Feedback control modeling of plasma position and current during intense heating in ISX-B
Charlton, L.A.; Swain, D.W.; Neilson, G.H.
1979-08-01
The ISX-B Tokamak at ORNL is designed to have 1.8 MW (and eventually 3 MW) of neutral beam power injected to heat the plasma. This power may raise the anti β of the plasma to over 5% in less than 50 msec if the plasma is MHD stable. The results of a numerical simulation of the feedback control system and poloidal coil power supplies necessary to control the resulting noncircular (D-shaped or elliptical) plasma are presented. The resulting feedback control system is shown to be straightforward, although nonlinear voltage-current dependence is assumed in the power supplies. The required power supplied to the poloidal coils in order to contain the plasma under the high heating rates is estimated
Theoretical study on a multivariate feedback control of a sodium-heated steam generator
Takahashi, R.; Maruyama, Y.; Oikawa, T.
1984-01-01
This paper applies the connection of a multivariate feedback controller with a state estimator to a 1-MW sodium-heated steam generator for LMFBR theoretically, to obtain a control strategy which emphasizes, from the view point of safety and availability of the FBR plant, that a superheat of 30 0 C should be required for the evaporator steam. This involves a trial to study the feasibility for the estimation of such an inaccessible variable as the dry-out location of tubes and utilize the state estimate to design a feedback controller of steam generators. The Kalman filter tested was found to generate reasonable estimates of the transient process variables of the steam generator and can provide a major advantage of regulating steam condition of the system even in the presence of contamination by a rather high level of measurement noise in the view point of economic uses of micro- and/or minicomputers. (orig.)
Feedback control of plasma density and heating power for steady state operation in LHD
Kamio, Shuji, E-mail: kamio@nifs.ac.jp; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Seki, Tetsuo; Saito, Kenji; Seki, Ryosuke; Nomura, Goro; Mutoh, Takashi
2015-12-15
Highlights: • We upgraded a control system for steady state operation in LHD. • This system contains gas fueling system and ICRF power control system. • Automatic power boost system is also attached for stable operation. • As a result, we achieved the long pulse up to 48 min in the electron density of more than 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. - Abstract: For steady state operation, the feedback control of plasma density and heating power system was developed in the Large Helical Device (LHD). In order to achieve a record of the long pulse discharge, stable plasma density and heating power are needed. This system contains the radio frequency (RF) heating power control, interlocks, gas fueling, automatic RF phase control, ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna position control, and graphical user interface (GUI). Using the density control system, the electron density was controlled to the target density and using the RF heating power control system, the RF power injection could be stable. As a result of using this system, we achieved the long pulse up to 48 min in the electron density of more than 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. Further, the ICRF hardware experienced no critical accidents during the 17th LHD experiment campaign in 2013.
Feedback control and heat transfer measurements in a Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell
Vial, M.; Hernández, R. H.
2017-07-01
We report experimental results on the heat transfer and instability onset of a Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell of aspect ratios 6:3:1 filled with a high Prandtl aqueous solution of glycerol under feedback control. We investigate the transient and stationary response of both local temperature readings and heat transfer fluxes on the Rayleigh Bénard cell in both conductive and convective states when we perform two independent feedback control actions on both hot and cold walls. We evaluate the performance of both controllers to maintain a temperature gradient independently if the system is below or above the convection threshold. As the convection cell can be rotated at 180° about the shorter axis of the cell, it was possible to perform transitions between thermal conduction and convection regimes and vice versa under a constant temperature difference maintained by both independent controllers. The experimental setup provided an accurate measurement of the critical Rayleigh number and the evolution of the Nusselt number as a function of the Rayleigh number in the moderately supercritical regime (R a cellular convection pattern formed by 6 transverse rolls throughout the range of Rayleigh numbers.
Output feedback control of heat transport mechanisms in parabolic distributed solar collectors
Elmetennani, Shahrazed
2016-08-05
This paper presents an output feedback control for distributed parabolic solar collectors. The controller aims at forcing the outlet temperature to track a desired reference in order to manage the produced heat despite the external disturbances. The proposed control strategy is derived using the distributed physical model of the system to avoid the loss of information due to model approximation schemes. The system dynamics are driven to follow reference dynamics defined by a transport equation with a constant velocity, which allows to control the transient behavior and the response time of the closed loop. The designed controller depends only on the accessible measured variables which makes it easy for real time implementation and useful for industrial plants. Simulation results show the efficiency of the reference tracking closed loop under different working conditions.
Fault Tolerant Feedback Control
Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.
2001-01-01
An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....
Eleiwi, Fadi; N'Doye, Ibrahima; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem
2015-01-01
In this paper, the problem of stabilization and production rate reference tracking for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) system is addressed. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic and exponential stabilization for DCMD system are presented using the Gronwall-Bellman lemma and Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) approaches, respectively. A nonlinear observer is then proposed to estimate the temperature distribution among the DCMD domain. This contributes to propose a reference production rate control design for the DCMD process via observer-based output control approach. Finally, numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Eleiwi, Fadi
2015-09-21
In this paper, the problem of stabilization and production rate reference tracking for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) system is addressed. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic and exponential stabilization for DCMD system are presented using the Gronwall-Bellman lemma and Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) approaches, respectively. A nonlinear observer is then proposed to estimate the temperature distribution among the DCMD domain. This contributes to propose a reference production rate control design for the DCMD process via observer-based output control approach. Finally, numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Output feedback control of heat transport mechanisms in parabolic distributed solar collectors
Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Kirati, Taous Meriem Laleg
2016-01-01
. The proposed control strategy is derived using the distributed physical model of the system to avoid the loss of information due to model approximation schemes. The system dynamics are driven to follow reference dynamics defined by a transport equation with a
Feedback control of resistive instabilities
White, R.B.; Rutherford, P.H.; Furth, H.P.; Park, W.; Liu Chen
1986-01-01
Resistive instabilities are responsible for much of the global behavior and the determination of the possible domains of operation of Tokamaks. Their successful control could have definite advantages, even making available new regimes of operation. Elimination of sawtoothing might allow operation with higher currents and more peaked current profiles, with q on axis well below unity. In this work different feedback schemes are explored. Simple analytical derivations of the effects of local heating and current drive feedback are presented. Although control of modes with m ≥ 2 is fairly straighforward, the control of the m = 1 mode is more difficult because of its proximity to ideal instability. The most promising scheme utilizes high energy trapped particles
Feedback control of resistive instabilities
White, R.B.; Rutherford, P.H.; Furth, H.P.; Park, W.; Chen, L.
1985-12-01
Resistive instabilities are responsible for much of the global behavior and the determination of the possible domains of operation of tokamaks. Their successful control could have definite advantages, even making available new regimes of operation. Elimination of sawtoothing might allow operation with higher currents and more peaked current profiles, with q on axis well below unity. In this work different feedback schemes are explored. Simple analytical derivations of the effects of local heating and current drive feedback are presented. Although control of modes with m greater than or equal to 2 is fairly straightforward, the control of the m = 1 mode is more difficult because of its proximity to ideal instability. The most promising scheme utilizes high energy trapped particles. 20 refs., 3 figs
Yiyun Huang
2006-01-01
In order to make a research on long pulse or even steady state operation with non-inductive drive in plasma discharge, a new feedback control scheme instead of the previous one has been designed and operated in HT-7 [HT-7 team presented by J. Li, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 42 (2) (2000) 135-146] Tokamak experiment, 2004. Consumption of iron-core transformer magnetic flux (MFT) is feedback controlled for the first time by power of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) P LH , when the Ohmic-heating circuit current can maintain the plasma current I P constant with another feedback control loop, which make MFT evolve at alternating-change state to avoid flux saturation. Plasma current I P can be maintained steadily up to 120s in this operation mode at reduced plasma parameters (I P ∼50-100KA, average density n-bar e =0.4-0.5x10 19 m -3 , P LH =100-200KW). Design and experimental results are presented in the paper, which including control model analysis, configurations of control system and MFT feedback control experiments in HT-7. The high voltage power supply (HVPS) of LHCD is the main controller that regulates the LHCD power into the plasma to control the MFT
FEEDBACK AND LOGISTICS CONTROLLING
Mehesne Berek Szilvia
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The following things led to that the feedback, the supervision and improvement of the processes have become more pronounced: continuous rise in the importance of logistics; increase in complexity of its content; its activity becoming more complex. These activities are necessary for the optimum information supply. The intensification of market competition requires the corporations to possess exact and up-to-date information about their activities. Complexity of the logistics system presumes a parallel application of an effective feedback, supervision and management system simultaneously with the given logistics system. The indispensability of logistics is also proved by the fact that it can be found sporadically (in the form of logistics departments or in a complex way in case of each organization. The logistical approach means a huge support in the management since it contains the complexity, the handling as a unit in order to ensure a harmony of the different corporate departments and part activities. In addition to the professional application of a logistics system, there is an opportunity to coordinate the relations inside an organization as well as between the organizations and to handle them as a unit. The sine qua non of the success of logistical processes is a harmony of the devices applied. The controlling system is a device for feeding back the processes of a corporate system. By means of the checkpoints intercalated into the processes, the logistics controlling provides information for the leadership which contributes even more to the complex approach of logistics system. By dint of the logistics controlling, the monitoring and coordination of every logistical part activity become possible with the help of information supply ensured by the logistics controlling. The logistics controlling reviews, assesses and coordinates; these activities have an effect on the cost and income management. Its reason is to be searched in the built
Dynamics of nonlinear feedback control
Snippe, H.P.; Hateren, J.H. van
2007-01-01
Feedback control in neural systems is ubiquitous. Here we study the mathematics of nonlinear feedback control. We compare models in which the input is multiplied by a dynamic gain (multiplicative control) with models in which the input is divided by a dynamic attenuation (divisive control). The gain signal (resp. the attenuation signal) is obtained through a concatenation of an instantaneous nonlinearity and a linear low-pass filter operating on the output of the feedback loop. For input step...
Lopez Alvarez, Hilario; Madrigal Espinosa, Guadalupe [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1996-12-31
The study that is presented corresponds to the analysis, design and development of a pre-feedbacked control system for the superheated steam temperature regulation in the heat recovery units of a combined cycle thermoelectric power plant. The designs of the feedback controller and the pre-feedback control system were implemented based in a linear model of the tempering zone. This linear model was obtained through the application of parametric identification techniques to the non-linear mathematical model of a combined cycle power plant. [Espanol] El estudio que se presenta corresponde al analisis, diseno y desarrollo de un sistema de control pre-retroalimentado para regular la temperatura de vapor sobrecalentado en los recuperadores de calor de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado. Los disenos del controlador retroalimentado y del sistema de control prealimentado se realizaron con base en un modelo lineal de la zona de atemperacion. Este modelo lineal se obtuvo aplicando tecnicas de identificacion parametrica al modelo matematico no-lineal de una central de ciclo combinado.
Lopez Alvarez, Hilario; Madrigal Espinosa, Guadalupe [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1997-12-31
The study that is presented corresponds to the analysis, design and development of a pre-feedbacked control system for the superheated steam temperature regulation in the heat recovery units of a combined cycle thermoelectric power plant. The designs of the feedback controller and the pre-feedback control system were implemented based in a linear model of the tempering zone. This linear model was obtained through the application of parametric identification techniques to the non-linear mathematical model of a combined cycle power plant. [Espanol] El estudio que se presenta corresponde al analisis, diseno y desarrollo de un sistema de control pre-retroalimentado para regular la temperatura de vapor sobrecalentado en los recuperadores de calor de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado. Los disenos del controlador retroalimentado y del sistema de control prealimentado se realizaron con base en un modelo lineal de la zona de atemperacion. Este modelo lineal se obtuvo aplicando tecnicas de identificacion parametrica al modelo matematico no-lineal de una central de ciclo combinado.
Dynamics of nonlinear feedback control
Snippe, H.P.; Hateren, J.H. van
Feedback control in neural systems is ubiquitous. Here we study the mathematics of nonlinear feedback control. We compare models in which the input is multiplied by a dynamic gain (multiplicative control) with models in which the input is divided by a dynamic attenuation (divisive control). The gain
I. K. Khalid
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A linear stability analysis has been carried out to examine the effect of internal heat source on the onset of Rayleigh–Bénard convection in a rotating nanofluid layer with double diffusive coefficients, namely, Soret and Dufour, in the presence of feedback control. The system is heated from below and the model used for the nanofluid layer incorporates the effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion. Three types of bounding systems of the model have been considered which are as follows: both the lower and upper bounding surfaces are free, the lower is rigid and the upper is free, and both of them are rigid. The eigenvalue equations of the perturbed state were obtained from a normal mode analysis and solved using the Galerkin method. It is found that the effect of internal heat source and Soret parameter destabilizes the nanofluid layer system while increasing the Coriolis force, feedback control, and Dufour parameter helps to postpone the onset of convection. Elevating the modified density ratio hastens the instability in the system and there is no significant effect of modified particle density in a nanofluid system.
Linear feedback controls the essentials
Haidekker, Mark A
2013-01-01
The design of control systems is at the very core of engineering. Feedback controls are ubiquitous, ranging from simple room thermostats to airplane engine control. Helping to make sense of this wide-ranging field, this book provides a new approach by keeping a tight focus on the essentials with a limited, yet consistent set of examples. Analysis and design methods are explained in terms of theory and practice. The book covers classical, linear feedback controls, and linear approximations are used when needed. In parallel, the book covers time-discrete (digital) control systems and juxtapos
Dynamics of nonlinear feedback control.
Snippe, H P; van Hateren, J H
2007-05-01
Feedback control in neural systems is ubiquitous. Here we study the mathematics of nonlinear feedback control. We compare models in which the input is multiplied by a dynamic gain (multiplicative control) with models in which the input is divided by a dynamic attenuation (divisive control). The gain signal (resp. the attenuation signal) is obtained through a concatenation of an instantaneous nonlinearity and a linear low-pass filter operating on the output of the feedback loop. For input steps, the dynamics of gain and attenuation can be very different, depending on the mathematical form of the nonlinearity and the ordering of the nonlinearity and the filtering in the feedback loop. Further, the dynamics of feedback control can be strongly asymmetrical for increment versus decrement steps of the input. Nevertheless, for each of the models studied, the nonlinearity in the feedback loop can be chosen such that immediately after an input step, the dynamics of feedback control is symmetric with respect to increments versus decrements. Finally, we study the dynamics of the output of the control loops and find conditions under which overshoots and undershoots of the output relative to the steady-state output occur when the models are stimulated with low-pass filtered steps. For small steps at the input, overshoots and undershoots of the output do not occur when the filtering in the control path is faster than the low-pass filtering at the input. For large steps at the input, however, results depend on the model, and for some of the models, multiple overshoots and undershoots can occur even with a fast control path.
Microscale Heat Conduction Models and Doppler Feedback
Hawari, Ayman I.; Ougouag, Abderrafi
2015-01-01
The objective of this project is to establish an approach for providing the fundamental input that is needed to estimate the magnitude and time-dependence of the Doppler feedback mechanism in Very High Temperature reactors. This mechanism is the foremost contributor to the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature reactors that use fuel based on Tristructural-Isotropic (TRISO) coated particles. Therefore, its correct prediction is essential to the conduct of safety analyses for these reactors. Since the effect is directly dependent on the actual temperature reached by the fuel during transients, the underlying phenomena of heat deposition, heat transfer and temperature rise must be correctly predicted. To achieve the above objective, this project will explore an approach that accounts for lattice effects as well as local temperature variations and the correct definition of temperature and related local effects.
Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.
2008-01-01
An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) bea...
PID control with robust disturbance feedback control
Kawai, Fukiko; Vinther, Kasper; Andersen, Palle
2015-01-01
Disturbance Feedback Control (DFC) is a technique, originally proposed by Fuji Electric, for augmenting existing control systems with an extra feedback for attenuation of disturbances and model errors. In this work, we analyze the robustness and performance of a PID-based control system with DFC...... and performance (if such gains exist). Finally, two different simulation case studies are evaluated and compared. Our numerical studies indicate that better performance can be achieved with the proposed method compared with a conservatively tuned PID controller and comparable performance can be achieved when...... compared with an H-infinity controller....
Controlling chaotic systems via nonlinear feedback control
Park, Ju H.
2005-01-01
In this article, a new method to control chaotic systems is proposed. Using Lyapunov method, we design a nonlinear feedback controller to make the controlled system be stabilized. A numerical example is given to illuminate the design procedure and advantage of the result derived
Raaberg, Martin; Velut, Stephane; Bari, Siavosh Amanat
2010-10-15
The project goal is to evaluate and describe how Iterative Feedback Tuning (IFT) can be used to tune controllers in the typical control loops in heat- and power plants. There are only a few practical studies carried out for IFT and they are not really relevant for power and heat processes. It is the practical problems in implementing the IFT and the result of trimming that is the focus of this project. The project will start with theoretical studies of the IFT-method, then realization and simple simulations in scilab. The IFT equations are then implemented in Freelance 2000, an ABB control system, for practical tests on a SISO- and a MIMO-process. By performing reproducible experiments on the process and analyze the results IFT can adjust the controller parameters to minimize a cost function that represents the control goal. The project selected for SISO experiments a pressure controller in an oil transportation system. By controlling the valve position of a control valve for the reversal to the supply tank, the pressure in the oil transport system is regulated. A disturbance in oil pressure can be achieved by changing the position of a valve that lets oil through to the day tank. The selected MIMO-process is a pre-heater in a degassing process. In this process, a valve on the secondary side is utilized to control the flow in the secondary system. A valve on the primary side is utilized to control the district heating water flow through the heat exchanger to control the temperature on the secondary side. An increased secondary flow increases the heat demand and thus requiring an increase in primary flow to maintain the secondary side outlet temperature. This is the cross-coupling responsible for why it is an advantage to consider the process as multi-variable. Using the IFT method, the two original PID-controllers and a feed-forward controller is tuned simultaneously. IFT-method was difficult to implement but worked well in both simulations and in real processes
Nonlinear H-ininity state feedback controllers:
Cromme, Marc; Møller-Pedersen, Jens; Pagh Petersen, Martin
1997-01-01
From a general point of view the state feedback H∞ suboptimal control problem is reasonably well understood. Important problems remain with regard to a priori information of the size of the neighbourhood where the local state feedback H∞ problem is solvable. This problem is solved regionally (sem...... (semiglobally) in this paper, and the obtained control laws are implemented in MAPLE...
Multivariable Feedback Control of Nuclear Reactors
Rune Moen
1982-07-01
Full Text Available Multivariable feedback control has been adapted for optimal control of the spatial power distribution in nuclear reactor cores. Two design techniques, based on the theory of automatic control, were developed: the State Variable Feedback (SVF is an application of the linear optimal control theory, and the Multivariable Frequency Response (MFR is based on a generalization of the traditional frequency response approach to control system design.
Smart building temperature control using occupant feedback
Gupta, Santosh K.
This work was motivated by the problem of computing optimal commonly-agreeable thermal settings in spaces with multiple occupants. In this work we propose algorithms that take into account each occupant's preferences along with the thermal correlations between different zones in a building, to arrive at optimal thermal settings for all zones of the building in a coordinated manner. In the first part of this work we incorporate active occupant feedback to minimize aggregate user discomfort and total energy cost. User feedback is used to estimate the users comfort range, taking into account possible inaccuracies in the feedback. The control algorithm takes the energy cost into account, trading it off optimally with the aggregate user discomfort. A lumped heat transfer model based on thermal resistance and capacitance is used to model a multi-zone building. We provide a stability analysis and establish convergence of the proposed solution to a desired temperature that minimizes the sum of energy cost and aggregate user discomfort. However, for convergence to the optimal, sufficient separation between the user feedback frequency and the dynamics of the system is necessary; otherwise, the user feedback provided do not correctly reflect the effect of current control input value on user discomfort. The algorithm is further extended using singular perturbation theory to determine the minimum time between successive user feedback solicitations. Under sufficient time scale separation, we establish convergence of the proposed solution. Simulation study and experimental runs on the Watervliet based test facility demonstrates performance of the algorithm. In the second part we develop a consensus algorithm for attaining a common temperature set-point that is agreeable to all occupants of a zone in a typical multi-occupant space. The information on the comfort range functions is indeed held privately by each occupant. Using occupant differentiated dynamically adjusted prices as
Feedback control of coupled-bunch instabilities
Fox, J.D.; Eisen, N.; Hindi, H.; Linscott, I.; Oxoby, G.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Serio, M.
1993-05-01
The next generation of synchrotron light sources and particle accelerators will require active feedback systems to control multi-bunch instabilities. Stabilizing hundreds or thousands of potentially unstable modes in these accelerator designs presents many technical challenges. Feedback systems to stabilize coupled-bunch instabilities may be understood in the frequency domain (mode-based feedback) or in the time domain (bunch-by-bunch feedback). In both approaches an external amplifier system is used to create damping fields that prevent coupled-bunch oscillations from growing without bound. The system requirements for transverse (betatron) and longitudinal (synchrotron) feedback are presented, and possible implementation options developed. Feedback system designs based on digital signal-processing techniques are described. Experimental results are shown from a synchrotron oscillation damper in the SSRL/SLAC storage ring SPEAR that uses digital signal-processing techniques
Control and diagnostic uses of feedback
Sen, A. K.
2000-01-01
Recent results on multimode feedback control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes and a variety of diagnostic uses of feedback are summarized. First, is the report on reduction and scaling of transport under feedback. By controlling the fluctuation amplitudes and consequently the transport via feedback, it is found that the scaling of the diffusion coefficient is linear with root-mean-square rms fluctuation level. The scaling appears not to agree with any generic theory. A variety of other diagnostic uses of feedback have been developed. The primary goal is an experimental methodology for the determination of dynamic models of plasma turbulence, both for better transport understanding and more credible feedback controller designs. A specific motivation is to search for a low-order dynamic model, suitable for the convenient study of both transport and feedback. First, the time series analysis method is used for the determination of chaotic attractor dimension of plasma fluctuations. For ExB rotational flute modes it is found to be close to three, indicating that a low-order dynamic model may be adequate for transport prediction and feedback controller design. Second, a new method for direct experimental determination of nonlinear dynamical models of plasma turbulence using feedback has been developed. Specifically, the process begins with a standard three-wave coupling model and introduces a variable feedback gain. The power spectrum, delayed power spectrum, and bispectrum of fluctuations are then experimentally obtained. By varying the feedback gain continuously, an arbitrary number of numerical equations for a fixed number of unknowns can be generated. Their numerical solution yields the linear dispersion, as well as nonlinear coupling coefficients. This method has been successfully applied for ExB rotationally driven flute modes. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Artificial proprioceptive feedback for myoelectric control.
Pistohl, Tobias; Joshi, Deepak; Ganesh, Gowrishankar; Jackson, Andrew; Nazarpour, Kianoush
2015-05-01
The typical control of myoelectric interfaces, whether in laboratory settings or real-life prosthetic applications, largely relies on visual feedback because proprioceptive signals from the controlling muscles are either not available or very noisy. We conducted a set of experiments to test whether artificial proprioceptive feedback, delivered noninvasively to another limb, can improve control of a two-dimensional myoelectrically-controlled computer interface. In these experiments, participants were required to reach a target with a visual cursor that was controlled by electromyogram signals recorded from muscles of the left hand, while they were provided with an additional proprioceptive feedback on their right arm by moving it with a robotic manipulandum. Provision of additional artificial proprioceptive feedback improved the angular accuracy of their movements when compared to using visual feedback alone but did not increase the overall accuracy quantified with the average distance between the cursor and the target. The advantages conferred by proprioception were present only when the proprioceptive feedback had similar orientation to the visual feedback in the task space and not when it was mirrored, demonstrating the importance of congruency in feedback modalities for multi-sensory integration. Our results reveal the ability of the human motor system to learn new inter-limb sensory-motor associations; the motor system can utilize task-related sensory feedback, even when it is available on a limb distinct from the one being actuated. In addition, the proposed task structure provides a flexible test paradigm by which the effectiveness of various sensory feedback and multi-sensory integration for myoelectric prosthesis control can be evaluated.
Feedback control of plasma configuration in JT-60
Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshino, Ryuji; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Toyoaki; Kurihara, Kenichi; Takahashi, Minoru; Hayashi, Kazuo.
1986-08-01
Plasma current, plasma position (center of the outermost magnetic surface), decay index n index and width of the divertor throat are feedback controlled by using 5 kinds of poloidal field coils in JT-60. 5 control commands are calculated in a feedback control computer in each 1 msec. These feedback control functions are checked in ohmically heated plasma. The control characteristics of the plasma are well understood by the simplified control analysis and are consistent with the precise matrix transfer function analysis in the frequency domain and the simulation analysis which include the effects of eddy currents, delay time elements and mutual interactions between controllers. The usefulness of these analyses is experimentally confirmed. Each controlled variable is well feedback controlled to the command and the experimentally realized equilibrium configuration is checked by the well calibrated magnetic probes. Fast boundary identification code is used for the identification of the equilibrium and results are consistent with the precalculated plasma equilibria. By using this feedback control system of the plasma configuration and the equilibrium identification method, we have obtained the stable limiter and divertor configuration. The maximum parameters obtained during OH(I) experimental period are plasma current I p = 1.8 MA, the effective safety factor q eff e = 5.7 x 10 19 m -3 (Murakami parameter of 4.5) and the pulse length of 5 ∼ 10 sec. (author)
Control of an atom laser using feedback
Haine, S.A.; Ferris, A.J.; Close, J.D.; Hope, J.J.
