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Sample records for heatpipe bimodal system

  1. Heatpipe power system and heatpipe bimodal system design and development options

    Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.; Emrich, W.J. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Heatpipe Power System (HPS) is a potential, near-term, low-cost space fission power system. The Heatpipe Bimodal System (HBS) is a potential, near-term, low-cost space fission power and/or propulsion system. Both systems will be composed of independent modules, and all components operate within the existing databases. The HPS and HBS have relatively few system integration issues; thus, the successful development of a module is a significant step toward verifying system feasibility and performance estimates. A prototypic HPS module is being fabricated, and testing is scheduled to begin in November 1996. A successful test will provide high confidence that the HPS can achieve its predicted performance

  2. Engineering design aspects of the heat-pipe power system

    Capell, B.M.; Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.; Berte, M.

    1997-10-01

    The Heat-pipe Power System (HPS) is a near-term, low-cost space power system designed at Los Alamos that can provide up to 1,000 kWt for many space nuclear applications. The design of the reactor is simple, modular, and adaptable. The basic design allows for the use of a variety of power conversion systems and reactor materials (including the fuel, clad, and heat pipes). This paper describes a project that was undertaken to develop a database supporting many engineering aspects of the HPS design. The specific tasks discussed in this paper are: the development of an HPS materials database, the creation of finite element models that will allow a wide variety of investigations, and the verification of past calculations

  3. Engineering design aspects of the heat-pipe power system

    Capell, B. M.; Houts, M. G.; Poston, D. I.; Berte, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Heat-pipe Power System (HPS) is a near-term, low-cost space power system designed at Los Alamos that can provide up to 1,000 kWt for many space nuclear applications. The design of the reactor is simple, modular, and adaptable. The basic design allows for the use of a variety of power conversion systems and reactor materials (including the fuel, clad, and heat pipes). This paper describes a project that was undertaken to develop a database supporting many engineering aspects of the HPS design. The specific tasks discussed in this paper are: the development of an HPS materials database, the creation of finite element models that will allow a wide variety of investigations, and the verification of past calculations.

  4. A bimodal biometric identification system

    Laghari, Mohammad S.; Khuwaja, Gulzar A.

    2013-03-01

    Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Physicals are related to the shape of the body. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. However, biometric authentication systems suffer from imprecision and difficulty in person recognition due to a number of reasons and no single biometrics is expected to effectively satisfy the requirements of all verification and/or identification applications. Bimodal biometric systems are expected to be more reliable due to the presence of two pieces of evidence and also be able to meet the severe performance requirements imposed by various applications. This paper presents a neural network based bimodal biometric identification system by using human face and handwritten signature features.

  5. Sandwich Core Heat-Pipe Radiator for Power and Propulsion Systems

    Gibson, Marc; Sanzi, James; Locci, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation heat-pipe radiator technologies are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide advancements in heat-rejection systems for space power and propulsion systems. All spacecraft power and propulsion systems require their waste heat to be rejected to space in order to function at their desired design conditions. The thermal efficiency of these heat-rejection systems, balanced with structural requirements, directly affect the total mass of the system. Terrestrially, this technology could be used for thermal control of structural systems. One potential use is radiant heating systems for residential and commercial applications. The thin cross section and efficient heat transportability could easily be applied to flooring and wall structures that could evenly heat large surface areas. Using this heat-pipe technology, the evaporator of the radiators could be heated using any household heat source (electric, gas, etc.), which would vaporize the internal working fluid and carry the heat to the condenser sections (walls and/or floors). The temperature could be easily controlled, providing a comfortable and affordable living environment. Investigating the appropriate materials and working fluids is needed to determine this application's potential success and usage.

  6. Balance-of-plant options for the Heat-Pipe Power System

    Berte, M.; Capell, B.

    1997-09-01

    The Heat-Pipe Power System (HPS) is a near-term, low-cost space fission power system with the potential for utilizing various option for balance-of-plant options. The following options have been studied: a low-power thermoelectric design (14-kWe output), a small Brayton cycle system (60--75 kWe), and a large Brayton cycle system (250 kWe). These systems were analyzed on a preliminary basis, including mass, volume, and structure calculations. These analyses have shown that the HPS system can provide power outputs from 10--250 kWe with specific powers of ∼ 14 W/kg for a 14-kWe model to ∼ 100 W/kg for a 250-kWe model. The system designs considered in this study utilize a common component base to permit easy expansion and development

  7. The Efficiency of the Bimodal System Transportation

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of fast railway results in an increased applicationof Trailer Train bimodal system transportation. Thetraffic costs are multiply reduced, particularly the variablecosts. On the other hand the environmental pollution from exhaustgases is also reduced. Therefore, by the year 2010 cargotransport should be preponderant~v used which would be characterisedby fast electric trains producing less noise, at lowercosts and with clean environment.

  8. Alert-derivative bimodal space power and propulsion systems

    Houts, M.G.; Ranken, W.A.; Buksa, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass bimodal space power and propulsion systems could have numerous civilian and military applications. This paper discusses potential bimodal systems that could be derived from the ALERT space fission power supply concept. These bimodal concepts have the potential for providing 5 to 10 kW of electrical power and a total impulse of 100 MN-s at an average specific impulse of 770 s. System mass is on the order of 1000 kg

  9. Transient bimodality in interacting particle systems

    Calderoni, P.; Pellegrinotti, A.; Presutti, E.; Vares, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors consider a system of spins which have values ± 1 and evolve according to a jump Markov process whose generator is the sum of two generators, one describing a spin-flip Glauber process, the other a Kawasaki (stirring) evolution. It was proven elsewhere that if the Kawasaki dynamics is speeded up by a factor var-epsilon -2 , then, in the limit var-epsilon → 0 (continuum limit), propagation of chaos holds and the local magnetization solves a reaction-diffusion equation. They choose the parameters of the Glauber interaction so that the potential of the reaction term in the reaction-diffusion equation is a double-well potential with quartic maximum at the origin. They assume further that for each var-epsilon the system is in a finite interval of Z with var-epsilon -1 sites and periodic boundary conditions. They specify the initial measure as the product measure with 0 spin average, thus obtaining, in the continuum limit, a constant magnetic profile equal to 0, which is a stationary unstable solution to the reaction-diffusion equation. They prove that at times of the order var-epsilon -1/2 propagation of chaos does not hold any more and, in the limit as var-epsilon → 0, the state becomes a nontrivial superposition of Bernoulli measures with parameters corresponding to the minima of the reaction potential. The coefficients of such a superposition depend on time (on the scale var-epsilon -1/2 ) and at large times (on this scale) the coefficient of the term corresponding to the initial magnetization vanishes (transient bimodality). This differs from what was observed by De Masi, Presutti, and Vares, who considered a reaction potential with quadratic maximum and no bimodal effect was seen, as predicted by Broggi, Lugiato, and Colombo

  10. Performance study of heat-pipe solar photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system

    Chen, Hongbing; Zhang, Lei; Jie, Pengfei; Xiong, Yaxuan; Xu, Peng; Zhai, Huixing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The testing device of HPS PV/T heat pump system was established by a finished product of PV panel. • A detailed mathematical model of heat pump was established to investigate the performance of each component. • The dynamic and static method was combined to solve the mathematical model of HPS PV/T heat pump system. • The HPS PV/T heat pump system was optimized by the mathematical model. • The influence of six factors on the performance of HPS PV/T heat pump system was analyzed. - Abstract: A heat-pipe solar (HPS) photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) heat pump system, combining HPS PV/T collector with heat pump, is proposed in this paper. The HPS PV/T collector integrates heat pipes with PV panel, which can simultaneously generate electricity and thermal energy. The extracted heat from HPS PV/T collector can be used by heat pump, and then the photoelectric conversion efficiency is substantially improved because of the low temperature of PV cells. A mathematical model of the system is established in this paper. The model consists of a dynamic distributed parameter model of the HPS PV/T collection system and a quasi-steady state distributed parameter model of the heat pump. The mathematical model is validated by testing data, and the dynamic performance of the HPS PV/T heat pump system is discussed based on the validated model. Using the mathematical model, a reasonable accuracy in predicting the system’s dynamic performance with a relative error within ±15.0% can be obtained. The capacity of heat pump and the number of HPS collectors are optimized to improve the system performance based on the mathematical model. Six working modes are proposed and discussed to investigate the effect of solar radiation, ambient temperature, supply water temperature in condenser, PV packing factor, heat pipe pitch and PV backboard absorptivity on system performance by the validated model. It is found that the increase of solar radiation, ambient temperature and PV

  11. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  12. Heat-pipe development for the SPAR space-power system

    Ranken, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The SPAR space power system design is based on a high temperature fast spectrum nuclear reactor that furnishes heat to a thermoelectric conversion system to generate an electrical power output of 100 kW/sub (e)/. An important feature of this design is the use of alkali metal heat pipes to provide redundant, reliable, and low-loss heat transfer at high temperature. Three sets of heat pipes are used in the system. These include sodium/molybdenum heat pipes to transfer heat from the reactor core to the conversion system, potassium/niobium heat pipes to couple the conversion system to the radiator in a redundant manner, and potassium/titanium heat pipes to distribute rejected heat throughout the radiator surface. The designs of these units are discussed and fabrication methods and testing results are described. 12 figures

  13. THE SLUGGS SURVEY: NGC 3115, A CRITICAL TEST CASE FOR METALLICITY BIMODALITY IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    Brodie, Jean P.; Conroy, Charlie; Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J. [University of California Observatories and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Strader, Jay, E-mail: brodie@ucolick.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    Due to its proximity (9 Mpc) and the strongly bimodal color distribution of its spectroscopically well-sampled globular cluster (GC) system, the early-type galaxy NGC 3115 provides one of the best available tests of whether the color bimodality widely observed in GC systems generally reflects a true metallicity bimodality. Color bimodality has alternatively been attributed to a strongly nonlinear color-metallicity relation reflecting the influence of hot horizontal-branch stars. Here, we couple Subaru Suprime-Cam gi photometry with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to accurately measure GC colors and a CaT index that measures the Ca II triplet. We find the NGC 3115 GC system to be unambiguously bimodal in both color and the CaT index. Using simple stellar population models, we show that the CaT index is essentially unaffected by variations in horizontal-branch morphology over the range of metallicities relevant to GC systems (and is thus a robust indicator of metallicity) and confirm bimodality in the metallicity distribution. We assess the existing evidence for and against multiple metallicity subpopulations in early- and late-type galaxies and conclude that metallicity bi/multimodality is common. We briefly discuss how this fundamental characteristic links directly to the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies.

  14. THE SLUGGS SURVEY: NGC 3115, A CRITICAL TEST CASE FOR METALLICITY BIMODALITY IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    Brodie, Jean P.; Conroy, Charlie; Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A.; Strader, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Due to its proximity (9 Mpc) and the strongly bimodal color distribution of its spectroscopically well-sampled globular cluster (GC) system, the early-type galaxy NGC 3115 provides one of the best available tests of whether the color bimodality widely observed in GC systems generally reflects a true metallicity bimodality. Color bimodality has alternatively been attributed to a strongly nonlinear color-metallicity relation reflecting the influence of hot horizontal-branch stars. Here, we couple Subaru Suprime-Cam gi photometry with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to accurately measure GC colors and a CaT index that measures the Ca II triplet. We find the NGC 3115 GC system to be unambiguously bimodal in both color and the CaT index. Using simple stellar population models, we show that the CaT index is essentially unaffected by variations in horizontal-branch morphology over the range of metallicities relevant to GC systems (and is thus a robust indicator of metallicity) and confirm bimodality in the metallicity distribution. We assess the existing evidence for and against multiple metallicity subpopulations in early- and late-type galaxies and conclude that metallicity bi/multimodality is common. We briefly discuss how this fundamental characteristic links directly to the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies.

  15. A bimodal power and propulsion system based on cermet fuel and heat pipe energy transport

    Polansky, G.F.; Gunther, N.A.; Rochow, R.F.; Bixler, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Bimodal space reactor systems provide both thermal propulsion for the spacecraft orbital transfer and electrical power to the spacecraft bus once it is on station. These systems have the potential to increase both the available payload in high energy orbits and the available power to that payload. These increased mass and power capabilities can be used to either reduce mission cost by permitting the use of smaller launch vehicles or to provide increased mission performance from the current launch vehicle. A major barrier to the deployment of these bimodal systems has been the cost associated with their development. This paper describes a bimodal reactor system with performance potential to permit more than 70% of the instrumented payload of the Titan IV/Centaur to be launched from the Atlas IIAS. The development cost is minimized by basing the design on existing component technologies

  16. Application of a bi-modal PBR nuclear propulsion and power system to military missions

    Venetoklis, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of arms technology and space access combined with current economic realities in the United States are creating ever greater demands for more capable space-based military assets. The paper illustrates that bi-modal nuclear propulsion and power based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is a high-leverage tehcnology that can maximize utility while minimizing cost. Mission benefits offered by the bi-modal PBR, including enhanced maneuverability, lifetime, survivability, payload power, and operational flexibility, are discussed. The ability to deliver desired payloads on smaller boosters is also illustrated. System descriptions and parameters for 10 kWe and 100 kWe power output levels are summarized. It is demonstrated via design exercise that bi-modal PBR dramtically enhances performance of a military satellite in geosynchronous orbit, increasing payload mass, payload power, and maneuverability.

  17. Controllability of a Class of Bimodal Discrete-Time Piecewise Linear Systems

    Yurtseven, E.; Camlibel, M.K.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we will provide algebraic necessary and sufficient conditions for the controllability/reachability/null controllability of a class of bimodal discrete-time piecewise linear systems including several instances of interest that are not covered by existing works which focus primarily on

  18. The Taylor-expansion method of moments for the particle system with bimodal distribution

    Liu Yan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the multipoint Taylor expansion method of moments for the bimodal particle system. The collision effects are modeled by the internal and external coagulation terms. Simple theory and numerical tests are performed to prove the effect of the current model.

  19. Cesium heat-pipe thermostat

    Wu, F.; Song, D.; Sheng, K.; Wu, J. [Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement, 100095, Beijing (China); Yi, X. [China National South Aviation industry CO., LTD., 412002, Hunan (China); Yu, Z. [Dalian Jinzhou Institute of Measurement and Testing, 116100, Liaoning (China)

    2013-09-11

    In this paper the authors report a newly developed Cesium Heat-Pipe Thermostat (Cs HPT) with the operation range of 400 °C to 800 °C. The working medium is cesium (Cs) of 99.98% purity and contains no radioisotope. A Cs filing device is developed which can prevent Cs being in contact with air. The structural material is stainless steel. A 5000 h test has been made to confirm the compatibility between cesium and stainless steel. The Cs HPT has several thermometer wells of 220mm depth with different diameters for different sizes of thermometers. The temperature uniformity of the Cs HPT is 0.06 °C to 0.20 °C. A precise temperature controller is used to ensure the temperature fluctuation within ±0.03 °C. The size of Cs HPT is 380mm×320mm×280mm with foot wheels for easy moving. The thermostat has been successfully used for the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers and thermocouples.

  20. RSMASS-D nuclear thermal propulsion and bimodal system mass models

    King, Donald B.; Marshall, Albert C.

    1997-01-01

    Two relatively simple models have been developed to estimate reactor, radiation shield, and balance of system masses for a particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear thermal propulsion concept and a cermet-core power and propulsion (bimodal) concept. The approach was based on the methodology developed for the RSMASS-D models. The RSMASS-D approach for the reactor and shield sub-systems uses a combination of simple equations derived from reactor physics and other fundamental considerations along with tabulations of data from more detailed neutron and gamma transport theory computations. Relatively simple models are used to estimate the masses of other subsystem components of the nuclear propulsion and bimodal systems. Other subsystem components include instrumentation and control (I&C), boom, safety systems, radiator, thermoelectrics, heat pipes, and nozzle. The user of these models can vary basic design parameters within an allowed range to achieve a parameter choice which yields a minimum mass for the operational conditions of interest. Estimated system masses are presented for a range of reactor power levels for propulsion for the PBR propulsion concept and for both electrical power and propulsion for the cermet-core bimodal concept. The estimated reactor system masses agree with mass predictions from detailed calculations with xx percent for both models.

  1. Online identification of continuous bimodal and trimodal piecewise affine systems

    Le, Q.T.; van den Boom, A.J.J.; Baldi, S.; Rantzer, Anders; Bagterp Jørgensen, John; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the identification of continuous piecewise affine systems in state space form with jointly unknown partition and subsystem matrices. The partition of the system is generated by the so-called centers. By representing continuous piecewise affine systems in the max-form and

  2. Pluto/Charon exploration utilizing a bi-modal PBR nuclear propulsion/power system

    Venetoklis, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a Pluto/Charon orbiter utilizing a bi-modal nuclear propulsion and power system based on the Particle Bed Reactor. The orbiter is sized for launch to Nuclear-Safe orbit atop a Titan IV or equivalent launch veicle. The bi-modal system provides thermal propulsion for Earth orbital departure and Pluto orbital capture, and 10 kWe of electric power for payload functions and for in-system maneuvering with ion thrusters. Ion thrusters are used to perform inclination changes about Pluto, a transfer from low Pluto orbit to low Charon orbit, and inclination changes about charon. A nominal payload can be deliverd in as little as 15 years, 1000 kg in 17 years, and close to 2000 kg in 20 years. Scientific return is enormously aided by the availability of up to 10 kWe, due to greater data transfer rates and more/better instruments. The bi-modal system can provide power at Pluto/Charon for 10 or more years, enabling an extremely robust, scientifically rewarding, and cost-effective exploration mission.

  3. Bi-Modal Face and Speech Authentication: a BioLogin Demonstration System

    Marcel, Sébastien; Mariéthoz, Johnny; Rodriguez, Yann; Cardinaux, Fabien

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a bi-modal (face and speech) authentication demonstration system that simulates the login of a user using its face and its voice. This demonstration is called BioLogin. It runs both on Linux and Windows and the Windows version is freely available for download. Bio\\-Login is implemented using an open source machine learning library and its machine vision package.

  4. Feasibility study on the application of a heat-pipe type adsorption chiller

    Ahn, Sang Hyeok; Chung, Jae Dong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Kyung [Energy System R and D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    A parametric study on a heat-pipe type adsorption chiller with SWS-1L (mesoporous silica gel impregnated with CaCl{sub 2}) and water pair was conducted using a numerical method in this research. A heat pipe that is in direct contact with the adsorbent is applied to the adsorption chiller to improve the heat transfer capacity of the adsorption bed. A feasibility study was performed on the heat-pipe type adsorption bed with a single layer. The Coefficient of performance (COP) and the Specific cooling power (SCP) were 0.231 and 844.8 W/kg, respectively. These values are lower than the system performance values of the existing fin-tube type adsorption bed. However, when the number of bed layers was increased to seven, the COP and SCP of the heat-pipe type adsorption bed were 0.520 and 752.4 W/kg, respectively. These values are 5.25 % and 39.8 % higher than the COP and SCP, respectively, of the fin-tube type adsorption bed. These findings indicate that the heat-pipe type adsorption bed can potentially address the disadvantage caused by the system size of the adsorption chiller. A parametric study was also conducted for six design parameters, namely, number of layers, heat pipe pitch, heat pipe radius, fin width, fin spacing, and hot water temperature.

  5. Feasibility study on the application of a heat-pipe type adsorption chiller

    Ahn, Sang Hyeok; Chung, Jae Dong; Kwon, Oh Kyung

    2017-01-01

    A parametric study on a heat-pipe type adsorption chiller with SWS-1L (mesoporous silica gel impregnated with CaCl_2) and water pair was conducted using a numerical method in this research. A heat pipe that is in direct contact with the adsorbent is applied to the adsorption chiller to improve the heat transfer capacity of the adsorption bed. A feasibility study was performed on the heat-pipe type adsorption bed with a single layer. The Coefficient of performance (COP) and the Specific cooling power (SCP) were 0.231 and 844.8 W/kg, respectively. These values are lower than the system performance values of the existing fin-tube type adsorption bed. However, when the number of bed layers was increased to seven, the COP and SCP of the heat-pipe type adsorption bed were 0.520 and 752.4 W/kg, respectively. These values are 5.25 % and 39.8 % higher than the COP and SCP, respectively, of the fin-tube type adsorption bed. These findings indicate that the heat-pipe type adsorption bed can potentially address the disadvantage caused by the system size of the adsorption chiller. A parametric study was also conducted for six design parameters, namely, number of layers, heat pipe pitch, heat pipe radius, fin width, fin spacing, and hot water temperature

  6. Rotational multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound: bimodal system for intravascular applications

    Ma, Dinglong; Bec, Julien; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Marcu, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We report the development and validation of a hybrid intravascular diagnostic system combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for cardiovascular imaging applications. A prototype FLIm system based on fluorescence pulse sampling technique providing information on artery biochemical composition was integrated with a commercial IVUS system providing information on artery morphology. A customized 3-Fr bimodal catheter combining a rotational side-view fiberoptic and a 40-MHz IVUS transducer was constructed for sequential helical scanning (rotation and pullback) of tubular structures. Validation of this bimodal approach was conducted in pig heart coronary arteries. Spatial resolution, fluorescence detection efficiency, pulse broadening effect, and lifetime measurement variability of the FLIm system were systematically evaluated. Current results show that this system is capable of temporarily resolving the fluorescence emission simultaneously in multiple spectral channels in a single pullback sequence. Accurate measurements of fluorescence decay characteristics from arterial segments can be obtained rapidly (e.g., 20 mm in 5 s), and accurate co-registration of fluorescence and ultrasound features can be achieved. The current finding demonstrates the compatibility of FLIm instrumentation with in vivo clinical investigations and its potential to complement conventional IVUS during catheterization procedures. PMID:24898604

  7. FUSION DECISION FOR A BIMODAL BIOMETRIC VERIFICATION SYSTEM USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE AND ITS VARIATIONS

    A. Teoh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paw presents fusion detection technique comparisons based on support vector machine and its variations for a bimodal biometric verification system that makes use of face images and speech utterances. The system is essentially constructed by a face expert, a speech expert and a fusion decision module. Each individual expert has been optimized to operate in automatic mode and designed for security access application. Fusion decision schemes considered are linear, weighted Support Vector Machine (SVM and linear SVM with quadratic transformation. The conditions tested include the balanced and unbalanced conditions between the two experts in order to obtain the optimum fusion module from  these techniques best suited to the target application.

  8. Combined heat and power production through biomass gasification with 'Heatpipe-Reformer'

    Iliev, I.; Kamburova, V.; Terziev, A.

    2013-01-01

    The current report aims is to analyze the system for combined heat and power production through biomass gasification with “heatpipe-reformer” system. Special attention is paid on the process of synthetic gas production in the Reformer, its cleaning and further burning in the co-generation unit. A financial analysis is made regarding the investments and profits generated by the combined heat and power production. (authors)

  9. Bimodal pollination system of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis involving hummingbirds and bees.

    Schmid, S; Schmid, V S; Zillikens, A; Harter-Marques, B; Steiner, J

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of birds and insects as pollinators, we studied the floral biology of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Grisebach in the biome of the Atlantic rain forest, southern Brazil. On Santa Catarina Island, flowering extends from mid-September to the end of December, with diurnal anthesis. The reproductive system is obligatory xenogamy, thus pollinator-dependent. Flowers secrete 31.84 μl of nectar per day, with a mean sugar concentration of 23.2%. Highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur at the beginning of anthesis. Most floral traits are characteristic for ornithophily, and nectar production appears to be adapted to the energy demand of hummingbirds. Continued secretion of the sucrose-dominated nectar attracts and binds visitors to inflorescences, strengthening trapline foraging behaviour. Experiments assessing seed set after single flower visits were performed with the most frequent visitors, revealing the hummingbird Thalurania glaucopis as the most effective pollen vector. In addition, bees are also functional pollinators, as substantiated by their high visitation frequency. We conclude that this pollination system is bimodal. Thus, there is redundancy in the pollination service provided by birds and bees, granting a high probability of successful reproduction in Ae. nudicaulis. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J.; Borowski, S.

    2000-01-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible

  11. Innovation Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J. (INEEL); Borowski, S. (NASA Glenn Research Center)

    2000-07-14

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  12. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    Hill, Thomas Johnathan; Noble, Cheryl Ann; Noble, C.; Martinell, John Stephen; Borowski, S.

    2000-07-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonable assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  13. A Crewed Mission to Apophis Using a Hybrid Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) System

    Mccurdy, David R.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Burke, Laura M.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A BNTEP system is a dual propellant, hybrid propulsion concept that utilizes Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion during high thrust operations, providing 10's of kilo-Newtons of thrust per engine at a high specific impulse (Isp) of 900 s, and an Electric Propulsion (EP) system during low thrust operations at even higher Isp of around 3000 s. Electrical power for the EP system is provided by the BNTR engines in combination with a Brayton Power Conversion (BPC) closed loop system, which can provide electrical power on the order of 100's of kWe. High thrust BNTR operation uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) as reactor coolant propellant expelled out a nozzle, while low thrust EP uses high pressure xenon expelled by an electric grid. By utilizing an optimized combination of low and high thrust propulsion, significant mass savings over a conventional NTR vehicle can be realized. Low thrust mission events, such as midcourse corrections (MCC), tank settling burns, some reaction control system (RCS) burns, and even a small portion at the end of the departure burn can be performed with EP. Crewed and robotic deep space missions to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) are best suited for this hybrid propulsion approach. For these mission scenarios, the Earth return V is typically small enough that EP alone is sufficient. A crewed mission to the NEA Apophis in the year 2028 with an expendable BNTEP transfer vehicle is presented. Assembly operations, launch element masses, and other key characteristics of the vehicle are described. A comparison with a conventional NTR vehicle performing the same mission is also provided. Finally, reusability of the BNTEP transfer vehicle is explored.

  14. Development of a Prototype Web GIS-Based Disaster Management System for Safe Operation of the Next Generation Bimodal Tram, South Korea—Focused Flooding and Snowfall

    Won Seok Jang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Railroad Research Institute (KRRI has developed a bimodal tram and advanced bus rapid transit (BRT system which is an optimized public transit system created by mixing the railway’s punctual operation and the bus’ easy and convenient access. The bimodal tram system provides mass-transportation service with an eco-friendly and human-centered approach. Natural disasters have been increasing worldwide in recent years, including floods, snow, and typhoons disasters. Flooding is the most frequent natural disaster in many countries and is increasingly a concern with climate change; it seriously affects people’s lives and productivity, causing considerable economic loss and significant damage. Enhanced conventional disaster management systems are needed to support comprehensive actions to secure safety and convenience. The objective of this study is to develop a prototype version of a Web GIS-based bimodal tram disaster management system (BTDMS using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM 5.0 to enhance on-time operation and safety of the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS was tested at the bimodal tram test railroad by simulating probable maximum flood (PMF and snow melting for forecasting flooding and snow covered roads. This result could provide the basis for plans to protect against flooding disasters and snow covered roads in operating the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS will be used to assess and predict weather impacts on roadway conditions and operations and thus has the potential to influence economic growth. The methodology presented in this paper makes it possible to manage impacts of flooding and snowfall on urban transportation and enhance operation of the bimodal tram system. Such a methodology based on modeling could be created for most metropolitan areas in Korea and in many other countries.

  15. Polymers for bimodal immunoradiotherapy - are they able to promote immune system?

    Loukotova, L.; Kucka, J.; Rabyk, M.; Hoecherl, A.; Venclikova, K.; Janouskova, O.; Konefal, R.; Stepanek, P.; Hruby, M.; Kolarova, V.; Sefc, L.

    2017-01-01

    The conceptually new bimodal treatment is demonstrated with radiolabeled thermoresponsive β-glucan-graft-poly(2- isopropyl-2-oxazoline-co-2-butyl-2-oxazoline). The thermoresponsive polymer behavior in aqueous solutions has been studied showing appropriate cloud point temperature. The in vitro studies have been performed, the polymer has been found to be non-toxic and actively uptaken by cancer cells and macrophages. Moreover, oxidative burst assay has shown the immunostimulatory properties of prepared polymer. The polymer has been radiolabeled with 90 Y 3+ and used in antitumor efficiency in vivo experiment on mice bearing EL4 lymphoma. The in vivo experiment demonstrates the synergic effect of immunoradiotherapy compared to only immunotherapy and radiotherapy. (authors)

  16. Probabilistic analysis and fatigue damage assessment of offshore mooring system due to non-Gaussian bimodal tension processes

    Chang, Anteng; Li, Huajun; Wang, Shuqing; Du, Junfeng

    2017-08-01

    Both wave-frequency (WF) and low-frequency (LF) components of mooring tension are in principle non-Gaussian due to nonlinearities in the dynamic system. This paper conducts a comprehensive investigation of applicable probability density functions (PDFs) of mooring tension amplitudes used to assess mooring-line fatigue damage via the spectral method. Short-term statistical characteristics of mooring-line tension responses are firstly investigated, in which the discrepancy arising from Gaussian approximation is revealed by comparing kurtosis and skewness coefficients. Several distribution functions based on present analytical spectral methods are selected to express the statistical distribution of the mooring-line tension amplitudes. Results indicate that the Gamma-type distribution and a linear combination of Dirlik and Tovo-Benasciutti formulas are suitable for separate WF and LF mooring tension components. A novel parametric method based on nonlinear transformations and stochastic optimization is then proposed to increase the effectiveness of mooring-line fatigue assessment due to non-Gaussian bimodal tension responses. Using time domain simulation as a benchmark, its accuracy is further validated using a numerical case study of a moored semi-submersible platform.

  17. VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS FOR DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED HEAT-PIPE EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical work has included development of two TRNSYS [1] simulation models for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors utilizing solar radiation from all directions. One model...... coating on both sides. The input to the models is thus not a simple collector efficiency expression but the actual collector geometry. In this study, the TRNSYS models are validated with measurements for four differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors. The collectors are produced...

  18. Toward a fully integrated wireless wearable EEG-NIRS bimodal acquisition system.

    Safaie, J; Grebe, R; Abrishami Moghaddam, H; Wallois, F

    2013-10-01

    Interactions between neuronal electrical activity and regional changes in microcirculation are assumed to play a major role in physiological brain activity and the development of pathological disorders, but have been poorly elucidated to date. There is a need for advanced diagnostic tools to investigate the relationships between these two physiological processes. To meet these needs, a wireless wearable system has been developed, which combines a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system using light emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source and silicon photodiodes as a detector with an integrated electroencephalography (EEG) system. The main advantages over currently available devices are miniaturization and integration of a real-time electrical and hemodynamic activity monitor into one wearable device. For patient distributed monitoring and creating a body-area network, up to seven same devices can be connected to a single base station (PC) synchronously. Each node presents enhanced portability due to the wireless communication and highly integrated components resulting in a small, lightweight signal acquisition device. Further progress includes the individual control of LEDs output to automatically or interactively adjust emitted light to the actual local situation online, the use of silicon photodiodes with a safe low-voltage power supply, and an integrated three dimensional accelerometer for movement detection for the identification of motion artifacts. The device was tested and validated using our enhanced EEG-NIRS tissue mimicking fluid phantom for sensitivity mapping. Typical somatotopic electrical evoked potential experiments were performed to verify clinical applicability.

  19. Toward a fully integrated wireless wearable EEG-NIRS bimodal acquisition system

    Safaie, J.; Grebe, R.; Abrishami Moghaddam, H.; Wallois, F.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Interactions between neuronal electrical activity and regional changes in microcirculation are assumed to play a major role in physiological brain activity and the development of pathological disorders, but have been poorly elucidated to date. There is a need for advanced diagnostic tools to investigate the relationships between these two physiological processes.Approach. To meet these needs, a wireless wearable system has been developed, which combines a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system using light emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source and silicon photodiodes as a detector with an integrated electroencephalography (EEG) system. Main results. The main advantages over currently available devices are miniaturization and integration of a real-time electrical and hemodynamic activity monitor into one wearable device. For patient distributed monitoring and creating a body-area network, up to seven same devices can be connected to a single base station (PC) synchronously. Each node presents enhanced portability due to the wireless communication and highly integrated components resulting in a small, lightweight signal acquisition device. Further progress includes the individual control of LEDs output to automatically or interactively adjust emitted light to the actual local situation online, the use of silicon photodiodes with a safe low-voltage power supply, and an integrated three dimensional accelerometer for movement detection for the identification of motion artifacts. Significance. The device was tested and validated using our enhanced EEG-NIRS tissue mimicking fluid phantom for sensitivity mapping. Typical somatotopic electrical evoked potential experiments were performed to verify clinical applicability.

  20. Heat-pipe thermionic reactor concept

    Storm Pedersen, E.

    1967-01-01

    Main components are reactor core, heat pipe, thermionic converter, secondary cooling system, and waste heat radiator; thermal power generated in reactor core is transported by heat pipes to thermionic converters located outside reactor core behind radiation shield; thermionic emitters are in direct...

  1. Solar heat-pipe wick modeling

    Andraka, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    Stirling-cycle engines have been identified as a promising technology for the conversion of concentrated solar energy into usable electrical power. In previous experimental work, the author has demonstrated that a heat pipe receiver can significantly improve system performance over a directly-illuminated heater head. The design and operating conditions of a heat pipe receiver differ significantly from typical laboratory heat pipes. New wick structures have been developed to exploit the characteristics of the solar generation system. Typically, these wick structures allow vapor generation within the wick. Conventional heat pipe models do not handle this enhancement, yet it can more than double the performance of the wick. In this study, the author developed a steady-state model of a boiling-enhanced wick for a solar heat pipe receiver. The model is used for design-point calculations and is written in FORTRAN90. Some limited comparisons have been made with actual test data.

  2. Thermal performance of horizontal closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe with check valves

    Rittidech, S.; Pipatpaiboon, N.; Thongdaeng, S.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the thermal performance of various horizontal closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe systems with check valves (HCLOHPs/CVs). Numerous test systems were constructed using copper capillary tubes with assorted inner diameters, evaporator lengths, and check valves. The test systems were evaluated under normal operating conditions using ethanol, R123, and distilled water as working fluids. The system's evaporator sections were heated by hot water from a hot bath, and the heat was removed from the condenser sections by cold water from a cool bath. The adiabatic sections were well insulated with foam insulators. The heat-transfer performance of the various systems was evaluated in terms of the rate of heat transferred to the cold water at the condenser. The results showed that the heat-transfer performance of an HCLOHP/CV system could be improved by decreasing the evaporator length. The highest performance of all tested systems was obtained when the maximum number of system check valves was 2. The maximum heat flux occurred with a 2 mm inner diameter tube, and R123 was determined to be the most suitable working fluid

  3. Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket Analysis Developments

    Belair, Michael; Lavelle, Thomas; Saimento, Charles; Juhasz, Albert; Stewart, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars and beyond. One concept of operations for these missions utilizes the nuclear reactor to generate electrical power during coast phases, known as bimodal operation. This presentation focuses on the systems modeling and analysis efforts for a NERVA derived concept. The NERVA bimodal operation derives the thermal energy from the core tie tube elements. Recent analysis has shown potential temperature distributions in the tie tube elements that may limit the thermodynamic efficiency of the closed Brayton cycle used to generate electricity with the current design. The results of this analysis are discussed as well as the potential implications to a bimodal NERVA type reactor.

  4. Corredor Bimodal Cafetero

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    El Corredor Bimodal Cafetero es un proyecto de infraestructura estratégica que articula la Hidrovía del Magdalena con el Corredor Férreo del río Cauca, inscrito en el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2014/2018 y financiable con la salida de 30 mil toneladas diarias de carbón andino a la cuenca del Pacífico. Incluye el Túnel Cumanday para cruzar la Cordillera Central, el Ferrocarril Cafetero de 150 km y 3% de pendiente entre La Dorada y el Km 41, y la Transversal Cafetera de 108 km para una vía de...

  5. Low-photon-number optical switch and AND/OR logic gates based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system.

    Ma, Shen; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Wen; Peng, Yi-Wei; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Yu-Min

    2016-01-11

    We propose a new scheme based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system to realize all-optical switch and logic gates in low-photon-number regime. Suppression of mode transmission due to the destructive interference effect is theoretically demonstrated by driving the cavity with two orthogonally polarized pulsed lasers at certain pulse delay. The transmitted mode can be selected by designing laser pulse sequence. The optical switch with high on-off ratio emerges when considering one driving laser as the control. Moreover, the AND/OR logic gates based on photon polarization are achieved by cascading the coupling system. Both proposed optical switch and logic gates work well in ultra-low energy magnitude. Our work may enable various applications of all-optical computing and quantum information processing.

  6. Electric discharge effects on a XeCl pumped S2 heat-pipe laser

    Killeen, K.; Greenberg, K.; Verdeyen, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that an electrical discharge can dissociate the higher-order sulfur molecules S(3-8) into dimers S2 and thus create the proper environment for efficient conversion of XeCl radiation at 308 nm to the blue-green. The use of a heat-pipe configuration greatly alleviates the technological problems.

  7. Bimodal Influence of Vitamin D in Host Response to Systemic Candida Infection-Vitamin D Dose Matters

    Lim, J.H.N.; Ravikumar, S.; Wang, Y.M.; Thamboo, T.P.; Ong, L.; Chen, J.; Goh, J.G.; Tay, S.H.; Chengchen, L.; Win, M.S.; Leong, W.; Lau, T.; Foo, R.; Mirza, H.; Tan, K.S.; Sethi, S.; Khoo, A.L.; Chng, W.J.; Osato, M.; Netea, M.G.; Chai, L.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D level is linked to susceptibility to infections, but its relevance in candidemia is unknown. We aimed to investigate the in vivo sequelae of vitamin D3 supplementation in systemic Candida infection. Implicating the role of vitamin D in Candida infections, we showed that candidemic patients

  8. On the impact of the Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS on the biogeochemistry and biology of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas (Eastern Mediterranean

    G. Civitarese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 20-year time-series of the vertically averaged salinity and nutrient data in the Southern Adriatic shows that the two parameters are subject to strong decadal variability. In addition, it is documented that nutrient and salinity variations are out of phase. Nutrients in the Ionian and in the Adriatic vary in parallel except that generally the nutrient content in the Adriatic is lower than in the Ionian, a fact that has been attributed to primary producer consumption following the winter convective mixing. As shown earlier, North Ionian Gyre (NIG changes its circulation sense on a decadal scale due to the Bimodal Oscillating System, i.e. the feedback mechanism between the Adriatic and Ionian. Cyclonic circulation causes a downwelling of the nitracline along the borders of the NIG and a decrease in the nutrient content of the water flowing into the Adriatic across the Otranto Strait, and vice versa. In addition, the highly oligotrophic central area of the Ionian shows annual blooms only during cyclonic NIG circulation. Inversion of the sense of the NIG results in the advection of Modified Atlantic Water or of the Levantine/Eastern Mediterranean waters in the Adriatic. Here, we show that the presence of allochtonous organisms from Atlantic/Western Mediterranean and Eastern Mediterranean/temperate zone in the Adriatic are concurrent with the anticyclonic and cyclonic circulations of the NIG, respectively. On the basis of the results presented, a revision of the theory of Adriatic ingressions formulated in the early 1950s is proposed.

  9. Bimodal Networks as Candidates for Electroactive Polymers

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela

    An alternative network formulation method was adopted in order to obtain a different type of silicone based elastomeric systems - the so-called bimodal networks - using two vinyl-terminated polydimethyl siloxanes (PDMS) of different molecular weight, a labelled crosslinker (3 or 4-functional), an...... themselves between the long chains and show how this leads to unexpectedly good properties for DEAP purposes due both to the low extensibility of the short chains that attach strongly the long chains and to the extensibility of the last ones that retards the rupture process....

  10. Bimodality in heavy ions collisions: systematic and comparisons

    Mercier, D.

    2008-11-01

    During the last few years, bi-modality in heavy ions collisions has been observed for different systems, on large energy scale (from 35 MeV/u up to 1 GeV/u). In this thesis, the bimodal behaviour of the largest fragment distribution (Zmax) is studied for different INDRA data sets. For peripheral collisions (Au+Au from 60 to 150 MeV/u, Xe+Sn 80-100 MeV/u), the influence of sorting and selections on bi-modality is tested. Then, two different approaches based on models are considered. In the first one (ELIE), bi-modality would reflect mainly the collision geometry and the Fermi motion of the nucleon. In the second one (SMM), bi-modality would reflect a phase transition of nuclear matter. The data are in favour of the second model. Zmax can then be considered as an order parameter of the transition. A re-weighting procedure producing a flat excitation energy distribution is used to achieve comparisons between various bombarding energies and theoretical predictions based on a canonical approach. A latent heat of the transition is extracted. For central collisions (Ni+Ni from 32 to 74 MeV/u and Xe+Sn from 25 to 50 MeV/u) single source events are isolated by a Discriminant Factor Analysis. Bi-modality is then looked for, in cumulating the different incident energies and in applying the re-weighting procedure of the corresponding excitation energy as done for peripheral collisions. The bi-modality behaviour is less manifest for central collisions than for peripheral ones. The possible reasons of this difference are discussed. (author)

  11. The agnion Heatpipe-Reformer - operating experiences and evaluation of fuel conversion and syngas composition

    Gallmetzer, Georg; Ackermann, Pascal [Highterm Research GmbH, Hettenshausen (Germany); Schweiger, Andreas; Kienberger, Thomas [Highterm Research GmbH, Graz (Austria); Groebl, Thomas; Walter, Heimo [Technische Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Energietechnik und Thermodynamik, Wien (Austria); Zankl, Markus; Kroener, Martin [Agnion Technologies GmbH, Hettenshausen (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Fluidized bed gasification of solid fuels is considered as one of the core technologies for future sustainable energy supply. Whereas autothermal oxygen-driven gasification is applied in large-scale substitute natural gas (SNG) and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants or small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants, the allothermal steam-reforming process of the agnion Heatpipe-Reformer is designed for cost- and fuel-efficient syngas generation at small scales for distributed applications. The Heatpipe-Reformer's pressurized syngas generation provides a number of benefits for SNG, biomass to liquid (BTL) and CHP applications. A modified gas engine concept uses the pressurized and hydrogen-rich syngas for increased performance and tar tolerance at decreased capital expenses. Agnion has installed and operated a 500-kW thermal input pilot plant in Pfaffenhofen, Germany, over the last 2 years, showing stable operation over a variety of operating points. The syngas composition has been measured at values expected by thermodynamic models. An influence of the steam-to-fuel ratio and reformer temperature was observed. Tar and sulphur contents have been monitored and correlated to operation parameters, showing influences on stoichiometry and carbon conversion. The mass and energy streams of the plant were balanced. One of the main observations in the monitoring programme is the fact that syngas output, efficiency and syngas quality correlate to high values if the carbon conversion is high. Carbon conversion rates and cold gas efficiencies are comparably high in respect to today's processes, promising economic and fuel-efficient operation of the Heatpipe-Reformer applications. (orig.)

  12. THE METALLICITY BIMODALITY OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS: A TEST OF GALAXY ASSEMBLY AND OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    Tonini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    We build a theoretical model to study the origin of the globular cluster metallicity bimodality in the hierarchical galaxy assembly scenario. The model is based on empirical relations such as the galaxy mass-metallicity relation [O/H]-M star as a function of redshift, and on the observed galaxy stellar mass function up to redshift z ∼ 4. We make use of the theoretical merger rates as a function of mass and redshift from the Millennium simulation to build galaxy merger trees. We derive a new galaxy [Fe/H]-M star relation as a function of redshift, and by assuming that globular clusters share the metallicity of their original parent galaxy at the time of their formation, we populate the merger tree with globular clusters. We perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations of the galaxy hierarchical assembly, and study the properties of the final globular cluster population as a function of galaxy mass, assembly and star formation history, and under different assumptions for the evolution of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation. The main results and predictions of the model are the following. (1) The hierarchical clustering scenario naturally predicts a metallicity bimodality in the galaxy globular cluster population, where the metal-rich subpopulation is composed of globular clusters formed in the galaxy main progenitor around redshift z ∼ 2, and the metal-poor subpopulation is composed of clusters accreted from satellites, and formed at redshifts z ∼ 3-4. (2) The model reproduces the observed relations by Peng et al. for the metallicities of the metal-rich and metal-poor globular cluster subpopulations as a function of galaxy mass; the positions of the metal-poor and metal-rich peaks depend exclusively on the evolution of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation and the [O/Fe], both of which can be constrained by this method. In particular, we find that the galaxy [O/Fe] evolves linearly with redshift from a value of ∼0.5 at redshift z ∼ 4 to a value of ∼0.1 at

  13. Heat-pipe assisted thermoelectric generators for exhaust gas applications

    Gonçalves, L. M.; Martins, Jorge; Antunes, Joaquim; Rocha, Romeu; Brito, F. P.

    2012-01-01

    Millions of hybrid cars are already running on our roads with the purpose of reducing fossil fuel dependence. One of their main advantages is the recovery of wasted energy, namely by brake recovery. However, there are other sources of wasted energy in a car powered by an internal combustion engine, such as the heat lost through the cooling system, lubrication system (oil coolers) and in the exhaust system. These energies can be recuperated by the use of thermoelectric generators (TEG) based o...

  14. Survey of heat-pipe application under nuclear environment

    Tsuyuzaki, Noriyoshi; Saito, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshizo; Hishida, Makoto; Negishi, Kanji.

    1986-11-01

    Heat pipes today are employed in a wide variety of special heat transfer applications including nuclear reactor. In this nuclear technology area in Japan, A headway speed of the heat pipe application technique is not so high because of safety confirmation and investigation under each developing step. Especially, the outline of space craft is a tendency to increase the size. Therefore, the power supply is also tendency to increase the outlet power and keep the long life. Under SP-100 project, the development of nuclear power supply system which power is 1400 - 1600 KW thermal and 100 KW electric power is steadily in progress. Many heat pipes are adopted for thermionic conversion and coolant system in order to construct more safety and light weight system for the project. This paper describes the survey of the heat pipe applications under the present and future condition for nuclear environment. (author)

  15. Status of high-temperature heat-pipe technology

    Ranken, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of heat pipes to nuclear reactor space power systems. Characteristics of the device that favor such an application are described and recent results of current technology development programs are presented. Research areas that will need to be addressed in demonstrating that adequate lifetimes can be achieved with evaporation/condensation cycles operating at high temperatures in a reactor environment are also discussed

  16. A HYPOTHESIS FOR THE COLOR BIMODALITY OF JUPITER TROJANS

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E., E-mail: iwong@caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    One of the most enigmatic and hitherto unexplained properties of Jupiter Trojans is their bimodal color distribution. This bimodality is indicative of two sub-populations within the Trojans, which have distinct size distributions. In this paper, we present a simple, plausible hypothesis for the origin and evolution of the two Trojan color sub-populations. In the framework of dynamical instability models of early solar system evolution, which suggest a common primordial progenitor population for both Trojans and Kuiper Belt objects, we use observational constraints to assert that the color bimodalities evident in both minor body populations developed within the primordial population prior to the onset of instability. We show that, beginning with an initial composition of rock and ices, location-dependent volatile loss through sublimation in this primordial population could have led to sharp changes in the surface composition with heliocentric distance. We propose that the depletion or retention of H{sub 2}S ice on the surface of these objects was the key factor in creating an initial color bimodality. Objects that retained H{sub 2}S on their surfaces developed characteristically redder colors upon irradiation than those that did not. After the bodies from the primordial population were scattered and emplaced into their current positions, they preserved this primordial color bimodality to the present day. We explore predictions of the volatile loss model—in particular, the effect of collisions within the Trojan population on the size distributions of the two sub-populations—and propose further experimental and observational tests of our hypothesis.

  17. A HYPOTHESIS FOR THE COLOR BIMODALITY OF JUPITER TROJANS

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most enigmatic and hitherto unexplained properties of Jupiter Trojans is their bimodal color distribution. This bimodality is indicative of two sub-populations within the Trojans, which have distinct size distributions. In this paper, we present a simple, plausible hypothesis for the origin and evolution of the two Trojan color sub-populations. In the framework of dynamical instability models of early solar system evolution, which suggest a common primordial progenitor population for both Trojans and Kuiper Belt objects, we use observational constraints to assert that the color bimodalities evident in both minor body populations developed within the primordial population prior to the onset of instability. We show that, beginning with an initial composition of rock and ices, location-dependent volatile loss through sublimation in this primordial population could have led to sharp changes in the surface composition with heliocentric distance. We propose that the depletion or retention of H 2 S ice on the surface of these objects was the key factor in creating an initial color bimodality. Objects that retained H 2 S on their surfaces developed characteristically redder colors upon irradiation than those that did not. After the bodies from the primordial population were scattered and emplaced into their current positions, they preserved this primordial color bimodality to the present day. We explore predictions of the volatile loss model—in particular, the effect of collisions within the Trojan population on the size distributions of the two sub-populations—and propose further experimental and observational tests of our hypothesis.

  18. Solid-Core Heat-Pipe Nuclear Batterly Type Reactor

    Ehud Greenspan

    2008-01-01

    This project was devoted to a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of designing an Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) reactor to have a solid core from which heat is removed by liquid-metal heat pipes (HP). Like the SAFE 400 space nuclear reactor core, the HPENHS core is comprised of fuel rods and HPs embedded in a solid structure arranged in a hexagonal lattice in a 3:1 ratio. The core is oriented horizontally and has a square rather cylindrical cross section for effective heat transfer. The HPs extend from the two axial reflectors in which the fission gas plena are embedded and transfer heat to an intermediate coolant that flows by natural-circulation. The HP-ENHS is designed to preserve many features of the ENHS including 20-year operation without refueling, very small excess reactivity throughout life, natural circulation cooling, walkaway passive safety, and robust proliferation resistance. The target power level and specific power of the HP-ENHS reactor are those of the reference ENHS reactor. Compared to previous ENHS reactor designs utilizing a lead or lead-bismuth alloy natural circulation cooling system, the HP-ENHS reactor offers a number of advantageous features including: (1) significantly enhanced passive decay heat removal capability; (2) no positive void reactivity coefficients; (3) relatively lower corrosion of the cladding (4) a core that is more robust for transportation; (5) higher temperature potentially offering higher efficiency and hydrogen production capability. This preliminary study focuses on five areas: material compatibility analysis, HP performance analysis, neutronic analysis, thermal-hydraulic analysis and safety analysis. Of the four high-temperature structural materials evaluated, Mo TZM alloy is the preferred choice; its upper estimated feasible operating temperature is 1350 K. HP performance is evaluated as a function of working fluid type, operating temperature, wick design and HP diameter and length. Sodium is the

  19. Irreducible complexity of iterated symmetric bimodal maps

    J. P. Lampreia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a tree structure for the iterates of symmetric bimodal maps and identify a subset which we prove to be isomorphic to the family of unimodal maps. This subset is used as a second factor for a ∗-product that we define in the space of bimodal kneading sequences. Finally, we give some properties for this product and study the ∗-product induced on the associated Markov shifts.

  20. NERVA-Derived Concept for a Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket

    Fusselman, Steven P.; Frye, Patrick E.; Gunn, Stanley V.; Morrison, Calvin Q.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket is an enabling technology for human exploration missions. The 'bimodal' NTR (BNTR) provides a novel approach to meeting both propulsion and power requirements of future manned and robotic missions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tie-tube cooling configurations, NTR performance, Brayton cycle performance, and LOX-Augmented NTR (LANTR) feasibility to arrive at a point of departure BNTR configuration for subsequent system definition

  1. Mobile Education: Towards Affective Bi-modal Interaction for Adaptivity

    Efthymios Alepis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is education. However one criticism in mobile education is that students receive impersonal teaching. Affective computing may give a solution to this problem. In this paper we describe an affective bi-modal educational system for mobile devices. In our research we describe a novel approach of combining information from two modalities namely the keyboard and the microphone through a multi-criteria decision making theory.

  2. Evidence for a bimodal distribution in human communication.

    Wu, Ye; Zhou, Changsong; Xiao, Jinghua; Kurths, Jürgen; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2010-11-02

    Interacting human activities underlie the patterns of many social, technological, and economic phenomena. Here we present clear empirical evidence from Short Message correspondence that observed human actions are the result of the interplay of three basic ingredients: Poisson initiation of tasks and decision making for task execution in individual humans as well as interaction among individuals. This interplay leads to new types of interevent time distribution, neither completely Poisson nor power-law, but a bimodal combination of them. We show that the events can be separated into independent bursts which are generated by frequent mutual interactions in short times following random initiations of communications in longer times by the individuals. We introduce a minimal model of two interacting priority queues incorporating the three basic ingredients which fits well the distributions using the parameters extracted from the empirical data. The model can also embrace a range of realistic social interacting systems such as e-mail and letter communications when taking the time scale of processing into account. Our findings provide insight into various human activities both at the individual and network level. Our analysis and modeling of bimodal activity in human communication from the viewpoint of the interplay between processes of different time scales is likely to shed light on bimodal phenomena in other complex systems, such as interevent times in earthquakes, rainfall, forest fire, and economic systems, etc.

  3. The Development of Bimodal Bilingualism: Implications for Linguistic Theory.

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of linguistic phenomena contribute to our understanding of the architecture of the human linguistic system. In this paper we present a proposal dubbed Language Synthesis to capture bilingual phenomena including code-switching and 'transfer' as automatic consequences of the addition of a second language, using basic concepts of Minimalism and Distributed Morphology. Bimodal bilinguals, who use a sign language and a spoken language, provide a new type of evidence regarding possible bilingual phenomena, namely code-blending, the simultaneous production of (aspects of) a message in both speech and sign. We argue that code-blending also follows naturally once a second articulatory interface is added to the model. Several different types of code-blending are discussed in connection to the predictions of the Synthesis model. Our primary data come from children developing as bimodal bilinguals, but our proposal is intended to capture a wide range of bilingual effects across any language pair.

  4. Heat-pipe effect on the transport of gaseous radionuclides released from a nuclear waste container

    Zhou, W.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1990-11-01

    When an unsaturated porous medium is subjected to a temperature gradient and the temperature is sufficiently high, vadose water is heated and vaporizes. Vapor flows under its pressure gradient towards colder regions where it condenses. Vaporization and condensation produce a liquid saturation gradient, creating a capillary pressure gradient inside the porous medium. Condensate flows towards the hot end under the influence of a capillary pressure gradient. This is a heat pipe in an unsaturated porous medium. We study analytically the transport of gaseous species released from a spent-fuel waste package, as affected by a time-dependent heat pipe in an unsaturated rock. For parameter values typical of a potential repository in partially saturated fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, we found that a heat pipe develops shortly after waste is buried, and the heat-pipe's spatial extent is time-dependent. Water vapor movements produced by the heat pipe can significantly affect the migration of gaseous radionuclides. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Beta-binomial regression and bimodal utilization.

    Liu, Chuan-Fen; Burgess, James F; Manning, Willard G; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2013-10-01

    To illustrate how the analysis of bimodal U-shaped distributed utilization can be modeled with beta-binomial regression, which is rarely used in health services research. Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data and Medicare claims in 2001-2004 for 11,123 Medicare-eligible VA primary care users in 2000. We compared means and distributions of VA reliance (the proportion of all VA/Medicare primary care visits occurring in VA) predicted from beta-binomial, binomial, and ordinary least-squares (OLS) models. Beta-binomial model fits the bimodal distribution of VA reliance better than binomial and OLS models due to the nondependence on normality and the greater flexibility in shape parameters. Increased awareness of beta-binomial regression may help analysts apply appropriate methods to outcomes with bimodal or U-shaped distributions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Language choice in bimodal bilingual development

    Diane eLillo-Martin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual children develop sensitivity to the language used by their interlocutors at an early age, reflected in differential use of each language by the child depending on their interlocutor. Factors such as discourse context and relative language dominance in the community may mediate the degree of language differentiation in preschool age children.Bimodal bilingual children, acquiring both a sign language and a spoken language, have an even more complex situation. Their Deaf parents vary considerably in access to the spoken language. Furthermore, in addition to code-mixing and code-switching, they use code-blending – expressions in both speech and sign simultaneously – an option uniquely available to bimodal bilinguals. Code-blending is analogous to code-switching sociolinguistically, but is also a way to communicate without suppressing one language. For adult bimodal bilinguals, complete suppression of the non-selected language is cognitively demanding. We expect that bimodal bilingual children also find suppression difficult, and use blending rather than suppression in some contexts. We also expect relative community language dominance to be a factor in children’s language choices.This study analyzes longitudinal spontaneous production data from four bimodal bilingual children and their Deaf and hearing interlocutors. Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors. However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions. All four produced bimodal utterances in both, but more frequently in the sign sessions, potentially because they find suppression of the dominant language more difficult.Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant

  7. Bimodality and negative heat capacity in multifragmentation

    Tamain, B.; Bougault, R.; Lopez, O.; Pichon, M.

    2003-01-01

    This contribution addresses the question of the possible link between multifragmentation and the liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Bi-modality seems to be a robust signal of this link in the sense that theoretical calculations indicate that it is preserved even if a sizeable fraction of the available energy has not been shared among all the degrees of freedom. The corresponding measured properties are coherent with what is expected in a liquid-gas phase transition picture. Moreover, bi-modality and negative heat capacity are observed for the same set of events. (authors)

  8. Refining Bimodal Microstructure of Materials with MSTRUCT

    Matěj, Z.; Kadlecová, A.; Janeček, M.; Matějová, Lenka; Dopita, M.; Kužel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, S2 (2014), S35-S41 ISSN 0885-7156 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23274S Grant - others:UK(CZ) UNCE 204023/2012 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : XRD * bimodal * crystallite size Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.636, year: 2014

  9. A course in bimodal provability logic

    Visser, A.

    The aim of the present paper is twofold: first I am somewhat dissatisfied with current treatments of Bimodal Provability Logic: the models employed there are singled out by certain syntactical conditions, moreover they validate the logics under consideration only locally. In this paper I give a

  10. Deaf Children's Bimodal Bilingualism and Education

    Swanwick, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the research into deaf children's bilingualism and bilingual education through a synthesis of studies published over the last 15 years. This review brings together the linguistic and pedagogical work on bimodal bilingualism to inform educational practice. The first section of the review provides a synthesis of…

  11. Efficiently-cooled plasmonic amorphous silicon solar cells integrated with a nano-coated heat-pipe plate

    Zhang, Yinan; Du, Yanping; Shum, Clifford; Cai, Boyuan; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Chen, Xi; Duck, Benjamin; Fell, Christopher; Zhu, Yonggang; Gu, Min

    2016-04-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) are emerging as a major alternative energy source. The cost of PV electricity depends on the efficiency of conversion of light to electricity. Despite of steady growth in the efficiency for several decades, little has been achieved to reduce the impact of real-world operating temperatures on this efficiency. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient cooling solution to the recently emerging high performance plasmonic solar cell technology by integrating an advanced nano-coated heat-pipe plate. This thermal cooling technology, efficient for both summer and winter time, demonstrates the heat transportation capability up to ten times higher than those of the metal plate and the conventional wickless heat-pipe plates. The reduction in temperature rise of the plasmonic solar cells operating under one sun condition can be as high as 46%, leading to an approximate 56% recovery in efficiency, which dramatically increases the energy yield of the plasmonic solar cells. This newly-developed, thermally-managed plasmonic solar cell device significantly extends the application scope of PV for highly efficient solar energy conversion.

  12. Small Low Mass Advanced PBR's for Bi-Modal Operation

    Ludewig, Hans; Todosow, Michael; Powell, James R.

    1994-07-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of a low mass bi-modal reactor for use as a propulsion unit and as a heat source for generating electricity. This reactor is based on the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. It will be able to generate both thrust and electricity simultaneously. This assessment indicates that the reactor can generate approximately 6.8 (4) N of thrust using hydrogen as a coolant, and 100 KWe using a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion system. Two cooling paths pass through the reactor allowing simultaneous operation of both modes. The development of all the components for this reactor are within the experience base of the NTP project.

  13. Dynamical and statistical bimodality in nuclear fragmentation

    Mallik, S.; Chaudhuri, G.; Gulminelli, F.

    2018-02-01

    The origin of bimodal behavior in the residue distribution experimentally measured in heavy ion reactions is reexamined using Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck simulations. We suggest that, depending on the incident energy and impact parameter of the reaction, both entrance channel and exit channel effects can be at the origin of the observed behavior. Specifically, fluctuations in the reaction mechanism induced by fluctuations in the collision rate, as well as thermal bimodality directly linked to the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are observed in our simulations. Both phenomenologies were previously proposed in the literature but presented as incompatible and contradictory interpretations of the experimental measurements. These results indicate that heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies can be viewed as a powerful tool to study both bifurcations induced by out-of-equilibrium critical phenomena, as well as finite-size precursors of thermal phase transitions.

  14. A bimodal flexible distribution for lifetime data

    Ramires, Thiago G.; Ortega, Edwin M. M.; Cordeiro, Gauss M.; Hens, Niel

    2016-01-01

    A four-parameter extended bimodal lifetime model called the exponentiated log-sinh Cauchy distribution is proposed. It extends the log-sinh Cauchy and folded Cauchy distributions. We derive some of its mathematical properties including explicit expressions for the ordinary moments and generating and quantile functions. The method of maximum likelihood is used to estimate the model parameters. We implement the fit of the model in the GAMLSS package and provide the codes. The flexibility of the...

  15. Merging history of three bimodal clusters

    Maurogordato, S.; Sauvageot, J. L.; Bourdin, H.; Cappi, A.; Benoist, C.; Ferrari, C.; Mars, G.; Houairi, K.

    2011-01-01

    We present a combined X-ray and optical analysis of three bimodal galaxy clusters selected as merging candidates at z ~ 0.1. These targets are part of MUSIC (MUlti-Wavelength Sample of Interacting Clusters), which is a general project designed to study the physics of merging clusters by means of multi-wavelength observations. Observations include spectro-imaging with XMM-Newton EPIC camera, multi-object spectroscopy (260 new redshifts), and wide-field imaging at the ESO 3.6 m and 2.2 m telescopes. We build a global picture of these clusters using X-ray luminosity and temperature maps together with galaxy density and velocity distributions. Idealized numerical simulations were used to constrain the merging scenario for each system. We show that A2933 is very likely an equal-mass advanced pre-merger ~200 Myr before the core collapse, while A2440 and A2384 are post-merger systems (~450 Myr and ~1.5 Gyr after core collapse, respectively). In the case of A2384, we detect a spectacular filament of galaxies and gas spreading over more than 1 h-1 Mpc, which we infer to have been stripped during the previous collision. The analysis of the MUSIC sample allows us to outline some general properties of merging clusters: a strong luminosity segregation of galaxies in recent post-mergers; the existence of preferential axes - corresponding to the merging directions - along which the BCGs and structures on various scales are aligned; the concomitance, in most major merger cases, of secondary merging or accretion events, with groups infalling onto the main cluster, and in some cases the evidence of previous merging episodes in one of the main components. These results are in good agreement with the hierarchical scenario of structure formation, in which clusters are expected to form by successive merging events, and matter is accreted along large-scale filaments. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory, Chile (programs 072.A-0595, 075.A-0264, and 079.A-0425

  16. Salinity in the Sicily Channel corroborates the role of the Adriatic–Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS in shaping the decadal variability of the Mediterranean overturning circulation

    M. Gačić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that the salinity in the Levantine basin depends on the intensity of the Atlantic water (AW inflow. Moreover, its spreading eastward (to the Levantine basin or northward (to the Ionian Sea is determined by the Ionian circulation pattern, i.e. by the Adriatic–Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS mechanism. The aim of this paper is to relate salinity variations in the Levantine basin to the salt content variability in the core of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW passing through the Sicily Channel (SC and its possible impact on the Western Mediterranean Transition – WMT (i.e. the sudden salinity and temperature increase in the deep layer of the Algero-Provençal subbasin occurring since 2004. From the historical data set MEDAR/MEDATLAS in the Levantine and northern Ionian, we present evidence of decadal occurrences of extreme salinities associated with the varying influx of AW over the last 60 yr. Furthermore, we show that the salinity variations in the two subbasins are out of phase. High-salinity episodes in the Levantine are a pre-conditioning for the potential occurrence of the events like the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT. Cross-correlation between the salinity time series in the Levantine basin and in the SC suggests that the travel time of the LIW is between 10 and 13 yr. Comparing the timing of the salinity increase associated with the WMT and the salinity in the LIW core in the SC, we estimate that the total time interval needed for the signal propagating from the Levantine to reach the deep mixed layers of the Algero-Provençal subbasin is about 25 yr. We also showed that the extra salt input from the eastern Mediterranean contribute up to about 60% to the salt content increase in the bottom layer of the western Mediterranean.

