ductile, but the 80% dense irradiated samples failed in brittle fracture with significant generation of fine particles and release of small quantities of tritium. (orig.)

  12. Mechanical properties of irradiated beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeston, J. M.; Longhurst, G. R.; Wallace, R. S.; Abeln, S. P.

    1992-10-01

    Beryllium is planned for use as a neutron multiplier in the tritium breeding blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). After fabricating samples of beryllium at densities varying from 80 to 100% of the theoretical density, we conducted a series of experiments to measure the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties, especially strength and ductility. Samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a neutron fluence of 2.6 × 10 25 n/m 2 ( E > 1 MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 75°C. These samples were subsequently compression-tested at room temperature, and the results were compared with similar tests on unirradiated specimens. We found that the irradiation increased the strength by approximately four times and reduced the ductility to approximately one fourth. Failure was generally ductile, but the 80% dense irradiated samples failed in brittle fracture with significant generation of fine particles and release of small quantities of tritium.

  13. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The use of irradiation as an alternative treatment for commodities subject to infestation by pests of quarantine importance is outlined in this article. A dose of 300 Gy or less has been found to prevent adult emergence when insect eggs or larvae are irradiated and research has shown that such doses will not affect the quality of most commodities. The use of gamma rays from cobalt-60 or caesium-137 sources, as well as electrons or X-rays from linear accelerators, has been approved for food irradiation. Irradiation facilities must meet regulations promulgated by nuclear, health and agricultural quarantine agencies with regard to location, facility design, sources, operation, personnel, dosimetry and other requirements. Education of industry operators and the general public is needed in order to gain acceptance of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. (author). 21 refs, 1 tab

  14. Safer food means food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this article the author presents the sanitary advantages that are brought by food irradiation. OMS experts state that this technique is safe and harmless for any average global dose between 10 KGy and 100 KGy. Whenever a seminar is held on the topic, it is always concluded that food irradiation should be promoted and favoured. In France food irradiation is authorized for some kinds of products and exceptionally above a 10 KGy dose. Historically food irradiation has been hampered in its development by its classification by American Authorities as food additives in 1958 (Delanay clause). The author draws a parallel between food irradiation and pasteurization or food deep-freezing in their beginnings. (A.C.)

  15. Food irradiation receives international acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddoes, J M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario. Commercial Products

    1982-04-01

    Irradiation has advantages as a method of preserving food, especially in the Third World. The author tabulates some examples of actual use of food irradiation with dates and tonnages, and tells the story of the gradual acceptance of food irradiation by the World Health Organization, other international bodies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). At present, the joint IAEA/FAO/WHO standard permits an energy level of up to 5 MeV for gamma rays, well above the 1.3 MeV energy level of /sup 60/Co. The USFDA permits irradiation of any food up to 10 krad, and minor constituents of a diet may be irradiated up to 5 Mrad. The final hurdle to be cleared, that of economic acceptance, depends on convincing the food processing industry that the process is technically and economically efficient.

  16. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  17. Irradiation of spices - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadecka, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food irradiation is a process of exposing food to ionising radiation such as gamma rays emitted from the radioisotopes 60Co and 137Cs, or high energy electrons and X-rays produced by machine sources. The use of ionising radiation to destroy harmful biological organisms in food is considered a safe, well proven process that has found many applications. Depending on the absorbed dose of radiation, various effects can be achieved resulting in reduced storage losses, extended shelf life and/or improved microbiological and parasitological safety of foods. The most common irradiated commercial products are spices and vegetable seasonings. Spice irradiation is increasingly recognised as a method that reduces post-harvest losses, ensures hygienic quality, and facilitates trade with food products. This article reviews recent activities concerning food irradiation, focusing on the irradiation of spices and dried vegetable seasonings from the food safety aspect

  18. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  19. Irradiation environment and materials behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Shiori

    1992-01-01

    Irradiation environment is unique for materials used in a nuclear energy system. Material itself as well as irradiation and environmental conditions determine the material behaviour. In this review, general directions of research and development of materials in an irradiation environment together with the role of materials science are discussed first, and then recent materials problems are described for energy systems which are already existing (LWR), under development (FBR) and to be realized in the future (CTR). Topics selected are (1) irradiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels for LWRs, (2) high fluence performance of cladding and wrapper materials for fuel subassemblies of FBRs and (3) high fluence irradiation effects in the first wall and blanket structural materials of a fusion reactor. Several common topics in those materials issues are selected and discussed. Suggestions are made on some elements of radiation effects which might be purposely utilized in the process of preparing innovative materials. (J.P.N.) 69 refs

  20. Food irradiation: the 'experts' choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, P.

    1990-01-01

    The UK Government has decided to lift the ban on food irradiation. The proponents of food irradiation claim it is an effective and safe means of preserving food, at minimum risk to the public. However, the prospect of irradiated food being on the shelves has created considerable opposition from environmental, consumer, public health groups and trade unions. The long list of unanswered health and safety questions means the public could be exposed to a whole new range of risks. The consumer is justified as saying ''if food has to be irradiated, what was wrong with it, good food does not need irradiating''. The answer to food contamination is improved hygiene and training in farm, factory and shop. (author)