2004-01-01
A generalized method of using feedback to control multimode behavior in Bose-Einstein condensates is introduced. We show that for any available control, there is an associated moment of the atomic density and a feedback scheme that will remove energy from the system while there are oscillations in that moment. We demonstrate these schemes by considering a condensate trapped in a harmonic potential that can be modulated in strength and position. The formalism of our feedback scheme also allows the inclusion of certain types of nonlinear controls. If the nonlinear interaction between the atoms can be controlled via a Feshbach resonance, we show that the feedback process can operate with a much higher efficiency
Feedback control strategies for the Liu chaotic system
Zhu Congxu; Chen Zhigang
2008-01-01
This Letter proposed three strategies of the dislocated feedback control, enhancing feedback control and speed feedback control of the Liu chaotic system to its unstable equilibrium points. It is found that the coefficients of enhancing feedback control and speed feedback control are smaller than those of ordinary feedback control, so, the complexity and cost of the system control are reduced. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are given, revealing the effectiveness of these strategies
MARTe at FTU: The new feedback control
Boncagni, Luca, E-mail: luca.boncagni@enea.it [EURATOM - ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Centre, Division of Fusion Physics, Rome, Frascati (Italy); Sadeghi, Yahya; Carnevale, Daniele; Di Geronimo, Andrea; Varano, Gianluca; Vitelli, Riccardo [Department of Computer Science, Systems and Production, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Galperti, Critsian [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, CNR, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Milan (Italy); Zarfati, Emanuele; Pucci, Daniele [Department Antonio Ruberti, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)
2012-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that the MARTe is a candidate for ITER PSH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We replace the old real-time feedback software using the MARTe framework. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe all the work done for the integration. - Abstract: Keeping in mind the necessities of a modern control system for fusion devices, such as modularity and a distributed architecture, an upgrade of the present FTU feedback control system was planned, envisaging also a possible reutilization in the proposed FAST experiment [1]. For standardization and efficiency purposes we decided to adopt a pre-existent ITER-relevant framework called MARTe [2], already used with success in other European Tokamak devices [3]. Following the developments shown in [4], in this paper we report on the structure of the new feedback system, and how it was integrated in the current control structure and pulse programming interface, and in the other MARTe systems already in FTU: RT-ODIN [5] and the ECRH and LH [6] satellite stations. The new feedback system has been installed in the FTU backup station (known as 'Feedback B'), which shares the input signals with the actual feedback system, in order to simplify the validation and debug of the new controller by testing it in parallel with the current one. Experimental results are then presented.
Feedforward temperature control using a heat flux microsensor
Lartz, Douglas John
1993-01-01
The concept of using heat flux measurements to provide the input for a feedforward temperature control loop is investigated. The feedforward loop is added to proportional and integral feedback control to increase the speed of the response to a disturbance. Comparison is made between the feedback and the feedback plus feedforward control laws. The control law with the feedforward control loop is also compared to the conventional approach of adding derivative control to speed up ...
Feedback and control for everyone
Albertos, Pedro
2010-01-01
This intriguing and motivating book presents the basic ideas and understanding of control, signals and systems for readers interested in engineering and science. Through a series of examples, the book explores both the theory and the practice of control.
Automatic heating control system
Whittle, A.J.
1989-11-15
A heating control system for buildings comprises at least one heater incorporating heat storage means, a first sensor for detecting temperature within the building, means for setting a demand temperature, a second sensor for detecting outside temperature, a timer, and means for determining the switch on time of the heat storage means on the basis of the demand temperature and the internal and external temperatures. The system may additionally base the switch on time of the storage heater(s) on the heating and cooling rates of the building (as determined from the sensed temperatures); or on the anticipated daytime temperature (determined from the sensed night time temperature). (author).
The fast correction coil feedback control system
Coffield, F.; Caporaso, G.; Zentler, J.M.
1989-01-01
A model-based feedback control system has been developed to correct beam displacement errors in the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) electron beam accelerator. The feedback control system drives an X/Y dipole steering system that has a 40-MHz bandwidth and can produce ±300-Gauss-cm dipole fields. A simulator was used to develop the control algorithm and to quantify the expected performance in the presence of beam position measurement noise and accelerator timing jitter. The major problem to date has been protecting the amplifiers from the voltage that is inductively coupled to the steering bars by the beam. 3 refs., 8 figs
Non interacting control by measurement feedback
Woude, van der J.W.
1987-01-01
In this paper we shall solve the problem of non interacting control by measurement feedback for systems that in addition to a control input and a measurement output have two exogenous inputs and two exogenous outputs. That is, we shall derive necessary and sufficient conditions that can actually be
Stabilising falling liquid film flows using feedback control
Thompson, Alice B., E-mail: alice.thompson1@imperial.ac.uk; Gomes, Susana N.; Pavliotis, Grigorios A.; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2016-01-15
Falling liquid films become unstable due to inertial effects when the fluid layer is sufficiently thick or the slope sufficiently steep. This free surface flow of a single fluid layer has industrial applications including coating and heat transfer, which benefit from smooth and wavy interfaces, respectively. Here, we discuss how the dynamics of the system are altered by feedback controls based on observations of the interface height, and supplied to the system via the perpendicular injection and suction of fluid through the wall. In this study, we model the system using both Benney and weighted-residual models that account for the fluid injection through the wall. We find that feedback using injection and suction is a remarkably effective control mechanism: the controls can be used to drive the system towards arbitrary steady states and travelling waves, and the qualitative effects are independent of the details of the flow modelling. Furthermore, we show that the system can still be successfully controlled when the feedback is applied via a set of localised actuators and only a small number of system observations are available, and that this is possible using both static (where the controls are based on only the most recent set of observations) and dynamic (where the controls are based on an approximation of the system which evolves over time) control schemes. This study thus provides a solid theoretical foundation for future experimental realisations of the active feedback control of falling liquid films.
Feedback Control of MEMS to Atoms
Shapiro, Benjamin
2012-01-01
Feedback Control of MEMS to Atoms illustrates the use of control and control systems as an essential part of functioning integrated miniaturized systems. The book is organized according to the dimensional scale of the problem, starting with microscale systems and ending with atomic-scale systems. Similar to macroscale machines and processes, control systems can play a major role in improving the performance of micro- and nanoscale systems and in enabling new capabilities that would otherwise not be possible. The majority of problems at these scales present many new challenges that go beyond the current state-of-the-art in control theory and engineering. This is a result of the multidisciplinary nature of micro/nanotechnology, which requires the merging of control engineering with physics, biology and chemistry. This book: Shows how the utilization of feedback control in nanotechnology instrumentation can yield results far better than passive systems can Discusses the application of control systems to problems...
Frankignoul, C.; Kestenare, E. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Institute Pierre-Simon Laplace, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Dynamique et de Climatologie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Botzet, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Carril, A.F. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Drange, H. [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Pardaens, A. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office (United Kingdom); Terray, L.; Sutton, R. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading (United Kingdom)
2004-04-01
The surface heat flux feedback is estimated in the Atlantic and the extra-tropical Indo-Pacific, using monthly heat flux and sea surface temperature anomaly data from control simulations with five global climate models, and it is compared to estimates derived from COADS and the NCEP reanalysis. In all data sets, the heat flux feedback is negative nearly everywhere and damps the sea surface temperature anomalies. At extra-tropical latitudes, it is strongly dominated by the turbulent fluxes. The radiative feedback can be positive or negative, depending on location and season, but it remains small, except in some models in the tropical Atlantic. The negative heat flux feedback is strong in the mid-latitude storm tracks, exceeding 40 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1} at place, but in the Northern Hemisphere it is substantially underestimated in several models. The negative feedback weakens at high latitudes, although the models do not reproduce the weak positive feedback found in NCEP in the northern North Atlantic. The main differences are found in the tropical Atlantic where the heat flux feedback is weakly negative in some models, as in the observations, and strongly negative in others where it can exceed 30 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1} at large scales, in part because of a strong contribution of the radiative fluxes, in particular during spring. A comparison between models with similar atmospheric or oceanic components suggests that the atmospheric model is primarily responsible for the heat flux feedback differences at extra-tropical latitudes. In the tropical Atlantic, the ocean behavior plays an equal role. The differences in heat flux feedback in the tropical Atlantic are reflected in the sea surface temperature anomaly persistence, which is too small in models where the heat flux damping is large. A good representation of the heat flux feedback is thus required to simulate climate variability realistically. (orig.)
Xiang, Xingcan; Mutlu, Rahim; Alici, Gursel; Li, Weihua
2014-01-01
Conducting polymer actuators have shown significant potential in articulating micro instruments, manipulation devices, and robotics. However, implementing a feedback control strategy to enhance their positioning ability and accuracy in any application requires a feedback sensor, which is extremely large in size compared to the size of the actuators. Therefore, this paper proposes a new sensorless control scheme without the use of a position feedback sensor. With the help of the system identification technique and particle swarm optimization, the control scheme, which we call the simulated feedback control system, showed a satisfactory command tracking performance for the conducting polymer actuator’s step and dynamic displacement responses, especially under a disturbance, without needing a physical feedback loop, but using a simulated feedback loop. The primary contribution of this study is to propose and experimentally evaluate the simulated feedback control scheme for a class of the conducting polymer actuators known as tri-layer polymer actuators, which can operate both in dry and wet media. This control approach can also be extended to other smart actuators or systems, for which the feedback control based on external sensing is impractical. (paper)
Entanglement-assisted quantum feedback control
Yamamoto, Naoki; Mikami, Tomoaki
2017-07-01
The main advantage of quantum metrology relies on the effective use of entanglement, which indeed allows us to achieve strictly better estimation performance over the standard quantum limit. In this paper, we propose an analogous method utilizing entanglement for the purpose of feedback control. The system considered is a general linear dynamical quantum system, where the control goal can be systematically formulated as a linear quadratic Gaussian control problem based on the quantum Kalman filtering method; in this setting, an entangled input probe field is effectively used to reduce the estimation error and accordingly the control cost function. In particular, we show that, in the problem of cooling an opto-mechanical oscillator, the entanglement-assisted feedback control can lower the stationary occupation number of the oscillator below the limit attainable by the controller with a coherent probe field and furthermore beats the controller with an optimized squeezed probe field.
Structural learning in feedforward and feedback control.
Yousif, Nada; Diedrichsen, Jörn
2012-11-01
For smooth and efficient motor control, the brain needs to make fast corrections during the movement to resist possible perturbations. It also needs to adapt subsequent movements to improve future performance. It is important that both feedback corrections and feedforward adaptation need to be made based on noisy and often ambiguous sensory data. Therefore, the initial response of the motor system, both for online corrections and adaptive responses, is guided by prior assumptions about the likely structure of perturbations. In the context of correcting and adapting movements perturbed by a force field, we asked whether these priors are hard wired or whether they can be modified through repeated exposure to differently shaped force fields. We found that both feedback corrections to unexpected perturbations and feedforward adaptation to a new force field changed, such that they were appropriate to counteract the type of force field that participants had experienced previously. We then investigated whether these changes were driven by a common mechanism or by two separate mechanisms. Participants experienced force fields that were either temporally consistent, causing sustained adaptation, or temporally inconsistent, causing little overall adaptation. We found that the consistent force fields modified both feedback and feedforward responses. In contrast, the inconsistent force field modified the temporal shape of feedback corrections but not of the feedforward adaptive response. These results indicate that responses to force perturbations can be modified in a structural manner and that these modifications are at least partly dissociable for feedback and feedforward control.
Bartsch, R.R.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Cantrell, E.L.
1977-01-01
Results of the Los Alamos theta-pinch program in three areas of investigation are summarized: 1) In the Staged Theta Pinch, results are reported on the effects of magnetic field amplitude and time history of plasma formation. 2) In the Implosion Heating Experiment, density, internal-magnetic field and neutron measurements yield a consistent picture of the implosion which agrees with kinetic computations and with a simple dynamic model of the ions and magnetic piston. 3) In the Scyllac Feedback-Sector Experiment, the l=1, 0 equilibrium plasma parameters have been adjusted to accommodate the feedback stabilization system. With a uniform toroidal discharge tube the m=1 instability is feedback-stabilized in the vertical direction, and confinement in the toroidal direction is extended by feedback control. Results with a helical discharge tube are also reported. (author)
Feedback control of superconducting quantum circuits
Ristè, D.
2014-01-01
Superconducting circuits have recently risen to the forefront of the solid-state prototypes for quantum computing. Reaching the stage of robust quantum computing requires closing the loop between measurement and control of quantum bits (qubits). This thesis presents the realization of feedback
Microcontroller-based Feedback Control Laboratory Experiments
Chiu Choi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available this paper is a result of the implementation of the recommendations on enhancing hands-on experience of control engineering education using single chip, small scale computers such as microcontrollers. A set of microcontroller-based feedback control experiments was developed for the Electrical Engineering curriculum at the University of North Florida. These experiments provided hands-on techniques that students can utilize in the development of complete solutions for a number of servo control problems. Significant effort was devoted to software development of feedback controllers and the associated signal conditioning circuits interfacing between the microcontroller and the physical plant. These experiments have stimulated the interest of our students in control engineering.
Delayed feedback control in quantum transport.
Emary, Clive
2013-09-28
Feedback control in quantum transport has been predicted to give rise to several interesting effects, among them quantum state stabilization and the realization of a mesoscopic Maxwell's daemon. These results were derived under the assumption that control operations on the system are affected instantaneously after the measurement of electronic jumps through it. In this contribution, I describe how to include a delay between detection and control operation in the master equation theory of feedback-controlled quantum transport. I investigate the consequences of delay for the state stabilization and Maxwell's daemon schemes. Furthermore, I describe how delay can be used as a tool to probe coherent oscillations of electrons within a transport system and how this formalism can be used to model finite detector bandwidth.
Nonholonomic feedback control among moving obstacles
Armstrong, Stephen Gregory
A feedback controller is developed for navigating a nonholonomic vehicle in an area with multiple stationary and possibly moving obstacles. Among other applications the developed algorithms can be used for automatic parking of a passenger car in a parking lot with complex configuration or a ground robot in cluttered environment. Several approaches are explored which combine nonholonomic systems control based on sliding modes and potential field methods.
LHC beam stability and feedback control
Steinhagen, Ralph
2007-07-20
This report presents the stability and the control of the Large Hadron Collider's (LHC) two beam orbits and their particle momenta using beam-based feedback systems. The aim of this report is to contribute to a safe and reliable LHC commissioning and machine operation. The first part of the analysis gives an estimate of the expected sources of orbit and energy perturbations that can be grouped into environmental sources, machine-inherent sources and machine element failures: the slowest perturbation due to ground motion, tides, temperature fluctuations of the tunnel and other environmental influences are described in this report by a propagation model that is both qualitatively and quantitatively supported by geophone and beam motion measurements at LEP and other CERN accelerators. The second part of this analysis deals with the control of the two LHC beams' orbit and energy through automated feedback systems. Based on the reading of the more than 1056 beam position monitors (BPMs) that are distributed over the machine, a central global feedback controller calculates new deflection strengths for the more than 1060 orbit corrector magnets (CODs) that are suitable to correct the orbit and momentum around their references. this report provides an analysis of the BPMs and CODs involved in the orbit and energy feedback. The BPMs are based on a wide-band time normaliser circuit that converts the transverse beam position reading of each individual particle bunch into two laser pulses that are separated by a time delay and transmitted through optical fibres to an acquisition card that converts the delay signals into a digital position. A simple error model has been tested and compared to the measurement accuracy of LHC type BPMs, obtained through beam-based measurements in the SPS. The average beam position is controlled through 1060 superconducting and individually powered corrector dipole magnets. The proposed correction in 'time-domain' consists of a
LHC beam stability and feedback control
Steinhagen, Ralph
2007-01-01
This report presents the stability and the control of the Large Hadron Collider's (LHC) two beam orbits and their particle momenta using beam-based feedback systems. The aim of this report is to contribute to a safe and reliable LHC commissioning and machine operation. The first part of the analysis gives an estimate of the expected sources of orbit and energy perturbations that can be grouped into environmental sources, machine-inherent sources and machine element failures: the slowest perturbation due to ground motion, tides, temperature fluctuations of the tunnel and other environmental influences are described in this report by a propagation model that is both qualitatively and quantitatively supported by geophone and beam motion measurements at LEP and other CERN accelerators. The second part of this analysis deals with the control of the two LHC beams' orbit and energy through automated feedback systems. Based on the reading of the more than 1056 beam position monitors (BPMs) that are distributed over the machine, a central global feedback controller calculates new deflection strengths for the more than 1060 orbit corrector magnets (CODs) that are suitable to correct the orbit and momentum around their references. this report provides an analysis of the BPMs and CODs involved in the orbit and energy feedback. The BPMs are based on a wide-band time normaliser circuit that converts the transverse beam position reading of each individual particle bunch into two laser pulses that are separated by a time delay and transmitted through optical fibres to an acquisition card that converts the delay signals into a digital position. A simple error model has been tested and compared to the measurement accuracy of LHC type BPMs, obtained through beam-based measurements in the SPS. The average beam position is controlled through 1060 superconducting and individually powered corrector dipole magnets. The proposed correction in 'time-domain' consists of a proportional
Cosmic-Ray Feedback Heating of the Intracluster Medium
Ruszkowski, Mateusz [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, 311 West Hall, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Yang, H.-Y. Karen; Reynolds, Christopher S., E-mail: mateuszr@umich.edu, E-mail: hsyang@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: chris@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2017-07-20
Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) play a central role in solving the decades-old cooling-flow problem. Although there is consensus that AGNs provide the energy to prevent catastrophically large star formation, one major problem remains: How is the AGN energy thermalized in the intracluster medium (ICM)? We perform a suite of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical adaptive mesh refinement simulations of AGN feedback in a cool core cluster including cosmic rays (CRs). CRs are supplied to the ICM via collimated AGN jets and subsequently disperse in the magnetized ICM via streaming, and interact with the ICM via hadronic, Coulomb, and streaming instability heating. We find that CR transport is an essential model ingredient at least within the context of the physical model considered here. When streaming is included, (i) CRs come into contact with the ambient ICM and efficiently heat it, (ii) streaming instability heating dominates over Coulomb and hadronic heating, (iii) the AGN is variable and the atmosphere goes through low-/high-velocity dispersion cycles, and, importantly, (iv) CR pressure support in the cool core is very low and does not demonstrably violate observational constraints. However, when streaming is ignored, CR energy is not efficiently spent on the ICM heating and CR pressure builds up to a significant level, creating tension with the observations. Overall, we demonstrate that CR heating is a viable channel for the AGN energy thermalization in clusters and likely also in ellipticals, and that CRs play an important role in determining AGN intermittency and the dynamical state of cool cores.
Automatic Thermal Control System with Temperature Difference or Derivation Feedback
Darina Matiskova
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Automatic thermal control systems seem to be non-linear systems with thermal inertias and time delay. A controller is also non-linear because its information and power signals are limited. The application of methods that are available to on-linear systems together with computer simulation and mathematical modelling creates a possibility to acquire important information about the researched system. This paper provides a new look at the heated system model and also designs the structure of the thermal system with temperature derivation feedback. The designed system was simulated by using a special software in Turbo Pascal. Time responses of this system are compared to responses of a conventional thermal system. The thermal system with temperature derivation feedback provides better transients, better quality of regulation and better dynamical properties.
Optimal Control of Solar Heating System
Huang, Bin-Juine
2017-02-21
Forced-circulation solar heating system has been widely used in process and domestic heating applications. Additional pumping power is required to circulate the water through the collectors to absorb the solar energy. The present study intends to develop a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) to obtain the minimum pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net heat energy gain Qnet (= Qs − Wp/ηe) was found to be the cost function for MPPT. The step-up-step-down controller was used in the feedback design of MPPT. The field test results show that the pumping power is 89 W at Qs = 13.7 kW and IT = 892 W/m2. A very high electrical COP of the solar heating system (Qs/Wp = 153.8) is obtained.
Integration of advanced feedback control techniques on Tore Supra
Barana, O.; Basiuk, V.; Bucalossi, J.
2006-01-01
Tore Supra tokamak plays an important role in development and optimisation of steady-state scenarios. Its real-time feedback control system is a key instrument to improve plasma performances. For this reason, new feedback control schemes have been recently put into operation and others are being developed. This work deals with the implementation in Tore Supra of these advanced algorithms, reports the technical details and shows the first positive results that have been achieved. For instance, encouraging results have been obtained in the field of profiles control. Controls of the full width at half maximum of the suprathermal electrons local emission profile at very low loop voltage and of the maximum of the thermal Larmor radius, normalised to the characteristic length of the electron temperature gradient, have been attained. While the first quantity can be directly associated to the current profile, the second one characterises the pressure profile. A new feedback control algorithm, employed to maximise a given quantity by means of a '' Search Optimisation '' technique, has been effectively tested too: the hard X-ray width has been maximised with simultaneous use of lower hybrid heating power and wave parallel index as actuators. These and other promising results, whose detailed description will be given in the article, have been obtained thanks to the real-time availability of several diagnostic systems. Using a shared memory network as communication layer, they send their measurements to a central computing unit that, in its turn, dispatches the necessary requirements to the actuators. A key issue is the possibility to integrate these controls in such a way as to cope with different requests at the same time. As an example, simultaneous control of the plasma current by means of the lower hybrid heating power, of the loop voltage by means of the poloidal field system and of the hard X-ray width through the lower hybrid heating phase shift has been successfully
Control Rod Driveline Reactivity Feedback Model for Liquid Metal Reactors
Kwon, Young-Min; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Chang, Won-Pyo; Cho, Chung-Ho; Lee, Yong-Bum
2008-01-01
The thermal expansion of the control rod drivelines (CRDL) is one important passive mitigator under all unprotected accident conditions in the metal and oxide cores. When the CRDL are washed by hot sodium in the coolant outlet plenum, the CRDL thermally expands and causes the control rods to be inserted further down into the active core region, providing a negative reactivity feedback. Since the control rods are attached to the top of the vessel head and the core attaches to the bottom of the reactor vessel (RV), the expansion of the vessel wall as it heats will either lower the core or raise the control rods supports. This contrary thermal expansion of the reactor vessel wall pulls the control rods out of the core somewhat, providing a positive reactivity feedback. However this is not a safety factor early in a transient because its time constant is relatively large. The total elongated length is calculated by subtracting the vessel expansion from the CRDL expansion to determine the net control rod expansion into the core. The system-wide safety analysis code SSC-K includes the CRDL/RV reactivity feedback model in which control rod and vessel expansions are calculated using single-nod temperatures for the vessel and CRDL masses. The KALIMER design has the upper internal structures (UIS) in which the CRDLs are positioned outside the structure where they are exposed to the mixed sodium temperature exiting the core. A new method to determine the CRDL expansion is suggested. Two dimensional hot pool thermal hydraulic model (HP2D) originally developed for the analysis of the stratification phenomena in the hot pool is utilized for a detailed heat transfer between the CRDL mass and the hot pool coolant. However, the reactor vessel wall temperature is still calculated by a simple lumped model
Single-temperature quantum engine without feedback control.
Yi, Juyeon; Talkner, Peter; Kim, Yong Woon
2017-08-01
A cyclically working quantum-mechanical engine that operates at a single temperature is proposed. Its energy input is delivered by a quantum measurement. The functioning of the engine does not require any feedback control. We analyze work, heat, and the efficiency of the engine for the case of a working substance that is governed by the laws of quantum mechanics and that can be adiabatically compressed and expanded. The obtained general expressions are exemplified for a spin in an adiabatically changing magnetic field and a particle moving in a potential with slowly changing shape.
Feedback control of vertical instability in TNS
Frantz, E.R.
1978-05-01
Due to the unfavorable curvature of the vertical vacuum magnetic field, elongated plasmas are vertically unstable when the elongation, epsilon, becomes too large. The TNS (The Next Step) tokamak, as evolved in the Westinghouse-ORNL studies has an inside-D configuration (epsilon = 1.6, A = 5/1.25 = 4) characterized by an average decay index n approximately equal -0.75 at the plasma flux surface near the magnetic axis and is vertically unstable with a growth rate γ 0 approximately 10 5 sec -1 . Eddy currents produced in the vacuum vessel wall will slow this instability to growth rates γ 0 approximately 10 2 sec -1 provided there are no transverse insulating gaps in the vessel wall. A matrix equation has been developed for calculating the eddy currents induced in the EF coils and their stabilizing effect. Control theory for feedback systems with and without delay time is presented and possible plasma position detectors are discussed. For a plasma current of 6.1 MA, the controller peak power requirements using separate controller circuits are approximately 1 MW depending upon EF coil configurations and time delay. This feedback system is designed to stabilize a maximum plasma excursion of 10 cm from the midplane with delay times up to 2 sec
Lowcost automated control for steel heat treatments
Zambaldi, Edimilson; Magalhães, Ricardo R.; Barbosa, Bruno H.G.; Silva, Sandro P. da; Ferreira, Danton D.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Control the furnace temperature measured by thermocouple and adjusts it. • Activating the furnace resistors through Pulse Width Modulation. • Appling heat treatments to steels by a low-cost controller. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to propose a low cost, automated furnace control system for the heat treatment of steel. We used an open source electronic prototyping platform to control the furnace temperature, thus reducing human interaction during the heat process. The platform can be adapted to non-controlled commercial furnaces, which are often used by small businesses. A Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller was implemented to regulate the furnace temperature based on a defined heat treatment cycle. The embedded system activates the furnace resistors through Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), allowing for control of electrical power supplied to the furnace. Hardening and tempering were performed on standard steel samples using a traditional method (visual inspection without temperature control) as well the embedded system with PID feedback control. The results show that the proposed system can reproduce an arbitrary heat treatment curve with accuracy and provide the desired final hardness as inferred through metallographic analysis. In addition, we observed a 6% saving in energy consumption using the proposed control system. Furthermore, the estimated cost to implement the system is 42% lower than a commercial controller model implemented in commercial furnaces.
Design Of Combined Stochastic Feedforward/Feedback Control
Halyo, Nesim
1989-01-01
Methodology accommodates variety of control structures and design techniques. In methodology for combined stochastic feedforward/feedback control, main objectives of feedforward and feedback control laws seen clearly. Inclusion of error-integral feedback, dynamic compensation, rate-command control structure, and like integral element of methodology. Another advantage of methodology flexibility to develop variety of techniques for design of feedback control with arbitrary structures to obtain feedback controller: includes stochastic output feedback, multiconfiguration control, decentralized control, or frequency and classical control methods. Control modes of system include capture and tracking of localizer and glideslope, crab, decrab, and flare. By use of recommended incremental implementation, control laws simulated on digital computer and connected with nonlinear digital simulation of aircraft and its systems.
Ocean Heat Uptake Slows 21st Century Surface Warming Driven by Extratropical Cloud Feedbacks
Frey, W.; Maroon, E.; Pendergrass, A. G.; Kay, J. E.
2017-12-01
Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS), the warming in response to instantaneously doubled CO2, has long been used to compare climate models. In many models, ECS is well correlated with warming produced by transient forcing experiments. Modifications to cloud phase at high latitudes in a state-of-the-art climate model, the Community Earth System Model (CESM), produce a large increase in ECS (1.5 K) via extratropical cloud feedbacks. However, only a small surface warming increase occurs in a realistic 21st century simulation including a full-depth dynamic ocean and the "business as usual" RCP8.5 emissions scenario. In fact, the increase in surface warming is only barely above the internal variability-generated range in the CESM Large Ensemble. The small change in 21st century warming is attributed to subpolar ocean heat uptake in both hemispheres. In the Southern Ocean, the mean-state circulation takes up heat while in the North Atlantic a slowdown in circulation acts as a feedback to slow surface warming. These results show the importance of subpolar ocean heat uptake in controlling the pace of warming and demonstrate that ECS cannot be used to reliably infer transient warming when it is driven by extratropical feedbacks.