  17. Gadolinium-Doped Gallic Acid-Zinc/Aluminium-Layered Double Hydroxide/Gold Theranostic Nanoparticles for a Bimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Drug Delivery System

    Sani Usman, Muhammad; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Fakurazi, Sharida; Ahmad Saad, Fathinul Fikri

    2017-01-01

    We have developed gadolinium-based theranostic nanoparticles for co-delivery of drug and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent using Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide as the nanocarrier platform, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, gallic acid (GA) as therapeutic agent, and Gd(NO3)3 as diagnostic agent. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were grown on the system to support the contrast for MRI imaging. The nanoparticles were characterized using techniques such as Hi-TEM, XRD, ICP-ES. Kinetic release study of the GA from the nanoparticles showed about 70% of GA was released over a period of 72 h. The in vitro cell viability test for the nanoparticles showed relatively low toxicity to human cell lines (3T3) and improved toxicity on cancerous cell lines (HepG2). A preliminary contrast property test of the nanoparticles, tested on a 3 Tesla MRI machine at various concentrations of GAGZAu and water (as a reference) indicates that the nanoparticles have a promising dual diagnostic and therapeutic features to further develop a better future for clinical remedy for cancer treatment. PMID:28858229

  18. Gadolinium-Doped Gallic Acid-Zinc/Aluminium-Layered Double Hydroxide/Gold Theranostic Nanoparticles for a Bimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Drug Delivery System.

    Sani Usman, Muhammad; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Fakurazi, Sharida; Masarudin, Mas Jaffri; Ahmad Saad, Fathinul Fikri

    2017-08-31

    We have developed gadolinium-based theranostic nanoparticles for co-delivery of drug and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent using Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide as the nanocarrier platform, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, gallic acid (GA) as therapeutic agent, and Gd(NO₃)₃ as diagnostic agent. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were grown on the system to support the contrast for MRI imaging. The nanoparticles were characterized using techniques such as Hi-TEM, XRD, ICP-ES. Kinetic release study of the GA from the nanoparticles showed about 70% of GA was released over a period of 72 h. The in vitro cell viability test for the nanoparticles showed relatively low toxicity to human cell lines (3T3) and improved toxicity on cancerous cell lines (HepG2). A preliminary contrast property test of the nanoparticles, tested on a 3 Tesla MRI machine at various concentrations of GAGZAu and water (as a reference) indicates that the nanoparticles have a promising dual diagnostic and therapeutic features to further develop a better future for clinical remedy for cancer treatment.

  19. Powder compaction in systems of bimodal distribution

    Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Whittemore, O. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The compaction of mixtures involving different particle sizes is discussed. The various stages of the compaction process include the rearrangement of particles, the filling of the interstices of the large particles by the smaller ones, and the change in particle size and shape upon further densification through the application of pressure. Experimental approaches and equipment used for compacting material are discussed together with the theoretical relations of the compacting process.

  20. Developing a theoretical model to investigate thermal performance of a thin membrane heat-pipe solar collector

    Riffat, S.B.; Zhao, X.; Doherty, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    A thin membrane heat-pipe solar collector was designed and constructed to allow heat from solar radiation to be collected at a relatively high efficiency while keeping the capital cost low. A theoretical model incorporating a set of heat balance equations was developed to analyse heat transfer processes occurring in separate regions of the collector, i.e., the top cover, absorber and condenser/manifold areas, and examine their relationship. The thermal performance of the collector was investigated using the theoretical model. The modelling predictions were validated using the experimental data from a referred source. The test efficiency was found to be in the range 40-70%, which is a bitter lower than the values predicted by modelling. The factors influencing these results were investigated

  1. Knowledge Engineering Aspects of Affective Bi-Modal Educational Applications

    Alepis, Efthymios; Virvou, Maria; Kabassi, Katerina

    This paper analyses the knowledge and software engineering aspects of educational applications that provide affective bi-modal human-computer interaction. For this purpose, a system that provides affective interaction based on evidence from two different modes has been developed. More specifically, the system's inferences about students' emotions are based on user input evidence from the keyboard and the microphone. Evidence from these two modes is combined by a user modelling component that incorporates user stereotypes as well as a multi criteria decision making theory. The mechanism that integrates the inferences from the two modes has been based on the results of two empirical studies that were conducted in the context of knowledge engineering of the system. The evaluation of the developed system showed significant improvements in the recognition of the emotional states of users.

  2. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    Kouraytem, Nadia; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Marston, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  3. Transfer learning for bimodal biometrics recognition

    Dan, Zhiping; Sun, Shuifa; Chen, Yanfei; Gan, Haitao

    2013-10-01

    Biometrics recognition aims to identify and predict new personal identities based on their existing knowledge. As the use of multiple biometric traits of the individual may enables more information to be used for recognition, it has been proved that multi-biometrics can produce higher accuracy than single biometrics. However, a common problem with traditional machine learning is that the training and test data should be in the same feature space, and have the same underlying distribution. If the distributions and features are different between training and future data, the model performance often drops. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning method for face recognition on bimodal biometrics. The training and test samples of bimodal biometric images are composed of the visible light face images and the infrared face images. Our algorithm transfers the knowledge across feature spaces, relaxing the assumption of same feature space as well as same underlying distribution by automatically learning a mapping between two different but somewhat similar face images. According to the experiments in the face images, the results show that the accuracy of face recognition has been greatly improved by the proposed method compared with the other previous methods. It demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  4. Are star formation rates of galaxies bimodal?

    Feldmann, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Star formation rate (SFR) distributions of galaxies are often assumed to be bimodal with modes corresponding to star-forming and quiescent galaxies, respectively. Both classes of galaxies are typically studied separately, and SFR distributions of star-forming galaxies are commonly modelled as lognormals. Using both observational data and results from numerical simulations, I argue that this division into star-forming and quiescent galaxies is unnecessary from a theoretical point of view and that the SFR distributions of the whole population can be well fitted by zero-inflated negative binomial distributions. This family of distributions has three parameters that determine the average SFR of the galaxies in the sample, the scatter relative to the star-forming sequence and the fraction of galaxies with zero SFRs, respectively. The proposed distributions naturally account for (I) the discrete nature of star formation, (II) the presence of 'dead' galaxies with zero SFRs and (III) asymmetric scatter. Excluding 'dead' galaxies, the distribution of log SFR is unimodal with a peak at the star-forming sequence and an extended tail towards low SFRs. However, uncertainties and biases in the SFR measurements can create the appearance of a bimodal distribution.

  5. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    Kouraytem, N.

    2016-11-07

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  6. Speech Recognition and Cognitive Skills in Bimodal Cochlear Implant Users

    Hua, Håkan; Johansson, Björn; Magnusson, Lennart; Lyxell, Björn; Ellis, Rachel J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relation between speech recognition and cognitive skills in bimodal cochlear implant (CI) and hearing aid users. Method: Seventeen bimodal CI users (28-74 years) were recruited to the study. Speech recognition tests were carried out in quiet and in noise. The cognitive tests employed included the Reading Span Test and the…

  7. Disentangling internal and external factors in bimodal acquisition

    Hulk, A.; Van den Bogaerde, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary we address some of the internal and external factors which are generally found to interact with purely linguistic factors in the languages of bimodal children, and which we think should be taken into account while analysing the bimodal data.

  8. Bimodal magmatism produced by progressively inhibited crustal assimilation 2 (PICA)

    Meade, F.C.; Troll, V.R.; Ellam, R.M.; Freda, C.; Font Morales, L.; Donaldson, C.H.; Klonowska, I.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of bimodal (mafic-felsic) rock suites is a fundamental question in volcanology. Here we use major and trace elements, high-resolution Sr, Nd and Pb isotope analyses, experimental petrology and thermodynamic modelling to investigate bimodal magmatism at the iconic Carlingford Igneous

  9. Bimodality in macroscopic dynamics of nuclear fission

    Bastrukov, S.I.; Salamatin, V.S.; Strteltsova, O.I.; Molodtsova, I.V.; Podgainy, D.V.; )

    2000-01-01

    The elastodynamic collective model of nuclear fission is outlined whose underlying idea is that the stiff structure of nuclear shells imparts to nucleus properties typical of a small piece of an elastic solid. Emphasis is placed on the macroscopic dynamics of nuclear deformations resulting in fission by two energetically different modes. The low-energy S-mode is the fission due to disruption of elongated quadrupole spheroidal shape. The characteristic features of the high-energy T-mode of division by means of torsional shear deformations is the compact scission configuration. Analytic and numerical estimates for the macroscopic fission-barrier heights are presented, followed by discussion of fingerprints of the above dynamical bimodality in the available data [ru

  10. Movement, drivers and bimodality of the South Asian High

    M. Nützel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The South Asian High (SAH is an important component of the summer monsoon system in Asia. In this study we investigate the location and drivers of the SAH at 100 hPa during the boreal summers of 1979 to 2014 on interannual, seasonal and synoptic timescales using seven reanalyses and observational data. Our comparison of the different reanalyses focuses especially on the bimodality of the SAH, i.e. the two preferred modes of the SAH centre location: the Iranian Plateau to the west and the Tibetan Plateau to the east. We find that only the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR reanalysis shows a clear bimodal structure of the SAH centre distribution with respect to daily and pentad (5 day mean data. Furthermore, the distribution of the SAH centre location is highly variable from year to year. As in simple model studies, which connect the SAH to heating in the tropics, we find that the mean seasonal cycle of the SAH and its centre are dominated by the expansion of convection in the South Asian region (70–130° E  ×  15–30° N on the south-eastern border of the SAH. A composite analysis of precipitation and outgoing long-wave radiation data with respect to the location of the SAH centre reveals that a more westward (eastward location of the SAH is related to stronger (weaker convection and rainfall over India and weaker (stronger precipitation over the western Pacific.

  11. Intelligent agents: adaptation of autonomous bimodal microsystems

    Smith, Patrice; Terry, Theodore B.

    2014-03-01

    Autonomous bimodal microsystems exhibiting survivability behaviors and characteristics are able to adapt dynamically in any given environment. Equipped with a background blending exoskeleton it will have the capability to stealthily detect and observe a self-chosen viewing area while exercising some measurable form of selfpreservation by either flying or crawling away from a potential adversary. The robotic agent in this capacity activates a walk-fly algorithm, which uses a built in multi-sensor processing and navigation subsystem or algorithm for visual guidance and best walk-fly path trajectory to evade capture or annihilation. The research detailed in this paper describes the theoretical walk-fly algorithm, which broadens the scope of spatial and temporal learning, locomotion, and navigational performances based on optical flow signals necessary for flight dynamics and walking stabilities. By observing a fly's travel and avoidance behaviors; and, understanding the reverse bioengineering research efforts of others, we were able to conceptualize an algorithm, which works in conjunction with decisionmaking functions, sensory processing, and sensorimotor integration. Our findings suggest that this highly complex decentralized algorithm promotes inflight or terrain travel mobile stability which is highly suitable for nonaggressive micro platforms supporting search and rescue (SAR), and chemical and explosive detection (CED) purposes; a necessity in turbulent, non-violent structured or unstructured environments.

  12. Selection of power plant elements for future reactor space electric power systems

    Buden, D.; Bennett, G.A.; Copper, K.

    1979-09-01

    Various types of reactor designs, electric power conversion equipment, and reject-heat systems to be used in nuclear reactor power plants for future space missions were studied. The designs included gas-cooled, liquid-cooled, and heat-pipe reactors. For the power converters, passive types such as thermoelectric and thermionic converters and dynamic types such as Brayton, potassium Rankine, and Stirling cycles were considered. For the radiators, heat pipes for transfer and radiating surface, pumped fluid for heat transfer with fins as the radiating surface, and pumped fluid for heat transfer with heat pipes as the radiating surface were considered. After careful consideration of weights, sizes, reliabilities, safety, and development cost and time, a heat-pipe reactor design, thermoelectric converters, and a heat-pipe radiator for an experimental program were selected

  13. Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery

    Gao, Lin; Sun, Jihong; Li, Yuzhen

    2011-08-01

    The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation ft= ktn was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties.

  14. Reactive Sintering of Bimodal WC-Co Hardmetals

    Marek Tarraste

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bimodal WC-Co hardmetals were produced using novel technology - reactive sintering. Milled and activated tungsten and graphite powders were mixed with commercial coarse grained WC-Co powder and then sintered. The microstructure of produced materials was free of defects and consisted of evenly distributed coarse and fine tungsten carbide grains in cobalt binder. The microstructure, hardness and fracture toughness of reactive sintered bimodal WC-Co hardmetals is exhibited. Developed bimodal hardmetal has perspective for demanding wear applications for its increased combined hardness and toughness. Compared to coarse material there is only slight decrease in fracture toughness (K1c is 14.7 for coarse grained and 14.4 for bimodal, hardness is increased from 1290 to 1350 HV units.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7511

  15. Bimodal Programming: A Survey of Current Clinical Practice.

    Siburt, Hannah W; Holmes, Alice E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current clinical practice in approaches to bimodal programming in the United States. To be specific, if clinicians are recommending bimodal stimulation, who programs the hearing aid in the bimodal condition, and what method is used for programming the hearing aid? An 11-question online survey was created and sent via email to a comprehensive list of cochlear implant programming centers in the United States. The survey was sent to 360 recipients. Respondents in this study represented a diverse group of clinical settings (response rate: 26%). Results indicate little agreement about who programs the hearing aids, when they are programmed, and how they are programmed in the bimodal condition. Analysis of small versus large implant centers indicated small centers are less likely to add a device to the contralateral ear. Although a growing number of cochlear implant recipients choose to wear a hearing aid on the contralateral ear, there is inconsistency in the current clinical approach to bimodal programming. These survey results provide evidence of large variability in the current bimodal programming practices and indicate a need for more structured clinical recommendations and programming approaches.

  16. THE BIMODAL STRUCTURE OF THE SOLAR CYCLE

    Du, Z. L., E-mail: zldu@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Some properties of the 11 yr solar cycle can be explained by the current solar dynamo models. However, some other features remain not well understood such as the asymmetry of the cycle, the double-peaked structure, and the “Waldmeier effect” that a stronger cycle tends to have less rise time and a shorter cycle length. We speculate that the solar cycle is governed by a bi-dynamo model forming two stochastic processes depicted by a bimodal Gaussian function with a time gap of about 2 yr, from which the above features can be reasonably explained. The first one describes the main properties of the cycle dominated by the current solar dynamo models, and the second one occurs either in the rising phase as a short weak explosive perturbation or in the declining phase as a long stochastic perturbation. The above function is the best one selected from several in terms of the Akaike information criterion. Through analyzing different distributions, one might speculate about the dominant physical process inside the convection zone. The secondary (main) process is found to be closely associated with complicated (simple) active ranges. In effect, the bi-dynamo model is a reduced form of a multi-dynamo model, which could occur from the base of the convection zone through its envelope and from low to high heliographic latitude, reflecting the active belts in the convection zone. These results are insensitive to the hemispheric asymmetry, smoothing filters, and distribution functions selected and are expected to be helpful in understanding the formation of solar and stellar cycles.

  17. Velocity selection for ultra-cold atoms using bimodal mazer cavity

    Irshad, A.; Qamar, S.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss the velocity selection of ultra-cold three-level atoms in Λ configuration using a micromazer. Our model is the same as discussed by Arun et al., for mazer action in a bimodal cavity. We have shown that significantly narrowed velocity distribution of ultra-cold atoms can be obtained in this system due to the presence of dark states. (author)

  18. Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery

    Gao Lin; Sun Jihong; Li Yuzhen

    2011-01-01

    The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation f t =kt n was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties. - Graphical abstract: Loading (A) and release profiles (B) of aspirin in N-BMMs and N-MCM-41 indicated that BMMs have more drug loading capacity and faster release rate than that MCM-41. Highlights: → Bimodal mesoporous silicas (BMMs) and MCM-41 modified with amino group via post-treatment procedure. → Loading and release profiles of aspirin in modified BMMs and MCM-41. → Modified BMMs have more drug loading capacity and faster release rate than that modified MCM-41.

  19. How bilingualism protects the brain from aging: Insights from bimodal bilinguals.

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Emmorey, Karen; Gong, Gaolang; Yan, Xin; Feng, Xiaoxia; Zou, Lijuan; Ding, Guosheng

    2017-08-01

    Bilingual experience can delay cognitive decline during aging. A general hypothesis is that the executive control system of bilinguals faces an increased load due to controlling two languages, and this increased load results in a more "tuned brain" that eventually creates a neural reserve. Here we explored whether such a neuroprotective effect is independent of language modality, i.e., not limited to bilinguals who speak two languages but also occurs for bilinguals who use a spoken and a signed language. We addressed this issue by comparing bimodal bilinguals to monolinguals in order to detect age-induced structural brain changes and to determine whether we can detect the same beneficial effects on brain structure, in terms of preservation of gray matter volume (GMV), for bimodal bilinguals as has been reported for unimodal bilinguals. Our GMV analyses revealed a significant interaction effect of age × group in the bilateral anterior temporal lobes, left hippocampus/amygdala, and left insula where bimodal bilinguals showed slight GMV increases while monolinguals showed significant age-induced GMV decreases. We further found through cortical surface-based measurements that this effect was present for surface area and not for cortical thickness. Moreover, to further explore the hypothesis that overall bilingualism provides neuroprotection, we carried out a direct comparison of GMV, extracted from the brain regions reported above, between bimodal bilinguals, unimodal bilinguals, and monolinguals. Bilinguals, regardless of language modality, exhibited higher GMV compared to monolinguals. This finding highlights the general beneficial effects provided by experience handling two language systems, whether signed or spoken. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4109-4124, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Bimodality and the formation of Saturn's ring particles

    Gehrels, T.

    1980-01-01

    The F ring appears to have an outer and an inner rim, with only the latter observed by the imaging photopolarimeter (IPP) on the Pioneer Saturn spacecraft. The inside of the G ring, near 2.49 R/sub S/, may also be seen in the optical data. 1979S1 is red as well as dark. The light scattered through the B ring is noticeably red. The A ring has a dense outer rim. The Cassini Division and the French Division (Dollfus Division) have a dark gap near their centers. The C ring becomes weaker toward the center such that outer, middle, and inner C rings can be recognized. The Pioneer and earth-based observations are explained with a model for the B and A rings to some extent of a bimodal size distributions of particles; the larger ones may be original accretions, while small debris diffuses inward through the Cassini Division and the C ring. During the formation of the ring system, differential gravitation allowed only silicaceous grains of higher density (rho> or approx. =3 g cm -3 ) to coagulate. These serve as interstitial cores for snowy carbonaceous grains, between the times of accretion from interplanetary cometary grains and liberation by collision followed by diffusion inward to Saturn and final evaporation

  1. Utterance independent bimodal emotion recognition in spontaneous communication

    Tao, Jianhua; Pan, Shifeng; Yang, Minghao; Li, Ya; Mu, Kaihui; Che, Jianfeng

    2011-12-01

    Emotion expressions sometimes are mixed with the utterance expression in spontaneous face-to-face communication, which makes difficulties for emotion recognition. This article introduces the methods of reducing the utterance influences in visual parameters for the audio-visual-based emotion recognition. The audio and visual channels are first combined under a Multistream Hidden Markov Model (MHMM). Then, the utterance reduction is finished by finding the residual between the real visual parameters and the outputs of the utterance related visual parameters. This article introduces the Fused Hidden Markov Model Inversion method which is trained in the neutral expressed audio-visual corpus to solve the problem. To reduce the computing complexity the inversion model is further simplified to a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) mapping. Compared with traditional bimodal emotion recognition methods (e.g., SVM, CART, Boosting), the utterance reduction method can give better results of emotion recognition. The experiments also show the effectiveness of our emotion recognition system when it was used in a live environment.

  2. Aggressive Bimodal Communication in Domestic Dogs, Canis familiaris.

    Éloïse C Déaux

    Full Text Available Evidence of animal multimodal signalling is widespread and compelling. Dogs' aggressive vocalisations (growls and barks have been extensively studied, but without any consideration of the simultaneously produced visual displays. In this study we aimed to categorize dogs' bimodal aggressive signals according to the redundant/non-redundant classification framework. We presented dogs with unimodal (audio or visual or bimodal (audio-visual stimuli and measured their gazing and motor behaviours. Responses did not qualitatively differ between the bimodal and two unimodal contexts, indicating that acoustic and visual signals provide redundant information. We could not further classify the signal as 'equivalent' or 'enhancing' as we found evidence for both subcategories. We discuss our findings in relation to the complex signal framework, and propose several hypotheses for this signal's function.

  3. Visualisation and characterisation of heterogeneous bimodal PDMS networks

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Fleury, Clemence

    2014-01-01

    The existence of short-chain domains in heterogeneous bimodal PDMS networks has been confirmed visually, for the first time, through confocal fluorescence microscopy. The networks were prepared using a controlled reaction scheme where short PDMS chains were reacted below the gelation point...... bimodal networks with short-chain domains within a long-chain network. The average sizes of the short-chain domains were found to vary from 2.1 to 5.7 mm depending on the short-chain content. The visualised network structure could be correlated thereafter to the elastic properties, which were determined...... by rheology. All heterogeneous bimodal networks displayed significantly lower moduli than mono-modal PDMS elastomers prepared from the long polymer chains. Low-loss moduli as well as low-sol fractions indicate that low-elastic moduli can be obtained without compromising the network's structure...

  4. Aggressive Bimodal Communication in Domestic Dogs, Canis familiaris.

    Déaux, Éloïse C; Clarke, Jennifer A; Charrier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of animal multimodal signalling is widespread and compelling. Dogs' aggressive vocalisations (growls and barks) have been extensively studied, but without any consideration of the simultaneously produced visual displays. In this study we aimed to categorize dogs' bimodal aggressive signals according to the redundant/non-redundant classification framework. We presented dogs with unimodal (audio or visual) or bimodal (audio-visual) stimuli and measured their gazing and motor behaviours. Responses did not qualitatively differ between the bimodal and two unimodal contexts, indicating that acoustic and visual signals provide redundant information. We could not further classify the signal as 'equivalent' or 'enhancing' as we found evidence for both subcategories. We discuss our findings in relation to the complex signal framework, and propose several hypotheses for this signal's function.

  5. Bimodality emerges from transport model calculations of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy

    Mallik, S.; Das Gupta, S.; Chaudhuri, G.

    2016-04-01

    This work is a continuation of our effort [S. Mallik, S. Das Gupta, and G. Chaudhuri, Phys. Rev. C 91, 034616 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.91.034616 to examine if signatures of a phase transition can be extracted from transport model calculations of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy. A signature of first-order phase transition is the appearance of a bimodal distribution in Pm(k ) in finite systems. Here Pm(k ) is the probability that the maximum of the multiplicity distribution occurs at mass number k . Using a well-known model for event generation [Botzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) plus fluctuation], we study two cases of central collision: mass 40 on mass 40 and mass 120 on mass 120. Bimodality is seen in both the cases. The results are quite similar to those obtained in statistical model calculations. An intriguing feature is seen. We observe that at the energy where bimodality occurs, other phase-transition-like signatures appear. There are breaks in certain first-order derivatives. We then examine if such breaks appear in standard BUU calculations without fluctuations. They do. The implication is interesting. If first-order phase transition occurs, it may be possible to recognize that from ordinary BUU calculations. Probably the reason this has not been seen already is because this aspect was not investigated before.

  6. Spectra of globular clusters in the Sombrero galaxy: evidence for spectroscopic metallicity bimodality

    Alves-Brito, Alan; Hau, George K. T.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Spitler, Lee R.; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.; Rhode, Katherine L.

    2011-11-01

    We present a large sample of over 200 integrated-light spectra of confirmed globular clusters (GCs) associated with the Sombrero (M104) galaxy taken with the Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) instrument on the Keck telescope. A significant fraction of the spectra have signal-to-noise ratio levels high enough to allow measurements of GC metallicities using the method of Brodie & Huchra. We find a distribution of spectroscopic metallicities in the range -2.2 < [Fe/H] < +0.1 that is bimodal, with peaks at [Fe/H]˜-1.4 and -0.6. Thus, the GC system of the Sombrero galaxy, like a few other galaxies now studied in detail, reveals a bimodal spectroscopic metallicity distribution supporting the long-held belief that colour bimodality reflects two metallicity subpopulations. This further suggests that the transformation from optical colour to metallicity for old stellar populations, such as GCs, is not strongly non-linear. We also explore the radial and magnitude distribution with metallicity for GC subpopulations but small number statistics prevent any clear trends in these distributions. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Bimodal SLD Ice Accretion on a NACA 0012 Airfoil Model

    Potapczuk, Mark; Tsao, Jen-Ching; King-Steen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the results of ice accretion measurements on a NACA 0012 airfoil model, from the NASA Icing Research Tunnel, using an icing cloud composed of a bimodal distribution of Supercooled Large Droplets. The data consists of photographs, laser scans of the ice surface, and measurements of the mass of ice for each icing condition. The results of ice shapes accumulated as a result of exposure to an icing cloud with a bimodal droplet distribution were compared to the ice shapes resulting from an equivalent cloud composed of a droplet distribution with a standard bell curve shape.

  8. Does bimodal stimulus presentation increase ERP components usable in BCIs?

    Thurlings, M.E.; Brouwer, A.M.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Blankertz, B.; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP)-based brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) employ differences in brain responses to attended and ignored stimuli. Typically, visual stimuli are used. Tactile stimuli have recently been suggested as a gaze-independent alternative. Bimodal stimuli could evoke additional brain

  9. Bimodal Bilingual Language Development of Hearing Children of Deaf Parents

    Hofmann, Kristin; Chilla, Solveig

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a bimodal bilingual language acquisition model, this qualitative case study is the first in Germany to investigate the spoken and sign language development of hearing children of deaf adults (codas). The spoken language competence of six codas within the age range of 3;10 to 6;4 is assessed by a series of standardised tests (SETK 3-5,…

  10. Asymmetric Bimodal Exponential Power Distribution on the Real Line

    Mehmet Niyazi Çankaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric bimodal exponential power (ABEP distribution is an extension of the generalized gamma distribution to the real line via adding two parameters that fit the shape of peakedness in bimodality on the real line. The special values of peakedness parameters of the distribution are a combination of half Laplace and half normal distributions on the real line. The distribution has two parameters fitting the height of bimodality, so capacity of bimodality is enhanced by using these parameters. Adding a skewness parameter is considered to model asymmetry in data. The location-scale form of this distribution is proposed. The Fisher information matrix of these parameters in ABEP is obtained explicitly. Properties of ABEP are examined. Real data examples are given to illustrate the modelling capacity of ABEP. The replicated artificial data from maximum likelihood estimates of parameters of ABEP and other distributions having an algorithm for artificial data generation procedure are provided to test the similarity with real data. A brief simulation study is presented.

  11. Measuring oxygen uptake in fishes with bimodal respiration.

    Lefevre, S; Bayley, M; McKenzie, D J

    2016-01-01

    Respirometry is a robust method for measurement of oxygen uptake as a proxy for metabolic rate in fishes, and how species with bimodal respiration might meet their demands from water v. air has interested researchers for over a century. The challenges of measuring oxygen uptake from both water and air, preferably simultaneously, have been addressed in a variety of ways, which are briefly reviewed. These methods are not well-suited for the long-term measurements necessary to be certain of obtaining undisturbed patterns of respiratory partitioning, for example, to estimate traits such as standard metabolic rate. Such measurements require automated intermittent-closed respirometry that, for bimodal fishes, has only recently been developed. This paper describes two approaches in enough detail to be replicated by the interested researcher. These methods are for static respirometry. Measuring oxygen uptake by bimodal fishes during exercise poses specific challenges, which are described to aid the reader in designing experiments. The respiratory physiology and behaviour of air-breathing fishes is very complex and can easily be influenced by experimental conditions, and some general considerations are listed to facilitate the design of experiments. Air breathing is believed to have evolved in response to aquatic hypoxia and, probably, associated hypercapnia. The review ends by considering what realistic hypercapnia is, how hypercapnic tropical waters can become and how this might influence bimodal animals' gas exchange. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Design study of nuclear power systems for deep space explorers. (2) Electricity supply capabilities of solid cores

    Yamaji, Akifumi; Takizuka, Takakazu; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Iwamura, Takamichi; Akimoto, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    This study has been carried out in series with the other study, 'Criticality of Low Enriched Uranium Fueled Core' to explore the possibilities of a solid reactor electricity generation system for supplying propulsion power of a deep space explorer. The design ranges of two different systems are determined with respect to the electric power, the radiator mass, and the operating temperatures of the heat-pipes and thermoelectric converters. The two systems are the core surface cooling with heat-pipe system (CSHP), and the core direct cooling with heat-pipe system (CDHP). The evaluated electric powers widely cover the 1 to 100 kW range, which had long been claimed to be the range that lacked the power sources in space. Therefore, the concepts shown by this study may lead to a breakthrough of the human activities in space. The working temperature ranges of the main components, namely the heat-pipes and thermoelectric converters, are wide and covers down to relatively low temperatures. This is desirable from the viewpoints of broadening the choices, reducing the development needs, and improving the reliabilities of the devices. Hence, it is advantageous for an early establishment of the concept. (author)

  13. Tribological properties and morphology of bimodal elastomeric nitrile butadiene rubber networks

    Guo, Yin; Wang, Jiaxu; Li, Kang; Ding, Xingwu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Bimodal elastomeric NBR as a new material was developed. • The structure of bimodal elastomeric NBR networks was determined. • The relationship between structure and mechanical properties was investigated. • The tribological properties and mechanisms of bimodal NBR were analyzed. • The benefits of bimodal NBR in the field of tribology were discussed. - Abstract: Bimodal nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) was examined in this study. The molecular structure was determined by dynamic mechanical analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The relationship between the structure and the mechanical properties related to elastomeric tribological properties was investigated. The properties and the mechanisms of friction and wear of bimodal elastomeric NBR networks were also analyzed. The lubricating characteristics of bimodal NBR networks were revealed based on the mechanisms of friction and wear. Results show that bimodal NBR networks are similar to bimodal polydimethylsiloxane networks. The form and density of the network structure can be controlled from elastomeric networks to thermosetting resin networks. The mechanical properties of bimodal NBR networks, such as elasticity, elongation at break, fatigue characteristic, tensile strength, elastic modulus, and thermal stability can be precisely controlled following the variation in network structure. The friction, wear, and lubrication of bimodal NBR networks can be clearly described according to the principles of tribology. Common elastomers cannot simultaneously reduce friction and wear because of the different mechanisms of friction and wear; however, bimodal elastomer networks can efficiently address this problem

  14. Bimodal stimulus timing-dependent plasticity in primary auditory cortex is altered after noise exposure with and without tinnitus.

    Basura, Gregory J; Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2015-12-01

    Central auditory circuits are influenced by the somatosensory system, a relationship that may underlie tinnitus generation. In the guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), pairing spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) stimulation with tones at specific intervals and orders facilitated or suppressed subsequent tone-evoked neural responses, reflecting spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Furthermore, after noise-induced tinnitus, bimodal responses in DCN were shifted from Hebbian to anti-Hebbian timing rules with less discrete temporal windows, suggesting a role for bimodal plasticity in tinnitus. Here, we aimed to determine if multisensory STDP principles like those in DCN also exist in primary auditory cortex (A1), and whether they change following noise-induced tinnitus. Tone-evoked and spontaneous neural responses were recorded before and 15 min after bimodal stimulation in which the intervals and orders of auditory-somatosensory stimuli were randomized. Tone-evoked and spontaneous firing rates were influenced by the interval and order of the bimodal stimuli, and in sham-controls Hebbian-like timing rules predominated as was seen in DCN. In noise-exposed animals with and without tinnitus, timing rules shifted away from those found in sham-controls to more anti-Hebbian rules. Only those animals with evidence of tinnitus showed increased spontaneous firing rates, a purported neurophysiological correlate of tinnitus in A1. Together, these findings suggest that bimodal plasticity is also evident in A1 following noise damage and may have implications for tinnitus generation and therapeutic intervention across the central auditory circuit. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. 'Bimodal' NTR and LANTR propulsion for human missions to Mars/Phobos

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human missions to Mars due to its high specific impulse (Isp ∼850-1000 s) and attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio (∼3-10). Because only a miniscule amount of enriched uranium-235 fuel is consumed in a NTR during the primary propulsion maneuvers of a typical Mars mission, engines configured for both propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as 'bimodal' operation) provide the basis for a robust, 'power-rich' stage enabling propulsive Mars capture and reuse capability. A family of modular 'bimodal' NTR (BNTR) vehicles are described which utilize a common 'core' stage powered by three 66.7 kN (∼15 klbf) BNTRs that produce 50 kWe of total electrical power for crew life support, an active refrigeration/reliquification system for long term, 'zero-boiloff' liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) storage, and high data rate communications. Compared to other propulsion options, a Mars mission architecture using BNTR transfer vehicles requires fewer transportation system elements which reduces mission mass, cost and risk because of simplified space operations. For difficult Mars options, such as a Phobos rendezvous and sample return mission, volume (not mass) constraints limit the performance of the 'all LH 2 ' BNTR stage. The use of ''LOX-augmented' NTR (LANTR) engines, operating at a modest oxygen-to-hydrogen (O/H) mixture ratio (MR) of 0.5, helps to increase 'bulk' propellant density and total thrust during the trans-Mars injection (TMI) burn. On all subsequent burns, the bimodal LANTR engines operate on LH 2 only (MR=0) to maximize vehicle performance while staying within the mass limits of two ∼80 t 'Magnum' heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLVs)

  16. 'Bi-modal' isoscalar giant dipole strength in 58Ni

    Nayak, B.K.; Garg, U.; Hedden, M.; Koss, M.; Li, T.; Liu, Y.; Madhusudhana Rao, P.V.; Zhu, S.; Itoh, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Takeda, H.; Uchida, M.; Yasuda, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hara, K.; Kawabata, T.; Akimune, H.; Harakeh, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The strength distribution of the isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR) in 58 Ni has been obtained over the energy range 10.5-49.5 MeV via extreme forward angle scattering (including 0 deg.) of 386 MeV α particles. We observe a 'bi-modal' E1 strength distribution for the first time in an A<90 nucleus. The observed ISGDR strength distribution is in reasonable agreement with the predictions of a recent RPA calculation

  17. Bimodal Formation Time Distribution for Infall Dark Matter Halos

    Shi, Jingjing; Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Xie, Lizhi; Wang, Xiaoyu; Lapi, Andrea; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2018-04-01

    We use a 200 {h}-1 {Mpc} a-side N-body simulation to study the mass accretion history (MAH) of dark matter halos to be accreted by larger halos, which we call infall halos. We define a quantity {a}nf}\\equiv (1+{z}{{f}})/(1+{z}peak}) to characterize the MAH of infall halos, where {z}peak} and {z}{{f}} are the accretion and formation redshifts, respectively. We find that, at given {z}peak}, their MAH is bimodal. Infall halos are dominated by a young population at high redshift and by an old population at low redshift. For the young population, the {a}nf} distribution is narrow and peaks at about 1.2, independent of {z}peak}, while for the old population, the peak position and width of the {a}nf} distribution both increase with decreasing {z}peak} and are both larger than those of the young population. This bimodal distribution is found to be closely connected to the two phases in the MAHs of halos. While members of the young population are still in the fast accretion phase at z peak, those of the old population have already entered the slow accretion phase at {z}peak}. This bimodal distribution is not found for the whole halo population, nor is it seen in halo merger trees generated with the extended Press–Schechter formalism. The infall halo population at {z}peak} are, on average, younger than the whole halo population of similar masses identified at the same redshift. We discuss the implications of our findings in connection to the bimodal color distribution of observed galaxies and to the link between central and satellite galaxies.

  18. Bimodal extinction without cross-modal extinction.

    Inhoff, A W; Rafal, R D; Posner, M J

    1992-01-01

    Three patients with unilateral neurological injury were clinically examined. All showed consistent unilateral extinction in the tactile and visual modalities on simultaneous intramodal stimulation. There was virtually no evidence for cross-modal extinction, however, so that contralateral stimulation of one modality would have extinguished perception of ipsilateral stimuli in the other modality. It is concluded that the attentional system controlling the encoding of tactile and visual stimuli ...

  19. Does bimodal stimulus presentation increase ERP components usable in BCIs?

    Thurlings, Marieke E.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Van Erp, Jan B. F.; Blankertz, Benjamin; Werkhoven, Peter J.

    2012-08-01

    Event-related potential (ERP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) employ differences in brain responses to attended and ignored stimuli. Typically, visual stimuli are used. Tactile stimuli have recently been suggested as a gaze-independent alternative. Bimodal stimuli could evoke additional brain activity due to multisensory integration which may be of use in BCIs. We investigated the effect of visual-tactile stimulus presentation on the chain of ERP components, BCI performance (classification accuracies and bitrates) and participants’ task performance (counting of targets). Ten participants were instructed to navigate a visual display by attending (spatially) to targets in sequences of either visual, tactile or visual-tactile stimuli. We observe that attending to visual-tactile (compared to either visual or tactile) stimuli results in an enhanced early ERP component (N1). This bimodal N1 may enhance BCI performance, as suggested by a nonsignificant positive trend in offline classification accuracies. A late ERP component (P300) is reduced when attending to visual-tactile compared to visual stimuli, which is consistent with the nonsignificant negative trend of participants’ task performance. We discuss these findings in the light of affected spatial attention at high-level compared to low-level stimulus processing. Furthermore, we evaluate bimodal BCIs from a practical perspective and for future applications.

  20. Time shift in slope failure prediction between unimodal and bimodal modeling approaches

    Ciervo, Fabio; Casini, Francesca; Nicolina Papa, Maria; Medina, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Together with the need to use more appropriate mathematical expressions for describing hydro-mechanical soil processes, a challenge issue relates to the need of considering the effects induced by terrain heterogeneities on the physical mechanisms, taking into account the implications of the heterogeneities in affecting time-dependent hydro-mechanical variables, would improve the prediction capacities of models, such as the ones used in early warning systems. The presence of the heterogeneities in partially-saturated slopes results in irregular propagation of the moisture and suction front. To mathematically represent the "dual-implication" generally induced by the heterogeneities in describing the hydraulic terrain behavior, several bimodal hydraulic models have been presented in literature and replaced the conventional sigmoidal/unimodal functions; this presupposes that the scale of the macrostructure is comparable with the local scale (Darcy scale), thus the Richards' model can be assumed adequate to mathematically reproduce the processes. The purpose of this work is to focus on the differences in simulating flow infiltration processes and slope stability conditions originated from preliminary choices of hydraulic models and contextually between different approaches to evaluate the factor of safety (FoS). In particular, the results of two approaches are compared. The first one includes the conventional expression of the FoS under saturated conditions and the widespread used hydraulic model of van Genuchten-Mualem. The second approach includes a generalized FoS equation for infinite-slope model under variably saturated soil conditions (Lu and Godt, 2008) and the bimodal Romano et al.'s (2011) functions to describe the hydraulic response. The extension of the above mentioned approach to the bimodal context is based on an analytical method to assess the effects of the hydraulic properties on soil shear developed integrating a bimodal lognormal hydraulic function

  1. Phase 1 space fission propulsion system design considerations

    Houts, Mike; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Carter, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and operated. Studies conducted in fiscal year 2001 (IISTP, 2001) show that fission electric propulsion (FEP) systems operating at 80 kWe or above could enhance or enable numerous robotic outer solar system missions of interest. At these power levels it is possible to develop safe, affordable systems that meet mission performance requirements. In selecting the system design to pursue, seven evaluation criteria were identified: safety, reliability, testability, specific mass, cost, schedule, and programmatic risk. A top-level comparison of three potential concepts was performed: an SP-100 based pumped liquid lithium system, a direct gas cooled system, and a heatpipe cooled system. For power levels up to at least 500 kWt (enabling electric power levels of 125-175 kWe, given 25-35% power conversion efficiency) the heatpipe system has advantages related to several criteria and is competitive with respect to all. Hardware-based research and development has further increased confidence in the heatpipe approach. Successful development and utilization of a 'Phase 1' fission electric propulsion system will enable advanced Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems capable of providing rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system

  2. Galex Lyman-alpha Emitters: Physical Properties, Luminosity Bimodality, And Morphologies.

    Mallery, Ryan P.

    2010-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer spectroscopic survey has uncovered a large statistically significant sample of Lyman-alpha emitters at z sim0.3. ACS imaging of these sources in the COSMOS and AEGIS deep fields reveals that these Lyman-alpha emitters consist of two distinct galaxy morphologies, face on spiral galaxies and compact starburst/merging systems. The morphology bimodality also results in a bimodal distribution of optical luminosity. A comparison between the UV photometry and MIPS 24 micron detections of these sources indicates that they are bluer, and have less dust extinction than similar star forming galaxies that lack Lyman-alpha detection. Our findings show how the global gas and dust distribution of star forming galaxies inhibits Lyman-alpha emission in star forming galaxies. GALEX is a NASA Small Explorer, launched in April 2003. We gratefully acknowledge NASA's support for construction, operation, and science analysis for the GALEX mission, developed in cooperation with the CNES of France and the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology.

  3. Bimodality in binary Au + Au collisions from 60 to 100 MeV/u

    Pichon, M.; Tamain, B.; Bougault, R.

    2003-03-01

    The deexcitation of quasi-projectiles (QP) released in binary Au on Au collisions as been studied from 60 to 100 MeV/u. Bimodality between two different decay patterns has been observed for intermediate violence collisions. The main experimental result is that the system jumps from one mode to the other on a narrow range of energy deposit and/or impact parameter. The sorting of the events (according to the violence of the collision) has been provided by the perpendicular energy of the light charged particles emitted on the quasi-target side. Such a sorting prevents spurious autocorrelation effects between the sorting variable and the observed mechanism. The two modes of the QP decay correspond on the one side to residue or fission fragments production, and on the other side to the multifragmentation channel. A detailed study has been performed in order to try to establish the origin of the observed bimodality in disentangling dynamical or geometrical effects from bulk matter properties linked with a liquid-gas type phase transition. The whole set of data is coherent with a dominant role of the deposited excitation energy as it is expected from theoretical arguments.(lattice gas model) in the framework of a liquid-gas phase transition picture. (authors)

  4. Human Exploration Mission Capabilities to the Moon, Mars, and Near Earth Asteroids Using ''Bimodal'' NTR Propulsion

    Stanley K. Borowski; Leonard A. Dudzinski; Melissa L. McGuire

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human exploration missions because of its high specific impulse (Isp ∼ 850 to 1000 s) and attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio (∼ 3 to 10). Because only a minuscule amount of enriched 235 U fuel is consumed in an NRT during the primary propulsion maneuvers of a typical Mars mission, engines configured both for propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as 'bimodal' operation) provide the basis for a robust, power-rich stage with efficient propulsive capture capability at the moon and near-earth asteroids (NEAs), where aerobraking cannot be utilized. A family of modular bimodal NTR (BNTR) space transfer vehicles utilize a common core stage powered by three ∼15-klb f engines that produce 50 kW(electric) of total electrical power for crew life support, high data rate communications with Earth, and an active refrigeration system for long-term, zero-boiloff liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) storage. This paper describes details of BNTR engines and designs of vehicles using them for various missions

  5. Human fatigue expression recognition through image-based dynamic multi-information and bimodal deep learning

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zengcai; Wang, Xiaojin; Qi, Yazhou; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Guoxin

    2016-09-01

    Human fatigue is an important cause of traffic accidents. To improve the safety of transportation, we propose, in this paper, a framework for fatigue expression recognition using image-based facial dynamic multi-information and a bimodal deep neural network. First, the landmark of face region and the texture of eye region, which complement each other in fatigue expression recognition, are extracted from facial image sequences captured by a single camera. Then, two stacked autoencoder neural networks are trained for landmark and texture, respectively. Finally, the two trained neural networks are combined by learning a joint layer on top of them to construct a bimodal deep neural network. The model can be used to extract a unified representation that fuses landmark and texture modalities together and classify fatigue expressions accurately. The proposed system is tested on a human fatigue dataset obtained from an actual driving environment. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method performs stably and robustly, and that the average accuracy achieves 96.2%.

  6. Bimodality: A Sign of Critical Behavior in Nuclear Reactions

    Le Fevre, A.; Aichelin, J.

    2008-01-01

    The recently discovered coexistence of multifragmentation and residue production for the same total transverse energy of light charged particles, which has been dubbed bimodality like it has been introduced in the framework of equilibrium thermodynamics, can be well reproduced in numerical simulations of heavy ion reactions. A detailed analysis shows that fluctuations (introduced by elementary nucleon-nucleon collisions) determine which of the exit states is realized. Thus, we can identify bifurcation in heavy ion reactions as a critical phenomenon. Also the scaling of the coexistence region with beam energy is well reproduced in these results from the quantum molecular dynamics simulation program

  7. Nonlatching positive feedback enables robust bimodality by decoupling expression noise from the mean

    Razooky, Brandon S. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States). Lab. of Virology and Infectious Disease; Gladstone Institutes (Virology and Immunology), San Francisco, CA (United States); Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary; Cao, Youfang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hansen, Maike M. K. [Gladstone Institutes (Virology and Immunology), San Francisco, CA (United States); Perelson, Alan S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Simpson, Michael L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary; Weinberger, Leor S. [Gladstone Institutes (Virology and Immunology), San Francisco, CA (United States); Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics; Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). QB3: California Inst. of Quantitative Biosciences; Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    2017-10-18

    Fundamental to biological decision-making is the ability to generate bimodal expression patterns where two alternate expression states simultaneously exist. Here in this study, we use a combination of single-cell analysis and mathematical modeling to examine the sources of bimodality in the transcriptional program controlling HIV’s fate decision between active replication and viral latency. We find that the HIV Tat protein manipulates the intrinsic toggling of HIV’s promoter, the LTR, to generate bimodal ON-OFF expression, and that transcriptional positive feedback from Tat shifts and expands the regime of LTR bimodality. This result holds for both minimal synthetic viral circuits and full-length virus. Strikingly, computational analysis indicates that the Tat circuit’s non-cooperative ‘non-latching’ feedback architecture is optimized to slow the promoter’s toggling and generate bimodality by stochastic extinction of Tat. In contrast to the standard Poisson model, theory and experiment show that non-latching positive feedback substantially dampens the inverse noise-mean relationship to maintain stochastic bimodality despite increasing mean-expression levels. Given the rapid evolution of HIV, the presence of a circuit optimized to robustly generate bimodal expression appears consistent with the hypothesis that HIV’s decision between active replication and latency provides a viral fitness advantage. More broadly, the results suggest that positive-feedback circuits may have evolved not only for signal amplification but also for robustly generating bimodality by decoupling expression fluctuations (noise) from mean expression levels.

  8. Gaze-independent ERP-BCIs: augmenting performance through location-congruent bimodal stimuli

    Thurlings, Marieke E.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Van Erp, Jan B. F.; Werkhoven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Gaze-independent event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) yield relatively low BCI performance and traditionally employ unimodal stimuli. Bimodal ERP-BCIs may increase BCI performance due to multisensory integration or summation in the brain. An additional advantage of bimodal BCIs may be that the user can choose which modality or modalities to attend to. We studied bimodal, visual-tactile, gaze-independent BCIs and investigated whether or not ERP components’ tAUCs and subsequent classification accuracies are increased for (1) bimodal vs. unimodal stimuli; (2) location-congruent vs. location-incongruent bimodal stimuli; and (3) attending to both modalities vs. to either one modality. We observed an enhanced bimodal (compared to unimodal) P300 tAUC, which appeared to be positively affected by location-congruency (p = 0.056) and resulted in higher classification accuracies. Attending either to one or to both modalities of the bimodal location-congruent stimuli resulted in differences between ERP components, but not in classification performance. We conclude that location-congruent bimodal stimuli improve ERP-BCIs, and offer the user the possibility to switch the attended modality without losing performance. PMID:25249947

  9. Bimodal distribution of glucose is not universally useful for diagnosing diabetes

    Vistisen, Dorte; Colagiuri, Stephen; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bimodality in the distribution of glucose has been used to define the cut point for the diagnosis of diabetes. Previous studies on bimodality have primarily been in populations with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, including one study in a white Caucasian population. All studies i...

  10. Bimodal Reading: Benefits of a Talking Computer for Average and Less Skilled Readers.

    Montali, Julie; Lewandowski, Lawrence

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen average readers and 18 less-skilled readers (grades 8 and 9) were presented with social studies and science passages via a computer either visually (on screen), auditorily (read by digitized voice), or bimodally (on screen, highlighted while being voiced). Less-skilled readers demonstrated comprehension in the bimodal condition equivalent…

  11. Event-related potentials to visual, auditory, and bimodal (combined auditory-visual) stimuli.

    Isoğlu-Alkaç, Ummühan; Kedzior, Karina; Keskindemirci, Gonca; Ermutlu, Numan; Karamursel, Sacit

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the response properties of event related potentials to unimodal and bimodal stimulations. The amplitudes of N1 and P2 were larger during bimodal evoked potentials (BEPs) than auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) in the anterior sites and the amplitudes of P1 were larger during BEPs than VEPs especially at the parieto-occipital locations. Responses to bimodal stimulation had longer latencies than responses to unimodal stimulation. The N1 and P2 components were larger in amplitude and longer in latency during the bimodal paradigm and predominantly occurred at the anterior sites. Therefore, the current bimodal paradigm can be used to investigate the involvement and location of specific neural generators that contribute to higher processing of sensory information. Moreover, this paradigm may be a useful tool to investigate the level of sensory dysfunctions in clinical samples.

  12. Bimodal nature in low-energy fission of light actinides

    Nagame, Yuichiro; Nishinaka, Ichiro; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Otsuki, Tsutomu; Sueki, Keisuke; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Kudo, Hisaaki.

    1995-01-01

    To solve various problems in the mass division process of light actinoids, some experiments on the basis of bimodal fission were carried. Mass and kinetic energy distribution of Th-232 and U-238 were determined. Pa-225 (N= 134) and Pa-227 (N=136), fission nuclei, were produced by Bi-209 + 0-16 and Bi-209 + 0-18 heavy ion nucleus reactions, and the mass yield distribution were determined by the time-of-flight method and the radiochemical procedure. From the results, two independent deforming processes were proved in the fission process of light actinoid nuclei. On the deforming process through the low fission barrier, nucleus fissioned after small deformation under the influence of stabilization of the shell structure of fission product. In the case of process through the high barrier, however, the nucleus fissioned after large deformation. The unsymmetrical mass division was derived from the former and the symmetrical one from the latter. (S.Y.)

  13. Particle filtering with path sampling and an application to a bimodal ocean current model

    Weare, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a recursive particle filtering algorithm designed to filter high dimensional systems with complicated non-linear and non-Gaussian effects. The method incorporates a parallel marginalization (PMMC) step in conjunction with the hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) scheme to improve samples generated by standard particle filters. Parallel marginalization is an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) strategy that uses lower dimensional approximate marginal distributions of the target distribution to accelerate equilibration. As a validation the algorithm is tested on a 2516 dimensional, bimodal, stochastic model motivated by the Kuroshio current that runs along the Japanese coast. The results of this test indicate that the method is an attractive alternative for problems that require the generality of a particle filter but have been inaccessible due to the limitations of standard particle filtering strategies.

  14. Experimental study of a photovoltaic solar-assisted heat-pump/heat-pipe system

    Fu, H.D.; Pei, G.; Ji, J.; Long, H.; Zhang, T.; Chow, T.T.

    2012-01-01

    A practical design for a heat pump with heat-pipe photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors is presented. The hybrid system is called the photovoltaic solar-assisted heat-pump/heat-pipe (PV-SAHP/HP) system. To focus on both actual demand and energy savings, the PV-SAHP/HP system was designed to be capable of operating in three different modes, namely, the heat-pipe, solar-assisted heat pump, and air-source heat-pump modes. Based on solar radiation, the system operates in an optimal mode. A series of experiments were conducted in Hong Kong to study the performance of the system when operating in the heat-pipe and the solar-assisted heat-pump modes. Moreover, energy and exergy analyses were used to investigate the total PV/T performance of the system. - Highlights: ► A novel PV-SAHP/HP system with three different operating modes was proposed. ► Performance of the PV-SAHP/HP system was studied experimentally. ► A optimal operating mode of the PV-SAHP/HP system was suggested in this paper.

  15. Investigation of heterogeneous asymmetric dihydroxylation over OsO{sub 4}-(QN){sub 2}PHAL catalysts of functionalized bimodal mesoporous silica with ionic liquid

    Qiu, Shenjie [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Sun, Jihong, E-mail: jhsun@bjut.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Li, Yuzhen; Gao, Lin [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silica with MTMSPIm{sup +}Cl{sup -}. {yields} Mesoporous catalyst immobilized with OsO{sub 4}-(QN){sub 2}PHAL. {yields} Catalysts for asymmetric dihydroxylation reaction with high yield and enatioselectivity. {yields} Recyclable catalysts. -- Abstract: A novel synthesis of the functionalized bimodal mesoporous silica with ionic liquid (FBMMs) was performed. After grafting 1-methyl-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylimidazolium chloride onto the surface of bimodal mesoporous silicas, 1,4-bis(9-O-quininyl)phthalazine ((QN){sub 2}-PHAL) and K{sub 2}Os(OH){sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O were immobilized onto the modified FBMMs by adsorption or ionic exchange methods, and then, the asymmetric dihydroxylation reaction was carried out by using solid catalysts. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption and desorption were employed to characterize their structure and properties. The results showed that the mesoporous ordering degree of bimodal mesoporous silica decreased after functionalization and immobilization of OsO{sub 4}-(QN){sub 2}PHAL. Being very effective in asymmetric dihydroxylation with high yield and enantioselectivity, the prepared heterogeneous solid catalyst could be recycled for five times with little loss of enantioselectivity, with comparison of those results obtained in homophase system. Moreover, the effect of Osmium catalyst on asymmetric dihydroxylation was investigated.

  16. Go big or die out: Bifurcation and bimodality in submarine sediment flow behaviour

    Talling, P.; Paull, C. K.; Lintern, G.; Gwiazda, R.; Cartigny, M.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Xu, J.; Clare, M. A.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Hage, S.; McGann, M.; Pope, E.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Stacey, C.; Barry, J.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Chapplow, N.; Vendettuoli, D.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine flows of sediment (turbidity currents) flush globally significant volumes of sediment and organic carbon into deep-sea basins. These flows create the largest sediment accumulations on Earth, which hold valuable oil and gas reserves. These flows affect global carbon burial, how deep-sea ecosystems function, and pose a hazard to offshore infrastructure. Only river systems transport such large amounts of sediment across such long distances. However, there are remarkably few direct measurements from active submarine flows, which is a stark contrast to >1 million direct observations from rivers. Here we present unusually detailed information on frequency, power and runout distance of multiple submarine flows at two contrasting locations. The first data set comes from Monterey Canyon, offshore California, which is fed by littoral cells. The second site is a river-fed delta in Bute Inlet, British Columbia. In both cases, the timing and runout distance of submarine flows was documented using instruments on multiple moorings placed along the 50-km long flow pathway. A striking observation is that flow behaviour and runout is strongly bimodal in both locations. Flows tend to either dissipate rapidly, or runout through the entire mooring arrays. We thus test whether i) the character of short or long runout flows can be distinguished at the first mooring and ii) whether long and short runout flows have different triggers. It has been proposed that submarine flows have two modes of behaviour; either eroding and accelerating, or depositing and dissipating. These field data support such a view of bifurcation and bimodality in flow behaviour. However, some short runout flows resemble their longer runout cousins at the first mooring, and there is no clear relationship between flow trigger and runout. Thus, some flows reach a point where their character is no longer dependent on their initial trigger or initial structure, but on factors acting along the flow pathway.

  17. Role of block copolymer adsorption versus bimodal grafting on nanoparticle self-assembly in polymer nanocomposites.

    Zhao, Dan; Di Nicola, Matteo; Khani, Mohammad M; Jestin, Jacques; Benicewicz, Brian C; Kumar, Sanat K

    2016-09-14

    We compare the self-assembly of silica nanoparticles (NPs) with physically adsorbed polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) copolymers (BCP) against NPs with grafted bimodal (BM) brushes comprised of long, sparsely grafted PS chains and a short dense carpet of P2VP chains. As with grafted NPs, the dispersion state of the BCP NPs can be facilely tuned in PS matrices by varying the PS coverage on the NP surface or by changes in the ratio of the PS graft to matrix chain lengths. Surprisingly, the BCP NPs are remarkably better dispersed than the NPs tethered with bimodal brushes at comparable PS grafting densities. We postulate that this difference arises because of two factors inherent in the synthesis of the NPs: In the case of the BCP NPs the adsorption process is analogous to the chains being "grafted to" the NP surface, while the BM case corresponds to "grafting from" the surface. We have shown that the "grafted from" protocol yields patchy NPs even if the graft points are uniformly placed on each particle. This phenomenon, which is caused by chain conformation fluctuations, is exacerbated by the distribution function associated with the (small) number of grafts per particle. In contrast, in the case of BCP adsorption, each NP is more uniformly coated by a P2VP monolayer driven by the strongly favorable P2VP-silica interactions. Since each P2VP block is connected to a PS chain we conjecture that these adsorbed systems are closer to the limit of spatially uniform sparse brush coverage than the chemically grafted case. We finally show that the better NP dispersion resulting from BCP adsorption leads to larger mechanical reinforcement than those achieved with BM particles. These results emphasize that physical adsorption of BCPs is a simple, effective and practically promising strategy to direct NP dispersion in a chemically unfavorable polymer matrix.

  18. An effective inversion algorithm for retrieving bimodal aerosol particle size distribution from spectral extinction data

    He, Zhenzong; Qi, Hong; Yao, Yuchen; Ruan, Liming

    2014-01-01

    The Ant Colony Optimization algorithm based on the probability density function (PDF-ACO) is applied to estimate the bimodal aerosol particle size distribution (PSD). The direct problem is solved by the modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation (ADA, as an approximation for optically large and soft spheres, i.e., χ⪢1 and |m−1|⪡1) and the Beer–Lambert law. First, a popular bimodal aerosol PSD and three other bimodal PSDs are retrieved in the dependent model by the multi-wavelength extinction technique. All the results reveal that the PDF-ACO algorithm can be used as an effective technique to investigate the bimodal PSD. Then, the Johnson's S B (J-S B ) function and the modified beta (M-β) function are employed as the general distribution function to retrieve the bimodal PSDs under the independent model. Finally, the J-S B and M-β functions are applied to recover actual measurement aerosol PSDs over Beijing and Shanghai obtained from the aerosol robotic network (AERONET). The numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that these two general functions, especially the J-S B function, can be used as a versatile distribution function to retrieve the bimodal aerosol PSD when no priori information about the PSD is available. - Highlights: • Bimodal PSDs are retrieved by ACO based on probability density function accurately. • J-S B and M-β functions can be used as the versatile function to recover bimodal PSDs. • Bimodal aerosol PSDs can be estimated by J-S B function more reasonably

  19. Bimodal atomic force microscopy imaging of isolated antibodies in air and liquids

    MartInez, N F; Lozano, J R; Herruzo, E T; Garcia, F; Garcia, R; Richter, C; Sulzbach, T

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) method based on the simultaneous excitation of the first two flexural modes of the cantilever. The instrument, called a bimodal atomic force microscope, allows us to resolve the structural components of antibodies in both monomer and pentameric forms. The instrument operates in both high and low quality factor environments, i.e., air and liquids. We show that under the same experimental conditions, bimodal AFM is more sensitive to compositional changes than amplitude modulation AFM. By using theoretical and numerical methods, we study the material contrast sensitivity as well as the forces applied on the sample during bimodal AFM operation

  20. Estimation of Bimodal Urban Link Travel Time Distribution and Its Applications in Traffic Analysis

    Yuxiong Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles travelling on urban streets are heavily influenced by traffic signal controls, pedestrian crossings, and conflicting traffic from cross streets, which would result in bimodal travel time distributions, with one mode corresponding to travels without delays and the other travels with delays. A hierarchical Bayesian bimodal travel time model is proposed to capture the interrupted nature of urban traffic flows. The travel time distributions obtained from the proposed model are then considered to analyze traffic operations and estimate travel time distribution in real time. The advantage of the proposed bimodal model is demonstrated using empirical data, and the results are encouraging.

  1. Bimodal activated carbons derived from resorcinol-formaldehyde cryogels

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Celzard, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Resorcinol-formaldehyde cryogels prepared at different dilution ratios have been activated with phosphoric acid at 450 °C and compared with their carbonaceous counterparts obtained by pyrolysis at 900 °C. Whereas the latter were, as expected, highly mesoporous carbons, the former cryogels had very different pore textures. Highly diluted cryogels allowed preparation of microporous materials with high surface areas, but activation of initially dense cryogels led to almost non-porous carbons, with much lower surface areas than those obtained by pyrolysis. The optimal acid concentration for activation, corresponding to stoichiometry between molecules of acid and hydroxyl groups, was 2 M l−1, and the acid–cryogel contact time also had an optimal value. Such optimization allowed us to achieve surface areas and micropore volumes among the highest ever obtained by activation with H3PO4, close to 2200 m2 g−1 and 0.7 cm3 g−1, respectively. Activation of diluted cryogels with a lower acid concentration of 1.2 M l−1 led to authentic bimodal activated carbons, having a surface area as high as 1780 m2 g−1 and 0.6 cm3 g−1 of microporous volume easily accessible through a widely developed macroporosity. PMID:27877405

  2. Bimodal activated carbons derived from resorcinol-formaldehyde cryogels

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Fierro, Vanessa; Celzard, Alain [Institut Jean Lamour-UMR CNRS 7198, CNRS-Nancy-Universite-UPV-Metz, Departement Chimie et Physique des Solides et des Surfaces. ENSTIB, 27 rue Philippe Seguin, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France); Pizzi, Antonio, E-mail: Alain.Celzard@enstib.uhp-nancy.fr [ENSTIB-LERMAB, Nancy-Universite, 27 rue Philippe Seguin, BP1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France)

    2011-06-15

    Resorcinol-formaldehyde cryogels prepared at different dilution ratios have been activated with phosphoric acid at 450 deg. C and compared with their carbonaceous counterparts obtained by pyrolysis at 900 deg. C. Whereas the latter were, as expected, highly mesoporous carbons, the former cryogels had very different pore textures. Highly diluted cryogels allowed preparation of microporous materials with high surface areas, but activation of initially dense cryogels led to almost non-porous carbons, with much lower surface areas than those obtained by pyrolysis. The optimal acid concentration for activation, corresponding to stoichiometry between molecules of acid and hydroxyl groups, was 2 M l{sup -1}, and the acid-cryogel contact time also had an optimal value. Such optimization allowed us to achieve surface areas and micropore volumes among the highest ever obtained by activation with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, close to 2200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 0.7 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}, respectively. Activation of diluted cryogels with a lower acid concentration of 1.2 M l{sup -1} led to authentic bimodal activated carbons, having a surface area as high as 1780 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 0.6 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} of microporous volume easily accessible through a widely developed macroporosity.