The impact of short-term heat storage on the ice-albedo feedback loop
Polashenski, C.; Wright, N.; Perovich, D. K.; Song, A.; Deeb, E. J.
2016-12-01
The partitioning of solar energy in the ice-ocean-atmosphere environment is a powerful control over Arctic sea ice mass balance. Ongoing transitions of the sea ice toward a younger, thinner state are enhancing absorption of solar energy and contributing to further declines in sea ice in a classic ice-albedo feedback. Here we investigate the solar energy balance over shorter timescales. In particular, we are concerned with short term delays in the transfer of absorbed solar energy to the ice caused by heat storage in the upper ocean. By delaying the realization of ice melt, and hence albedo decline, heat storage processes effectively retard the intra-season ice-albedo feedback. We seek to quantify the impact and variability of such intra-season storage delays on full season energy absorption. We use in-situ data collected from Arctic Observing Network (AON) sea ice sites, synthesized with the results of imagery processed from high resolution optical satellites, and basin-scale remote sensing products to approach the topic. AON buoys are used to monitor the storage and flux of heat, while satellite imagery allows us to quantify the evolution of surrounding ice conditions and predict the aggregate scale solar absorption. We use several test sites as illustrative cases and demonstrate that temporary heat storage can have substantial impacts on seasonal energy absorption and ice loss. A companion to this work is presented by N. Wright at this meeting.
Combined feedforward and feedback control of end milling system
Čuš, Franc; Župerl, Uroš; Balič, Jože
2012-01-01
Purpose: Purpose of this paper. An intelligent control system is presented that uses a combination of feedforward and feedback for cutting force control in end milling.Design/methodology/approach: The network is trained by the feedback output that is minimized during training and most control action for disturbance rejection is finally performed by the rapid feedforward action of the network.Findings: The feedback controller corrects for errors caused by external disturbances. The feedforward...
Heat Control via Torque Control in Friction Stir Welding
Venable, Richard; Colligan, Kevin; Knapp, Alan
2004-01-01
In a proposed advance in friction stir welding, the torque exerted on the workpiece by the friction stir pin would be measured and controlled in an effort to measure and control the total heat input to the workpiece. The total heat input to the workpiece is an important parameter of any welding process (fusion or friction stir welding). In fusion welding, measurement and control of heat input is a difficult problem. However, in friction stir welding, the basic principle of operation affords the potential of a straightforward solution: Neglecting thermal losses through the pin and the spindle that supports it, the rate of heat input to the workpiece is the product of the torque and the speed of rotation of the friction stir weld pin and, hence, of the spindle. Therefore, if one acquires and suitably processes data on torque and rotation and controls the torque, the rotation, or both, one should be able to control the heat input into the workpiece. In conventional practice in friction stir welding, one uses feedback control of the spindle motor to maintain a constant speed of rotation. According to the proposal, one would not maintain a constant speed of rotation: Instead, one would use feedback control to maintain a constant torque and would measure the speed of rotation while allowing it to vary. The torque exerted on the workpiece would be estimated as the product of (1) the torque-multiplication ratio of the spindle belt and/or gear drive, (2) the force measured by a load cell mechanically coupled to the spindle motor, and (3) the moment arm of the load cell. Hence, the output of the load cell would be used as a feedback signal for controlling the torque (see figure).
Minimal-Inversion Feedforward-And-Feedback Control System
Seraji, Homayoun
1990-01-01
Recent developments in theory of control systems support concept of minimal-inversion feedforward-and feedback control system consisting of three independently designable control subsystems. Applicable to the control of linear, time-invariant plant.
Making it not too obvious. The effect of ambient light feedback on space heating energy consumption
Maan, S.; Merkus, B.; Ham, J.; Midden, C. [Human-Technology Interaction, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2011-03-15
Earlier research investigating persuasive technology - technology designed to influence human behavior or attitude - indicates that persuasive technology can stimulate energy efficient behavior. However, most applications of persuasive technology need people's focal attention to be successful, and people may often not have these cognitive resources available. The current research investigates a form of persuasive technology that is less obvious and easier to process: ambient lighting as persuasive technology. In an experimental study, participants could conserve energy while setting temperatures on a central heating panel and receive feedback about their energy consumption in each task. We tested the effect of feedback through a lamp that gradually changed color dependent on energy consumption and compared these effects to more widely used factual feedback. Half of the participants received lighting feedback, and half of the participants received numerical feedback. To investigate whether ambient feedback is easier to process than numerical feedback, half of the participants performed a cognitive load task in addition to the focal task. Results indicated that feedback through lighting has stronger persuasive effects than numerical feedback. Furthermore, ambient lighting feedback seemed easier to process than numerical feedback because cognitive load interfered with processing numerical feedback, but not with processing lighting feedback. Implications for theory and design of energy consumption feedback systems, persuasive lighting, and (ambient) persuasive technology are discussed.
Fossen, T. I.; Blanke, Mogens
2000-01-01
Accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory and feedback from the axial water velocity in the propeller disc. In this paper, an output feedback controller is derived, reconstructing the axial flow velocity from vehicle speed measurements, using...... a three-state model of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle, and the axial flow velocity. Lyapunov stability theory is used to prove that a nonlinear observer combined with an output feedback integral controller provide exponential stability. The output feedback controller...... compensates for variations in thrust due to time variations in advance speed. This is a major problem when applying conventional vehicle-propeller control systems, The proposed controller is simulated for an underwater vehicle equipped with a single propeller. The simulations demonstrate that the axial water...
Design of output feedback controller for a unified chaotic system
Li Wenlin; Chen Xiuqin; Shen Zhiping
2008-01-01
In this paper, the synchronization of a unified chaotic system is investigated by the use of output feedback controllers; a two-input single-output feedback controller and single-input single-output feedback controller are presented to synchronize the unified chaotic system when the states are not all measurable. Compared with the existing results, the controllers designed in this paper have some advantages such as small feedback gain, simple structure and less conservation. Finally, numerical simulations results are provided to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method
Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller
An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir
2004-01-01
An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment
Investigation of a delayed feedback controller of MEMS resonators
Masri, Karim M.; Younis, Mohammad I.; Shao, Shuai
2013-01-01
Controlling mechanical systems is an important branch of mechanical engineering. Several techniques have been used to control Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators. In this paper, we study the effect of a delayed feedback controller
Coherent-feedback-induced controllable optical bistability and photon blockade
Liu, Yu-Long; Liu, Zhong-Peng; Zhang, Jing
2015-01-01
It is well known that some nonlinear phenomena such as strong photon blockade are difficult to observe in optomechanical systems with current experimental technology. Here we present a coherent feedback control strategy in which a linear cavity is coherently controlled by an optomechanical controller in a feedback manner. The coherent feedback loop transfers quantum nonlinearity from the controller to the controlled cavity causing destructive quantum interference to occur, and making it possible to observe strong nonlinear effects. With the help of the coherent feedback loop, large and tunable bistability and strong photon blockade of the cavity modes can be achieved even in the optomechanical weak coupling regime. Additionally, the coherent feedback loop leads to two-photon and multiphoton tunnelings for the controlled linear cavity, which are also typical quantum nonlinear phenomena. We hope that our work can give new perspectives on engineering nonlinear interactions in quantum systems. (paper)
Beam closed orbit feedback based on PID control
Xuan Ke; Wang Lin; Liu Gongfa; Li Weimin; Li Chuan; Wang Jigang; Bao Xun; Xu Hongliang
2013-01-01
The algorithm in the feedback system has important influence on the performance of the beam orbit. Good feedback algorithm can greatly improve the beam orbit stability. In this paper, the theory of beam closed orbit correction, the principle of PID control and the beam closed orbit feedback correction using PID control were introduced. The simulation results were given. Compared with least-square method, the PID feedback algorithm makes the steady-state error smaller and more accurate, and enhances the beam orbit stability. (authors)
Role of measurement in feedback-controlled quantum engines
Yi, Juyeon; Kim, Yong Woon
2018-01-01
In feedback controls, measurement is an essential step in designing protocols according to outcomes. For quantum mechanical systems, measurement has another effect; to supply energy to the measured system. We verify that in feedback-controlled quantum engines, measurement plays a dual role; not only as an auxiliary to perform feedback control but also as an energy supply to drive the engines. We consider a specific engine cycle exploiting feedback control followed by projective measurement and show that the maximum bound of the extractable work is set by both the efficacy of the feedback control and the energy change caused by projective measurement. We take a concrete example of an engine using an immobile spin-1/2 particle as a working substance and suggest two possible scenarios for work extraction.
Direct output feedback control of discrete-time systems
Lin, C.C.; Chung, L.L.; Lu, K.H.
1993-01-01
An optimal direct output feedback control algorithm is developed for discrete-time systems with the consideration of time delay in control force action. Optimal constant output feedback gains are obtained through variational process such that certain prescribed quadratic performance index is minimized. Discrete-time control forces are then calculated from the multiplication of output measurements by these pre-calculated feedback gains. According to the proposed algorithm, structural system is assured to remain stable even in the presence of time delay. The number of sensors and controllers may be very small as compared with the dimension of states. Numerical results show that direct velocity feedback control is more sensitive to time delay than state feedback but, is still quite effective in reducing the dynamic responses under earthquake excitation. (author)
Requirements for active resistive wall mode (RWM) feedback control
In, Y; Kim, J S; Chu, M S; Jackson, G L; La Haye, R J; Strait, E J; Liu, Y Q; Marrelli, L; Okabayashi, M; Reimerdes, H
2010-01-01
The requirements for active resistive wall mode (RWM) feedback control have been systematically investigated and established using highly reproducible current-driven RWMs in ohmic discharges in DIII-D. The unambiguous evaluation of active RWM feedback control was not possible in previous RWM studies primarily due to the variability of the onset of the pressure-driven RWMs; the stability of the pressure-driven RWM is thought to be sensitive to various passive stabilization mechanisms. Both feedback control specifications and physics requirements for RWM stabilization have been clarified using the current-driven RWMs in ohmic discharges, when little or no passive stabilization effects are present. The use of derivative gain on top of proportional gain is found to be advantageous. An effective feedback control system should be equipped with a power supply with bandwidth greater than the RWM growth rate. It is beneficial to apply a feedback field that is toroidally phase-shifted from the measured RWM phase in the same direction as the plasma current. The efficacy of the RWM feedback control will ultimately be determined by the plasma fluctuations on internal diagnostics, as well as on external magnetics. The proximity of the feedback coils to the plasma appears to be an important factor in determining the effectiveness of the RWM feedback coils. It is desirable that an RWM feedback control system simultaneously handles error field correction at a low frequency, along with direct RWM feedback at a high frequency. There is an indication of the influence of a second least stable RWM, which had been theoretically predicted but never identified in experiments. A preliminary investigation based on active MHD spectroscopic measurement showed a strong plasma response around 400 Hz where the typical plasma response associated with the first least stable RWM was expected to be negligible. Present active feedback control requirements are based on a single mode assumption, so the
Nonlinear Output Feedback Control of Underwater Vehicle Propellers using Advance Speed Feedback
Fossen, T.I.; Blanke, M.
1999-01-01
More accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory. In this paper, an output feedback controller reconstructing the advance speed (speed of water going into the propeller) from vehicle speed measurements is derived. For this purpose a three-state model...... minimizes thruster losses due to variations in propeller axial inlet flow which is a major problem when applying conventional vehicle-propeller control systems. The proposed controller is simulated for an underwater vehicle equipped with a single propeller. From the simulations it can be concluded...... of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle and axial inlet flow of the propeller is applied. A nonlinear observer in combination with an output feedback integral controller are derived by applying Lyapunov stability theory and exponential stability is proven. The output feedback controller...
Feedback control for a train-like vehicle
Micaelli, A.
1994-01-01
This paper presents a feedback nonlinear control law for a train-like vehicle (TLV) used in nuclear power-station maintenance. The front cart is either manual or automated guided. The rear carts are feedback controlled. The control objective is to ensure that the rear carts track the path produced (on-line) by the front cart. This controller was experimentally tested on the TLV-prototype. (authors). 4 figs., 4 refs
Semiglobal H-infinity State Feedback Control
Cromme, Marc; Stoustrup, Jakob
1996-01-01
Semi-global set-stabilizing H-infinity controlis a local within some given compact set such that all statetrajectories are bounded inside the set, and are approaching an openloop invariant subset as time approaches infinity. Sufficientconditions for the existence of a continuous state feedback law...
An Industrial Model Based Disturbance Feedback Control Scheme
Kawai, Fukiko; Nakazawa, Chikashi; Vinther, Kasper
2014-01-01
This paper presents a model based disturbance feedback control scheme. Industrial process systems have been traditionally controlled by using relay and PID controller. However these controllers are affected by disturbances and model errors and these effects degrade control performance. The authors...... propose a new control method that can decrease the negative impact of disturbance and model errors. The control method is motivated by industrial practice by Fuji Electric. Simulation tests are examined with a conventional PID controller and the disturbance feedback control. The simulation results...
Using sampled-data feedback control and linear feedback synchronization in a new hyperchaotic system
Zhao Junchan; Lu Junan
2008-01-01
This paper investigates control and synchronization of a new hyperchaotic system which was proposed by [Chen A, Lu J-A, Lue J, Yu S. Generating hyperchaotic Lue attractor via state feedback control. Physica A 2006;364:103-10]. Firstly, we give different sampled-data feedback control schemes with the variation of system parameter d. Specifically, we only use one controller to drive the system to the origin when d element of (-0.35, 0), and use two controllers if d element of [0, 1.3]. Next, we combine PC method with linear feedback approach to realize synchronization, and derive similar conclusions with varying d. Numerical simulations are also given to validate the proposed approaches
Hennen, B.A.; Westerhof, E.; De Baar, M.R.; Nuij, P.W.J.M.; Steinbuch, M.
2012-01-01
Suppression of tearing modes is essential for the operation of tokamaks. This paper describes the design and simulation of a tearing mode suppression feedback control system for the TEXTOR tokamak. The two main control tasks of this feedback control system are the radial alignment of electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (ECRH/ECCD) with a tearing mode and the stabilization of a mode at a specific width. In order to simulate these control tasks, the time evolution of a tearing mode subject to suppression by ECRH/ECCD and destabilization by a magnetic perturbation field is modelled using the generalized Rutherford equation. The model includes an equilibrium model and an ECRH/ECCD launcher model. The dynamics and static equilibria of this model are analysed. The model is linearized and based on the linearized model, linear feedback controllers are designed and simulated, demonstrating both alignment and width control of tearing modes in TEXTOR. (paper)
Yan Zhenya; Yu Pei
2007-01-01
In this paper, we study chaos (lag) synchronization of a new LC chaotic system, which can exhibit not only a two-scroll attractor but also two double-scroll attractors for different parameter values, via three types of state feedback controls: (i) linear feedback control; (ii) adaptive feedback control; and (iii) a combination of linear feedback and adaptive feedback controls. As a consequence, ten families of new feedback control laws are designed to obtain global chaos lag synchronization for τ < 0 and global chaos synchronization for τ = 0 of the LC system. Numerical simulations are used to illustrate these theoretical results. Each family of these obtained feedback control laws, including two linear (adaptive) functions or one linear function and one adaptive function, is added to two equations of the LC system. This is simpler than the known synchronization controllers, which apply controllers to all equations of the LC system. Moreover, based on the obtained results of the LC system, we also derive the control laws for chaos (lag) synchronization of another new type of chaotic system
Optimal centralized and decentralized velocity feedback control on a beam
Engels, W P; Elliott, S J
2008-01-01
This paper considers the optimization of a velocity feedback controller with a collocated force actuator, to minimize the kinetic energy of a simply supported beam. If the beam is excited at a single location, the optimum feedback gain varies with the position of the control system. It is shown that this variation depends partly on the location of the control force relative to the exciting force. If a distributed excitation is assumed, that is random in both time and space, a unique optimum value of the feedback gain can be found for a given control location. The effect of the control location on performance and the optimal feedback gain can then be examined and is found to be limited provided the control locations are not close to the ends of the beam. The optimization can also be performed for a multichannel velocity feedback system. Both a centralized and a decentralized controller are considered. It is shown that the difference in performance between a centralized and a decentralized controller is small, unless the control locations are closely spaced. In this case the centralized controller effectively feeds back a moment proportional to angular velocity as well as a force proportional to a velocity. It is also shown that the optimal feedback gain can be approximated on the basis of a limited model and that similar results can be achieved
Feedback control using only quantum back-action
Jacobs, Kurt
2010-01-01
The traditional approach to feedback control is to apply deterministic forces to a system by modifying the Hamiltonian. Here we show that finite-dimensional quantum systems can be controlled purely by exploiting the random quantum back-action of a continuous weak measurement. We demonstrate that, quite remarkably, the quantum back-action of such an adaptive measurement is just as effective at controlling quantum systems as traditional feedback.
Modeling and simulation of Indus-2 RF feedback control system
Sharma, D.; Bagduwal, P.S.; Tiwari, N.; Lad, M.; Hannurkar, P.R.
2012-01-01
Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source has four RF stations along with their feedback control systems. For higher beam energy and current operation amplitude and phase feedback control systems of Indus-2 are being upgraded. To understand the behaviour of amplitude and phase control loop under different operating conditions, modelling and simulation of RF feedback control system is done. RF cavity baseband I/Q model has been created due to its close correspondence with actual implementation and better computational efficiency which makes the simulation faster. Correspondence between cavity baseband and RF model is confirmed by comparing their simulation results. Low Level RF (LLRF) feedback control system simulation is done using the same cavity baseband I/Q model. Error signals are intentionally generated and response of the closed loop system is observed. Simulation will help us in optimizing parameters of upgraded LLRF system for higher beam energy and current operation. (author)
Task-space sensory feedback control of robot manipulators
Cheah, Chien Chern
2015-01-01
This book presents recent advances in robot control theory on task space sensory feedback control of robot manipulators. By using sensory feedback information, the robot control systems are robust to various uncertainties in modelling and calibration errors of the sensors. Several sensory task space control methods that do not require exact knowledge of either kinematics or dynamics of robots, are presented. Some useful methods such as approximate Jacobian control, adaptive Jacobian control, region control and multiple task space regional feedback are included. These formulations and methods give robots a high degree of flexibility in dealing with unforeseen changes and uncertainties in its kinematics and dynamics, which is similar to human reaching movements and tool manipulation. It also leads to the solution of several long-standing problems and open issues in robot control, such as force control with constraint uncertainty, control of multi-fingered robot hand with uncertain contact points, singularity i...
Ermakov, I V; Tronciu, V Z; Colet, Pere; Mirasso, Claudio R
2009-05-25
We show the advantages of controlling the unstable dynamics of a semiconductor laser subject to conventional optical feedback by means of a second filtered feedback branch. We give an overview of the analytical solutions of the double cavity feedback and show numerically that the region of stabilization is much larger when using a second branch with filtered feedback than when using a conventional feedback one.
Ermakov, Ilya; Tronciu, Vasile; Colet, Pere; Mirasso, Claudio R.
2009-01-01
We show the advantages of controlling the unstable dynamics of a semiconductor laser subject to conventional optical feedback by means of a second filtered feedback branch. We give an overview of the analytical solutions of the double cavity feedback and show numerically that the region of stabilization is much larger when using a second branch with filtered feedback than when using a conventional feedback one.
Cortical feedback control of olfactory bulb circuits.
Boyd, Alison M; Sturgill, James F; Poo, Cindy; Isaacson, Jeffry S
2012-12-20
Olfactory cortex pyramidal cells integrate sensory input from olfactory bulb mitral and tufted (M/T) cells and project axons back to the bulb. However, the impact of cortical feedback projections on olfactory bulb circuits is unclear. Here, we selectively express channelrhodopsin-2 in olfactory cortex pyramidal cells and show that cortical feedback projections excite diverse populations of bulb interneurons. Activation of cortical fibers directly excites GABAergic granule cells, which in turn inhibit M/T cells. However, we show that cortical inputs preferentially target short axon cells that drive feedforward inhibition of granule cells. In vivo, activation of olfactory cortex that only weakly affects spontaneous M/T cell firing strongly gates odor-evoked M/T cell responses: cortical activity suppresses odor-evoked excitation and enhances odor-evoked inhibition. Together, these results indicate that although cortical projections have diverse actions on olfactory bulb microcircuits, the net effect of cortical feedback on M/T cells is an amplification of odor-evoked inhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heat pipes for temperature control
Groll, M.
1978-01-01
Heat pipes have known for years as effective constructional elements for temperature control. With the aid of special techniques (gas, liquid, steam, and voltage control), special operating characteristics can be obtained, e.g. variable heat conduction or diode behaviour. Their main field of application is in spacecraft technology and in nuclear technology in the isothermalisation of irradiation capsules. The different control techniques are presented and critically evaluated on the basis of characteristic properties like heat transfer capacity, volume and mass requirements, complexity of structure and production, reliability, and temperature control characteristics. Advantages and shortcomings of the different concepts are derived and compared. The state of the art of these control techniques is established on the basis of four development levels. Finally, the necessity and direction of further R + D activities are discussed, and suggestions are made for further work. (orig./HP) [de
Jensen, Thorben; Chappin, Émile J L
2017-07-15
Feedback devices can be used to inform households about their energy-consumption behavior. This may persuade them to practice energy conservation. The use of feedback devices can also-via word of mouth-spread among households and thereby support the spread of the incentivized behavior, e.g. energy-efficient heating behavior. This study investigates how to manage the impact of these environmental innovations via marketing. Marketing activities can support the diffusion of devices. This study aims to identify the most effective strategies of marketing feedback devices. We did this by adapting an agent-based model to simulate the roll-out of a novel feedback technology and heating behavior within households in a virtual city. The most promising marketing strategies were simulated and their impacts were analyzed. We found it particularly effective to lend out feedback devices to consumers, followed by leveraging the social influence of well-connected individuals, and giving away the first few feedback devices for free. Making households aware of the possibility of purchasing feedback devices was found to be least effective. However, making households aware proved to be most cost-efficient. This study shows that actively managing the roll-out of feedback devices can increase their impacts on energy-conservation both effectively and cost-efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feedback-linearization and feedback-feedforward decentralized control for multimachine power system
De Tuglie, Enrico [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Ambiente, e per lo Sviluppo Sostenibile - DIASS, Politecnico di Bari, Viale del Turismo 8, 74100 Taranto (Italy); Iannone, Silvio Marcello; Torelli, Francesco [Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica, ed Elettronica - DEE, Politecnico di Bari, Via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy)
2008-03-15
In this paper a decentralized nonlinear controller for large-scale power systems is investigated. The proposed controller design is based on the input-output feedback linearization methodology. In order to overcome computational difficulties in adopting such methodology, the overall interconnected nonlinear system, given as n-order, is analyzed as a cascade connection of an n{sub 1}-order nonlinear subsystem and an n{sub 2}-order linear subsystem. The controller design is obtained by applying input-output feedback linearization to the nonlinear subsystem and adopting a tracking control scheme, based on feedback-feedforward technique, for the linear subsystem. In the assumed system model, which is characterised by an interconnected structure between generating units, a decentralised adaptive controller is implemented by decentralizing these constraints. The use of a totally decentralised controller implies a system performance decay with respect to performance when the system is equipped with a centralised controller. Fortunately, the robustness of the proposed controller, based on input-output feedback procedure, guarantees good performance in terms of disturbance even when disturbances are caused by decentralization of interconnection constraints. Test results, provided on the IEEE 30 bus test system, demonstrate the effectiveness and practical applicability of proposed methodology. (author)
Experience with feedback and feedforward for plasma control in ASDEX
Schneider, F.
1983-01-01
Experimental results of vertical and radial position feedback are shown and discussed. In particular, stability problems of vertical position control are studied in detail. A feedforward procedure for the process computer is described and proved by measurements. (author)
Dynamical control of chaos by slave-master feedback
Behnia, S.; Akhshani, A.
2009-01-01
Techniques for stabilizing unstable state in nonlinear dynamical systems using small perturbations fall into three general categories: feedback, non-feedback schemes, and a combination of feedback and non-feedback. However, the general problem of finding conditions for creation or suppression of chaos still remains open. We describe a method for dynamical control of chaos. This method is based on a definition of the hierarchy of solvable chaotic maps with dynamical parameter as a control parameter. In order to study the new mechanism of control of chaotic process, Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of the chaotic map with dynamical parameter based on discussion the properties of invariant measure have been calculated and confirmed by calculation of Lyapunov exponents. The introduced chaotic maps can be used as dynamical control.
Feedback control of resistive wall modes in toroidal devices
Liu Yueqiang; Bondeson, A.; Gregoratto, D.; Fransson, C.M.; Gribov, Y.; Paccagnella, R.
2003-01-01
Feedback of nonaxisymmetric resistive wall modes (RWM) is studied analytically for cylindrical plasmas and computationally for high beta tokamaks. Internal poloidal sensors give superior performance to radial sensors, and this is explained by the distribution of poles and residues for the transfer functions. A single poloidal array of feedback coils allows robust control with respect to variations in plasma pressure, current and rotation velocity. The control analysis is applied to advanced scenarios for ITER. Studies are also shown of configurations with multiple poloidal coils and of feedback systems for nonresonant MHD instabilities in reversed field pinches. (author)
Controlled fusion and plasma heating
1990-06-01
The contributions presented in the 17th European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Heating were focused on Tore Supra investigations. The following subjects were presented: ohmic discharges, lower hybrid experiments, runaway electrons, Thomson scattering, plasma density measurements, magnetic fluctuations, polarization scattering, plasma currents, plasma fluctuation measurements, evaporation of hydrogen pellets in presence of fast electrons, ripple induced stochastic diffusion of trapped particles, tearing mode stabilization, edge effects on turbulence behavior, electron cyclotron heating, micro-tearing modes, divertors, limiters
Orbit stability and feedback control in synchrotron radiation rings
Yu, L.H.
1989-01-01
Stability of the electron orbit is essential for the utilization of a low emittance storage ring as a high brightness radiation source. We discuss the development of the measurement and feedback control of the closed orbit, with emphasis on the activities as the National Synchrotron Light Source of BNL. We discuss the performance of the beam position detectors in use and under development: the PUE rf detector, split ion chamber detector, photo-emission detector, solid state detector, and the graphite detector. Depending on the specific experiments, different beamlines require different tolerances on the orbit motion. Corresponding to these different requirements, we discuss two approaches to closed orbit feedback: the global and local feedback systems. Then we describe a new scheme for the real time global feedback by implementing a feedback system based upon a harmonic analysis of both the orbit movements and the correction magnetic fields. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system
Huang, Bin-Juine; Ton, Wei-Zhe; Wu, Chen-Chun; Ko, Hua-Wei; Chang, Hsien-Shun; Yen, Rue-Her; Wang, Jiunn-Cherng
2012-01-01
was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI
The Effect of Concurrent Visual Feedback on Controlling Swimming Speed
Szczepan Stefan
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Developing the ability to control the speed of swimming is an important part of swimming training. Maintaining a defined constant speed makes it possible for the athlete to swim economically at a low physiological cost. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concurrent visual feedback transmitted by the Leader device on the control of swimming speed in a single exercise test. Material and methods. The study involved a group of expert swimmers (n = 20. Prior to the experiment, the race time for the 100 m distance was determined for each of the participants. In the experiment, the participants swam the distance of 100 m without feedback and with visual feedback. In both variants, the task of the participants was to swim the test distance in a time as close as possible to the time designated prior to the experiment. In the first version of the experiment (without feedback, the participants swam the test distance without receiving real-time feedback on their swimming speed. In the second version (with visual feedback, the participants followed a beam of light moving across the bottom of the swimming pool, generated by the Leader device. Results. During swimming with visual feedback, the 100 m race time was significantly closer to the time designated. The difference between the pre-determined time and the time obtained was significantly statistically lower during swimming with visual feedback (p = 0.00002. Conclusions. Concurrently transmitting visual feedback to athletes improves their control of swimming speed. The Leader device has proven useful in controlling swimming speed.
[Anomalous ion transport and feedback control
1993-01-01
The slab branch of the ITG mode was produced by a d.c. ion acceleration heating scheme and definitively identified in CLM under the previous DOE grant. A transit-time rf heating scheme was used to produce a more Maxwellian ion population to produce and identify a more predictable slab ITG mode. These experiments are partly based on some theoretical work on the substantial effects of anisotropy in η i on the slab mode. The progress under the present DOE grant are described below
Feedforward/feedback control synthesis for performance and robustness
Wie, Bong; Liu, Qiang
1990-01-01
Both feedforward and feedback control approaches for uncertain dynamical systems are investigated. The control design objective is to achieve a fast settling time (high performance) and robustness (insensitivity) to plant modeling uncertainty. Preshapong of an ideal, time-optimal control input using a 'tapped-delay' filter is shown to provide a rapid maneuver with robust performance. A robust, non-minimum-phase feedback controller is synthesized with particular emphasis on its proper implementation for a non-zero set-point control problem. The proposed feedforward/feedback control approach is robust for a certain class of uncertain dynamical systems, since the control input command computed for a given desired output does not depend on the plant parameters.
A multipoint feedback control system for scanned focussed ultrasound hyperthermia
Johnson, C.; Kress, R.; Roemer, R.; Hynynen, K.
1987-01-01
A multipoint feedback control system has been developed and tested for use with a scanned focussed ultrasound hyperthermia system. Extensive in-vivo tests (using a perfused organ model) have been made to evaluate the basic performance characteristics of the feedback control scheme for control of temperature in perfused media. The results of these tests are presented and compared with the predictions of a simulation routine. The control scheme was also tested in vivo using dogs' thighs and kidneys. Thigh experiments show the control scheme responds well to the affects of vasodilation and is able to maintain the targeted temperatures. In kidney experiments, where the rate of perfusion was controllable, the power adjusting algorithm successfully maintained uniform temperature distributions across regions of varying rates of perfusion. As a conclusion, the results show that this multipoint feedback controller scheme induces uniform temperature distributions when used with scanned focussed ultrasound systems
Virtual grasping: closed-loop force control using electrotactile feedback.
Jorgovanovic, Nikola; Dosen, Strahinja; Djozic, Damir J; Krajoski, Goran; Farina, Dario
2014-01-01
Closing the control loop by providing somatosensory feedback to the user of a prosthesis is a well-known, long standing challenge in the field of prosthetics. Various approaches have been investigated for feedback restoration, ranging from direct neural stimulation to noninvasive sensory substitution methods. Although there are many studies presenting closed-loop systems, only a few of them objectively evaluated the closed-loop performance, mostly using vibrotactile stimulation. Importantly, the conclusions about the utility of the feedback were partly contradictory. The goal of the current study was to systematically investigate the capability of human subjects to control grasping force in closed loop using electrotactile feedback. We have developed a realistic experimental setup for virtual grasping, which operated in real time, included a set of real life objects, as well as a graphical and dynamical model of the prosthesis. We have used the setup to test 10 healthy, able bodied subjects to investigate the role of training, feedback and feedforward control, robustness of the closed loop, and the ability of the human subjects to generalize the control to previously "unseen" objects. Overall, the outcomes of this study are very optimistic with regard to the benefits of feedback and reveal various, practically relevant, aspects of closed-loop control.
Virtual Grasping: Closed-Loop Force Control Using Electrotactile Feedback
Nikola Jorgovanovic
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Closing the control loop by providing somatosensory feedback to the user of a prosthesis is a well-known, long standing challenge in the field of prosthetics. Various approaches have been investigated for feedback restoration, ranging from direct neural stimulation to noninvasive sensory substitution methods. Although there are many studies presenting closed-loop systems, only a few of them objectively evaluated the closed-loop performance, mostly using vibrotactile stimulation. Importantly, the conclusions about the utility of the feedback were partly contradictory. The goal of the current study was to systematically investigate the capability of human subjects to control grasping force in closed loop using electrotactile feedback. We have developed a realistic experimental setup for virtual grasping, which operated in real time, included a set of real life objects, as well as a graphical and dynamical model of the prosthesis. We have used the setup to test 10 healthy, able bodied subjects to investigate the role of training, feedback and feedforward control, robustness of the closed loop, and the ability of the human subjects to generalize the control to previously “unseen” objects. Overall, the outcomes of this study are very optimistic with regard to the benefits of feedback and reveal various, practically relevant, aspects of closed-loop control.
Direct Torque Control With Feedback Linearization for Induction Motor Drives
Lascu, Cristian; Jafarzadeh, Saeed; Fadali, Sami M.
2017-01-01
This paper describes a direct-torque-controlled (DTC) induction motor (IM) drive that employs feedback linearization and sliding-mode control (SMC). A new feedback linearization approach is proposed, which yields a decoupled linear IM model with two state variables: torque and stator flux magnitude....... This intuitive linear model is used to implement a DTC-type controller that preserves all DTC advantages and eliminates its main drawback, the flux and torque ripple. Robust, fast, and ripple-free control is achieved by using SMC with proportional control in the vicinity of the sliding surface. SMC assures...... in simulations. The sliding controller is compared with a linear DTC scheme with and without feedback linearization. Extensive experimental results for a sensorless IM drive validate the proposed solution....
Time-delayed feedback control of coherence resonance chimeras
Zakharova, Anna; Semenova, Nadezhda; Anishchenko, Vadim; Schöll, Eckehard
2017-11-01
Using the model of a FitzHugh-Nagumo system in the excitable regime, we investigate the influence of time-delayed feedback on noise-induced chimera states in a network with nonlocal coupling, i.e., coherence resonance chimeras. It is shown that time-delayed feedback allows for the control of the range of parameter values where these chimera states occur. Moreover, for the feedback delay close to the intrinsic period of the system, we find a novel regime which we call period-two coherence resonance chimera.
Time-delayed feedback control of diffusion in random walkers
Ando, Hiroyasu; Takehara, Kohta; Kobayashi, Miki U.
2017-07-01
Time delay in general leads to instability in some systems, while specific feedback with delay can control fluctuated motion in nonlinear deterministic systems to a stable state. In this paper, we consider a stochastic process, i.e., a random walk, and observe its diffusion phenomenon with time-delayed feedback. As a result, the diffusion coefficient decreases with increasing delay time. We analytically illustrate this suppression of diffusion by using stochastic delay differential equations and justify the feasibility of this suppression by applying time-delayed feedback to a molecular dynamics model.
Laser cooling in a feedback-controlled optical shaker
Vilensky, Mark Y.; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.; Prior, Yehiam
2006-01-01
We explore the prospects of optical shaking, a recently suggested generic approach to laser cooling of neutral atoms and molecules. Optical shaking combines elements of Sisyphus cooling and of stochastic cooling techniques and is based on feedback-controlled interaction of particles with strong nonresonant laser fields. The feedback loop guarantees a monotonous energy decrease without a loss of particles. We discuss two types of feedback algorithms and provide an analytical estimation of their cooling rate. We study the robustness of optical shaking against noise and establish minimal stability requirements for the lasers. The analytical predictions are in a good agreement with the results of detailed numerical simulations
Feedback control of nonlinear quantum systems: a rule of thumb.
Jacobs, Kurt; Lund, Austin P
2007-07-13
We show that in the regime in which feedback control is most effective - when measurements are relatively efficient, and feedback is relatively strong - then, in the absence of any sharp inhomogeneity in the noise, it is always best to measure in a basis that does not commute with the system density matrix than one that does. That is, it is optimal to make measurements that disturb the state one is attempting to stabilize.
Feedback linearizing control of a MIMO power system
Ilyes, Laszlo
Prior research has demonstrated that either the mechanical or electrical subsystem of a synchronous electric generator may be controlled using single-input single-output (SISO) nonlinear feedback linearization. This research suggests a new approach which applies nonlinear feedback linearization to a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) model of the synchronous electric generator connected to an infinite bus load model. In this way, the electrical and mechanical subsystems may be linearized and simultaneously decoupled through the introduction of a pair of auxiliary inputs. This allows well known, linear, SISO control methods to be effectively applied to the resulting systems. The derivation of the feedback linearizing control law is presented in detail, including a discussion on the use of symbolic math processing as a development tool. The linearizing and decoupling properties of the control law are validated through simulation. And finally, the robustness of the control law is demonstrated.
Force Feedback Control Method of Active Tuned Mass Damper
Xiuli Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Active tuned mass dampers as vibration-control devices are widely used in many fields for their good stability and effectiveness. To improve the performance of such dampers, a control method based on force feedback is proposed. The method offers several advantages such as high-precision control and low-performance requirements for the actuator, as well as not needing additional compensators. The force feedback control strategy was designed based on direct-velocity feedback. The effectiveness of the method was verified in a single-degree-of-freedom system, and factors such as damping effect, required active force, actuator stroke, and power consumption of the damper were analyzed. Finally, a simulation study was performed by configuring a main complex elastic-vibration-damping system. The results show that the method provides effective control over modal resonances of multiple orders of the system and improves its dynamics performance.
Self-Controlled Feedback for a Complex Motor Task
Wolf Peter
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Self-controlled augmented feedback enhances learning of simple motor tasks. Thereby, learners tend to request feedback after trials that were rated as good by themselves. Feedback after good trials promotes positive reinforcement, which enhances motor learning. The goal of this study was to investigate when naïve learners request terminal visual feedback in a complex motor task, as conclusions drawn on simple tasks can hardly be transferred to complex tasks. Indeed, seven of nine learners stated to have intended to request feedback predominantly after good trials, but in contrast to their intention, kinematic analysis showed that feedback was rather requested randomly (23% after good, 44% after intermediate, 33% after bad trials. Moreover, requesting feedback after good trials did not correlate with learning success. It seems that self-estimation of performance in complex tasks is challenging. As a consequence, learners might have focused on certain movement aspects rather than on the overall movement. Further studies should assess the current focus of the learner in detail to gain more insight in self-estimation capabilities during complex motor task learning.
Predictive Feedback and Feedforward Control for Systems with Unknown Disturbances
Juang, Jer-Nan; Eure, Kenneth W.
1998-01-01
Predictive feedback control has been successfully used in the regulation of plate vibrations when no reference signal is available for feedforward control. However, if a reference signal is available it may be used to enhance regulation by incorporating a feedforward path in the feedback controller. Such a controller is known as a hybrid controller. This paper presents the theory and implementation of the hybrid controller for general linear systems, in particular for structural vibration induced by acoustic noise. The generalized predictive control is extended to include a feedforward path in the multi-input multi-output case and implemented on a single-input single-output test plant to achieve plate vibration regulation. There are cases in acoustic-induce vibration where the disturbance signal is not available to be used by the hybrid controller, but a disturbance model is available. In this case the disturbance model may be used in the feedback controller to enhance performance. In practice, however, neither the disturbance signal nor the disturbance model is available. This paper presents the theory of identifying and incorporating the noise model into the feedback controller. Implementations are performed on a test plant and regulation improvements over the case where no noise model is used are demonstrated.
Robust non-local effects of ocean heat uptake on radiative feedback and subtropical cloud cover
Rose, B. E. J.
2016-02-01
Much recent work has pointed to the limitations of the global mean planetary energy budget as a useful diagnostic tool for understanding transient climate response, because the climate sensitivity (or radiative feedback) governing the relationships between ocean heat content, surface temperature and top-of-atmosphere energy imbalance depends sensitively on timescale, spatial pattern and nature of the climate forcing. Progress has been made by treating the slowly-evolving (and spatially complex) pattern of ocean heat uptake as a quasi-equilibrium forcing on the "fast" components of the climate system: the atmospheric radiative-dynamical processes that link air-sea heat exchange to the top-of-atmosphere energy budget. Differences between these feedbacks and those on CO2 radiative forcing can be expressed as an "efficacy" of ocean heat uptake. We use idealized slab ocean GCMs forced by prescribed steady energy sinks limited to specific latitude bands (representing heat exchange with the deep ocean) to quantify how (and why) the efficacy depends on the spatial pattern of ocean heat uptake. By repeating the experiment across several independent GCMs we identify robust and non-robust aspects of the response. We find that the efficacy of sub-polar heat uptake is 3 to 4 times larger than the efficacy of tropical heat uptake. Radiative kernel analysis allows an accurate partition into feedbacks due to temperature, water vapor and clouds. We find large and robust differences in clear-sky lapse rate feedbacks, associated with robust differences in large-scale atmospheric circulation and stratification driven by ocean heat uptake. A more novel and surprising result is the robustness across several independent GCMs of the differences in subtropical low cloud feedback (positive under high-latitude uptake, strongly negative under tropical uptake). We trace these robust differences to thermodynamic constraints associated with lower-tropospheric stability and boundary layer
Augmenting performance feedback does not affect 4 km cycling time-trials in the heat.
Waldron, Mark; Villerius, Vincent; Murphy, Aron
2015-01-01
We compared the effects of (1) accurate and (2) surreptitiously augmented performance feedback on power output and physiological responses to a 4000 m time-trial in the heat. Nine cyclists completed a baseline (BaseL) 4000 m time-trial in ambient temperatures of 30°C, followed by two further 4000 m time-trials at the same temperature, randomly assigning the participants to an accurate (ACC; accurate feedback of baseline) or deceived (DEC; 2% increase above baseline) feedback group. The total power output (PO) and aerobic (Paer) and anaerobic (Pan) contributions were determined at 0.4 km stages during the time-trials, alongside measurements of rectal (Trec) and skin (Tskin) temperatures. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in any of the variables between BaseL, ACC and DEC, despite increases (P 0.05) between feedback condition and time-trial stage. Providing surreptitiously augmented performance feedback to well-trained cyclists did not alter their performance or physiological responses to a 4000 m time-trial in a hot environment. The assumed influence of augmented performance feedback was nullified in the heat, perhaps reflecting a central down-regulation of exercise intensity in response to an increased body temperature.
Feedback control of thermal instability by compression and decompression
Okamoto, M.; Hirano, K.; Amano, T.; Ohnishi, M.
1983-01-01
Active feedback control of the fusion output power by means of plasma compression-decompression is considered with the purpose of achieving steady-state plasma ignition in a tokamak. A simple but realistic feedback control system is modelled and zero-dimensional energy balance equations are solved numerically by taking into account the errors in the measurements, a procedure that is necessary for the feedback control. It is shown that the control can stabilize the thermal runaway completely and maintain steady-state operation without any significant change in major radius or thermal output power. Linear stability is analysed for a general type of scaling law, and the dependence of the stability conditions on the scaling law is studied. The possibility of load-following operation is considered. Finally, a one-dimensional analysis is applied to the large-aspect-ratio case. (author)
Delayed feedback control of fractional-order chaotic systems
Gjurchinovski, A; Urumov, V; Sandev, T
2010-01-01
We study the possibility to stabilize unstable steady states and unstable periodic orbits in chaotic fractional-order dynamical systems by the time-delayed feedback method. By performing a linear stability analysis, we establish the parameter ranges for successful stabilization of unstable equilibria in the plane parameterized by the feedback gain and the time delay. An insight into the control mechanism is gained by analyzing the characteristic equation of the controlled system, showing that the control scheme fails to control unstable equilibria having an odd number of positive real eigenvalues. We demonstrate that the method can also stabilize unstable periodic orbits for a suitable choice of the feedback gain, providing that the time delay is chosen to coincide with the period of the target orbit. In addition, it is shown numerically that delayed feedback control with a sinusoidally modulated time delay significantly enlarges the stability region of steady states in comparison to the classical time-delayed feedback scheme with a constant delay.
On spatial spillover in feedforward and feedback noise control
Xie, Antai; Bernstein, Dennis
2017-03-01
Active feedback noise control for rejecting broadband disturbances must contend with the Bode integral constraint, which implies that suppression over some frequency range gives rise to amplification over another range at the performance microphone. This is called spectral spillover. The present paper deals with spatial spillover, which refers to the amplification of noise at locations where no microphone is located. A spatial spillover function is defined, which is valid for both feedforward and feedback control with scalar and vector control inputs. This function is numerically analyzed and measured experimentally. Obstructions are introduced in the acoustic space to investigate their effect on spatial spillover.
Event-triggered output feedback control for distributed networked systems.
Mahmoud, Magdi S; Sabih, Muhammad; Elshafei, Moustafa
2016-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of output-feedback communication and control with event-triggered framework in the context of distributed networked control systems. The design problem of the event-triggered output-feedback control is proposed as a linear matrix inequality (LMI) feasibility problem. The scheme is developed for the distributed system where only partial states are available. In this scheme, a subsystem uses local observers and share its information to its neighbors only when the subsystem's local error exceeds a specified threshold. The developed method is illustrated by using a coupled cart example from the literature. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Optimal integral force feedback for active vibration control
Teo, Yik R.; Fleming, Andrew J.
2015-11-01
This paper proposes an improvement to Integral Force Feedback (IFF), which is a popular method for active vibration control of structures and mechanical systems. Benefits of IFF include robustness, guaranteed stability and simplicity. However, the maximum damping performance is dependent on the stiffness of the system; hence, some systems cannot be adequately controlled. In this paper, an improvement to the classical force feedback control scheme is proposed. The improved method achieves arbitrary damping for any mechanical system by introducing a feed-through term. The proposed improvement is experimentally demonstrated by actively damping an objective lens assembly for a high-speed confocal microscope.
The Role of Locus of Control and Feedback on Performance of ...
This study examined Students' Locus of Control and Teacher Feedback using a 2x3 factorial to measure the performance of thirty-six (36) primary school students utilizing the two locus of control types and three levels of teacher feedback: no feedback, attributional feedback, and progressive feedback. No significant ...
Hybrid Feedforward-Feedback Noise Control Using Virtual Sensors
Bean, Jacob; Fuller, Chris; Schiller, Noah
2016-01-01
Several approaches to active noise control using virtual sensors are evaluated for eventual use in an active headrest. Specifically, adaptive feedforward, feedback, and hybrid control structures are compared. Each controller incorporates the traditional filtered-x least mean squares algorithm. The feedback controller is arranged in an internal model configuration to draw comparisons with standard feedforward control theory results. Simulation and experimental results are presented that illustrate each controllers ability to minimize the pressure at both physical and virtual microphone locations. The remote microphone technique is used to obtain pressure estimates at the virtual locations. It is shown that a hybrid controller offers performance benefits over the traditional feedforward and feedback controllers. Stability issues associated with feedback and hybrid controllers are also addressed. Experimental results show that 15-20 dB reduction in broadband disturbances can be achieved by minimizing the measured pressure, whereas 10-15 dB reduction is obtained when minimizing the estimated pressure at a virtual location.
Reducing feedback requirements of workload control
Henrich, Peter; Land, Martin; van der Zee, Durk; Gaalman, Gerard
2004-01-01
The workload control concept is known as a robust shop floor control concept. It is especially suited for the dynamic environment of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) within the make-to-order sector. Before orders are released to the shop floor, they are collected in an ‘order pool’. To
Iterative feedback tuning of wind turbine controllers
van Solingen, E.; Mulders, S.P.; van Wingerden, J.W.
2017-01-01
Traditionally, wind turbine controllers are designed using first principles or linearized or identified models. The aim of this paper is to show that with an automated, online, and model-free tuning strategy, wind turbine control performance can be significantly increased. For this purpose,
Semiglobal H-infty state feedback control
Cromme, Marc
1997-01-01
semi-global set-stabilizing H-infty control is local H-infty control within some given compact set O such that all state trajectories are bounded inside O, and are approaching an open loop invariant set S subset O as t -> infinity. Sufficient conditions for the existance of a continuous statefeed...
Feedback control of plasma position in the HL-1 tokamak
Yuan Baoshan; Jiao Boliang; Yang Kailing
1991-01-01
In the HL-1 tokamak with a thick copper shell, the control of plasma position is successfully performed by a feedback-feedforward system with dual mode regulator and the equilibrium field coils outside the shell. The plasma position can be controlled within ±2 mm in both vertical and horizontal directions under the condition that the iron core of transformer is not saturated
Sensory feedback in artificial control of human mobility
Veltink, Petrus H.
1999-01-01
Artificial motor control systems may reduce the handicap of motor impaired individuals. Sensors are essential components in feedback control of these systems and in the information exchange with the user. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the applications of sensors in the
MATLAB simulation for an experimental setup of digital feedback control
Zheng Lifang; Liu Songqiang
2005-01-01
This paper describes the digital feedback simulation using MATLAB for an experimental accelerator control setup. By analyzing the plant characteristic in time-domain and frequency-domain, a guideline for design of digital filter and PID controller is derived. (authors)
Force control in the absence of visual and tactile feedback
Mugge, W.; Abbink, D.A.; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Arendzen, J.H.; Meskers, C.G.M.
2013-01-01
Motor control tasks like stance or object handling require sensory feedback from proprioception, vision and touch. The distinction between tactile and proprioceptive sensors is not frequently made in dynamic motor control tasks, and if so, mostly based on signal latency. We previously found that
Cross-Layer Adaptive Feedback Scheduling of Wireless Control Systems
Xia, Feng; Ma, Longhua; Peng, Chen; Sun, Youxian; Dong, Jinxiang
2008-01-01
There is a trend towards using wireless technologies in networked control systems. However, the adverse properties of the radio channels make it difficult to design and implement control systems in wireless environments. To attack the uncertainty in available communication resources in wireless control systems closed over WLAN, a cross-layer adaptive feedback scheduling (CLAFS) scheme is developed, which takes advantage of the co-design of control and wireless communications. By exploiting cross-layer design, CLAFS adjusts the sampling periods of control systems at the application layer based on information about deadline miss ratio and transmission rate from the physical layer. Within the framework of feedback scheduling, the control performance is maximized through controlling the deadline miss ratio. Key design parameters of the feedback scheduler are adapted to dynamic changes in the channel condition. An event-driven invocation mechanism for the feedback scheduler is also developed. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is efficient in dealing with channel capacity variations and noise interference, thus providing an enabling technology for control over WLAN. PMID:27879934
Cross-Layer Adaptive Feedback Scheduling of Wireless Control Systems
Jinxiang Dong
2008-07-01
Full Text Available There is a trend towards using wireless technologies in networked control systems. However, the adverse properties of the radio channels make it difficult to design and implement control systems in wireless environments. To attack the uncertainty in available communication resources in wireless control systems closed over WLAN, a cross-layer adaptive feedback scheduling (CLAFS scheme is developed, which takes advantage of the co-design of control and wireless communications. By exploiting crosslayer design, CLAFS adjusts the sampling periods of control systems at the application layer based on information about deadline miss ratio and transmission rate from the physical layer. Within the framework of feedback scheduling, the control performance is maximized through controlling the deadline miss ratio. Key design parameters of the feedback scheduler are adapted to dynamic changes in the channel condition. An eventdriven invocation mechanism for the feedback scheduler is also developed. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is efficient in dealing with channel capacity variations and noise interference, thus providing an enabling technology for control over WLAN.
Quaternion Feedback Control for Rigid-body Spacecraft
Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal
2001-01-01
This paper addresses three-axis attitude control for a Danish spacecraft, Roemer. The algorithm proposed is based on an approximation of the exact feedback linearisation for quaternionic attitude representation. The proposed attitude controller is tested in a simulation study. The environmental...
Chen, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Srebric, Jelena
2016-01-01
Highlights: • This study evaluates an occupant-feedback driven Model Predictive Controller (MPC). • The MPC adjusts indoor temperature based on a dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. • A chamber model for predicting chamber air temperature is developed and validated. • Experiments show that MPC using DTS performs better than using Predicted Mean Vote. - Abstract: In current centralized building climate control, occupants do not have much opportunity to intervene the automated control system. This study explores the benefit of using thermal comfort feedback from occupants in the model predictive control (MPC) design based on a novel dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. This DTS model based MPC was evaluated in chamber experiments. A hierarchical structure for thermal control was adopted in the chamber experiments. At the high level, an MPC controller calculates the optimal supply air temperature of the chamber heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, using the feedback of occupants’ votes on thermal sensation. At the low level, the actual supply air temperature is controlled by the chiller/heater using a PI control to achieve the optimal set point. This DTS-based MPC was also compared to an MPC designed based on the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) model for thermal sensation. The experiment results demonstrated that the DTS-based MPC using occupant feedback allows significant energy saving while maintaining occupant thermal comfort compared to the PMV-based MPC.