  3. Development of Iron Doped Silicon Nanoparticles as Bimodal Imaging Agents

    Singh, Mani P.; Atkins, Tonya M.; Muthuswamy, Elayaraja; Kamali, Saeed; Tu, Chuqiao; Louie, Angelique Y.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of water-soluble allylamine terminated Fe doped Si (SixFe) nanoparticles as bimodal agents for optical and magnetic imaging. The preparation involves the synthesis of a single source iron containing precursor, Na4Si4 with x% Fe (x = 1, 5, 10), and its subsequent reaction with NH4Br to produce hydrogen terminated SixFe nanoparticles. The hydrogen-capped nanoparticles are further terminated with allylamine via thermal hydrosilylation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates that the average particle diameter is ~3.0±1.0 nm. The Si5Fe nanoparticles show strong photoluminescence quantum yield in water (~ 10 %) with significant T2 contrast (r2/r1value of 4.31). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Mössbauer spectroscopies indicate that iron in the nanoparticles is in the +3 oxidation state. Analysis of cytotoxicity using the resazurin assay on HepG2 liver cells indicates that the particles have minimal toxicity. PMID:22616623

  4. The Medial Ventrothalamic Circuitry: Cells Implicated in a Bimodal Network

    Tomas Vega-Zuniga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous avian thalamic studies have shown that the medial ventral thalamus is composed of several nuclei located close to the lateral wall of the third ventricle. Although the general connectivity is known, detailed morphology and connectivity pattern in some regions are still elusive. Here, using the intracellular filling technique in the chicken, we focused on two neural structures, namely, the retinorecipient neuropil of the n. geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis (GLv, and the adjacent n. intercalatus thalami (ICT. We found that the GLv-ne cells showed two different neuronal types: projection cells and horizontal interneurons. The projection cells showed variable morphologies and dendritic arborizations with axons that targeted the n. lentiformis mesencephali (LM, griseum tectale (GT, ICT, n. principalis precommissuralis (PPC, and optic tectum (TeO. The horizontal cells showed a widespread mediolateral neural process throughout the retinorecipient GLv-ne. The ICT cells, on the other hand, had multipolar somata with wide dendritic fields that extended toward the lamina interna of the GLv, and a projection pattern that targeted the n. laminaris precommissuralis (LPC. Together, these results elucidate the rich complexity of the connectivity pattern so far described between the GLv, ICT, pretectum, and tectum. Interestingly, the implication of some of these neural structures in visuomotor and somatosensory roles strongly suggests that the GLv and ICT are part of a bimodal circuit that may be involved in the generation/modulation of saccades, gaze control, and space perception.

  5. Plastic bimodal xylogenesis in conifers from continental Mediterranean climates.

    Camarero, Jesús Julio; Olano, José Miguel; Parras, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    *Seasonal radial-increment and xylogenesis data can help to elucidate how climate modulates wood formation in conifers. Few xylogenesis studies have assessed how plastic xylogenesis is in sympatric conifer species from continental Mediterranean areas, where low winter temperatures and summer drought constrain growth. *Here, we analysed intra-annual patterns of secondary growth in sympatric conifer species (Juniperus thurifera, Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris). Two field sites (xeric and mesic) were evaluated using dendrometers, microcores and climatic data. *A bimodal pattern of xylogenesis characterized by spring and autumn precipitation and subsequent cambial reactivation was detected in J. thurifera at both study sites and in P. halepensis at the xeric site, but was absent in P. sylvestris where growth was largely controlled by day length. In the xeric site J. thurifera exhibited an increased response to water availability in autumn relative to P. halepensis and summer cambial suppression was more marked in J. thurifera than in P. halepensis. *Juniperus thurifera exhibited increased plasticity in its xylogenesis pattern compared with sympatric pines, enabling this species to occupy sites with more variable climatic conditions. The plastic xylogenesis patterns of junipers in drought-stressed areas may also provide them with a competitive advantage against co-occurring pines.

  6. Bimodal distribution of damage morphology generated by ion implantation

    Mok, K.R.C.; Jaraiz, M.; Martin-Bragado, I.; Rubio, J.E.; Castrillo, P.; Pinacho, R.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Benistant, F.

    2005-01-01

    A nucleation and evolution model of damage based on amorphous pockets (APs) has recently been developed and implemented in an atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulator. In the model, APs are disordered structures (I n V m ), which are agglomerates of interstitials (I) and vacancies (V). This model has been used to study the composition and size distribution of APs during different ion implantations. Depending strongly on the dose rate, ion mass and implant temperature, the APs can evolve to a defect population where the agglomerates have a similar number of I and V (n ∼ m), or to a defect population with pure I (m ∼ 0) and pure V (n ∼ 0) clusters, or a mixture of APs and clusters. This behaviour corresponds to a bimodal (APs/clusters) distribution of damage. As the AP have different thermal stability compared to the I and V clusters, the same damage concentration obtained through different implant conditions has a different damage morphology and, consequently, exhibit a different resistance to subsequent thermal treatments

  7. Microbubble embedded with upconversion nanoparticles as a bimodal contrast agent for fluorescence and ultrasound imaging

    Jin, Birui; Lin, Min; You, Minli; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tianjian; Zong, Yujin; Wan, Mingxi; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Bimodal imaging offers additional imaging signal thus finds wide spread application in clinical diagnostic imaging. Fluorescence/ultrasound bimodal imaging contrast agent using fluorescent dyes or quantum dots for fluorescence signal has emerged as a promising method, which however requires visible light or UV irradiation resulting in photobleaching, photoblinking, auto-fluorescence and limited tissue penetration depth. To surmount these problems, we developed a novel bimodal contrast agent using layer-by-layer assembly of upconversion nanoparticles onto the surface of microbubbles. The resulting microbubbles with average size of 2 μm provide enhanced ultrasound echo for ultrasound imaging and upconversion emission upon near infrared irradiation for fluorescence imaging. The developed bimodal contrast agent holds great potential to be applied in ultrasound target technique for targeted diseases diagnostics and therapy. (paper)

  8. Multiple regimes of operation in bimodal AFM: understanding the energy of cantilever eigenmodes

    Daniel Kiracofe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key goals in atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging is to enhance material property contrast with high resolution. Bimodal AFM, where two eigenmodes are simultaneously excited, confers significant advantages over conventional single-frequency tapping mode AFM due to its ability to provide contrast between regions with different material properties under gentle imaging conditions. Bimodal AFM traditionally uses the first two eigenmodes of the AFM cantilever. In this work, the authors explore the use of higher eigenmodes in bimodal AFM (e.g., exciting the first and fourth eigenmodes. It is found that such operation leads to interesting contrast reversals compared to traditional bimodal AFM. A series of experiments and numerical simulations shows that the primary cause of the contrast reversals is not the choice of eigenmode itself (e.g., second versus fourth, but rather the relative kinetic energy between the higher eigenmode and the first eigenmode. This leads to the identification of three distinct imaging regimes in bimodal AFM. This result, which is applicable even to traditional bimodal AFM, should allow researchers to choose cantilever and operating parameters in a more rational manner in order to optimize resolution and contrast during nanoscale imaging of materials.

  9. BDVC (Bimodal Database of Violent Content): A database of violent audio and video

    Rivera Martínez, Jose Luis; Mijes Cruz, Mario Humberto; Rodríguez Vázqu, Manuel Antonio; Rodríguez Espejo, Luis; Montoya Obeso, Abraham; García Vázquez, Mireya Saraí; Ramírez Acosta, Alejandro Álvaro

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays there is a trend towards the use of unimodal databases for multimedia content description, organization and retrieval applications of a single type of content like text, voice and images, instead bimodal databases allow to associate semantically two different types of content like audio-video, image-text, among others. The generation of a bimodal database of audio-video implies the creation of a connection between the multimedia content through the semantic relation that associates the actions of both types of information. This paper describes in detail the used characteristics and methodology for the creation of the bimodal database of violent content; the semantic relationship is stablished by the proposed concepts that describe the audiovisual information. The use of bimodal databases in applications related to the audiovisual content processing allows an increase in the semantic performance only and only if these applications process both type of content. This bimodal database counts with 580 audiovisual annotated segments, with a duration of 28 minutes, divided in 41 classes. Bimodal databases are a tool in the generation of applications for the semantic web.

  10. An effective inversion algorithm for retrieving bimodal aerosol particle size distribution from spectral extinction data

    He, Zhenzong; Qi, Hong; Yao, Yuchen; Ruan, Liming

    2014-12-01

    The Ant Colony Optimization algorithm based on the probability density function (PDF-ACO) is applied to estimate the bimodal aerosol particle size distribution (PSD). The direct problem is solved by the modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation (ADA, as an approximation for optically large and soft spheres, i.e., χ⪢1 and |m-1|⪡1) and the Beer-Lambert law. First, a popular bimodal aerosol PSD and three other bimodal PSDs are retrieved in the dependent model by the multi-wavelength extinction technique. All the results reveal that the PDF-ACO algorithm can be used as an effective technique to investigate the bimodal PSD. Then, the Johnson's SB (J-SB) function and the modified beta (M-β) function are employed as the general distribution function to retrieve the bimodal PSDs under the independent model. Finally, the J-SB and M-β functions are applied to recover actual measurement aerosol PSDs over Beijing and Shanghai obtained from the aerosol robotic network (AERONET). The numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that these two general functions, especially the J-SB function, can be used as a versatile distribution function to retrieve the bimodal aerosol PSD when no priori information about the PSD is available.

  11. Nonlinear Color–Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. VII. Nonlinear Absorption-line Index versus Metallicity Relations and Bimodal Index Distributions of NGC 5128 Globular Clusters

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin, E-mail: sjyoon0691@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of NGC 5128 revealed bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of its old GCs. GC division is a widely observed and studied phenomenon whose interpretation has depicted host galaxy formation and evolution such that it harbors two distinct metallicity groups. Such a conventional view of GC bimodality has mainly been based on photometry. The recent GC photometric data, however, presented an alternative perspective in which the nonlinear metallicity-to-color transformation is responsible for color bimodality of GC systems. Here we apply the same line of analysis to the spectral indices and examine the absorption-line index versus metallicity relations for the NGC 5128 GC system. NGC 5128 GCs display nonlinearity in the metallicity-index planes, most prominently for the Balmer lines and by a non-negligible degree for the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line. We demonstrate that the observed spectroscopic division of NGC 5128 GCs can be caused by the nonlinear nature of the metallicity-to-index conversions and thus one does not need to resort to two separate GC subgroups. Our analysis incorporating this nonlinearity provides a new perspective on the structure of NGC 5128's GC system, and a further piece to the global picture of the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  12. Influence of the receiver’s back surface radiative characteristics on the performance of a heat-pipe evacuated-tube solar collector

    Zheng, Hongfei; Xiong, Jianying; Su, Yuehong; Zhang, Haiyin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A model for describing the heat transfer characteristics of the ETSC is derived. • A method by performing roughness treatment is proposed to change the emissivity. • Increasing the receiver’s back surface emissivity can greatly affect the heat loss. • Real weather test verifies the proposed method in controlling overheat phenomenon. - Abstract: The receiver’s back surface radiative characteristics of a heat-pipe evacuated-tube solar collector (ETSC) may have a significant influence on its performance. This influence is generally related to the back surface emissivity and temperature; however it has been not studied previously. This paper firstly presents a heat transfer model for the ETSC, which is then derived to characterize the relationship between the heat loss and the back surface emissivity of the ETSC. A steady state experiment has been also performed to measure the heat loss of ETSC with different back surface emissivity values. The experimental results indicate that the heat loss of the ETSC increases with the increase of the back surface emissivity, but the rate of increase differs for different operation temperatures. When the back surface emissivity increases from 0.03 to 0.12, the heat loss of ETSC only increases by 31% when the operation temperature is below 100 °C, but the heat loss will increase to 96% when the operation temperature is over 200 °C. This means that the change of back surface emissivity can significantly affect the performance of the ETSC at higher temperature but affect little at lower temperature. Based on this, a novel method by performing roughness treatment on the receiver’s back surface is proposed to solve the overheating problem of ETSC in summer. Two solar water heaters including 6 ETSCs with standard and roughness-treated tubes were tested under real weather condition. Experiment reveals that when the water temperature in tank is below 60 °C, the two solar water heaters own similar temperature

  13. Bi-Modal Micro-Cathode Arc Thruster for Cube Satellites

    Chiu, Dereck

    A new concept design, named the Bi-Modal Micro-Cathode Arc Thruster (BM-muCAT), has been introduced utilizing features from previous generations of muCATs and incorporating a multi-propellant functionality. This arc thruster is a micro-Newton level thruster based off of vacuum arc technology utilizing an enhanced magnetic field. Adjusting the magnetic field allows the thrusters performance to be varied. The goal of this thesis is to present a new generation of micro-cathode arc thrusters utilizing a bi-propellant, nickel and titanium, system. Three experimental procedures were run to test the new designs capabilities. Arc rotation experiment was used as a base experiment to ensure erosion was occurring uniformly along each electrode. Ion utilization efficiency was found, using an ion collector, to be up to 2% with the nickel material and 2.5% with the titanium material. Ion velocities were also studied using a time-of-flight method with an enhanced ion detection system. This system utilizes double electrostatic probes to measure plasma propagation. Ion velocities were measured to be 10km/s and 20km/s for nickel and titanium without a magnetic field. With an applied magnetic field of 0.2T, nickel ion velocities almost doubled to about 17km/s, while titanium ion velocities also increased to about 30km/s.

  14. Design and development of the MITEE-B bi-modal nuclear propulsion engine

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ∼1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ΔV capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ΔV available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube

  15. Far-from-Equilibrium Route to Superthermal Light in Bimodal Nanolasers

    Mathias Marconi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscale and nanoscale lasers inherently exhibit rich photon statistics due to complex light-matter interaction in a strong spontaneous emission noise background. It is well known that they may display superthermal fluctuations—photon superbunching—in specific situations due to either gain competition, leading to mode-switching instabilities, or carrier-carrier coupling in superradiant microcavities. Here we show a generic route to superbunching in bimodal nanolasers by preparing the system far from equilibrium through a parameter quench. We demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, that transient dynamics after a short-pump-pulse-induced quench leads to heavy-tailed superthermal statistics when projected onto the weak mode. We implement a simple experimental technique to access the probability density functions that further enables quantifying the distance from thermal equilibrium via the thermodynamic entropy. The universality of this mechanism relies on the far-from-equilibrium dynamical scenario, which can be mapped to a fast cooling process of a suspension of Brownian particles in a liquid. Our results open up new avenues to mold photon statistics in multimode optical systems and may constitute a test bed to investigate out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics using micro or nanocavity arrays.

  16. Elementary excitations and the phase transition in the bimodal Ising spin glass model

    Jinuntuya, N; Poulter, J

    2012-01-01

    We show how the nature of the phase transition in the two-dimensional bimodal Ising spin glass model can be understood in terms of elementary excitations. Although the energy gap with the ground state is expected to be 4J in the ferromagnetic phase, a gap 2J is in fact found if the finite lattice is wound around a cylinder of odd circumference L. This 2J gap is really a finite size effect that should not occur in the thermodynamic limit of the ferromagnet. The spatial influence of the frustration must be limited and not wrap around the system if L is large enough. In essence, the absence of 2J excitations defines the ferromagnetic phase without recourse to calculating the magnetization or investigating the system response to domain wall defects. This study directly investigates the response to temperature. We also estimate the defect concentration where the phase transition to the spin glass state occurs. The value p c = 0.1045(11) is in reasonable agreement with the literature

  17. Far-from-Equilibrium Route to Superthermal Light in Bimodal Nanolasers

    Marconi, Mathias; Javaloyes, Julien; Hamel, Philippe; Raineri, Fabrice; Levenson, Ariel; Yacomotti, Alejandro M.

    2018-02-01

    Microscale and nanoscale lasers inherently exhibit rich photon statistics due to complex light-matter interaction in a strong spontaneous emission noise background. It is well known that they may display superthermal fluctuations—photon superbunching—in specific situations due to either gain competition, leading to mode-switching instabilities, or carrier-carrier coupling in superradiant microcavities. Here we show a generic route to superbunching in bimodal nanolasers by preparing the system far from equilibrium through a parameter quench. We demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, that transient dynamics after a short-pump-pulse-induced quench leads to heavy-tailed superthermal statistics when projected onto the weak mode. We implement a simple experimental technique to access the probability density functions that further enables quantifying the distance from thermal equilibrium via the thermodynamic entropy. The universality of this mechanism relies on the far-from-equilibrium dynamical scenario, which can be mapped to a fast cooling process of a suspension of Brownian particles in a liquid. Our results open up new avenues to mold photon statistics in multimode optical systems and may constitute a test bed to investigate out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics using micro or nanocavity arrays.

  18. Lanthanide oxide and phosphate nanoparticles for thermometry and bimodal imaging =

    Debasu, Mengistie Leweyehu

    . Finalmente, estudam-se as propriedades de fotoluminescencia correspondentes as conversoes ascendente e descendente de energia em nanocristais de (Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4 sintetizados por via hidrotermica. A relaxividade (ressonancia magnetica) do 1H destes materiais sao investigadas, tendo em vista possiveis aplicacoes em imagem bimodal (luminescencia e ressonancia magnetica nuclear).

  19. Lateral Erosion Encourages Vertical Incision in a Bimodal Alluvial River

    Gran, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    Sand can have a strong impact on gravel transport, increasing gravel transport rates by orders of magnitude as sand content increases. Recent experimental work by others indicates that adding sand to an armored bed can even cause armor to break-up and mobilize. These two elements together help explain observations from a bimodal sand and gravel-bedded river, where lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium breaks up the armor layer, encouraging further incision into the bed. Detailed bedload measurements were coupled with surface and subsurface grain size analyses and cross-sectional surveys in a seasonally-incised channel carved into the upper alluvial fan of the Pasig-Potrero River at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, filling valleys draining the flanks of the volcano with primarily sand-sized pyroclastic flow debris. Twenty years after the eruption, sand-rich sediment inputs are strongly seasonal, with most sediment input to the channel during the rainy season. During the dry season, flow condenses from a wide braided planform to a single-thread channel in most of the upper basin, extending several km onto the alluvial fan. This change in planform creates similar unit discharge ranges in summer and winter. Lower sediment loads in the dry season drive vertical incision until the bed is sufficiently armored. Incision proceeds downstream in a wave, with increasing sediment transport rates and decreasing grain size with distance downstream, eventually reaching a gravel-sand transition and return to a braided planform. Incision depths in the gravel-bedded section exceeded 3 meters in parts of a 4 km-long study reach, a depth too great to be explained by predictions from simple winnowing during incision. Instead, lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium provides sufficient fine sediment to break up the armor surface, allowing incision to start anew and increasing the total depth of the seasonally-incised valley. Lateral migration is recorded in a

  20. Auditory-somatosensory bimodal stimulation desynchronizes brain circuitry to reduce tinnitus in guinea pigs and humans.

    Marks, Kendra L; Martel, David T; Wu, Calvin; Basura, Gregory J; Roberts, Larry E; Schvartz-Leyzac, Kara C; Shore, Susan E

    2018-01-03

    The dorsal cochlear nucleus is the first site of multisensory convergence in mammalian auditory pathways. Principal output neurons, the fusiform cells, integrate auditory nerve inputs from the cochlea with somatosensory inputs from the head and neck. In previous work, we developed a guinea pig model of tinnitus induced by noise exposure and showed that the fusiform cells in these animals exhibited increased spontaneous activity and cross-unit synchrony, which are physiological correlates of tinnitus. We delivered repeated bimodal auditory-somatosensory stimulation to the dorsal cochlear nucleus of guinea pigs with tinnitus, choosing a stimulus interval known to induce long-term depression (LTD). Twenty minutes per day of LTD-inducing bimodal (but not unimodal) stimulation reduced physiological and behavioral evidence of tinnitus in the guinea pigs after 25 days. Next, we applied the same bimodal treatment to 20 human subjects with tinnitus using a double-blinded, sham-controlled, crossover study. Twenty-eight days of LTD-inducing bimodal stimulation reduced tinnitus loudness and intrusiveness. Unimodal auditory stimulation did not deliver either benefit. Bimodal auditory-somatosensory stimulation that induces LTD in the dorsal cochlear nucleus may hold promise for suppressing chronic tinnitus, which reduces quality of life for millions of tinnitus sufferers worldwide. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  1. Early Bimodal Stimulation Benefits Language Acquisition for Children With Cochlear Implants.

    Moberly, Aaron C; Lowenstein, Joanna H; Nittrouer, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adding a low-frequency acoustic signal to the cochlear implant (CI) signal (i.e., bimodal stimulation) for a period of time early in life improves language acquisition. Children must acquire sensitivity to the phonemic units of language to develop most language-related skills, including expressive vocabulary, working memory, and reading. Acquiring sensitivity to phonemic structure depends largely on having refined spectral (frequency) representations available in the signal, which does not happen with CIs alone. Combining the low-frequency acoustic signal available through hearing aids with the CI signal can enhance signal quality. A period with this bimodal stimulation has been shown to improve language skills in very young children. This study examined whether these benefits persist into childhood. Data were examined for 48 children with CIs implanted under age 3 years, participating in a longitudinal study. All children wore hearing aids before receiving a CI, but upon receiving a first CI, 24 children had at least 1 year of bimodal stimulation (Bimodal group), and 24 children had only electric stimulation subsequent to implantation (CI-only group). Measures of phonemic awareness were obtained at second and fourth grades, along with measures of expressive vocabulary, working memory, and reading. Children in the Bimodal group generally performed better on measures of phonemic awareness, and that advantage was reflected in other language measures. Having even a brief period of time early in life with combined electric-acoustic input provides benefits to language learning into childhood, likely because of the enhancement in spectral representations provided.

  2. Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers.

    Duval, Daphné; González-Guerrero, Ana Belén; Dante, Stefania; Osmond, Johann; Monge, Rosa; Fernández, Luis J; Zinoviev, Kirill E; Domínguez, Carlos; Lechuga, Laura M

    2012-05-08

    One of the main limitations for achieving truly lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices for point-of-care diagnosis is the incorporation of the "on-chip" detection. Indeed, most of the state-of-the-art LOC devices usually require complex read-out instrumentation, losing the main advantages of portability and simplicity. In this context, we present our last advances towards the achievement of a portable and label-free LOC platform with highly sensitive "on-chip" detection by using nanophotonic biosensors. Bimodal waveguide interferometers fabricated by standard silicon processes have been integrated with sub-micronic grating couplers for efficient light in-coupling, showing a phase resolution of 6.6 × 10(-4)× 2π rad and a limit of detection of 3.3 × 10(-7) refractive index unit (RIU) in bulk. A 3D network of SU-8 polymer microfluidics monolithically assembled at the wafer-level was included, ensuring perfect sealing and compact packaging. To overcome some of the drawbacks inherent to interferometric read-outs, a novel all-optical wavelength modulation system has been implemented, providing a linear response and a direct read-out of the phase variation. Sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the wavelength modulated BiMW sensor has been demonstrated through the label-free immunodetection of the human hormone hTSH at picomolar level using a reliable biofunctionalization process.

  3. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. II. A TEST ON THE NONLINEARITY SCENARIO FOR COLOR BIMODALITY USING THE u-BAND COLORS: THE CASE OF M87 (NGC 4486)

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hak-Sub; Cho, Jaeil; Chung, Chul; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Blakeslee, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The optical color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most large elliptical galaxies are bimodal. Based on the assumed linear relationship between GC colors and their metallicities, the bimodality has been taken as evidence of two GC subsystems with different metallicities in each galaxy and has led to a number of theories in the context of galaxy formation. More recent observations and modeling of GCs, however, suggests that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) are inflected, and thus colors likely trace metallicities in a nonlinear manner. The nonlinearity could produce bimodal color distributions from a broad underlying metallicity spread, even if it is unimodal. Despite the far-reaching implications, whether CMRs are nonlinear and whether the nonlinearity indeed causes the color bimodality are still open questions. Given that the spectroscopic refinement of CMRs is still very challenging, we here propose a new photometric technique to probe the possible nonlinear nature of CMRs. In essence, a color distribution of GCs is a 'projected' distribution of their metallicities. Since the form of CMRs hinges on which color is used, the shape of color distributions varies depending significantly on the colors. Among other optical colors, the u-band related colors (e.g., u – g and u – z) are theoretically predicted to exhibit significantly less inflected CMRs than other preferred CMRs (e.g., for g – z). As a case study, we performed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFPC2 archival u-band photometry for the M87 (NGC 4486) GC system with confirmed color bimodality. We show that the u-band color distributions are significantly different from that of g – z and consistent with our model predictions. With more u-band measurements, this method will support or rule out the nonlinear CMR scenario for the origin of GC color bimodality with high confidence. The HST/WFC3 observations in F336W for nearby large elliptical galaxies are highly anticipated in this regard.

  4. How the bimodal format of presentation affects working memory: an overview.

    Mastroberardino, Serena; Santangelo, Valerio; Botta, Fabiano; Marucci, Francesco S; Olivetti Belardinelli, Marta

    2008-03-01

    The best format in which information that has to be recalled is presented has been investigated in several studies, which focused on the impact of bimodal stimulation on working memory performance. An enhancement of participant's performance in terms of correct recall has been repeatedly found, when bimodal formats of presentation (i.e., audiovisual) were compared to unimodal formats (i.e, either visual or auditory), in providing implications for multimedial learning. Several theoretical frameworks have been suggested in order to account for the bimodal advantage, ranging from those emphasizing early stages of processing (such as automatic alerting effects or multisensory integration processes) to those centred on late stages of processing (as postulated by the dual coding theory). The aim of this paper is to review previous contributions to this topic, providing a comprehensive theoretical framework, which is updated by the latest empirical studies.

  5. Evolution of twinning in extruded AZ31 alloy with bimodal grain structure

    Garcés, G., E-mail: ggarces@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research CENIM-CSIC, Av. De Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oñorbe, E. [CIEMAT, Division of Structural Materials, Avenida Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gan, W. [German Engineering Materials Science Centre at MLZ, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Lichtebergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Máthis, K. [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, KeKarlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Tolnai, D. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Horváth, K. [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, KeKarlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Pérez, P.; Adeva, P. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research CENIM-CSIC, Av. De Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Twinning in extruded AZ31 alloy with a bimodal grain structure is studied under compression along the extrusion direction. This study has combined in-situ measurements during the compression tests by Synchrotron Radiation Diffraction and Acoustic Emission techniques and the evaluation of the microstructure and texture in post-mortem compression samples deformed at different strains. The microstructure of the alloy is characterized by the coexistence of large areas of fine dynamic recrystallized grains and coarse non-recrystallized grains elongated along extrusion direction. Twinning occurs initially in large elongated grains before the macroscopic yield stress which is controlled by the twinning in equiaxed dynamically recrystallized grains. - Highlights: • The AZ31 extruded at low temperature exhibits a bimodal grains structure. • Twinning takes place before macroscopic yielding in coarse non-DRXed grains. • DRXed grains controls the beginning of plasticity in magnesium alloys with bimodal grain structure.

  6. The quantum transverse spin-2 Ising model with a bimodal random-field in the pair approximation

    Canko, O.; Albayrak, E.; Keskin, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the bimodal random-field spin-2 Ising system in a transverse field by combining the pair approximation with the discretized path-integral representation. The exact equations for the second-order phase transition lines and tricritical points are obtained in terms of the random field H, the transverse field G and the coordination number z. It is found that there are some critical values for H and G where the tricritical points disappear for given z. We have also observed that the system presents reentrant behavior which may be caused by the quantum effects and randomness. The phase diagram with respect to the random field and the second-order phase transition temperature are studied extensively for given values of the transverse field and the coordination number

  7. Bi-modal G\\"odel logic over [0,1]-valued Kripke frames

    Caicedo, Xavier; Rodriguez, Ricardo Oscar

    2011-01-01

    We consider the G\\"odel bi-modal logic determined by fuzzy Kripke models where both the propositions and the accessibility relation are infinitely valued over the standard G\\"odel algebra [0,1] and prove strong completeness of Fischer Servi intuitionistic modal logic IK plus the prelinearity axiom with respect to this semantics. We axiomatize also the bi-modal analogues of $T,$ $S4,$ and $S5$ obtained by restricting to models over frames satisfying the [0,1]-valued versions of the structural ...

  8. Resolving the age bimodality of galaxy stellar populations on kpc scales

    Zibetti, Stefano; Gallazzi, Anna R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Charlot, S.; Galbany, L.; García Benito, R.; Kehrig, C.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Sánchez, S. F.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxies in the local Universe are known to follow bimodal distributions in the global stellar population properties. We analyse the distribution of the local average stellar population ages of 654 053 sub-galactic regions resolved on ˜1 kpc scales in a volume-corrected sample of 394 galaxies, drawn

  9. Spatial attention triggered by unimodal, crossmodal, and bimodal exogenous cues: a comparison of reflexive orienting mechanisms

    Santangelo, Valerio; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Postma, Albert

    The aim of this study was to establish whether spatial attention triggered by bimodal exogenous cues acts differently as compared to unimodal and crossmodal exogenous cues due to crossmodal integration. In order to investigate this issue, we examined cuing effects in discrimination tasks and

  10. Bimodal grain-size distribution of Chinese loess, and its palaeoclimatic implications

    Sun, D.G.; Bloemendal, J.; Rea, D.K.; An, Z.S.; Vandenberghe, J.; Lu, H.; Su, R.; Liu, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Grain-size analysis indicates that Chinese loess generally shows a bimodal distribution with a coarse and a fine component. The coarse component, comprising the main part of the loess, has pronounced kurtosis and is well sorted, which is interpreted to be the product of dust storms generated by

  11. Effects of Removing Low-Frequency Electric Information on Speech Perception with Bimodal Hearing

    Fowler, Jennifer R.; Eggleston, Jessica L.; Reavis, Kelly M.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Reiss, Lina A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to determine whether speech perception could be improved for bimodal listeners (those using a cochlear implant [CI] in one ear and hearing aid in the contralateral ear) by removing low-frequency information provided by the CI, thereby reducing acoustic-electric overlap. Method: Subjects were adult CI subjects with at…

  12. The role of continuous low-frequency harmonicity cues for interrupted speech perception in bimodal hearing.

    Oh, Soo Hee; Donaldson, Gail S; Kong, Ying-Yee

    2016-04-01

    Low-frequency acoustic cues have been shown to enhance speech perception by cochlear-implant users, particularly when target speech occurs in a competing background. The present study examined the extent to which a continuous representation of low-frequency harmonicity cues contributes to bimodal benefit in simulated bimodal listeners. Experiment 1 examined the benefit of restoring a continuous temporal envelope to the low-frequency ear while the vocoder ear received a temporally interrupted stimulus. Experiment 2 examined the effect of providing continuous harmonicity cues in the low-frequency ear as compared to restoring a continuous temporal envelope in the vocoder ear. Findings indicate that bimodal benefit for temporally interrupted speech increases when continuity is restored to either or both ears. The primary benefit appears to stem from the continuous temporal envelope in the low-frequency region providing additional phonetic cues related to manner and F1 frequency; a secondary contribution is provided by low-frequency harmonicity cues when a continuous representation of the temporal envelope is present in the low-frequency, or both ears. The continuous temporal envelope and harmonicity cues of low-frequency speech are thought to support bimodal benefit by facilitating identification of word and syllable boundaries, and by restoring partial phonetic cues that occur during gaps in the temporally interrupted stimulus.

  13. The Bi-Modal Organization: Balancing Autopoiesis and Fluid Social Networks for Sustainability

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharicz, Carol Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assist an organization to restructure as a bi-modal organization in order to achieve sustainability in today's highly complex business world. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is conceptual and is based on relevant literature and the authors' research and practice. Findings: Although fluid…

  14. Near-Infrared Squaraine Dye Encapsulated Micelles for in Vivo Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Bimodal Imaging.

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Joseph, James; Lin, Manjing; Menon, Nishanth Venugopal; Borah, Parijat; Ng, Hao Jun; Loong, Yun Xian; Kang, Yuejun; Yu, Sidney Wing-Kwong; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-06-23

    Combined near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging techniques present promising capabilities for noninvasive visualization of biological structures. Development of bimodal noninvasive optical imaging approaches by combining NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography demands suitable NIR-active exogenous contrast agents. If the aggregation and photobleaching are prevented, squaraine dyes are ideal candidates for fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. Herein, we report rational selection, preparation, and micelle encapsulation of an NIR-absorbing squaraine dye (D1) for in vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging. D1 was encapsulated inside micelles constructed from a biocompatible nonionic surfactant (Pluoronic F-127) to obtain D1-encapsulated micelles (D1(micelle)) in aqueous conditions. The micelle encapsulation retains both the photophysical features and chemical stability of D1. D1(micelle) exhibits high photostability and low cytotoxicity in biological conditions. Unique properties of D1(micelle) in the NIR window of 800-900 nm enable the development of a squaraine-based exogenous contrast agent for fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging above 820 nm. In vivo imaging using D1(micelle), as demonstrated by fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography experiments in live mice, shows contrast-enhanced deep tissue imaging capability. The usage of D1(micelle) proven by preclinical experiments in rodents reveals its excellent applicability for NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging.

  15. Geometry planning and image registration in magnetic particle imaging using bimodal fiducial markers

    Werner, F.; Hofmann, M.; Them, K.; Knopp, T.; Jung, C.; Salamon, J.; Kaul, M. G.; Mummert, T.; Adam, G.; Ittrich, H.; Werner, R.; Säring, D.; Weber, O. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a quantitative imaging modality that allows the distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles to be visualized. Compared to other imaging techniques like x-ray radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MPI only provides a signal from the administered tracer, but no additional morphological information, which complicates geometry planning and the interpretation of MP images. The purpose of the authors’ study was to develop bimodal fiducial markers that can be visualized by MPI and MRI in order to create MP–MR fusion images. Methods: A certain arrangement of three bimodal fiducial markers was developed and used in a combined MRI/MPI phantom and also during in vivo experiments in order to investigate its suitability for geometry planning and image fusion. An algorithm for automated marker extraction in both MR and MP images and rigid registration was established. Results: The developed bimodal fiducial markers can be visualized by MRI and MPI and allow for geometry planning as well as automated registration and fusion of MR–MP images. Conclusions: To date, exact positioning of the object to be imaged within the field of view (FOV) and the assignment of reconstructed MPI signals to corresponding morphological regions has been difficult. The developed bimodal fiducial markers and the automated image registration algorithm help to overcome these difficulties.

  16. Geometry planning and image registration in magnetic particle imaging using bimodal fiducial markers

    Werner, F., E-mail: f.werner@uke.de; Hofmann, M.; Them, K.; Knopp, T. [Section for Biomedical Imaging, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg 20246, Germany and Institute for Biomedical Imaging, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany); Jung, C.; Salamon, J.; Kaul, M. G.; Mummert, T.; Adam, G.; Ittrich, H. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg 20246 (Germany); Werner, R.; Säring, D. [Institute for Computational Neuroscience, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg 20246 (Germany); Weber, O. M. [Philips Medical Systems DMC GmbH, Hamburg 22335 (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a quantitative imaging modality that allows the distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles to be visualized. Compared to other imaging techniques like x-ray radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MPI only provides a signal from the administered tracer, but no additional morphological information, which complicates geometry planning and the interpretation of MP images. The purpose of the authors’ study was to develop bimodal fiducial markers that can be visualized by MPI and MRI in order to create MP–MR fusion images. Methods: A certain arrangement of three bimodal fiducial markers was developed and used in a combined MRI/MPI phantom and also during in vivo experiments in order to investigate its suitability for geometry planning and image fusion. An algorithm for automated marker extraction in both MR and MP images and rigid registration was established. Results: The developed bimodal fiducial markers can be visualized by MRI and MPI and allow for geometry planning as well as automated registration and fusion of MR–MP images. Conclusions: To date, exact positioning of the object to be imaged within the field of view (FOV) and the assignment of reconstructed MPI signals to corresponding morphological regions has been difficult. The developed bimodal fiducial markers and the automated image registration algorithm help to overcome these difficulties.

  17. Quantifying Young's moduli of protein fibrils and particles with bimodal force spectroscopy.

    Gilbert, Jay; Charnley, Mirren; Cheng, Christopher; Reynolds, Nicholas P; Jones, Owen G

    2017-10-19

    Force spectroscopy is a means of obtaining mechanical information of individual nanometer-scale structures in composite materials, such as protein assemblies for use in consumer films or gels. As a recently developed force spectroscopy technique, bimodal force spectroscopy relates frequency shifts in cantilevers simultaneously excited at multiple frequencies to the elastic properties of the contacted material, yet its utility for quantitative characterization of biopolymer assemblies has been limited. In this study, a linear correlation between experimental frequency shift and Young's modulus of polymer films was used to calibrate bimodal force spectroscopy and quantify Young's modulus of two protein nanostructures: β-lactoglobulin fibrils and zein nanoparticles. Cross-sectional Young's modulus of protein fibrils was determined to be 1.6 GPa while the modulus of zein nanoparticles was determined as 854 MPa. Parallel measurement of β-lactoglobulin fibril by a competing pulsed-force technique found a higher cross-sectional Young's modulus, highlighting the importance of comparative calibration against known standards in both pulsed and bimodal force spectroscopies. These findings demonstrate a successful procedure for measuring mechanical properties of individual protein assemblies with potential use in biological or packaging applications using bimodal force spectroscopy.

  18. The Centaurus cluster of galaxies. II. The bimodal-velocity structure

    Lucey, J.R.; Currie, M.J.; Dickens, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    This is the second paper in a series that describes an extensive study of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies. The paper concerns the bimodal velocity distribution of the galaxies in the cluster. The likely location of the two main cluster components is discussed. The data strongly favours the hypothesis that the two components lie within the same cluster. (UK)

  19. Deaf Parents of Cochlear-Implanted Children: Beliefs on Bimodal Bilingualism

    Mitchiner, Julie Cantrell

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated 17 Deaf families in North America with cochlear-implanted children about their attitudes, beliefs, and practices on bimodal bilingualism (defined as using both a visual/manual language and an aural/oral language) in American Sign Language (ASL) and English. A survey and follow-up interviews with 8 families were conducted.…

  20. Nano-scale simulation based study of creep behavior of bimodal nanocrystalline face centered cubic metal.

    Meraj, Md; Pal, Snehanshu

    2017-10-11

    In this paper, the creep behavior of nanocrystalline Ni having bimodal grain structure is investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of structural evolution during the creep process has also been performed. It is observed that an increase in size of coarse grain causes improvement in creep properties of bimodal nanocrystalline Ni. Influence of bimodality (i.e., size difference between coarse and fine grains) on creep properties are found to be reduced with increasing creep temperature. The dislocation density is observed to decrease exponentially with progress of creep deformation. Grain boundary diffusion controlled creep mechanism is found to be dominant at the primary creep region and the initial part of the secondary creep region. After that shear diffusion transformation mechanism is found to be significantly responsible for deformation as bimodal nanocrystalline Ni transforms to amorphous structure with further progress of the creep process. The presence of , , and  distorted icosahedra has a significant influence on creep rate in the tertiary creep regime according to Voronoi cluster analysis.

  1. Bimodal emotion congruency is critical to preverbal infants' abstract rule learning.

    Tsui, Angeline Sin Mei; Ma, Yuen Ki; Ho, Anna; Chow, Hiu Mei; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2016-05-01

    Extracting general rules from specific examples is important, as we must face the same challenge displayed in various formats. Previous studies have found that bimodal presentation of grammar-like rules (e.g. ABA) enhanced 5-month-olds' capacity to acquire a rule that infants failed to learn when the rule was presented with visual presentation of the shapes alone (circle-triangle-circle) or auditory presentation of the syllables (la-ba-la) alone. However, the mechanisms and constraints for this bimodal learning facilitation are still unknown. In this study, we used audio-visual relation congruency between bimodal stimulation to disentangle possible facilitation sources. We exposed 8- to 10-month-old infants to an AAB sequence consisting of visual faces with affective expressions and/or auditory voices conveying emotions. Our results showed that infants were able to distinguish the learned AAB rule from other novel rules under bimodal stimulation when the affects in audio and visual stimuli were congruently paired (Experiments 1A and 2A). Infants failed to acquire the same rule when audio-visual stimuli were incongruently matched (Experiment 2B) and when only the visual (Experiment 1B) or the audio (Experiment 1C) stimuli were presented. Our results highlight that bimodal facilitation in infant rule learning is not only dependent on better statistical probability and redundant sensory information, but also the relational congruency of audio-visual information. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=KYTyjH1k9RQ. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. THE BIMODAL METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION OF THE COOL CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM AT z {approx}< 1

    Lehner, N.; Howk, J. C. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tripp, T. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Tumlinson, J.; Thom, C.; Fox, A. J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Prochaska, J. X.; Werk, J. K. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); O' Meara, J. M. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael' s College, Vermont, One Winooski Park, Colchester, VT 05439 (United States); Ribaudo, J. [Department of Physics, Utica College, 1600 Burrstone Road, Utica, New York 13502 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We assess the metal content of the cool ({approx}10{sup 4} K) circumgalactic medium (CGM) about galaxies at z {approx}< 1 using an H I-selected sample of 28 Lyman limit systems (LLS; defined here as absorbers with 16.2 {approx}< log N{sub H{sub I}} {approx}< 18.5) observed in absorption against background QSOs by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The N{sub H{sub I}} selection avoids metallicity biases inherent in many previous studies of the low-redshift CGM. We compare the column densities of weakly ionized metal species (e.g., O II, Si II, Mg II) to N{sub H{sub I}} in the strongest H I component of each absorber. We find that the metallicity distribution of the LLS (and hence the cool CGM) is bimodal with metal-poor and metal-rich branches peaking at [X/H] {approx_equal} -1.6 and -0.3 (or about 2.5% and 50% solar metallicities). The cool CGM probed by these LLS is predominantly ionized. The metal-rich branch of the population likely traces winds, recycled outflows, and tidally stripped gas; the metal-poor branch has properties consistent with cold accretion streams thought to be a major source of fresh gas for star forming galaxies. Both branches have a nearly equal number of absorbers. Our results thus demonstrate there is a significant mass of previously undiscovered cold metal-poor gas and confirm the presence of metal enriched gas in the CGM of z {approx}< 1 galaxies.

  3. Conventional and Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Artificial Gravity Mars Transfer Vehicle Concepts

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    eliminating the need for large PVAs. A single inflatable TransHab-type habitation module is also used with multiple vertical floors oriented radial to the MTV spin axis. The BNTR MTV's geometry-long and linear-is naturally compatible with AG operation. By rotating the vehicle about its center-of-mass (CM) and perpendicular to its flight vector at approximately 3.0 to 5.2 rpm, a centrifugal force and AG environment corresponding to approximately 0.38 to 1.0 g can be established to help maintain crew fitness out to Mars and back. Vehicles using NTP/ Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (BNTP) can more readily accommodate the heavier payload mass and increased RCS propellant loading associated with AG operation, and can travel faster to and from Mars thereby reducing the crew's exposure to galactic cosmic radiation and solar flares. Mission scenario descriptions, key vehicle features and operational characteristics for each propulsion option are presented using the lift capability and payload volumes estimated for the Space Launch System (SLS)-1B and followon Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV).

  4. MITEE-B: A compact ultra lightweight bi-modal nuclear propulsion engine for robotic planetary science missions

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John; Borowski, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) enables unique new robotic planetary science missions that are impossible with chemical or nuclear electric propulsion systems. A compact and ultra lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine, termed MITEE-B (MInature ReacTor EnginE - Bi-Modal) can deliver 1000's of kilograms of propulsive thrust when it operates in the NTP mode, and many kilowatts of continuous electric power when it operates in the electric generation mode. The high propulsive thrust NTP mode enables spacecraft to land and takeoff from the surface of a planet or moon, to hop to multiple widely separated sites on the surface, and virtually unlimited flight in planetary atmospheres. The continuous electric generation mode enables a spacecraft to replenish its propellant by processing in-situ resources, provide power for controls, instruments, and communications while in space and on the surface, and operate electric propulsion units. Six examples of unique and important missions enabled by the MITEE-B engine are described, including: (1) Pluto lander and sample return; (2) Europa lander and ocean explorer; (3) Mars Hopper; (4) Jupiter atmospheric flyer; (5) SunBurn hypervelocity spacecraft; and (6) He3 mining from Uranus. Many additional important missions are enabled by MITEE-B. A strong technology base for MITEE-B already exists. With a vigorous development program, it could be ready for initial robotic science and exploration missions by 2010 AD. Potential mission benefits include much shorter in-space times, reduced IMLEO requirements, and replenishment of supplies from in-situ resources

  5. Stochastic resonance and chaotic resonance in bimodal maps: A ...

    It refers to the situation where an increase in input noise improves a system's sensitivity to discriminate weak signals [8–. 10]. The recent interest in SR is mainly due to the fact that it plays a crucial role in many biological systems in extracting a weak periodic signal embedded in a large amount of background noise [5,7,11].

  6. Children with dyslexia show a reduced processing benefit from bimodal speech information compared to their typically developing peers.

    Schaadt, Gesa; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Männel, Claudia

    2018-01-17

    During information processing, individuals benefit from bimodally presented input, as has been demonstrated for speech perception (i.e., printed letters and speech sounds) or the perception of emotional expressions (i.e., facial expression and voice tuning). While typically developing individuals show this bimodal benefit, school children with dyslexia do not. Currently, it is unknown whether the bimodal processing deficit in dyslexia also occurs for visual-auditory speech processing that is independent of reading and spelling acquisition (i.e., no letter-sound knowledge is required). Here, we tested school children with and without spelling problems on their bimodal perception of video-recorded mouth movements pronouncing syllables. We analyzed the event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) to visual-auditory speech information and compared this response to the MMR to monomodal speech information (i.e., auditory-only, visual-only). We found a reduced MMR with later onset to visual-auditory speech information in children with spelling problems compared to children without spelling problems. Moreover, when comparing bimodal and monomodal speech perception, we found that children without spelling problems showed significantly larger responses in the visual-auditory experiment compared to the visual-only response, whereas children with spelling problems did not. Our results suggest that children with dyslexia exhibit general difficulties in bimodal speech perception independently of letter-speech sound knowledge, as apparent in altered bimodal speech perception and lacking benefit from bimodal information. This general deficit in children with dyslexia may underlie the previously reported reduced bimodal benefit for letter-speech sound combinations and similar findings in emotion perception. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A One-year, Short-Stay Crewed Mars Mission Using Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) - A Preliminary Assessment

    Burke, Laura A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    A crewed mission to Mars poses a signi cant challenge in dealing with the physiolog- ical issues that arise with the crew being exposed to a near zero-gravity environment as well as signi cant solar and galactic radiation for such a long duration. While long sur- face stay missions exceeding 500 days are the ultimate goal for human Mars exploration, short round trip, short surface stay missions could be an important intermediate step that would allow NASA to demonstrate technology as well as study the physiological e ects on the crew. However, for a 1-year round trip mission, the outbound and inbound hy- perbolic velocity at Earth and Mars can be very large resulting in a signi cant propellant requirement for a high thrust system like Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Similarly, a low thrust Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system requires high electrical power lev- els (10 megawatts electric (MWe) or more), plus advanced power conversion technology to achieve the lower speci c mass values needed for such a mission. A Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) system is examined here that uses three high thrust Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) engines allowing short departure and capture maneuvers. The engines also generate electrical power that drives a low thrust Electric Propulsion (EP) system used for ecient interplanetary transit. This combined system can help reduce the total launch mass, system and operational requirements that would otherwise be required for equivalent NEP or Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) mission. The BNTEP system is a hybrid propulsion concept where the BNTR reactors operate in two separate modes. During high-thrust mode operation, each BNTR provides 10's of kilo- Newtons of thrust at reasonably high speci c impulse (Isp) of 900 seconds for impulsive trans-planetary injection and orbital insertion maneuvers. When in power generation / EP mode, the BNTR reactors are coupled to a Brayton power conversion system allowing each

  8. Unimodal Versus Bimodal EEG-fMRI Neurofeedback of a Motor Imagery Task

    Lorraine Perronnet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback is a promising tool for brain rehabilitation and peak performance training. Neurofeedback approaches usually rely on a single brain imaging modality such as EEG or fMRI. Combining these modalities for neurofeedback training could allow to provide richer information to the subject and could thus enable him/her to achieve faster and more specific self-regulation. Yet unimodal and multimodal neurofeedback have never been compared before. In the present work, we introduce a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experimental protocol in which participants performed a motor-imagery task in unimodal and bimodal NF conditions. With this protocol we were able to compare for the first time the effects of unimodal EEG-neurofeedback and fMRI-neurofeedback versus bimodal EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback by looking both at EEG and fMRI activations. We also propose a new feedback metaphor for bimodal EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback that integrates both EEG and fMRI signal in a single bi-dimensional feedback (a ball moving in 2D. Such a feedback is intended to relieve the cognitive load of the subject by presenting the bimodal neurofeedback task as a single regulation task instead of two. Additionally, this integrated feedback metaphor gives flexibility on defining a bimodal neurofeedback target. Participants were able to regulate activity in their motor regions in all NF conditions. Moreover, motor activations as revealed by offline fMRI analysis were stronger during EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback than during EEG-neurofeedback. This result suggests that EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback could be more specific or more engaging than EEG-neurofeedback. Our results also suggest that during EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback, participants tended to regulate more the modality that was harder to control. Taken together our results shed first light on the specific mechanisms of bimodal EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback and on its added-value as compared to unimodal EEG-neurofeedback and fMRI-neurofeedback.

  9. Thermal Super-Pixels for Bimodal Stress Recognition

    Irani, Ramin; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Dhall, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    to be in touch with the body which is not always practical. Contact-free monitoring of the stress by a camera [1, 2] can be an alternative. These systems usually utilize only an RGB or a thermal camera to recognize stress. To the best of our knowledge, the only work on fusion of these two modalities for stress......Stress is a response to time pressure or negative environmental conditions. If its stimulus iterates or stays for a long time, it affects health conditions. Thus, stress recognition is an important issue. Traditional systems for this purpose are mostly contact-based, i.e., they require a sensor...

  10. Emotional Intensity Modulates the Integration of Bimodal Angry Expressions: ERP Evidence

    Zhihui Pan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integration of information from face and voice plays a central role in social interactions. The present study investigated the modulation of emotional intensity on the integration of facial-vocal emotional cues by recording EEG for participants while they were performing emotion identification task on facial, vocal, and bimodal angry expressions varying in emotional intensity. Behavioral results showed the rates of anger and reaction speed increased as emotional intensity across modalities. Critically, the P2 amplitudes were larger for bimodal expressions than for the sum of facial and vocal expressions for low emotional intensity stimuli, but not for middle and high emotional intensity stimuli. These findings suggested that emotional intensity modulates the integration of facial-vocal angry expressions, following the principle of Inverse Effectiveness (IE in multimodal sensory integration.

  11. Bimodal microstructure and deformation of cryomilled bulk nanocrystalline Al-7.5Mg alloy

    Lee, Z.; Witkin, D.B.; Radmilovic, V.; Lavernia, E.J.; Nutt, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical properties and deformation response of bimodal structured nanocrystalline Al-7.5Mg alloy were investigated. Grain refinement was achieved by cryomilling of atomized Al-7.5Mg powders, and then cryomilled nanocrystalline powders blended with 15 and 30% unmilled coarse-grained powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing followed by extrusion to produce bulk nanocrystalline alloys. Bimodal bulk nanocrystalline Al-7.5Mg alloys, which were comprised of nanocrystalline grains separated by coarse-grain regions, show balanced mechanical properties of enhanced yield and ultimate strength and reasonable ductility and toughness compared to comparable conventional alloys and nanocrystalline metals. The investigation of tensile and hardness test suggests unusual deformation mechanisms and interactions between ductile coarse-grain bands and nanocrystalline regions

  12. A Novel Method of Extraction of Blend Component Structure from SANS Measurements of Homopolymer Bimodal Blends.

    Smerdova, Olga; Graham, Richard S; Gasser, Urs; Hutchings, Lian R; De Focatiis, Davide S A

    2014-05-01

    A new method is presented for the extraction of single-chain form factors and interchain interference functions from a range of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on bimodal homopolymer blends. The method requires a minimum of three blends, made up of hydrogenated and deuterated components with matched degree of polymerization at two different chain lengths, but with carefully varying deuteration levels. The method is validated through an experimental study on polystyrene homopolymer bimodal blends with [Formula: see text]. By fitting Debye functions to the structure factors, it is shown that there is good agreement between the molar mass of the components obtained from SANS and from chromatography. The extraction method also enables, for the first time, interchain scattering functions to be produced for scattering between chains of different lengths. [Formula: see text].

  13. Aspects of stochastic resonance in Josephson junction, bimodal

    We present the results of extensive numerical studies on stochastic resonance and its characteristic features in three model systems, namely, a model for Josephson tunnel junctions, the bistable cubic map and a coupled map lattice formed by coupling the cubic maps. Some interesting features regarding the mechanism ...

  14. Aspects of stochastic resonance in Josephson junction, bimodal ...

    Abstract. We present the results of extensive numerical studies on stochastic resonance and its characteristic features in three model systems, namely, a model for Josephson tunnel junctions, the bistable cubic map and a coupled map lattice formed by coupling the cubic maps. Some interesting features regarding the ...

  15. Study of the magnetorheology of bimodal magnetite suspension

    Shah, Kruti; Upadhyay, R. V.; Aswal, V. K.

    2012-06-01

    Magnetic and magnetorheological fluids are synthesized using co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering are used to characterize the solid/liquid system. Shear rate and field dependent rheological properties are studied and experimental data are explained using Bingham-Plastic model.

  16. TRACING OUTFLOWS AND ACCRETION: A BIMODAL AZIMUTHAL DEPENDENCE OF Mg II ABSORPTION

    Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M., E-mail: gkacprzak@astro.swin.edu.au [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We report a bimodality in the azimuthal angle distribution of gas around galaxies as traced by Mg II absorption: halo gas prefers to exist near the projected galaxy major and minor axes. The bimodality is demonstrated by computing the mean azimuthal angle probability distribution function using 88 spectroscopically confirmed Mg II-absorption-selected galaxies [W{sub r} (2796) {>=} 0.1 A] and 35 spectroscopically confirmed non-absorbing galaxies [W{sub r} (2796) < 0.1 A] imaged with Hubble Space Telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The azimuthal angle distribution for non-absorbers is flat, indicating no azimuthal preference for gas characterized by W{sub r} (2796) < 0.1 A. We find that blue star-forming galaxies clearly drive the bimodality while red passive galaxies may exhibit an excess along their major axis. These results are consistent with galaxy evolution scenarios where star-forming galaxies accrete new gas, forming new stars and producing winds, while red galaxies exist passively due to reduced gas reservoirs. We further compute an azimuthal angle dependent Mg II absorption covering fraction, which is enhanced by as much as 20%-30% along the major and minor axes. The W{sub r} (2796) distribution for gas along the major axis is likely skewed toward weaker Mg II absorption than for gas along the projected minor axis. These combined results are highly suggestive that the bimodality is driven by gas accreted along the galaxy major axis and outflowing along the galaxy minor axis. Adopting these assumptions, we find that the opening angle of outflows and inflows to be 100 Degree-Sign and 40 Degree-Sign , respectively. We find that the probability of detecting outflows is {approx}60%, implying that winds are more commonly observed.

  17. Brain deactivation in the outperformance in bimodal tasks: an FMRI study.

    Tzu-Ching Chiang

    Full Text Available While it is known that some individuals can effectively perform two tasks simultaneously, other individuals cannot. How the brain deals with performing simultaneous tasks remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to assess which brain areas corresponded to various phenomena in task performance. Nineteen subjects were requested to sequentially perform three blocks of tasks, including two unimodal tasks and one bimodal task. The unimodal tasks measured either visual feature binding or auditory pitch comparison, while the bimodal task required performance of the two tasks simultaneously. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI results are compatible with previous studies showing that distinct brain areas, such as the visual cortices, frontal eye field (FEF, lateral parietal lobe (BA7, and medial and inferior frontal lobe, are involved in processing of visual unimodal tasks. In addition, the temporal lobes and Brodmann area 43 (BA43 were involved in processing of auditory unimodal tasks. These results lend support to concepts of modality-specific attention. Compared to the unimodal tasks, bimodal tasks required activation of additional brain areas. Furthermore, while deactivated brain areas were related to good performance in the bimodal task, these areas were not deactivated where the subject performed well in only one of the two simultaneous tasks. These results indicate that efficient information processing does not require some brain areas to be overly active; rather, the specific brain areas need to be relatively deactivated to remain alert and perform well on two tasks simultaneously. Meanwhile, it can also offer a neural basis for biofeedback in training courses, such as courses in how to perform multiple tasks simultaneously.

  18. Disentangling the climate-driven bimodal growth pattern in coastal and continental Mediterranean pine stands.

    Pacheco, Arturo; Camarero, J Julio; Ribas, Montse; Gazol, Antonio; Gutierrez, E; Carrer, Marco

    2018-02-15

    Mediterranean climate promotes two distinct growth peaks separated by summer quiescence in trees. This bimodal pattern has been associated to favourable growing conditions during spring and autumn when mild temperatures and soil-water availability enhance cambial activity. Climatic models predict progressive warming and drying for the Mediterranean Basin, which could shorten or shift the spring and autumn growing seasons. We explored this idea by comparing two sites with different Mediterranean climate types (continental/dry and coastal/wet) and studied how climate drives the bimodal growth pattern in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis). Specifically we investigated the intra-annual changes in wood anatomy and the corresponding formation of density fluctuations (IADF). Trees on both sites were analyzed by dendrometer monitoring and by developing chronologies of wood anatomical traits. Radial-increment dynamics followed a similar bimodal pattern in both sites but coastal trees showed higher increments during the spring and autumn growth peaks, especially in autumn. The summer rest of cambium activity occurs almost one month earlier in the coastal than in the inland site. Lumen area and cell-wall thickness were significantly smaller in the continental site, while the increment rate of cell-wall thickness during an IADF event was much higher in the coastal pines. The accumulated soil moisture deficit was the main climatic constraint of tracheid enlargement in continental pines. Intra-annual density fluctuations were more frequent in the coastal trees where wood anatomy features recover to average values after such events, meanwhile inland trees presented a much lower recovery rate. Growth bimodality and the formation of density fluctuations were linked, but mild climate of the coastal site allows a longer growing season, which explains why trees in this area showed higher and more variable growth rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiphase flow modeling of a crude-oil spill site with a bimodal permeability distribution

    Dillard, Leslie A.; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Herkelrath, William N.

    1997-01-01

    Fluid saturation, particle-size distribution, and porosity measurements were obtained from 269 core samples collected from six boreholes along a 90-m transect at a subregion of a crude-oil spill site, the north pool, near Bemidji, Minnesota. The oil saturation data, collected 11 years after the spill, showed an irregularly shaped oil body that appeared to be affected by sediment spatial variability. The particle-size distribution data were used to estimate the permeability (k) and retention curves for each sample. An additional 344 k estimates were obtained from samples previously collected at the north pool. The 613 k estimates were distributed bimodal lognormally with the two population distributions corresponding to the two predominant lithologies: a coarse glacial outwash deposit and fine-grained interbedded lenses. A two-step geostatistical approach was used to generate a conditioned realization of k representing the bimodal heterogeneity. A cross-sectional multiphase flow model was used to simulate the flow of oil and water in the presence of air along the north pool transect for an 11-year period. The inclusion of a representation of the bimodal aquifer heterogeneity was crucial for reproduction of general features of the observed oil body. If the bimodal heterogeneity was characterized, hysteresis did not have to be incorporated into the model because a hysteretic effect was produced by the sediment spatial variability. By revising the relative permeability functional relation, an improved reproduction of the observed oil saturation distribution was achieved. The inclusion of water table fluctuations in the model did not significantly affect the simulated oil saturation distribution.

  20. Cooperative binding of transcription factors promotes bimodal gene expression response.

    Pablo S Gutierrez

    Full Text Available In the present work we extend and analyze the scope of our recently proposed stochastic model for transcriptional regulation, which considers an arbitrarily complex cis-regulatory system using only elementary reactions. Previously, we determined the role of cooperativity on the intrinsic fluctuations of gene expression for activating transcriptional switches, by means of master equation formalism and computer simulation. This model allowed us to distinguish between two cooperative binding mechanisms and, even though the mean expression levels were not affected differently by the acting mechanism, we showed that the associated fluctuations were different. In the present generalized model we include other regulatory functions in addition to those associated to an activator switch. Namely, we introduce repressive regulatory functions and two theoretical mechanisms that account for the biphasic response that some cis-regulatory systems show to the transcription factor concentration. We have also extended our previous master equation formalism in order to include protein production by stochastic translation of mRNA. Furthermore, we examine the graded/binary scenarios in the context of the interaction energy between transcription factors. In this sense, this is the first report to show that the cooperative binding of transcription factors to DNA promotes the "all-or-none" phenomenon observed in eukaryotic systems. In addition, we confirm that gene expression fluctuation levels associated with one of two cooperative binding mechanism never exceed the fluctuation levels of the other.

  1. Age bimodality in the central region of pseudo-bulges in S0 galaxies

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Barway, Sudhanshu; Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2017-11-01

    We present evidence for bimodal stellar age distribution of pseudo-bulges of S0 galaxies as probed by the Dn(4000) index. We do not observe any bimodality in age distribution for pseudo-bulges in spiral galaxies. Our sample is flux limited and contains 2067 S0 and 2630 spiral galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We identify pseudo-bulges in S0 and spiral galaxies, based on the position of the bulge on the Kormendy diagram and their central velocity dispersion. Dividing the pseudo-bulges of S0 galaxies into those containing old and young stellar populations, we study the connection between global star formation and pseudo-bulge age on the u - r colour-mass diagram. We find that most old pseudo-bulges are hosted by passive galaxies while majority of young bulges are hosted by galaxies that are star forming. Dividing our sample of S0 galaxies into early-type S0s and S0/a galaxies, we find that old pseudo-bulges are mainly hosted by early-type S0 galaxies while most of the pseudo-bulges in S0/a galaxies are young. We speculate that morphology plays a strong role in quenching of star formation in the disc of these S0 galaxies, which stops the growth of pseudo-bulges, giving rise to old pseudo-bulges and the observed age bimodality.

  2. Combining bimodal presentation schemes and buzz groups improves clinical reasoning and learning at morning report.

    Balslev, Thomas; Rasmussen, Astrid Bruun; Skajaa, Torjus; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Muijtjens, Arno; De Grave, Willem; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2014-12-11

    Abstract Morning reports offer opportunities for intensive work-based learning. In this controlled study, we measured learning processes and outcomes with the report of paediatric emergency room patients. Twelve specialists and 12 residents were randomised into four groups and discussed the same two paediatric cases. The groups differed in their presentation modality (verbal only vs. verbal + text) and the use of buzz groups (with vs. without). The verbal interactions were analysed for clinical reasoning processes. Perceptions of learning and judgment of learning were reported in a questionnaire. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by a 20-item multiple-choice test. Combined bimodal presentation and buzz groups increased the odds ratio of clinical reasoning to occur in the discussion of cases by a factor of 1.90 (p = 0.013), indicating superior reasoning for buzz groups working with bimodal materials. For specialists, a positive effect of bimodal presentation was found on perceptions of learning (p presentation on diagnostic accuracy was noted in the specialists (p presentation and buzz group discussion of emergency cases improves clinicians' clinical reasoning and learning.

  3. TRACING OUTFLOWS AND ACCRETION: A BIMODAL AZIMUTHAL DEPENDENCE OF Mg II ABSORPTION

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a bimodality in the azimuthal angle distribution of gas around galaxies as traced by Mg II absorption: halo gas prefers to exist near the projected galaxy major and minor axes. The bimodality is demonstrated by computing the mean azimuthal angle probability distribution function using 88 spectroscopically confirmed Mg II-absorption-selected galaxies [W r (2796) ≥ 0.1 Å] and 35 spectroscopically confirmed non-absorbing galaxies [W r (2796) r (2796) r (2796) distribution for gas along the major axis is likely skewed toward weaker Mg II absorption than for gas along the projected minor axis. These combined results are highly suggestive that the bimodality is driven by gas accreted along the galaxy major axis and outflowing along the galaxy minor axis. Adopting these assumptions, we find that the opening angle of outflows and inflows to be 100° and 40°, respectively. We find that the probability of detecting outflows is ∼60%, implying that winds are more commonly observed.

  4. Contralateral Bimodal Stimulation: A Way to Enhance Speech Performance in Arabic-Speaking Cochlear Implant Patients.

    Abdeltawwab, Mohamed M; Khater, Ahmed; El-Anwar, Mohammad W

    2016-01-01

    The combination of acoustic and electric stimulation as a way to enhance speech recognition performance in cochlear implant (CI) users has generated considerable interest in the recent years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bimodal advantage of the FS4 speech processing strategy in combination with hearing aids (HA) as a means to improve low-frequency resolution in CI patients. Nineteen postlingual CI adults were selected to participate in this study. All patients wore implants on one side and HA on the contralateral side with residual hearing. Monosyllabic word recognition, speech in noise, and emotion and talker identification were assessed using CI with fine structure processing/FS4 and high-definition continuous interleaved sampling strategies, HA alone, and a combination of CI and HA. The bimodal stimulation showed improvement in speech performance and emotion identification for the question/statement/order tasks, which was statistically significant compared to patients with CI alone, but there were no significant statistical differences in intragender talker discrimination and emotion identification for the happy/angry/neutral tasks. The poorest performance was obtained with HA only, and it was statistically significant compared to the other modalities. The bimodal stimulation showed enhanced speech performance in CI patients, and it improves the limitations provided by electric or acoustic stimulation alone. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Stellar Rotation with Kepler and Gaia: Evidence for a Bimodal Star Formation History

    Davenport, James

    2018-01-01

    Kepler stars with rotation periods measured via starspot modulations in their light curves have been matched against the astrometric data from Gaia Data Release 1. A total of 1,299 bright rotating stars were recovered, most with temperatures hotter than 5000 K. From these, 894 were selected as being near the main sequence. These main sequence stars show a bimodality in their rotation period distribution, centered around a ~600 Myr rotation-isochrone. This feature matches the bimodal period distribution found in cooler stars with Kepler, but was previously undetected for solar-type stars due to sample contamination by subgiant and binary stars. A tenuous connection between the rotation period and total proper motion is found, suggesting the period bimodality is due to the age distribution of stars within 300pc of the Sun, rather than a phase of rapid angular momentum loss. I will discuss how the combination of Kepler/K2/TESS with Gaia will enable us to map the star formation history of our galactic neighborhood.

  6. Looking for bimodal distributions in multi-fragmentation reactions

    Gulminelli, F.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of a phase transition in a finite system can be deduced, together with its order, from the form of the distribution of the order parameter. This issue has been extensively studied in multifragmentation experiments, with results that do not appear fully consistent. In this paper we discuss the effect of the statistical ensemble or sorting conditions on the form of fragment distributions, and propose a new method, which can be easily implemented experimentally, to discriminate between different fragmentation scenarios. This method, based on a re-weighting of the measured distribution to account for the experimental constraints linked to the energy deposit, is tested on different simple models, and appears to provide a powerful discrimination. (author)

  7. Vehicle and Mission Design Options for the Human Exploration of Mars/Phobos Using "Bimodal" NTR and LANTR Propulsion

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2002-12-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human missions to Mars because of its high specific impulse (1sp is approximately 850-1000 s) capability and its attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10). To stay within the available mass and payload volume limits of a "Magnum" heavy lift vehicle, a high performance propulsion system is required for trans-Mars injection (TMI). An expendable TMI stage, powered by three 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NTR engines is currently under consideration by NASA for its Design Reference Mission (DRM). However, because of the miniscule burnup of enriched uranium-235 during the Earth departure phase (approximately 10 grams out of 33 kilograms in each NTR core), disposal of the TMI stage and its engines after a single use is a costly and inefficient use of this high performance stage. By reconfiguring the engines for both propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as "bimodal" operation), a robust, multiple burn, "power-rich" stage with propulsive Mars capture and reuse capability is possible. A family of modular bimodal NTR (BNTR) vehicles are described which utilize a common "core" stage powered by three 15 klbf BNTRs that produce 50 kWe of total electrical power for crew life support, an active refrigeration / reliquification system for long term, zero-boiloff liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage, and high data rate communications. An innovative, spine-like "saddle truss" design connects the core stage and payload element and is open underneath to allow supplemental "in-line" propellant tanks and contingency crew consumables to be easily jettisoned to improve vehicle performance. A "modified" DRM using BNTR transfer vehicles requires fewer transportation system elements, reduces IMLEO and mission risk, and simplifies space operations. By taking the next logical step--use of the BNTR for propulsive capture of all payload elements into Mars orbit--the power

  8. Matching Automatic Gain Control Across Devices in Bimodal Cochlear Implant Users.

    Veugen, Lidwien C E; Chalupper, Josef; Snik, Ad F M; Opstal, A John van; Mens, Lucas H M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve bimodal benefit in listeners using a cochlear implant (CI) and a hearing aid (HA) in contralateral ears, by matching the time constants and the number of compression channels of the automatic gain control (AGC) of the HA to the CI. Equivalent AGC was hypothesized to support a balanced loudness for dynamically changing signals like speech and improve bimodal benefit for speech understanding in quiet and with noise presented from the side(s) at 90 degree. Fifteen subjects participated in the study, all using the same Advanced Bionics Harmony CI processor and HA (Phonak Naida S IX UP). In a 3-visit crossover design with 4 weeks between sessions, performance was measured using a HA with a standard AGC (syllabic multichannel compression with 1 ms attack time and 50 ms release time) or an AGC that was adjusted to match that of the CI processor (dual AGC broadband compression, 3 and 240 msec attack time, 80 and 1500 msec release time). In all devices, the AGC was activated above the threshold of 63 dB SPL. The authors balanced loudness across the devices for soft and loud input sounds in 3 frequency bands (0 to 548, 548 to 1000, and >1000 Hz). Speech understanding was tested in free field in quiet and in noise for three spatial speaker configurations, with target speech always presented from the front. Single-talker noise was either presented from the CI side or the HA side, or uncorrelated stationary speech-weighted noise or single-talker noise was presented from both sides. Questionnaires were administered to assess differences in perception between the two bimodal fittings. Significant bimodal benefit over the CI alone was only found for the AGC-matched HA for the speech tests with single-talker noise. Compared with the standard HA, matched AGC characteristics significantly improved speech understanding in single-talker noise by 1.9 dB when noise was presented from the HA side. AGC matching increased bimodal benefit

  9. Single-crystal 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating reveals bimodal sanidine ages in the Bishop Tuff

    Andersen, N. L.; Jicha, B. R.; Singer, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    The 650 km3 Bishop Tuff (BT) is among the most studied volcanic deposits because it is an extensive marker bed deposited just after the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary. Reconstructions of the vast BT magma reservoir from which high-silica rhyolite erupted have long influenced thinking about how large silicic magma systems are assembled, crystallized, and mixed. Yet, the longevity of the high silica rhyolitic melt and exact timing of the eruption remain controversial due to recent conflicting 40Ar/39Ar sanidine vs. SIMS and ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon dates. We have undertaken 21 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating ages on 2 mm BT sanidine crystals from pumice in 3 widely separated outcrops of early-erupted fall and flow units. Plateau ages yield a bimodal distribution: a younger group has a mean of 766 ka and an older group gives a range between 772 and 782 ka. The younger population is concordant with the youngest ID-TIMS and SIMS U-Pb zircon ages recently published, as well as the astronomical age of BT in marine sediment. Of 21 crystals, 17 yield older, non-plateau, steps likely affected by excess Ar that would bias traditional 40Ar/39Ar total crystal fusion ages. The small spread in older sanidine ages, together with 25+ kyr of pre-eruptive zircon growth, suggest that the older sanidines are not partially outgassed xenocrysts. A bimodal 40Ar/39Ar age distribution implies that some fraction of rhyolitic melt cooled below the Ar closure temperature at least 10 ky prior to eruption. We propose that rapid "thawing" of a crystalline mush layer released older crystals into rhyolitic melt from which sanidine also nucleated and grew immediately prior to the eruption. High precision 40Ar/39Ar dating can thus provide essential information on thermo-physical processes at the millenial time scale that are critical to interpreting U-Pb zircon age distributions that are complicated by large uncertainties associated with zircon-melt U-Th systematics.

  10. High temperature tensile properties and fracture characteristics of bimodal 12Cr-ODS steel

    Chauhan, Ankur; Litvinov, Dimitri; Aktaa, Jarir

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the tensile properties and fracture characteristics of a 12Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with unique elongated bimodal grain size distribution. The tensile tests were carried out at four different temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 700 °C, at a nominal strain rate of 10"−"3 s"−"1. At room temperature the material exhibits a high tensile strength of 1294 MPa and high yield strength of 1200 MPa. At 700 °C, the material still exhibits relatively high tensile strength of 300 MPa. The total elongation-to-failure exceeds 18% over the whole temperature range and has a maximum value of 29% at 600 °C. This superior ductility is attributed to the material's bimodal grain size distribution. In comparison to other commercial, as well as experimental, ODS steels, the material shows an excellent compromise between strength and ductility. The fracture surface studies reveal a change in fracture behavior from a mixed mode fracture at room temperature to fully ductile fracture at 600 °C. At 700 °C, the fracture path changes from intragranular to intergranular fracture, which is associated with a reduced ductility. - Highlights: • The steel has a unique elongated bimodal grain size distribution. • The steel shows an excellent compromise between strength and ductility. • Superior ductility in comparison to other commercial and experimental ODS steels. • Fracture behavior changes from mixed mode fracture at room temperature to fully ductile fracture at 600 °C. • Fracture path changes from intragranular to intergranular fracture at 700 °C.

  11. Oncogenic Nras has bimodal effects on stem cells that sustainably increase competitiveness.

    Li, Qing; Bohin, Natacha; Wen, Tiffany; Ng, Victor; Magee, Jeffrey; Chen, Shann-Ching; Shannon, Kevin; Morrison, Sean J

    2013-12-05

    'Pre-leukaemic' mutations are thought to promote clonal expansion of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by increasing self-renewal and competitiveness; however, mutations that increase HSC proliferation tend to reduce competitiveness and self-renewal potential, raising the question of how a mutant HSC can sustainably outcompete wild-type HSCs. Activating mutations in NRAS are prevalent in human myeloproliferative neoplasms and leukaemia. Here we show that a single allele of oncogenic Nras(G12D) increases HSC proliferation but also increases reconstituting and self-renewal potential upon serial transplantation in irradiated mice, all prior to leukaemia initiation. Nras(G12D) also confers long-term self-renewal potential to multipotent progenitors. To explore the mechanism by which Nras(G12D) promotes HSC proliferation and self-renewal, we assessed cell-cycle kinetics using H2B-GFP label retention and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Nras(G12D) had a bimodal effect on HSCs, increasing the frequency with which some HSCs divide and reducing the frequency with which others divide. This mirrored bimodal effects on reconstituting potential, as rarely dividing Nras(G12D) HSCs outcompeted wild-type HSCs, whereas frequently dividing Nras(G12D) HSCs did not. Nras(G12D) caused these effects by promoting STAT5 signalling, inducing different transcriptional responses in different subsets of HSCs. One signal can therefore increase HSC proliferation, competitiveness and self-renewal through bimodal effects on HSC gene expression, cycling and reconstituting potential.

  12. Acid-base and ion balance in fishes with bimodal respiration.

    Shartau, R B; Brauner, C J

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of air breathing during the Devonian provided early fishes with bimodal respiration with a stable O2 supply from air. This was, however, probably associated with challenges and trade-offs in terms of acid-base balance and ionoregulation due to reduced gill:water interaction and changes in gill morphology associated with air breathing. While many aspects of acid-base and ionoregulation in air-breathing fishes are similar to water breathers, the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unstudied. In general, reduced ionic permeability appears to be an important adaptation in the few bimodal fishes investigated but it is not known if this is a general characteristic. The kidney appears to play an important role in minimizing ion loss to the freshwater environment in the few species investigated, and while ion uptake across the gut is probably important, it has been largely unexplored. In general, air breathing in facultative air-breathing fishes is associated with an acid-base disturbance, resulting in an increased partial pressure of arterial CO2 and a reduction in extracellular pH (pHE ); however, several fishes appear to be capable of tightly regulating tissue intracellular pH (pHI ), despite a large sustained reduction in pHE , a trait termed preferential pHI regulation. Further studies are needed to determine whether preferential pHI regulation is a general trait among bimodal fishes and if this confers reduced sensitivity to acid-base disturbances, including those induced by hypercarbia, exhaustive exercise and hypoxia or anoxia. Additionally, elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms may yield insight into whether preferential pHI regulation is a trait ultimately associated with the early evolution of air breathing in vertebrates. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Processing bimodal stimulus information under alcohol: is there a risk to being redundant?

    Fillmore, Mark T

    2010-10-01

    The impairing effects of alcohol are especially pronounced in environments that involve dividing attention across two or more stimuli. However, studies in cognitive psychology have identified circumstances in which the presentation of multiple stimuli can actually facilitate performance. The "redundant signal effect" (RSE) refers to the observation that individuals respond more quickly when information is presented as redundant, bimodal stimuli (e.g., aurally and visually), rather than as a single stimulus presented to either modality alone. The present study tested the hypothesis that the response facilitation attributed to RSE could reduce the degree to which alcohol slows information processing. Two experiments are reported. Experiment 1 demonstrated the validity of a reaction time model of RSE by showing that adults (N = 15) responded more quickly to redundant, bimodal stimuli (visual + aural) versus either stimuli presented individually. Experiment 2 used the RSE model to test the reaction time performance of 20 adults following three alcohol doses (0.0 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.65 g/kg). Results showed that alcohol slowed reaction time in a general dose-dependent manner in all three stimulus conditions with the reaction time (RT) speed-advantage of the redundant signal being maintained, even under the highest dose of alcohol. Evidence for an RT advantage to bimodal stimuli under alcohol challenges the general assumption that alcohol impairment is intensified in multistimulus environments. The current study provides a useful model to investigate how drug effects on behavior might be altered in contexts that involve redundant response signals.

  14. Elimination of Bimodal Size in InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots for Preparation of 1.3-μm Quantum Dot Lasers.

    Su, Xiang-Bin; Ding, Ying; Ma, Ben; Zhang, Ke-Lu; Chen, Ze-Sheng; Li, Jing-Lun; Cui, Xiao-Ran; Xu, Ying-Qiang; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan

    2018-02-21

    The device characteristics of semiconductor quantum dot lasers have been improved with progress in active layer structures. Self-assembly formed InAs quantum dots grown on GaAs had been intensively promoted in order to achieve quantum dot lasers with superior device performances. In the process of growing high-density InAs/GaAs quantum dots, bimodal size occurs due to large mismatch and other factors. The bimodal size in the InAs/GaAs quantum dot system is eliminated by the method of high-temperature annealing and optimized the in situ annealing temperature. The annealing temperature is taken as the key optimization parameters, and the optimal annealing temperature of 680 °C was obtained. In this process, quantum dot growth temperature, InAs deposition, and arsenic (As) pressure are optimized to improve quantum dot quality and emission wavelength. A 1.3-μm high-performance F-P quantum dot laser with a threshold current density of 110 A/cm 2 was demonstrated.

  15. A bimodal temom model for particle Brownian coagulation in the continuum-slip regime

    He Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a bimodal Taylor-series expansion moment of method is proposed to deal with Brownian coagulation in the continuum-slip regime, where the non-linear terms in the Cunningham correction factor is approximated by Taylor-series expansion technology. The results show that both the number concentration and volume fraction decrease with time in the smaller mode due to the intra and inter coagulation, and the asymptotic behavior of the larger mode is as same as that in the continuum regime.

  16. Impact of Bimodal Traffic on Latency in Optical Burst Switching Networks

    Yuhua Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of bimodal traffic composition on latency in optical burst switching networks. In particular, it studies the performance degradation to short-length packets caused by longer packets, both of which are part of a heterogeneous traffic model. The paper defines a customer satisfaction index for each of the classes of traffic, and a composite satisfaction index. The impact of higher overall utilization of the network as well as that of the ratio of the traffic mix on each of the customer satisfaction indices is specifically addressed.

  17. Thermal induced carrier's transfer in bimodal size distribution InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    Ilahi, B.; Alshehri, K.; Madhar, N. A.; Sfaxi, L.; Maaref, H.

    2018-06-01

    This work reports on the investigation of the thermal induced carriers' transfer mechanism in vertically stacked bimodal size distribution InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD). A model treating the QD as a localized states ensemble (LSE) has been employed to fit the atypical temperature dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) emission energies and linewidth. The results suggest that thermally activated carriers transfer within the large size QD family occurs through the neighboring smaller size QD as an intermediate channel before direct carriers redistribution. The obtained activation energy suggests also the possible contribution of the wetting layer (WL) continuum states as a second mediator channel for carriers transfer.

  18. Bimodal MR-PET agent for quantitative pH imaging

    Frullano, Luca; Catana, Ciprian; Benner, Thomas; Sherry, A. Dean; Caravan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Activatable or “smart” magnetic resonance contrast agents have relaxivities that depend on environmental factors such as pH or enzymatic activity, but the MR signal depends on relaxivity and agent concentration – two unknowns. A bimodal approach, incorporating a positron emitter, solves this problem. Simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and MR imaging with the biomodal, pH-responsive MR-PET agent GdDOTA-4AMP-F allows direct determination of both concentration (PET) and T1 (MRI), and hence pH. PMID:20191650

  19. Radioisotope power system based on derivative of existing Stirling engine

    Schock, A.; Or, C.T.; Kumar, V.

    1995-01-01

    In a recent paper, the authors presented the results of a system design study of a 75-watt(c) RSG (Radioisotope Stirling Generator) for possible application to the Pluto Fast Flyby mission. That study was based on a Stirling engine design generated by MTI (Mechanical Technology, Inc.). The MTI design was a derivative of a much larger (13 kwe) engine that they had developed and tested for NASA's LERC. Clearly, such a derivative would be a major extrapolation (downsizing) from what has actually been built and tested. To avoid that, the present paper describes a design for a 75-watt RSG system based on derivatives of a small (11-watt) engine and linear alternator system that has been under development by STC (Stirling Technology Company) for over three years and that has operated successfully for over 15,000 hours as of March 1995. Thus, the STC engines would require much less extrapolation from proven designs. The design employs a heat source consisting of two standard General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, coupled to four Stirling engines with linear alternators, any three of which could deliver the desired 75-watt(e) output if the fourth should fail. The four engines are coupled to four common radiators with redundant heatpipes for rejecting the engines' waste heat to space. The above engine and radiator redundancies promote system reliability. The paper describes detailed analyses to determine the effect of radiator geometry on system mass and performance, before and after an engine or heatpipe failure

  20. A new insight into high-strength Ti62Nb12.2Fe13.6Co6.4Al5.8 alloys with bimodal microstructure fabricated by semi-solid sintering.

    Liu, L H; Yang, C; Kang, L M; Qu, S G; Li, X Q; Zhang, W W; Chen, W P; Li, Y Y; Li, P J; Zhang, L C

    2016-03-31

    It is well known that semi-solid forming could only obtain coarse-grained microstructure in a few alloy systems with a low melting point, such as aluminum and magnesium alloys. This work presents that semi-solid forming could also produce novel bimodal microstructure composed of nanostructured matrix and micro-sized (CoFe)Ti2 twins in a titanium alloy, Ti62Nb12.2Fe13.6Co6.4Al5.8. The semi-solid sintering induced by eutectic transformation to form a bimodal microstructure in Ti62Nb12.2Fe13.6Co6.4Al5.8 alloy is a fundamentally different approach from other known methods. The fabricated alloy exhibits high yield strength of 1790 MPa and plastic strain of 15.5%. The novel idea provides a new insight into obtaining nano-grain or bimodal microstructure in alloy systems with high melting point by semi-solid forming and into fabricating high-performance metallic alloys in structural applications.

  1. Fast, High Resolution, and Wide Modulus Range Nanomechanical Mapping with Bimodal Tapping Mode.

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Meinhold, Waiman; Revenko, Irène; Proksch, Roger

    2017-10-24

    Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), also known as amplitude modulated (AM) or AC mode, is a proven, reliable, and gentle imaging mode with widespread applications. Over the several decades that tapping mode has been in use, quantification of tip-sample mechanical properties such as stiffness has remained elusive. Bimodal tapping mode keeps the advantages of single-frequency tapping mode while extending the technique by driving and measuring an additional resonant mode of the cantilever. The simultaneously measured observables of this additional resonance provide the additional information necessary to extract quantitative nanomechanical information about the tip-sample mechanics. Specifically, driving the higher cantilever resonance in a frequency modulated (FM) mode allows direct measurement of the tip-sample interaction stiffness and, with appropriate modeling, the set point-independent local elastic modulus. Here we discuss the advantages of bimodal tapping, coined AM-FM imaging, for modulus mapping. Results are presented for samples over a wide modulus range, from a compliant gel (∼100 MPa) to stiff materials (∼100 GPa), with the same type of cantilever. We also show high-resolution (subnanometer) stiffness mapping of individual molecules in semicrystalline polymers and of DNA in fluid. Combined with the ability to remain quantitative even at line scan rates of nearly 40 Hz, the results demonstrate the versatility of AM-FM imaging for nanomechanical characterization in a wide range of applications.

  2. Anhydrides-Cured Bimodal Rubber-Like Epoxy Asphalt Composites: From Thermosetting to Quasi-Thermosetting

    Yang Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present engineering practices show the potential that epoxy asphalt composites (EACs would be a better choice to obtain long life for busy roads. To understand the service performance–related thermorheological properties of prepared bimodal anhydrides-cured rubber-like EACs (REACs, a direct tensile tester, dynamic shear rheometer and mathematical model were used. Tensile tests demonstrate that all the REACs reported here are more flexible than previously reported anhydrides-cured REACs at both 20 and 0 °C. The better flexibility is attributed to the change of bimodal networks, in which cross-linked short chains decreased and cross-linked long chains increased, relatively. Strain sweeps show that all the REACs have linear viscoelastic (LVE properties when their strains are smaller than 1.0% from −35 to 120 °C. Temperature sweeps illustrate that the thermorheological properties of REACs evolve from thermosetting to quasi-thermosetting with asphalt content, and all the REACs retain solid state and show elastic properties in the experimental temperature range. A Cole–Cole plot and Black diagram indicate that all the REACs are thermorheologically simple materials, and the master curves were constructed and well-fitted by the Generalized Logistic Sigmoidal models. This research provides a facile approach to tune the thermorheological properties of the REACs, and the cheaper quasi-thermosetting REAC facilitates their advanced applications.

  3. Affective and physiological correlates of the perception of unimodal and bimodal emotional stimuli.

    Rosa, Pedro J; Oliveira, Jorge; Alghazzawi, Daniyal; Fardoun, Habib; Gamito, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    Despite the multisensory nature of perception, previous research on emotions has been focused on unimodal emotional cues with visual stimuli. To the best of our knowledge, there is no evidence on the extent to which incongruent emotional cues from visual and auditory sensory channels affect pupil size. To investigate the effects of audiovisual emotional information perception on the physiological and affective response, but also to determine the impact of mismatched cues in emotional perception on these physiological indexes. Pupil size, electrodermal activity and affective subjective responses were recorded while 30 participants were exposed to visual and auditory stimuli with varied emotional content in three different experimental conditions: pictures and sounds presented alone (unimodal), emotionally matched audio-visual stimuli (bimodal congruent) and emotionally mismatched audio-visual stimuli (bimodal incongruent). The data revealed no effect of emotional incongruence on physiological and affective responses. On the other hand, pupil size covaried with skin conductance response (SCR), but the subjective experience was partially dissociated from autonomic responses. Emotional stimuli are able to trigger physiological responses regardless of valence, sensory modality or level of emotional congruence.

  4. Effects of tensile test parameters on the mechanical properties of a bimodal Al–Mg alloy

    Magee, Andrew; Ladani, Leila; Topping, Troy D.; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2012-01-01

    The properties of aluminum alloy (AA) 5083 are shown to be significantly improved by grain size reduction through cryomilling and the incorporation of unmilled Al particles into the material, creating a bimodal grain size distribution consisting of coarse grains in a nanocrystalline matrix. To provide insight into the mechanical behavior and ultimately facilitate engineering applications, the present study reports on the effects of coarse grain ratio, anisotropy, strain rate and specimen size on the elastic–plastic behavior of bimodal AA 5083 evaluated in uniaxial tension tests using a full-factorial experiment design. To determine the governing failure mechanisms under different testing conditions, the specimens’ failure surfaces were analyzed using optical and electron microscopy. The results of the tests were found to conform to Joshi’s plasticity model. Significant anisotropy effects were observed, in a drastic reduction in strength and ductility, when tension was applied perpendicular (transverse) to the direction of extrusion. These specimens also exhibited a smooth, flat fracture surface morphology with a significantly different surface texture than specimens tested in the axial direction. It was found that decreasing specimen thickness and strain rate served to increase both the strength and ductility of the material. The failure surface morphology was found to differ between specimens of different thicknesses.

  5. Human mammary epithelial cells exhibit a bimodal correlated random walk pattern.

    Potdar, Alka A; Jeon, Junhwan; Weaver, Alissa M; Quaranta, Vito; Cummings, Peter T

    2010-03-10

    Organisms, at scales ranging from unicellular to mammals, have been known to exhibit foraging behavior described by random walks whose segments confirm to Lévy or exponential distributions. For the first time, we present evidence that single cells (mammary epithelial cells) that exist in multi-cellular organisms (humans) follow a bimodal correlated random walk (BCRW). Cellular tracks of MCF-10A pBabe, neuN and neuT random migration on 2-D plastic substrates, analyzed using bimodal analysis, were found to reveal the BCRW pattern. We find two types of exponentially distributed correlated flights (corresponding to what we refer to as the directional and re-orientation phases) each having its own correlation between move step-lengths within flights. The exponential distribution of flight lengths was confirmed using different analysis methods (logarithmic binning with normalization, survival frequency plots and maximum likelihood estimation). Because of the presence of non-uniform turn angle distribution of move step-lengths within a flight and two different types of flights, we propose that the epithelial random walk is a BCRW comprising of two alternating modes with varying degree of correlations, rather than a simple persistent random walk. A BCRW model rather than a simple persistent random walk correctly matches the super-diffusivity in the cell migration paths as indicated by simulations based on the BCRW model.

  6. Inversion of multiwavelength Raman lidar data for retrieval of bimodal aerosol size distribution

    Veselovskii, Igor; Kolgotin, Alexei; Griaznov, Vadim; Müller, Detlef; Franke, Kathleen; Whiteman, David N.

    2004-02-01

    We report on the feasibility of deriving microphysical parameters of bimodal particle size distributions from Mie-Raman lidar based on a triple Nd:YAG laser. Such an instrument provides backscatter coefficients at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and extinction coefficients at 355 and 532 nm. The inversion method employed is Tikhonov's inversion with regularization. Special attention has been paid to extend the particle size range for which this inversion scheme works to ~10 μm, which makes this algorithm applicable to large particles, e.g., investigations concerning the hygroscopic growth of aerosols. Simulations showed that surface area, volume concentration, and effective radius are derived to an accuracy of ~50% for a variety of bimodal particle size distributions. For particle size distributions with an effective radius of rims along which anthropogenic pollution mixes with marine aerosols. Measurement cases obtained from the Institute for Tropospheric Research six-wavelength aerosol lidar observations during the Indian Ocean Experiment were used to test the capabilities of the algorithm for experimental data sets. A benchmark test was attempted for the case representing anthropogenic aerosols between a broken cloud deck. A strong contribution of particle volume in the coarse mode of the particle size distribution was found.

  7. Human mammary epithelial cells exhibit a bimodal correlated random walk pattern.

    Alka A Potdar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organisms, at scales ranging from unicellular to mammals, have been known to exhibit foraging behavior described by random walks whose segments confirm to Lévy or exponential distributions. For the first time, we present evidence that single cells (mammary epithelial cells that exist in multi-cellular organisms (humans follow a bimodal correlated random walk (BCRW.Cellular tracks of MCF-10A pBabe, neuN and neuT random migration on 2-D plastic substrates, analyzed using bimodal analysis, were found to reveal the BCRW pattern. We find two types of exponentially distributed correlated flights (corresponding to what we refer to as the directional and re-orientation phases each having its own correlation between move step-lengths within flights. The exponential distribution of flight lengths was confirmed using different analysis methods (logarithmic binning with normalization, survival frequency plots and maximum likelihood estimation.Because of the presence of non-uniform turn angle distribution of move step-lengths within a flight and two different types of flights, we propose that the epithelial random walk is a BCRW comprising of two alternating modes with varying degree of correlations, rather than a simple persistent random walk. A BCRW model rather than a simple persistent random walk correctly matches the super-diffusivity in the cell migration paths as indicated by simulations based on the BCRW model.

  8. Preparation of bimodal grain size 7075 aviation aluminum alloys and their corrosion properties

    Wenming TIAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The bimodal grain size metals show improved strength and ductility compared to traditional metals; however, their corrosion properties are unknown. In order to evaluate the corrosion properties of these metals, the bimodal grain size 7075 aviation aluminum alloys containing different ratios of coarse (100 μm in diameter and fine (10 μm in diameter grains were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS. The effects of grain size as well as the mixture degree of coarse and fine grains on general corrosion were estimated by immersion tests, electrochemical measurements and complementary techniques such as scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope-energy disperse spectroscopy (TEM-EDS. The results show that, compared to fine grains, the coarse grains have a faster dissolution rate in acidic NaCl solution due to the bigger size, higher alloying elements content and larger area fraction of second phases in them. In coarse grains, the hydrogen ions have a faster reduction rate on cathodic second phases, therefore promoting the corrosion propagation. The mixture of coarse and fine grains also increases the electrochemical heterogeneity of alloys in micro-scale, and thus the increased mixture degree of these grains in metal matrix accelerates the corrosion rate of alloys in acidic NaCl solution.

  9. Modality-specific effects on crosstalk in task switching: evidence from modality compatibility using bimodal stimulation.

    Stephan, Denise Nadine; Koch, Iring

    2016-11-01

    The present study was aimed at examining modality-specific influences in task switching. To this end, participants switched either between modality compatible tasks (auditory-vocal and visual-manual) or incompatible spatial discrimination tasks (auditory-manual and visual-vocal). In addition, auditory and visual stimuli were presented simultaneously (i.e., bimodally) in each trial, so that selective attention was required to process the task-relevant stimulus. The inclusion of bimodal stimuli enabled us to assess congruence effects as a converging measure of increased between-task interference. The tasks followed a pre-instructed sequence of double alternations (AABB), so that no explicit task cues were required. The results show that switching between two modality incompatible tasks increases both switch costs and congruence effects compared to switching between two modality compatible tasks. The finding of increased congruence effects in modality incompatible tasks supports our explanation in terms of ideomotor "backward" linkages between anticipated response effects and the stimuli that called for this response in the first place. According to this generalized ideomotor idea, the modality match between response effects and stimuli would prime selection of a response in the compatible modality. This priming would cause increased difficulties to ignore the competing stimulus and hence increases the congruence effect. Moreover, performance would be hindered when switching between modality incompatible tasks and facilitated when switching between modality compatible tasks.

  10. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microstructure, plastic deformation and strengthening mechanisms of an Al–Mg–Si alloy with a bimodal grain structure

    Shakoori Oskooie, M.; Asgharzadeh, H.; Kim, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Al6063 with bimodal grain structures was fabricated by a powder metallurgy route. • The bimodal alloys showed a reasonable ductility together with a high strength. • Grain boundary strengthening was reduced at higher fraction of coarse grains. • The enhanced tensile ductility was attributed to crack blunting and delamination. - Abstract: Al6063 alloys with bimodal grain size distributions comprised of ultrafine-grained (UFG) and coarse-grained (CG) regions were produced via mechanical milling followed by hot extrusion. High-energy planetary ball milling for 22.5 h with a rotational speed of 350 rpm was employed for the synthesis of nanocrystalline Al6063 powders. The as-milled Al6063 powders were mixed with 15, 30, and 45 vol.% of the unmilled powders and then the powder mixtures were consolidated via extrusion at 450 °C with an extrusion ratio of 9:1. The microstructure of the bimodal extrudates was investigated using optical microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) detector. The deformation behavior was investigated by means of uniaxial tensile tests. The bimodal Al6063 exhibited balanced mechanical properties, including high yield stress and ultimate tensile strength resulting from the UFG regions together with reasonable ductility attained from the CG areas. The fracture surfaces demonstrated a ductile fracture mode, in which the dimple size was correlated with the grain structure. The strengthening mechanisms are discussed based on the dislocation models and the functions of the CGs in the deformation behavior and ductility enhancement of bimodal Al6063 are explored

  12. Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects.

    Dobreva, Marina S; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2012-12-01

    A common complaint of the elderly is difficulty identifying and localizing auditory and visual sources, particularly in competing background noise. Spatial errors in the elderly may pose challenges and even threats to self and others during everyday activities, such as localizing sounds in a crowded room or driving in traffic. In this study, we investigated the influence of aging, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on the localization of auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual (bimodal) targets. Head-restrained young and elderly subjects localized targets in a dark, echo-attenuated room using a manual laser pointer. Localization accuracy and precision (repeatability) were quantified for both ongoing and transient (remembered) targets at response delays up to 10 s. Because eye movements bias auditory spatial perception, localization was assessed under target fixation (eyes free, pointer guided by foveal vision) and central fixation (eyes fixed straight ahead, pointer guided by peripheral vision) conditions. Spatial localization across the frontal field in young adults demonstrated (1) horizontal overshoot and vertical undershoot for ongoing auditory targets under target fixation conditions, but near-ideal horizontal localization with central fixation; (2) accurate and precise localization of ongoing visual targets guided by foveal vision under target fixation that degraded when guided by peripheral vision during central fixation; (3) overestimation in horizontal central space (±10°) of remembered auditory, visual, and bimodal targets with increasing response delay. In comparison with young adults, elderly subjects showed (1) worse precision in most paradigms, especially when localizing with peripheral vision under central fixation; (2) greatly impaired vertical localization of auditory and bimodal targets; (3) increased horizontal overshoot in the central field for remembered visual and bimodal targets across response delays; (4) greater vulnerability to

  13. Annual analysis of heat pipe PV/T systems for domestic hot water and electricity production

    Pei Gang; Fu Huide; Ji Jie; Chow Tintai; Zhang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel heat pipe photovoltaic/thermal system with freeze protection was proposed. ► A detailed annual simulation model for the HP-PV/T system was presented. ► Annual performance of HP-PV/T was predicted and analyzed under different condition. - Abstract: Heat-pipe photovoltaic/thermal (HP-PV/T) systems can simultaneously provide electrical and thermal energy. Compared with traditional water-type photovoltaic/thermal systems, HP-PV/T systems can be used in cold regions without being frozen with the aid of a carefully selected heat-pipe working fluid. The current research presents a detailed simulation model of the HP-PV/T system. Using this model, the annual electrical and thermal behavior of the HP-PV/T system used in three typical climate areas of China, namely, Hong Kong, Lhasa, and Beijing, are predicted and analyzed. Two HP-PV/T systems, with and without auxiliary heating equipment, are studied annually under four different kinds of hot-water load per unit collecting area (64.5, 77.4, 90.3, and 103.2 kg/m 2 ).

  14. Possible detection of a bimodal cloud distribution in the atmosphere of HAT-P-32 A b from multiband photometry

    Tregloan-Reed, J.; Southworth, J.; Mancini, L.; Mollière, P.; Ciceri, S.; Bruni, I.; Ricci, D.; Ayala-Loera, C.; Henning, T.

    2018-03-01

    We present high-precision photometry of eight separate transit events in the HAT-P-32 planetary system. One transit event was observed simultaneously by two telescopes of which one obtained a simultaneous multiband light curve in three optical bands, giving a total of 11 transit light curves. Due to the filter selection and in conjunction with using the defocused photometry technique, we were able to obtain an extremely high-precision, ground-based transit in the u band (350 nm), with an rms scatter of ≈1 mmag. All 11 transits were modelled using PRISM and GEMC, and the physical properties of the system calculated. We find the mass and radius of the host star to be 1.182 ± 0.041 M⊙ and 1.225 ± 0.015 R⊙, respectively. For the planet, we find a mass of 0.80 ± 0.14 MJup, a radius of 1.807 ± 0.022 RJup, and a density of 0.126 ± 0.023 ρJup. These values are consistent with those found in the literature. We also obtain a new orbital ephemeris for the system T0 = BJD/TDB 2 454 420.447187(96) + 2.15000800(10) × E. We measured the transmission spectrum of HAT-P-32 A b and compared it to theoretical transmission spectra. Our results indicate a bimodal cloud particle distribution consisting of Rayleigh-like haze and grey absorbing cloud particles within the atmosphere of HAT-P-32 A b.

  15. Authentically radiolabelled Mn(II) complexes as bimodal PET/MR tracers

    Vanasschen, Christian; Brandt, Marie; Ermert, Johannes [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, INM-5 - Nuclear Chemistry, Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany); Neumaier, Bernd [Institute for Radiochemistry and Experimental Molecular Imaging, Medical Clinics, University of Cologne (Germany); Coenen, Heinz H [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, INM-5 - Nuclear Chemistry, Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    The development of small molecule bimodal PET/MR tracers is mainly hampered by the lack of dedicated preparation methods. Authentic radiolabelling of MR contrast agents ensures easy access to such probes: a ligand, chelating a paramagnetic metal ion (e.g. Mn2+) and the corresponding PET isotope (e.g. 52gMn), leads to a “cocktail mixture” where both imaging reporters exhibit the same pharmacokinetics. Paramagnetic [55Mn(CDTA)]2- shows an excellent compromise between thermodynamic stability, kinetic inertness and MR contrast enhancement. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop new PET/MR tracers by labelling CDTA ligands with paramagnetic manganese and the β+-emitter 52gMn. N.c.a. 52gMn (t1/2: 5.6 d; Eβ+: 575.8 keV (29.6%)) was produced by proton irradiation of a natCr target followed by cation-exchange chromatography. CDTA was radiolabelled with n.c.a. 52gMn2+ in NaOAc buffer (pH 6) at RT. The complex was purified by RP-HPLC and its stability tested in PBS and blood plasma at 37°C. The redox stability was assessed by monitoring the T1 relaxation (20 MHz) in HEPES buffer (pH 7.4). A functionalized CDTA ligand was synthesized in 5 steps. [52gMn(CDTA)]2- was quantitatively formed within 30 min at RT. The complex was stable for at least 6 days in PBS and blood plasma at 37°C and no oxidation occurred within 7 months storage at RT. Labelling CDTA with an isotopic 52g/55Mn2+ mixture led to the corresponding bimodal PET/MR tracer. Furthermore, a functionalized CDTA ligand was synthesized with an overall yield of 18-25%. [52g/55Mn(CDTA)]2-, the first manganese-based bimodal PET/MR tracer prepared, exhibits excellent stability towards decomplexation and oxidation. This makes the functionalized CDTA ligand highly suitable for designing PET/MR tracers with high relaxivity or targeting properties.

  16. Authentically radiolabelled Mn(II) complexes as bimodal PET/MR tracers

    Vanasschen, Christian; Brandt, Marie; Ermert, Johannes; Neumaier, Bernd; Coenen, Heinz H

    2015-01-01

    The development of small molecule bimodal PET/MR tracers is mainly hampered by the lack of dedicated preparation methods. Authentic radiolabelling of MR contrast agents ensures easy access to such probes: a ligand, chelating a paramagnetic metal ion (e.g. Mn2+) and the corresponding PET isotope (e.g. 52gMn), leads to a “cocktail mixture” where both imaging reporters exhibit the same pharmacokinetics. Paramagnetic [55Mn(CDTA)]2- shows an excellent compromise between thermodynamic stability, kinetic inertness and MR contrast enhancement. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop new PET/MR tracers by labelling CDTA ligands with paramagnetic manganese and the β+-emitter 52gMn. N.c.a. 52gMn (t1/2: 5.6 d; Eβ+: 575.8 keV (29.6%)) was produced by proton irradiation of a natCr target followed by cation-exchange chromatography. CDTA was radiolabelled with n.c.a. 52gMn2+ in NaOAc buffer (pH 6) at RT. The complex was purified by RP-HPLC and its stability tested in PBS and blood plasma at 37°C. The redox stability was assessed by monitoring the T1 relaxation (20 MHz) in HEPES buffer (pH 7.4). A functionalized CDTA ligand was synthesized in 5 steps. [52gMn(CDTA)]2- was quantitatively formed within 30 min at RT. The complex was stable for at least 6 days in PBS and blood plasma at 37°C and no oxidation occurred within 7 months storage at RT. Labelling CDTA with an isotopic 52g/55Mn2+ mixture led to the corresponding bimodal PET/MR tracer. Furthermore, a functionalized CDTA ligand was synthesized with an overall yield of 18-25%. [52g/55Mn(CDTA)]2-, the first manganese-based bimodal PET/MR tracer prepared, exhibits excellent stability towards decomplexation and oxidation. This makes the functionalized CDTA ligand highly suitable for designing PET/MR tracers with high relaxivity or targeting properties.

  17. HPS: A space fission power system suitable for near-term, low-cost lunar and planetary bases

    Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.; Ranken, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Near-term, low-cost space fission power systems can enhance the feasibility and utility of lunar and planetary bases. One such system, the Heatpipe Power System (HPS), is described in this paper. The HPS draws on 40 yr of United States and international experience to enable a system that can be developed in <5 yr at a cost of <$100M. Total HPS mass is <600 kg at 5 kWe and <2000 kg at 50 kWe, assuming that thermoelectric power conversion is used. More advanced power conversion systems could reduce system mass significantly. System mass for planetary surface systems also may be reduced (1) if indigenous material is used for radiation shielding and (2) because of the positive effect of the gravitational field on heatpipe operation. The HPS is virtually non-radioactive at launch and is passively subcritical during all credible launch accidents. Full-system electrically heated testing is possible, and a ground nuclear power test is not needed for flight qualification. Fuel burnup limits are not reached for several decades, thus giving the system long-life potential

  18. Bimodal wireless sensing with dual-channel wide bandgap heterostructure varactors

    Deen, David A.; Osinsky, Andrei; Miller, Ross

    2014-03-01

    A capacitive wireless sensing scheme is developed that utilizes an AlN/GaN-based dual-channel varactor. The dual-channel heterostructure affords two capacitance plateaus within the capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristic, owing to the two parallel two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) located at respective AlN/GaN interfaces. The capacitance plateaus are leveraged for the definition of two resonant states of the sensor when implemented in an inductively-coupled resonant LRC network for wireless readout. The physics-based CV model is compared with published experimental results, which serve as a basis for the sensor embodiment. The bimodal resonant sensor is befitting for a broad application space ranging from gas, electrostatic, and piezoelectric sensors to biological and chemical detection.

  19. Bimodal wireless sensing with dual-channel wide bandgap heterostructure varactors

    Deen, David A.; Osinsky, Andrei; Miller, Ross

    2014-01-01

    A capacitive wireless sensing scheme is developed that utilizes an AlN/GaN-based dual-channel varactor. The dual-channel heterostructure affords two capacitance plateaus within the capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristic, owing to the two parallel two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) located at respective AlN/GaN interfaces. The capacitance plateaus are leveraged for the definition of two resonant states of the sensor when implemented in an inductively-coupled resonant LRC network for wireless readout. The physics-based CV model is compared with published experimental results, which serve as a basis for the sensor embodiment. The bimodal resonant sensor is befitting for a broad application space ranging from gas, electrostatic, and piezoelectric sensors to biological and chemical detection

  20. Bimodal bilingualism as multisensory training?: Evidence for improved audiovisual speech perception after sign language exposure.

    Williams, Joshua T; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize effects of learning a sign language on the processing of a spoken language. Specifically, audiovisual phoneme comprehension was assessed before and after 13 weeks of sign language exposure. L2 ASL learners performed this task in the fMRI scanner. Results indicated that L2 American Sign Language (ASL) learners' behavioral classification of the speech sounds improved with time compared to hearing nonsigners. Results indicated increased activation in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) after sign language exposure, which suggests concomitant increased phonological processing of speech. A multiple regression analysis indicated that learner's rating on co-sign speech use and lipreading ability was correlated with SMG activation. This pattern of results indicates that the increased use of mouthing and possibly lipreading during sign language acquisition may concurrently improve audiovisual speech processing in budding hearing bimodal bilinguals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. DMAP-BODIPY alkynes: a convenient tool for labeling biomolecules for bimodal PET-optical imaging.

    Brizet, Bertrand; Goncalves, Victor; Bernhard, Claire; Harvey, Pierre D; Denat, Franck; Goze, Christine

    2014-09-26

    Several new boron dipyrromethene/N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (BODIPY-DMAP) assemblies were synthesized as precursors for bimodal imaging probes (optical imaging, OI/positron emission tomography, PET). The photophysical properties of the new compounds were also studied. The first proof-of-concept was obtained with the preparation of several new BODIPY-labeled bombesins and evaluation of the affinity for bombesin receptors by using a competition binding assay. Fluorination reactions were investigated on DMAP-BODIPY precursors as well as on DMAP-BODIPY-labeled bombesins. Chemical modifications on the BODIPY core were also performed to obtain luminescent dyes emitting in the therapeutic window (650-900 nm), suitable for in vivo imaging, making these compounds promising precursors for PET/optical dual-modality imaging agents. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Hypoxia tolerance and partitioning of bimodal respiration in the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Air-breathing fish are common in the tropics, and their importance in Asian aquaculture is increasing, but the respiratory physiology of some of the key species such as the striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage 1878 is unstudied. P. hypophthalmus is an interesting species...... to air-breathe. The possibility of reducing air-breathing frequency may be energetically beneficial for the fish, leaving more of the aerobic scope for growth and other activities, due to the proposed energetic costs of surfacing behavior....... as it appears to possess both well-developed gills and a modified swim bladder that functions as an air-breathing organ indicating a high capacity for both aquatic and aerial respiration. Using newly developed bimodal intermittent-closed respirometry, the partitioning of oxygen consumption in normoxia...

  3. First results from the IllustrisTNG simulations: the galaxy colour bimodality

    Nelson, Dylan; Pillepich, Annalisa; Springel, Volker; Weinberger, Rainer; Hernquist, Lars; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Genel, Shy; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Marinacci, Federico; Naiman, Jill

    2018-03-01

    We introduce the first two simulations of the IllustrisTNG project, a next generation of cosmological magnetohydrodynamical simulations, focusing on the optical colours of galaxies. We explore TNG100, a rerun of the original Illustris box, and TNG300, which includes 2 × 25003 resolution elements in a volume 20 times larger. Here, we present first results on the galaxy colour bimodality at low redshift. Accounting for the attenuation of stellar light by dust, we compare the simulated (g - r) colours of 109 1011 M⊙ which redden at z z = 0 mass post-reddening; at the same time, ˜18 per cent of such massive galaxies acquire half or more of their final stellar mass while on the red sequence.

  4. Bimodal wireless sensing with dual-channel wide bandgap heterostructure varactors

    Deen, David A.; Osinsky, Andrei; Miller, Ross [Agnitron Technology Incorporated, Eden Prairie, Minnesota 55346 (United States)

    2014-03-03

    A capacitive wireless sensing scheme is developed that utilizes an AlN/GaN-based dual-channel varactor. The dual-channel heterostructure affords two capacitance plateaus within the capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristic, owing to the two parallel two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) located at respective AlN/GaN interfaces. The capacitance plateaus are leveraged for the definition of two resonant states of the sensor when implemented in an inductively-coupled resonant LRC network for wireless readout. The physics-based CV model is compared with published experimental results, which serve as a basis for the sensor embodiment. The bimodal resonant sensor is befitting for a broad application space ranging from gas, electrostatic, and piezoelectric sensors to biological and chemical detection.

  5. An investigation of bimodal jet trajectory in flow through scaled models of the human vocal tract

    Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W. [Purdue University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Indiana (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Pulsatile two-dimensional flow through static divergent models of the human vocal folds is investigated. Although the motivation for this study is speech production, the results are generally applicable to a variety of engineering flows involving pulsatile flow through diffusers. Model glottal divergence angles of 10, 20, and 40 represent various geometries encountered in one phonation cycle. Frequency and amplitude of the flow oscillations are scaled with physiological Reynolds and Strouhal numbers typical of human phonation. Glottal velocity trajectories are measured along the anterior-posterior midline by using phase-averaged particle image velocimetry to acquire 1,000 realizations at ten discrete instances in the phonation cycle. The angular deflection of the glottal jet from the streamwise direction (symmetric configuration) is quantified for each realization. A bimodal flow configuration is observed for divergence angles of 10 and 20 , with the flow eventually skewing and attaching to the vocal fold walls. The deflection of the flow toward the vocal fold walls occurs when the forcing function reaches maximum velocity and zero acceleration. For a divergence angle of 40 , the flow never attaches to the vocal fold walls; however, there is increased variability in the glottal jet after the forcing function reaches maximum velocity and zero acceleration. The variation in the jet trajectory as a function of divergence angle is explained by performance maps of diffuser flow regimes. The smaller angle cases are in the unstable transitory stall regime while the 40 divergent case is in the fully developed two-dimensional stall regime. Very small geometric variations in model size and surface finish significantly affect the flow behavior. The bimodal, or flip-flopping, glottal jet behavior is expected to influence the dipole contribution to sound production. (orig.)

  6. X-ray diffraction microstructural analysis of bimodal size distribution MgO nano powder

    Suminar Pratapa; Budi Hartono

    2009-01-01

    Investigation on the characteristics of x-ray diffraction data for MgO powdered mixture of nano and sub-nano particles has been carried out to reveal the crystallite-size-related microstructural information. The MgO powders were prepared by co-precipitation method followed by heat treatment at 500 degree Celsius and 1200 degree Celsius for 1 hour, being the difference in the temperature was to obtain two powders with distinct crystallite size and size-distribution. The powders were then blended in air to give the presumably bimodal-size- distribution MgO nano powder. High-quality laboratory X-ray diffraction data for the powders were collected and then analysed using Rietveld-based MAUD software using the lognormal size distribution. Results show that the single-mode powders exhibit spherical crystallite size (R) of 20(1) nm and 160(1) nm for the 500 degree Celsius and 1200 degree Celsius data respectively with the nano metric powder displays narrower crystallite size distribution character, indicated by lognormal dispersion parameter of 0.21 as compared to 0.01 for the sub-nano metric powder. The mixture exhibits relatively more asymmetric peak broadening. Analysing the x-ray diffraction data for the latter specimen using single phase approach give unrealistic results. Introducing two phase models for the double-phase mixture to accommodate the bimodal-size-distribution characteristics give R = 100(6) and σ = 0.62 for the nano metric phase and R = 170(5) and σ= 0.12 for the σ sub-nano metric phase. (author)

  7. Experimental study of the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam recurrence in a bi-modal electrical transmission line

    Farota, Abdou K; Faye, Mansour M

    2013-01-01

    We report on the experimental observation of the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam (FPU) recurrence in an experimental bi-modal nonlinear transmission line. The FPU recurrence is observed in the two transmission modes known as the low frequency mode and the high frequency mode. In each case, a spectrum analysis is performed in order to study the waves along the line. (paper)

  8. Flexible transparent conducting films with embedded silver networks composed of bimodal-sized nanoparticles for heater application

    Park, Ji Sun; Song, Yookyung; Park, Daseul; Kim, Yeon-Won; Kim, Yoon Jin

    2018-06-01

    A facile one-pot synthetic method for preparing the Ag nanoparticle inks with a bimodal size distribution was newly devised and they were successfully employed as a conducting filler to form the metal-mesh type transparent conducting electrodes on the flexible substrate. Bimodal-sized Ag nanoparticles were synthesized through the polyol process, and their size variation was occurred via finely tuned composition ratio between Ag+ ions and polymeric capping agents. The prepared bimodal-sized Ag nanoparticles exhibited the form of well-dispersed Ag nanoparticle inks without adding any dispersants and dispersion process. By filling the patterned micro-channels engraved on the flexible polymer substrate using a bimodal-sized Ag nanoparticle ink, a metal-mesh type transparent electrode (transmittance: 90% at 550 nm, haze: 1.5, area: 8 × 8 cm2) was fabricated. By applying DC voltage to the mesh type electrode, a flexible transparent joule heater was successfully achieved with a performance of 4.5 °C s‑1 heat-up rate at a low input power density.

  9. The Impact of Bimodal Bilingual Parental Input on the Communication and Language Development of a Young Deaf Child

    Levesque, Elizabeth; Brown, P. Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the impact of bimodal bilingual parental input on the communication and language development of a young deaf child. The participants in this case study were a severe-to-profoundly deaf boy and his hearing parents, who were enrolled in a bilingual (English and Australian Sign Language) homebased early intervention programme. The…

  10. The Next Generation Fornax Survey (NGFS). IV. Mass and Age Bimodality of Nuclear Clusters in the Fornax Core Region

    Ordenes-Briceño, Yasna; Puzia, Thomas H.; Eigenthaler, Paul; Taylor, Matthew A.; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Zhang, Hongxin; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Ribbeck, Karen X.; Grebel, Eva K.; Ángel, Simón; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Hilker, Michael; Lançon, Ariane; Mieske, Steffen; Miller, Bryan W.; Rong, Yu; Sánchez-Janssen, Ruben

    2018-06-01

    We present the analysis of 61 nucleated dwarf galaxies in the central regions (≲R vir/4) of the Fornax galaxy cluster. The galaxies and their nuclei are studied as part of the Next Generation Fornax Survey using optical imaging obtained with the Dark Energy Camera mounted at Blanco/Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and near-infrared data obtained with VIRCam at VISTA/ESO. We decompose the nucleated dwarfs in nucleus and spheroid, after subtracting the surface brightness profile of the spheroid component and studying the nucleus using point source photometry. In general, nuclei are consistent with colors of confirmed metal-poor globular clusters, but with significantly smaller dispersion than other confirmed compact stellar systems in Fornax. We find a bimodal nucleus mass distribution with peaks located at {log}({{ \\mathcal M }}* /{M}ȯ )≃ 5.4 and ∼6.3. These two nucleus subpopulations have different stellar population properties: the more massive nuclei are older than ∼2 Gyr and have metal-poor stellar populations (Z ≤ 0.02 Z ⊙), while the less massive nuclei are younger than ∼2 Gyr with metallicities in the range 0.02 < Z/Z ⊙ ≤ 1. We find that the nucleus mass ({{ \\mathcal M }}nuc}) versus galaxy mass ({{ \\mathcal M }}gal}) relation becomes shallower for less massive galaxies starting around 108 M ⊙, and the mass ratio {η }n={{ \\mathcal M }}nuc}/{{ \\mathcal M }}gal} shows a clear anticorrelation with {{ \\mathcal M }}gal} for the lowest masses, reaching 10%. We test current theoretical models of nuclear cluster formation and find that they cannot fully reproduce the observed trends. A likely mixture of in situ star formation and star cluster mergers seems to be acting during nucleus growth over cosmic time.

  11. Diverse Kir expression contributes to distinct bimodal distribution of resting potentials and vasotone responses of arterioles.

    Yuqin Yang

    Full Text Available The resting membrane potential (RP of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs is a major determinant of cytosolic calcium concentration and vascular tone. The heterogeneity of RPs and its underlying mechanism among different vascular beds remain poorly understood. We compared the RPs and vasomotion properties between the guinea pig spiral modiolar artery (SMA, brain arterioles (BA and mesenteric arteries (MA. We found: 1 RPs showed a robust bimodal distribution peaked at -76 and -40 mV evenly in the SMA, unevenly at -77 and -51 mV in the BA and ~-71 and -52 mV in the MA. Ba(2+ 0.1 mM eliminated their high RP peaks ~-75 mV. 2 Cells with low RP (~-45 mV hyperpolarized in response to 10 mM extracellular K(+, while cells with a high RP depolarized, and cells with intermediate RP (~-58 mV displayed an initial hyperpolarization followed by prolonged depolarization. Moderate high K(+ typically induced dilation, constriction and a dilation followed by constriction in the SMA, MA and BA, respectively. 3 Boltzmann-fit analysis of the Ba(2+-sensitive inward rectifier K(+ (Kir whole-cell current showed that the maximum Kir conductance density significantly differed among the vessels, and the half-activation voltage was significantly more negative in the MA. 4 Corresponding to the whole-cell data, computational modeling simulated the three RP distribution patterns and the dynamics of RP changes obtained experimentally, including the regenerative swift shifts between the two RP levels after reaching a threshold. 5 Molecular works revealed strong Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 transcripts and Kir2.1 immunolabeling in all 3 vessels, while Kir2.3 and Kir2.4 transcript levels varied. We conclude that a dense expression of functional Kir2.X channels underlies the more negative RPs in endothelial cells and a subset of VSMC in these arterioles, and the heterogeneous Kir function is primarily responsible for the distinct bimodal RPs among these arterioles. The fast Kir

  12. Polymers for bimodal immunoradiotherapy - are they able to promote immune system?

    Loukotová, Lenka; Kučka, Jan; Rabyk, Mariia; Hoecherl, Anita; Venclíková, Kristýna; Janoušková, Olga; Konefal, Rafal; Kolářová, V.; Šefc, L.; Štěpánek, Petr; Hrubý, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2017), s. 192 ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemikov /69./. 11.09.2017-15.09.2017, Horný Smokovec] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02870S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03156S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25781A; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB16FR042; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14009 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : immunotherapy * brachytherapy * beta-glucan Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  13. Biocompatible branched copolymer nanoparticles prepared by RAFT polymerization as MRI/PET bimodal tracers

    Yang, Chang-Tong [Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Tao, He; Jackson, Alexander W [Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, Agency for Science Technology and Research (Singapore); Chandrasekharan, Prashant [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science Technology and Research (Singapore); Padmanabhan, Parasuraman [Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Gulyás, Balázs; Halldin, Christer [Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-05-18

    Stable branched copolymer nanoparticles of varying size (Dh = 20 – 35 nm) have been developed and employed as MRI nano-sized contrast agents. RAFT polymerization has been employed to prepare these novel nanoparticles possessing DO3A macrocycles within their cores and succinimidyl ester benzoate functionalities within their coronas. It has been demonstrated that these nanoparticles can chelate gadolinium and in vitro cytotoxicity studies using HK-2 cells established their negligible toxicity profile. In vivo MRI experiments showed that these nanoparticles have a high relaxivity and a long blood retention time. Xenograft experiments further illustrated the ability of these nanoparticles to perfuse and passively accumulate in tumor cells, presumably through the enhanced EPR effect. The presence of the succinimidyl ester benzoate functionalities within the nanoparticle coronas will permit future surface modification with fluorophores or targeting moieties to generate nanoparticles to study opportunities for bimodal imaging nano-probes or active cell targeting contrast agents. The chelation with PET radioisotopes (68Ga(III) or 64Cu(II)) can afford various PET tracers.

  14. THE BIMODAL METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION OF THE COOL CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM AT z ∼< 1

    Lehner, N.; Howk, J. C.; Tripp, T. M.; Tumlinson, J.; Thom, C.; Fox, A. J.; Prochaska, J. X.; Werk, J. K.; O'Meara, J. M.; Ribaudo, J.

    2013-01-01

    We assess the metal content of the cool (∼10 4 K) circumgalactic medium (CGM) about galaxies at z ∼ H I ∼ H I selection avoids metallicity biases inherent in many previous studies of the low-redshift CGM. We compare the column densities of weakly ionized metal species (e.g., O II, Si II, Mg II) to N H I in the strongest H I component of each absorber. We find that the metallicity distribution of the LLS (and hence the cool CGM) is bimodal with metal-poor and metal-rich branches peaking at [X/H] ≅ –1.6 and –0.3 (or about 2.5% and 50% solar metallicities). The cool CGM probed by these LLS is predominantly ionized. The metal-rich branch of the population likely traces winds, recycled outflows, and tidally stripped gas; the metal-poor branch has properties consistent with cold accretion streams thought to be a major source of fresh gas for star forming galaxies. Both branches have a nearly equal number of absorbers. Our results thus demonstrate there is a significant mass of previously undiscovered cold metal-poor gas and confirm the presence of metal enriched gas in the CGM of z ∼< 1 galaxies.

  15. Biocompatible branched copolymer nanoparticles prepared by RAFT polymerization as MRI/PET bimodal tracers

    Yang, Chang-Tong; Tao, He; Jackson, Alexander W; Chandrasekharan, Prashant; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Gulyás, Balázs; Halldin, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Stable branched copolymer nanoparticles of varying size (Dh = 20 – 35 nm) have been developed and employed as MRI nano-sized contrast agents. RAFT polymerization has been employed to prepare these novel nanoparticles possessing DO3A macrocycles within their cores and succinimidyl ester benzoate functionalities within their coronas. It has been demonstrated that these nanoparticles can chelate gadolinium and in vitro cytotoxicity studies using HK-2 cells established their negligible toxicity profile. In vivo MRI experiments showed that these nanoparticles have a high relaxivity and a long blood retention time. Xenograft experiments further illustrated the ability of these nanoparticles to perfuse and passively accumulate in tumor cells, presumably through the enhanced EPR effect. The presence of the succinimidyl ester benzoate functionalities within the nanoparticle coronas will permit future surface modification with fluorophores or targeting moieties to generate nanoparticles to study opportunities for bimodal imaging nano-probes or active cell targeting contrast agents. The chelation with PET radioisotopes (68Ga(III) or 64Cu(II)) can afford various PET tracers.

  16. Affordable Bimodal Optical Sensors to Spread the Use of Automated Insect Monitoring

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel bimodal optoelectronic sensor based on Fresnel lenses and the associated stereo-recording device that records the wingbeat event of an insect in flight as backscattered and extinction light. We investigate the complementary information of these two sources of biometric evidence and we finally embed part of this technology in an electronic e-trap for fruit flies. The e-trap examines the spectral content of the wingbeat of the insect flying in and reports wirelessly counts and species identity. We design our devices so that they are optimized in terms of detection accuracy and power consumption, but above all, we ensure that they are affordable. Our aim is to make more widespread the use of electronic insect traps that report in virtually real time the level of the pest population from the field straight to a human controlled agency. We have the vision to establish remote automated monitoring for all insects of economic and hygienic importance at large spatial scales, using their wingbeat as biometric evidence. To this end, we provide open access to the implementation details, recordings, and classification code we developed.

  17. Colorimetric and Fluorescent Bimodal Ratiometric Probes for pH Sensing of Living Cells.

    Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Ming; Zhu, Li-Na; Feng, Xi-Zeng; Kong, De-Ming

    2015-06-01

    pH measurement is widely used in many fields. Ratiometric pH sensing is an important way to improve the detection accuracy. Herein, five water-soluble cationic porphyrin derivatives were synthesized and their optical property changes with pH value were investigated. Their pH-dependent assembly/disassembly behaviors caused significant changes in both absorption and fluorescence spectra, thus making them promising bimodal ratiometric probes for both colorimetric and fluorescent pH sensing. Different substituent identity and position confer these probes with different sensitive pH-sensing ranges, and the substituent position gives a larger effect. By selecting different porphyrins, different signal intensity ratios and different fluorescence excitation wavelengths, sensitive pH sensing can be achieved in the range of 2.1-8.0. Having demonstrated the excellent reversibility, good accuracy and low cytotoxicity of the probes, they were successfully applied in pH sensing inside living cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Strong bimodality in the host halo mass of central galaxies from galaxy-galaxy lensing

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Wang, Wenting; Zu, Ying; White, Simon; Henriques, Bruno; More, Surhud

    2016-04-01

    We use galaxy-galaxy lensing to study the dark matter haloes surrounding a sample of locally brightest galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We measure mean halo mass as a function of the stellar mass and colour of the central galaxy. Mock catalogues constructed from semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations demonstrate that most LBGs are the central objects of their haloes, greatly reducing interpretation uncertainties due to satellite contributions to the lensing signal. Over the full stellar mass range, 10.3 10.7. Tests using the mock catalogues and on the data themselves clarify the effects of LBG selection and show that it cannot artificially induce a systematic dependence of halo mass on LBG colour. The bimodality in halo mass at fixed stellar mass is reproduced by the astrophysical model underlying our mock catalogue, but the sign of the effect is inconsistent with recent, nearly parameter-free age-matching models. The sign and magnitude of the effect can, however, be reproduced by halo occupation distribution models with a simple (few-parameter) prescription for type dependence.