Persistent disturbance rejection via state feedback for networked control systems
Yue Dong [Institute of Information and Control Engineering Technology, Nanjing Normal University, 78 Bancang Street, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210042 (China)], E-mail: medongy@njnu.edu.cn; Lam, James [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Wang Zidong [Department of Information Systems and Computing, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Zidong.Wang@brunel.ac.uk
2009-04-15
The problem of persistent disturbance rejection via state feedback for networked control systems is concerned based on the Lyapunov function method. The effect of the network conditions, such as network-induced delay and data dropout, is considered in the modeling of the system. It is assumed that the state and the control signals are individually quantized by quantizers on the sensor side and the controller side. The feedback gain and the quantizer parameters that guarantee the internal stability and the disturbance rejection performance of the closed-loop system are obtained by solving some linear matrix inequalities. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a numerical example is provided for the design of the feedback gain and the quantizer parameters.
Persistent disturbance rejection via state feedback for networked control systems
Yue Dong; Lam, James; Wang Zidong
2009-01-01
The problem of persistent disturbance rejection via state feedback for networked control systems is concerned based on the Lyapunov function method. The effect of the network conditions, such as network-induced delay and data dropout, is considered in the modeling of the system. It is assumed that the state and the control signals are individually quantized by quantizers on the sensor side and the controller side. The feedback gain and the quantizer parameters that guarantee the internal stability and the disturbance rejection performance of the closed-loop system are obtained by solving some linear matrix inequalities. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a numerical example is provided for the design of the feedback gain and the quantizer parameters.
Linearizing feedforward/feedback attitude control
Paielli, Russell A.; Bach, Ralph E.
1991-01-01
An approach to attitude control theory is introduced in which a linear form is postulated for the closed-loop rotation error dynamics, then the exact control law required to realize it is derived. The nonminimal (four-component) quaternion form is used to attitude because it is globally nonsingular, but the minimal (three-component) quaternion form is used for attitude error because it has no nonlinear constraints to prevent the rotational error dynamics from being linearized, and the definition of the attitude error is based on quaternion algebra. This approach produces an attitude control law that linearizes the closed-loop rotational error dynamics exactly, without any attitude singularities, even if the control errors become large.
Adaptive Feedfoward Feedback Control Framework, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel approach is proposed for the suppression of the aircraft's structural vibration to increase the resilience of the flight control law in the presence of the...
Time-optimal feedback control for linear systems
Mirica, S.
1976-01-01
The paper deals with the results of qualitative investigations of the time-optimal feedback control for linear systems with constant coefficients. In the first section, after some definitions and notations, two examples are given and it is shown that even the time-optimal control problem for linear systems with constant coefficients which looked like ''completely solved'' requires a further qualitative investigation of the stability to ''permanent perturbations'' of optimal feedback control. In the second section some basic results of the linear time-optimal control problem are reviewed. The third section deals with the definition of Boltyanskii's ''regular synthesis'' and its connection to Filippov's theory of right-hand side discontinuous differential equations. In the fourth section a theorem is proved concerning the stability to perturbations of time-optimal feedback control for linear systems with scalar control. In the last two sections it is proved that, if the matrix which defines the system has only real eigenvalues or is three-dimensional, the time-optimal feedback control defines a regular synthesis and therefore is stable to perturbations. (author)
Neural Feedback Scheduling of Real-Time Control Tasks
Xia, Feng; Tian, Yu-Chu; Sun, Youxian; Dong, Jinxiang
2008-01-01
Many embedded real-time control systems suffer from resource constraints and dynamic workload variations. Although optimal feedback scheduling schemes are in principle capable of maximizing the overall control performance of multitasking control systems, most of them induce excessively large computational overheads associated with the mathematical optimization routines involved and hence are not directly applicable to practical systems. To optimize the overall control performance while minimi...
Chaos synchronization in autonomous chaotic system via hybrid feedback control
Yang Lixin; Chu Yandong; Zhang Jiangang; Li Xianfeng; Chang Yingxiang
2009-01-01
This paper presents the synchronization of chaos by designing united controller. First, this method is implemented in synchronization of a simple system, then we realize the synchronization of Lue hyperchaotic system, we also take tracking control to realize the synchronization of Lue hyperchaotic system. Comparing with results, we can find that hybrid feedback control approach is more effective than tracking control for hyperchaotic system. Numerical simulations show the united synchronization method works well.
Feedback Linearized Aircraft Control Using Dynamic Cell Structure
Jorgensen, C. C.
1998-01-01
A Dynamic Cell Structure (DCS ) Neural Network was developed which learns a topology representing network (TRN) of F-15 aircraft aerodynamic stability and control derivatives. The network is combined with a feedback linearized tracking controller to produce a robust control architecture capable of handling multiple accident and off-nominal flight scenarios. This paper describes network and its performance for accident scenarios including differential stabilator lock, soft sensor failure, control, stability derivative variation, and turbulence.
Ayvali, Elif; Desai, Jaydev P
2014-04-01
This work presents a temperature-feedback approach to control the radius of curvature of an arc-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) wire. The nonlinear properties of the SMA such as phase transformation and its dependence on temperature and stress make SMA actuators difficult to control. Tracking a desired trajectory is more challenging than controlling just the position of the SMA actuator since the desired path is continuously changing. Consequently, tracking the desired strain directly or tracking the parameters such as temperature and electrical resistance that are related to strain with a model is a challenging task. Temperature-feedback is an attractive approach when direct measurement of strain is not practical. Pulse width modulation (PWM) is an effective method for SMA actuation and it can be used along with a compensator to control the temperature of the SMA. Using the constitutive model of the SMA, the desired temperature profile can be obtained for a given strain trajectory. A PWM-based nonlinear PID controller with a feed-forward heat transfer model is proposed to use temperature-feedback for tracking a desired temperature trajectory. The proposed controller is used during the heating phase of the SMA actuator. The controller proves to be effective in tracking step-wise and continuous trajectories.
An amplitude and phase control system for the TFTR rf heating sources
Cutsogeorge, G.
1989-04-01
Feedback loops that control the amplitude and phase of the rf heating sources on TFTR are described. The method for providing arc protection is also discussed. Block diagrams and Bode plots are included. 6 figs
Direct torque control with feedback linearization for induction motor drives
Lascu, Cristian; Jafarzadeh, Saeed; Fadali, Sami M.
2015-01-01
This paper describes a Direct Torque Controlled (DTC) Induction Machine (IM) drive that employs feedback linearization and sliding-mode control. A feedback linearization approach is investigated, which yields a decoupled linear IM model with two state variables: torque and stator flux magnitude....... This intuitive linear model is used to implement a DTC type controller that preserves all DTC advantages and eliminates its main drawback, the flux and torque ripple. Robust, fast, and ripple-free control is achieved by using Variable Structure Control (VSC) with proportional control in the vicinity...... robust stability analysis are presented. The sliding controller is compared with a linear DTC scheme, and experimental results for a sensorless IM drive validate the proposed solution....
Paley, J I; Felici, F; Coda, S; Goodman, T P
2009-01-01
Real time control of heating systems is essential to maximize plasma performance and avoid or neutralize instabilities under changing plasma conditions. Several feedback control algorithms have been developed on the Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) tokamak that use the electron cyclotron (ECRH/ECCD) system to control a wide range of plasma properties, including the plasma current, shape, profiles as well as the sawtooth instability. Controllers have been developed to obtain sawteeth of a pre-determined period, to maximize the sawtooth period using an extremum seeking control algorithm and finally to provide simultaneous control of the plasma emission profile peak and width using multiple independent EC actuators.
Synchronizing strict-feedback and general strict-feedback chaotic systems via a single controller
Chen Shihua; Wang Feng; Wang Changping
2004-01-01
We present a systematic design procedure to synchronize a class of chaotic systems in a so-called strict-feedback form based on back-stepping procedure. This approach needs only a single controller to realize synchronization no matter how many dimensions the chaotic system contains. Furthermore, we point out that the method does not work for general strict-feedback chaotic systems, for instance, Lorenz system. Therefore, we propose three kinds of synchronization schemes for Lorenz system using the Lyapunov function method. All the three schemes avoid including divergence factor as in Ref. [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 16 (2003) 37]. Especially in the last two schemes, we need only one state variable in controller, which has important significance in chaos synchronization used for communication purposes. Finally numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed methods
Regulating vacuum pump speed with feedback control
Ludington, D.C.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Pellerin, R.; Guo, F.
1992-01-01
Considerable energy is wasted by the vacuum pump/motor on dairy farms. The output capacity (m 3 /min or cfm) of the vacuum pump always exceeds the capacity needed to milk cows and wash pipelines. Vacuum pumps run at full speed and load regardless of actual need for air. Excess air is admitted through a controller. Energy can be saved from electrical demand reduced by regulating vacuum pump speed according to air based on air usage. An adjustable speed drive (ASD) on the motor and controlled based upon air usage, can reduce the energy used by the vacuum pump. However, the ASD unit tested could not maintain vacuum levels within generally accepted guidelines when air usage changed. Adding a high vacuum reserve and a dual vacuum controller between the vacuum pump and the milking pipeline brought vacuum stability within guidelines. The ASD/dual vacuum system can reduce energy consumption and demand by at least 50 percent during milking and provide better vacuum stability than conventional systems. Tests were not run during washing cycles. Using 1990 costs and only the energy saved during milking, the simple payback on investment in new equipment for a 5 hp motor, speed controller and vacuum regulator would be about 5 years
Feedback Gating Control for Network Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram
YangBeibei Ji
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Empirical data from Yokohama, Japan, showed that a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD of urban traffic provides for different network regions a unimodal low-scatter relationship between network vehicle density and network space-mean flow. This provides new tools for network congestion control. Based on MFD, this paper proposed a feedback gating control policy which can be used to mitigate network congestion by adjusting signal timings of gating intersections. The objective of the feedback gating control model is to maximize the outflow and distribute the allowed inflows properly according to external demand and capacity of each gating intersection. An example network is used to test the performance of proposed feedback gating control model. Two types of background signalization types for the intersections within the test network, fixed-time and actuated control, are considered. The results of extensive simulation validate that the proposed feedback gating control model can get a Pareto improvement since the performance of both gating intersections and the whole network can be improved significantly especially under heavy demand situations. The inflows and outflows can be improved to a higher level, and the delay and queue length at all gating intersections are decreased dramatically.
A stochastic optimal feedforward and feedback control methodology for superagility
Halyo, Nesim; Direskeneli, Haldun; Taylor, Deborah B.
1992-01-01
A new control design methodology is developed: Stochastic Optimal Feedforward and Feedback Technology (SOFFT). Traditional design techniques optimize a single cost function (which expresses the design objectives) to obtain both the feedforward and feedback control laws. This approach places conflicting demands on the control law such as fast tracking versus noise atttenuation/disturbance rejection. In the SOFFT approach, two cost functions are defined. The feedforward control law is designed to optimize one cost function, the feedback optimizes the other. By separating the design objectives and decoupling the feedforward and feedback design processes, both objectives can be achieved fully. A new measure of command tracking performance, Z-plots, is also developed. By analyzing these plots at off-nominal conditions, the sensitivity or robustness of the system in tracking commands can be predicted. Z-plots provide an important tool for designing robust control systems. The Variable-Gain SOFFT methodology was used to design a flight control system for the F/A-18 aircraft. It is shown that SOFFT can be used to expand the operating regime and provide greater performance (flying/handling qualities) throughout the extended flight regime. This work was performed under the NASA SBIR program. ICS plans to market the software developed as a new module in its commercial CACSD software package: ACET.
Theory of feedback controlled brain stimulations for Parkinson's disease
Sanzeni, A.; Celani, A.; Tiana, G.; Vergassola, M.
2016-01-01
Limb tremor and other debilitating symptoms caused by the neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease are currently treated by administering drugs and by fixed-frequency deep brain stimulation. The latter interferes directly with the brain dynamics by delivering electrical impulses to neurons in the subthalamic nucleus. While deep brain stimulation has shown therapeutic benefits in many instances, its mechanism is still unclear. Since its understanding could lead to improved protocols of stimulation and feedback control, we have studied a mathematical model of the many-body neural network dynamics controlling the dynamics of the basal ganglia. On the basis of the results obtained from the model, we propose a new procedure of active stimulation, that depends on the feedback of the network and that respects the constraints imposed by existing technology. We show by numerical simulations that the new protocol outperforms the standard ones for deep brain stimulation and we suggest future experiments that could further improve the feedback procedure.
Feedback control architecture and the bacterial chemotaxis network.
Abdullah Hamadeh
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Bacteria move towards favourable and away from toxic environments by changing their swimming pattern. This response is regulated by the chemotaxis signalling pathway, which has an important feature: it uses feedback to 'reset' (adapt the bacterial sensing ability, which allows the bacteria to sense a range of background environmental changes. The role of this feedback has been studied extensively in the simple chemotaxis pathway of Escherichia coli. However it has been recently found that the majority of bacteria have multiple chemotaxis homologues of the E. coli proteins, resulting in more complex pathways. In this paper we investigate the configuration and role of feedback in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a bacterium containing multiple homologues of the chemotaxis proteins found in E. coli. Multiple proteins could produce different possible feedback configurations, each having different chemotactic performance qualities and levels of robustness to variations and uncertainties in biological parameters and to intracellular noise. We develop four models corresponding to different feedback configurations. Using a series of carefully designed experiments we discriminate between these models and invalidate three of them. When these models are examined in terms of robustness to noise and parametric uncertainties, we find that the non-invalidated model is superior to the others. Moreover, it has a 'cascade control' feedback architecture which is used extensively in engineering to improve system performance, including robustness. Given that the majority of bacteria are known to have multiple chemotaxis pathways, in this paper we show that some feedback architectures allow them to have better performance than others. In particular, cascade control may be an important feature in achieving robust functionality in more complex signalling pathways and in improving their performance.
Stability of digital feedback control systems
Larkin Eugene
2018-01-01
Lag time characteristics are used for investigation of stability of linear systems. Digital PID controller is divided onto linear part, which is realized with a soft and pure lag unit, which is realized with both hardware and software. With use notions amplitude and phase margins, condition for stability of system functioning are obtained. Theoretical results are confirm with computer experiment carried out on the third-order system.
Feedback control of edge turbulence in a tokamak
Kan, Zhai; Yi-zhi, Wen; Chang-xuan, Yu; Wan-dong, Liu; Chao, Wang; Ge, Zhuang; Kan, Zhai; Zhi-Zhan, Yu
1997-01-01
An experiment on feedback control of edge turbulence has been undertaken on the KT-5C tokamak. The results indicate that the edge turbulence could be suppressed or enhanced depending on the phase shift of the feedback network. In a typical case of 90 degree phase shift feedback, the turbulence amplitudes of both T e and n e were reduced by about 25% when the gain of the feedback network was 15. Correspondingly the radial particle flux decreased to about 75% level of the background. Through bispectral analysis it is found that there exists a substantial nonlinear coupling between various modes comprised in edge turbulence, especially in the frequency range from about 10 kHz to 100 kHz, which contains the large part of the edge turbulence energy in KT-5C tokamak. In particular, by actively controlling the turbulence amplitude using feedback, a direct experimental evidence of the link between the nonlinear wave-wave coupling over the whole spectrum in turbulence, the saturated turbulence amplitude, and the radial particle flux was provided. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Feedback Control Design for a Walking Athlete Robot
Xuan Vu Trien Nguyen
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In the paper, authors generalized the dynamic model of an athlete robot with elastic legs through Lagrange method. Then, a feed-back controller was designed to control the robot through a step-walking. The research just focused on stance phase – the period that robot just touched one leg on the ground. The simulation results showed that system worked well with the designed controller.
Feedback brake distribution control for minimum pitch
Tavernini, Davide; Velenis, Efstathios; Longo, Stefano
2017-06-01
The distribution of brake forces between front and rear axles of a vehicle is typically specified such that the same level of brake force coefficient is imposed at both front and rear wheels. This condition is known as 'ideal' distribution and it is required to deliver the maximum vehicle deceleration and minimum braking distance. For subcritical braking conditions, the deceleration demand may be delivered by different distributions between front and rear braking forces. In this research we show how to obtain the optimal distribution which minimises the pitch angle of a vehicle and hence enhances driver subjective feel during braking. A vehicle model including suspension geometry features is adopted. The problem of the minimum pitch brake distribution for a varying deceleration level demand is solved by means of a model predictive control (MPC) technique. To address the problem of the undesirable pitch rebound caused by a full-stop of the vehicle, a second controller is designed and implemented independently from the braking distribution in use. An extended Kalman filter is designed for state estimation and implemented in a high fidelity environment together with the MPC strategy. The proposed solution is compared with the reference 'ideal' distribution as well as another previous feed-forward solution.
Nonlinear Feedback Control of the Rotary Inverted Pendulum
2017-06-01
Feedback linearization has advantages over linearized control because of the ability to operate over a wider range of motion than the small...1sin 2 sin 2 sin 02 2 sin( )1 sin 2 2 xb J x J x x m Ll x x x D x gm l xJ x b f f x
Feedback control for magnetic island suppression in tokamaks
Hennen, B.A.
2011-01-01
A real-time feedback control system has been developed that finds, tracks, suppresses and/or stabilizes resistive magnetic instabilities in a nuclear fusion plasma. In a tokamak, magnetic fields confine a fusion plasma in a topology of toroidally nested magnetic surfaces. The power produced by the
Kinematic feedback control laws for generating natural arm movements
Kim, Donghyun; Jang, Cheongjae; Park, Frank C
2014-01-01
We propose a stochastic optimal feedback control law for generating natural robot arm motions. Our approach, inspired by the minimum variance principle of Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780–4) and the optimal feedback control principles put forth by Todorov and Jordan (2002 Nature Neurosci. 5 1226–35) for explaining human movements, differs in two crucial respects: (i) the endpoint variance is minimized in joint space rather than Cartesian hand space, and (ii) we ignore the dynamics and instead consider only the second-order differential kinematics. The feedback control law generating the motions can be straightforwardly obtained by backward integration of a set of ordinary differential equations; these equations are obtained exactly, without any linear–quadratic approximations. The only parameters to be determined a priori are the variance scale factors, and for both the two-DOF planar arm and the seven-DOF spatial arm, a table of values is constructed based on the given initial and final arm configurations; these values are determined via an optimal fitting procedure, and consistent with existing findings about neuromuscular motor noise levels of human arm muscles. Experiments conducted with a two-link planar arm and a seven-DOF spatial arm verify that the trajectories generated by our feedback control law closely resemble human arm motions, in the sense of producing nearly straight-line hand trajectories, having bell-shaped velocity profiles, and satisfying Fitts Law. (paper)
Synchronization of spatiotemporal chaotic systems by feedback control
Lai, Y.; Grebogi, C.
1994-01-01
We demonstrate that two identical spatiotemporal chaotic systems can be synchronized by (1) linking one or a few of their dynamical variables, and (2) applying a small feedback control to one of the systems. Numerical examples using the diffusively coupled logistic map lattice are given. The effect of noise and the limitation of the technique are discussed
Feedback control and adaptive control of the energy resource chaotic system
Sun Mei; Tian Lixin; Jiang Shumin; Xu Jun
2007-01-01
In this paper, the problem of control for the energy resource chaotic system is considered. Two different method of control, feedback control (include linear feedback control, non-autonomous feedback control) and adaptive control methods are used to suppress chaos to unstable equilibrium or unstable periodic orbits. The Routh-Hurwitz criteria and Lyapunov direct method are used to study the conditions of the asymptotic stability of the steady states of the controlled system. The designed adaptive controller is robust with respect to certain class of disturbances in the energy resource chaotic system. Numerical simulations are presented to show these results
Optimal feedback control of the forced van der Pol system
Chagas, T.P.; Toledo, B.A.; Rempel, E.L.; Chian, A.C.-L.; Valdivia, J.A.
2012-01-01
A simple feedback control strategy for chaotic systems is investigated using the forced van der Pol system as an example. The strategy regards chaos control as an optimization problem, where the maximum magnitude Floquet multiplier of a target unstable periodic orbit (UPO) is used as a cost function that needs to be minimized. Thus, the method obtains the optimal control gain in terms of the stability of the target UPO. This strategy was recently proposed for the proportional feedback control (PFC) method. Here, it is extended to the highly popular delayed feedback control (DFC) method. Since the DFC method treats the system as a delay-differential equation whose phase space is infinite-dimensional, the characteristic multipliers are found through a truncation in the number of delayed states. Control of a target UPO is achieved for several values of the forcing amplitude. We compare the DFC and PFC methods in terms of stability of the controlled orbit, steady state error and control effort.
Du, Zhongzhou; Sun, Yi; Liu, Jie; Su, Rijian; Yang, Ming; Li, Nana; Gan, Yong; Ye, Na
2018-04-01
Magnetic fluid hyperthermia, as a novel cancer treatment, requires precise temperature control at 315 K-319 K (42 °C-46 °C). However, the traditional temperature measurement method cannot obtain the real-time temperature in vivo, resulting in a lack of temperature feedback during the heating process. In this study, the feasibility of temperature measurement and feedback control using magnetic nanoparticles is proposed and demonstrated. This technique could be applied in hyperthermia. Specifically, the triangular-wave temperature measurement method is improved by reconstructing the original magnetization response of magnetic nanoparticles based on a digital phase-sensitive detection algorithm. The standard deviation of the temperature in the magnetic nanoparticle thermometer is about 0.1256 K. In experiments, the temperature fluctuation of the temperature measurement and feedback control system using magnetic nanoparticles is less than 0.5 K at the expected temperature of 315 K. This shows the feasibility of the temperature measurement method for temperature control. The method provides a new solution for temperature measurement and feedback control in hyperthermia.
Feedback Control of a Class of Nonholonomic Hamiltonian Systems
Sørensen, Mathias Jesper
Feedback control of nonholonomic systems has always been problematic due to the nonholonomic constraints that limit the space of possible system velocities. This property is very basic, and Brockett proved that a nonholonomic system cannot be asymptotically stabilized by a time-invariant smooth...... turns out to be useful when stabilizing the nonholonomic system. If the system is properly actuated it is possible to asymptotically stabilize the primary part of the configuration coordinates via a passive energy shaping and damping injecting feedback. The feedback is smooth and time......-invariant, but since it does not asymptotically stabilize the secondary part of the configuration coordinates, it does not violate Brockett’s obstruction. The results fromthe general class of nonholonomicHamiltonian systems with kinematic inputs are applied to a real implementation of a four wheel steered, four wheel...
Influence of Vibrotactile Feedback on Controlling Tilt Motion After Spaceflight
Wood, S. J.; Rupert, A. H.; Vanya, R. D.; Esteves, J. T.; Clement, G.
2011-01-01
We hypothesize that adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the vestibular system are integrated with other sensory information leads to perceptual disturbances and impaired manual control following transitions between gravity environments. The primary goals of this ongoing post-flight investigation are to quantify decrements in manual control of tilt motion following short-duration spaceflight and to evaluate vibrotactile feedback of tilt as a sensorimotor countermeasure. METHODS. Data is currently being collected on 9 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s, body axis, thereby eliciting canal reflexes without concordant otolith or visual cues. A simple 4 tactor system was implemented to provide feedback when tilt position exceeded predetermined levels in either device. Closed-loop nulling tasks are performed during random tilt steps or sum-of-sines (TTS only) with and without vibrotactile feedback of chair position. RESULTS. On landing day the manual control performance without vibrotactile feedback was reduced by >30% based on the gain or the amount of tilt disturbance successfully nulled. Manual control performance tended to return to baseline levels within 1-2 days following landing. Root-mean-square position error and tilt velocity were significantly reduced with vibrotactile feedback. CONCLUSIONS. These preliminary results are consistent with our hypothesis that adaptive changes in vestibular processing corresponds to reduced manual control performance following G-transitions. A simple vibrotactile prosthesis improves the ability to null out tilt motion within a limited range of motion disturbances.
Output feedback control of a quadrotor UAV using neural networks.
Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani
2010-01-01
In this paper, a new nonlinear controller for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed using neural networks (NNs) and output feedback. The assumption on the availability of UAV dynamics is not always practical, especially in an outdoor environment. Therefore, in this work, an NN is introduced to learn the complete dynamics of the UAV online, including uncertain nonlinear terms like aerodynamic friction and blade flapping. Although a quadrotor UAV is underactuated, a novel NN virtual control input scheme is proposed which allows all six degrees of freedom (DOF) of the UAV to be controlled using only four control inputs. Furthermore, an NN observer is introduced to estimate the translational and angular velocities of the UAV, and an output feedback control law is developed in which only the position and the attitude of the UAV are considered measurable. It is shown using Lyapunov theory that the position, orientation, and velocity tracking errors, the virtual control and observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are all semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) in the presence of bounded disturbances and NN functional reconstruction errors while simultaneously relaxing the separation principle. The effectiveness of proposed output feedback control scheme is then demonstrated in the presence of unknown nonlinear dynamics and disturbances, and simulation results are included to demonstrate the theoretical conjecture.
Feedback control of chlorine inductively coupled plasma etch processing
Lin Chaung; Leou, K.-C.; Shiao, K.-M.
2005-01-01
Feedback control has been applied to poly-Si etch processing using a chlorine inductively coupled plasma. Since the positive ion flux and ion energy incident upon the wafer surface are the key factors that influence the etch rate, the ion current and the root mean square (rms) rf voltage on the wafer stage, which are measured using an impedance meter connected to the wafer stage, are adopted as the controlled variables to enhance etch rate. The actuators are two 13.56 MHz rf power generators, which adjust ion density and ion energy, respectively. The results of closed-loop control show that the advantages of feedback control can be achieved. For example, with feedback control, etch rate variation under the transient chamber wall condition is reduced roughly by a factor of 2 as compared to the open-loop case. In addition, the capability of the disturbance rejection was also investigated. For a gas pressure variation of 20%, the largest etch rate variation is about 2.4% with closed-loop control as compared with as large as about 6% variation using open-loop control. Also the effect of ion current and rms rf voltage on etch rate was studied using 2 2 factorial design whose results were used to derive a model equation. The obtained formula was used to adjust the set point of ion current and rf voltage so that the desired etch rate was obtained
Optimal Control of Solar Heating System
Huang, Bin-Juine; Ton, Wei-Zhe; Wu, Chen-Chun; Ko, Hua-Wei; Chang, Hsien-Shun; Yen, Rue-Her
2017-01-01
was used in the feedback design of MPPT. The field test results show that the pumping power is 89 W at Qs = 13.7 kW and IT = 892 W/m2. A very high electrical COP of the solar heating system (Qs/Wp = 153.8) is obtained.