  19. Label-Free Biosensors Based on Bimodal Waveguide (BiMW) Interferometers.

    Herranz, Sonia; Gavela, Adrián Fernández; Lechuga, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    The bimodal waveguide (BiMW) sensor is a novel common path interferometric transducer based on the evanescent field detection principle, which in combination with a bio-recognition element allows the direct detection of biomolecular interactions in a label-free scheme. Due to its inherent high sensitivity it has great potential to become a powerful analytical tool for monitoring substances of interest in areas such as environmental control, medical diagnostics and food safety, among others. The BiMW sensor is fabricated using standard silicon-based technology allowing cost-effective production, and meeting the requirements of portability and disposability necessary for implementation in a point-of-care (POC) setting.In this chapter we describe the design and fabrication of the BiMW transducer, as well as its application for bio-sensing purposes. We show as an example the biosensor capabilities two different applications: (1) the immunodetection of Irgarol 1051 biocide useful in the environmental field, and (2) the detection of human growth hormone as used in clinical diagnostics. The detection is performed in real time by monitoring changes in the intensity pattern of light exiting the BiMW transducer resulting from antigen-antibody interactions on the surface of the sensor.

  20. THE BIMODALITY OF ACCRETION IN T TAURI STARS AND BROWN DWARFS

    Vorobyov, E. I.; Basu, Shantanu

    2009-01-01

    We present numerical solutions of the collapse of prestellar cores that lead to the formation and evolution of circumstellar disks. The disk evolution is then followed for up to three million years. A variety of models of different initial masses and rotation rates allow us to study disk accretion around brown dwarfs and low-mass T Tauri stars (TTSs), with central object mass M * sun , as well as intermediate- and upper-mass TTSs (0.2 M sun * sun ). Our models include self-gravity and allow for nonaxisymmetric motions. In addition to the self-consistently generated gravitational torques, we introduce an effective turbulent α-viscosity with α = 0.01, which allows us particularly to model accretion in the low-mass regime where disk self-gravity is diminishing. A range of models with observationally motivated values of the initial ratio of rotational-to-gravitational energy yield a correlation between mass accretion rate M-dot and M * that is relatively steep, as observed. Additionally, our modeling reveals evidence for a bimodality in the M-dot - M * correlation, with a steeper slope at lower masses and a shallower slope at intermediate and upper masses, as also implied by observations. Furthermore, we show that the neglect of disk self-gravity leads to a much steeper M-dot - M * relation for intermediate- and upper-mass TTSs. This demonstrates that an accurate treatment of global self-gravity is essential to understanding observations of circumstellar disks.

  1. [An analysis of code-switching phenomenon in bimodal bilinguals (Libras and Portuguese).

    de Sousa, Aline Nunes; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2012-01-01

    An interesting linguistic phenomenon that happens in the interaction among bilingual people is code-switching. In this paper, we are investigating code-switching among oral Brazilian Portuguese and Brazilian Sign Language - Libras, in a same enunciative chain, with the goal of identifying and analyzing the use of code-switching in the speech of a child and an adult (both hearing from deaf parents), interacting in an intermodal bilingual context, with deaf and hearing interlocutors. Code-switching in languages, in this case, occurs when a person stops to speak in Portuguese and he/she alternates to sign. This present research is a starting study, with qualitative analysis of data. Our corpus is composed of nine sections of interactions in Libras and oral Portuguese, recorded in video, part of the Bimodal Bilingual Development Project from UFSC. The data shows that adult and child's characteristics of code-switching seem to have similarities and differences. The adult seems to switch more worried about the course of the interaction. On the other hand, the child did not seem to use code-switching for specific pragmatic reasons. In regard to the switching extension, it is noted that both the child and the adult used more than one word sentences. The role of the interlocutors seems to be decisive in the interactions investigated here - especially for the adult, since the child is still acquiring awareness about the role of the interlocutor in an interaction.

  2. Bimodal cell death induced by high radiation doses in the radioresistant sf9 insect cell line

    Chandna, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This study was conducted to investigate the mode(s) of cell death induced by high radiation doses in the highly radioresistant Sf9 insect ovarian cell line. Methods: Cells were exposed to γ-radiation doses 200Gy and 500Gy, harvested at various time intervals (6h-72h) following irradiation, and subjected to cell morphology assay, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay) and Annexin-V labeling for the detection of membrane phosphatidylserine externalization. Cell morphology was assessed in cells entrapped and fixed in agarose gel directly from the cell suspension, thus preventing the possible loss of fragments/ apoptotic bodies. Surviving fraction of Sf9 cells was 0.01 at 200Gy and 98%) undergoing extensive DNA fragmentation at 500Gy, whereas the frequency of cells with DNA fragmentation was considerably less (∼12%) at 200Gy. Conclusions: While the mode of cell death at 200Gy seems to be different from typical apoptosis, a dose of 500Gy induced bimodal cell death, with typical apoptotic as well as the atypical cell death observed at 200Gy

  3. Calcium provision to oviparous and viviparous embryos of the reproductively bimodal lizard Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara.

    Stewart, James R; Ecay, Tom W; Heulin, Benoit

    2009-08-01

    Embryos of oviparous squamate reptiles typically obtain calcium from both yolk and eggshell but differ from other oviparous amniotes (turtles, birds and crocodilians) because they are heavily dependent on calcium-rich yolk. Eggs of viviparous squamates lack calcareous eggshells, and embryos receive calcium solely from yolk or from both yolk and placenta. The pattern of calcium mobilization by amniote embryos has been predicted to influence the evolution of viviparity if embryos are dependent on calcium from the eggshell and calcium placentotrophy evolves subsequent to viviparity. We studied the pattern of maternal provision and embryonic utilization of calcium of an oviparous and a viviparous population of the reproductively bimodal lizard Lacerta vivipara to test the hypotheses: (1) oviparous embryos are not dependent on eggshell calcium and (2) calcium content of viviparous hatchlings does not differ from oviparous hatchlings. Our findings do not support either of these hypotheses because oviparous females oviposited eggs with heavily calcified shells and calcium-poor yolk, and embryonic mobilization of shell calcium was greater than for other oviparous squamates. The calcium content of yolk from viviparous females did not differ from oviparous yolk, but viviparous eggs lacked calcareous eggshells. Uterine secretion by viviparous females compensated for the low calcium content of yolk, and placental calcium transfer was among the highest recorded for squamates. The pattern of calcium provision in these two populations suggests that dependence on uterine calcium, either stored temporarily in an eggshell or transferred directly across a placenta, did not constrain the evolution of reproductive mode in this lineage.

  4. Phenol-formaldehyde carbon with ordered/disordered bimodal mesoporous structure as high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Cai, Tingwei; Zhou, Min; Han, Guangshuai; Guan, Shiyou

    2013-11-01

    A novel phenol-formaldehyde carbon with ordered/disordered bimodal mesoporous structure is synthesized by the facile evaporation induced self-assembly strategy under a basic aqueous condition with SiO2 particles as template. The prepared bimodal mesoporous carbons (BMCs) are composed of ordered mesoporous and disordered mesoporous with diameter of about 3.5 nm and 7.0 nm, respectively. They can be employed as supercapacitor electrodes in H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte after the simple acid-treatment. BMC exhibits an exceptional specific capacitance of 344 F g-1 at the current density of 0.1 A g-1, although it has a relatively low surface area of 722 m2 g-1. And the BMC electrode displays an excellent cycling stability over 10,000 cycles.

  5. Improvement of and Parameter Identification for the Bimodal Time-Varying Modified Kanai-Tajimi Power Spectral Model

    Huiguo Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Kanai-Tajimi power spectrum filtering method proposed by Du Xiuli et al., a genetic algorithm and a quadratic optimization identification technique are employed to improve the bimodal time-varying modified Kanai-Tajimi power spectral model and the parameter identification method proposed by Vlachos et al. Additionally, a method for modeling time-varying power spectrum parameters for ground motion is proposed. The 8244 Orion and Chi-Chi earthquake accelerograms are selected as examples for time-varying power spectral model parameter identification and ground motion simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the improved bimodal time-varying modified Kanai-Tajimi power spectral model. The results of this study provide important references for designing ground motion inputs for seismic analyses of major engineering structures.

  6. Elaboration of austenitic stainless steel samples with bimodal grain size distributions and investigation of their mechanical behavior

    Flipon, B.; de la Cruz, L. Garcia; Hug, E.; Keller, C.; Barbe, F.

    2017-10-01

    Samples of 316L austenitic stainless steel with bimodal grain size distributions are elaborated using two distinct routes. The first one is based on powder metallurgy using spark plasma sintering of two powders with different particle sizes. The second route applies the reverse-annealing method: it consists in inducing martensitic phase transformation by plastic strain and further annealing in order to obtain two austenitic grain populations with different sizes. Microstructural analy ses reveal that both methods are suitable to generate significative grain size contrast and to control this contrast according to the elaboration conditions. Mechanical properties under tension are then characterized for different grain size distributions. Crystal plasticity finite element modelling is further applied in a configuration of bimodal distribution to analyse the role played by coarse grains within a matrix of fine grains, considering not only their volume fraction but also their spatial arrangement.

  7. Research on bimodal particle extinction coefficient during Brownian coagulation and condensation for the entire particle size regime

    Tang Hong; Lin Jianzhong

    2011-01-01

    The extinction coefficient of atmospheric aerosol particles influences the earth’s radiation balance directly or indirectly, and it can be determined by the scattering and absorption characteristics of aerosol particles. The problem of estimating the change of extinction coefficient due to time evolution of bimodal particle size distribution is studied, and two improved methods for calculating the Brownian coagulation coefficient and the condensation growth rate are proposed, respectively. Through the improved method based on Otto kernel, the Brownian coagulation coefficient can be expressed simply in powers of particle volume for the entire particle size regime based on the fitted polynomials of the mean enhancement function. Meanwhile, the improved method based on Fuchs–Sutugin kernel is developed to obtain the condensation growth rate for the entire particle size regime. And then, the change of the overall extinction coefficient of bimodal distributions undergoing Brownian coagulation and condensation can be estimated comprehensively for the entire particle size regime. Simulation experiments indicate that the extinction coefficients obtained with the improved methods coincide fairly well with the true values, which provide a simple, reliable, and general method to estimate the change of extinction coefficient for the entire particle size regime during the bimodal particle dynamic processes.

  8. The effect of oxide particles on the strength and ductility of bulk iron with a bimodal grain size distribution

    Casas, C.; Tejedor, R. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rodríguez-baracaldo, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. Colombia (Colombia); Benito, J.A., E-mail: Josep.a.benito@upc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Comte d' Urgell 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic de Manresa, Plaça de la Ciencia, 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Cabrera, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic de Manresa, Plaça de la Ciencia, 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain)

    2015-03-11

    The strength and ductility of bulk nanostructured and ultrafine-grained iron containing 0.39% oxygen by weight was determined by tensile tests. Samples were obtained by consolidation of milled iron powder at 500 °C. Heat treatments were designed to cover a wide range of grain sizes spanning from 100 to 2000 nm with different percentages of coarse and nanostructured grain areas, which was defined as a bimodal grain size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the diameter, volume fraction and location of oxides in the microstructure. The strength was analysed following two approaches. The first one was based on the strong effect of oxides and involved the use of a mixed particle-grain boundary strengthening model, and the second one was based on simple grain boundary strengthening. The mixed model underestimated the strength of nanostructured samples, whereas the simple grain boundary model worked better. However, for specimens with a bimodal grain size, the fitting of the mixed model was better. In this case, the more effective particle strengthening was related to the dispersion of oxides inside the large ferrite grains. In addition, the bimodal samples showed an acceptable combination of strength and ductility. Again, the ferrite grains containing oxides promoted strain hardening due to the increase in dislocation activity.

  9. Preparation of mesoporous NiO with a bimodal pore size distribution and application in electrochemical capacitors

    Wang Dengchao; Ni Wenbin; Pang Huan; Lu Qingyi; Huang Zhongjie [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science (MOE), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhao Jianwei, E-mail: zhaojw@nju.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science (MOE), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2010-09-01

    Mesoporous nickel oxide with a porous structure exhibiting a bimodal pore size distribution (2.6 and 30.3 nm diameter pores) has been synthesized in this paper. Firstly, a mesoporous precursor of coordination complex Ni{sub 3}(btc){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O (btc = 1,3,5-benzenrtricarboxylic acid) is synthesized based on the metal-organic coordination mechanism by a hydrothermal method. Then mesoporous NiO with a bimodal size distribution is obtained by calcining the precursor in the air, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption measurements. Such unique multiple porous structure indicates a promising application of the obtained NiO as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The electrochemical behavior has been investigated by cyclic voltammogram, electrochemical impedance spectra and chronopotentiometry in 3 wt.% KOH aqueous electrolyte. The results reveal that the prepared NiO has high-capacitance retention at high scan rate and exhibits excellent cycle-life stability due to its special mesoporous character with bimodal size distribution.

  10. The role of martensitic transformation on bimodal grain structure in ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel

    Sabooni, S.; Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M.H.; Ngan, A.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, metastable AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel samples were subjected to different cold rolling reductions from 70% to 93%, followed by annealing at 700 °C for 300 min to form ultrafine grained (UFG) austenite with different grain structures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoindentation were used to characterize the martensitic transformation, in order to relate it to the bimodal distribution of the austenite grain size after subsequent annealing. The results showed that the martensite morphology changed from lath type in the 60% rolled sample to a mixture of lath and dislocation-cell types in the higher rolling reductions. Calculation of the Gibbs free energy change during the reversion treatment showed that the reversion mechanism is shear controlled at the annealing temperature and so the morphology of the reverted austenite is completely dependent on the morphology of the deformation induced martensite. It was found that the austenite had a bimodal grain size distribution in the 80% rolled and annealed state and this is related to the existence of different types of martensite. Increasing the rolling reduction to 93% followed by annealing caused changing of the grain structure to a monomodal like structure, which was mostly covered with small grains of around 300 nm. The existence of bimodal austenite grain size in the 80% rolled and annealed 304L stainless steel led to the improvement of ductility while maintaining a high tensile strength in comparison with the 93% rolled and annealed sample

  11. Significant Corrosion Resistance in an Ultrafine-Grained Al6063 Alloy with a Bimodal Grain-Size Distribution through a Self-Anodic Protection Mechanism

    Mahdieh Shakoori Oskooie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The bimodal microstructures of Al6063 consisting of 15, 30, and 45 vol. % coarse-grained (CG bands within the ultrafine-grained (UFG matrix were synthesized via blending of high-energy mechanically milled powders with unmilled powders followed by hot powder extrusion. The corrosion behavior of the bimodal specimens was assessed by means of polarization, steady-state cyclic polarization and impedance tests, whereas their microstructural features and corrosion products were examined using optical microscopy (OM, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The bimodal Al6063 containing 15 vol. % CG phase exhibits the highest corrosion resistance among the bimodal microstructures and even superior electrochemical behavior compared with the plain UFG and CG materials in the 3.5% NaCl solution. The enhanced corrosion resistance is attributed to the optimum cathode to anode surface area ratio that gives rise to the formation of an effective galvanic couple between CG areas and the UFG matrix. The operational galvanic coupling leads to the domination of a “self-anodic protection system” on bimodal microstructure and consequently forms a uniform thick protective passive layer over it. In contrast, the 45 vol. % CG bimodal specimen shows the least corrosion resistance due to the catastrophic galvanic corrosion in UFG regions. The observed results for UFG Al6063 suggest that metallurgical tailoring of the grain structure in terms of bimodal microstructures leads to simultaneous enhancement in the electrochemical behavior and mechanical properties of passivable alloys that are usually inversely correlated. The mechanism of self-anodic protection for passivable metals with bimodal microstructures is discussed here for the first time.

  12. Possibility of star (pyramid) dune development in the area of bimodal wind regime

    Biejat, K.

    2012-04-01

    Star (pyramid) dunes are the largest aeolian landforms. They can occur in three types - simple, complex and compound. Development of this type of dunes is usually connected with multidirectional or complex wind regimes. The aim of this study was to verify a hypothesis that the star dunes can also develop by a bimodal wind regime and by local modifications of nearsurface wind flow directions. Field study was performed on Erg Chebbi, in southern Morocco. Several star and transverse dunes were selected for the study of their shape. The star dunes were analysed concerning their type and position in the dune field. This erg contains all of three types of star dunes together with transverse dunes. The regional wind data show that there are two dominant wind directions - NE (Chergui) and SW (Saheli). To determine the difference in shape of star dunes, we performed topographic surveying by GPS RTK. The results allowed to create 3D models of star dunes. The models were used to determine metric characteristics of star dunes, including area of dune basis, volume, and slope angles. On the basis of 3D models, primary, secondary and, on the compound dunes, tertiary arms were determined. Primary arms on each type of star dunes, as well as crestlines of transverse dunes, have dominant orientation NW-SE, perpendicular to two dominant wind directions. This clearly confirms that star dunes of Erg Chebbi develop by a bimodal wind regime In contrast to primary arms, subsidiary (secondary and tertiary) arms are not connected to general wind regime. The secondary arms of star dunes occur to be differentially developer. There are more subsidiary arms on SW sides in comparison to the E sides of the dunes where inclination of slopes is constant. It can be therefore inferred that sand has been supplied predominantly from SW direction. This is supported by distribution of the dunes on the erg. Most compound star dunes compose a chain along the E margin of the erg. Comparison of compound star

  13. Further Evidence for Geochemical Diversity, and Possible Bimodality, Among Cumulate Eucrites

    Warren, P. H.; Kallemeyn, G. W.

    1992-07-01

    monomict. The pyroxene is uniformly Mg-rich (opx mg = 68), yet diogenitic px is not present. No Ce anomaly was detected. If lunar standards can be applied to eucrites, our RNAA siderophile result for Au gives a marginal indication of "pristinity": [Au] = 2.5 X 10^-4 times CI; also [Re] = 4.3 X 10^-4 times CI, but [Ir] = 7.4 X 10^-4 times CI (possibly linked to the unusually mafic nature of this rock). Like Binda and the mildly accumulative Pomozdino, LEW87002 appears to be the product of a melt along the moderate-mg, high- ITE "Stannem Trend." Collectively, these samples suggest that cumulate eucrites formed from parent melts more diverse than the known noncumulate eucrites. The data also hint at a geochemical bimodality for the parent melts, reminiscent of the bimodality among ancient lunar cumulates, which show a paradoxical tendency for high-mg cumulates to be more ITE-rich than low-mg cumulates. The same basic mechanism might be responsible: later melts are more directly linked to the high-mg mantle, but tend to be contaminated by mixing with residual melts left over from the slightly older Nuevo Laredo Trend linked cumulates. References: Delaney J. S. (1988) Lunar and Planet. Sci. XX, 236-237. Mittlefehldt D. W. and Lindstrom M. M. (1991) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 77-87. Takeda H., Tagai T., and Graham A. (1988) Thirteenth Symp. Ant. Mets. (Tokyo), pp. 142-144. Figure 1, which in the hard copy appears here, shows cumulate and cumulate-like eucrites and possible parent melt compositions.

  14. Formulation And Evaluation Of Bilayer Tablet for Bimodal Release of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

    Munira eMomin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to develop a bilayer tablet of venlafexine hydrochloride for bimodal drug release. In the present investigation authors have tried to explore Fenugreek Mucilage (FNM for bioadhesive sustained release layer. The attempt has been made to combine FNM with well studied bioahesive polymers like Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose, Carbopol and Xanthan Gum. The formulations were evaluated for swelling Index, ex-vivo bioadhesion, water uptake studies, in-vitro drug release and dissolution kinetics was studied. Substantial bioadhesion force (2.4±0.023 gms and tablet adhesion retention time (24±2 hrs was observed with FNM and HPMC combination at 80:20 ratio. The dissolution kinetics followed the Higuchi model (R2 =0.9913 via a non-Fickian diffusion controlled release mechanism after the initial burst. The 32 full factorial design was employed in the present study. The type of polymers used in combination with FNM (X1 and percent polymer replaced with FNM (X2 were taken as independent formulations variables. The selected responses, bioadhesion force (0.11-0.25±0.023gm, amount of drug released in 10 h, Y10 (78.20–95.78±1.24 % and bioadhesive strength, (19-24±2hrs presented good correlation with the selected independent variables. Statistical analysis (ANOVA of the optimized bilayer formulations showed no significant difference in the cumulative amount of drug release after 15 min, but significant difference (p < 0.05 in the amount of drug released after 1 hr till 12 h from optimized formulations was observed. The natural mucilage like FNM could be successfully incorporated into tablet with only 20% replacement with HPMC and it showed good bioadhesiveness and sustained drug release.

  15. Evidence of A Bimodal US GDP Growth Rate Distribution: A Wavelet Approach

    Sandro Claudio Lera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a quantitative characterisation of the fluctuations of the annualized growth rate of the real US GDP per capita at many scales, using a wavelet transform analysis of two data sets, quarterly data from 1947 to 2015 and annual data from 1800 to 2010. The chosen mother wavelet (first derivative of the Gaussian function applied to the logarithm of the real US GDP per capita provides a robust estimation of the instantaneous growth rate at different scales. Our main finding is that business cycles appear at all scales and the distribution of GDP growth rates can be well approximated by a bimodal function associated to a series of switches between regimes of strong growth rate $\\rho_\\text{high}$ and regimes of low growth rate $\\rho_\\text{low}$. The succession of such two regimes compounds to produce a remarkably stable long term average real annualized growth rate of 1.6% from 1800 to 2010 and $\\approx 2.0\\%$ since 1950, which is the result of a subtle compensation between the high and low growth regimes that alternate continuously. Thus, the overall growth dynamics of the US economy is punctuated, with phases of strong growth that are intrinsically unsustainable, followed by corrections or consolidation until the next boom starts. We interpret these findings within the theory of "social bubbles" and argue as a consequence that estimations of the cost of the 2008 crisis may be misleading. We also interpret the absence of strong recovery since 2008 as a protracted low growth regime $\\rho_\\text{low}$ associated with the exceptional nature of the preceding large growth regime.

  16. Bimodal fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (BFAHP) for coronary heart disease risk assessment.

    Sabahi, Farnaz

    2018-04-04

    Rooted deeply in medical multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM), risk assessment is very important especially when applied to the risk of being affected by deadly diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD risk assessment is a stochastic, uncertain, and highly dynamic process influenced by various known and unknown variables. In recent years, there has been a great interest in fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP), a popular methodology for dealing with uncertainty in MCDM. This paper proposes a new FAHP, bimodal fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (BFAHP) that augments two aspects of knowledge, probability and validity, to fuzzy numbers to better deal with uncertainty. In BFAHP, fuzzy validity is computed by aggregating the validities of relevant risk factors based on expert knowledge and collective intelligence. By considering both soft and statistical data, we compute the fuzzy probability of risk factors using the Bayesian formulation. In BFAHP approach, these fuzzy validities and fuzzy probabilities are used to construct a reciprocal comparison matrix. We then aggregate fuzzy probabilities and fuzzy validities in a pairwise manner for each risk factor and each alternative. BFAHP decides about being affected and not being affected by ranking of high and low risks. For evaluation, the proposed approach is applied to the risk of being affected by CHD using a real dataset of 152 patients of Iranian hospitals. Simulation results confirm that adding validity in a fuzzy manner can accrue more confidence of results and clinically useful especially in the face of incomplete information when compared with actual results. Applying the proposed BFAHP on CHD risk assessment of the dataset, it yields high accuracy rate above 85% for correct prediction. In addition, this paper recognizes that the risk factors of diastolic blood pressure in men and high-density lipoprotein in women are more important in CHD than other risk factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Bimodal effect of oxidative stress in internal anal sphincter smooth muscle

    Singh, Jagmohan; Kumar, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Changes in oxidative stress may affect basal tone and relaxation of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle in aging. We examined this issue by investigating the effects of the oxidative stress inducer 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione (LY-83583) in basal as well as U-46619-stimulated tone, and nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation in rat IAS. LY-83583, which works via generation of reactive oxygen species in living cells, produced a bimodal effect in IAS tone: lower concentrations (0.1 nM to 10 μM) produced a concentration-dependent increase, while higher concentrations (50–100 μM) produced a decrease in IAS tone. An increase in IAS tone by lower concentrations was associated with an increase in RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) activity. This was evident by the increase in RhoA/ROCK in the particulate fractions, in ROCK activity, and in the levels of phosphorylated (p) Thr696-myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 and pThr18/Ser19-20-kDa myosin light chain. Conversely, higher concentrations of LY-83583 produced inhibitory effects on RhoA/ROCK. Interestingly, both the excitatory and inhibitory effects of LY-83583 in the IAS were reversed by superoxide dismutase. The excitatory effects of LY-83583 were found to resemble those with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibition by l-NNA, since it produced a significant increase in the IAS tone and attenuated NANC relaxation. These effects of LY-83583 and l-NNA were reversible by l-arginine. This suggests the role of nNOS inhibition and RhoA/ROCK activation in the increase in IAS tone by LY-83583. These data have important implications in the pathophysiology and therapeutic targeting of rectoanal disorders, especially associated with IAS dysfunction. PMID:26138467

  18. SUBARU WEAK-LENSING STUDY OF A2163: BIMODAL MASS STRUCTURE

    Okabe, N.; Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Maurogordato, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a weak-lensing analysis of the merging cluster A2163 using Subaru/Suprime-Cam and CFHT/Mega-Cam data and discuss the dynamics of this cluster merger, based on complementary weak-lensing, X-ray, and optical spectroscopic data sets. From two-dimensional multi-component weak-lensing analysis, we reveal that the cluster mass distribution is well described by three main components including the two-component main cluster A2163-A with mass ratio 1:8, and its cluster satellite A2163-B. The bimodal mass distribution in A2163-A is similar to the galaxy density distribution, but appears as spatially segregated from the brightest X-ray emitting gas region. We discuss the possible origins of this gas-dark-matter offset and suggest the gas core of the A2163-A subcluster has been stripped away by ram pressure from its dark matter component. The survival of this gas core from the tidal forces exerted by the main cluster lets us infer a subcluster accretion with a non-zero impact parameter. Dominated by the most massive component of A2163-A, the mass distribution of A2163 is well described by a universal Navarro-Frenk-White profile as shown by a one-dimensional tangential shear analysis, while the singular-isothermal sphere profile is strongly ruled out. Comparing this cluster mass profile with profiles derived assuming intracluster medium hydrostatic equilibrium (H.E.) in two opposite regions of the cluster atmosphere has allowed us to confirm the prediction of a departure from H.E. in the eastern cluster side, presumably due to shock heating. Yielding a cluster mass estimate of M 500 = 11.18 +1.64 –1.46 × 10 14 h –1 M ☉ , our mass profile confirms the exceptionally high mass of A2163, consistent with previous analyses relying on the cluster dynamical analysis and Y X mass proxy.

  19. Label-free bimodal waveguide immunosensor for rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients.

    Maldonado, Jesús; González-Guerrero, Ana Belén; Domínguez, Carlos; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-11-15

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is an acute bacterial infection of ascitic fluid; it has a high incidence in cirrhotic patients and it is associated with high mortality. In such a situation, early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for the survival of the patient. However, bacterial analysis in ascitic fluid is currently based on culture methods, which are time-consuming and laborious. We report here the application of a photonic interferometer biosensor based on a bimodal waveguide (BiMW) for the rapid and label-free detection of bacteria directly in ascitic fluid. The device consists of a straight waveguide in which two modes of the same polarization interfere while interacting with the external medium through their evanescent fields. A bimolecular event occurring on the sensor area of the device (e.g. capturing bacteria) will differently affect each light mode, inducing a variation in the phase of the light exiting at the output of the waveguide. In this work, we demonstrate the quantitative detection of Bacillus cereus in buffer medium and Escherichia coli in undiluted ascitic fluid from cirrhotic patients. In the case of Bacillus cereus detection, the device was able to specifically detect bacteria at relevant concentrations in 12.5min and in the case of Escherichia coli detection, the analysis time was 25min. Extrapolation of the data demonstrated that the detection limits of the biosensor could reach few bacteria per milliliter. Based on the results obtained, we consider that the BiMW biosensor is positioned as a promising new clinical tool for user-friendly, cost-effective and real-time microbiological analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bimodal Biometric Verification Using the Fusion of Palmprint and Infrared Palm-Dorsum Vein Images

    Chih-Lung Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a reliable and robust biometric verification method based on bimodal physiological characteristics of palms, including the palmprint and palm-dorsum vein patterns. The proposed method consists of five steps: (1 automatically aligning and cropping the same region of interest from different palm or palm-dorsum images; (2 applying the digital wavelet transform and inverse wavelet transform to fuse palmprint and vein pattern images; (3 extracting the line-like features (LLFs from the fused image; (4 obtaining multiresolution representations of the LLFs by using a multiresolution filter; and (5 using a support vector machine to verify the multiresolution representations of the LLFs. The proposed method possesses four advantages: first, both modal images are captured in peg-free scenarios to improve the user-friendliness of the verification device. Second, palmprint and vein pattern images are captured using a low-resolution digital scanner and infrared (IR camera. The use of low-resolution images results in a smaller database. In addition, the vein pattern images are captured through the invisible IR spectrum, which improves antispoofing. Third, since the physiological characteristics of palmprint and vein pattern images are different, a hybrid fusing rule can be introduced to fuse the decomposition coefficients of different bands. The proposed method fuses decomposition coefficients at different decomposed levels, with different image sizes, captured from different sensor devices. Finally, the proposed method operates automatically and hence no parameters need to be set manually. Three thousand palmprint images and 3000 vein pattern images were collected from 100 volunteers to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results show a false rejection rate of 1.20% and a false acceptance rate of 1.56%. It demonstrates the validity and excellent performance of our proposed method comparing to other methods.

  1. Bimodal Biometric Verification Using the Fusion of Palmprint and Infrared Palm-Dorsum Vein Images.

    Lin, Chih-Lung; Wang, Shih-Hung; Cheng, Hsu-Yung; Fan, Kuo-Chin; Hsu, Wei-Lieh; Lai, Chin-Rong

    2015-12-12

    In this paper, we present a reliable and robust biometric verification method based on bimodal physiological characteristics of palms, including the palmprint and palm-dorsum vein patterns. The proposed method consists of five steps: (1) automatically aligning and cropping the same region of interest from different palm or palm-dorsum images; (2) applying the digital wavelet transform and inverse wavelet transform to fuse palmprint and vein pattern images; (3) extracting the line-like features (LLFs) from the fused image; (4) obtaining multiresolution representations of the LLFs by using a multiresolution filter; and (5) using a support vector machine to verify the multiresolution representations of the LLFs. The proposed method possesses four advantages: first, both modal images are captured in peg-free scenarios to improve the user-friendliness of the verification device. Second, palmprint and vein pattern images are captured using a low-resolution digital scanner and infrared (IR) camera. The use of low-resolution images results in a smaller database. In addition, the vein pattern images are captured through the invisible IR spectrum, which improves antispoofing. Third, since the physiological characteristics of palmprint and vein pattern images are different, a hybrid fusing rule can be introduced to fuse the decomposition coefficients of different bands. The proposed method fuses decomposition coefficients at different decomposed levels, with different image sizes, captured from different sensor devices. Finally, the proposed method operates automatically and hence no parameters need to be set manually. Three thousand palmprint images and 3000 vein pattern images were collected from 100 volunteers to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results show a false rejection rate of 1.20% and a false acceptance rate of 1.56%. It demonstrates the validity and excellent performance of our proposed method comparing to other methods.

  2. Bimodal Biometric Verification Using the Fusion of Palmprint and Infrared Palm-Dorsum Vein Images

    Lin, Chih-Lung; Wang, Shih-Hung; Cheng, Hsu-Yung; Fan, Kuo-Chin; Hsu, Wei-Lieh; Lai, Chin-Rong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a reliable and robust biometric verification method based on bimodal physiological characteristics of palms, including the palmprint and palm-dorsum vein patterns. The proposed method consists of five steps: (1) automatically aligning and cropping the same region of interest from different palm or palm-dorsum images; (2) applying the digital wavelet transform and inverse wavelet transform to fuse palmprint and vein pattern images; (3) extracting the line-like features (LLFs) from the fused image; (4) obtaining multiresolution representations of the LLFs by using a multiresolution filter; and (5) using a support vector machine to verify the multiresolution representations of the LLFs. The proposed method possesses four advantages: first, both modal images are captured in peg-free scenarios to improve the user-friendliness of the verification device. Second, palmprint and vein pattern images are captured using a low-resolution digital scanner and infrared (IR) camera. The use of low-resolution images results in a smaller database. In addition, the vein pattern images are captured through the invisible IR spectrum, which improves antispoofing. Third, since the physiological characteristics of palmprint and vein pattern images are different, a hybrid fusing rule can be introduced to fuse the decomposition coefficients of different bands. The proposed method fuses decomposition coefficients at different decomposed levels, with different image sizes, captured from different sensor devices. Finally, the proposed method operates automatically and hence no parameters need to be set manually. Three thousand palmprint images and 3000 vein pattern images were collected from 100 volunteers to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results show a false rejection rate of 1.20% and a false acceptance rate of 1.56%. It demonstrates the validity and excellent performance of our proposed method comparing to other methods. PMID:26703596

  3. Bimodal Nanoparticle Size Distributions Produced by Laser Ablation of Microparticles in Aerosols

    Nichols, William T.; Malyavanatham, Gokul; Henneke, Dale E.; O'Brien, Daniel T.; Becker, Michael F.; Keto, John W.

    2002-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were produced by laser ablation of a continuously flowing aerosol of microparticles in nitrogen at varying laser fluences. Transmission electron micrographs were analyzed to determine the effect of laser fluence on the nanoparticle size distribution. These distributions exhibited bimodality with a large number of particles in a mode at small sizes (3-6-nm) and a second, less populated mode at larger sizes (11-16-nm). Both modes shifted to larger sizes with increasing laser fluence, with the small size mode shifting by 35% and the larger size mode by 25% over a fluence range of 0.3-4.2-J/cm 2 . Size histograms for each mode were found to be well represented by log-normal distributions. The distribution of mass displayed a striking shift from the large to the small size mode with increasing laser fluence. These results are discussed in terms of a model of nanoparticle formation from two distinct laser-solid interactions. Initially, laser vaporization of material from the surface leads to condensation of nanoparticles in the ambient gas. Material evaporation occurs until the plasma breakdown threshold of the microparticles is reached, generating a shock wave that propagates through the remaining material. Rapid condensation of the vapor in the low-pressure region occurs behind the traveling shock wave. Measurement of particle size distributions versus gas pressure in the ablation region, as well as, versus microparticle feedstock size confirmed the assignment of the larger size mode to surface-vaporization and the smaller size mode to shock-formed nanoparticles

  4. Proposal for efficient mode converter based on cavity quantum electrodynamics dark mode in a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a bimodal microcavity

    Li, Jiahua [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yu, Rong, E-mail: yurong321@126.com [School of Science, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Ma, Jinyong; Wu, Ying, E-mail: yingwu2@163.com [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-10-28

    The ability to engineer and convert photons between different modes in a solid-state approach has extensive technological implications not only for classical communication systems but also for future quantum networks. In this paper, we put forward a scheme for coherent mode conversion of optical photons by utilizing the intermediate coupling between a single quantum dot and a bimodal photonic crystal microcavity via a waveguide. Here, one mode of the photonic crystal microcavity is coherently driven by an external single-frequency continuous-wave laser field and the two cavity modes are not coupled to each other due to their orthogonal polarizations. The undriven cavity mode is thus not directly coupled to the input driving laser and the only way it can get light is via the quantum dot. The influences of the system parameters on the photon-conversion efficiency are analyzed in detail in the limit of weak probe field and it is found that high photon-conversion efficiency can be achieved under appropriate conditions. It is shown that the cavity dark mode, which is a superposition of the two optical modes and is decoupled from the quantum dot, can appear in such a hybrid optical system. We discuss the properties of the dark mode and indicate that the formation of the dark mode enables the efficient transfer of optical fields between the two cavity modes.

  5. Application of Bimodal Master Curve Approach on KSNP RPV steel SA508 Gr. 3

    Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Minchul; Choi, Kwonjae; Lee, Bongsang

    2014-01-01

    . To overcome these limitations of a conventional MC approach, a SINTAP lower tail analysis procedure, BMC (Bimodal Master Curve), and RIMC (Randomly Inhomogeneous Master Curve) are introduced.

  6. The Model Analysis of a Complex Tuning Fork Probe and Its Application in Bimodal Atomic Force Microscopy

    Zhichao Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new electromechanical coupling model was built to quantitatively analyze the tuning fork probes, especially the complex ones. A special feature of a novel, soft tuning fork probe, that the second eigenfrequency of the probe was insensitive to the effective force gradient, was found and used in a homemade bimodal atomic force microscopy to measure power dissipation quantitatively. By transforming the mechanical parameters to the electrical parameters, a monotonous and concise method without using phase to calculate the power dissipation was proposed.

  7. Saturated hydraulic conductivity model computed from bimodal water retention curves for a range of New Zealand soils

    J. A. P. Pollacco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of soil hydraulic properties, such as the soil moisture retention curve, θ(h, and saturated hydraulic conductivities, Ks, are a prerequisite for hydrological models. Since the measurement of Ks is expensive, it is frequently derived from statistical pedotransfer functions (PTFs. Because it is usually more difficult to describe Ks than θ(h from pedotransfer functions, Pollacco et al. (2013 developed a physical unimodal model to compute Ks solely from hydraulic parameters derived from the Kosugi θ(h. This unimodal Ks model, which is based on a unimodal Kosugi soil pore-size distribution, was developed by combining the approach of Hagen–Poiseuille with Darcy's law and by introducing three tortuosity parameters. We report here on (1 the suitability of the Pollacco unimodal Ks model to predict Ks for a range of New Zealand soils from the New Zealand soil database (S-map and (2 further adaptations to this model to adapt it to dual-porosity structured soils by computing the soil water flux through a continuous function of an improved bimodal pore-size distribution. The improved bimodal Ks model was tested with a New Zealand data set derived from historical measurements of Ks and θ(h for a range of soils derived from sandstone and siltstone. The Ks data were collected using a small core size of 10 cm diameter, causing large uncertainty in replicate measurements. Predictions of Ks were further improved by distinguishing topsoils from subsoil. Nevertheless, as expected, stratifying the data with soil texture only slightly improved the predictions of the physical Ks models because the Ks model is based on pore-size distribution and the calibrated parameters were obtained within the physically feasible range. The improvements made to the unimodal Ks model by using the new bimodal Ks model are modest when compared to the unimodal model, which is explained by the poor accuracy of measured total porosity. Nevertheless, the new bimodal

  8. Saturated hydraulic conductivity model computed from bimodal water retention curves for a range of New Zealand soils

    Pollacco, Joseph Alexander Paul; Webb, Trevor; McNeill, Stephen; Hu, Wei; Carrick, Sam; Hewitt, Allan; Lilburne, Linda

    2017-06-01

    Descriptions of soil hydraulic properties, such as the soil moisture retention curve, θ(h), and saturated hydraulic conductivities, Ks, are a prerequisite for hydrological models. Since the measurement of Ks is expensive, it is frequently derived from statistical pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Because it is usually more difficult to describe Ks than θ(h) from pedotransfer functions, Pollacco et al. (2013) developed a physical unimodal model to compute Ks solely from hydraulic parameters derived from the Kosugi θ(h). This unimodal Ks model, which is based on a unimodal Kosugi soil pore-size distribution, was developed by combining the approach of Hagen-Poiseuille with Darcy's law and by introducing three tortuosity parameters. We report here on (1) the suitability of the Pollacco unimodal Ks model to predict Ks for a range of New Zealand soils from the New Zealand soil database (S-map) and (2) further adaptations to this model to adapt it to dual-porosity structured soils by computing the soil water flux through a continuous function of an improved bimodal pore-size distribution. The improved bimodal Ks model was tested with a New Zealand data set derived from historical measurements of Ks and θ(h) for a range of soils derived from sandstone and siltstone. The Ks data were collected using a small core size of 10 cm diameter, causing large uncertainty in replicate measurements. Predictions of Ks were further improved by distinguishing topsoils from subsoil. Nevertheless, as expected, stratifying the data with soil texture only slightly improved the predictions of the physical Ks models because the Ks model is based on pore-size distribution and the calibrated parameters were obtained within the physically feasible range. The improvements made to the unimodal Ks model by using the new bimodal Ks model are modest when compared to the unimodal model, which is explained by the poor accuracy of measured total porosity. Nevertheless, the new bimodal model provides an

  9. A Bi-Modal Routing Problem with Cyclical and One-Way Trips: Formulation and Heuristic Solution

    Grinde Roger B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A bi-modal routing problem is solved using a heuristic approach. Motivated by a recreational hiking application, the problem is similar to routing problems in business with two transport modes. The problem decomposes into a set covering problem (SCP and an asymmetric traveling salesperson problem (ATSP, corresponding to a hiking time objective and a driving distance objective. The solution algorithm considers hiking time first, but finds all alternate optimal solutions, as inputs to the driving distance problem. Results show the trade-offs between the two objectives.

  10. Comparison of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant users on speech recognition with competing talker, music perception, affective prosody discrimination, and talker identification.

    Cullington, Helen E; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-02-01

    Despite excellent performance in speech recognition in quiet, most cochlear implant users have great difficulty with speech recognition in noise, music perception, identifying tone of voice, and discriminating different talkers. This may be partly due to the pitch coding in cochlear implant speech processing. Most current speech processing strategies use only the envelope information; the temporal fine structure is discarded. One way to improve electric pitch perception is to use residual acoustic hearing via a hearing aid on the nonimplanted ear (bimodal hearing). This study aimed to test the hypothesis that bimodal users would perform better than bilateral cochlear implant users on tasks requiring good pitch perception. Four pitch-related tasks were used. 1. Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) sentences spoken by a male talker with a competing female, male, or child talker. 2. Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia. This is a music test with six subtests examining pitch, rhythm and timing perception, and musical memory. 3. Aprosodia Battery. This has five subtests evaluating aspects of affective prosody and recognition of sarcasm. 4. Talker identification using vowels spoken by 10 different talkers (three men, three women, two boys, and two girls). Bilateral cochlear implant users were chosen as the comparison group. Thirteen bimodal and 13 bilateral adult cochlear implant users were recruited; all had good speech perception in quiet. There were no significant differences between the mean scores of the bimodal and bilateral groups on any of the tests, although the bimodal group did perform better than the bilateral group on almost all tests. Performance on the different pitch-related tasks was not correlated, meaning that if a subject performed one task well they would not necessarily perform well on another. The correlation between the bimodal users' hearing threshold levels in the aided ear and their performance on these tasks was weak. Although the bimodal cochlear

  11. Prussian blue/serum albumin/indocyanine green as a multifunctional nanotheranostic agent for bimodal imaging guided laser mediated combinatorial phototherapy.

    Sahu, Abhishek; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hye Gyeong; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Tae, Giyoong

    2016-08-28

    Developing novel nanotheranostic agent using only clinically approved materials is highly desirable and challenging. In this study, we combined three clinically approved materials, Prussian blue (PB), serum albumin (BSA), and indocyanine green (ICG), by a simple and biocompatible method to prepare a multifunctional theranostic PB-BSA-ICG nanoparticle. The multifunctional nanoparticle system could provide dual mode magnetic resonance (MR) and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging as well as combined photothermal and photodynamic (PTT-PDT) therapy in response to a single NIR laser. This nanoparticle showed an excellent stability in physiological solutions and could suppress the photo-instability of ICG. In the absence of light, the nanoparticles showed no cytotoxicity, but significant cell death was induced through combined PTT-PDT effect after irradiation with NIR laser light. A high tumor accumulation and minimal nonspecific uptake by other major organs of PB-BSA-ICG nanoparticle were observed in vivo, analyzed by T1-weighted MR and NIR fluorescence bimodal imaging in tumor xenograft mice after intravenous injection. The nanoparticles efficiently suppressed the tumor growth through combinatorial phototherapy with no tumor recurrence upon a single NIR laser irradiation. These results demonstrated that PB-BSA-ICG is potentially an interesting nanotheranostic agent for imaging guided cancer therapy by overcoming the limitations of each technology and enhancing the therapeutic efficiency as well as reducing side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bimodal distribution of the magnetic dipole moment in nanoparticles with a monomodal distribution of the physical size

    Rijssel, Jos van; Kuipers, Bonny W.M.; Erné, Ben H.

    2015-01-01

    High-frequency applications of magnetic nanoparticles, such as therapeutic hyperthermia and magnetic particle imaging, are sensitive to nanoparticle size and dipole moment. Usually, it is assumed that magnetic nanoparticles with a log-normal distribution of the physical size also have a log-normal distribution of the magnetic dipole moment. Here, we test this assumption for different types of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the 5–20 nm range, by multimodal fitting of magnetization curves using the MINORIM inversion method. The particles are studied while in dilute colloidal dispersion in a liquid, thereby preventing hysteresis and diminishing the effects of magnetic anisotropy on the interpretation of the magnetization curves. For two different types of well crystallized particles, the magnetic distribution is indeed log-normal, as expected from the physical size distribution. However, two other types of particles, with twinning defects or inhomogeneous oxide phases, are found to have a bimodal magnetic distribution. Our qualitative explanation is that relatively low fields are sufficient to begin aligning the particles in the liquid on the basis of their net dipole moment, whereas higher fields are required to align the smaller domains or less magnetic phases inside the particles. - Highlights: • Multimodal fits of dilute ferrofluids reveal when the particles are multidomain. • No a priori shape of the distribution is assumed by the MINORIM inversion method. • Well crystallized particles have log-normal TEM and magnetic size distributions. • Defective particles can combine a monomodal size and a bimodal dipole moment

  13. Modeling the Hydrological Cycle in the Atmosphere of Mars: Influence of a Bimodal Size Distribution of Aerosol Nucleation Particles

    Shaposhnikov, Dmitry S.; Rodin, Alexander V.; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Fedorova, Anna A.; Kuroda, Takeshi; Hartogh, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We present a new implementation of the hydrological cycle scheme into a general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere. The model includes a semi-Lagrangian transport scheme for water vapor and ice and accounts for microphysics of phase transitions between them. The hydrological scheme includes processes of saturation, nucleation, particle growth, sublimation, and sedimentation under the assumption of a variable size distribution. The scheme has been implemented into the Max Planck Institute Martian general circulation model and tested assuming monomodal and bimodal lognormal distributions of ice condensation nuclei. We present a comparison of the simulated annual variations, horizontal and vertical distributions of water vapor, and ice clouds with the available observations from instruments on board Mars orbiters. The accounting for bimodality of aerosol particle distribution improves the simulations of the annual hydrological cycle, including predicted ice clouds mass, opacity, number density, and particle radii. The increased number density and lower nucleation rates bring the simulated cloud opacities closer to observations. Simulations show a weak effect of the excess of small aerosol particles on the simulated water vapor distributions.

  14. Hydrogen permeation resistant heat pipe for bi-modal reactors. Final report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    North, M.T.; Anderson, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    The principal objective of this program was to demonstrate technology that will make a sodium heat pipe tolerant of hydrogen permeation for a bimodal space reactor application. Special focus was placed on techniques which enhance the permeation of hydrogen out of the heat pipe. Specific objectives include: define the detailed requirements for the bimodal reactor application; design and fabricate a prototype heat pipe tolerant of hydrogen permeation; and test the prototype heat pipe and demonstrate that hydrogen which permeates into the heat pipe is removed or reduced to acceptable levels. The results of the program were fully successful. Analyses were performed on two different heat pipe designs and an experimental heat pipe was fabricated and tested. A model of the experimental heat pipe was developed to predict the enhancement in the hydrogen permeation rate out of the heat pipe. A significant improvement in the rate at which hydrogen permeates out of a heat pipe was predicted for the use of the special condenser geometry developed here. Agreement between the model and the experimental results was qualitatively good. Inclusion of the additional effects of fluid flow in the heat pipe are recommended for future work

  15. Bimodal distribution of risk for childhood obesity in urban Baja California, Mexico.

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Schwartz, Norah; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-08-01

    In Mexico, higher socioeconomic status (SES) has been found to be associated with increased risk for obesity in children. Within developed urban areas, however, there may be increased risk among lower SES children. Students in grades 4-6 from five public schools in Tijuana and Tecate, Mexico, were interviewed and weight, height and waist circumference (WC) measurements were taken. Interviews consisted of questions on food frequency, food insecurity, acculturation, physical activity and lifestyle practices. Multivariate logistic models were used to assess risk factors for obesity (having a body mass index [BMI] ≥95th percentile) and abdominal obesity (a WC >90th percentile) using Stata 11.0. Five hundred and ninety students were enrolled; 43.7% were overweight or obese, and 24.3% were obese and 20.2% had abdominal obesity. Independent risk factors for obesity included watching TV in English (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.41) and perceived child food insecurity (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.05-2.36). Decreased risk for obesity was associated with female sex (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.96), as was regular multivitamin use (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.94). Risk obesity was also decreased with increased taco consumption (≥1×/week; OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.96). Independent risk factors for abdominal obesity included playing video games ≥1×/week (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-2.96) and older age group (10-11 years, OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.29-4.73 and ≥12 years, OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.09-4.49). Increased consumption of tacos was also associated with decreased risk for abdominal obesity (≥1×/week; OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.40-1.00). We found a bimodal distribution for risk of obesity and abdominal obesity in school aged children on the Mexican border with the United States. Increased risk for obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with factors indicative of lower and higher SES including watching TV in English, increased video game playing and perceived food insecurity

  16. Polyethyleneimine-loaded bimodal porous silica as low-cost and high-capacity sorbent for CO{sub 2} capture

    Witoon, Thongthai, E-mail: fengttwi@ku.ac.th [National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advance Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Center for Advanced Studies in Nanotechnology and Its Applications in Chemical Food and Agricultural Industries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2012-11-15

    In this work, bimodal (meso-macro) porous silicas with different mesopore diameters synthesized by using rice husk ash as a low-cost silica source and chitosan as a natural template were used as a polyethyleneimine (PEI) support for CO{sub 2} capture. Unimodal porous silica supports with equivalent mesopore diameters to bimodal porous silica supports have been prepared for purpose of comparison. Effects of different PEI contents (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt%) on CO{sub 2} sorption capacity have been systematically investigated. The porous silica supports and the PEI-loaded porous silica supports were characterized by N{sub 2}-sorption analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. CO{sub 2} sorption measurements of all PEI-loaded porous silica supports were performed at different adsorption temperatures (60, 75, 85, 90, 95 and 105 Degree-Sign C). At low PEI contents (10-20 wt%), the CO{sub 2} sorption of all adsorbents was found to decrease as a function of adsorption temperature, which was a characteristic of a thermodynamically-controlled regime. A transition from the thermodynamically-controlled regime to a kinetically-controlled regime was found when the PEI content was increased up to 30 wt% for PEI-loaded unimodal porous silicas and 40 wt% for PEI-loaded bimodal porous silicas. At high PEI contents (40-50 wt%), the CO{sub 2} capturing efficiency of the PEI-loaded bimodal porous silicas was found to be considerably greater than that of the PEI-loaded unimodal porous silicas, indicating that most of the amine groups of PEI molecules loaded on the unimodal porous silica supports was useless, and thus the appeared macroporosity of the bimodal porous silica supports could provide a higher effective amine density to adsorb CO{sub 2}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEI-impregnated bimodal porous silica as low-cost sorbent for CO{sub 2} capture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Macropores enhances

  17. Fabrication and imaging study of ultrasound/fluorescence bi-modal contrast agent based on polymeric microbubbles

    Xing Zhanwen; Ke Hengte; Wang Jinrui; Zhao Bo; Qu Enze; Yue Xiuli; Dai Zhifei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To fabricate an ultrasound/fluorescence bi-modal contrast agent by encapsulating fluorescent quantum dots into polymeric ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles. Methods: Polylactic acid (PLA, 500 mg), (1R)-(+)-camphor (50 mg) and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (0.5 ml, 2.3 μmol/L)were dissolved or dispersed in dichloromethane (10 ml) to form in an organic phase. Ammonium carbonate solution and poly (vinyl alcohol) solution were employed as the internal and external water phase, respectively. The fluorescent microbubbles were generated using double emulsion solvent evaporation and lyophilization methods. The morphology and illumination were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Synchronized contrast-enhanced ultrasound and fluorescence imaging was acquired by injecting fluorescent microbubbles into the silicone tube coupled to a self-made ultrasound/fluorescence imaging device. Ultrasound/fluorescence bi-modal in vivo imaging was acquired on the kidney of New Zealand rabbits and suckling mice. Results: The fluorescent microbubbles were hollow spheres with an averaged diameter of (1.62 ± 1.47) μm. More than 99% of these microbubbles were less than 8 μm in diameter, which met the size criteria for ultrasound contrast agents. The fluorescence emission peak of the microbubbles appeared at 632 nm, indicating that good luminescence properties of quantum dots were maintained. In vitro ultrasound/fluorescence imaging showed no echoic signal when the silicone tube was filled with saline, but there was a strong echo when filled with fluorescent microbubbles. The liquid column with fluorescent microbubbles emitted red luminescence under ultraviolet irradiation. The kidney of the rabbit was remarkably enhanced after the administration of fluorescent microbubbles. Bright fluorescence could be observed at the injection site of the suckling mice via subcutaneous injection. Conclusions: A bi-modal but single contrast agent

  18. Deformation behavior of multilayered NiFe with bimodal grain size distribution at room and elevated temperature

    Fiebig, Jochen, E-mail: jmfiebig@ucdavis.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95817 (United States); Jian, Jie [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843-3128 (United States); Kurmanaeva, Lilia [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95817 (United States); McCrea, Jon [Integran Technologies Inc., Toronto (Canada); Wang, Haiyan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843-3128 (United States); Lavernia, Enrique [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95817 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Mukherjee, Amiya [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95817 (United States)

    2016-02-22

    We describe a study of the temperature dependent deformation behavior of a multilayered NiFe-60 wt%Fe alloy with a layer thickness of 5 μm fabricated by electrodeposition. The structure of adjacent layers alternates between a nanocrystalline and a coarse grained. Uniaxial tensile tests at temperature between 20 °C and 400 °C and strain rate of 10{sup −4}–10{sup −2} were used to determine the mechanical behavior. Microstructure observations via transmission electron microscopy and fractography were performed to provide insight into the underlying deformation mechanism. The mechanical behavior is discussed in the context of the bimodal microstructure of multilayered samples and the contribution of each sub-layer to strength and ductility. The results reveal that even at higher temperatures the nanocrystalline layer determines the mechanical performance of multilayered materials.

  19. Gadolinium(III-DOTA Complex Functionalized with BODIPY as a Potential Bimodal Contrast Agent for MRI and Optical Imaging

    Matthias Ceulemans

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of a novel gadolinium(III DOTA complex functionalized with a boron-dipyrromethene derivative (BODIPY is described. The assembly of the complex relies on azide diazotransfer chemistry in a copper tube flow reactor. The azide thus formed is coupled directly with an alkyne via click chemistry, resulting into a paramagnetic and luminescent gadolinium(III complex. Luminescent data and relaxometric properties of the complex have been evaluated, suggesting the potential applicability of the complexes as a bimodal contrast agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. The complex displays a bright emission at 523 nm with an absorption maximum of 507 nm and high quantum yields of up to 83% in water. The proton relaxivity of the complex measured at 310 K and at frequencies of 20 and 60 MHz had the values of 3.9 and 3.6 s−1·mM−1, respectively.

  20. Mesoporous ethanesilica materials with bimodal and trimodal pore-size distributions synthesised in the presence of cobalt ions

    Alufelwi M. Tshavhungwe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous organosilica materials containing ethane groups in their framework were formed with two and three pore sizes (i.e. bimodal and trimodal pores when synthesised by the sol-gel method in the presence of cobalt ions. The compounds 1,2-bistrimethoxysilylethane and tetraethylorthosilicate were used as silicon sources and the reactions were done in the presence of a surfactant, which served as a template. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy revealed that organic functional groups were incorporated into the ethanesilica. Powder X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption data indicated that the mesophase and textural properties (surface area, pore volume, pore diameter of the materials were dependent on the ageing temperature, the amount/ratio of silica precursors and cobalt ion incorporation. Secondary mesopores were drastically reduced by changing the ratio of silicon precursors.

  1. Data Mining of Chemogenomics Data Using Bi-Modal PLS Methods and Chemical Interpretation for Molecular Design.

    Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Funatsu, Kimito

    2014-12-01

    Chemogenomics is a new strategy in drug discovery for interrogating all molecules capable of interacting with all biological targets. Because of the almost infinite number of drug-like organic molecules, bench-based experimental chemogenomics methods are not generally feasible. Several in silico chemogenomics models have therefore been developed for high-throughput screening of large numbers of drug candidate compounds and target proteins. In previous studies, we described two novel bi-modal PLS approaches. These methods provide a significant advantage in that they enable direct connections to be made between biological activities and ligand and protein descriptors. In this special issue, we review these two PLS-based approaches using two different chemogenomics datasets for illustration. We then compare the predictive and interpretive performance of the two methods using the same congeneric data set. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Generation of an N-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with distant atoms in bimodal cavities

    Zheng Anshou [School of Physics and Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu Jibing, E-mail: zaszas1_1@126.com [Hubei Key Laboratory of Pollutant Analysis and Reuse Technology and Department of Physics, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi, 435002 (China)

    2011-08-28

    A selective photon scheme is proposed to realize an N-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state with distant atoms trapped in spatially separated bimodal cavities coupled by optical fibres. The influence of deviations of some experimental parameters on our scheme is studied exactly and we prove that a highly reliable GHZ state is achievable. Moreover, we analyse the independence of fidelity on decoherence processes, such as atomic spontaneous emission, cavity decay and fibre losses. The results show that atomic spontaneous emission and fibre losses can be ignored in some special cases. With regards to the cavity decay, it indicates that a GHZ state with high fidelity may be realized in the current experiment.

  3. Generation of an N-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with distant atoms in bimodal cavities

    Zheng Anshou; Liu Jibing

    2011-01-01

    A selective photon scheme is proposed to realize an N-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state with distant atoms trapped in spatially separated bimodal cavities coupled by optical fibres. The influence of deviations of some experimental parameters on our scheme is studied exactly and we prove that a highly reliable GHZ state is achievable. Moreover, we analyse the independence of fidelity on decoherence processes, such as atomic spontaneous emission, cavity decay and fibre losses. The results show that atomic spontaneous emission and fibre losses can be ignored in some special cases. With regards to the cavity decay, it indicates that a GHZ state with high fidelity may be realized in the current experiment.

  4. Solar wind structure suggested by bimodal correlations of solar wind speed and density between the spacecraft SOHO and Wind

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Coplan, M. A.; Roberts, D. A.; Ipavich, F.

    2007-08-01

    We calculate the cross-spacecraft maximum lagged-cross-correlation coefficients for 2-hour intervals of solar wind speed and density measurements made by the plasma instruments on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and Wind spacecraft over the period from 1996, the minimum of solar cycle 23, through the end of 2005. During this period, SOHO was located at L1, about 200 R E upstream from the Earth, while Wind spent most of the time in the interplanetary medium at distances of more than 100 R E from the Earth. Yearly histograms of the maximum, time-lagged correlation coefficients for both the speed and density are bimodal in shape, suggesting the existence of two distinct solar wind regimes. The larger correlation coefficients we suggest are due to structured solar wind, including discontinuities and shocks, while the smaller are likely due to Alfvénic turbulence. While further work will be required to firmly establish the physical nature of the two populations, the results of the analysis are consistent with a solar wind that consists of turbulence from quiet regions of the Sun interspersed with highly filamentary structures largely convected from regions in the inner solar corona. The bimodal appearance of the distributions is less evident in the solar wind speed than in the density correlations, consistent with the observation that the filamentary structures are convected with nearly constant speed by the time they reach 1 AU. We also find that at solar minimum the fits for the density correlations have smaller high-correlation components than at solar maximum. We interpret this as due to the presence of more relatively uniform Alfvénic regions at solar minimum than at solar maximum.

  5. Convenient synthesis of (68)Ga-labeled gadolinium(III) complexes:towards bimodal responsive probes for functional imaging with PET/MRI

    Notni, Johannes; Hermann, Petr; Dregely, Isabel; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    A killer application? Recently, fully integrated full-body positron-emission tomography (PET) and magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) scanners were brought to market, allowing simultaneous recording of complementary 3D data sets. By using bimodal PET/MRI probes (see figure), in vivo 3D mapping of various parameters with medical relevance could become feasible.

  6. Bimodal height distribution of self-assembled germanium islands grown on Si0.84Ge0.16 pseudo-substrates

    Pedersen, Erik Vesterlund; Jensen, Flemming; Shiryaev, Sergey Y.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the size distribution of germanium islands deposited onto a Si0.84Ge0.16 buffer layer, by atomic force microscopy. The size distribution was found to be bimodal at 630-740 degrees C and consisted of one group of smaller 'pyramidal' islands with a broad distribution of diameters...

  7. The trade-off between heat tolerance and metabolic cost drives the bimodal life strategy at the air-water interface

    Fusi, Marco; Cannicci, Stefano; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mostert, Bruce; Pö rtner, Hans-Otto; Giomi, Folco

    2016-01-01

    The principle of oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance in ectotherms suggests that the long-term upper limits of an organism's thermal niche are equivalent to the upper limits of the organism's functional capacity for oxygen provision to tissues. Air-breathing ectotherms show wider thermal tolerances, since they can take advantage of the higher availability of oxygen in air than in water. Bimodal species move from aquatic to aerial media and switch between habitats in response to environmental variations such as cyclical or anomalous temperature fluctuations. Here we tested the prediction that bimodal species cope better with thermal stress than truly aquatic species using the crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus as a model species. When in water, oxygen consumption rates of P. marmoratus acutely rise during warming. Beyond a temperature threshold of 23 °C the crab's aerobic metabolism in air remains lower than in water. In parallel, the haemolymph oxygen partial pressure of submerged animals progressive decreases during warming, while it remains low but constant during emersion. Our results demonstrate the ability of a bimodal breathing ectotherm to extend its thermal tolerance during air-breathing, suggesting that there are temperature-related physiological benefits during the evolution of the bimodal life style.

  8. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  9. The trade-off between heat tolerance and metabolic cost drives the bimodal life strategy at the air-water interface

    Fusi, Marco

    2016-01-13

    The principle of oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance in ectotherms suggests that the long-term upper limits of an organism\\'s thermal niche are equivalent to the upper limits of the organism\\'s functional capacity for oxygen provision to tissues. Air-breathing ectotherms show wider thermal tolerances, since they can take advantage of the higher availability of oxygen in air than in water. Bimodal species move from aquatic to aerial media and switch between habitats in response to environmental variations such as cyclical or anomalous temperature fluctuations. Here we tested the prediction that bimodal species cope better with thermal stress than truly aquatic species using the crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus as a model species. When in water, oxygen consumption rates of P. marmoratus acutely rise during warming. Beyond a temperature threshold of 23 °C the crab\\'s aerobic metabolism in air remains lower than in water. In parallel, the haemolymph oxygen partial pressure of submerged animals progressive decreases during warming, while it remains low but constant during emersion. Our results demonstrate the ability of a bimodal breathing ectotherm to extend its thermal tolerance during air-breathing, suggesting that there are temperature-related physiological benefits during the evolution of the bimodal life style.

  10. Pumping system of 30,000 l/sec for CIME cyclotron

    Horbowa, A.; Buhler, S.; Blache, Ph.; Chevrollier, R.; Grolet, D.; Pilot, A.; Szott, Ph.; Languiller, J.; Gallardo, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    The cyclotron CIME (SPIRAL facilities) has to accelerate radioactive ions produced from primary heavy beams delivered by GANIL. To avoid beam losses by charge exchange on the residual gas, the ultimate pressure in the cyclotron is expected to be better than 5.10 -8 mbar. In order to reach such a low pressure, a system of 30.000 l/sec twin cryo-panels has been designed for being installed inside the cyclotron. Each cryo-panel will be individually cooled by a separate set of two cryo-generators. From cryo-generators to cryo-panels, the cooling power is transferred through heat-pipes over several meters. The complete system designed and constructed in the IPN and GANIL laboratories, is presently under testing at the GANIL location. (authors)

  11. Noise exposure alters long-term neural firing rates and synchrony in primary auditory and rostral belt cortices following bimodal stimulation.

    Takacs, Joseph D; Forrest, Taylor J; Basura, Gregory J

    2017-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that bimodal stimulation (spinal trigeminal nucleus [Sp5] paired with best frequency tone) altered neural tone-evoked and spontaneous firing rates (SFRs) in primary auditory cortex (A1) 15 min after pairing in guinea pigs with and without noise-induced tinnitus. Neural responses were enhanced (+10 ms) or suppressed (0 ms) based on the bimodal pairing interval. Here we investigated whether bimodal stimulation leads to long-term (up to 2 h) changes in tone-evoked and SFRs and neural synchrony (correlate of tinnitus) and if the long-term bimodal effects are altered following noise exposure. To obviate the effects of permanent hearing loss on the results, firing rates and neural synchrony were measured three weeks following unilateral (left ear) noise exposure and a temporary threshold shift. Simultaneous extra-cellular single-unit recordings were made from contralateral (to noise) A1 and dorsal rostral belt (RB); an associative auditory cortical region thought to influence A1, before and after bimodal stimulation (pairing intervals of 0 ms; simultaneous Sp5-tone and +10 ms; Sp5 precedes tone). Sixty and 120 min after 0 ms pairing tone-evoked and SFRs were suppressed in sham A1; an effect only preserved 120 min following pairing in noise. Stimulation at +10 ms only affected SFRs 120 min after pairing in sham and noise-exposed A1. Within sham RB, pairing at 0 and +10 ms persistently suppressed tone-evoked and SFRs, while 0 ms pairing in noise markedly enhanced tone-evoked and SFRs up to 2 h. Together, these findings suggest that bimodal stimulation has long-lasting effects in A1 that also extend to the associative RB that is altered by noise and may have persistent implications for how noise damaged brains process multi-sensory information. Moreover, prior to bimodal stimulation, noise damage increased neural synchrony in A1, RB and between A1 and RB neurons. Bimodal stimulation led to persistent changes in neural synchrony in

  12. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Stellar angular momentum of about 2300 galaxies: unveiling the bimodality of massive galaxy properties

    Graham, Mark T.; Cappellari, Michele; Li, Hongyu; Mao, Shude; Bershady, Matthew; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Law, David R.; Pan, Kaike; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.; Yan, Renbin

    2018-03-01

    We measure λ _{R_e}, a proxy for galaxy specific stellar angular momentum within one effective radius, and the ellipticity, ɛ, for about 2300 galaxies of all morphological types observed with integral field spectroscopy as part of the MaNGA survey, the largest such sample to date. We use the (λ _{R_e}, ɛ ) diagram to separate early-type galaxies into fast and slow rotators. We also visually classify each galaxy according to its optical morphology and two-dimensional stellar velocity field. Comparing these classifications to quantitative λ _{R_e} measurements reveals tight relationships between angular momentum and galaxy structure. In order to account for atmospheric seeing, we use realistic models of galaxy kinematics to derive a general approximate analytic correction for λ _{R_e}. Thanks to the size of the sample and the large number of massive galaxies, we unambiguously detect a clear bimodality in the (λ _{R_e}, ɛ ) diagram which may result from fundamental differences in galaxy assembly history. There is a sharp secondary density peak inside the region of the diagram with low λ _{R_e} and ɛ their distribution of the misalignments between the photometric and kinematic position angles. We confirm that genuine slow rotators start appearing above M ≥ 2 × 1011M⊙ where a significant number of high-mass fast rotators also exist.

  13. Bimodal voltage dependence of TRPA1: mutations of a key pore helix residue reveal strong intrinsic voltage-dependent inactivation.

    Wan, Xia; Lu, Yungang; Chen, Xueqin; Xiong, Jian; Zhou, Yuanda; Li, Ping; Xia, Bingqing; Li, Min; Zhu, Michael X; Gao, Zhaobing

    2014-07-01

    Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is implicated in somatosensory processing and pathological pain sensation. Although not strictly voltage-gated, ionic currents of TRPA1 typically rectify outwardly, indicating channel activation at depolarized membrane potentials. However, some reports also showed TRPA1 inactivation at high positive potentials, implicating voltage-dependent inactivation. Here we report a conserved leucine residue, L906, in the putative pore helix, which strongly impacts the voltage dependency of TRPA1. Mutation of the leucine to cysteine (L906C) converted the channel from outward to inward rectification independent of divalent cations and irrespective to stimulation by allyl isothiocyanate. The mutant, but not the wild-type channel, displayed exclusively voltage-dependent inactivation at positive potentials. The L906C mutation also exhibited reduced sensitivity to inhibition by TRPA1 blockers, HC030031 and ruthenium red. Further mutagenesis of the leucine to all natural amino acids individually revealed that most substitutions at L906 (15/19) resulted in inward rectification, with exceptions of three amino acids that dramatically reduced channel activity and one, methionine, which mimicked the wild-type channel. Our data are plausibly explained by a bimodal gating model involving both voltage-dependent activation and inactivation of TRPA1. We propose that the key pore helix residue, L906, plays an essential role in responding to the voltage-dependent gating.

  14. Intracellular bimodal nanoparticles based on quantum dots for high-field MRI at 21.1 T.

    Rosenberg, Jens T; Kogot, Joshua M; Lovingood, Derek D; Strouse, Geoffrey F; Grant, Samuel C

    2010-09-01

    Multimodal, biocompatible contrast agents for high magnetic field applications represent a new class of nanomaterials with significant potential for tracking of fluorescence and MR in vitro and vivo. Optimized for high-field MR applications-including biomedical imaging at 21.1 T, the highest magnetic field available for MRI-these nanoparticles capitalize on the improved performance of chelated Dy(3+) with increasing magnetic field coupled to a noncytotoxic Indium Phosphide/Zinc Sulfide (InP/ZnS) quantum dot that provides fluorescence detection, MR responsiveness, and payload delivery. By surface modifying the quantum dot with a cell-penetrating peptide sequence coupled to an MR contrast agent, the bimodal nanomaterial functions as a self-transfecting high-field MR/optical contrast agent for nonspecific intracellular labeling. Fluorescent images confirm sequestration in perinuclear vesicles of labeled cells, with no apparent cytotoxicity. These techniques can be extended to impart cell selectivity or act as a delivery vehicle for genetic or pharmaceutical interventions. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Contrasting origin of two A-type rhyolite series from the Early Permian Nomgon bimodal volcanic association (Southern Mongolia)

    Kozlovsky, A. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Savatenkov, V. M.; Kudryashova, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    A-type rhyolites of contrasting compositions and eruption characters were revealed among two volcanic series of the Early Permian bimodal association in the Nomgon graben. Rhyolites of the lower volcanic series formed extrusions, lava domes, and tuff horizons. They had low FeOt, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y, and REE concentrations and also a moderately depleted Nd isotope composition (ɛNd( T) = 6.7-7.1). Their formation was related to anatexis of the juvenile continental crust, triggered by the thermal effect of mafic magmas. Rhyolites of the upper volcanic series formed extensive lava flows and dikes. Their composition was characterized by high FeOt, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y, and REE concentrations, and also depleted Nd isotope characteristics (ɛNd( T) = 7.7-9.0). These rhyolite melts formed under long-term crystallizational differentiation of basaltoids in the intracrustal magmatic chambers, with limited participation of crustal contamination. The source of magmas for the upper volcanic series was the sublithospheric mantle.

  16. Cancerous epithelial cell lines shed extracellular vesicles with a bimodal size distribution that is sensitive to glutamine inhibition

    Santana, Steven Michael; Kirby, Brian J; Antonyak, Marc A; Cerione, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles (ESVs) facilitate a unique mode of cell–cell communication wherein vesicle uptake can induce a change in the recipient cell's state. Despite the intensity of ESV research, currently reported data represent the bulk characterization of concentrated vesicle samples with little attention paid to heterogeneity. ESV populations likely represent diversity in mechanisms of formation, cargo and size. To better understand ESV subpopulations and the signaling cascades implicated in their formation, we characterize ESV size distributions to identify subpopulations in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. We have discovered that cancer cells exhibit bimodal ESV distributions, one small-diameter and another large-diameter population, suggesting that two mechanisms may govern ESV formation, an exosome population and a cancer-specific microvesicle population. Altered glutamine metabolism in cancer is thought to fuel cancer growth but may also support metastatic niche formation through microvesicle production. We describe the role of a glutaminase inhibitor, compound 968, in ESV production. We have discovered that inhibiting glutamine metabolism significantly impairs large-diameter microvesicle production in cancer cells. (paper)

  17. In-situ observations of a bi-modal ion distribution in the outer coma of comet P/Halley

    Thomsen, M. F.; Feldman, W. C.; Wilken, B.; Jockers, K.; Stuedemann, W.

    1987-01-01

    Observations obtained by the Johnstone Plasma Analyzer on the Giotto fly-by of comet Halley showed a fairly sudden decrease in the count rate of energetic (about 30 KeV) water-group ions inside about 500,000 km from the nucleus. This decrease was accompanied by the appearance of a new water-group ion population at slightly lower energies (less than 10 KeV). Close inspection reveals that this lower-energy peak was also present somewhat earlier in the postshock flow but only became prominent near the sudden transition just described. It is shown that the observed bimodal ion distribution is well explained in terms of the velocity history of the accreting solar wind flow in the outer coma. The decline in count rate of the energetic pick-up distribution is due to a relatively sudden slowing of the bulk flow there and not to a loss of particles. Hence, charge-exchange cooling of the flow is probably not important at these distances from the nucleus. The observations suggest that pitch-angle scattering is fairly efficient at least after the bow shock, but that energy diffusion is probably not very efficient.

  18. THE DEAD SEQUENCE: A CLEAR BIMODALITY IN GALAXY COLORS FROM z = 0 to z = 2.5

    Brammer, G. B.; Whitaker, K. E.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Marchesini, D.; Lee, K.-S.; Muzzin, A.; Labbe, I.; Franx, M.; Quadri, R. F.; Kriek, M.; Illingworth, G.; Rudnick, G.

    2009-01-01

    We select 25,000 galaxies from the NEWFIRM Medium Band Survey (NMBS) to study the rest-frame U - V color distribution of galaxies at 0 < z ∼< 2.5. The five unique NIR filters of the NMBS enable the precise measurement of photometric redshifts and rest-frame colors for 9900 galaxies at 1 < z < 2.5. The rest-frame U - V color distribution at all z ∼< 2.5 is bimodal, with a red peak, a blue peak, and a population of galaxies in between (the green valley). Model fits to the optical-NIR spectral energy distributions and the distribution of MIPS-detected galaxies indicate that the colors of galaxies in the green valley are determined largely by the amount of reddening by dust. This result does not support the simplest interpretation of green valley objects as a transition from blue star forming to red quiescent galaxies. We show that correcting the rest-frame colors for dust reddening allows a remarkably clean separation between the red and blue sequences up to z ∼ 2.5. Our study confirms that dusty-starburst galaxies can contribute a significant fraction to red-sequence samples selected on the basis of a single rest-frame color (i.e., U - V), so extra care must be taken if samples of truly 'red and dead' galaxies are desired. Interestingly, of galaxies detected at 24 μm, 14% remain on the red sequence after applying the reddening correction.

  19. Bimodal atomic force microscopy driving the higher eigenmode in frequency-modulation mode: Implementation, advantages, disadvantages and comparison to the open-loop case.

    Ebeling, Daniel; Solares, Santiago D

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of the bimodal amplitude-frequency-modulation (AM-FM) imaging mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM), whereby the fundamental eigenmode is driven by using the amplitude-modulation technique (AM-AFM) while a higher eigenmode is driven by using either the constant-excitation or the constant-amplitude variant of the frequency-modulation (FM-AFM) technique. We also offer a comparison to the original bimodal AFM method, in which the higher eigenmode is driven with constant frequency and constant excitation amplitude. General as well as particular characteristics of the different driving schemes are highlighted from theoretical and experimental points of view, revealing the advantages and disadvantages of each. This study provides information and guidelines that can be useful in selecting the most appropriate operation mode to characterize different samples in the most efficient and reliable way.

  20. Bimodal gate-dielectric deposition for improved performance of AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors

    Pang Liang; Kim, Kyekyoon

    2012-01-01

    A bimodal deposition scheme combining radiofrequency magnetron sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is proposed as a means for improving the performance of GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs). High-density sputtered-SiO 2 is utilized to reduce the gate leakage current and enhance the breakdown voltage while low-density PECVD-SiO 2 is employed to buffer the sputtering damage and further increase the drain current by engineering the stress-induced-polarization. Thus-fabricated MOSHEMT exhibited a low leakage current of 4.21 × 10 -9 A mm -1 and high breakdown voltage of 634 V for a gate-drain distance of 6 µm, demonstrating the promise of bimodal-SiO 2 deposition scheme for the development of GaN-based MOSHEMTs for high-power application. (paper)

  1. Non-Gaussian theory of rubberlike elasticity based on rotational isomeric state simulations of network chain configurations. II. Bimodal poly(dimethylsiloxane) networks

    Curro, J.G.; Mark, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Bimodal, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) networks containing a large mole fraction of very short chains have been shown to be unusually tough elastomers. The purpose of this investigation is to understand the rubber elasticity behavior of these bimodal networks. As a first approach, we have assumed that the average chain deformation is affine. This deformation, however, is partitioned nonaffinely between the long and short chains so that the free energy is minimized. Gaussian statistics are used for the long chains. The distribution function for the short chains is found from Monte Carlo calculations. This model predicts an upturn in the stress-strain curve, the steepness depending on the network composition, as is observed experimentally

  2. Biodiesel production from transesterification of palm oil with methanol over CaO supported on bimodal meso-macroporous silica catalyst.

    Witoon, Thongthai; Bumrungsalee, Sittisut; Vathavanichkul, Peerawut; Palitsakun, Supaphorn; Saisriyoot, Maythee; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak

    2014-03-01

    Calcium oxide-loaded porous materials have shown promise as catalysts in transesterification. However, the slow diffusion of bulky triglycerides through the pores limited the activity of calcium oxide (CaO). In this work, bimodal meso-macroporous silica was used as a support to enhance the accessibility of the CaO dispersed inside the pores. Unimodal porous silica having the identical mesopore diameter was employed for the purpose of comparison. Effects of CaO content and catalyst pellet size on the yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were investigated. The basic strength was found to increase with increasing the CaO content. The CaO-loaded bimodal porous silica catalyst with the pellet size of 325μm achieved a high %FAME of 94.15 in the first cycle, and retained an excellent %FAME of 88.87 after five consecutive cycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling the Skinner Thesis : Consequences of a Lognormal or a Bimodal Resource Base Distribution

    Auping, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    The copper case is often used as an example in resource depletion studies. Despite these studies, several profound uncertainties remain in the system. One of these uncertainties is the distribution of copper grades in the lithosphere. The Skinner thesis promotes the idea that copper grades may be

  4. Complexity on dwarf galaxy scales : A bimodal distributionfFunction in sculptor

    Breddels, Maarten A.; Helmi, Amina

    2014-01-01

    In our previous work, we presented Schwarzschild models of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy demonstrating that this system could be embedded in dark matter halos that are either cusped or cored. Here, we show that the non-parametric distribution function recovered through Schwarzschild's method

  5. Entanglement for a Bimodal Cavity Field Interacting with a Two-Level Atom

    Liu Jia; Chen Ziyu; Bu Shenping; Zhang Guofeng

    2009-01-01

    Negativity has been adopted to investigate the entanglement in a system composed of a two-level atom and a two-mode cavity field. Effects of Kerr-like medium and the number of photon inside the cavity on the entanglement are studied. Our results show that atomic initial state must be superposed, so that the two cavity field modes can be entangled. Moreover, we also conclude that the number of photon in the two cavity mode should be equal. The interaction between modes, namely, the Kerr effect, has a significant negative contribution. Note that the atom frequency and the cavity frequency have an indistinguishable effect, so a corresponding approximation has been made in this article. These results may be useful for quantum information in optics systems.

  6. Experimental and numerical study of back-cooling car-seat system using embedded heat pipes to improve passenger’s comfort

    Hatoum, Omar; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ghali, Kamel; Ismail, Nagham

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Heat pipe assembly (a) with the insulation layer (b) without the insulation layer; and (c) thermal manikin test on the heat pipe chair. - Highlights: • A new back cooling system for a car seat using embedded heat pipes was modeled numerically. • The heat-pipe seat model was experimentally validated using heated thermal manikin. • An integrated heat pipe model and bio-heat model was used to predict local thermal comfort. • The heat pipe system reduced the back skin temperature by 1 °C compared to seat without heat pipes. • The heat pipe system increased the overall thermal comfort of the passenger by 30%. - Abstract: This work develops a back-cooling system for a car seat using seat embedded heat pipes to improve passenger comfort. The heat pipe system utilizes the temperature difference between the passenger back and the car cabin air to remove heat from the human body and enhance the comfort state. The developed seat heat-pipe model was validated experimentally using a thermal manikin with controlled constant skin temperature mode in a climatic chamber. Good agreement was found between the measured and the numerically predicted values of base panel temperature. By integrating the validated heat pipe with a bio-heat model, the back segmental skin temperature as well as the overall thermal comfort was predicted and compared with the conventional seat case without the heat pipe system. The heat pipes were able to reduce the skin temperature by 1 °C and to increase the overall thermal comfort of the body by 30%. In addition, a parametric study was performed to determine the optimal number of heat pipes that ensure the thermal comfort of the passenger.

  7. The upconversion luminescence and magnetism in Yb3+/Ho3+ co-doped LaF3 nanocrystals for potential bimodal imaging

    Syamchand, Sasidharanpillai S.; George, Sony

    2016-12-01

    Biocompatible upconversion nanoparticles with multifunctional properties can serve as potential nanoprobes for multimodal imaging. Herein, we report an upconversion nanocrystal based on lanthanum fluoride which is developed to address the imaging modalities, upconversion luminescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Lanthanide ions (Yb3+ and Ho3+) doped LaF3 nanocrystals (LaF3 Yb3+/Ho3+) are fabricated through a rapid microwave-assisted synthesis. The hexagonal phase LaF3 nanocrystals exhibit nearly spherical morphology with average diameter of 9.8 nm. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis estimated the doping concentration of Yb3+ and Ho3+ as 3.99 and 0.41%, respectively. The nanocrystals show upconversion luminescence when irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) photons of wavelength 980 nm. The emission spectrum consists of bands centred at 542, 645 and 658 nm. The stronger green emission at 542 nm and the weak red emissions at 645 and 658 nm are assigned to 5S2 → 5I8 and 5F5 → 5I8 transitions of Ho3+, respectively. The pump power dependence of luminescence intensity confirmed the two-photon upconversion process. The nanocrystals exhibit paramagnetism due to the presence of lanthanide ion dopant Ho3+ and the magnetization is 19.81 emu/g at room temperature. The nanocrystals exhibit a longitudinal relaxivity ( r 1) of 0.12 s-1 mM-1 and transverse relaxivity ( r 2) of 28.18 s-1 mM-1, which makes the system suitable for developing T2 MRI contrast agents based on holmium. The LaF3 Yb3+/Ho3+ nanocrystals are surface modified by PEGylation to improve biocompatibility and enhance further functionalisation. The PEGylated nanocrystals are found to be non-toxic up to 50 μg/mL for 48 h of incubation, which is confirmed by the MTT assay as well as morphological studies in HeLa cells. The upconversion luminescence and magnetism together with biocompatibility enables the adaptability of the present system as a nanoprobe for potential

  8. The upconversion luminescence and magnetism in Yb{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+} co-doped LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals for potential bimodal imaging

    Syamchand, Sasidharanpillai S., E-mail: syamchand.ss@gmail.com; George, Sony, E-mail: emailtosony@gmail.com [University of Kerala, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2016-12-15

    morphological studies in HeLa cells. The upconversion luminescence and magnetism together with biocompatibility enables the adaptability of the present system as a nanoprobe for potential bimodal imaging.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage for Bi-Modal Solar Thermal Propulsion

    2014-06-01

    unlimited distribution. SolidWorks Simulation Professional 2013 to solve for the initial steady state temperature distribution based on system geometry...spacecraft have been flow to date. STP is traditionally viewed as an unproven technology with significant drawbacks including the requirement of solar...control heat flow , safeguards to prevent complete solidification or, more likely, a combination of all three. Despite being neglected in the majority of

  10. Using online handwriting and audio streams for mathematical expressions recognition: a bimodal approach

    Medjkoune, Sofiane; Mouchère, Harold; Petitrenaud, Simon; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The work reported in this paper concerns the problem of mathematical expressions recognition. This task is known to be a very hard one. We propose to alleviate the difficulties by taking into account two complementary modalities. The modalities referred to are handwriting and audio ones. To combine the signals coming from both modalities, various fusion methods are explored. Performances evaluated on the HAMEX dataset show a significant improvement compared to a single modality (handwriting) based system.

  11. Educação bimodal no curso de pedagogia: aprendizagens em estatística aplicada à educação/Bimodal education in the pedagogy course: learnings in statistics applied to education

    Suely Scherer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta e analisa uma estética de Educação Bimodal –parte presencial e parte virtual -, identificando atitudes, espaços e ações de professores e alunos que favorecem aprendizagens e comunicações em ambientes presencias e virtuais, coerente com a estética da complexidade. O estudo foi desenvolvido a partir da epistemologia genética, a teoria autopoiética, a interdisciplinaridade e a educação libertadora. Para fins de apresentação e análise dessa estética, são discutidos os movimentos de aprendizagem e comunicação de alunos e professora – a pesquisadora -, na disciplina de Estatística Aplicada à Educação, no curso de Pedagogia de um Centro Universitário de Santa Catarina. This article presents and analyzes the aesthetics of blended learning – half held in classroom, half held virtually – identifying attitudes and places as well as students and teachers actions in order to create a favorable atmosphere for the learning and communication processes which take place in virtual and face to face environments, being coherent with the aesthetics of complexity. This study was developed based on theories such as an genetic epistemology, autopoietic theory, interdisciplinarity and libertarian education. In order to present and analyze the aesthetics, learning and communication movements occurred among students and teacher – who was the researcher – involved in a “Estatística Aplicada à Educação”, offered by the Education Course at Centro Universitário of Santa Catarina.

  12. Thermoresponsive .beta.-glucan-based polymers for bimodal immunoradiotherapy - Are they able to promote the immune system?

    Loukotová, Lenka; Kučka, Jan; Rabyk, Mariia; Höcherl, Anita; Venclíková, Kristýna; Janoušková, Olga; Páral, P.; Kolářová, V.; Heizer, T.; Šefc, L.; Štěpánek, Petr; Hrubý, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 268, 28 December (2017), s. 78-91 ISSN 0168-3659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02870S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03156S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25781A; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB16FR042 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : beta-glucan * polyoxazoline * multimodal cancer therapy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 7.786, year: 2016

  13. Sniffer dogs as part of a bimodal bionic research approach to develop a lung cancer screening.

    Boedeker, Enole; Friedel, Godehard; Walles, Thorsten

    2012-05-01

    Lung cancer (LC) continues to represent a heavy burden for health care systems worldwide. Epidemiological studies predict that its role will increase in the near future. While patient prognosis is strongly associated with tumour stage and early detection of disease, no screening test exists so far. It has been suggested that electronic sensor devices, commonly referred to as 'electronic noses', may be applicable to identify cancer-specific volatile organic compounds in the breath of patients and therefore may represent promising screening technologies. However, three decades of research did not bring forward a clinically applicable device. Here, we propose a new research approach by involving specially trained sniffer dogs into research strategies by making use of their ability to identify LC in the breath sample of patients.

  14. Sniffer dogs as part of a bimodal bionic research approach to develop a lung cancer screening†

    Boedeker, Enole; Friedel, Godehard; Walles, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) continues to represent a heavy burden for health care systems worldwide. Epidemiological studies predict that its role will increase in the near future. While patient prognosis is strongly associated with tumour stage and early detection of disease, no screening test exists so far. It has been suggested that electronic sensor devices, commonly referred to as ‘electronic noses’, may be applicable to identify cancer-specific volatile organic compounds in the breath of patients and therefore may represent promising screening technologies. However, three decades of research did not bring forward a clinically applicable device. Here, we propose a new research approach by involving specially trained sniffer dogs into research strategies by making use of their ability to identify LC in the breath sample of patients. PMID:22345057

  15. The Time Is Up: Compression of Visual Time Interval Estimations of Bimodal Aperiodic Patterns

    Duarte, Fabiola; Lemus, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The ability to estimate time intervals subserves many of our behaviors and perceptual experiences. However, it is not clear how aperiodic (AP) stimuli affect our perception of time intervals across sensory modalities. To address this question, we evaluated the human capacity to discriminate between two acoustic (A), visual (V) or audiovisual (AV) time intervals of trains of scattered pulses. We first measured the periodicity of those stimuli and then sought for correlations with the accuracy and reaction times (RTs) of the subjects. We found that, for all time intervals tested in our experiment, the visual system consistently perceived AP stimuli as being shorter than the periodic (P) ones. In contrast, such a compression phenomenon was not apparent during auditory trials. Our conclusions are: first, the subjects exposed to P stimuli are more likely to measure their durations accurately. Second, perceptual time compression occurs for AP visual stimuli. Lastly, AV discriminations are determined by A dominance rather than by AV enhancement. PMID:28848406

  16. Characterization of van der Waals type bimodal,- lambda,- meta- and spinodal phase transitions in liquid mixtures, solid suspensions and thin films.

    Rosenholm, Jarl B

    2018-03-01

    The perfect gas law is used as a reference when selecting state variables (P, V, T, n) needed to characterize ideal gases (vapors), liquids and solids. Van der Waals equation of state is used as a reference for models characterizing interactions in liquids, solids and their mixtures. Van der Waals loop introduces meta- and unstable states between the observed gas (vapor)-liquid P-V transitions at low T. These intermediate states are shown to appear also between liquid-liquid, liquid-solid and solid-solid phase transitions. First-order phase transitions are characterized by a sharp discontinuity of first-order partial derivatives (P, S, V) of Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies. Second-order partial derivatives (K T , B, C V , C P , E) consist of a static contribution relating to second-order phase transitions and a relaxation contribution representing the degree of first-order phase transitions. Bimodal (first-order) and spinodal (second-order) phase boundaries are used to separate stable phases from metastable and unstable phases. The boundaries are identified and quantified by partial derivatives of molar Gibbs free energy or chemical potentials with respect to P, S, V and composition (mole fractions). Molecules confined to spread Langmuir monolayers or adsorbed Gibbs monolayers are characterized by equation of state and adsorption isotherms relating to a two-dimensional van der Waals equation of state. The basic work of two-dimensional wetting (cohesion, adsorption, spreading, immersion), have to be adjusted by a horizontal surface pressure in the presence of adsorbed vapor layers. If the adsorption is extended to liquid films a vertical surface pressure (Π) may be added to account for the lateral interaction, thus restoring PV = ΠAh dependence of thin films. Van der Waals attraction, Coulomb repulsion and structural hydration forces contribute to the vertical surface pressure. A van der Waals type coexistence of ordered (dispersed) and disordered

  17. Slow Cooling in Low Metallicity Clouds: An Origin of Globular Cluster Bimodality?

    Fernandez, Ricardo; Bryan, Greg L.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the relative role of small-scale fragmentation and global collapse in low-metallicity clouds, pointing out that in such clouds the cooling time may be longer than the dynamical time, allowing the cloud to collapse globally before it can fragment. This, we suggest, may help to explain the formation of the low-metallicity globular cluster population, since such dense stellar systems need a large amount of gas to be collected in a small region (without significant feedback during the collapse). To explore this further, we carry out numerical simulations of low-metallicity Bonner-Ebert stable gas clouds, demonstrating that there exists a critical metallicity (between 0.001 and 0.01 Z⊙) below which the cloud collapses globally without fragmentation. We also run simulations including a background radiative heating source, showing that this can also produce clouds that do not fragment, and that the critical metallicity - which can exceed the no-radiation case - increases with the heating rate.

  18. Deformation Behavior of Ultra-Strong and Ductile Mg-Gd-Y-Zn-Zr Alloy with Bimodal Microstructure

    Xu, C.; Fan, G. H.; Nakata, T.; Liang, X.; Chi, Y. Q.; Qiao, X. G.; Cao, G. J.; Zhang, T. T.; Huang, M.; Miao, K. S.; Zheng, M. Y.; Kamado, S.; Xie, H. L.

    2018-02-01

    An ultra-strong and ductile Mg-8.2Gd-3.8Y-1Zn-0.4Zr (wt pct) alloy was developed by using hot extrusion to modify the microstructure via forced-air cooling and an artificial aging treatment. A superior strength-ductility balance was obtained that had a tensile yield strength of 466 MPa and an elongation to failure of 14.5 pct. The local strain evolution during the in situ testing of the ultra-strong and ductile alloy was quantitatively analyzed with high-resolution electron backscattered diffraction and digital image correlation. The fracture behavior during the tensile test was characterized by synchrotron X-ray tomography along with SEM and STEM observations. The alloy showed a bimodal microstructure, consisting of dynamically recrystallized (DRXed) grains with random orientations and elongated hot-worked grains with parallel to the extrusion direction. The DRXed grains were deformed by the basal slip and the hot-worked grains were deformed by the prismatic slip dominantly. The strain evolution analysis indicated that the multilayered structure relaxed the strain localization via strain transfer from the DRXed to the hot-worked regions, which led to the high ductility of the alloy. Precipitation of the γ' on basal planes and the β' phases on the prismatic planes of the α-Mg generated closed volumes, which enhanced the strength by pinning dislocations effectively, and contributed to the high ductility by impeding the propagation of micro-cracks inside the grains. The deformation incompatibility between the hot-worked grains and the arched block-shaped long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phases induced the crack initiation and propagation, which fractured the alloy.

  19. Bimodal Long-lasting Components in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts: Promising Electromagnetic Counterparts to Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Kisaka, Shota; Sakamoto, Takanori [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5258 (Japan); Ioka, Kunihito, E-mail: kisaka@phys.aoyama.ac.jp, E-mail: tsakamoto@phys.aoyama.ac.jp, E-mail: kunihito.ioka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-09-10

    Long-lasting emission of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is crucial to reveal the physical origin of the central engine as well as to detect electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star binary mergers. We investigate 65 X-ray light curves of short GRBs, which is six times more than previous studies, by combining both Swift /BAT and XRT data. The light curves are found to consist of two distinct components at >5 σ with bimodal distributions of luminosity and duration, i.e., extended (with a timescale of ≲10{sup 3} s) and plateau emission (with a timescale of ≳10{sup 3} s), which are likely the central engine activities, but not afterglows. The extended emission has an isotropic energy comparable to the prompt emission, while the plateau emission has ∼0.01–1 times this energy. Half (50%) of our sample has both components, while the other half is consistent with having both components. This leads us to conjecture that almost all short GRBs have both the extended and plateau emission. The long-lasting emission can be explained by the jets from black holes with fallback ejecta, and could power macronovae (or kilonovae) like GRB 130603B and GRB 160821B. Based on the observed properties, we quantify the detectability of EM counterparts to GWs, including the plateau emission scattered to the off-axis angle, with CALET /HXM, INTEGRAL /SPI-ACS, Fermi /GBM, MAXI /GSC, Swift /BAT, XRT, the future ISS-Lobster /WFI, Einstein Probe /WXT, and eROSITA .

  20. Slab break-off triggered lithosphere - asthenosphere interaction at a convergent margin: The Neoproterozoic bimodal magmatism in NW India

    Wang, Wei; Pandit, Manoj K.; Zhao, Jun-Hong; Chen, Wei-Terry; Zheng, Jian-Ping

    2018-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) is described as the largest felsic igneous province in India. The linearly distributed Sindreth and Punagarh basins located along eastern margin of this province represent the only site of bimodal volcanism and associated clastic sediments within the MIS. The in-situ zircon U-Pb dating by LA-ICPMS reveals that the Sindreth rhyolites were erupted at 769-762 Ma. Basaltic rocks from both the basins show distinct geochemical signatures that suggest an E-MORB source for Punagarh basalts (low Ti/V ratios of 40.9-28.2) and an OIB source (high Ti/V ratios of 285-47.6) for Sindreth basalts. In the absence of any evidence of notable crustal contamination, these features indicate heterogeneous mantle sources for them. The low (La/Yb)CN (9.34-2.10) and Sm/Yb (2.88-1.08) ratios of Punagarh basalts suggest a spinel facies, relatively shallow level mantle source as compared to a deeper source for Sindreth basalts, as suggested by high (La/Yb)CN (7.24-5.24) and Sm/Yb (2.79-2.13) ratios. Decompression melting of an upwelling sub-slab asthenosphere through slab window seems to be the most plausible mechanism to explain the geochemical characteristics. Besides, the associated felsic volcanics show A2-type granite signatures, such as high Y/Nb (5.97-1.55) and Yb/Ta (9.36-2.57) ratios, consistent with magma derived from continental crust that has been through a cycle of continent-continent collision or an island-arc setting. A localized extension within an overall convergent scenario is interpreted for Sindreth and Punagarh volcanics. This general convergent setting is consistent with the previously proposed Andean-type continental margin for NW Indian block, the Seychelles and Madagascar, all of which lay either at the periphery of Rodinia supercontinent or slightly off the Supercontinent.

  1. 'Bimodal' Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion for an artificial gravity HOPE mission to Callisto

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Mason, Lee M.; Gilland, James H.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a year long, multi-center NASA study which examined the viability of nuclear fission propulsion systems for Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE). The HOPE mission assumes a crew of six is sent to Callisto. Jupiter's outermost large moon, to establish a surface base and propellant production facility. The Asgard asteroid formation, a region potentially rich in water-ice, is selected as the landing site. High thrust BNTR propulsion is used to transport the crew from the Earth-Moon L1 staging node to Callisto then back to Earth in less than 5 years. Cargo and LH2 'return' propellant for the piloted Callisto transfer vehicle (PCTV) is pre-deployed at the moon (before the crew's departure) using low thrust, high power, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) cargo and tanker vehicles powered by hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The PCTV is powered by three 25 klbf BNTR engines which also produce 50 kWe of power for crew life support and spacecraft operational needs. To counter the debilitating effects of long duration space flight (∼855 days out and ∼836 days back) under '0-gE' conditions, the PCTV generates an artificial gravity environment of '1-gE' via rotation of the vehicle about its center-of-mass at a rate of ∼4 rpm. After ∼123 days at Callisto, the 'refueled' PCTV leaves orbit for the trip home. Direct capsule re-entry of the crew at mission end is assumed. Dynamic Brayton power conversion and high temperature uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten metal ''cermet'' fuel is used in both the BNTR and NEP vehicles to maximize hardware commonality. Technology performance levels and vehicle characteristics are presented, and requirements for PCTV reusability are also discussed

  2. Laboratory experiments on solute transport in bimodal porous media under cyclic precipitation-evaporation boundary conditions

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    Flow and solute transport in the shallow subsurface is strongly governed by atmospheric boundary conditions. Erratically varying infiltration and evaporation cycles lead to alternating upward and downward flow, as well as spatially and temporally varying water contents and associated hydraulic conductivity of the prevailing materials. Thus presenting a highly complicated, dynamic system. Knowledge of subsurface solute transport processes is vital to assess e.g. the entry of, potentially hazardous, solutes to the groundwater and nutrient uptake by plant roots and can be gained in many ways. Besides field measurements and numerical simulations, physical laboratory experiments represent a way to establish process understanding and furthermore validate numerical schemes. With the aim to gain a better understanding and to quantify solute transport in the unsaturated shallow subsurface under natural precipitation conditions in heterogeneous media, we conduct physical laboratory experiments in a 22 cm x 8 cm x 1 cm flow cell that is filled with two types of sand and apply cyclic infiltration-evaporation phases at the soil surface. Pressure at the bottom of the domain is kept constant. Following recent studies (Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al., 2011a), heterogeneity is introduced by a sharp vertical interface between coarse and fine sand. Fluorescent tracers are used to i) qualitatively visualize transport paths within the domain and ii) quantify solute leaching at the bottom of the domain. Temporal and spatial variations in water content during the experiment are derived from x-ray radiographic images. Monitored water contents between infiltration and evaporation considerably changed in the coarse sand while the fine sand remained saturated throughout the experiments. Lateral solute transport through the interface in both directions at different depths of the investigated soil columns were observed. This depended on the flow rate applied at the soil surface and

  3. Evidence for rapid epithermal mineralization and coeval bimodal volcanism, Bruner Au-Ag property, NV USA

    Baldwin, Dylan

    - alkaline rhyolite flow-dome complexes. Multiple lines of evidence document decoupled sourcing of Al-Si-K-O from Au-Ag-S, and suggest that mafic magmatic inputs to an active, but barren geothermal system were important in forming the Bruner low-sulfidation epithermal ore deposit.

  4. Numerical investigations of solute transport in bimodal porous media under dynamic boundary conditions

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa; Bechtold, Michel; Vanderborght, Jan

    2016-04-01

    behavior depends on the magnitude of the flow rates and hydraulic conductivity curves of the materials. Based on the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the intersection point of conductivity curves, we are able to define an estimate of flow rates at which the dynamic of the upper boundary condition significantly alters preferential flow paths through the system. If flow rates are low, with regard to the materials hydraulic conductivity at the intersection point, the influence of dynamic boundary conditions is small. If flow rates are in the range of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at intersection, solute is trapped in the fine material during upwards transport, which results in a more pronounced tailing. For flow rates exceeding the intersection conductivity, a redistribution at the soil surface can occur. References: Bechtold, M., S. Haber-Pohlmeier, J. Vanderborght, A. Pohlmeier, T.P.A. Ferré and H. Veerecken. 2011a. Near-surface solute redistribution during evaporation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L17404, doi:10.1029/2011GL048147. Bechtold, M., J. Vanderborght, O. Ippisch and H. Vereecken. 2011b. Efficient random walk particle tracking algorithm for advective dispersive transport in media with discontinuous dispersion coefficients and water contents. Water Resour. Res., 47, W10526, doi: 10.1029/2010WR010267. Ippisch O., H.-J. Vogel and P. Bastian. 2006. Validity limits fort he van Genuchten-Mualem model and implications for parameter estimation and numerical simulation. Adv. Water Resour., 29, 1780-1789, doi: 10.1016/j.advwateres.2005.12.011. Lehmann, P. and D. Or. 2009. Evaporation and capillary coupling across vertical textural contrasts in porous media. Phys. Rev. E, 80, 046318, doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.80.046318.

  5. PARAMETERIZED LAYOUT SYNTHESIS OF A CMOS-COMPATIBLE SCANNING MICROMIRROR WITH ELECTROTHERMAL ACTUATION AND BIMODAL RESONANT BEHAVIOR

    Sergio Camacho León

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una metodología de síntesis de parámetros para la automatización del diseño de un microespejo de escaneado compatible CMOS con comportamiento resonante bimodal. El microespejo está suspendido por actuadores térmicos bimorfos en voladizo con accionamiento fuera del plano. La metodología propone la optimización de espesores y el escaneo en el segundo modo de resonancia como estrategias para superar el conflicto característico entre el desempeño estático y dinámico del dispositivo. El objetivo es obtener automáticamente los parámetros de diseño del dispositivo que, de manera concurrente, maximizan el ángulo de rotación, minimizan el consumo de energía y satisfacen tanto las limitaciones de fabricación de un proceso CMOS estándar como las especificaciones de alto nivel para la posición del eje de rotación en el segundo modo de resonancia, la frecuencia de escaneado y el voltaje máximo de actuación. La metodología utiliza un espacio de diseño de nivel intermedio, definido por la razón de resistencia térmica a resistencia eléctrica del dispositivo a temperatura ambiente, para acoplar las restricciones del esfuerzo térmico máximo con la densidad de corriente eléctrica máxima de los materiales CMOS. El procedimiento de evaluación de funciones objetivos se desarrolla sobre la base de un modelo de elementos concentrados de la resistencia térmica del dispositivo para explorar sistemáticamente el espacio de diseño utilizando variaciones paramétricas. La metodología se aplica para diseñar un microescáner que tiene aplicaciones en sistemas imagenológicos de coherencia óptica. El desempeño del microescáner sintetizado es verificado por simulaciones mediante el método de elementos finitos. Los resultados obtenidos numéricamente presentan un buen ajuste con las especificaciones de alto nivel.

  6. Bimodal spectroscopy in elastic scattering and spatially resolved auto-fluorescence: instrumentation, light-tissues interaction modeling and application to ex vivo and in vivo biological tissues characterization for cancers detection

    Pery, Emilie

    2007-01-01

    This research activity aims at developing and validating a multimodal spectroscopy method in elastic scattering and auto-fluorescence to characterize biological tissues in vitro and in vivo. It is articulated in four axes. At first, instrumentation is considered with the development, the engineering and the experimental characterization of a fibers bimodal, multi-points spectrometry system allowing the acquisition of spectra in vivo (variable distances, fast acquisition). Secondly, the optical properties of tissues are modelled with the development and the experimental validation on phantoms of a photons propagation simulation algorithm in turbid media and multi-fluorescent. Thirdly, an experimental study has been conducted ex vivo on fresh and cryo-preserved arterial rings. It confirms the complementarity of spectroscopic measurements in elastic scattering and auto-fluorescence, and validates the method of multi-modality spectroscopy and the simulation of photons propagation algorithm. Results have well proved a correlation between rheological and optical properties. Finally, one second experimental study in vivo related to a pre-clinical tumoral model of bladder has been carried out. It highlights a significant difference in diffuse reflectance and/or auto-fluorescence and/or intrinsic fluorescence between healthy, inflammatory and tumoral tissues, on the basis of specific wavelength. The results of not supervised classification show that the combination of various spectroscopic approaches increases the reliability of the diagnosis. (author) [fr

  7. Linkage disequilibrium in the insulin gene region: Size variation at the 5{prime} flanking polymorphism and bimodality among {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} alleles

    McGinnis, R.E.; Spielman, R.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The 5{prime} flanking polymorphism (5{prime}FP), a hypervariable region at the 5{prime} end of the insulin gene, has {open_quotes}class 1{close_quotes} alleles (650-900 bp long) that are in positive linkage disequilibrium with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The authors report that precise sizing of the 5{prime}FP yields a bimodal frequency distribution of class 1 allele lengths. Class 1 alleles belonging to the lower component (650-750 bp) of the bimodal distribution were somewhat more highly associated with IDDM than were alleles from the upper component (760-900 bp), but the difference was not statistically significant. They also examined 5{prime}FP length variation in relation to allelic variation at nearby polymorphisms. At biallelic RFLPs on both sides of the 5{prime}FP, they found that one allele exhibits near-total association with the upper component of the 5FP class 1 distribution. Such associations represent a little-known but potentially wide-spread form of linkage disequilibrium. In this type of disequilibrium, a flanking allele has near-complete association with a single mode of VNTR alleles whose lengths represent consecutive numbers of tandem repeats (CNTR). Such extreme disequilibrium between a CNTR mode and flanking alleles may originate and persist because length mutations at some VNTR loci usually add or delete only one or two repeat units. 22 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Summer Precipitation in Mexico under the Influence of the MJO, with Emphasis on the Bimodal Pattern

    Perdigón, J.; Romero-Centeno, R.; Barrett, B.; Ordoñez-Perez, P.

    2017-12-01

    In many regions of Mexico, precipitation occurs in a very well defined annual cycle with peaks in May-June and September-October and a relative minimum in the middle of the rainy season known as the midsummer drought (MSD). The MJO is the most important mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropics, and, although some studies have shown its evident influence on summer precipitation in Mexico, its role in modulating the bimodal pattern of the summer precipitation cycle is still an open question. The spatio-temporal variability of summer precipitation in Mexico is analyzed through composite analysis according to the phases of the MJO, using the very high resolution CHIRPS precipitation data base and gridded data from the CFSR reanalysis to analyzing the MJO influence on the atmospheric circulation over Mexico and its adjacent basins. In general, during MJO phases 8-2 (4-6) rainfall is above-normal (below-normal), although, in some cases, the summer rainfall patterns during the same phase present considerable differences. The atmospheric circulation shows low (high) troposphere southwesterly (northeasterly) wind anomalies in southern Mexico under wetter conditions compared with climatological patterns, while the inverse pattern is observed under drier conditions. Composite anomalies of several variables also agreed well with those rainfall anomalies. Finally, a MJO complete cycle that reinforces (weakens) the bimodal pattern of summer rainfall in Mexico was found.

  9. New insights into the origin of the bimodal volcanism in the middle Okinawa Trough: not a basalt-rhyolite differentiation process

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Zeng, Zhigang; Chen, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Yin, Xuebo

    2018-06-01

    In the middle Okinawa Trough (MOT), rhyolites have been typically considered as products of crystallization differentiation of basaltic magma as a feature of bimodal volcanism. However, the evidence is insufficient. This paper compared chemical trends of volcanic rocks from the MOT with fractional crystallization simulation models and experimental results and utilized trace element modeling combined with Rayleigh fractionation calculations to re-examine fractional crystallization processes in generating rhyolites. Both qualitative and quantitative studies indicate that andesites, rather than rhyolites, originate by fractional crystallization from basalts in the MOT. Furthermore, we established two batch-melting models for the MOT rhyolites and proposed that type 1 rhyolites are produced by remelting of andesites with amphiboles in the residue, while type 2 rhyolites are derived from remelting of andesites without residual amphiboles. It is difficult to produce melts with a SiO2 content ranging from 62% to 68% either by magmatic differentiation from basalts or by remelting of andesites, and this difficulty might help account for the compositional gap (Daly gap) for bimodal volcanism in the Okinawa Trough.

  10. Comparative DNA isolation behaviours of silica and polymer based sorbents in batch fashion: monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore size distribution as a new sorbent for DNA isolation.

    Günal, Gülçin; Kip, Çiğdem; Eda Öğüt, S; İlhan, Hasan; Kibar, Güneş; Tuncel, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore-size distribution were proposed as a high performance sorbent for DNA isolation in batch fashion under equilibrium conditions. The proposed sorbent including both macroporous and mesoporous compartments was synthesized 5.1 μm in-size, by a "staged shape templated hydrolysis and condensation method". Hydrophilic polymer based sorbents were also obtained in the form of monodisperse-macroporous microspheres ca 5.5 μm in size, with different functionalities, by a developed "multi-stage microsuspension copolymerization" technique. The batch DNA isolation performance of proposed material was comparatively investigated using polymer based sorbents with similar morphologies. Among all sorbents tried, the best DNA isolation performance was achieved with the monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore size distribution. The collocation of interconnected mesoporous and macroporous compartments within the monodisperse silica microspheres provided a high surface area and reduced the intraparticular mass transfer resistance and made easier both the adsorption and desorption of DNA. Among the polymer based sorbents, higher DNA isolation yields were achieved with the monodisperse-macroporous polymer microspheres carrying trimethoxysilyl and quaternary ammonium functionalities. However, batch DNA isolation performances of polymer based sorbents were significantly lower with respect to the silica microspheres.

  11. Propuesta de solución bimodal al problema de la contaminación vehicular urbana

    Gilberto Osorio Gómez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En el campo de investigación de los vehículos con propulsiones alternativas al motor de combustión interna, el Politecnico di Milano ha desarrollado un proyecto para el diseño y fabricación del prototipo de un kit electrome-cánico a instalar en un vehículo urbano comercial, mediante la aplicación de tecnologías existentes y soluciones innovativas. El proyecto involucra competencias de naturaleza mecánica y eléctrica para el desarrollo y gestión de una nueva transmisión paralela a la propulsión endotérmica. Este documento describe en manera general el procedimiento para la realización del prototipo final. Inicialmente fueron identificadas las características nece-sarias para cumplir con un ciclo urbano estándar y se seleccionó el automóvil a modificar, en este caso un vehículo Fiat Grande Punto. Con los requerimientos establecidos se procedió a la identificación y especificación de los nuevos componentes y de los espacios útiles para su instalación y se diseñaron y fabricaron los componentes mecánicos nece-sarios. Para la realización de los modelos geométricos se utilizaron instrumentos de reverse engineering y modelación virtual. Por último, se realizó el montaje de los nuevos componentes y la instalación eléctrica, se modificó el sistema electrónico de control del vehículo y se efectuaron las pruebas de verificación, donde se confirmó el cumplimiento de la autonomía eléctrica de 30 km y la velocidad máxima en modalidad eléctrica de 70 km/h. Estos resultados demues-tran la factibilidad de la transformación de un vehículo de propulsión endotérmica a propulsión bimodal mediante la instalación de un kit poco invasivo. Actualmente se está trabajando en su industrialización y aplicación a diferentes modelos de vehículo urbano. Este proyecto ha sido financiado por la Regione Lombardia (Gobierno regional italiano como un proyecto de investigación orientado a la búsqueda de nuevas soluciones para

  12. A bimodal neurophysiological study of motor control in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a step towards core mechanisms?

    Heinrich, Hartmut; Hoegl, Thomas; Moll, Gunther H; Kratz, Oliver

    2014-04-01

    implementation of motor control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder reflecting compensatory cognitive mechanisms as a result of a basal motor cortical inhibitory deficit (reduced activation of inhibitory intracortical interneurons). Both deviant inhibitory and attentional processes, which are not related to each other, seem to be characteristic for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at the neural level in motor control tasks. The underlying neural mechanisms, which are probably not restricted to the motor cortex and the posterior attention network, may play a key role in the pathophysiology of this child psychiatric disorder. The high classification rate can further be interpreted as a step towards the development of neural markers. In summary, the bimodal neurophysiological concept may contribute to developing an integrative framework for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  13. Bi-modal stimulation in the treatment of tinnitus: a study protocol for an exploratory trial to optimise stimulation parameters and patient subtyping.

    D'Arcy, Shona; Hamilton, Caroline; Hughes, Stephen; Hall, Deborah A; Vanneste, Sven; Langguth, Berthold; Conlon, Brendan

    2017-10-25

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of a corresponding external acoustic stimulus. Bimodal neuromodulation is emerging as a promising treatment for this condition. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the relevance of interstimulus timing and the choices of acoustic and tongue stimuli for a proprietary bimodal (auditory and somatosensory) neuromodulation device, as well as to explore whether specific subtypes of patients are differentially responsive to this novel intervention for reducing the symptoms of chronic tinnitus. This is a two-site, randomised, triple-blind, exploratory study of a proprietary neuromodulation device with a pre-post and 12-month follow-up design. Three different bimodal stimulation parameter sets will be examined. The study will enrol 342 patients, split 80:20 between two sites (Dublin, Ireland and Regensburg, Germany), to complete 12 weeks of treatment with the device. Patients will be allocated to one of three arms using a stepwise stratification according to four binary categories: tinnitus tonality, sound level tolerance (using loudness discomfort level of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and the Tinnitus Functional Index, after 12 weeks of intervention. Clinical efficacy will be further explored in a series of patient subtypes, split by the stratification variables and by presence of a somatic tinnitus. Evidence for sustained effects on the psychological and functional impact of tinnitus will be followed up for 12 months. Safety data will be collected and reported. A number of feasibility measures to inform future trial design include: reasons for exclusion, completeness of data collection, attrition rates, patient's adherence to the device usage as per manufacturer's instructions and evaluation of alternative methods for estimating tinnitus impact and tinnitus loudness. This study protocol is approved by the Tallaght Hospital/St. James's Hospital Joint Research Ethics Committee in Dublin, Ireland, and by the

  14. Diseño, Ejecución y Evaluación de un Curso Bimodal en la Educación Superior

    Carlos Araya Rivera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo pretende reflexionar sobre el desarrollo y la evaluación de un curso bimodal, Teorías y Técnicas del Guión Radiofónico, en la Escuela de Ciencias de la Comunicación Colectiva de la Universidad de Costa Rica. La experiencia se llevó a cabo en el 2006 y tuvo como propósito valorar las posibilidades que ofrecen las aulas virtuales a estudiantes y docentes. Las conclusiones señalan aspectos tecnológicos y de carácter conceptual, que permiten establecer recomendaciones didácticas para mejorar la docencia universitaria.

  15. The monomer-to-dimer transition and bimodal growth of Co-salen on NaCl(001): a high resolution atomic force microscopy study

    Fremy, S; Schwarz, A; Laemmle, K; Wiesendanger, R; Prosenc, M

    2009-01-01

    Molecules of Co-salen, a paramagnetic metal-organic Schiff base complex, self-assemble into two different well ordered morphologies on a NaCl(001) substrate: nanowires, which form networks, and compact nanocrystallites. Their growth can be controlled by adjusting the deposition parameters. It turns out that the nanowires are metastable. Molecular resolution images suggest that the packing in both morphologies is the same as in bulk Co-salen single crystals. Only the orientation of the c-axis with respect to the substrate is different. The origin of this intriguing bimodal growth is associated with a monomer-to-dimer transition, which probably takes place during initial nucleation at step edges.

  16. The monomer-to-dimer transition and bimodal growth of Co-salen on NaCl(001): a high resolution atomic force microscopy study

    Fremy, S; Schwarz, A; Laemmle, K; Wiesendanger, R [Institute of Applied Physics and Microstructure Research Center, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany); Prosenc, M, E-mail: aschwarz@physnet.uni-hamburg.d [Institute of Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-10-07

    Molecules of Co-salen, a paramagnetic metal-organic Schiff base complex, self-assemble into two different well ordered morphologies on a NaCl(001) substrate: nanowires, which form networks, and compact nanocrystallites. Their growth can be controlled by adjusting the deposition parameters. It turns out that the nanowires are metastable. Molecular resolution images suggest that the packing in both morphologies is the same as in bulk Co-salen single crystals. Only the orientation of the c-axis with respect to the substrate is different. The origin of this intriguing bimodal growth is associated with a monomer-to-dimer transition, which probably takes place during initial nucleation at step edges.

  17. New vision solar system exploration missions study: Analysis of the use of biomodal space nuclear power systems to support outer solar system exploration missions. Final report

    NONE

    1995-12-08

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter mission s to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of a NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. Concepts for microspacecraft capable of probing Jupiter`s atmosphere and exploring Titan were also developed. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive option for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination.

  18. Solid0Core Heat-Pipe Nuclear Batterly Type Reactor

    Ehud Greenspan

    2008-09-30

    This project was devoted to a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of designing an Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) reactor to have a solid core from which heat is removed by liquid-metal heat pipes (HP).

  19. Heat-pipe transient model for space applications

    Tournier, J.; El-Genk, M.S.; Juhasz, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional model is developed for simulating heat pipes transient performance following changes in the input/rejection power or in the evaporator/condenser temperatures. The model employs the complete form of governing equations and momentum and energy jump conditions at the liquid-vapor interface. Although the model is capable of handling both cylindrical and rectangular geometries, the results reported are for a circular heat pipe with liquid lithium as the working fluid. The model incorporates a variety of other working fluids, such as water, ammonia, potassium, sodium, and mercury, and offers combinations of isothermal, isoflux, convective and radiative heating/cooling conditions in the evaporator and condenser regions of the heat pipe. Results presented are for lithium heat pipes with exponential heating of the evaporator and isothermal cooling of the condenser

  20. High Performance Low Mass Nanowire Enabled Heatpipe, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Illuminex Corporation proposes a NASA Phase I SBIR project to develop high performance, lightweight, low-profile heat pipes with enhanced thermal transfer properties...

  1. Experimental investigation of a manifold heat-pipe heat exchanger

    Konev, S.V.; Wang Tszin' Lyan'; D'yakov, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    Results of experimental investigations of a heat exchanger on a manifold water heat pipe are given. An analysis is made of the temperature distribution along the heat-transfer agent path as a function of the transferred heat power. The influence of the degree of filling with the heat transfer agent on the operating characteristics of the construction is considered

  2. High Performance Low Mass Nanowire Enabled Heatpipe, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Heat pipes are widely used for passive, two-phase electronics cooling. As advanced high power, high performance electronics in space based and terrestrial...

  3. Datation U_Pb : âge de mise en place du magmatisme bimodal des Jebilet centrales (chaîne Varisque, Maroc). Implications géodynamiquesU_Pb dating: emplacement age of the bimodal magmatism of central Jebilet (Variscan Belt, Morocco). Geodynamic implications

    Essaifi, Abderrahim; Potrel, Alain; Capdevila, Ramon; Lagarde, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    The bimodal magmatism of central Jebilet is dated to 330.5 +0.68-0.83 Ma by UPb dating on zircons. This age, similar to that of the syntectonic Jebilet cordierite-bearing granitoids, corresponds to the age of the local major tectonometamorphic event. The syntectonic plutonism of the Jebilet massif, composed of tholeiitic, alkaline, and peraluminous calc-alkaline series, is variegated. Magmas emplacement was favoured by the local extension induced by the motion along the western boundary of the Carboniferous basins of the Moroccan Meseta. The Jebilet massif exemplifies the activation of various magmas sources during an episode of continental convergence and crustal wrenching.

  4. Convergent piecewise affine systems : analysis and design Part II: discontinuous case

    Pavlov, A.V.; Pogromski, A.Y.; Wouw, van de N.; Nijmeijer, H.; Rooda, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper convergence properties of piecewise affine (PWA) systems with discontinuous right-hand sides are studied. It is shown that for discontinuous PWA systems existence of a common quadratic Lyapunov function is not sufficient for convergence. For discontinuous bimodal PWA systems necessary

  5. Seychelles coral record of changes in sea surface temperature bimodality in the western Indian Ocean from the Mid-Holocene to the present

    Zinke, J.; Pfeiffer, M.; Park, W.; Schneider, B.; Reuning, L.; Dullo, W.-Chr.; Camoin, G. F.; Mangini, A.; Schroeder-Ritzrau, A.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Davies, G. R.

    2014-08-01

    We report fossil coral records from the Seychelles comprising individual time slices of 14-20 sclerochronological years between 2 and 6.2 kyr BP to reconstruct changes in the seasonal cycle of western Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) compared to the present (1990-2003). These reconstructions allowed us to link changes in the SST bimodality to orbital changes, which were causing a reorganization of the seasonal insolation pattern. Our results reveal the lowest seasonal SST range in the Mid-Holocene (6.2-5.2 kyr BP) and around 2 kyr BP, while the highest range is observed around 4.6 kyr BP and between 1990 and 2003. The season of maximum temperature shifts from austral spring (September to November) to austral autumn (March to May), following changes in seasonal insolation over the past 6 kyr. However, the changes in SST bimodality do not linearly follow the insolation seasonality. For example, the 5.2 and 6.2 kyr BP corals show only subtle SST differences in austral spring and autumn. We use paleoclimate simulations of a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to compare with proxy data for the Mid-Holocene around 6 kyr BP. The model results show that in the Mid-Holocene the austral winter and spring seasons in the western Indian Ocean were warmer while austral summer was cooler. This is qualitatively consistent with the coral data from 6.2 to 5.2 kyr BP, which shows a similar reduction in the seasonal amplitude compared to the present day. However, the pattern of the seasonal SST cycle in the model appears to follow the changes in insolation more directly than indicated by the corals. Our results highlight the importance of ocean-atmosphere interactions for Indian Ocean SST seasonality throughout the Holocene. In order to understand Holocene climate variability in the countries surrounding the Indian Ocean, we need a much more comprehensive analysis of seasonally resolved archives from the tropical Indian Ocean. Insolation data alone only

  6. Altering Practices to Include Bimodal-bilingual (ASL-Spoken English) Programming at a Small School for the Deaf in Canada.

    Priestley, Karen; Enns, Charlotte; Arbuckle, Shauna

    2018-01-01

    Bimodal-bilingual programs are emerging as one way to meet broader needs and provide expanded language, educational and social-emotional opportunities for students who are deaf and hard of hearing (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Paludneviciene & Harris, R. (2011). Impact of cochlear implants on the deaf community. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.), Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 3-19). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press). However, there is limited research on students' spoken language development, signed language growth, academic outcomes or the social-emotional factors associated with these programs (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Nussbaum, D & Scott, S. (2011). The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.) Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175-205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludnevicience & Leigh (Eds). Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175-205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press; Spencer, P. & Marschark, M. (Eds.) (2010). Evidence-based practice in educating deaf and hard-of-hearing students. New York, NY: Oxford University Press). The purpose of this case study was to look at formal and informal student outcomes as well as staff and parent perceptions during the first 3 years of implementing a bimodal-bilingual (ASL and spoken English) program within an ASL milieu at a small school for the deaf. Speech and language assessment results for five students were analyzed over a 3-year period and indicated that the students made significant positive gains in all areas, although results were variable. Staff and parent

  7. Diseño, ejecución y evalucación de un curso bimodal para la Escuela de Ciencias de Comunicación Colectiva

    Araya Rivera, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente ensayo pretende reflexionar sobre el desarrollo y la evaluación de un curso bimodal, Teorías y Técnicas del Guión Radiofónico, en la Escuela de Ciencias de la Comunicación Colectiva de la Universidad de Costa Rica. La experiencia se llevó a cabo en el 2006 y tuvo como propósito valorar las posibilidades que ofrecen las aulas virtuales a estudiantes y docentes. Las conclusiones señalan aspectos tecnológicos y de carácter conceptual, que permiten establecer recomendaciones didácticas para mejorar la docencia universitaria.Abstract:This essay reflects on the implementation and the evaluation of a B-learning course, Radio Scriptwriting Theories and Techniques, at the School of Mass Communication Sciences, University of Costa Rica. The experience took place in 2006 and was intended to assess the potential of e-learning platforms for students and teachers. The conclusions indicate technological and conceptual aspects, which can establish recommendations for improving university teaching.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO:CeO2:nanocellulose:PANI bionanocomposite. A bimodal agent for arsenic adsorption and antibacterial action.

    Nath, B K; Chaliha, C; Kalita, E; Kalita, M C

    2016-09-05

    In the present study we report the generation of a bimodal, ZnO:CeO2:nanocellulose:polyaniline bionanocomposite having an appreciable remediation efficiency for dissolved Arsenic along with a noticeable antibacterial activity. The microstructural analysis of the synthesized bionanocomposite was carried out by TEM, XRD and FTIR studies, which confirmed the incorporation of the nanoscaled ZnO and CeO2 in the polymeric nanocellulose:polyaniline matrix. The bionanocomposite exhibited a remediation efficiency above ∼95% against As under different adsorbent concentrations and pH conditions. The biosorption mechanism of As on the nanobiosorbent was found to conform to the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. Antibacterial assays for the bionanocomposite showed a high antibacterial activity with MIC50 values of 10.6μgml(-1) against the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and 10.3μgml(-1) against the Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Thus, the bionanocomposite shall be of high interest as a novel and sustainable matrix for the design of coats/devices that effectuate arsenic adsorption and microbial control, to generate contaminant free potable water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of bimodal grain size distribution on fatigue properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with harmonic structure under four-point bending

    Kikuchi, Shoichi, E-mail: kikuchi@mech.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Hayami, Yosuke; Ishiguri, Takayuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Guennec, Benjamin; Ueno, Akira; Ota, Mie; Ameyama, Kei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2017-02-27

    Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) with a bimodal harmonic structure, which is defined as a coarse-grained structure surrounded by a network structure of fine grains, was fabricated using powder metallurgy to improve both the strength and ductility. The microstructure of the sintered compacts was characterized using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The areal fraction of the fine-grained structure in the harmonic structure tended to increase with the milling time. Tensile tests and four-point bending fatigue tests at a stress ratio of 0.1 were performed in air at room temperature. The tensile strength, 0.2% proof stress and fatigue limit of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with harmonic structure tended to increase as the areal fraction of the fine-grained structure increased. In contrast, elongation decreased due to the formation of a high areal fraction of the fine-grained structure (79.0%), which resulted in a reduction of the fatigue life with a low cycle regime. Thus, titanium alloy with high strength, ductility and fatigue resistance can be formed by optimization of the milling conditions. Furthermore, the mechanism for fatigue fracture of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a harmonic structure is discussed with respect to fractography and crystallography. A fatigue crack was initiated from the α-facet of the coarse-grained structure in the harmonic structure.