Real-time control systems: feedback, scheduling and robustness
Simon, Daniel; Seuret, Alexandre; Sename, Olivier
2017-08-01
The efficient control of real-time distributed systems, where continuous components are governed through digital devices and communication networks, needs a careful examination of the constraints arising from the different involved domains inside co-design approaches. Thanks to the robustness of feedback control, both new control methodologies and slackened real-time scheduling schemes are proposed beyond the frontiers between these traditionally separated fields. A methodology to design robust aperiodic controllers is provided, where the sampling interval is considered as a control variable of the system. Promising experimental results are provided to show the feasibility and robustness of the approach.
Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system
Huang, Bin-Juine
2012-11-01
The present study developed a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) technology for solar heating system to minimize the pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net solar energy gain Q net (=Q s-W p/η e) was experimentally found to be the cost function for MPPT with maximum point. The feedback tracking control system was developed to track the optimal Q net (denoted Q max). A tracking filter which was derived from the thermal analytical model of the solar heating system was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI controller was designed for a tracking target Q max(t) with a quadratic time function. The MPPT control system was implemented using a microprocessor-based controller and the test results show good tracking performance with small tracking errors. It is seen that the average mass flow rate for the specific test periods in five different days is between 18.1 and 22.9kg/min with average pumping power between 77 and 140W, which is greatly reduced as compared to the standard flow rate at 31kg/min and pumping power 450W which is based on the flow rate 0.02kg/sm 2 defined in the ANSI/ASHRAE 93-1986 Standard and the total collector area 25.9m 2. The average net solar heat collected Q net is between 8.62 and 14.1kW depending on weather condition. The MPPT control of solar heating system has been verified to be able to minimize the pumping energy consumption with optimal solar heat collection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Electrotactile EMG feedback improves the control of prosthesis grasping force
Schweisfurth, Meike A.; Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Teich, Florian; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario
2016-10-01
Objective. A drawback of active prostheses is that they detach the subject from the produced forces, thereby preventing direct mechanical feedback. This can be compensated by providing somatosensory feedback to the user through mechanical or electrical stimulation, which in turn may improve the utility, sense of embodiment, and thereby increase the acceptance rate. Approach. In this study, we compared a novel approach to closing the loop, namely EMG feedback (emgFB), to classic force feedback (forceFB), using electrotactile interface in a realistic task setup. Eleven intact-bodied subjects and one transradial amputee performed a routine grasping task while receiving emgFB or forceFB. The two feedback types were delivered through the same electrotactile interface, using a mixed spatial/frequency coding to transmit 8 discrete levels of the feedback variable. In emgFB, the stimulation transmitted the amplitude of the processed myoelectric signal generated by the subject (prosthesis input), and in forceFB the generated grasping force (prosthesis output). The task comprised 150 trials of routine grasping at six forces, randomly presented in blocks of five trials (same force). Interquartile range and changes in the absolute error (AE) distribution (magnitude and dispersion) with respect to the target level were used to assess precision and overall performance, respectively. Main results. Relative to forceFB, emgFB significantly improved the precision of myoelectric commands (min/max of the significant levels) for 23%/36% as well as the precision of force control for 12%/32%, in intact-bodied subjects. Also, the magnitude and dispersion of the AE distribution were reduced. The results were similar in the amputee, showing considerable improvements. Significance. Using emgFB, the subjects therefore decreased the uncertainty of the forward pathway. Since there is a correspondence between the EMG and force, where the former anticipates the latter, the emgFB allowed for
Experience feedback of computerized controlled nuclear power plants
Poizat, F.
2004-01-01
The N4 step of French PWR-type nuclear power plants is characterized by an instrumentation and control system entirely computerized (operation procedures including normal and accidental operation). Four power plants of this type (Chooz and Civaux sites) of 1450 MWe each were connected to the power grid between August 1996 and December 1999. The achievement of this program make it possible and necessary to carry out an experience feedback about the development, successes and difficulties encountered in order to draw out some lessons for future realizations. This is the aim of this article: 1 - usefulness and difficulties of such an experience feedback: evolution of instrumentation and control systems, necessary cautions; 2 - a successful computerized control: checking of systems operation, advantages, expectations; 3 - efficiency of computerized systems: demonstration of operation safety, profitability; 4 - conclusions and interrogations: system approach instead of 'micro-software' approach, commercial or 'made to measure' products, contract agreement with a supplier, when and how upgrading. (J.S.)
Quantized Passive Dynamic Output Feedback Control with Actuator Failure
Zu-Xin Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of passive dynamic output feedback control for fuzzy discrete nonlinear systems with quantization and actuator failures, where the measurement output of the system is quantized by a logarithmic quantizer before being transferred to the fuzzy controller. By employing the fuzzy-basis-dependent Lyapunov function, sufficient condition is established to guarantee the closed-loop system to be mean-square stable and the prescribed passive performance. Based on the sufficient condition, the fuzzy dynamic output feedback controller is proposed for maintaining acceptable performance levels in the case of actuator failures and quantization effects. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the usefulness of the proposed method.
Full State Feedback Control for Virtual Power Plants
Johnson, Jay Tillay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-09-01
This report presents an object-oriented implementation of full state feedback control for virtual power plants (VPP). The components of the VPP full state feedback control are (1) objectoriented high-fidelity modeling for all devices in the VPP; (2) Distribution System Distributed Quasi-Dynamic State Estimation (DS-DQSE) that enables full observability of the VPP by augmenting actual measurements with virtual, derived and pseudo measurements and performing the Quasi-Dynamic State Estimation (QSE) in a distributed manner, and (3) automated formulation of the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) in real time using the output of the DS-DQSE, and solving the distributed OPF to provide the optimal control commands to the DERs of the VPP.
COA based robust output feedback UPFC controller design
Shayeghi, H., E-mail: hshayeghi@gmail.co [Technical Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalilzadeh, S.; Safari, A. [Technical Engineering Department, Zanjan University, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-12-15
In this paper, a novel method for the design of output feedback controller for unified power flow controller (UPFC) using chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is developed. Chaotic optimization algorithms, which have the features of easy implementation, short execution time and robust mechanisms of escaping from the local optimum, is a promising tool for the engineering applications. The selection of the output feedback gains for the UPFC controllers is converted to an optimization problem with the time domain-based objective function which is solved by a COA based on Lozi map. Since chaotic mapping enjoys certainty, ergodicity and the stochastic property, the proposed chaotic optimization problem introduces chaos mapping using Lozi map chaotic sequences which increases its convergence rate and resulting precision. To ensure the robustness of the proposed stabilizers, the design process takes into account a wide range of operating conditions and system configurations. The effectiveness of the proposed controller for damping low frequency oscillations is tested and demonstrated through non-linear time-domain simulation and some performance indices studies. The results analysis reveals that the designed COA based output feedback UPFC damping controller has an excellent capability in damping power system low frequency oscillations and enhance greatly the dynamic stability of the power systems.
State-feedback control of fuzzy discrete-event systems.
Lin, Feng; Ying, Hao
2010-06-01
In a 2002 paper, we combined fuzzy logic with discrete-event systems (DESs) and established an automaton model of fuzzy DESs (FDESs). The model can effectively represent deterministic uncertainties and vagueness, as well as human subjective observation and judgment inherent to many real-world problems, particularly those in biomedicine. We also investigated optimal control of FDESs and applied the results to optimize HIV/AIDS treatments for individual patients. Since then, other researchers have investigated supervisory control problems in FDESs, and several results have been obtained. These results are mostly derived by extending the traditional supervisory control of (crisp) DESs, which are string based. In this paper, we develop state-feedback control of FDESs that is different from the supervisory control extensions. We use state space to describe the system behaviors and use state feedback in control. Both disablement and enforcement are allowed. Furthermore, we study controllability based on the state space and prove that a controller exists if and only if the controlled system behavior is (state-based) controllable. We discuss various properties of the state-based controllability. Aside from novelty, the proposed new framework has the advantages of being able to address a wide range of practical problems that cannot be effectively dealt with by existing approaches. We use the diabetes treatment as an example to illustrate some key aspects of our theoretical results.
MRI feedback temperature control for focused ultrasound surgery
Vanne, A; Hynynen, K
2003-01-01
A temperature feedback controller routine using a physical model for temperature evolution was developed for use with focused ultrasound surgery. The algorithm for the controller was a multi-input, single-output linear quadratic regulator (LQR) derived from Pennes' bioheat transfer equation. The controller was tested with simulated temperature data that had the same characteristics as those obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The output of the controller was the appropriate power level to be used by the transducer. Tissue parameters estimated prior to the simulated treatments were used to determine the controller parameters. The controller performance was simulated in three dimensions with varying system parameters, and sufficient temperature tracking was achieved. The worst-case overshoot was 7 deg. C and the steady-state error was 5 deg. C. The simulated behaviour of the controller suggests satisfactory performance and that the controller may be useful in controlling the power output during MRI-monitored ultrasound surgery
Negative derivative feedback for vibration control of flexible structures
Cazzulani, G; Resta, F; Ripamonti, F; Zanzi, R
2012-01-01
In this paper a resonant control technique, called negative derivative feedback (NDF), for structural vibration control is presented. Resonant control is a class of control logics, based on the modal approach, which calculates the control action through a dynamic compensator in order to achieve a damping increase on a certain number of system modes. The NDF compensator is designed to work as a band-pass filter, cutting off the control action far from the natural frequencies associated with the controlled modes and reducing the so-called spillover effect. In the paper the proposed control logic is compared both theoretically and experimentally with the most common state-of-the-art resonant control techniques. (paper)
Brunner, D.; Burke, W.; Kuang, A. Q.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Wolfe, S.
2016-02-01
Mitigation of the intense heat flux to the divertor is one of the outstanding problems in fusion energy. One technique that has shown promise is impurity seeding, i.e., the injection of low-Z gaseous impurities (typically N2 or Ne) to radiate and dissipate the power before it arrives to the divertor target plate. To this end, the Alcator C-Mod team has created a first-of-its-kind feedback system to control the injection of seed gas based on real-time surface heat flux measurements. Surface thermocouples provide real-time measurements of the surface temperature response to the plasma heat flux. The surface temperature measurements are inputted into an analog computer that "solves" the 1-D heat transport equation to deliver accurate, real-time signals of the surface heat flux. The surface heat flux signals are sent to the C-Mod digital plasma control system, which uses a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithm to control the duty cycle demand to a pulse width modulated piezo valve, which in turn controls the injection of gas into the private flux region of the C-Mod divertor. This paper presents the design and implementation of this new feedback system as well as initial results using it to control divertor heat flux.
Stability and Bifurcation in Magnetic Flux Feedback Maglev Control System
Wen-Qing Zhang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear properties of magnetic flux feedback control system have been investigated mainly in this paper. We analyzed the influence of magnetic flux feedback control system on control property by time delay and interfering signal of acceleration. First of all, we have established maglev nonlinear model based on magnetic flux feedback and then discussed hopf bifurcation’s condition caused by the acceleration’s time delay. The critical value of delayed time is obtained. It is proved that the period solution exists in maglev control system and the stable condition has been got. We obtained the characteristic values by employing center manifold reduction theory and normal form method, which represent separately the direction of hopf bifurcation, the stability of the period solution, and the period of the period motion. Subsequently, we discussed the influence maglev system on stability of by acceleration’s interfering signal and obtained the stable domain of interfering signal. Some experiments have been done on CMS04 maglev vehicle of National University of Defense Technology (NUDT in Tangshan city. The results of experiments demonstrate that viewpoints of this paper are correct and scientific. When time lag reaches the critical value, maglev system will produce a supercritical hopf bifurcation which may cause unstable period motion.
Decoherence control in open quantum systems via classical feedback
Ganesan, Narayan; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong
2007-01-01
In this work we propose a strategy using techniques from systems theory to completely eliminate decoherence and also provide conditions under which it can be done. A construction employing an auxiliary system, the bait, which is instrumental to decoupling the system from the environment is presented. Our approach to decoherence control in contrast to other approaches in the literature involves the bilinear input affine model of quantum control system which lends itself to various techniques from classical control theory, but with nontrivial modifications to the quantum regime. The elegance of this approach yields interesting results on open loop decouplability and decoherence free subspaces. Additionally, the feedback control of decoherence may be related to disturbance decoupling for classical input affine systems, which entails careful application of the methods by avoiding all the quantum mechanical pitfalls. In the process of calculating a suitable feedback the system must be restructured due to its tensorial nature of interaction with the environment, which is unique to quantum systems. In the subsequent section we discuss a general information extraction scheme to gain knowledge of the state and the amount of decoherence based on indirect continuous measurement. The analysis of continuous measurement on a decohering quantum system has not been extensively studied before. Finally, a methodology to synthesize feedback parameters itself is given, that technology permitting, could be implemented for practical 2-qubit systems to perform decoherence free quantum computing. The results obtained are qualitatively different and superior to the ones obtained via master equations
Velocity feedback control with a flywheel proof mass actuator
Kras, Aleksander; Gardonio, Paolo
2017-08-01
This paper presents four new proof mass actuators to be used in velocity feedback control systems for the control of vibrations of machines and flexible structures. A classical proof mass actuator is formed by a coil-magnet linear motor, with either the magnet or the armature-coil proof mass suspended on soft springs. This arrangement produces a net force effect at frequencies above the fundamental resonance frequency of the springs-proof mass system. Thus, it can be used to implement point velocity feedback loops, although the dynamic response and static deflection of the springs-proof mass system poses some stability and control performance limitations. The four proof mass actuators presented in this study include a flywheel element, which is used to augment the inertia effect of the suspended proof mass. The paper shows that the flywheel element modifies both the dynamic response and static deflection of the springs-proof mass system in such a way as the stability and control performance of velocity feedback loops using these actuators are significantly improved.
Improved Position Sensor for Feedback Control of Levitation
Hyers, Robert; Savage, Larry; Rogers, Jan
2004-01-01
An improved optoelectronic apparatus has been developed to provide the position feedback needed for controlling the levitation subsystem of a containerless-processing system. As explained, the advantage of this apparatus over prior optoelectronic apparatuses that have served this purpose stems from the use of an incandescent lamp, instead of a laser, to illuminate the levitated object. In containerless processing, a small object to be processed is levitated (e.g., by use of a microwave, low-frequency electromagnetic, electrostatic, or acoustic field) so that it is not in contact with the wall of the processing chamber or with any other solid object during processing. In the case of electrostatic or low-frequency electromagnetic levitation, real-time measurement of the displacement of the levitated object from its nominal levitation position along the vertical axis (and, in some cases, along one or two horizontal axes) is needed for feedback control of the levitating field.
Theoretical model for ultracold molecule formation via adaptive feedback control
Poschinger, Ulrich; Salzmann, Wenzel; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias; Koch, Christiane P.; Kosloff, Ronnie
2006-01-01
We investigate pump-dump photoassociation of ultracold molecules with amplitude- and phase-modulated femtosecond laser pulses. For this purpose a perturbative model for the light-matter interaction is developed and combined with a genetic algorithm for adaptive feedback control of the laser pulse shapes. The model is applied to the formation of 85Rb2 molecules in a magneto-optical trap. We find for optimized pulse shapes an improvement for the formation of ground state molecules by more than ...
Feedback-Controlled LED Photobioreactor for Photophysiological Studies of Cyanobacteria
Melnicki, Matthew R.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Stolyar, Sergey; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.
2013-04-09
A custom photobioreactor (PBR) was designed to enable automatic light adjustments using computerized feedback control. A black anodized aluminum enclosure, constructed to surround the borosilicate reactor vessel, prevents the transmission of ambient light and serves as a mount for arrays of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The high-output LEDs provide narrow-band light of either 630 or 680 nm for preferential excitation of the cyanobacterial light-harvesting pigments, phycobilin or chlorophyll a, respectively. Custom developed software BioLume provides automatic control of optical properties and a computer feedback loop can automatically adjust the incident irradiance as necessary to maintain a fixed transmitted light through the culture, based on user-determined set points. This feedback control serves to compensate for culture dynamics which have optical effects, (e.g., changing cell density, pigment adaptations) and thus can determine the appropriate light conditions for physiological comparisons or to cultivate light-sensitive strains, without prior analyses. The LED PBR may also be controlled as a turbidostat, using a feedback loop to continuously adjust the rate of media-dilution based on the transmitted light measurements, with a fast and precise response. This cultivation system gains further merit as a high-performance analytical device, using non-invasive tools (e.g., dissolved gas sensors, online mass spectrometry) to automate real-time measurements, thus permitting unsupervised experiments to search for optimal growth conditions, to monitor physiological responses to perturbations, as well as to quantitate photophysiological parameters using an in situ light-saturation response routine.
Features of heat stress control
Bernard, T.E.
1989-01-01
Heat stress is caused by hot environments and physical demands of work. It is further complicated by protective clothing requirements commonly found in the nuclear power industry. The resulting physiological strain is reflected in increased sweating, heart rate and body temperature. Uncontrolled exposures to heat stress will lead to decreased personnel performance and increased risk of accidents and heat disorders. The article describes major heat disorders, a method of heat stress evaluation, and some basic interventions to reduce the stress and strain of working in the heat
Accelerator and feedback control simulation using neural networks
Nguyen, D.; Lee, M.; Sass, R.; Shoaee, H.
1991-05-01
Unlike present constant model feedback system, neural networks can adapt as the dynamics of the process changes with time. Using a process model, the ''Accelerator'' network is first trained to simulate the dynamics of the beam for a given beam line. This ''Accelerator'' network is then used to train a second ''Controller'' network which performs the control function. In simulation, the networks are used to adjust corrector magnetics to control the launch angle and position of the beam to keep it on the desired trajectory when the incoming beam is perturbed. 4 refs., 3 figs
Control challenges in domestic heating systems
Thybo, Honglian; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Weitzmann, Peter
2007-01-01
The objective of this paper is to analyze domestic heating applications and identify unfavorable building constructions and control challenges to be addressed by high performance heating control systems. Heating of domestic houses use a large amount of the total energy consumption in Scandinavia....... Hence the potential of reducing energy consumption by applying high performance control is vast. Indoor climate issues are becoming more in focus, which also leads to a demand for high performance heating systems. The paper presents an analysis of how the building elements of today's domestic houses...... with water based floor heating affect the control challenge. The analysis is documented with simulation results....
Practical Loop-Shaping Design of Feedback Control Systems
Kopasakis, George
2010-01-01
An improved methodology for designing feedback control systems has been developed based on systematically shaping the loop gain of the system to meet performance requirements such as stability margins, disturbance attenuation, and transient response, while taking into account the actuation system limitations such as actuation rates and range. Loop-shaping for controls design is not new, but past techniques do not directly address how to systematically design the controller to maximize its performance. As a result, classical feedback control systems are designed predominantly using ad hoc control design approaches such as proportional integral derivative (PID), normally satisfied when a workable solution is achieved, without a good understanding of how to maximize the effectiveness of the control design in terms of competing performance requirements, in relation to the limitations of the plant design. The conception of this improved methodology was motivated by challenges in designing control systems of the types needed for supersonic propulsion. But the methodology is generally applicable to any classical control-system design where the transfer function of the plant is known or can be evaluated. In the case of a supersonic aerospace vehicle, a major challenge is to design the system to attenuate anticipated external and internal disturbances, using such actuators as fuel injectors and valves, bypass doors, and ramps, all of which are subject to limitations in actuator response, rates, and ranges. Also, for supersonic vehicles, with long slim type of structures, coupling between the engine and the structural dynamics can produce undesirable effects that could adversely affect vehicle stability and ride quality. In order to design distributed controls that can suppress these potential adverse effects, within the full capabilities of the actuation system, it is important to employ a systematic control design methodology such as this that can maximize the
Parrell, Benjamin; Agnew, Zarinah; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Houde, John; Ivry, Richard B
2017-09-20
The cerebellum has been hypothesized to form a crucial part of the speech motor control network. Evidence for this comes from patients with cerebellar damage, who exhibit a variety of speech deficits, as well as imaging studies showing cerebellar activation during speech production in healthy individuals. To date, the precise role of the cerebellum in speech motor control remains unclear, as it has been implicated in both anticipatory (feedforward) and reactive (feedback) control. Here, we assess both anticipatory and reactive aspects of speech motor control, comparing the performance of patients with cerebellar degeneration and matched controls. Experiment 1 tested feedforward control by examining speech adaptation across trials in response to a consistent perturbation of auditory feedback. Experiment 2 tested feedback control, examining online corrections in response to inconsistent perturbations of auditory feedback. Both male and female patients and controls were tested. The patients were impaired in adapting their feedforward control system relative to controls, exhibiting an attenuated anticipatory response to the perturbation. In contrast, the patients produced even larger compensatory responses than controls, suggesting an increased reliance on sensory feedback to guide speech articulation in this population. Together, these results suggest that the cerebellum is crucial for maintaining accurate feedforward control of speech, but relatively uninvolved in feedback control. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Speech motor control is a complex activity that is thought to rely on both predictive, feedforward control as well as reactive, feedback control. While the cerebellum has been shown to be part of the speech motor control network, its functional contribution to feedback and feedforward control remains controversial. Here, we use real-time auditory perturbations of speech to show that patients with cerebellar degeneration are impaired in adapting feedforward control of
D-Zero HVAC Heat Pump Controls
Markley, Dan
2004-01-01
This engineering note documents the integration of Dzero Heat Pump 1 through Heat Pump 15 into the cryo/gas process control system commonly referred to as the cryo control system. Heat pumps 1 through 15 control the ambient air temperature on the 3rd, 5th, and 6th floor office areas at Dzero. The entire Johnson HVAC control system was replaced with a Siemens control system in 1999 leaving behind the 15 heat pumps with stand-alone Johnson controllers. Now, these 15 heat pump Johnson controllers are being replaced with small stand alone Beckhoff BC9000 controllers. The Beckhoff BC9000 controllers are network able into the existing Intellution control system. The Beckhoff BC9000 controllers use the cryo private Ethernet network and an OPC driver to get data into the Intellution SCADA node databases. The BC9000 is also programmed over this same Ethernet network.
Analysis of prompt supercritical process with heat transfer and temperature feedback
ZHU BO; ZHU Qian; CHEN Zhiyun
2009-01-01
The prompt supercritical process of a nuclear reactor with temperature feedback and initial power as well as heat transfer with a big step reactivity (ρ0>β) is analyzed in this paper.Considering the effect of heat transfer on temperature of the reactor,a new model is set up.For any initial power,the variations of output power and reactivity with time are obtained by numerical method.The effects of the big inserted step reactivity and initial power on the prompt supercritical process are analyzed and discussed.It was found that the effect of heat transfer on the output power and reactivity can be neglected under any initial power,and the output power obtained by the adiabatic model is basically in accordance with that by the model of this paper,and the analytical solution can be adopted.The results provide a theoretical base for safety analysis and operation management of a power reactor.
Towards Quantum Cybernetics:. Optimal Feedback Control in Quantum Bio Informatics
Belavkin, V. P.
2009-02-01
A brief account of the quantum information dynamics and dynamical programming methods for the purpose of optimal control in quantum cybernetics with convex constraints and cońcave cost and bequest functions of the quantum state is given. Consideration is given to both open loop and feedback control schemes corresponding respectively to deterministic and stochastic semi-Markov dynamics of stable or unstable systems. For the quantum feedback control scheme with continuous observations we exploit the separation theorem of filtering and control aspects for quantum stochastic micro-dynamics of the total system. This allows to start with the Belavkin quantum filtering equation and derive the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation using standard arguments of classical control theory. This is equivalent to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with an extra linear dissipative term if the control is restricted to only Hamiltonian terms in the filtering equation. A controlled qubit is considered as an example throughout the development of the formalism. Finally, we discuss optimum observation strategies to obtain a pure quantum qubit state from a mixed one.
Boundary control of nonlinear coupled heat systems using backstepping
Bendevis, Paul
2016-10-20
A state feedback boundary controller is designed for a 2D coupled PDE system modelling heat transfer in a membrane distillation system for water desalination. Fluid is separated into two compartments with nonlinear coupling at a membrane boundary. The controller sets the temperature on one boundary in order to track a temperature difference across the membrane boundary. The control objective is achieved by an extension of backstepping methods to these coupled equations. Stability of the target system via Lyapunov like methods, and the invertibility of the integral transformation are used to show the stability of the tracking error.
Design of feedback controller for TCP/AQM networks
Sukant Kishoro Bisoy
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel proportional-differential-type feedback controller called Novel-PD as new active queue management (AQM to regulate the queue length with small oscillation. It measures the current queue length and uses the current queue length and differential error signals to adjust packet drop probability dynamically. We provide control theoretic analysis of system stability and develop guidelines to select control gain parameters of Novel-PD. The design of Novel-PD for TCP/AQM system is given in details. NS2 is used for conducting extensive simulation. The proposed controller is compared with random early detection (RED, random exponential marking (REM, proportional integrator (PI and proportional derivative (PD controller. Result shows that, Novel-PD is stable and achieves faster response in dynamic environments where number of TCP connections, bottleneck capacity, round trip time (RTT keeps changing. The proposed controller outperforms other AQM schemes.
Auto-control experiments on DIDO using discontinuous feedback
Lawrence, L.A.J.
1959-12-01
Experiments on auto-controlling the reactor DIDO are described and the equipment design discussed in some detail. The experiments are carried out to show the suitability of an on/off type of control for the maintenance of: (a) a constant flux level in the presence of noise. (b) constant period during power change. The controlling signals stem from measurement of neutron flux computed to give deviation from demanded power, and period respectively. These signals are fed to a D.C. amplifier with variable deadbang whose output is used to control relays, these in turn control the coarse control arms by means of three-phase motors. The system is designed on the basis of locus diagrams, a conventional non-linear technique being used to handle the relay performance. Calculation of the reactor transfer function at high and low power respectively shows that the stability margin is not appreciably affected by the inherent thermodynamic feedback in the reactor core. (author)
Feedback Control Of Dynamical Instabilities In Classical Lasers And Fels
Bielawski, S; Szwaj, C
2005-01-01
Dynamical instabilities lead to unwanted full-scale power oscillations in many classical lasers and FEL oscillators. For a long time, applications requiring stable operation were typically performed by working outside the problematic parameter regions. A breakthrough occurred in the nineties [1], when emphasis was made on the practical importance of unstable states (stationary or periodic) that coexist with unwanted oscillatory states. Indeed, although not observable in usual experiments, unstable states can be stabilized, using a feedback control involving arbitrarily small perturbations of a parameter. This observation stimulated a set of works leading to successful suppression of dynamical instabilities (initially chaos) in lasers, sometimes with surprisingly simple feedback devices [2]. We will review a set of key results, including in particular the recent works on the stabilization of mode-locked lasers, and of the super-ACO, ELETTRA and UVSOR FELs [3].