  10. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-07-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

  11. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

  12. Tripartite entanglement dynamics and entropic squeezing of a three-level atom interacting with a bimodal cavity field

    Faghihi, M. J.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Bagheri Harouni, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we study the interaction between a Λ-type three-level atom and two quantized electromagnetic fields which are simultaneously injected in a bichromatic cavity surrounded by a Kerr medium in the presence of field-field interaction (parametric down conversion) and detuning parameters. By applying a canonical transformation, the introduced model is reduced to a well-known form of the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model. Under particular initial conditions which may be prepared for the atom and the field, the time evolution of the state vector of the entire system is analytically evaluated. Then, the dynamics of the atom is studied through the evolution of the atomic population inversion. In addition, two different measures of entanglement between the tripartite system (three entities make the system: two field modes and one atom), i.e., von Neumann and linear entropy are investigated. Also, two kinds of entropic uncertainty relations, from which entropy squeezing can be obtained, are discussed. In each case, the influences of the detuning parameters and Kerr medium on the above nonclassicality features are analyzed in detail via numerical results. It is illustrated that the amount of the above-mentioned physical phenomena can be tuned by choosing the evolved parameters, appropriately.

  13. Tripartite entanglement dynamics and entropic squeezing of a three-level atom interacting with a bimodal cavity field

    Faghihi, M J; Tavassoly, M K; Bagheri Harouni, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interaction between a Λ-type three-level atom and two quantized electromagnetic fields which are simultaneously injected in a bichromatic cavity surrounded by a Kerr medium in the presence of field–field interaction (parametric down conversion) and detuning parameters. By applying a canonical transformation, the introduced model is reduced to a well-known form of the generalized Jaynes–Cummings model. Under particular initial conditions which may be prepared for the atom and the field, the time evolution of the state vector of the entire system is analytically evaluated. Then, the dynamics of the atom is studied through the evolution of the atomic population inversion. In addition, two different measures of entanglement between the tripartite system (three entities make the system: two field modes and one atom), i.e., von Neumann and linear entropy are investigated. Also, two kinds of entropic uncertainty relations, from which entropy squeezing can be obtained, are discussed. In each case, the influences of the detuning parameters and Kerr medium on the above nonclassicality features are analyzed in detail via numerical results. It is illustrated that the amount of the above-mentioned physical phenomena can be tuned by choosing the evolved parameters, appropriately. (paper)

  14. Effect of carbon content on formation of bimodal microstructure and mechanical properties of low-carbon steels subjected to heavy-reduction single-pass hot/warm deformation

    Park, Hyung-Won, E-mail: wonipark@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Komaba 4-6-1, Meguro-ku 153-8505, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagimoto, Jun [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba 4-6-1, Meguro-ku 153-8505, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    A compression test simulating heavy-reduction single-pass rolling was conducted to investigate the microstructural evolution based on the formation of a bimodal structure and the mechanical properties of 0.01% and 0.1% carbon steels and niobium steel. When thermomechanical processing was conducted near and above the critical transformation temperature (A{sub c3}), microstructures of all steels were significantly refined and consisted of equiaxed grains without elongated grains. Nevertheless, these microstructures showed weak or no formation of the bimodal structure or coarse grains with decreasing carbon content, while they showed bimodal structure formation when 0.2% carbon steel was used in our previous research. The average grain size of Nb steel was about 2 μm and its microstructure was uniformly refined. These may be attributed to a decrease in the number of nucleation sites with decreasing carbon content in low-carbon steels and the occurrence of nucleation at grain boundaries as well as in grain interiors in Nb steel during processing. Mechanical properties of all steels deformed above the critical transformation temperature exhibited high performance characteristics with superior strength and marked elongation. Their fractographs indicated ductile fracture, which was revealed by SEM observation after a tensile test.

  15. Fault detection and identification for a class of continuous piecewise affine systems with unknown subsystems and partitions

    Le quang, Thuan; Baldi, S.

    2018-01-01

    This paper establishes a novel online fault detection and identification strategy for a class of continuous piecewise affine (PWA) systems, namely, bimodal and trimodal PWA systems. The main contributions with respect to the state-of-the-art are the recursive nature of the proposed scheme and the

  16. Unusual ratio between free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine in a long-lived mole-rat species with bimodal ageing.

    Henning, Yoshiyuki; Vole, Christiane; Begall, Sabine; Bens, Martin; Broecker-Preuss, Martina; Sahm, Arne; Szafranski, Karol; Burda, Hynek; Dammann, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean, long-lived rodents, which live in eusocial families, where the maximum lifespan of breeders is twice as long as that of non-breeders. Their metabolic rate is significantly lower than expected based on allometry, and their retinae show a high density of S-cone opsins. Both features may indicate naturally low thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, we sequenced several major components of the thyroid hormone pathways and analyzed free and total thyroxine and triiodothyronine in serum samples of breeding and non-breeding F. anselli to examine whether a) their thyroid hormone system shows any peculiarities on the genetic level, b) these animals have lower hormone levels compared to euthyroid rodents (rats and guinea pigs), and c) reproductive status, lifespan and free hormone levels are correlated. Genetic analyses confirmed that Ansell's mole-rats have a conserved thyroid hormone system as known from other mammalian species. Interspecific comparisons revealed that free thyroxine levels of F. anselli were about ten times lower than of guinea pigs and rats, whereas the free triiodothyronine levels, the main biologically active form, did not differ significantly amongst species. The resulting fT4:fT3 ratio is unusual for a mammal and potentially represents a case of natural hypothyroxinemia. Comparisons with total thyroxine levels suggest that mole-rats seem to possess two distinct mechanisms that work hand in hand to downregulate fT4 levels reliably. We could not find any correlation between free hormone levels and reproductive status, gender or weight. Free thyroxine may slightly increase with age, based on sub-significant evidence. Hence, thyroid hormones do not seem to explain the different ageing rates of breeders and non-breeders. Further research is required to investigate the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the unusual proportion of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine.

  17. Unusual ratio between free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine in a long-lived mole-rat species with bimodal ageing.

    Yoshiyuki Henning

    Full Text Available Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli are subterranean, long-lived rodents, which live in eusocial families, where the maximum lifespan of breeders is twice as long as that of non-breeders. Their metabolic rate is significantly lower than expected based on allometry, and their retinae show a high density of S-cone opsins. Both features may indicate naturally low thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, we sequenced several major components of the thyroid hormone pathways and analyzed free and total thyroxine and triiodothyronine in serum samples of breeding and non-breeding F. anselli to examine whether a their thyroid hormone system shows any peculiarities on the genetic level, b these animals have lower hormone levels compared to euthyroid rodents (rats and guinea pigs, and c reproductive status, lifespan and free hormone levels are correlated. Genetic analyses confirmed that Ansell's mole-rats have a conserved thyroid hormone system as known from other mammalian species. Interspecific comparisons revealed that free thyroxine levels of F. anselli were about ten times lower than of guinea pigs and rats, whereas the free triiodothyronine levels, the main biologically active form, did not differ significantly amongst species. The resulting fT4:fT3 ratio is unusual for a mammal and potentially represents a case of natural hypothyroxinemia. Comparisons with total thyroxine levels suggest that mole-rats seem to possess two distinct mechanisms that work hand in hand to downregulate fT4 levels reliably. We could not find any correlation between free hormone levels and reproductive status, gender or weight. Free thyroxine may slightly increase with age, based on sub-significant evidence. Hence, thyroid hormones do not seem to explain the different ageing rates of breeders and non-breeders. Further research is required to investigate the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the unusual proportion of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine.

  18. Toward the bi-modal camber morphing of large aircraft wing flaps: the CleanSky experience

    Pecora, R.; Amoroso, F.; Magnifico, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Green Regional Aircraft (GRA), one of the six CleanSky platforms, represents the largest European effort toward the greening of next generation air transportation through the implementation of advanced aircraft technologies. In this framework researches were carried out to develop an innovative wing flap enabling airfoil morphing according to two different modes depending on aircraft flight condition and flap setting: - Camber morphing mode. Morphing of the flap camber to enhance high-lift performances during take-off and landing (flap deployed); - Tab-like morphing mode. Upwards and downwards deflection of the flap tip during cruise (flap stowed) for load control at high speed and consequent optimization of aerodynamic efficiency. A true-scale flap segment of a reference aircraft (EASA CS25 category) was selected as investigation domain for the new architecture in order to duly face the challenges posed by real wing installation issues especially with reference to the tapered geometrical layout and 3D aerodynamic loads distributions. The investigation domain covered the flap region spanning 3.6 m from the wing kink and resulted characterized by a taper ratio equal to 0.75 with a root chord of 1.2 m. High TRL solutions for the adaptive structure, actuation and control system were duly analyzed and integrated while assuring overall device compliance with industrial standards and applicable airworthiness requirements.

  19. Charge transport in disordered organic host-guest systems: effects of carrier density and electric field

    Yimer, Y.Y.; Bobbert, P.A.; Coehoorn, R.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate charge transport in disordered organic host–guest systems with a bimodal Gaussian density of states (DOS). The energy difference between the two Gaussians defines the trap depth. By solving the Pauli master equation for the hopping of charge carriers on a regular lattice with site

  20. Charge transport in disordered organic host-guest systems: effects of carrier density and electric field

    Yimer, Y.Y.; Bobbert, P.A.; Coehoorn, R.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate charge transport in disordered organic host–guest systems with a bimodal Gaussian density of states. The energy difference between the peaks of the two Gaussians defines the trap depth. By solving the Pauli master equation for the hopping of charge carriers on a regular lattice we

  1. Exposure of xenopus laevis tadpoles to cadmium reveals concentration-dependent bimodal effects on growth and monotonic effects on development and thyroid gland activity

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Xenopus laevis were exposed to 0-855 ??g cadmium (Cd)/l (measured concentrations) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 47 days postfertilization. Measurements included embryonic survival and, at 47 days, tadpole survival, snout-vent length, tail length, total length, hindlimb length, weight, Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage of development, initiation of metamorphic climax (??? NF 58), and thyroid follicle cell height. Embryonic and larval survival were unaffected by Cd. Relative to control tadpoles, reduced tail and total length were observed at 0.1- 8 and at 855 ??g Cd/l; and reduced snout-vent length, hindlimb length, and weight were observed at 0.1-1 and at 855 ??g Cd/l. Mean stage of development and rate of initiation of climax were unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l; however, none of the tadpoles exposed to 855 ??g Cd/l progressed beyond mid-premetamorphosis (NF 51). Thyroid glands with fully formed follicles were observed in all tadpoles ??? NF 49 examined. Follicle cell height was unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l but it was reduced at 855 ??g/l; in the latter, cell height was reduced even when compared with NF 49-51 tadpoles pooled from the 0 to 84 ??g Cd/l groups. In conclusion, (1) Cd affected tadpole growth in a bimodal pattern with the first and second inhibitory modes at concentrations below and above 84 ??g Cd/l, respectively; (2) exposure to high Cd concentrations (855 ??g/l) reduced thyroid activity and arrested tadpole development at mid-premetamorphosis; and (3) unlike its effect on growth, Cd inhibited tadpole development and thyroid function in a seemingly monotonic pattern.

  2. Evidence for slip partitioning and bimodal slip behavior on a single fault: Surface slip characteristics of the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake

    Barnhart, William; Briggs, Richard; Reitman, Nadine G.; Gold, Ryan D.; Hayes, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Deformation is commonly accommodated by strain partitioning on multiple, independent strike-slip and dip-slip faults in continental settings of oblique plate convergence. As a corollary, individual faults tend to exhibit one sense of slip – normal, reverse, or strike-slip – until whole-scale changes in boundary conditions reactivate preexisting faults in a new deformation regime. In this study, we show that a single continental fault may instead partition oblique strain by alternatively slipping in a strike-slip or a dip-slip sense during independent fault slip events. We use 0.5 m resolution optical imagery and sub-pixel correlation analysis of the 200+ km 200+km"> 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake to document co-seismic surface slip characteristics and Quaternary tectonic geomorphology along the causative Hoshab fault. We find that the 2013 earthquake, which involved a ∼6:1 strike-slip to dip-slip ratio, ruptured a structurally segmented fault. Quaternary geomorphic indicators of gross fault-zone morphology reveal both reverse-slip and strike-slip deformation in the rupture area of the 2013 earthquake that varies systematically along fault strike despite nearly pure strike-slip motion in 2013. Observations of along-strike variations in range front relief and geomorphic offsets suggest that the Hoshab fault accommodates a substantial reverse component of fault slip in the Quaternary, especially along the southern section of the 2013 rupture. We surmise that Quaternary bimodal slip along the Hoshab fault is promoted by a combination of the arcuate geometry of the Hoshab fault, the frictional weakness of the Makran accretionary prism, and time variable loading conditions from adjacent earthquakes and plate interactions.

  3. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone.

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bimodal volcanism in northeast Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Greater Antilles Island Arc): Genetic links with Cretaceous subduction of the mid-Atlantic ridge Caribbean spur

    Jolly, Wayne T.; Lidiak, Edward G.; Dickin, Alan P.

    2008-07-01

    Bimodal extrusive volcanic rocks in the northeast Greater Antilles Arc consist of two interlayered suites, including (1) a predominantly basaltic suite, dominated by island arc basalts with small proportions of andesite, and (2) a silicic suite, similar in composition to small volume intrusive veins of oceanic plagiogranite commonly recognized in oceanic crustal sequences. The basaltic suite is geochemically characterized by variable enrichment in the more incompatible elements and negative chondrite-normalized HFSE anomalies. Trace element melting and mixing models indicate the magnitude of the subducted sediment component in Antilles arc basalts is highly variable and decreases dramatically from east to west along the arc. In the Virgin Islands, the sediment component ranges between 4% during the Cenomanian-Campanian interval. The silicic suite, consisting predominantly of rhyolites, is characterized by depleted Al 2O 3 (average Virgin Islands on the east, rhyolites comprise up to 80% of Lower Albian strata (112 to 105 Ma), and about 20% in post-Albian strata (105 to 100 Ma). Farther west, in Puerto Rico, more limited proportions (Atlantic Ridge, which was located approximately midway between North and South America until Campanian times. Within this hypothetical setting the centrally positioned Virgin Islands terrain remained approximately fixed above the subducting ridge as the Antilles arc platform swept northeastward into the slot between the Americas. Accordingly, heat flow in the Virgin Islands was elevated throughout the Cretaceous, giving rise to widespread crustal melting, whereas the subducted sediment flux was limited. Conversely, toward the west in central Puerto Rico, which was consistently more remote from the subducting ridge, heat flow was relatively low and produced limited crustal melting, while the sediment flux was comparatively elevated.

  5. Bimodal electric tissue ablation (BETA) - in-vivo evaluation of the effect of applying direct current before and during radiofrequency ablation of porcine liver

    Cockburn, J.F.; Maddern, G.J.; Wemyss-Holden, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effect of applying increasing amounts of direct current (DC) before and during alternating current radiofrequency ablation of porcine liver. Materials and methods: Using a Radiotherapeutics RF3000 generator, a 9 V AC/DC transformer and a 16 G plain aluminium tube as an electrode, a control group of 24 porcine hepatic radiofrequency ablation zones was compared with 24 zones created using a bimodal electric tissue ablation (BETA) technique in three pigs. All ablations were terminated when tissue impedance rose to greater than 999 Ω or radiofrequency energy input fell below 5 W on three successive measurements taken at 1 min intervals. BETA ablations were performed in two phases: an initial phase of variable duration DC followed by a second phase during which standard radiofrequency ablation was applied simultaneously with DC. During this second phase, radiofrequency power input was regulated by the feedback circuitry of the RF3000 generator according to changes in tissue impedance. The diameters (mm) of each ablation zone were measured by two observers in two planes perpendicular to the plane of needle insertion. The mean short axis diameter of each ablation zone was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: With increased duration of prior application of DC, there was a progressive increase in the diameter of the ablation zone (p < 0.001). This effect increased sharply up to 300 s of pre-treatment after which a further increase in diameter occurred, but at a much lesser rate. A maximum ablation zone diameter of 32 mm was produced (control diameters 10-13 mm). Conclusion: Applying a 9 V DC to porcine liver in vivo, and continuing this DC application during subsequent radiofrequency ablation, results in larger ablation zone diameters compared with radiofrequency ablation alone

  6. Secure authentication system that generates seed from biometric information.

    Kim, Yeojin; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Byun, Hyeran

    2005-02-10

    As biometric recognition techniques are gradually improved, the stability of biometric authentication systems are enhanced. Although bioinformation has properties that make it resistant to fraud, biometric authentication systems are not immune to hacking. We show a secure biometric authentication system (1) to guarantee the integrity of biometric information by mixing data by use of a biometric key and (2) to raise recognition rates by use of bimodal biometrics.

  7. A human endogenous protein exerts multi-role biomimetic chemistry in synthesis of paramagnetic gold nanostructures for tumor bimodal imaging.

    Yang, Weitao; Wu, Xiaoli; Dou, Yan; Chang, Jin; Xiang, Chenyang; Yu, Jiani; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xiuli; Zhang, Bingbo

    2018-04-01

    Protein-mediated biomimetic nanoparticles because of simplicity of their synthesis, subdued nonspecific adsorption, improved pharmacokinetics, and biocompatibility have been receiving increasing attention recently. Nevertheless, only a handful of proteins have been developed for biomimetic synthesis. Worse still, most of them are constrained on single-function usages in chemistry. Exploring new functional proteins, especially those with multi-dentate moieties for multi-role biomimetic chemistry, still remains a substantial challenge. Here, we report on a human endogenous protein, glutathione S-transferase (GST), with favorable amino acid motifs, that has innate talents in incubating high quality gold nanoparticles without adding reducing agents at physiological temperature, and particularly can further anchor gadolinium ions without adding extra chelators. The resultant paramagnetic AuNPs@GST Gd exhibits highly crystallization and uniform size of ca. 10 nm. Compared with clinical contrast agents (Iopamidol, Magnevist), AuNPs@GST Gd shows better imaging performance (e.g. enhanced relaxivity and larger X-ray attenuation efficiency) with clear evidence from Monte Carlo simulation and in vitro experimental results. Further in vivo imaging demonstrates good tumor targeting and clearance of AuNPs@GST Gd without obvious systemic toxicity. Particularly, low immunogenicity of AuNPs@GST Gd is certified by immunological status evaluation of T cells after stimulated with them. This study for the first time demonstrates the manipulation of a human protein for multi-role biomimetic chemistry depending on its unique amino acid motifs and its incorporation into a synthetic agent for potentially addressing some critical issues in cancer nanotheranostics such as synthetic methodology, biocompatibility, function integration, targeting, and immunogenicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cermet fuels for space power systems

    Barner, J.O.; Coomes, E.P.; Williford, R.E.; Neimark, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    A refractory-metal matrix, UN-fueled cermet is a very promising fuel candidate for a wide range of multi-megawatt space reactor systems, e.g., steady-state, flexible duty-cycle, or bimodal, single- or two-phase liquid-metal cooled reactors, or thermionic reactors. Cermet fuel is especially promising for reactor designs that require operational strategies which incorporate rapid power changes because of its anticipated capability to withstand thermal shock

  9. Simulation and optimization study on a solar space heating system combined with a low temperature ASHP for single family rural residential houses in Beijing

    Deng, Jie; Tian, Zhiyong; Fan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    A pilot project of the solar water heating system combined with a low temperature air source heat pump (ASHP) unit was established in 2014 in a detached residential house in the rural region of Beijing, in order to investigate the system application prospect for single family houses via system...... optimization design and economic analysis. The established system was comprised of the glass heat-pipe based evacuated tube solar collectors with a gross area of 18.8 m2 and an ASHP with a stated heating power of 8 kW for the space heating of a single family rural house of 81.4 m2. The dynamic thermal...... with good building insulation were undertaken to figure out the system economical efficiency in the rural regions of Beijing. The results show that the payback periods of the solar space heating system combined with the ASHP with the collector areas 15.04-22.56 m2 are 17.3-22.4 years for the established...

  10. Bimodal oscillations in nephron autoregulation

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Pavlov, A.N.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2002-01-01

    The individual functional unit of the kidney (the nephron) displays oscillations in its pressure and flow regulation at two different time scales: fast oscillations associated with a myogenic dynamics of the afferent arteriole, and slower oscillations arising from a delay in the tubuloglomerular ...

  11. Recognizing subtle evidence for silicic magma derivation from petrochemically-similar arc crust: Isotopic and chemical evidence for the bimodal volcanic series of Gorely Volcanic Center, Kamchatka, Russia

    Seligman, A. N.; Bindeman, I. N.; Ellis, B. S.; Ponomareva, V.; Leonov, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula is home to some of the most prolific subduction related volcanic activity in the world. Gorely caldera and its central volcano are located in the rear of its currently active Eastern Volcanic Front. Recent work determined the presence of explosive ignimbrite eruptions sourced from Gorely volcano during the Pleistocene. We studied 32 eruptive units, including tephrochronologically-dated Holocene tephra, stratigraphically-arranged ignimbrites, as well as pre- and post-caldera lavas. We analyzed oxygen isotope ratios of pyroxene and plagioclase grains by laser fluorination, and major and trace element compositions of whole rocks. In addition, we determined 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions. Chemical compositions show that Gorely eruptive units range from basalt to basaltic andesite in the "Pra-Gorely" stages prior to caldera formation and the modern Gorely stages forming its current edifice. In contrast, eruptive material from earlier ignimbrites exposed at Opasny Ravine consists primarily of dacite. Whole rock analyses for Gorely indicate that silicic rocks and ignimbrites volumetrically dominate all other products, forming separate bimodal peaks in our SiO2-frequency diagram. In addition, trace element concentrations and ratios define two trends, one for more silicic and another for more mafic material. δ18Omelt values range from a low of 4.85 up to 6.22‰, where the lowest value was found in the last caldera forming eruption, suggesting incorporation of hydrothermally-altered material from earlier eruptions. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.70328 to 0.70351 and from 0.51303 to 0.51309 respectively, with higher and more diverse values being characteristic of earlier ignimbrite units; again suggesting incorporation of surrounding crustal material. In contrast to these results, MELTS modeling using a variety of likely primitive basalts from Gorely shows it is possible to obtain silicic

  12. T198. A SCHIZOPHRENIA-LIKE BIRTH SEASONALITY AMONG MATHEMATICIANS AND AN OPPOSITE SEASONALITY AMONG BIOLOGISTS: MORE EVIDENCE IMPLICATING BIMODAL RHYTHMS OF GENERAL BIRTHS

    Marzullo, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Based on early-20th century births, a pre-electric illumination time of comparatively normal human exposure to sunlight, studies of schizophrenia (SCZ) found a birth seasonality with two opposite effects: a SCZ-liability peak among subjects born around late-February and an equally significant SCZ-resistance peak among those born six months later, around late-August. We previously investigated this rhythm in connection with a sunlight-dependent bimodal rhythm of general births that, prior to the full advent of electric lighting (but not later), occurred ubiquitously in non-equatorial parts of the world. We found that the SCZ-liability peak coincided with a first, Feb-Mar peak of general-population births (the GP1) while the SCZ-resistance peak coincided with a second, Aug-Sep peak of those births (the GP2). Moreover, in a study of hand and visual-field preferences among professional baseball players, we found the SCZ-liability, GP1-coincident seasonality among players with preferences denoting cerebral asymmetry “deficits” (CADs) and the SCZ-resistance, GP2-coincident seasonality among those with preferences denoting cerebral asymmetry “excesses.” Also, in a study suggested by associations of CADs with artistic abilities, we found the SCZ-liability, GP1-coincident seasonality among groups representing visual, performing and literary art “creators” (VPL-Artists) and the SCZ-resistance, GP2-coincident seasonality among groups representing art critics, historians, curators and other art “observers” (Para-Artists). Together, these findings suggested, as one possibility (but see later), that the SCZ-liability, CAD effects and artistic abilities could all three represent traits genetically or otherwise selected into the GP1 excess population of newborns and out of the GP2 population. The present study of “scientists” was initially aimed at the purported arts/science antithesis. Methods Birth seasonalities were examined among early

  13. Options for development of space fission propulsion systems

    Houts, Mike; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana

    2001-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include high specific power continuous impulse propulsion systems and bimodal nuclear thermal rockets. Despite their tremendous potential for enhancing or enabling deep space and planetary missions, to date space fission systems have only been used in Earth orbit. The first step towards utilizing advanced fission propulsion systems is development of a safe, near-term, affordable fission system that can enhance or enable near-term missions of interest. An evolutionary approach for developing space fission propulsion systems is proposed

  14. The bimodal distribution spin Seebeck effect enhancement in epitaxial Ni0.65Zn0.35Al0.8Fe1.2O4 thin film

    Wang, Hua; Hou, Dazhi; Kikkawa, Takashi; Ramos, Rafael; Shen, Ka; Qiu, Zhiyong; Chen, Yao; Umeda, Maki; Shiomi, Yuki; Jin, Xiaofeng; Saitoh, Eiji

    2018-04-01

    The temperature dependence of the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in epitaxial Ni0.65Zn0.35Al0.8Fe1.2O4 (NZA ferrite) thin film has been investigated systematically. The SSE at high fields shows a bimodal distribution enhancement from 3 K to 300 K and is well fitted with a double-peak Lorentzian function. We speculate the symmetric SSE enhancement in Pt/NZA ferrite bilayer, which is different from the magnon polarons induced asymmetric spikes in the SSE of Pt/YIG [T. Kikkawa et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 207203 (2016)], may result from the magnon-phonon interactions occurring at the intersections of the quantized magnon and phonon dispersions. The SSE results are helpful for the investigation of the magnon-phonon interaction in the magnetic ultrathin films.

  15. Value of bimodal (18)F-choline-PET/MRI and trimodal (18)F-choline-PET/MRI/TRUS for the assessment of prostate cancer recurrence after radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy.

    Paparo, Francesco; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Romagnoli, Andrea; Piccazzo, Riccardo; Monticone, Michela; Cevasco, Luca; Campodonico, Fabio; Conzi, Giuseppe Maria; Carmignani, Giorgio; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Between 27% and 53% of all patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiation therapy (RT) as the first-line treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) develop a biochemical recurrence. Imaging plays a pivotal role in restaging by helping to distinguish between local relapse and metastatic disease (i.e., lymph-node and skeletal metastases). At present, the most promising tools for assessing PCa patients with biochemical recurrence are multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with radio-labeled choline derivatives. The main advantage of mpMRI is its high diagnostic accuracy in detecting local recurrence, while choline-PET/CT is able to identify lymph-node metastases when they are not suspicious on morphological imaging. The most recent advances in the field of fusion imaging have shown that multimodal co-registration, synchronized navigation, and combined interpretation are more valuable than the individual; separate assessment offered by different diagnostic techniques. The objective of the present essay was to describe the value of bimodal choline-PET/mpMRI fusion imaging and trimodal choline-PET/mpMRI/transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in the assessment of PCa recurrence after RP and RT. Bimodal choline-PET/mpMRI fusion imaging allows morphological, functional, and metabolic information to be combined, thereby overcoming the limitations of each separate imaging modality. In addition, trimodal real-time choline-PET/mpMRI/TRUS fusion imaging may be useful for the planning and real-time guidance of biopsy procedures in order to obtain histological confirmation of the local recurrence.

  16. Heat pipe based cold energy storage systems for datacenter energy conservation

    Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Mashiko, Koichi; Nguyen, Thang

    2011-01-01

    system concept. -- Highlights: → The paper presents novel concept for datacenter thermal management using heat-pipe based energy conservation system utilizing cold ambient energy. → Two type of system: ice storage and cold water storage has been identified and discussed. → Ice storage or two-phase system can provide long term storage and can be used as datacenter emergency support system. → Cold water or single-phase system can be employed as precooler for coolant before it is cooled by electrical chiller. → These two types of storage approaches can help to minimize chiller electrical load thus saving electricity and associated cost.

  17. The role of the bimodal distribution of ultra-fine silicon phase and nano-scale V-phase (AlSi2Sc2) on spark plasma sintered hypereutectic Al–Si–Sc alloys

    Raghukiran, Nadimpalli; Kumar, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Hypereutectic Al–Si and Al–Si–Sc alloys were spark plasma sintered from corresponding gas-atomized powders. The microstructures of the Al–Si and Al–Si–Sc alloys possessed remarkably refined silicon particles in the size range of 0.38–3.5 µm and 0.35–1.16 µm respectively in contrast to the silicon particles of size greater than 100 µm typically found in conventionally cast alloys. All the sintered alloys exhibited significant ductility of as high as 85% compressive strain without failure even with the presence of relatively higher weight fraction of the brittle silicon phase. Moreover, the Al–Si–Sc alloys have shown appreciable improvement in the compressive strength over their binary counterparts due to the presence of intermetallic compound AlSi 2 Sc 2 of size 10–20 nm distributed uniformly in the matrix of those alloys. The dry sliding pin-on-disc wear tests showed improvement in the wear performance of the sintered alloys with increase in silicon content in the alloys. Further, the Al–Si–Sc ternary alloys with relatively lesser silicon content exhibited appreciable improvement in the wear resistance over their binary counterparts. The Al–Si–Sc alloys with bimodal distribution of the strengthening phases consisting of ultra-fine (sub-micron size) silicon particles and the nano-scale AlSi 2 Sc 2 improved the strength and wear properties of the alloys while retaining significant amount of ductility.

  18. Polyol-synthesized Zn{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}S nanoparticles as potential luminescent and magnetic bimodal imaging probes: synthesis, characterization, and toxicity study

    Gaceur, M.; Giraud, M., E-mail: marion.giraud@univ-paris-diderot.fr; Hemadi, M.; Nowak, S. [ITODYS, Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Menguy, N. [IMPMC, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (France); Quisefit, J. P. [LISA, Universite Paris Diderot, Universite Paris Est Creteil (France); David, K. [Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, ERRMECe EA1391, Institut des Materiaux (France); Jahanbin, T.; Benderbous, S. [INSERM U-825, Pavillon Baudot (France); Boissiere, M. [Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, ERRMECe EA1391, Institut des Materiaux (France); Ammar, S., E-mail: ammarmer@univ-paris-diderot.fr [ITODYS, Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France)

    2012-07-15

    We report here the synthesis, by the polyol method, of Mn-doped ZnS nanocrystals with the zinc blende structure. Phase transfer of the as-produced quantum dots from organic solvent into water was achieved by surface complexation with mercaptoacetate ligands. The magnetic and optical properties of the powders and aqueous colloids obtained were evaluated by SQUID magnetometry as well as electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, to test their potential as magnetic and luminescent bimodal probes for medical imaging. With a 10 % concentration of Mn{sup 2+}, the nanoparticles are paramagnetic at body temperature, and the aqueous colloids they form have high relaxivity with a r{sub 1} value of 20 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1} at 3 T. They are highly luminescent with a blue-green emission on 405-nm excitation. Viability assays and genotoxicity tests on Chinese hamster ovarian cells revealed neither acute cellular death, nor cell toxicity, nor damage to the nucleus after exposure for 24 h to particle doses of up to 100 {mu}g mL{sup -1}.

  19. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of an basalt-Trachyte-Rhyolite suite in the Spilli area (south of Siahkal, north of Iran: evidences of continental rift-related bimodal magmatism in Alborz

    Shahrooz Haghnazar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The spilli volcanic rocks suite consisting of Basalt- Trachyte- Rhyolite with upper Cretaceous, outcrop in the northern part of Alborz and south of Siahkal area (east of the Guilan province. Based on geochemical data, the studied suite attributed to transitional to alkali series. Negative correlation of Al2O3, CaO, P2O5 and positive correlation of Rb and Th versus SiO2 reveal the occurrence of fractional crystallization process. Also, the negative correlation of Sr versus Y, Sr/Zr versus Sr and CaO/Al2O3 versus SiO2 show that fractionation of plagioclase has played an important role in petrogenesis of the spilli Suite. The hypotheses is supported by the negative anomalies of Eu, Ba and Sr. The overall geochemical evidences indicate that the basic rocks belong to intra-continental rift zone whereas the felsic rocks are classified as A1 type derived from parent basaltic magmas via fractional crystallization in an anorogenic setting. The studied magmatism share many similarities with bimodal magmatism in continental rift zones.

  20. Devising an endoluminal bimodal probe which combines autofluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy with high resolution MRI for early stage colorectal cancer diagnosis: technique, feasibility and preliminary in-vivo (rabbit) results

    Ramgolam, A.; Sablong, R.; Bou-Saïd, B.; Bouvard, S.; Saint-Jalmes, H.; Beuf, O.

    2011-07-01

    Conventional white light endoscopy (WLE) is the most widespread technique used today for colorectal cancer diagnosis and is considered as the gold standard when coupled to biopsy and histology. However for early stage colorectal cancer diagnosis, which is very often characterised by flat adenomas, the use of WLE is quite difficult due to subtle or quasiinvisible morphological changes of the colonic lining. Figures worldwide point out that diagnosing colorectal cancer in its early stages would significantly reduce the death toll all while increasing the 5-year survival rate. Several techniques are currently being investigated in the scope of providing new tools that would allow such a diagnostic or assist actual techniques in so doing. We hereby present a novel technique where High spatial Resolution MRI (HR-MRI) is coupled to optical spectroscopy (autofluorescence and reflectance) in a bimodal endoluminal probe to extract morphological data and biochemical information respectively. The design and conception of the endoluminal probe along with the preliminary results obtained with an organic phantom and in-vivo (rabbit) are presented and discussed.

  1. Optical spectroscopy combined with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging for digestive wall assessment: endoluminal bimodal probe conception and characterization in vitro, on organic sample and in vivo on a rabbit

    Ramgolam, Anoop; Sablong, Raphaël; Lafarge, Lionel; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Beuf, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major health issue worldwide. Conventional white light endoscopy (WLE) coupled to histology is considered as the gold standard today and is the most widespread technique used for colorectal cancer diagnosis. However, during the early stages, colorectal cancer is very often characterized by flat adenomas which develop just underneath the mucosal surface. The use of WLE, which is heavily based on the detection of morphological changes, becomes quite delicate due to subtle or quasi-invisible morphological changes of the colonic lining. Several techniques are currently being investigated in the scope of providing new tools that would allow such a diagnostic or assist actual techniques in so doing. We hereby present a novel technique where high spatial resolution MRI is combined with autofluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy in a bimodal endoluminal probe to extract morphological data and biochemical information, respectively. The design and conception of the endoluminal probe are detailed and the promising preliminary results obtained in vitro (home-built phantom containing eosin and rhodamine B), on an organic sample (the kiwi fruit) and in vivo on a rabbit are presented and discussed.

  2. Graphene Oxide and Gadolinium-Chelate Functionalized Poly(lactic acid) Nanocapsules Encapsulating Perfluorooctylbromide for Ultrasound/Magnetic Resonance Bimodal Imaging Guided Photothermal Ablation of Cancer.

    Li, Zhenglin; Ke, Hengte; Wang, Jinrui; Miao, Zhaohua; Yue, Xiuli

    2016-03-01

    This paper successfully fabricated a novel multifunctional theranostic agent (PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs) by loading perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanocapsules (NCs) followed by surface functionalization with graphene oxide (GO) and gadolinium-chelate (Gd-DTPA). It was found that the resulting nanoagent could serve as a contrast agent simultaneously to enhance ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Benefiting from the strong absorption in the near infrared (NIR) region, the nanocapsules could efficiently kill cancer cells under NIR laser irradiation. Thus, such a single theranostic agent with the combination of realtime US imaging and high-resolution MR imaging could achieve great therapeutic effectiveness without systemic damage to the body. In addition, the cytotoxicity assay on HUVEC cells revealed a good biocompatibility of PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs, showing that the versatile nanocapsule system may hold great potential as an effective nanoplatform for contrast enhanced imaging guided photothermal therapy.

  3. Estimating the cost of mental loading in a bimodal divided-attention task: Combining reaction time, heart-rate variability and signal-detection theory

    Casper, Patricia A.; Kantowitz, Barry H.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple approaches are necessary for understanding and measuring workload. In particular, physiological systems identifiable by employing cardiac measures are related to cognitive systems. One issue of debate in measuring cardiac output is the grain of analysis used in recording and summarizing data. Various experiments are reviewed, the majority of which were directed at supporting or contradicting Lacey's intake-rejection hypothesis. Two of the experiments observed heart rate in operational environments and found virtually no changes associated with mental load. The major problems facing researchers using heart rate variability, or sinus arrhthmia, as a dependent measure have been associated with valid and sensitive scoring and preventing contamination of observed results by influences unrelated to cognition. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability offers two useful procedures: analysis from the time domain and analysis from the frequency domain. Most recently, data have been collected in a divided attention experiment, the performance measures and cardiac measures of which are detailed.

  4. An underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    Hampel, V.E.

    1988-05-17

    A nuclear reactor for generating electricity is disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working fluid in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast- acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor. 5 figs.

  5. Underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor for generating electricity is disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working flud in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast-acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor.

  6. Underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    Hampel, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a nuclear reactor for generating electricity disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working fluid in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast-acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor

  7. Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    Camarda, C.J.; Basiulis, A.

    1983-08-01

    Integral heat pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat load levels. The heat pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors

  8. Heat-pipe liquid-pool-blanket concept for the Tandem Mirror Reactor

    Hoffman, M.A.; Werner, R.W.; Johnson, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The blanket concept for the tandem mirror reactor described in this paper was developed to produce the medium temperature heat (approx. 850 to 950 K) for the General Atomic sulfur-iodine thermochemical process for producing hydrogen. This medium temperature heat from the blanket constitutes about 81% of the total power output of the fusion reactor

  9. Performance demonstration of a high-power space-reactor heat-pipe design

    Merrigan, M.A.; Martinez, E.H.; Keddy, E.S.; Runyan, J.; Kemme, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Performance of a 15.9-mm diam, 2-m long, artery heat pipe has been demonstrated at power levels to 22.6 kW and temperatures to 1500 0 K. The heat pipe employed lithium as a working fluid with distribution wicks and arteries fabricated from 400 mesh Mo-41 wt % Re screen. Molybdenum alloy (TZM) was used for the container. Peak axial power density attained in the testing was 19 kW/cm 2 at 1465 0 K. The corresponding radial flux density in the evaporator region of the heat pipe was 150 W/cm 2 . The extrapolated limit for the heat pipe at its 1500 0 K design point is 30 kW, corresponding to an axial flux density of 25 kW/cm 2 . Sonic and capillary limits for the design were investigated in the 1100 to 1500 0 K temperature range. Excellent agreement of measured and predicted temperature and power levels was observed

  10. Heat-Pipe Bismuth Laser; Examination of Laser Action at 4722A in Bismuth Vapor

    1976-11-01

    11, 15(1975). of Type 6p 3 -6p 2 7s in the Bismuth Atomic Spectrum in Intermediate Coupling," Acta Physica Polonica A47, 231(1975). 19. A.N. Nesmeyanov...Calculated Transit n Probabilities and Lifetimes for the First Excited Configuration np (n+l)s in the Neutral As, Sb and Bi Atoms, " Physica Scripta

  11. Noise-induced transition in a quantum system

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Barik, Debashis [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ray, Deb Shankar [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2005-07-04

    We examine the noise-induced transition in a fluctuating bistable potential of a driven quantum system in thermal equilibrium. Making use of a Wigner canonical thermal distribution for description of the statistical properties of the thermal bath, we explore the generic effects of quantization like vacuum field fluctuation and tunneling in the characteristic stationary probability distribution functions undergoing transition from unimodal to bimodal nature and in signal-to-noise ratio characterizing the cooperative effect among the noise processes and the weak periodic signal.

  12. Noise-induced transition in a quantum system

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar; Barik, Debashis; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2005-01-01

    We examine the noise-induced transition in a fluctuating bistable potential of a driven quantum system in thermal equilibrium. Making use of a Wigner canonical thermal distribution for description of the statistical properties of the thermal bath, we explore the generic effects of quantization like vacuum field fluctuation and tunneling in the characteristic stationary probability distribution functions undergoing transition from unimodal to bimodal nature and in signal-to-noise ratio characterizing the cooperative effect among the noise processes and the weak periodic signal

  13. Bimodal condensation silicone elastomers as dielectric elastomers

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Lately, dielectric elastomers (DEs) which consist of an elastomer sandwiched between electrodes on both sides, have gained interest as materials for actuators, generators, and sensors. An ideal elastomer for DE uses is characterized by high extensibility, flexibility and good mechanical fatigue...... elastomers were prepared by mixing different mass ratios (9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6) between long polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chains and short PDMS chains. The resulting elastomers were investigated with respect to their rheology, dielectric properties, tensile strength, electrical breakdown, as well.......Moreover, a series of elastomers with the same mass ratio (7:3) between long and short PDMS chains were made at different humidity (90%, 70%, 50%, 30%, 10%) at 23oC. The dielectric and mechincal properties of the resulting elastomers were shown to depend strongly on the atmospheric humidity level.In addition...

  14. Impact of Zygosity on Bimodal Phenotype Distributions

    Holst-Hansen, Thomas; Abad, Elena; Muntasell, Aura

    2017-01-01

    Allele number, or zygosity, is a clear determinant of gene expression in diploid cells. However, the relationship between the number of copies of a gene and its expression can be hard to anticipate, especially when the gene in question is embedded in a regulatory circuit that contains feedback. H...

  15. Systems

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Papers in this session describe the concept of mined geologic disposal system and methods for ensuring that the system, when developed, will meet all technical requirements. Also presented in the session are analyses of system parameters, such as cost and nuclear criticality potential, as well as a technical analysis of a requirement that the system permit retrieval of the waste for some period of time. The final paper discusses studies under way to investigate technical alternatives or complements to the mined geologic disposal system. Titles of the presented papers are: (1) Waste Isolation System; (2) Waste Isolation Economics; (3) BWIP Technical Baseline; (4) Criticality Considerations in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Waste; (5) Retrieving Nuclear Wastes from Repository; (6) NWTS Programs for the Evaluation of Technical Alternatives or Complements to Mined Geologic Repositories - Purpose and Objectives

  16. systems

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  17. Dual Mode Vehicle with In-Wheel Motor: Regenerative Braking Optimization Véhicule bi-mode avec moteurs roues : optimisation du freinage récupératif

    Le Solliec G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing need for mobility of people and goods while massively reducing CO2 emissions, the electrification of vehicles is an essential solution. The variety of vehicles and their use results in innovative solutions for adapted architecture. This is especially true for light commercial vehicles where the objective is to promote full electric use in urban conditions (zero emission vehicle while maintaining significant range autonomy on road. The project VelRoue, a partnership between Renault, Michelin and IFP Energies nouvelles, aims to develop a dedicated dual-mode vehicle using a conventional thermal powertrain on the front axle and in-wheel motors on the rear one each powertrain to its use and makes it possible to achieve a low level of homologation CO2 emissions. In addition to features that meet the specific use of a commercial vehicle, in this paper we will particularly demonstrate the benefit of such an architecture to optimize the regenerative braking while ensuring a safe dynamic behaviour. Pour faire face au besoin croissant de mobilité des personnes et des biens tout en réduisant massivement les émissions de CO2, l’électrification des véhicules est une solution majeure. La grande variété des véhicules et de leur utilisation conduit à la mise en place d’architectures adaptées et donc de solutions innovantes. Cela est particulièrement le cas pour le développement de véhicules utilitaires dont l’objectif est de promouvoir un usage tout électrique en ville (véhicule zéro émission tout en maintenant une autonomie significative pour un usage extra-urbain. Le projet VelRoue, un partenariat entre Renault, Michelin et IFP Energies nouvelles, a pour objectif le développement d’un véhicule utilitaire bi-mode utilisant un groupe motopropulseur thermique traditionnel sur le train avant et des moteurs roues sur le train arrière. Chaque système de propulsion sera alors séparément optimisé à son utilisation

  18. A Comparison of Deterministic and Stochastic Modeling Approaches for Biochemical Reaction Systems: On Fixed Points, Means, and Modes.

    Hahl, Sayuri K; Kremling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In the mathematical modeling of biochemical reactions, a convenient standard approach is to use ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that follow the law of mass action. However, this deterministic ansatz is based on simplifications; in particular, it neglects noise, which is inherent to biological processes. In contrast, the stochasticity of reactions is captured in detail by the discrete chemical master equation (CME). Therefore, the CME is frequently applied to mesoscopic systems, where copy numbers of involved components are small and random fluctuations are thus significant. Here, we compare those two common modeling approaches, aiming at identifying parallels and discrepancies between deterministic variables and possible stochastic counterparts like the mean or modes of the state space probability distribution. To that end, a mathematically flexible reaction scheme of autoregulatory gene expression is translated into the corresponding ODE and CME formulations. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, deterministic stable fixed points usually correspond well to the modes in the stationary probability distribution. However, this connection might be disrupted in small systems. The discrepancies are characterized and systematically traced back to the magnitude of the stoichiometric coefficients and to the presence of nonlinear reactions. These factors are found to synergistically promote large and highly asymmetric fluctuations. As a consequence, bistable but unimodal, and monostable but bimodal systems can emerge. This clearly challenges the role of ODE modeling in the description of cellular signaling and regulation, where some of the involved components usually occur in low copy numbers. Nevertheless, systems whose bimodality originates from deterministic bistability are found to sustain a more robust separation of the two states compared to bimodal, but monostable systems. In regulatory circuits that require precise coordination, ODE modeling is thus still

  19. SYSTEM

    K. Swarnalatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  20. Vulnerability of multiple-barrier systems

    Lind, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    'Vulnerability' is defined as the ratio of the probability of failure of a damaged system to the probability of failure of the undamaged system. This definition applies to all engineered systems and can be specialized to particular system types. Some disastrous failures (e.g., Chernobyl) have shown that systems can be highly vulnerable. open-quotes Defense in depthclose quotes is a powerful design principle, reducing vulnerability when the consequences of failure can be catastrophic. In the nuclear industry, defense in depth is widely used in radiation protection, reactor control, and shutdown systems. A multiple-barrier system is a simple example of a system that has defense in depth. The idea is that the system is not vulnerable. It cannot fail if one barrier fails because there is another to take its place. This idea is untenable in waste management, but a quantified vulnerability of a system can help owners, designers, and regulators decide how much defense in depth is desirable or enough. Many multiple-barrier systems can be modeled as systems of components physically in a series, each individually able to prevent failure. Components typically have bimodal distributions of the service time to failure, as illustrated by an example of application to a hypothetical nuclear fuel waste repository

  1. Technical developments of solar energy collectors in the Netherlands

    Oversloot, H.P.; Geus, A.C. de

    1996-01-01

    Recent research by TNO covered two different technical developments for thermal solar energy systems. One concerns a feasibility study into an all plastic spectral selective absorber, the other is a feasibility study for an overheating protection device based on heatpipe techniques. Earlier studies

  2. Biodiversity and the Lotka-Volterra theory of species interactions: open systems and the distribution of logarithmic densities.

    Wilson, William G; Lundberg, Per

    2004-09-22

    Theoretical interest in the distributions of species abundances observed in ecological communities has focused recently on the results of models that assume all species are identical in their interactions with one another, and rely upon immigration and speciation to promote coexistence. Here we examine a one-trophic level system with generalized species interactions, including species-specific intraspecific and interspecific interaction strengths, and density-independent immigration from a regional species pool. Comparisons between results from numerical integrations and an approximate analytic calculation for random communities demonstrate good agreement, and both approaches yield abundance distributions of nearly arbitrary shape, including bimodality for intermediate immigration rates.

  3. Multiple stellar populations of globular clusters from homogeneous Ca-Cn photometry. II. M5 (NGC 5904) and a new filter system

    Lee, Jae-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Using our ingeniously designed new filter systems, we investigate the multiple stellar populations of the RGB and AGB in the GC M5. Our results are the following. (1) Our cn_jwl index accurately traces the nitrogen abundances in M5, while other color indices fail to do so. (2) We find bimodal CN distributions both in the RGB and the AGB sequences, with the number ratios between the CN-weak (CN-w) and the CN-strong (CN-s) of n(CN-w):n(CN-s) = 29:71(+/- 2) and 21:79(+/- 7), respectively. (3) We...

  4. Development and testing of passive autocatalytic recombiners cooled by heat pipes; Entwicklung und Erprobung mittels Heatpipe gekuehlter katalytischer Rekombinatoren

    Granzow, Christoph

    2012-11-26

    A severe accident in a nuclear power plant (NPP) can lead to core damage in conjunction with the release of large amounts of hydrogen. As hydrogen mitigation measure, passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs) are used in today's pressurized water reactors. PARs recombine hydrogen and oxygen contained in the air to steam. The heat from this exothermic reaction causes the catalyst and its surroundings to heat up. If parts of the PAR heat up above the ignition temperature of the gas mixture, a spontaneous deflagration or detonation can occur. The aim of this work is the prevention of such high temperatures by means of passive cooling of the catalyst with heat pipes. Heat pipes are completely passive heat exchanger with a very high effective thermal conductivity. For a deeper understanding of the reaction kinetics at lower temperatures, single catalytic coated heat pipes are studied in a flow reactor. The development of a modular small-scale PAR model is then based on a test series with cooled catalyst sheets. Finally, the PAR model is tested inside a pressure vessel under boundary conditions similar to a real NPP. The experiments show, that the temperatures of the cooled catalytic sheets stay significantly below the temperature of the uncooled sheets and below the ignition temperature of the gas mixture under any set boundary conditions, although no significant reduction of the conversion efficiency can be observed. As a last point, a mathematical model of the reaction kinetics of the recombination process as well as a model of the fluid dynamic and thermohydraulic processes in a heat pipe are developed with the data obtained from the experiments.

  5. Reliability-Based Decision Fusion in Multimodal Biometric Verification Systems

    Kryszczuk Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology of reliability estimation in the multimodal biometric verification scenario. Reliability estimation has shown to be an efficient and accurate way of predicting and correcting erroneous classification decisions in both unimodal (speech, face, online signature and multimodal (speech and face systems. While the initial research results indicate the high potential of the proposed methodology, the performance of the reliability estimation in a multimodal setting has not been sufficiently studied or evaluated. In this paper, we demonstrate the advantages of using the unimodal reliability information in order to perform an efficient biometric fusion of two modalities. We further show the presented method to be superior to state-of-the-art multimodal decision-level fusion schemes. The experimental evaluation presented in this paper is based on the popular benchmarking bimodal BANCA database.

  6. RSMASS system model development

    Marshall, A.C.; Gallup, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    RSMASS system mass models have been used for more than a decade to make rapid estimates of space reactor power system masses. This paper reviews the evolution of the RSMASS models and summarizes present capabilities. RSMASS has evolved from a simple model used to make rough estimates of space reactor and shield masses to a versatile space reactor power system model. RSMASS uses unique reactor and shield models that permit rapid mass optimization calculations for a variety of space reactor power and propulsion systems. The RSMASS-D upgrade of the original model includes algorithms for the balance of the power system, a number of reactor and shield modeling improvements, and an automatic mass optimization scheme. The RSMASS-D suite of codes cover a very broad range of reactor and power conversion system options as well as propulsion and bimodal reactor systems. Reactor choices include in-core and ex-core thermionic reactors, liquid metal cooled reactors, particle bed reactors, and prismatic configuration reactors. Power conversion options include thermoelectric, thermionic, Stirling, Brayton, and Rankine approaches. Program output includes all major component masses and dimensions, efficiencies, and a description of the design parameters for a mass optimized system. In the past, RSMASS has been used as an aid to identify and select promising concepts for space power applications. The RSMASS modeling approach has been demonstrated to be a valuable tool for guiding optimization of the power system design; consequently, the model is useful during system design and development as well as during the selection process. An improved in-core thermionic reactor system model RSMASS-T is now under development. The current development of the RSMASS-T code represents the next evolutionary stage of the RSMASS models. RSMASS-T includes many modeling improvements and is planned to be more user-friendly. RSMASS-T will be released as a fully documented, certified code at the end of

  7. Non-exhaust emission measurement system of the mobile laboratory SNIFFER

    Pirjola, L.; Kupiainen, K. J.; Perhoniemi, P.; Tervahattu, H.; Vesala, H.

    In this paper we describe and quality assure the sampling system of a mobile research laboratory SNIFFER which was shown to be a useful tool for studying emission levels of respirable dust from street surfaces. The dust plume had bimodal structure; another mode rising to higher altitudes whereas the other mode remained at lower altitudes. The system was tested on a route in Helsinki, Finland, during spring 2005 and 2006. The PM 2.5 and PM 10 were positively correlated and the PM levels increased with the vehicle speed. SNIFFER was able to identify the characteristic emission levels on different streets. A clear downward trend in the concentrations was observed in all street locations between April and June. The composition of the street dust collected by SNIFFER was compared with springtime PM 10 aerosol samples from the air quality monitoring stations in Helsinki. The results showed similarities in the abundance and composition of the mineral fraction but contained significantly more salt particles.

  8. Processing bimodal stimuli: Integrality/separability of colour and orientation

    David eBimler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined how two distinct stimulus features, orientation and colour, interact as contributions to global stimulus dissimilarity. Five subjects rated dissimilarity between pairs of bars (N = 30 varying in colour (four cardinal hues, plus white and orientation (six angles at 30° intervals. An exploratory analysis with individual-differences multidimensional scaling resulted in a 5D solution, with two dimensions required to accommodate the circular sequence of the angular attribute, and red-green, blue-yellow and achromatic axes for the colour attribute. Weights of the orientation subspace relative to the colour subspace varied among the subjects, from a 0.32:0.61 ratio to 0.53:0.44, emphasis shifting between colour and orientation. In addition to Euclidean metric, we modelled the interaction of colour and orientation using Minkowski power metrics across a range of Minkowski exponents p, including the city-block (p = 1, Euclidean (p = 2 and Dominance metric (p à ¥ as special cases. For averaged data, p ~ 1.3 provided the best fit, i.e. intermediate between separable and integral features. For individual subjects, however, the metric exponent varied significantly from p = 0.7 to p = 3.1, indicating a subject-specific rule for combining colour and orientation, as in Tversky and Gati’s variable-weights model. No relationship was apparent between dimensional weights and individual p exponents. Factors affecting dimensional integrality are discussed, including possible underlying neural mechanisms where the interaction of the low-level vision attributes orientation and colour might shift between uncorrelated (p =1 or correlated (p ³ 2 forms.

  9. Evidence for bimodal fission in the heaviest elements

    Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.

    1987-08-01

    We have measured the mass and kinetic-energy partitioning in the spontaneous fission of five heavy nuclides: 258 Fm, 259 Md, 260 Md 258 No, and 260 [104]. Each was produced by heavy-ion reactions with either 248 Cm, 249 Bk, or 254 Es targets. Energies of correlated fragments from the isotopes with millisecond half lives, 258 No and 260 [104], were measured on-line by a special rotating-wheel instrument, while the others were determined off-line after mass separation. All fissioned with mass distributions that were symmetric. Total-kinetic-energy distributions peaked near either 200 or 235 MeV. Surprisingly, because only a single Gaussian energy distribution had been observed previously in actinide fission, these energy distributions were skewed upward or downward from the peak in each case, except for 260 [104], indicating a composite of two energy distributions. We were able to fit accurately two Gaussian curves to the gross energy distributions from the four remaining nuclides. From the multiple TKE distributions and the shapes of the mass distributions, we conclude that there is a low-energy fission component with liquid-drop characteristics which is admixed with a much higher-energy component due to closed fragment shells. We now have further evidence for this conclusion from measurements of the neutron multiplicity in the spontaneous fission of 260 Md. 25 refs., 9 figs

  10. Material Properties of Bi-Modal Epoxy Networks

    MacKenzie, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    .... Through the use of the differential scanning calorimeter to find the glass transition temperature, the dynamic mechanical analyzer to find the storage modulus, and the Izod impact machine to find...

  11. A bimodal verification cryptosystem as a framework against spoofing attacks

    Toli, Christina-Angeliki; Preneel, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The exponential growth of immigration crisis and the recent terrorism cases revealed the increase of fraud occurrences, cloning and identity theft with numerous social, economic and political consequences. The trustworthiness of biometrics during verification processes has been compromised by spoofing attackers sprang up to exploit the security gaps. Additionally, the cryptography’s role in the area is highly important as it may promote fair assessment procedures and foster public trust by se...

  12. Time-resolved Femtosecond Photon Echo Probes Bimodal Solvent Dynamics

    Pshenichnikov, M.S; Duppen, K.; Wiersma, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    We report on time-resolved femtosecond photon echo experiments of a dye molecule in a polar solution. The photon echo is time resolved by mixing the echo with a femtosecond gate pulse in a nonlinear crystal. It is shown that the temporal profile of the photon echo allows separation of the

  13. Infants' Learning, Memory, and Generalization of Learning for Bimodal Events.

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Lasenby, Jennifer; Lee, Naomi

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examined the impact of temporal synchrony on infants' learning of and memory for sight-sound pairs. Findings indicated that 7-month-olds had no difficulty learning auditory-visual pairs regardless of temporal synchrony, remembering them 10 minutes later and 1 week later. Three-month-olds showed poorer learning in no-synchrony than in…

  14. Bimodal distribution of fasting gastric acidity in a rural African ...

    Setting. The people of Transkei eat a diet high in linoleic acid, the principal fatty acid in maize. The theory has been put forward that a diet high in linoleic acid and low in fat and riboflavin, such as the traditional diet in Transkei, results in overproduction of prostaglandin E2 in the gastric mucosa, and that this overproduction ...

  15. Pre- and Postoperative Binaural Unmasking for Bimodal Cochlear Implant Listeners.

    Sheffield, Benjamin M; Schuchman, Gerald; Bernstein, Joshua G W

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are increasingly recommended to individuals with residual bilateral acoustic hearing. Although new hearing-preserving electrode designs and surgical approaches show great promise, CI recipients are still at risk to lose acoustic hearing in the implanted ear, which could prevent the ability to take advantage of binaural unmasking to aid speech recognition in noise. This study examined the tradeoff between the benefits of a CI for speech understanding in noise and the potential loss of binaural unmasking for CI recipients with some bilateral preoperative acoustic hearing. Binaural unmasking is difficult to evaluate in CI candidates because speech perception in noise is generally too poor to measure reliably in the range of signal to noise ratios (SNRs) where binaural intelligibility level differences (BILDs) are typically observed (binaural benefit, 9 out of 10 listeners tested postoperatively had performance equal to or better than their best pre-CI performance. The listener who retained functional acoustic hearing in the implanted ear also demonstrated a preserved acoustic BILD postoperatively. Approximately half of the CI candidates in this study demonstrated preoperative binaural hearing benefits for audiovisual speech perception in noise. Most of these listeners lost their acoustic hearing in the implanted ear after surgery (using nonhearing-preservation techniques), and therefore lost access to this binaural benefit. In all but one case, any loss of binaural benefit was compensated for or exceeded by an improvement in speech perception with the CI. Evidence of a preoperative BILD suggests that certain CI candidates might further benefit from hearing-preservation surgery to retain acoustic binaural unmasking, as demonstrated for the listener who underwent hearing-preservation surgery. This test of binaural audiovisual speech perception in noise could serve as a diagnostic tool to identify CI candidates who are most likely to receive functional benefits from their bilateral acoustic hearing.

  16. Bimodal star formation - constraints from galaxy colors at high redshift

    Wyse, R.F.G.; Silk, J.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that at early epochs the light from elliptical galaxies is dominated by stars with an initial mass function (IMF) which is deficient in low-mass stars, relative to the solar neighborhood is investigated. V-R colors for the optical counterparts of 3CR radio sources offer the most severe constraints on the models. Reasonable fits are obtained to both the blue, high-redshift colors and the redder, low-redshift colors with a model galaxy which forms with initially equal star formation rates in each of two IMF modes: one lacking low-mass stars, and one with stars of all masses. The net effect is that the time-integrated IMF has twice as many high-mass stars as the solar neighborhood IMF, relative to low mass stars. A conventional solar neighborhood IMF does not simultaneously account for both the range in colors at high redshift and the redness of nearby ellipticals, with any single star formation epoch. Models with a standard IMF require half the stellar population to be formed in a burst at low redshift z of about 1. 38 references

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Bimodal distribution of fasting gastric acidity ...

    2003-10-18

    Oct 18, 2003 ... nasogastric tube aspiration from 150 volunteers at a rural health clinic. The pH ... Ethical permission for the study was obtained from the. Research .... beans might be a spurious marker of some other aspect of. Transkeian life ...

  18. Cooling of high-density and power electronics by means of heat pipes

    Hubbeling, L.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes how heat pipes can be used for cooling modern electronic equipment, with numerous advantages over air-cooled systems. A brief review of heat-pipe properties is given, with a detailed description of a functioning prototype. This is a single-width CAMAC unit containing high-density electronic circuits cooled by three heat pipes, and allowing a dissipation of over 120 W instead of the normal maximum of 20 W. (orig.)

  19. A SCHEME FOR TEMPLATE SECURITY AT FEATURE FUSION LEVEL IN MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC SYSTEM

    Arvind Selwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric is the science of human recognition based upon using their biological, chemical or behavioural traits. These systems are used in many real life applications simply from biometric based attendance system to providing security at very sophisticated level. A biometric system deals with raw data captured using a sensor and feature template extracted from raw image. One of the challenges being faced by designers of these systems is to secure template data extracted from the biometric modalities of the user and protect the raw images. To minimize spoof attacks on biometric systems by unauthorised users one of the solutions is to use multi-biometric systems. Multi-modal biometric system works by using fusion technique to merge feature templates generated from different modalities of the human. In this work a new scheme is proposed to secure template during feature fusion level. Scheme is based on union operation of fuzzy relations of templates of modalities during fusion process of multimodal biometric systems. This approach serves dual purpose of feature fusion as well as transformation of templates into a single secured non invertible template. The proposed technique is cancelable and experimentally tested on a bimodal biometric system comprising of fingerprint and hand geometry. Developed scheme removes the problem of an attacker learning the original minutia position in fingerprint and various measurements of hand geometry. Given scheme provides improved performance of the system with reduction in false accept rate and improvement in genuine accept rate.

  20. PREDOMINANTLY LOW METALLICITIES MEASURED IN A STRATIFIED SAMPLE OF LYMAN LIMIT SYSTEMS AT Z  = 3.7

    Glidden, Ana; Cooper, Thomas J.; Simcoe, Robert A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cooksey, Kathy L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Hilo, 200 West Kāwili Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); O’Meara, John M., E-mail: aglidden@mit.edu, E-mail: tjcooper@mit.edu, E-mail: simcoe@space.mit.edu, E-mail: kcooksey@hawaii.edu, E-mail: jomeara@smcvt.edu [Department of Physics, Saint Michael’s College, One Winooski Park, Colchester, VT 05439 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We measured metallicities for 33 z = 3.4–4.2 absorption line systems drawn from a sample of H i-selected-Lyman limit systems (LLSs) identified in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar spectra and stratified based on metal line features. We obtained higher-resolution spectra with the Keck Echellette Spectrograph and Imager, selecting targets according to our stratification scheme in an effort to fully sample the LLS population metallicity distribution. We established a plausible range of H i column densities and measured column densities (or limits) for ions of carbon, silicon, and aluminum, finding ionization-corrected metallicities or upper limits. Interestingly, our ionization models were better constrained with enhanced α -to-aluminum abundances, with a median abundance ratio of [ α /Al] = 0.3. Measured metallicities were generally low, ranging from [M/H] = −3 to −1.68, with even lower metallicities likely for some systems with upper limits. Using survival statistics to incorporate limits, we constructed the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for LLS metallicities. Recent models of galaxy evolution propose that galaxies replenish their gas from the low-metallicity intergalactic medium (IGM) via high-density H i “flows” and eject enriched interstellar gas via outflows. Thus, there has been some expectation that LLSs at the peak of cosmic star formation ( z  ≈ 3) might have a bimodal metallicity distribution. We modeled our CDF as a mix of two Gaussian distributions, one reflecting the metallicity of the IGM and the other representative of the interstellar medium of star-forming galaxies. This bimodal distribution yielded a poor fit. A single Gaussian distribution better represented the sample with a low mean metallicity of [M/H] ≈ −2.5.