The simulation study on the Nuclear Heating Reactor's power auto-control system
Yang Zhijun; Liu Longzhi; Hu Guifen
2000-01-01
The power automatic control system on nuclear heating reactor (NHR) is a multi-input and multi-output non-linear system. The power automatic control system on NHR is studied by modern control theory. Through the simulation experiments, it is clear that adopting μ outer-loop and LQR inner-loop feedback, the best control results are obtained
Biomimetic Hybrid Feedback Feedforward Neural-Network Learning Control.
Pan, Yongping; Yu, Haoyong
2017-06-01
This brief presents a biomimetic hybrid feedback feedforward neural-network learning control (NNLC) strategy inspired by the human motor learning control mechanism for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The control structure includes a proportional-derivative controller acting as a feedback servo machine and a radial-basis-function (RBF) NN acting as a feedforward predictive machine. Under the sufficient constraints on control parameters, the closed-loop system achieves semiglobal practical exponential stability, such that an accurate NN approximation is guaranteed in a local region along recurrent reference trajectories. Compared with the existing NNLC methods, the novelties of the proposed method include: 1) the implementation of an adaptive NN control to guarantee plant states being recurrent is not needed, since recurrent reference signals rather than plant states are utilized as NN inputs, which greatly simplifies the analysis and synthesis of the NNLC and 2) the domain of NN approximation can be determined a priori by the given reference signals, which leads to an easy construction of the RBF-NNs. Simulation results have verified the effectiveness of this approach.
A Feedback Optimal Control Algorithm with Optimal Measurement Time Points
Felix Jost
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear model predictive control has been established as a powerful methodology to provide feedback for dynamic processes over the last decades. In practice it is usually combined with parameter and state estimation techniques, which allows to cope with uncertainty on many levels. To reduce the uncertainty it has also been suggested to include optimal experimental design into the sequential process of estimation and control calculation. Most of the focus so far was on dual control approaches, i.e., on using the controls to simultaneously excite the system dynamics (learning as well as minimizing a given objective (performing. We propose a new algorithm, which sequentially solves robust optimal control, optimal experimental design, state and parameter estimation problems. Thus, we decouple the control and the experimental design problems. This has the advantages that we can analyze the impact of measurement timing (sampling independently, and is practically relevant for applications with either an ethical limitation on system excitation (e.g., chemotherapy treatment or the need for fast feedback. The algorithm shows promising results with a 36% reduction of parameter uncertainties for the Lotka-Volterra fishing benchmark example.
Semantically Enhanced Online Configuration of Feedback Control Schemes.
Milis, Georgios M; Panayiotou, Christos G; Polycarpou, Marios M
2018-03-01
Recent progress toward the realization of the "Internet of Things" has improved the ability of physical and soft/cyber entities to operate effectively within large-scale, heterogeneous systems. It is important that such capacity be accompanied by feedback control capabilities sufficient to ensure that the overall systems behave according to their specifications and meet their functional objectives. To achieve this, such systems require new architectures that facilitate the online deployment, composition, interoperability, and scalability of control system components. Most current control systems lack scalability and interoperability because their design is based on a fixed configuration of specific components, with knowledge of their individual characteristics only implicitly passed through the design. This paper addresses the need for flexibility when replacing components or installing new components, which might occur when an existing component is upgraded or when a new application requires a new component, without the need to readjust or redesign the overall system. A semantically enhanced feedback control architecture is introduced for a class of systems, aimed at accommodating new components into a closed-loop control framework by exploiting the semantic inference capabilities of an ontology-based knowledge model. This architecture supports continuous operation of the control system, a crucial property for large-scale systems for which interruptions have negative impact on key performance metrics that may include human comfort and welfare or economy costs. A case-study example from the smart buildings domain is used to illustrate the proposed architecture and semantic inference mechanisms.
Pulse energy control through dual loop electronic feedback
Jacobs, Cobus
2006-07-01
Full Text Available University of Stellenbosch WWW.LASER-RESEARCH.CO.ZA University of Stellenbosch Pulse Energy Control Through Dual Loop Electronic Feedback Cobus Jacobs, Steven Kriel Christoph Bollig, Thomas Jones Cobus Jacobs et al. Overview head2righthead2right...What is Laser Pulse Energy Control? head2righthead2rightWhy do we need it? head2righthead2rightHow do we get it? head2righthead2rightSimulation head2righthead2rightExperimental Setup head2righthead2rightResults Cobus Jacobs et al. head2righthead2right...
Hybrid viscous damper with filtered integral force feedback control
Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L.
2016-01-01
In hybrid damper systems active control devices are usually introduced to enhance the performance of otherwise passive dampers. In the present paper a hybrid damper concept is comprised of a passive viscous damper placed in series with an active actuator and a force sensor. The actuator motion...... is controlled by a filtered integral force feedback strategy, where the main feature is the filter, which is designed to render a damper force that in a phase-plane representation operates in front of the corresponding damper velocity. It is demonstrated that in the specific parameter regime where the damper...
Coherent feedback control of multipartite quantum entanglement for optical fields
Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006 (China)
2011-12-15
Coherent feedback control (CFC) of multipartite optical entangled states produced by a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier is theoretically studied. The features of the quantum correlations of amplitude and phase quadratures among more than two entangled optical modes can be controlled by tuning the transmissivity of the optical beam splitter in the CFC loop. The physical conditions to enhance continuous variable multipartite entanglement of optical fields utilizing the CFC loop are obtained. The numeric calculations based on feasible physical parameters of realistic systems provide direct references for the design of experimental devices.
R.Maheswari
2008-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design of periodic output feedback control using state feedback gain to control the vibration of piezo actuated cantilever beam. The effectiveness of the controller is evaluated through simulation and experimentally by exciting the structure at resonance. Real time implementation of the controller is done using microcontroller. The closed loop eigen values of the system with periodic output feedback and state feedback are identical.
Drought and Heat Waves: The Role of SST and Land Surface Feedbacks
Schubert, Siegfried
2011-01-01
Drought occurs on a wide range of time scales, and within a variety of different types of regional climates. At the shortest time scales it is often associated with heat waves that last only several weeks to a few months but nevertheless can have profound detrimental impacts on society (e.g., heat-related impacts on human health, desiccation of croplands, increased fire hazard), while at the longest time scales it can extend over decades and can lead to long term structural changes in many aspects of society (e.g., agriculture, water resources, wetlands, tourism, population shifts). There is now considerable evidence that sea surface temperatures (SSTs) play a leading role in the development of drought world-wide, especially at seasonal and longer time scales, though land-atmosphere feedbacks can also play an important role. At shorter (subseasonal) time scales, SSTs are less important, but land feedbacks can play a critical role in maintaining and amplifying the atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves and short-term droughts. This talk reviews our current understanding of the physical mechanisms that drive precipitation and temperature variations on subseasonal to centennial time scales. This includes an assessment of predictability, prediction skill, and user needs at all time scales.
Investigation of a delayed feedback controller of MEMS resonators
Masri, Karim M.
2013-08-04
Controlling mechanical systems is an important branch of mechanical engineering. Several techniques have been used to control Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators. In this paper, we study the effect of a delayed feedback controller on stabilizing MEMS resonators. A delayed feedback velocity controller is implemented through modifying the parallel plate electrostatic force used to excite the resonator into motion. A nonlinear single degree of freedom model is used to simulate the resonator response. Long time integration is used first. Then, a finite deference technique to capture periodic motion combined with the Floquet theory is used to capture the stable and unstable periodic responses. We show that applying a suitable positive gain can stabilize the MEMS resonator near or inside the instability dynamic pull in band. We also study the stability of the resonator by tracking its basins of attraction while sweeping the controller gain and the frequency of excitations. For positive delayed gains, we notice significant enhancement in the safe area of the basins of attraction. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.
Closed loop kinesthetic feedback for postural control rehabilitation.
Vérité, Fabien; Bachta, Wael; Morel, Guillaume
2014-01-01
Postural control rehabilitation may benefit from the use of smart devices providing biofeedback. This approach consists of increasing the patients perception of their postural state. Namely, postural state is monitored and fed back in real time to the patients through one or more sensory channels. This allows implementing rehabilitation exercises where the patients control their posture with the help of additional sensory inputs. In this paper, a closed loop control of the Center-Of-Pressure (CoP) based on kinesthetic feedback is proposed as a new form of biofeedback. The motion of a one Degree of Freedom (DoF) translational device, lightly touched by the patient's forefinger, is servoed to the patient's CoP position extracted from the measurements of a force plate on which he/she stands. As a result, the patient's CoP can be controllably displaced. A first set of experiments is used to prove the feasibility of this closed-loop control under ideal conditions favoring the perception of the kinesthetic feedback, while the subject is totally unaware of the context. A second set of experiments is then proposed to evaluate the robustness of this approach under experimental conditions that are more realistic with regards to the clinical context of a rehabilitation program involving biofeedback-based exercises.
Laser Soldering of Rat Skin Using a Controlled Feedback System
Mohammad Sadegh Nourbakhsh
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Laser tissue soldering using albumin and indocyanine green dye (ICG is an effective technique utilized in various surgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to perform laser soldering of rat skin under a feedback control system and compare the results with those obtained using standard sutures. Material and Methods: Skin incisions were made over eight rats’ dorsa, which were subsequently closed using different wound closure interventions in two groups: (a using a temperature controlled infrared detector or (b by suture. Tensile strengths were measured at 2, 5, 7 and 10 days post-incision. Histological examination was performed at the time of sacrifice. Results: Tensile strength results showed that during the initial days following the incisions, the tensile strengths of the sutured samples were greater than the laser samples. However, 10 days after the incisions, the tensile strengths of the laser soldered incisions were higher than the sutured cuts. Histopathological examination showed a preferred wound healing response in the soldered skin compared with the control samples. The healing indices of the laser soldered repairs (426 were significantly better than the control samples (340.5. Conclusion: Tissue feedback control of temperature and optical changes in laser soldering of skin leads to a higher tensile strength and better histological results and hence this method may be considered as an alternative to standard suturing.
Aeroassisted orbital maneuvering using Lyapunov optimal feedback control
Grantham, Walter J.; Lee, Byoung-Soo
1987-01-01
A Liapunov optimal feedback controller incorporating a preferred direction of motion at each state of the system which is opposite to the gradient of a specified descent function is developed for aeroassisted orbital transfer from high-earth orbit to LEO. The performances of the Liapunov controller and a calculus-of-variations open-loop minimum-fuel controller, both of which are based on the 1962 U.S. Standard Atmosphere, are simulated using both the 1962 U.S. Standard Atmosphere and an atmosphere corresponding to the STS-6 Space Shuttle flight. In the STS-6 atmosphere, the calculus-of-variations open-loop controller fails to exit the atmosphere, while the Liapunov controller achieves the optimal minimum-fuel conditions, despite the + or - 40 percent fluctuations in the STS-6 atmosphere.
Feedback Linearization Controller for a Wind Energy Power System
Muthana Alrifai
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the control of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG-based variable speed wind turbine power system. A system of eight ordinary differential equations is used to model the wind energy conversion system. The generator has a wound rotor type with back-to-back three-phase power converter bridges between its rotor and the grid; it is modeled using the direct-quadrature rotating reference frame with aligned stator flux. An input-state feedback linearization controller is proposed for the wind energy power system. The controller guarantees that the states of the system track the desired states. Simulation results are presented to validate the proposed control scheme. Moreover, further simulation results are shown to investigate the robustness of the proposed control scheme to changes in some of the parameters of the system.
Sen, A.K.
1998-01-01
This final report is comprised of the following six progress reports: Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, July 1989; Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, August 1991; Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, July 1993; Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, May 1994; Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, April 1995; and Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, December 1997
Reddy, Rajiv M; Panahi, Issa M S
2008-01-01
The performance of FIR feedforward, IIR feedforward, FIR feedback, hybrid FIR feedforward--FIR feedback, and hybrid IIR feedforward - FIR feedback structures for active noise control (ANC) are compared for an fMRI noise application. The filtered-input normalized least squares (FxNLMS) algorithm is used to update the coefficients of the adaptive filters in all these structures. Realistic primary and secondary paths of an fMRI bore are used by estimating them on a half cylindrical acrylic bore of 0.76 m (D)x1.52 m (L). Detailed results of the performance of the ANC system are presented in the paper for each of these structures. We find that the IIR feedforward structure produces most of the performance improvement in the hybrid IIR feedforward - FIR feedback structure and adding the feedback structure becomes almost redundant in the case of fMRI noise.
Asymmetric positive feedback loops reliably control biological responses.
Ratushny, Alexander V; Saleem, Ramsey A; Sitko, Katherine; Ramsey, Stephen A; Aitchison, John D
2012-04-24
Positive feedback is a common mechanism enabling biological systems to respond to stimuli in a switch-like manner. Such systems are often characterized by the requisite formation of a heterodimer where only one of the pair is subject to feedback. This ASymmetric Self-UpREgulation (ASSURE) motif is central to many biological systems, including cholesterol homeostasis (LXRα/RXRα), adipocyte differentiation (PPARγ/RXRα), development and differentiation (RAR/RXR), myogenesis (MyoD/E12) and cellular antiviral defense (IRF3/IRF7). To understand why this motif is so prevalent, we examined its properties in an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional regulatory network in yeast (Oaf1p/Pip2p). We demonstrate that the asymmetry in positive feedback confers a competitive advantage and allows the system to robustly increase its responsiveness while precisely tuning the response to a consistent level in the presence of varying stimuli. This study reveals evolutionary advantages for the ASSURE motif, and mechanisms for control, that are relevant to pharmacologic intervention and synthetic biology applications.
Temperature feedback effects in a supercritical water reactor concept with multiple heat-up steps
Barragan-Martinez, A.M., E-mail: albrm29@yahoo.com [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Jiutepec, Mor (Mexico); Espinosa-Paredes, G.; Vazquez-Rodriguez, A., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx, E-mail: vara@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Rescursos Energeticos, Col. Vicentina (Mexico); Martin-del-Campo, C.; Francois, J.L., E-mail: cecilia.martin.del.campo@gmail.com, E-mail: juan.louis.francois@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Jiutepec, Mor (Mexico)
2014-07-01
The Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is one of the most promising and innovative designs selected by the Generation IV International Forum. One of the concepts being studied is the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR), which is the European version of the SCWR. In this paper we present the numerical analysis of the behavior of a HPLWR with temperature feedback effects. The neutronic process, the heat transfer in the fuel rod and the thermalhydraulics in the core of the HPLWR were considered in this study. The neutronic calculations were performed with HELIOS-2 and the obtained results were used to evaluate the reactivity due to fuel temperature and supercritical water density. (author)
Temperature feedback effects in a supercritical water reactor concept with multiple heat-up steps
Barragan-Martinez, A.M.; Espinosa-Paredes, G.; Vazquez-Rodriguez, A.; Martin-del-Campo, C.; Francois, J.L.
2014-01-01
The Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is one of the most promising and innovative designs selected by the Generation IV International Forum. One of the concepts being studied is the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR), which is the European version of the SCWR. In this paper we present the numerical analysis of the behavior of a HPLWR with temperature feedback effects. The neutronic process, the heat transfer in the fuel rod and the thermalhydraulics in the core of the HPLWR were considered in this study. The neutronic calculations were performed with HELIOS-2 and the obtained results were used to evaluate the reactivity due to fuel temperature and supercritical water density. (author)
Decoupling Suspension Controller Based on Magnetic Flux Feedback
Wenqing Zhang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module’s antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced.
Dynamic Intelligent Feedback Scheduling in Networked Control Systems
Hui-ying Chen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available For the networked control system with limited bandwidth and flexible workload, a dynamic intelligent feedback scheduling strategy is proposed. Firstly, a monitor is used to acquire the current available network bandwidth. Then, the new available bandwidth in the next interval is predicted by using LS_SVM approach. At the same time, the dynamic performance indices of all control loops are obtained with a two-dimensional fuzzy logic modulator. Finally, the predicted network bandwidth is dynamically allocated by the bandwidth manager and the priority allocator in terms of the loops' dynamic performance indices. Simulation results show that the sampling periods and priorities of control loops are adjusted timely according to the network workload condition and the dynamic performance of control loops, which make the system running in the optimal state all the time.
Design of Gain Scheduling Control Using State Derivative Feedback
Lázaro Ismael Hardy Llins
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, the study of systems subject to time-varying parameters has awakened the interest of many researchers. The gain scheduling control strategy guarantees a good performance for systems of this type and also is considered as the simplest to deal with problems of this nature. Moreover, the class of systems in which the state derivative signals are easier to obtain than the state signals, such as in the control for reducing vibrations in a mechanical system, has gained an important hole in control theory. Considering those ideas, we propose sufficient conditions via LMI for designing a gain scheduling controller using state derivative feedback. The D-stability methodology was used for improving the performance of the transitory response. Practical implementation in an active suspension system and comparison with other methods validates the efficiency of the proposed strategy.
Decoupling suspension controller based on magnetic flux feedback.
Zhang, Wenqing; Li, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Cui, Peng
2013-01-01
The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module's antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced.
Proportional feedback control of laminar flow over a hemisphere
Lee, Jung Il [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Dong Gun [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-08-15
In the present study, we perform a proportional feedback control of laminar flow over a hemisphere at Re = 300 to reduce its lift fluctuations by attenuating the strength of the vortex shedding. As a control input, blowing/suction is distributed on the surface of hemisphere before the separation, and its strength is linearly proportional to the transverse velocity at a sensing location in the centerline of the wake. The sensing location is determined based on a correlation function between the lift force and the time derivative of sensing velocity. The optimal proportional gains for the proportional control are obtained for the sensing locations considered. The present control successfully attenuates the velocity fluctuations at the sensing location and three dimensional vertical structures in the wake, resulting in the reduction of lift fluctuations of hemisphere.
Myoelectric hand prosthesis force control through servo motor current feedback.
Sono, Tálita Saemi Payossim; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini
2009-10-01
This paper presents the prehension force closed-loop control design of a mechanical finger commanded by electromyographic signal (EMG) from a patient's arm. The control scheme was implemented and tested in a mechanical finger prototype with three degrees of freedom and one actuator, driven by arm muscles EMG of normal volunteers. Real-time indirect estimation of prehension force was assessed by measuring the DC servo motor actuator current. A model of the plant comprising finger, motor, and grasped object was proposed. Model parameters were identified experimentally and a classical feedback phase-lead compensator was designed. The controlled mechanical finger was able to provide a more accurate prehension force modulation of a compliant object when compared to open-loop control.
Alessio Serafini
2012-01-01
We present a broad summary of research involving the application of quantum feedback control techniques to optical set-ups, from the early enhancement of optical amplitude squeezing to the recent stabilisation of photon number states in a microwave cavity, dwelling mostly on the latest experimental advances. Feedback control of quantum optical continuous variables, quantum non-demolition memories, feedback cooling, quantum state control, adaptive quantum measurements and coherent feedback str...
Fuzzy PID Feedback Control of Piezoelectric Actuator with Feedforward Compensation
Ziqiang Chi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Piezoelectric actuator is widely used in the field of micro/nanopositioning. However, piezoelectric hysteresis introduces nonlinearity to the system, which is the major obstacle to achieve a precise positioning. In this paper, the Preisach model is employed to describe the hysteresis characteristic of piezoelectric actuator and an inverse Preisach model is developed to construct a feedforward controller. Considering that the analytical expression of inverse Preisach model is difficult to derive and not suitable for practical application, a digital inverse model is established based on the input and output data of a piezoelectric actuator. Moreover, to mitigate the compensation error of the feedforward control, a feedback control scheme is implemented using different types of control algorithms in terms of PID control, fuzzy control, and fuzzy PID control. Extensive simulation studies are carried out using the three kinds of control systems. Comparative investigation reveals that the fuzzy PID control system with feedforward compensation is capable of providing quicker response and better control accuracy than the other two ones. It provides a promising way of precision control for piezoelectric actuator.
On Optimal Feedback Control for Stationary Linear Systems
Russell, David L.
2010-01-01
We study linear-quadratic optimal control problems for finite dimensional stationary linear systems AX+BU=Z with output Y=CX+DU from the viewpoint of linear feedback solution. We interpret solutions in relation to system robustness with respect to disturbances Z and relate them to nonlinear matrix equations of Riccati type and eigenvalue-eigenvector problems for the corresponding Hamiltonian system. Examples are included along with an indication of extensions to continuous, i.e., infinite dimensional, systems, primarily of elliptic type.
Control system for fluid heated steam generator
Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.
1984-05-29
A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.
Simulation of feedback control system for NTM stabilisation in ASDEX Upgrade
Rapson, Christopher, E-mail: chris.rapson@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Monaco, Francesco; Reich, Matthias; Stober, Joerg; Treutterer, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2013-10-15
Highlights: ► Feedback loop to control the ECRH deposition location is modelled in Simulink. Controller optimised using simulation results. ► Apart from optimising the PID gain values, alternative architectures were trialed without risk to hardware. ► Off-normal events could be simulated, and the controller response improved. ► Optimised controller applied in experiment. Even for the low power used, partial stabilisation of NTM was observed. ► The simulation is useful outside its intended application, and for future developments of the NTM feedback control system. -- Abstract: Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs) are a class of MHD instability in high beta tokamak plasmas which significantly increase radial transport, thus capping the performance of fusion plasmas. More importantly, NTMs can lead to disruptions which compromise the lifetime of structural components. Several tokamaks have demonstrated that Electron Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ECRH) can stabilise NTMs if the power deposition is aligned with the mode location. The deposition location depends on the toroidal magnetic field, flux and density profiles, and can be controlled by tilting the mirror in the ECRH launcher. Until recently, the mirror angle was set by feedforward control at ASDEX Upgrade. In order to adapt automatically to different discharge scenarios, the system at ASDEX Upgrade has been extended to steer the mirror using feedback control. The mirror must react on the current diffusion time scale, on the order of 100 ms. This is within the capabilities of the mechanical subsystem and real-time plasma diagnostics, but requires careful interfacing between these components. For example, asynchronous data transfer and non-linearities make it difficult to design an analytically optimal controller. Therefore a simulation has been used to test and tune different controller architectures. This simulation is the subject of the current contribution. Performing the optimisation process offline
Designing a stable feedback control system for blind image deconvolution.
Cheng, Shichao; Liu, Risheng; Fan, Xin; Luo, Zhongxuan
2018-05-01
Blind image deconvolution is one of the main low-level vision problems with wide applications. Many previous works manually design regularization to simultaneously estimate the latent sharp image and the blur kernel under maximum a posterior framework. However, it has been demonstrated that such joint estimation strategies may lead to the undesired trivial solution. In this paper, we present a novel perspective, using a stable feedback control system, to simulate the latent sharp image propagation. The controller of our system consists of regularization and guidance, which decide the sparsity and sharp features of latent image, respectively. Furthermore, the formational model of blind image is introduced into the feedback process to avoid the image restoration deviating from the stable point. The stability analysis of the system indicates the latent image propagation in blind deconvolution task can be efficiently estimated and controlled by cues and priors. Thus the kernel estimation used for image restoration becomes more precision. Experimental results show that our system is effective on image propagation, and can perform favorably against the state-of-the-art blind image deconvolution methods on different benchmark image sets and special blurred images. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fuzzy multivariable control of domestic heat pumps
Underwood, C.P.
2015-01-01
Poor control has been identified as one of the reasons why recent field trials of domestic heat pumps in the UK have produced disappointing results. Most of the technology in use today uses a thermostatically-controlled fixed speed compressor with a mechanical expansion device. This article investigates improved control of these heat pumps through the design and evaluation of a new multivariable fuzzy logic control system utilising a variable speed compressor drive with capacity control linked through to evaporator superheat control. A new dynamic thermal model of a domestic heat pump validated using experimental data forms the basis of the work. The proposed control system is evaluated using median and extreme daily heating demand profiles for a typical UK house compared with a basic thermostatically-controlled alternative. Results show good tracking of the heating temperature and superheat control variables, reduced cycling and an improvement in performance averaging 20%. - Highlights: • A new dynamic model of a domestic heat pump is developed and validated. • A new multivariable fuzzy logic heat pump control system is developed/reported. • The fuzzy controller regulates both plant capacity and evaporator superheat degree. • Thermal buffer storage is also considered as well as compressor cycling. • The new controller shows good variable tracking and a reduction in energy of 20%.
Genetic test feedback with weight control advice: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Meisel Susanne F
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic testing for risk of weight gain is already available over the internet despite uncertain benefits and concerns about adverse emotional or behavioral effects. Few studies have assessed the effect of adding genetic test feedback to weight control advice, even though one of the proposed applications of genetic testing is to stimulate preventive action. This study will investigate the motivational effect of adding genetic test feedback to simple weight control advice in a situation where weight gain is relatively common. Methods/design First-year university students (n = 800 will be randomized to receive either 1 their personal genetic test result for a gene (FTO related to weight gain susceptibility in addition to a leaflet with simple weight control advice (‘Feedback + Advice’ group, FA, or 2 only the leaflet containing simple weight control advice (‘Advice Only’ group, AO. Motivation to avoid weight gain and active use of weight control strategies will be assessed one month after receipt of the leaflet with or without genetic test feedback. Weight and body fat will be measured at baseline and eight months follow-up. We will also assess short-term psychological reactions to the genetic test result. In addition, we will explore interactions between feedback condition and gene test status. Discussion We hope to provide a first indication of the clinical utility of weight-related genetic test feedback in the prevention context. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN91178663
Feedback control in deep drawing based on experimental datasets
Fischer, P.; Heingärtner, J.; Aichholzer, W.; Hortig, D.; Hora, P.
2017-09-01
In large-scale production of deep drawing parts, like in automotive industry, the effects of scattering material properties as well as warming of the tools have a significant impact on the drawing result. In the scope of the work, an approach is presented to minimize the influence of these effects on part quality by optically measuring the draw-in of each part and adjusting the settings of the press to keep the strain distribution, which is represented by the draw-in, inside a certain limit. For the design of the control algorithm, a design of experiments for in-line tests is used to quantify the influence of the blank holder force as well as the force distribution on the draw-in. The results of this experimental dataset are used to model the process behavior. Based on this model, a feedback control loop is designed. Finally, the performance of the control algorithm is validated in the production line.