  1. FURTHER DEFINITION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AROUND BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Wehner, Elizabeth M. H.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Rothberg, Barry

    2009-01-01

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass-metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our combined data sets show a mean trend for the metal-poor subpopulation that corresponds to a scaling of heavy-element abundance with cluster mass Z ∼ M 0.30±0.05 . No trend is seen for the metal-rich subpopulation which has a scaling relation that is consistent with zero. We also find that the scaling exponent is independent of the GCS specific frequency and host galaxy luminosity, except perhaps for dwarf galaxies. We present new photometry in (g',i') obtained with Gemini/GMOS for the GC populations around the southern giant ellipticals NGC 5193 and IC 4329. Both galaxies have rich cluster populations which show up as normal, bimodal sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. We test the observed MMRs and argue that they are statistically real, and not an artifact caused by the method we used. We also argue against asymmetric contamination causing the observed MMR as our mean results are no different from other contamination-free studies. Finally, we compare our method to the standard bimodal fitting method (KMM or RMIX) and find our results are consistent. Interpretation of these results is consistent with recent models for GC formation in which the MMR is determined by GC self-enrichment during their brief formation period.

  2. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components.

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-17

    Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  3. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL, (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases and a crude load of 25% (w/w at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  4. Amplification of weak signals via the non-adiabatic regime of stochastic resonance in a bistable dynamical system with time delay

    Du Luchun; Mei Dongcheng

    2011-01-01

    The non-adiabatic regime of stochastic resonance (SR) in a bistable system with time delay, an additive white noise and a periodic signal was investigated. The signal power amplification η was employed to characterize the SR of the system. The simulation results indicate that (i) in the case of intermediate frequency Ω of the periodic signal, the typical behavior of SR is lowered monotonically by increasing the delay time τ; in the case of large Ω, τ weakens the SR behavior and then enhances it, with a non-monotonic behavior as a function of time delay; (ii) time delay induces SR when A is above the threshold, whereas no such resonance exists in the absence of time delay; (iii) time delay induces a transition from bimodal to unimodal configuration of η; (iv) varying the particular form of time delay results in different phenomena.

  5. Multi-phase reactive transport theory

    Lichtner, P.C.

    1995-07-01

    Physicochemical processes in the near-field region of a high-level waste repository may involve a diverse set of phenomena including flow of liquid and gas, gaseous diffusion, and chemical reaction of the host rock with aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures. This report develops some of the formalism for describing simultaneous multicomponent solute and heat transport in a two-phase system for partially saturated porous media. Diffusion of gaseous species is described using the Dusty Gas Model which provides for simultaneous Knudsen and Fickian diffusion in addition to Darcy flow. A new form of the Dusty Gas Model equations is derived for binary diffusion which separates the total diffusive flux into segregative and nonsegregative components. Migration of a wetting front is analyzed using the quasi-stationary state approximation to the Richards' equation. Heat-pipe phenomena are investigated for both gravity- and capillary-driven reflux of liquid water. An expression for the burnout permeability is derived for a gravity-driven heat-pipe. Finally an estimate is given for the change in porosity and permeability due to mineral dissolution which could occur in the region of condensate formation in a heat-pipe

  6. Dansgaard–Oeschger events: bifurcation points in the climate system

    A. A. Cimatoribus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dansgaard–Oeschger events are a prominent mode of variability in the records of the last glacial cycle. Various prototype models have been proposed to explain these rapid climate fluctuations, and no agreement has emerged on which may be the more correct for describing the palaeoclimatic signal. In this work, we assess the bimodality of the system, reconstructing the topology of the multi-dimensional attractor over which the climate system evolves. We use high-resolution ice core isotope data to investigate the statistical properties of the climate fluctuations in the period before the onset of the abrupt change. We show that Dansgaard–Oeschger events have weak early warning signals if the ensemble of events is considered. We find that the statistics are consistent with the switches between two different climate equilibrium states in response to a changing external forcing (e.g. solar, ice sheets, either forcing directly the transition or pacing it through stochastic resonance. These findings are most consistent with a model that associates Dansgaard–Oeschger with changing boundary conditions, and with the presence of a bifurcation point.

  7. Modeling the dual pacemaker system of the tau mutant hamster.

    Oda, G A; Menaker, M; Friesen, W O

    2000-06-01

    Circadian pacemakers in many animals are compound. In rodents, a two-oscillator model of the pacemaker composed of an evening (E) and a morning (M) oscillator has been proposed based on the phenomenon of "splitting" and bimodal activity peaks. The authors describe computer simulations of the pacemaker in tau mutant hamsters viewed as a system of mutually coupled E and M oscillators. These mutant animals exhibit normal type 1 PRCs when released into DD but make a transition to a type 0 PRC when held for many weeks in DD. The two-oscillator model describes particularly well some recent behavioral experiments on these hamsters. The authors sought to determine the relationships between oscillator amplitude, period, PRC, and activity duration through computer simulations. Two complementary approaches proved useful for analyzing weakly coupled oscillator systems. The authors adopted a "distinct oscillators" view when considering the component E and M oscillators and a "system" view when considering the system as a whole. For strongly coupled systems, only the system view is appropriate. The simulations lead the authors to two primary conjectures: (1) the total amplitude of the pacemaker system in tau mutant hamsters is less than in the wild-type animals, and (2) the coupling between the unit E and M oscillators is weakened during continuous exposure of hamsters to DD. As coupling strength decreases, activity duration (alpha) increases due to a greater phase difference between E and M. At the same time, the total amplitude of the system decreases, causing an increase in observable PRC amplitudes. Reduced coupling also increases the relative autonomy of the unit oscillators. The relatively autonomous phase shifts of E and M oscillators can account for both immediate compression and expansion of activity bands in tau mutant and wild-type hamsters subjected to light pulses.

  8. The Trojan-Hilda-KBO connection: An observational test of solar system evolution models

    Wong, I.; Brown, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few decades, many theories have been devised to explain the observed solar system architecture. The current paradigm posits that a significant reorganization of the outer Solar System occurred after the end of planet formation. Specifically, it is hypothesized that Jupiter and Saturn crossed a mutual mean motion resonance, leading to a chaotic expansion of the ice giants' orbits that disrupted the large population of planetesimals situated further out. While the majority of these bodies were ejected from the Solar System, a fraction of them were retained as the present-day Kuiper Belt, while others were scattered inward and captured into resonances with Jupiter to become the Trojans and Hildas. Dynamical instability models invariably predict that Trojans, Hildas, and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) were sourced from the same primordial body of outer solar system planetesimals. Therefore, comparison of these minor body populations serves as one of the few available observational tests of our present understanding of solar system evolution. We present the results of a series of studies aimed at synthesizing a detailed picture of Trojans and related asteroid populations. By combining analyses of archival data with new photometric surveys, we have derived the first debiased color distributions of Trojans and KBOs and extended/refined our knowledge of their respective size distributions. In addition, we have explored the peculiar color bimodality attested in the Trojans, Hildas, and KBOs, which indicates the presence of two sub-populations. As part of our continuing efforts to characterize the surface composition of these bodies, we have also obtained new near-infrared spectra of Hildas for comparison with previously published spectra of Trojans covering the same wavelength region. We have utilized the full body of observations to formulate hypotheses regarding the formation, composition, and dynamical/chemical evolution of the primordial outer solar system

  9. Safe affordable fission engine (SAFE 30) module conductivity test thermal model correlation

    Roman, Jose

    2001-01-01

    The SAFE 30 is a simple, robust space fission power system that is comprised of several independent modules. Each module contains 4 fuel tubes bonded to a central heatpipe. Fission energy is conducted from the fuel tubes to the heatpipe, which in turn transfers the energy to a power conversion system. This paper benchmarks a thermal model of the SAFE 30 with actual test data from simulated SAFE 30 module tests. Two 'dummy' SAFE 30 modules were fabricated - each consisted of 4 1-inch dia. tubes (simulating the fuel tubes) bonded to a central '1' dia. tube (simulating the heatpipe). In the first module the fuel tubes were simply brazed to the heatpipe along the line of contact (leaving void space in the interstices), and in the second module the tubes and heatpipe were brazed via tri-cusps that completely fill the interstices between the tubes. In these tests, fission energy is simulated by placing resistance heaters within each of the 4 fuel tubes. The tests were conducted in a vacuum chamber in 4 configurations: tri-cusps filled with and without an outer insulation wrap, and no tri-cusps with and without an outer insulation wrap. The baseline SAFE 30 configuration uses the brazed tri-cusps. During the tests, the power applied to the heaters was varied in a stepwise fashion, until a steady-state temperature profile was reached. These temperature levels varied between 773 K and 1073 K. To benchmark the thermal model, the input energy and chamber surface temperature were used as boundary conditions for the model. The analytical results from the nodes at the same location as the test thermocouples were plotted again test data to determinate the accuracy of the analysis. The unknown variables on the analysis are the radiation emissivity of the pipe and chamber and the radiation view factor between the module and the chamber. A correlation was determined using a parametric analysis by varying the surface emissivity and view factor until a good match was reached. This

  10. Extended method of moments for deterministic analysis of stochastic multistable neurodynamical systems

    Deco, Gustavo; Marti, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of transitions in stochastic neurodynamical systems is essential to understand the computational principles that underlie those perceptual and cognitive processes involving multistable phenomena, like decision making and bistable perception. To investigate the role of noise in a multistable neurodynamical system described by coupled differential equations, one usually considers numerical simulations, which are time consuming because of the need for sufficiently many trials to capture the statistics of the influence of the fluctuations on that system. An alternative analytical approach involves the derivation of deterministic differential equations for the moments of the distribution of the activity of the neuronal populations. However, the application of the method of moments is restricted by the assumption that the distribution of the state variables of the system takes on a unimodal Gaussian shape. We extend in this paper the classical moments method to the case of bimodal distribution of the state variables, such that a reduced system of deterministic coupled differential equations can be derived for the desired regime of multistability

  11. Extended method of moments for deterministic analysis of stochastic multistable neurodynamical systems

    Deco, Gustavo; Martí, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    The analysis of transitions in stochastic neurodynamical systems is essential to understand the computational principles that underlie those perceptual and cognitive processes involving multistable phenomena, like decision making and bistable perception. To investigate the role of noise in a multistable neurodynamical system described by coupled differential equations, one usually considers numerical simulations, which are time consuming because of the need for sufficiently many trials to capture the statistics of the influence of the fluctuations on that system. An alternative analytical approach involves the derivation of deterministic differential equations for the moments of the distribution of the activity of the neuronal populations. However, the application of the method of moments is restricted by the assumption that the distribution of the state variables of the system takes on a unimodal Gaussian shape. We extend in this paper the classical moments method to the case of bimodal distribution of the state variables, such that a reduced system of deterministic coupled differential equations can be derived for the desired regime of multistability.

  12. Performance of a Motion Tracking System During Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery

    Cavedon, Carlo; Francescon, Paolo; Cora, Stefania; Moschini, Giuliano; Rossi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Cyberknife (Accuracy Inc., Ca) is a robotic radio-surgery system that includes a compact 6 MV linac delivering up to 800 cGy per minute, and an automate arm to aim at any part of the body from any angle. An essential tool is the guidance system based on x-ray imaging cameras located on supports around the patient. A Cyberknife system has been operational at the Vicenza (Italy) Hospital for years and is mainly employed for treating benign and malignant tumors, and Arterior-Venous Malformations. In radiation therapy, delivery of high doses to targets that move with respiration is challenging because of possible spatial inaccuracies. The purpose of this work was to estimate the accuracy of the prediction algorithm used to compensate for system latency in a real-time respiratory tracking system. We have analyzed respiratory signals of 30 patients who had lung or liver Cyberknife treatments. The 'Synchrony'(Accuracy Inc.) motion tracking system we use is based on the correlation between the position of LED markers, detected in real time, and the position of internal markers, sampled through x-ray imaging. The position of the external LED signals, though read in real time, must be predicted to compensate for a few hundred ms time lag in the feedback loop that redirects the beam to the current target position. The respiratory signals were described by employing their frequency power spectrum, as recently proposed by other authors. Prediction errors above 1.5 mm, lasting for periods longer than 5 seconds were observed for irregular breathers. These episodes correlate to the presence of a bimodal distribution in the power spectral density, and of very low frequencies contribution. A more refined approach would include a personalized choice of the prediction algorithm based on the very first minutes of treatment. Patient training aimed at reducing breathing irregularities might also result in improved spatial accuracy.

  13. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes for cooling leading edges of high-speed aerospace vehicles

    Camarda, Charles J.; Glass, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Heat pipes have been considered for use on wing leading edge for over 20 years. Early concepts envisioned metal heat pipes cooling a metallic leading edge. Several superalloy/sodium heat pipes were fabricated and successfully tested for wing leading edge cooling. Results of radiant heat and aerothermal testing indicate the feasibility of using heat pipes to cool the stagnation region of shuttle-type space transportation systems. The test model withstood a total seven radiant heating tests, eight aerothermal tests, and twenty-seven supplemental radiant heating tests. Cold-wall heating rates ranged from 21 to 57 Btu/sq ft-s and maximum operating temperatures ranged from 1090 to 1520 F. Follow-on studies investigated the application of heat pipes to cool the stagnation regions of single-stage-to-orbit and advanced shuttle vehicles. Results of those studies indicate that a 'D-shaped' structural design can reduce the mass of the heat-pipe concept by over 44 percent compared to a circular heat-pipe geometry. Simple analytical models for heat-pipe startup from the frozen state (working fluid initially frozen) were adequate to approximate transient, startup, and steady-state heat-pipe performance. Improvement in analysis methods has resulted in the development of a finite-element analysis technique to predict heat-pipe startup from the frozen state. However, current requirements of light-weight design and reliability suggest that metallic heat pipes embedded in a refractory composite material should be used. This concept is the concept presently being evaluated for NASP. A refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge is currently being considered for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). This concept uses high-temperature refractory-metal/lithium heat pipes embedded within a refractory-composite structure and is significantly lighter than an actively cooled wing leading edge because it eliminates the need for active cooling during ascent and descent. Since the

  14. Multifragmentation of heavy systems: partitions and phase transition signals; Multifragmentation de systemes lourds: partitions et signaux de transition de phases

    Bonnet, E

    2006-09-15

    This work studies mononuclear systems produced in heavy ion collisions with large (peripheral: Au+Au) and small (central: Xe+Sn et Gd+U) impact parameters. These two classes of collisions need specific selections in order to isolate sources in thermal equilibrium (quasi-projectiles and quasi-fusion sources). We perform analyses on the statistical ensembles of events obtained after those selections to evidence phase transition signatures. First, a bimodal behaviour of the biggest fragment (Z{sub 1}) distribution, in peripheral collisions, is related to an order parameter using a renormalisation with an equiprobable excitation energy (E{sup *}) distribution constraint. A comparison with a canonical ensemble gives us information on the coexistence region location. Then, we compare static and dynamical properties of fragments produced by these sources in peripheral and central collisions. Differences on fragment multiplicities and charge asymmetry of partitions are observed. They find their origins in the presence or not of a velocity field mostly related to collective radial expansion during fragment formation. Analyses of the signal related to abnormal fluctuations of configurational energies and of the fossil signal related to spinodal decomposition for Au quasi-projectiles are performed to establish a link with the same signals already observed for central collisions. Finally, the location of events of the two types of sources in the E{sup *} - Z{sub 1} plane, are compared with a phase diagram, particularly the boundaries of the coexistence region deduced from the previous signals. (author)

  15. In-Space technology experiments program. A high efficiency thermal interface (using condensation heat transfer) between a 2-phase fluid loop and heatpipe radiator: Experiment definition phase

    Pohner, John A.; Dempsey, Brian P.; Herold, Leroy M.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station elements and advanced military spacecraft will require rejection of tens of kilowatts of waste heat. Large space radiators and two-phase heat transport loops will be required. To minimize radiator size and weight, it is critical to minimize the temperature drop between the heat source and sink. Under an Air Force contract, a unique, high-performance heat exchanger is developed for coupling the radiator to the transport loop. Since fluid flow through the heat exchanger is driven by capillary forces which are easily dominated by gravity forces in ground testing, it is necessary to perform microgravity thermal testing to verify the design. This contract consists of an experiment definition phase leading to a preliminary design and cost estimate for a shuttle-based flight experiment of this heat exchanger design. This program will utilize modified hardware from a ground test program for the heat exchanger.

  16. Simulations of collisions between N-body classical systems in interaction; Simulations de collisions entre systemes classiques a n-corps en interaction

    Morisseau, Francois [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de CAEN, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, UFR des Sciences, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France)

    2006-05-15

    The Classical N-body Dynamics (CNBD) is dedicated to the simulation of collisions between classical systems. The 2-body interaction used here has the properties of the Van der Waals potential and depends on just a few parameters. This work has two main goals. First, some theoretical approaches assume that the dynamical stage of the collisions plays an important role. Moreover, colliding nuclei are supposed to present a 1. order liquid-gas phase transition. Several signals have been introduced to show this transition. We have searched for two of them: the bimodality of the mass asymmetry and negative heat capacity. We have found them and we give an explanation of their presence in our calculations. Second, we have improved the interaction by adding a Coulomb like potential and by taking into account the stronger proton-neutron interaction in nuclei. Then we have figured out the relations that exist between the parameters of the 2-body interaction and the properties of the systems. These studies allow us to fit the properties of the classical systems to those of the nuclei. In this manuscript the first results of this fit are shown. (author)

  17. Transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT) system design status and operational support equipment

    Johanson, N.W.; Meyer, R.J.; Romesberg, L.E.; Pope, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    A program was initiated in the late 1970's at Sandia National Laboratories to develop an efficient, safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation packaging system for the carriage of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. It is anticipated that eventually a family of TRUPACT (TRansUranic PACKage Transporter) systems having varied dimensions and weight/volume capacities will be needed by the DOE to transport different CH-TRU waste forms. Each TRUPACT system will be a Type B packaging. Large quantities of CH-TRU wastes having many different forms, isotopic contents, and contained in a variety of waste containers have been, are being, and will continue to be produced and stored for ultimate disposal. Packaging design is being closely coordinated with facility designs to ensure the rapid and economic integration of the TRUPACT system. The first packaging developed for transport by truck or rail (bimodal) is designated TRUPACT-I and will become operational in 1984. This paper provides an overview of progress on the TRUPACT-I design and details of equipment to be used for interfacing with users

  18. Multiple Stellar Populations of Globular Clusters from Homogeneous Ca-CN Photometry. II. M5 (NGC 5904) and a New Filter System

    Lee, Jae-Woo

    2017-07-01

    Using our ingeniously designed new filter systems, we investigate multiple stellar populations of the red giant branch (RGB) and the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) in the globular cluster (GC) M5. Our results are the following. (1) Our {{cn}}{JWL} index accurately traces nitrogen abundances in M5, while other color indices fail to do so. (2) We find bimodal CN distributions in both RGB and AGB sequences, with number ratios between CN-weak (CN-w) and CN-strong (CN-s) of n(CN-w):n(CN-s) = 29:71 (±2) and 21:79 (±7), respectively. (3) We also find a bimodal photometric [N/Fe] distribution for M5 RGB stars. (4) Our {{cn}}{JWL}-[O/Fe] and {{cn}}{JWL}-[Na/Fe] relations show clear discontinuities between the two RGB populations. (5) Although small, the RGB bump of CN-s is slightly brighter, {{Δ }}{V}{bump} = 0.07 ± 0.04 mag. If real, the difference in the helium abundance becomes {{Δ }}Y = 0.028 ± 0.016, in the sense that CN-s is more helium enhanced. (6) Very similar radial but different spatial distributions with comparable center positions are found for the two RGB populations. The CN-s RGB and AGB stars are more elongated along the NW-SE direction. (7) The CN-s population shows a substantial net projected rotation, while that of the CN-w population is nil. (8) Our results confirm the deficiency of CN-w AGB stars previously noted by others. We show that it is most likely due to stochastic truncation in the outer part of the cluster. Finally, we discuss the formation scenario of M5. Based on observations made with the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 1 m telescope, which is operated by the SMARTS consortium.

  19. Simulations of collisions between N-body classical systems in interaction

    Morisseau, Francois

    2006-05-01

    The Classical N-body Dynamics (CNBD) is dedicated to the simulation of collisions between classical systems. The 2-body interaction used here has the properties of the Van der Waals potential and depends on just a few parameters. This work has two main goals. First, some theoretical approaches assume that the dynamical stage of the collisions plays an important role. Moreover, colliding nuclei are supposed to present a 1. order liquid-gas phase transition. Several signals have been introduced to show this transition. We have searched for two of them: the bimodality of the mass asymmetry and negative heat capacity. We have found them and we give an explanation of their presence in our calculations. Second, we have improved the interaction by adding a Coulomb like potential and by taking into account the stronger proton-neutron interaction in nuclei. Then we have figured out the relations that exist between the parameters of the 2-body interaction and the properties of the systems. These studies allow us to fit the properties of the classical systems to those of the nuclei. In this manuscript the first results of this fit are shown. (author)

  20. Passive cooling applications for nuclear power plants using pulsating steam-water heat pipes

    Aparna, J.; Chandraker, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    Gen IV reactors incorporate passive principles in their system design as an important safety philosophy. Passive safety systems use inherent physical phenomena for delivering the desired safe action without any external inputs or intrusion. The accidents in Fukushima have renewed the focus on passive self-manageable systems capable of unattended operation, for long hours even in extended station blackout (SBO) and severe accident conditions. Generally, advanced reactors use water or atmospheric air as their ultimate heat sink and employ passive principles in design for enhanced safety. This paper would be discussing the experimental results on pulsating steam water heat-pipe devices and their applications in passive cooling. (author)

  1. Response moments of dynamic systems under non-Gaussian random excitation by the equivalent non-Gaussian excitation method

    Tsuchida, Takahiro; Kimura, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Equivalent non-Gaussian excitation method is proposed to obtain the response moments up to the 4th order of dynamic systems under non-Gaussian random excitation. The non-Gaussian excitation is prescribed by the probability density and the power spectrum, and is described by an Ito stochastic differential equation. Generally, moment equations for the response, which are derived from the governing equations for the excitation and the system, are not closed due to the nonlinearity of the diffusion coefficient in the equation for the excitation even though the system is linear. In the equivalent non-Gaussian excitation method, the diffusion coefficient is replaced with the equivalent diffusion coefficient approximately to obtain a closed set of the moment equations. The square of the equivalent diffusion coefficient is expressed by a quadratic polynomial. In numerical examples, a linear system subjected to nonGaussian excitations with bimodal and Rayleigh distributions is analyzed by using the present method. The results show that the method yields the variance, skewness and kurtosis of the response with high accuracy for non-Gaussian excitation with the widely different probability densities and bandwidth. The statistical moments of the equivalent non-Gaussian excitation are also investigated to describe the feature of the method. (paper)

  2. System Budgets

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  3. The CITEQ transformer: a proven technology

    Cordeau, P.

    1997-01-01

    The technology of the new transformer created by CITEQ (Centre d''innovation sur le transport d''energie du Quebec) was reviewed. The new transformer is a combination of four components: (1) a solid insulation system, (2) an exterior shell composed of composite material, (3) an internal cooling system using heat-pipe technology, and (4) a resistant material for the protection of the magnetic core. The CITEQ transformer differs from conventional transformers by virtue of its low risk of pollution and explosion. Maintenance for the new transformer has also been drastically reduced. The new transformer is immune to explosions because it is entirely composed of solid material. 2 figs

  4. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    ... we propose a three-fold classification comprising Lower Clastic Unit and an Upper Clastic Unit and a Bimodal (basalt–rhyolite) Volcanic Unit separating the two. Tilting due to basin inversion and faulting has been observed; however, the rocks are unmetamorphosed and show undisturbed primary sedimentary features.

  5. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. INTERGALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND THE MASSIVE GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM AT THE CORE OF THE COMA GALAXY CLUSTER

    Peng, Eric W.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hammer, Derek; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Bridges, Terry; Chiboucas, Kristin; Del Burgo, Carlos; Graham, Alister W.; Guzman, Rafael; Hudson, Michael J.; Matkovic, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Intracluster stellar populations are a natural result of tidal interactions in galaxy clusters. Measuring these populations is difficult, but important for understanding the assembly of the most massive galaxies. The Coma cluster of galaxies is one of the nearest truly massive galaxy clusters and is host to a correspondingly large system of globular clusters (GCs). We use imaging from the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey to present the first definitive detection of a large population of intracluster GCs (IGCs) that fills the Coma cluster core and is not associated with individual galaxies. The GC surface density profile around the central massive elliptical galaxy, NGC 4874, is dominated at large radii by a population of IGCs that extend to the limit of our data (R +4000 -5000 (systematic) IGCs out to this radius, and that they make up ∼70% of the central GC system, making this the largest GC system in the nearby universe. Even including the GC systems of other cluster galaxies, the IGCs still make up ∼30%-45% of the GCs in the cluster core. Observational limits from previous studies of the intracluster light (ICL) suggest that the IGC population has a high specific frequency. If the IGC population has a specific frequency similar to high-S N dwarf galaxies, then the ICL has a mean surface brightness of μ V ∼ 27 mag arcsec -2 and a total stellar mass of roughly 10 12 M sun within the cluster core. The ICL makes up approximately half of the stellar luminosity and one-third of the stellar mass of the central (NGC 4874+ICL) system. The color distribution of the IGC population is bimodal, with blue, metal-poor GCs outnumbering red, metal-rich GCs by a ratio of 4:1. The inner GCs associated with NGC 4874 also have a bimodal distribution in color, but with a redder metal-poor population. The fraction of red IGCs (20%), and the red color of those GCs, implies that IGCs can originate from the halos of relatively massive, L* galaxies, and not solely from the disruption of

  6. Isolated ellipticals and their globular cluster systems. III. NGC 2271, NGC 2865, NGC 3962, NGC 4240, and IC 4889

    Salinas, R.; Alabi, A.; Richtler, T.; Lane, R. R.

    2015-05-01

    As tracers of star formation, galaxy assembly, and mass distribution, globular clusters have provided important clues to our understanding of early-type galaxies. But their study has been mostly constrained to galaxy groups and clusters where early-type galaxies dominate, leaving the properties of the globular cluster systems (GCSs) of isolated ellipticals as a mostly uncharted territory. We present Gemini-South/GMOS g'i' observations of five isolated elliptical galaxies: NGC 3962, NGC 2865, IC 4889, NGC 2271, and NGC 4240. Photometry of their GCSs reveals clear color bimodality in three of them, but remains inconclusive for the other two. All the studied GCSs are rather poor with a mean specific frequency SN ~ 1.5, independently of the parent galaxy luminosity. Considering information from previous work as well, it is clear that bimodality and especially the presence of a significant, even dominant, population of blue clusters occurs at even the most isolated systems, which casts doubts on a possible accreted origin of metal-poor clusters, as suggested by some models. Additionally, we discuss the possible existence of ultra-compact dwarfs around the isolated elliptical NGC 3962. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).Globular cluster photometry is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A59Appendices are available in

  7. Low-redshift Lyman limit systems as diagnostics of cosmological inflows and outflows

    Hafen, Zachary; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Kereš, Dušan; Feldmann, Robert; Chan, T. K.; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-08-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with stellar feedback from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project to study the physical nature of Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at z ≤ 1. At these low redshifts, LLSs are closely associated with dense gas structures surrounding galaxies, such as galactic winds, dwarf satellites and cool inflows from the intergalactic medium. Our analysis is based on 14 zoom-in simulations covering the halo mass range Mh ≈ 109-1013 M⊙ at z = 0, which we convolve with the dark matter halo mass function to produce cosmological statistics. We find that the majority of cosmologically selected LLSs are associated with haloes in the mass range 1010 ≲ Mh ≲ 1012 M⊙. The incidence and H I column density distribution of simulated absorbers with columns in the range 10^{16.2} ≤ N_{H I} ≤ 2× 10^{20} cm-2 are consistent with observations. High-velocity outflows (with radial velocity exceeding the halo circular velocity by a factor of ≳ 2) tend to have higher metallicities ([X/H] ˜ -0.5) while very low metallicity ([X/H] standard deviation) [X/H] = -0.9 (0.4) and does not show significant evidence for bimodality, in contrast to recent observational studies, but consistent with LLSs arising from haloes with a broad range of masses and metallicities.

  8. Ventilation systems

    Gossler

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with - controlled area ventilation systems - ventilation systems for switchgear-building and control-room - other ventilation systems for safety equipments - service systems for ventilation systems. (orig./RW)

  9. Highly optimized simulations on single- and multi-GPU systems of the 3D Ising spin glass model

    Lulli, M.; Bernaschi, M.; Parisi, G.

    2015-11-01

    We present a highly optimized implementation of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulator for the three-dimensional Ising spin-glass model with bimodal disorder, i.e., the 3D Edwards-Anderson model running on CUDA enabled GPUs. Multi-GPU systems exchange data by means of the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The chosen MC dynamics is the classic Metropolis one, which is purely dissipative, since the aim was the study of the critical off-equilibrium relaxation of the system. We focused on the following issues: (i) the implementation of efficient memory access patterns for nearest neighbours in a cubic stencil and for lagged-Fibonacci-like pseudo-Random Numbers Generators (PRNGs); (ii) a novel implementation of the asynchronous multispin-coding Metropolis MC step allowing to store one spin per bit and (iii) a multi-GPU version based on a combination of MPI and CUDA streams. Cubic stencils and PRNGs are two subjects of very general interest because of their widespread use in many simulation codes.

  10. [Myasthenia gravis in adults of institutions pertaining to the Mexican public health system: an analysis of hospital discharges during 2010].

    Tolosa-Tort, Paulina; Chiquete, Erwin; Domínguez-Moreno, Rogelio; Vega-Boada, Felipe; Reyes-Melo, Isael; Flores-Silva, Fernando; Sentíes-Madrid, Horacio; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno; García-Ramos, Guillermo; Herrera-Hernández, Miguel; Ruiz-Sandoval, José L; Cantú-Brito, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on myasthenia gravis (MG) in Mexico is mainly derived from experiences in referral centers. To describe the epidemiological characteristics of hospital discharges during 2010 with the diagnosis of MG in adults hospitalized in the Mexican public health system. We consulted the database of hospital discharges during 2010 of the National Health Information System (Ministry of Health, IMSS, IMSS oportunidades, ISSSTE, PEMEX, and the Ministry of Defense). The MG records were identified by the code G70.0 of the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision. During 2010 there were 5,314,132 hospital discharges (4,254,312 adults). Among them, 587 (0.01%) were adults with MG (median age: 47 years, 60% women). Women with MG were significantly younger than men (median age: 37 vs. 54 years, respectively; p < 0.001). The median hospital stay was six days. The case fatality rate was 3.4%, without gender differences. Age was associated with the probability of death. We confirmed the bimodal age-gender distribution in MG. The in-hospital case fatality rate in Mexico is consistent with recent reports around the world.

  11. Embedded Systems

    Embedded system, micro-con- troller ... Embedded systems differ from general purpose computers in many ... Low cost: As embedded systems are extensively used in con- .... operating systems for the desktop computers where scheduling.

  12. The metallicity distribution of H I systems in the EAGLE cosmological simulations

    Rahmati, Alireza; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.

    2018-06-01

    The metallicity of strong H I systems, spanning from damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) to Lyman-limit systems (LLSs), is explored between z = 5 → 0 using the EAGLE high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of galaxy formation. The metallicities of LLSs and DLAs steadily increase with time in agreement with observations. DLAs are more metal rich than LLSs, although the metallicities in the LLS column density range (N_{H I }≈ 10^{17}-10^{20} cm^{-2}) are relatively flat, evolving from a median H I-weighted metallicity of {Z}≲ 10^{-2} Z_{⊙} at z = 3 to ≈10-0.5 Z⊙ by z = 0. The metal content of H I systems tracks the increasing stellar content of the Universe, holding ≈ 5 {per cent} of the integrated total metals released from stars at z = 0. We also consider partial LLS (pLLS, N_{H I}≈ 10^{16}-10^{17} cm^{-2}) metallicities, and find good agreement with Wotta et al. for the fraction of systems above (37 per cent) and below (63 per cent) 0.1 Z⊙. We also find a large dispersion of pLLS metallicities, although we do not reproduce the observed metallicity bimodality and instead we make the prediction that a larger sample will yield more pLLSs around 0.1 Z⊙. We underpredict the median metallicity of strong LLSs, and predict a population of Z 3 that are not observed, which may indicate more widespread early enrichment in the real Universe compared to EAGLE.

  13. Multiway modeling and analysis in stem cell systems biology

    Vandenberg Scott L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology refers to multidisciplinary approaches designed to uncover emergent properties of biological systems. Stem cells are an attractive target for this analysis, due to their broad therapeutic potential. A central theme of systems biology is the use of computational modeling to reconstruct complex systems from a wealth of reductionist, molecular data (e.g., gene/protein expression, signal transduction activity, metabolic activity, etc.. A number of deterministic, probabilistic, and statistical learning models are used to understand sophisticated cellular behaviors such as protein expression during cellular differentiation and the activity of signaling networks. However, many of these models are bimodal i.e., they only consider row-column relationships. In contrast, multiway modeling techniques (also known as tensor models can analyze multimodal data, which capture much more information about complex behaviors such as cell differentiation. In particular, tensors can be very powerful tools for modeling the dynamic activity of biological networks over time. Here, we review the application of systems biology to stem cells and illustrate application of tensor analysis to model collagen-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Results We applied Tucker1, Tucker3, and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC models to identify protein/gene expression patterns during extracellular matrix-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. In one case, we organized our data into a tensor of type protein/gene locus link × gene ontology category × osteogenic stimulant, and found that our cells expressed two distinct, stimulus-dependent sets of functionally related genes as they underwent osteogenic differentiation. In a second case, we organized DNA microarray data in a three-way tensor of gene IDs × osteogenic stimulus × replicates, and found that application of tensile strain to a

  14. Thermal systems; Systemes thermiques

    Lalot, S. [Valenciennes Univ. et du Hainaut Cambresis, LME, 59 (France); Lecoeuche, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Dept. GIP, 59 - Douai (France)]|[Lille Univ. des Sciences et Technologies, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ahmad, M.; Sallee, H.; Quenard, D. [CSTB, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gascoin, N.; Gillard, P.; Bernard, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, Explosion, Structure, 18 - Bourges (France); Gascoin, N.; Toure, Y. [Laboratoire Vision et Robotique, 18 - Bourges (France); Daniau, E.; Bouchez, M. [MBDA, 18 - Bourges (France); Dobrovicescu, A.; Stanciu, D. [Bucarest Univ. Polytechnique, Faculte de Genie Mecanique (Romania); Stoian, M. [Reims Univ. Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, UTAP/LTM, 51 (France); Bruch, A.; Fourmigue, J.F.; Colasson, S. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. Greth, 38 (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Voicu, I.; Mare, T.; Miriel, J. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), LGCGM, IUT, 35 - Rennes (France); Galanis, N. [Sherbrooke Univ., Genie Mecanique, QC (Canada); Nemer, M.; Clodic, D. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre Energetique et Procedes, 75 (France); Lasbet, Y.; Auvity, B.; Castelain, C.; Peerhossaini, H. [Nantes Univ., Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Thermocinetiquede Nantes, UMR-CNRS 6607, 44 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about thermal systems gathers 26 articles dealing with: neural model of a compact heat exchanger; experimental study and numerical simulation of the thermal behaviour of test-cells with walls made of a combination of phase change materials and super-insulating materials; hydraulic and thermal modeling of a supercritical fluid with pyrolysis inside a heated channel: pre-dimensioning of an experimental study; energy analysis of the heat recovery devices of a cryogenic system; numerical simulation of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of a supercritical CO{sub 2} flow inside a vertical tube; mixed convection inside dual-tube exchangers; development of a nodal approach with homogenization for the simulation of the brazing cycle of a heat exchanger; chaotic exchanger for the cooling of low temperature fuel cells; structural optimization of the internal fins of a cylindrical generator; a new experimental approach for the study of the local boiling inside the channels of exchangers with plates and fins; experimental study of the flow regimes of boiling hydrocarbons on a bundle of staggered tubes; energy study of heat recovery exchangers used in Claude-type refrigerating systems; general model of Carnot engine submitted to various operating constraints; the free pistons Stirling cogeneration system; natural gas supplied cogeneration system with polymer membrane fuel cell; influence of the CRN coating on the heat flux inside the tool during the wood unrolling process; transport and mixture of a passive scalar injected inside the wake of a Ahmed body; control of a laser welding-brazing process by infrared thermography; 2D self-adaptative method for contours detection: application to the images of an aniso-thermal jet; exergy and exergy-economical study of an 'Ericsson' engine-based micro-cogeneration system; simplified air-conditioning of telephone switching equipments; parametric study of the 'low-energy' individual dwelling; brief synthesis of

  15. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  16. EXPERT SYSTEMS

    Georgiana Marin; Mihai Catalin Andrei

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems, and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto...

  17. Inhibitors Alter the Stochasticity of Regulatory Proteins to Force Cells to Switch to the Other State in the Bistable System.

    Jhang, Wun-Sin; Lo, Shih-Chiang; Yeh, Chen-Chao; Shu, Che-Chi

    2017-06-30

    The cellular behaviors under the control of genetic circuits are subject to stochastic fluctuations, or noise. The stochasticity in gene regulation, far from a nuisance, has been gradually appreciated for its unusual function in cellular activities. In this work, with Chemical Master Equation (CME), we discovered that the addition of inhibitors altered the stochasticity of regulatory proteins. For a bistable system of a mutually inhibitory network, such a change of noise led to the migration of cells in the bimodal distribution. We proposed that the consumption of regulatory protein caused by the addition of inhibitor is not the only reason for pushing cells to the specific state; the change of the intracellular stochasticity is also the main cause for the redistribution. For the level of the inhibitor capable of driving 99% of cells, if there is no consumption of regulatory protein, 88% of cells were guided to the specific state. It implied that cells were pushed, by the inhibitor, to the specific state due to the change of stochasticity.

  18. Multibody Systems

    Wagner, Falko Jens

    1999-01-01

    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  19. System dynamics

    Kim, Do Hun; Mun, Tae Hun; Kim, Dong Hwan

    1999-02-01

    This book introduces systems thinking and conceptual tool and modeling tool of dynamics system such as tragedy of single thinking, accessible way of system dynamics, feedback structure and causal loop diagram analysis, basic of system dynamics modeling, causal loop diagram and system dynamics modeling, information delay modeling, discovery and application for policy, modeling of crisis of agricultural and stock breeding products, dynamic model and lesson in ecosystem, development and decadence of cites and innovation of education forward system thinking.

  20. Use of a continuous culture fermentation system to investigate the effect of GanedenBC30 (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) supplementation on pathogen survival in the human gut microbiota.

    Honda, Harue; Gibson, Glenn R; Farmer, Sean; Keller, David; McCartney, Anne L

    2011-02-01

    Single-stage continuous fermentation systems were employed to examine the effects of GanedenBC(30) supplementation on the human gastrointestinal microbiota in relation to pathogen challenge in vitro. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that GanedenBC(30) supplementation modified the microbial profiles in the fermentation systems compared with controls, with profiles clustering according to treatment. Overall, GanedenBC(30) supplementation did not elicit major changes in bacterial population counts in vitro, although notably higher Bcoa191 counts were seen following probiotic supplementation (compared to the controls). Pathogen challenge did not elicit significant modification of the microbial counts in vitro, although notably higher Clit135 counts were seen in the control system post-Clostridium difficile challenge than in the corresponding GanedenBC(30)-supplemented systems. Sporulation appears to be associated with the anti-microbial activity of GanedenBC(30), suggesting that a bi-modal lifecycle of GanedenBC(30)in vivo may lead to anti-microbial activity in distal regions of the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): deconstructing bimodality - I. Red ones and blue ones

    Taylor, Edward N.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Baldry, Ivan K.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brown, Michael J. I.; Colless, Matthew; Driver, Simon; Norberg, Peder; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Brough, Sarah; Cluver, Michelle E.; Gunawardhana, Madusha; Kelvin, Lee S.; Liske, Jochen; Conselice, Christopher J.; Croom, Scott; Foster, Caroline; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lara-Lopez, Maritza; Loveday, Jon

    2015-01-01

    We measure the mass functions for generically red and blue galaxies, using a z 8.7 field galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Our motivation is that, as we show, the dominant uncertainty in existing measurements stems from how `red' and `blue' galaxies have been selected/defined. Accordingly, we model our data as two naturally overlapping populations, each with their own mass function and colour-mass relation, which enables us characterize the two populations without having to specify a priori which galaxies are `red' and `blue'. Our results then provide the means to derive objective operational definitions for the terms `red' and `blue', which are based on the phenomenology of the colour-mass diagrams. Informed by this descriptive modelling, we show that (1) after accounting for dust, the stellar colours of `blue' galaxies do not depend strongly on mass; (2) the tight, flat `dead sequence' does not extend much below log M* ˜ 10.5; instead, (3) the stellar colours of `red' galaxies vary rather strongly with mass, such that lower mass `red' galaxies have bluer stellar populations; (4) below log M* ˜ 9.3, the `red' population dissolves into obscurity, and it becomes problematic to talk about two distinct populations; as a consequence, (5) it is hard to meaningfully constrain the shape, including the existence of an upturn, of the `red' galaxy mass function below log M* ˜ 9.3. Points 1-4 provide meaningful targets for models of galaxy formation and evolution to aim for.

  2. Tracking targeted bimodal nanovaccines: immune responses and routing in cells, tissue, and whole organism.

    Cruz, Luis J; Tacken, Paul J; Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; Srinivas, Mangala; Bonetto, Fernando; Weigelin, Bettina; Eich, Christina; de Vries, I Jolanda; Figdor, Carl G

    2014-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs), involved in the induction of immunity and currently exploited for antitumor immunotherapies. An optimized noninvasive imaging modality capable of determining and quantifying DC-targeted nanoparticle (NP) trajectories could provide valuable information regarding therapeutic vaccine outcome. Here, targeted poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) recognizing DC receptors were equipped with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) or gold nanoparticles with fluorescently labeled antigen. The fluorescent label allowed for rapid analysis and quantification of DC-specific uptake of targeted PLGA NPs in comparison to uptake by other cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that a fraction of the encapsulated antigen reached the lysosomal compartment of DCs, where SPIO and gold were already partially released. However, part of the PLGA NPs localized within the cytoplasm, as confirmed by confocal microscopy. DCs targeted with NPs carrying SPIO or fluorescent antigen were detected within lymph nodes as early as 1 h after injection by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Despite the fact that targeting did not markedly affect PLGA NP biodistribution on organism and tissue level, it increased delivery of NPs to DCs residing in peripheral lymph nodes and resulted in enhanced T cell proliferation. In conclusion, two imaging agents within a single carrier allows tracking of targeted PLGA NPs at the subcellular, cellular, and organismal levels, thereby facilitating the rational design of in vivo targeted vaccination strategies.

  3. Making mushy magma chambers in the lower continental crust: Cold storage and compositional bimodality

    Jackson, Matthew; Blundy, Jon; Sparks, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Increasing geological and geophysical evidence suggests that crustal magma reservoirs are normally low melt fraction 'mushes' rather than high melt fraction 'magma chambers'. Yet high melt fractions must form within these mush reservoirs to explain the observed flow and eruption of low crystallinity magmas. In many models, crystallinity is linked directly to temperature, with higher temperature corresponding to lower crystallinity (higher melt fraction). However, increasing temperature yields less evolved (silicic) melt composition for a given starting material. If mobile, low crystallinity magmas require high temperature, it is difficult to explain how they can have evolved composition. Here we use numerical modelling to show that reactive melt flow in a porous and permeable mush reservoir formed by the intrusion of numerous basaltic sills into the lower continental crust produces magma in high melt fraction (> 0.5) layers akin to conventional magma chambers. These magma-chamber-like layers contain evolved (silicic) melt compositions and form at low (close to solidus) temperatures near the top of the mush reservoir. Evolved magma is therefore kept in 'cold storage' at low temperature, but also at low crystallinity so the magma is mobile and can leave the mush reservoir. Buoyancy-driven reactive flow and accumulation of melt in the mush reservoir controls the temperature and composition of magma that can leave the reservoir. The modelling also shows that processes in lower crustal mush reservoirs produce mobile magmas that contain melt of either silicic or mafic composition. Intermediate melt compositions are present but are not within mobile magmas. Silicic melt compositions are found at high melt fraction within the magma-chamber like layers near the top of the mush reservoir. Mafic melt compositions are found at high melt fraction within the cooling sills. Melt elsewhere in the reservoir has intermediate composition, but remains trapped in the reservoir because the local melt fraction is too low to form a mobile magma. The model results are consistent with geochemical data suggesting that lower crustal magma reservoirs supply silicic and mafic melts to arc volcanoes, but intermediate magmas are formed by mixing in shallower reservoirs. We suggest here that lower crustal magma chambers primarily form in response to changes in bulk composition caused by melt migration and chemical reaction in a mush reservoir. This process is different to the conventional and widely applied models of magma chamber formation. Similar processes are likely to operate in shallow mush reservoirs, but will likely be further complicated by the presence of volatile phases, and mixing of different melt compositions sourced from deeper mush reservoirs.

  4. Energetic electrons at Uranus: Bimodal diffusion in a satellite limited radiation belt

    Selesnick, R.S.; Stone, E.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager 2 cosmic ray experiment observed intense electron fluxes in the middle magnetosphere of Uranus. High counting rates in several of the solid-state detectors precluded in the normal multiple coincidence analysis used for cosmic ray observations, and the authors have therefore performed laboratory measurements of the single-detector response to electrons. These calibrations allow a deconvolution from the counting rate data of the electron energy spectrum between energies of about 0.7 and 2.5 MeV. They present model fits to the differential intensity spectra from observations between L values of 6 and 15. The spectra are well represented by power laws in kinetic energy with spectral indices between 5 and 7. The phase space density at fixed values of the first two adiabatic invariants generally increases with L, indicative of an external source. However, there are also local minima associated with the satellites Ariel and Umbriel, indicating either a local source or an effective source due to nonconservation of the first two adiabatic invariants. For electrons which mirror at the highest magnetic latitudes, the local minimum associated with Ariel is radically displaced from the minimum L of that satellite by ∼0.5. The latitude variation of the satellite absorption efficiency predicts that if satellite losses are replenished primarily by radial diffusion there should be an increasing pitch angle anisotropy with decreasing L. The uniformity in the observed anisotropy outside the absorption regions then suggests that it is maintained by pitch angle diffusion. The effective source due to pitch angle diffusion is insufficient to cause the phase space density minimum associated with Ariel. Model solutions of the simultaneous radial and pitch angle diffusion equation show that the displacement of the high-latitude Ariel signature is also consistent with a larger effective source

  5. Impact of bimodal textural heterogeneity and connectivity on flow and transport through unsaturated mine waste rock

    Appels, Willemijn M.; Ireson, Andrew M.; Barbour, S. Lee

    2018-02-01

    Mine waste rock dumps have highly variable flowpaths caused by contrasting textures and geometry of materials laid down during the 'plug dumping' process. Numerical experiments were conducted to investigate how these characteristics control unsaturated zone flow and transport. Hypothetical profiles of inner-lift structure were generated with multiple point statistics and populated with hydraulic parameters of a finer and coarser material. Early arrival of water and solutes at the bottom of the lifts was observed after spring snowmelt. The leaching efficiency, a measure of the proportion of a resident solute that is flushed out of the rock via infiltrating snowmelt or rainfall, was consistently high, but modified by the structure and texture of the lift. Under high rates of net percolation during snowmelt, preferential flow was generated in coarse textured part of the rock, and solutes in the fine textured parts of the rock remained stagnant. Under lower rates of net percolation during the summer and fall, finer materialswere flushed too, and the spatial variability of solute concentration in the lift was reduced. Layering of lifts leads to lower flow rates at depth, minimizing preferential flow and increased leaching of resident solutes. These findings highlight the limited role of large scale connected geometries on focusing flow and transport under dynamic surface net percolation conditions. As such, our findings agree with recent numerical results from soil studies with Gaussian connected geometries as well as recent experimental findings, emphasizing the dominant role of matrix flow and high leaching efficiency in large waste rock dumps.

  6. Recovery of bimodal locomotion in the spinal-transected salamander, Pleurodeles waltlii.

    Chevallier, Stéphanie; Landry, Marc; Nagy, Frédéric; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie

    2004-10-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) analysis was used to provide an assessment of the recovery of locomotion in spinal-transected adult salamanders (Pleurodeles waltlii). EMG recordings were performed during swimming and overground stepping in the same animal before and at various times (up to 500 days) after a mid-trunk spinalization. Two-three weeks after spinalization, locomotor EMG activity was limited to the forelimbs and the body rostral to the transection. Thereafter, there was a return of the locomotor EMG activity at progressively more caudal levels below the transection. The animals reached stable locomotor patterns 3-4 months post-transection. Several locomotor parameters (cycle duration, burst duration, burst proportion, intersegmental phase lag, interlimb coupling) measured at various recovery times after spinalization were compared with those in intact animals. These comparisons revealed transient and long-term alterations in the locomotor parameters both above and below the transection site. These alterations were much more pronounced for swimming than for stepping and revealed differences in adaptive plasticity between the two locomotor networks. Recovered locomotor activity was immediately abolished by retransection at the site of the original spinalization, suggesting that the spinal cord caudal to the transection was reinnervated by descending brain and/or propriospinal axons, and that this regeneration contributed to the restoration of locomotor activity. Anatomical studies conducted in parallel further demonstrated that some of the regenerated axons came from glutamatergic and serotoninergic immunoreactive cells within the reticular formation.

  7. Exact results for the Kuramoto model with a bimodal frequency distribution

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Barreto, E.; Strogatz, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    weighted Lorentzians. Using an ansatz recently discov- ered by Ott and Antonsen, we show that in this case the infinite-dimensional problem reduces exactly to a flow in four dimensions. Depending on the parameters and initial conditions, the long-term dynamics evolves to one of three states: incoherence......, where all the oscillators are desynchronized; partial synchrony, where a macro- scopic group of phase-locked oscillators coexists with a sea of desynchronized ones; and a standing wave state, where two counter-rotating groups of phase-locked oscillators emerge. Analytical results are presented...

  8. Ebolavirus VP35 uses a bimodal strategy to bind dsRNA for innate immune suppression

    Kimberlin, Christopher R.; Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Li, Sheng; Woods, Jr., Virgil L.; MacRae, Ian J.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann (Scripps); (UCSD)

    2010-03-12

    Ebolavirus causes a severe hemorrhagic fever and is divided into five distinct species, of which Reston ebolavirus is uniquely nonpathogenic to humans. Disease caused by ebolavirus is marked by early immunosuppression of innate immune signaling events, involving silencing and sequestration of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by the viral protein VP35. Here we present unbound and dsRNA-bound crystal structures of the dsRNA-binding domain of Reston ebolavirus VP35. The structures show that VP35 forms an unusual, asymmetric dimer on dsRNA binding, with each of the monomers binding dsRNA in a different way: one binds the backbone whereas the other caps the terminus. Additional SAXS, DXMS, and dsRNA-binding experiments presented here support a model of cooperative dsRNA recognition in which binding of the first monomer assists binding of the next monomer of the oligomeric VP35 protein. This work illustrates how ebolavirus VP35 could mask key recognition sites of molecules such as RIG-I, MDA-5, and Dicer to silence viral dsRNA in infection.

  9. A Bimodal Hybrid Model for Time-Dependent Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman; Shoaeifar, Nasser; Shoaeifar, Parva

    2018-03-01

    The evaluation of evidence provided by geological studies and historical catalogs indicates that in some seismic regions and faults, multiple large earthquakes occur in cluster. Then, the occurrences of large earthquakes confront with quiescence and only the small-to-moderate earthquakes take place. Clustering of large earthquakes is the most distinguishable departure from the assumption of constant hazard of random occurrence of earthquakes in conventional seismic hazard analysis. In the present study, a time-dependent recurrence model is proposed to consider a series of large earthquakes that occurs in clusters. The model is flexible enough to better reflect the quasi-periodic behavior of large earthquakes with long-term clustering, which can be used in time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard analysis with engineering purposes. In this model, the time-dependent hazard results are estimated by a hazard function which comprises three parts. A decreasing hazard of last large earthquake cluster and an increasing hazard of the next large earthquake cluster, along with a constant hazard of random occurrence of small-to-moderate earthquakes. In the final part of the paper, the time-dependent seismic hazard of the New Madrid Seismic Zone at different time intervals has been calculated for illustrative purpose.

  10. Cross validation of bi-modal health-related stress assessment

    van den Broek, Egon; van der Sluis, Frans; Dijkstra, Ton

    This study explores the feasibility of objective and ubiquitous stress assessment. 25 post-traumatic stress disorder patients participated in a controlled storytelling (ST) study and an ecologically valid reliving (RL) study. The two studies were meant to represent an early and a late therapy

  11. Segmentation of Pollen Tube Growth Videos Using Dynamic Bi-Modal Fusion and Seam Carving.

    Tambo, Asongu L; Bhanu, Bir

    2016-05-01

    The growth of pollen tubes is of significant interest in plant cell biology, as it provides an understanding of internal cell dynamics that affect observable structural characteristics such as cell diameter, length, and growth rate. However, these parameters can only be measured in experimental videos if the complete shape of the cell is known. The challenge is to accurately obtain the cell boundary in noisy video images. Usually, these measurements are performed by a scientist who manually draws regions-of-interest on the images displayed on a computer screen. In this paper, a new automated technique is presented for boundary detection by fusing fluorescence and brightfield images, and a new efficient method of obtaining the final cell boundary through the process of Seam Carving is proposed. This approach takes advantage of the nature of the fusion process and also the shape of the pollen tube to efficiently search for the optimal cell boundary. In video segmentation, the first two frames are used to initialize the segmentation process by creating a search space based on a parametric model of the cell shape. Updates to the search space are performed based on the location of past segmentations and a prediction of the next segmentation.Experimental results show comparable accuracy to a previous method, but significant decrease in processing time. This has the potential for real time applications in pollen tube microscopy.

  12. 2D hydrodynamic simulations of super star cluster winds in a bimodal regime

    Wünsch, Richard; Palouš, Jan; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Silich, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 324, 2-4 (2009), s. 219-223 ISSN 0004-640X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : stellar winds * star clusters * dynamics of ISM Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.404, year: 2009

  13. Bi-Modal Model for Neutron Emissions from PuO2 and MOX Holdup

    Menlove, Howard; Lafleur, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of uranium and plutonium holdup in plants during process activity and for decommissioning is important for nuclear safeguards and material control. The amount of plutonium and uranium holdup in glove-boxes, pipes, ducts, and other containers has been measured for several decades using both neutron and gamma-ray techniques. For the larger containers such as hot cells and glove-boxes that contain processing equipment, the gamma-ray techniques are limited by self-shielding in the sample as well as gamma absorption in the equipment and associated shielding. The neutron emission is more penetrating and has been used extensively to measure the holdup for the large facilities such as the MOX processing and fabrication facilities in Japan and Europe. In some case the totals neutron emission rates are used to determine the holdup mass and in other cases the coincidence rates are used such as at the PFPF MOX fabrication plant in Japan. The neutron emission from plutonium and MOX has 3 primary source terms: 1) Spontaneous fission (SF) from the plutonium isotopes, 2) The (α,n) reactions from the plutonium alpha particle emission reacting with the oxygen and other impurities, and 3) Neutron multiplication (M) in the plutonium and uranium as a result of neutrons created by the first two sources. The spontaneous fission yield per gram is independent of thickness, whereas, the above sources 2) and 3) are very dependent on the thickness of the deposit. As the effective thickness of the deposit becomes thin relative to the alpha particle range, the (α,n) reactions and neutrons from multiplication (M) approach zero. In any glove-box, there will always be two primary modes of holdup accumulation, namely direct powder contact and non-contact by air dispersal. These regimes correspond to surfaces in the glove-box that have come into direct contact with the process MOX powder versus surface areas that have not had direct contact with the powder. The air dispersal of PuO 2 particles has been studied for several decades by health physicists, because the primary health hazard of plutonium is breathing the airborne particles. The air dispersal mechanism results from the smaller particles in the top layer of powder that are lifted into the air by the electrostatic charge buildup from the alpha decay process, and the air convection carries the particles to new more distant locations. If there is open plutonium powder in a glove-box, the surfaces at more distant locations will become contaminated over time. The range of an alpha particle in a solid or powder is a function of the particle energy, the material density, and the atomic number A of the material. The average energy of a plutonium alpha particle is ∼5.2 MeV and the range in air is ∼37 mm. The range in other materials can be estimated via the Bragg-Kleenman equation. For plutonium, A is 94, and the typical density for a single particle is ∼11.5 g/cm 3 , but for a powder, the density would be less because of the air packing fraction. The significance of the small diameter is that the range of the alpha particle is ∼50 μm for powder density 2.5 and significantly less for a single particle with density 11.5, so the thin deposit of separate small particles will have a greatly reduced (α,n) yield. The average alpha transit length to the surface in the isolated MOX particle would be < 2.5 μm; whereas, the range of the alpha particle is much longer. Thus, most of the alpha particles would escape from the MOX particle and be absorbed by the walls and air. The air dispersal particles will have access to a large surface area that includes the walls, whereas, the powder contact surface area will be orders of magnitude smaller. Thus, the vast majority of the glove-box surface area does not produce the full (α,n) reaction neutron yield, even from the O 2 in the PuO 2 as well as any impurity contamination such as H 2 O. To obtain a more quantitative estimate of the neutron (α,n) yields as a function of holdup deposit thickness, we have used MCNPX calculations to estimate the absorption of alpha particles in PuO 2 holdup deposits. The powder thickness was varied from 0.1 μm to 5000 μm and the alpha particle escape probability was calculated. As would be expected, as the thickness approaches zero, the escape probability approaches 1.0, and as the thickness gets much greater than the alpha particle range (∼50 μm), the escape probability becomes small. Typically, the neutron holdup calibration measurement are performed using sealed containers of thick MOX that has all 3 sources of neutrons [SF, (α,n), and M], and no significant impurities. Thus, the calibration counting rates need to include corrections for M and (α,n) yields that are different for the holdup compared with the calibration samples. If totals neutron counting is used for the holdup measurements, the variability of the (α,n) term needs to be considered

  14. Unimodal Versus Bimodal EEG-fMRI Neurofeedback of a Motor Imagery Task

    Lorraine Perronnet; Lorraine Perronnet; Lorraine Perronnet; Lorraine Perronnet; Lorraine Perronnet; Anatole Lécuyer; Anatole Lécuyer; Marsel Mano; Marsel Mano; Marsel Mano; Marsel Mano; Marsel Mano; Elise Bannier; Elise Bannier; Elise Bannier

    2017-01-01

    Neurofeedback is a promising tool for brain rehabilitation and peak performance training. Neurofeedback approaches usually rely on a single brain imaging modality such as EEG or fMRI. Combining these modalities for neurofeedback training could allow to provide richer information to the subject and could thus enable him/her to achieve faster and more specific self-regulation. Yet unimodal and multimodal neurofeedback have never been compared before. In the present work, we introduce a simultan...

  15. Unimodal Versus Bimodal EEG-fMRI Neurofeedback of a Motor Imagery Task

    Perronnet, Lorraine; Lécuyer, Anatole; Mano, Marsel; Bannier, Elise; Lotte, Fabien; Clerc, Maureen; Barillot, Christian

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Neurofeedback is a promising tool for brain rehabilitation and peak performance training. Neurofeedback approaches usually rely on a single brain imaging modality such as EEG or fMRI. Combining these modalities for neurofeedback training could allow to provide richer information to the subject and could thus enable him/her to achieve faster and more specific self-regulation. Yet unimodal and multimodal neurofeedback have never been compared before. In the present work,...

  16. Non-Invasive Detection of Lung Inflammation by Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Using Bimodal Liposomes.

    Desu, Hari R; Wood, George C; Thoma, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome results in respiratory obstruction and severe lung inflammation. Critical characteristics of ALI are alveolar edema, infiltration of leukocytes (neutrophils and monocytes), release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines into broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, and activation of integrin receptors. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate non-invasive detection of lung inflammation using integrin receptor targeted fluorescence liposomes. An inflammation similar to that observed in ALI was elicited in rodents by intra-tracheal instillation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). Cyclic arginine glycine-(D)-aspartic acid-peptide (cRGD-peptide) grafted fluorescence liposomes were administered to ALI induced male Sprague-Dawley rats for targeting lung integrin receptors. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) was applied for visualization and quantitation of lung inflammation. NIRFI signals were correlated with inflammatory cellular and biochemical markers of lungs. A positive correlation was observed between NIRF signals and lung inflammation markers. Compared to control group, an intense NIRF signal was observed in ALI induced rats in the window 6-24 h post-IL-1beta instillation. Interaction of integrin receptors with targeted liposomes was assumed to contribute to intense NIRF signal. RT-PCR studies showed an elevated lung expression of alphavbeta5 integrin receptors, 12 h post-IL-1beta instillation. In vitro studies demonstrated integrin receptor specificity of targeted liposomes. These targeted liposomes showed binding to alphavbeta5 integrin receptors expressed on alveolar cells. Non-invasive detection of lung inflammation was demonstrated using a combination of integrin receptor targeting and NIRFI.

  17. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks

    Emma eSalo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or simple (speaker-gender or font-shade discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley’s model modality atypical, that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks.

  18. Bimodal character of cyclone climatology in the Bay of Bengal modulated by monsoon seasonal cycle

    Li, Z.; Yu, W.; Li, T.; Murty, V.S.N.; Fredolin, T.

    (WSP). TCs draw intense scientific and social interest concerns due to the following three reasons. Firstly, they contribute importantly to the overall summer season rainfall in regions such as WNP. Secondly they play a key role in modulating.... 2005; Emanuel 2005; Landsea et al. 2006; Li et al. 2010). The BoB hosts the majority of North Indian Ocean (NIO) TCs. Statistical analysis reveals that there are a total of 150 TCs during the period of 1981-2009 in the NIO, among which about 2...

  19. Bimodal polyethylenes form one pot synthesis : effect of flow induced crystallization on physical properties

    Kukalyekar, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ultimate properties of a polymer are governed not only by the chemical structure of the polymer chains but also by the processing conditions applied during fabrication of the final product, in particular as a result of orientation of long-chain molecules. The intrinsic properties of a polymer

  20. Bimodal Porous Scaffolds by Sequential Electro spinning of Poly(glycolic acid) with Sucrose Particles

    Wulkersdorfer, B.; Kao, K.K.; Agopian, V.G.; Ahn, A.; Dunn, J.C.; Wu, B.M.; Stelzner, M.; Kao, K.K.; Agopian, K.J.; Dunn, J.C.; Wu, B.M.; Stelzner, M.; Dunn, J.C.; Wu, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Electro spinning is a method to produce fine, bio polymer mesh with a three-dimensional architecture that mimics native extra-cellular matrix. Due to the small fiber diameter created in this process, conventional electro spun scaffolds have pore sizes smaller than the diameter of most cells. These scaffolds have limited application in tissue engineering due to poor cell penetration. We developed a hybrid electro spinning/particulate leaching technique to create scaffolds with increased porosity and improved cellular ingrowth. Poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) and a sucrose-ethanol suspension were electro spun in equal, alternating sequences at intervals of one, two, and ten minutes each. The scaffolds revealed fiber mesh with micropores of 10 μm and uniformly distributed sucrose particles. Particulate leaching of sucrose from the one- or two-minute scaffolds revealed honeycomb structures with interconnected macro pores between 50 and 250 μm. Sucrose leaching from the ten-minute scaffolds resulted in laminated structures with isolated macro pores between 200 and 350 μm. Macro pore size was directly proportional to the duration of the sucrose spinning interval. After 24 hours of cell culture, conventionally spun scaffolds demonstrated no cellular penetration. Conversely, the PGA/sucrose scaffolds demonstrated deep cellular penetration. This hybrid technique represents a novel method of generating electro spun scaffolds with interconnected pores suitable for cellular ingrowth.