Shared internal models for feedforward and feedback control.
Wagner, Mark J; Smith, Maurice A
2008-10-15
A child often learns to ride a bicycle in the driveway, free of unforeseen obstacles. Yet when she first rides in the street, we hope that if a car suddenly pulls out in front of her, she will combine her innate goal of avoiding an accident with her learned knowledge of the bicycle, and steer away or brake. In general, when we train to perform a new motor task, our learning is most robust if it updates the rules of online error correction to reflect the rules and goals of the new task. Here we provide direct evidence that, after a new feedforward motor adaptation, motor feedback responses to unanticipated errors become precisely task appropriate, even when such errors were never experienced during training. To study this ability, we asked how, if at all, do online responses to occasional, unanticipated force pulses during reaching arm movements change after adapting to altered arm dynamics? Specifically, do they change in a task-appropriate manner? In our task, subjects learned novel velocity-dependent dynamics. However, occasional force-pulse perturbations produced unanticipated changes in velocity. Therefore, after adaptation, task-appropriate responses to unanticipated pulses should compensate corresponding changes in velocity-dependent dynamics. We found that after adaptation, pulse responses precisely compensated these changes, although they were never trained to do so. These results provide evidence for a smart feedback controller which automatically produces responses specific to the learned dynamics of the current task. To accomplish this, the neural processes underlying feedback control must (1) be capable of accurate real-time state prediction for velocity via a forward model and (2) have access to recently learned changes in internal models of limb dynamics.
Effect of vibrotactile feedback on an EMG-based proportional cursor control system.
Li, Shunchong; Chen, Xingyu; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang
2013-01-01
Surface electromyography (sEMG) has been introduced into the bio-mechatronics systems, however, most of them are lack of the sensory feedback. In this paper, the effect of vibrotactile feedback for a myoelectric cursor control system is investigated quantitatively. Simultaneous and proportional control signals are extracted from EMG using a muscle synergy model. Different types of feedback including vibrotactile feedback and visual feedback are added, assessed and compared with each other. The results show that vibrotactile feedback is capable of improving the performance of EMG-based human machine interface.
Process-based quality for thermal spray via feedback control
Dykhuizen, R. C.; Neiser, R. A.
2006-09-01
Quality control of a thermal spray system manufacturing process is difficult due to the many input variables that need to be controlled. Great care must be taken to ensure that the process remains constant to obtain a consistent quality of the parts. Control is greatly complicated by the fact that measurement of particle velocities and temperatures is a noisy stochastic process. This article illustrates the application of quality control concepts to a wire flame spray process. A central feature of the real-time control system is an automatic feedback control scheme that provides fine adjustments to ensure that uncontrolled variations are accommodated. It is shown how the control vectors can be constructed from simple process maps to independently control particle velocity and temperature. This control scheme is shown to perform well in a real production environment. We also demonstrate that slight variations in the feed wire curvature can greatly influence the process. Finally, the geometry of the spray system and sensor must remain constant for the best reproducibility.
Output Feedback Tracking Control of an Underactuated Quad-Rotor UAV
Lee, DongBin; Burg, Timothy; Xian, Bin; Dawson, Darren
2006-01-01
...) using output feedback (OFB). Specifically, an observer is designed to estimate the velocities and an output feedback controller is designed for a nonlinear UAV system in which only position and angles are measurable...
ORBIT FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR THE LHC Prototyping at the SPS
Steinhagen, Ralph J
2004-01-01
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the next generation proton collider that is presently built at CERN. The LHC will be installed in the former LEP (Large Electron Positron Collider) tunnel. The presence of a high intensity beam in an environment of cryogenic magnets requires an excellent control of particle losses from the beam. Eventually the performance of the LHC may be limited by the ability to control the beam losses. The performance of the LHC cleaning system depends critically on the beam position stability. Ground motion, field and alignment imperfections and beam manipulations may cause orbit movements. The role of the future LHC Orbit Feedback System is the minimisation of closed orbit perturbations by periodically measuring and steering the transverse beam position back to its reference position. This diploma thesis focuses on the design and prototyping of an orbit feedback system at the SPS. The design is based on a separation of the steering problem into space and time. While the correction in s...
Automatic Overset Grid Generation with Heuristic Feedback Control
Robinson, Peter I.
2001-01-01
An advancing front grid generation system for structured Overset grids is presented which automatically modifies Overset structured surface grids and control lines until user-specified grid qualities are achieved. The system is demonstrated on two examples: the first refines a space shuttle fuselage control line until global truncation error is achieved; the second advances, from control lines, the space shuttle orbiter fuselage top and fuselage side surface grids until proper overlap is achieved. Surface grids are generated in minutes for complex geometries. The system is implemented as a heuristic feedback control (HFC) expert system which iteratively modifies the input specifications for Overset control line and surface grids. It is developed as an extension of modern control theory, production rules systems and subsumption architectures. The methodology provides benefits over the full knowledge lifecycle of an expert system for knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, and knowledge execution. The vector/matrix framework of modern control theory systematically acquires and represents expert system knowledge. Missing matrix elements imply missing expert knowledge. The execution of the expert system knowledge is performed through symbolic execution of the matrix algebra equations of modern control theory. The dot product operation of matrix algebra is generalized for heuristic symbolic terms. Constant time execution is guaranteed.
Voluntarily controlled but not merely observed visual feedback affects postural sway
Asai, Tomohisa; Hiromitsu, Kentaro; Imamizu, Hiroshi
2018-01-01
Online stabilization of human standing posture utilizes multisensory afferences (e.g., vision). Whereas visual feedback of spontaneous postural sway can stabilize postural control especially when observers concentrate on their body and intend to minimize postural sway, the effect of intentional control of visual feedback on postural sway itself remains unclear. This study assessed quiet standing posture in healthy adults voluntarily controlling or merely observing visual feedback. The visual feedback (moving square) had either low or high gain and was either horizontally flipped or not. Participants in the voluntary-control group were instructed to minimize their postural sway while voluntarily controlling visual feedback, whereas those in the observation group were instructed to minimize their postural sway while merely observing visual feedback. As a result, magnified and flipped visual feedback increased postural sway only in the voluntary-control group. Furthermore, regardless of the instructions and feedback manipulations, the experienced sense of control over visual feedback positively correlated with the magnitude of postural sway. We suggest that voluntarily controlled, but not merely observed, visual feedback is incorporated into the feedback control system for posture and begins to affect postural sway. PMID:29682421
Plasma control techniques of the ASDEX feedback system
Schneider, F.
1981-01-01
In the ASDEX tokamak the shots are exactly preprogrammed and most of the disturbances are reproducible. So a computer can learn from one shot how to correct the next one. With this sort of disturbance feedforward one can also introduce a 'negative delay' in the program to compensate even fast and strong disturbances withous unwanted overswing or oscillations. The feedforward in conjunction with feedback control allows production of a magnetically limited plasma from the very beginning without any wall or limiter contact. This is a reason why in ASDEX the loop voltage on breakdown can be as low as 5 V/sup 2/. The plasma column can be controlled in the vacuum vessel even after disruptions have occurred
Design of EAST LHCD high power supply feedback control system based on PLC
Hu Huaichuan; Shan Jiafang
2009-01-01
Design of EAST LHCD -35kV/5.6MW high power supply feedback control system based on PLC is described. Industrial computer and PLC are used to control high power supply in the system. PID arithmetic is adopted to achieve the feedback control of voltage of high power supply. Operating system is base on real-time operating system of QNX. Good controlling properties and reliable protective properties of the feedback control system are proved by the experiment results. (authors)
Nonlinear feedback in a six-dimensional Lorenz model: impact of an additional heating term
Shen, B.-W.
2015-12-01
In this study, a six-dimensional Lorenz model (6DLM) is derived, based on a recent study using a five-dimensional (5-D) Lorenz model (LM), in order to examine the impact of an additional mode and its accompanying heating term on solution stability. The new mode added to improve the representation of the streamfunction is referred to as a secondary streamfunction mode, while the two additional modes, which appear in both the 6DLM and 5DLM but not in the original LM, are referred to as secondary temperature modes. Two energy conservation relationships of the 6DLM are first derived in the dissipationless limit. The impact of three additional modes on solution stability is examined by comparing numerical solutions and ensemble Lyapunov exponents of the 6DLM and 5DLM as well as the original LM. For the onset of chaos, the critical value of the normalized Rayleigh number (rc) is determined to be 41.1. The critical value is larger than that in the 3DLM (rc ~ 24.74), but slightly smaller than the one in the 5DLM (rc ~ 42.9). A stability analysis and numerical experiments obtained using generalized LMs, with or without simplifications, suggest the following: (1) negative nonlinear feedback in association with the secondary temperature modes, as first identified using the 5DLM, plays a dominant role in providing feedback for improving the solution's stability of the 6DLM, (2) the additional heating term in association with the secondary streamfunction mode may destabilize the solution, and (3) overall feedback due to the secondary streamfunction mode is much smaller than the feedback due to the secondary temperature modes; therefore, the critical Rayleigh number of the 6DLM is comparable to that of the 5DLM. The 5DLM and 6DLM collectively suggest different roles for small-scale processes (i.e., stabilization vs. destabilization), consistent with the following statement by Lorenz (1972): "If the flap of a butterfly's wings can be instrumental in generating a tornado, it can
Modelling of Rotor-gas bearings for Feedback Controller Design
Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Niemann, Hans Henrik
2014-01-01
Controllable rotor-gas bearings are popular oering adaptability, high speed operation, low friction and clean operation. Rotor-gas bearings are however highly sensitive to disturbances due to the low friction of the injected gas. These undesirable damping properties call for controllers, which ca...... and are shown to accurately describe the dynamical behaviour of the rotor-gas bearing. Design of a controller using the identied models is treated and experiments verify the improvement of the damping properties of the rotor-gas bearing.......Controllable rotor-gas bearings are popular oering adaptability, high speed operation, low friction and clean operation. Rotor-gas bearings are however highly sensitive to disturbances due to the low friction of the injected gas. These undesirable damping properties call for controllers, which can...... be designed from suitable models describing the relation from actuator input to measured shaft position. Current state of the art models of controllable gas bearings however do not provide such relation, which calls for alternative strategies. The present contribution discusses the challenges for feedback...
Feedback control of resistive wall modes in toroidal devices
Liu, Y.Q.
2002-01-01
Active feedback of resistive wall modes is investigated using cylindrical theory and toroidal calculations. For tokamaks, good performance is obtained by using active coils with one set of coils in the poloidal direction and sensors detecting the poloidal field inside the first wall, located at the outboard mid-plane. With suitable width of the feedback coil such a system can give robust control with respect to variations in plasma current, pressure and rotation. Calculations are shown for ITER-like geometry with a double wall. The voltages and currents in the active coils are well within the design limits for ITER. Calculations for RFP's are presented for a finite number of coils both in the poloidal and toroidal directions. With 4 coils in the poloidal and 24 coils in the toroidal direction, all non-resonant modes can be stabilized both at high and low theta. Several types of sensors, including radial and internal poloidal or toroidal sensors, can stabilize the RWM, but poloidal sensors give the most robust performance. (author)
Online feedback-controlled renal constant infusion clearances in rats.
Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Shulhevich, Yury; Xie, Qing; Hesser, Juergen; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Neudecker, Sabine; Friedemann, Jochen; Koenig, Stefan; Heinrich, Ralf; Hoecklin, Friederike; Pill, Johannes; Gretz, Norbert
2012-08-01
Constant infusion clearance techniques using exogenous renal markers are considered the gold standard for assessing the glomerular filtration rate. Here we describe a constant infusion clearance method in rats allowing the real-time monitoring of steady-state conditions using an automated closed-loop approach based on the transcutaneous measurement of the renal marker FITC-sinistrin. In order to optimize parameters to reach steady-state conditions as fast as possible, a Matlab-based simulation tool was established. Based on this, a real-time feedback-regulated approach for constant infusion clearance monitoring was developed. This was validated by determining hourly FITC-sinistrin plasma concentrations and the glomerular filtration rate in healthy and unilaterally nephrectomized rats. The transcutaneously assessed FITC-sinistrin fluorescence signal was found to reflect the plasma concentration. Our method allows the precise determination of the onset of steady-state marker concentration. Moreover, the steady state can be monitored and controlled in real time for several hours. This procedure is simple to perform since no urine samples and only one blood sample are required. Thus, we developed a real-time feedback-based system for optimal regulation and monitoring of a constant infusion clearance technique.
Heat defense control in an experimental heat disorder
Romanovsky, A. A.; Blatteis, C. M.
Both whole-body heat exposure and intraperitoneal heating (IPH) result in a body temperature (Tb) fall that occurs once heating is abated (''hyperthermia- induced hypothermia''). This phenomenon involves a decrease in the threshold Tb (Tb-thresh) for activation of metabolic heat production (cold defense). Whether the Tb-thresh for ear skin vasodilation (heat defense) also changes during hyperthermia-induced hypothermia remains unknown. In experiment 1, we applied IPH to guinea pigs by perfusing water through a preimplanted intraperitoneal thermode and delivered the total heat load of either approximately 1.5 kJ (''short'' IPH; perfusion duration: 14 min) or approximately 3.0 kJ (''long'' IPH; 40 min). Short IPH caused skin vasodilation and a 1.1°C rise in Tb; no hypothermia occurred when IPH ceased. Long IPH caused vasodilation and hyperthermia of a comparable magnitude (1.4°C) that were followed by a Tb fall to 1.9°C below the preheating value. In experiment 2, the Tb-thresh for skin vasodilation was measured twice: at the beginning of long IPH and at the nadir of the post-IPH hypothermia. The two Tb-thresh values were 39.0 (SEM 0.1)°C and 39.2 (SEM 0.2)°C respectively. In the controls, the Tb-thresh was measured at the beginning and after short IPH; both control values were 39.0 (SEM 0.2)°C. We conclude that the hyperthermia- induced hypothermia, although previously shown to be coupled with a decrease in the Tb-thresh for cold defense, occurs without any substantial change in the Tb-thresh for heat defense. We speculate that postheating thermoregulatory disorders are associated with threshold dissociation, thus representing the poikilothermic (wide dead-band) type of Tb control.
Amplitude based feedback control for NTM stabilisation at ASDEX Upgrade
Rapson, Christopher, E-mail: chris.rapson@ipp.mpg.de; Giannone, Louis; Maraschek, Marc; Reich, Matthias; Stober, Joerg; Treutterer, Wolfgang
2014-05-15
Highlights: • Two algorithms have been developed which use the NTM amplitude to control ECCD deposition and stabilise NTMs. • Both algorithms were tested and tuned in a simulation of the full feedback loop including an MRE. • Both algorithms have been successfully deployed in ASDEX Upgrade experiments. • Use of the NTM amplitude adds considerable robustness, which is necessary when trying to target ECCD to within 1 cm of the island location. • This is part of ongoing work to reliably and quickly stabilise NTMs in any plasma scenario. - Abstract: Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs) degrade the confinement in tokamak plasmas at high beta, placing a major limitation on the projected fusion performance. Furthermore, NTMs can lead to disruptions with even more severe consequences. Therefore methods to stabilise NTMs are being developed with high priority at several research institutes worldwide. The favoured method is to deposit Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) precisely at the mode location by controlling a movable mirror in the ECCD launcher. This method requires both the mode location and the deposition location to be known with high accuracy in real time. The required accuracy is given by half of the marginal island width, or approximately 1 cm for a m/n = 3/2 NTM at ASDEX Upgrade. Despite considerable development on a range of diagnostics, it remains challenging to provide the necessary accuracy reliably and in real time. To relax the accuracy requirements and add robustness, the feedback controller can additionally consider the effect of ECCD on the NTM amplitude directly. Then the optimal deposition location is simply where the NTM amplitude is minimised. The simplest implementation sweeps the ECCD beam across the expected NTM location. After the sweep, the beam can be returned to the optimal location and held there to stabilise the NTM. Unfortunately, waiting for a full sweep takes too long. Therefore a second method assesses the NTM growth every
Adaptive landing gear concept—feedback control validation
Mikulowski, Grzegorz M.; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan
2007-12-01
The objective of this paper is to present an integrated feedback control concept for adaptive landing gears (ALG) and its experimental validation. Aeroplanes are subjected to high dynamic loads as a result of the impact during each landing. Classical landing gears, which are in common use, are designed in accordance with official regulations in a way that ensures the optimal energy dissipation for the critical (maximum) sink speed. The regulations were formulated in order to ensure the functional capability of the landing gears during an emergency landing. However, the landing gears, whose characteristics are optimized for these critical conditions, do not perform well under normal impact conditions. For that situation it is reasonable to introduce a system that would adapt the characteristics of the landing gears according to the sink speed of landing. The considered system assumes adaptation of the damping force generated by the landing gear, which would perform optimally in an emergency situation and would adapt itself for regular landings as well. This research covers the formulation and design of the control algorithms for an adaptive landing gear based on MR fluid, implementation of the algorithms on an FPGA platform and experimental verification on a lab-scale landing gear device. The main challenge of the research was to develop a control methodology that could operate effectively within 50 ms, which is assumed to be the total duration of the phenomenon. The control algorithm proposed in this research was able to control the energy dissipation process on the experimental stand.
Jump resonant frequency islands in nonlinear feedback control systems
Koenigsberg, W. D.; Dunn, J. C.
1975-01-01
A new type of jump resonance is predicted and observed in certain nonlinear feedback control systems. The new jump resonance characteristic is described as a 'frequency island' due to the fact that a portion of the input-output transfer characteristic is disjoint from the main body. The presence of such frequency islands was predicted by using a sinusoidal describing function characterization of the dynamics of an inertial gyro employing nonlinear ternary rebalance logic. While the general conditions under which such islands are possible has not been examined, a numerical approach is presented which can aid in establishing their presence. The existence of the frequency islands predicted for the ternary rebalanced gyro was confirmed by simulating the nonlinear system and measuring the transfer function.
On the maximum Q in feedback controlled subignited plasmas
Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.
1990-01-01
High Q operation in feedback controlled subignited fusion plasma requires the operating temperature to be close to the ignition temperature. In the present work we discuss technological and physical effects which may restrict this temperature difference. The investigation is based on a simplified, but still accurate, 0=D analytical analysis of the maximum Q of a subignited system. Particular emphasis is given to sawtooth ocsillations which complicate the interpretation of diagnostic neutron emission data into plasma temperatures and may imply an inherent lower bound on the temperature deviation from the ignition point. The estimated maximum Q is found to be marginal (Q = 10-20) from the point of view of a fusion reactor. (authors)
Theoretical model for ultracold molecule formation via adaptive feedback control
Poschinger, Ulrich; Salzmann, Wenzel; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias; Koch, Christiane P; Kosloff, Ronnie
2006-01-01
We theoretically investigate pump-dump photoassociation of ultracold molecules with amplitude- and phase-modulated femtosecond laser pulses. For this purpose, a perturbative model for light-matter interaction is developed and combined with a genetic algorithm for adaptive feedback control of the laser pulse shapes. The model is applied to the formation of 85 Rb 2 molecules in a magneto-optical trap. We find that optimized pulse shapes may maximize the formation of ground state molecules in a specific vibrational state at a pump-dump delay time for which unshaped pulses lead to a minimum of the formation rate. Compared to the maximum formation rate obtained for unshaped pulses at the optimum pump-dump delay, the optimized pulses lead to a significant improvement of about 40% for the target level population. Since our model yields the spectral amplitudes and phases of the optimized pulses, the results are directly applicable in pulse shaping experiments
Output Feedback Stabilization with Nonlinear Predictive Control: Asymptotic properties
Lars Imsland
2003-07-01
Full Text Available State space based nonlinear model predictive control (NM PC needs the state for the prediction of the system behaviour. Unfortunately, for most applications, not all states are directly measurable. To recover the unmeasured states, typically a stable state observer is used. However, this implies that the stability of the closed-loop should be examined carefully, since no general nonlinear separation principle exists. Recently semi-global practical stability results for output feedback NMPC using a high-gain observer for state estimation have been established. One drawback of this result is that (in general the observer gain must be increased, if the desired set the state should converge to is made smaller. We show that under slightly stronger assumptions, not only practical stability, but also convergence of the system states and observer error to the origin for a sufficiently large but bounded observer gain can be achieved.
Shuiqing Yu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic output feedback control for nonlinear networked control systems with both random packet dropout and random delay. Random packet dropout and random delay are modeled as two independent random variables. An observer-based dynamic output feedback controller is designed based upon the Lyapunov theory. The quantitative relationship of the dropout rate, transition probability matrix, and nonlinear level is derived by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Chaos control for the family of Roessler systems using feedback controllers
Liao Xiaoxin; Yu Pei
2006-01-01
This paper presents a new method for controlling chaos in several classical chaotic Roessler systems using feedback control strategy. In particular, for an arbitrarily given equilibrium point of a Roessler system, we design explicit and simple feedback control laws by which the equilibrium point is globally and exponentially stabilized. Six typical Roessler systems are studied, and explicit formulas are derived for estimating the convergence rate of these systems. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the theoretical results. A mistake has been found in the existing literature, and a correct result is given
Effect of intermittent feedback control on robustness of human-like postural control system
Tanabe, Hiroko; Fujii, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kouzaki, Motoki
2016-03-01
Humans have to acquire postural robustness to maintain stability against internal and external perturbations. Human standing has been recently modelled using an intermittent feedback control. However, the causality inside of the closed-loop postural control system associated with the neural control strategy is still unknown. Here, we examined the effect of intermittent feedback control on postural robustness and of changes in active/passive components on joint coordinative structure. We implemented computer simulation of a quadruple inverted pendulum that is mechanically close to human tiptoe standing. We simulated three pairs of joint viscoelasticity and three choices of neural control strategies for each joint: intermittent, continuous, or passive control. We examined postural robustness for each parameter set by analysing the region of active feedback gain. We found intermittent control at the hip joint was necessary for model stabilisation and model parameters affected the robustness of the pendulum. Joint sways of the pendulum model were partially smaller than or similar to those of experimental data. In conclusion, intermittent feedback control was necessary for the stabilisation of the quadruple inverted pendulum. Also, postural robustness of human-like multi-link standing would be achieved by both passive joint viscoelasticity and neural joint control strategies.
Feedback control of acoustic musical instruments: collocated control using physical analogs.
Berdahl, Edgar; Smith, Julius O; Niemeyer, Günter
2012-01-01
Traditionally, the average professional musician has owned numerous acoustic musical instruments, many of them having distinctive acoustic qualities. However, a modern musician could prefer to have a single musical instrument whose acoustics are programmable by feedback control, where acoustic variables are estimated from sensor measurements in real time and then fed back in order to influence the controlled variables. In this paper, theory is presented that describes stable feedback control of an acoustic musical instrument. The presentation should be accessible to members of the musical acoustics community who may have limited or no experience with feedback control. First, the only control strategy guaranteed to be stable subject to any musical instrument mobility is described: the sensors and actuators must be collocated, and the controller must emulate a physical analog system. Next, the most fundamental feedback controllers and the corresponding physical analog systems are presented. The effects that these controllers have on acoustic musical instruments are described. Finally, practical design challenges are discussed. A proof explains why changing the resonance frequency of a musical resonance requires much more control power than changing the decay time of the resonance. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.
Simulation and design of feedback control on resistive wall modes in Keda Torus eXperiment
Li, Chenguang; Liu, Wandong; Li, Hong
2014-01-01
The feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) in Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX) (Liu et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 56, 094009 (2014)) is investigated by simulation. A linear model is built to describe the growth of the unstable modes in the absence of feedback and the resulting mode suppression due to feedback, given the typical reversed field pinch plasma equilibrium. The layout of KTX with two shell structures (the vacuum vessel and the stabilizing shell) is taken into account. The feedback performance is explored both in the scheme of “clean mode control” (Zanca et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1425 (2007)) and “raw mode control.” The discrete time control model with specific characteristic times will mimic the real feedback control action and lead to the favored control cycle. Moreover, the conceptual design of feedback control system is also presented, targeting on both RWMs and tearing modes
Tests on a mock-up of the feedback controlled matching options of the ITER ICRH system
Grine, D.; Vervier, M.; Messiaen, A.; Dumortier, P.
2009-01-01
Automatic control of the matching of the ITER ICRH antenna array on a reference load is presently developed and tested for optimization on a low-powered scaled (1:5) mock-up. Resilience to fast load variations is obtained either by 4 Conjugate-T (CT) or 4 quadrature hybrid circuits, the latter being the reference option. The main results are (i) for the CT option: successful implementation of the simultaneous feedback control of 11 actuators for the matching of the 4 CT and for the control of the array toroidal phasing; (ii) for the hybrid option: the matching and the array current control via feedback control of the decouplers and double stub tuners. This system is being progressively implemented and the simultaneous control of matching and antenna current has already been successfully tested on half of the array for heating and current drive phasings.
Transient thermal camouflage and heat signature control
Yang, Tian-Zhi; Su, Yishu; Xu, Weikai; Yang, Xiao-Dong
2016-09-01
Thermal metamaterials have been proposed to manipulate heat flux as a new way to cloak or camouflage objects in the infrared world. To date, however, thermal metamaterials only operate in the steady-state and exhibit detectable, transient heat signatures. In this letter, the theoretical basis for a thermal camouflaging technique with controlled transient diffusion is presented. This technique renders an object invisible in real time. More importantly, the thermal camouflaging device instantaneously generates a pre-designed heat signature and behaves as a perfect thermal illusion device. A metamaterial coating with homogeneous and isotropic thermal conductivity, density, and volumetric heat capacity was fabricated and very good camouflaging performance was achieved.
Neural networks for feedback feedforward nonlinear control systems.
Parisini, T; Zoppoli, R
1994-01-01
This paper deals with the problem of designing feedback feedforward control strategies to drive the state of a dynamic system (in general, nonlinear) so as to track any desired trajectory joining the points of given compact sets, while minimizing a certain cost function (in general, nonquadratic). Due to the generality of the problem, conventional methods are difficult to apply. Thus, an approximate solution is sought by constraining control strategies to take on the structure of multilayer feedforward neural networks. After discussing the approximation properties of neural control strategies, a particular neural architecture is presented, which is based on what has been called the "linear-structure preserving principle". The original functional problem is then reduced to a nonlinear programming one, and backpropagation is applied to derive the optimal values of the synaptic weights. Recursive equations to compute the gradient components are presented, which generalize the classical adjoint system equations of N-stage optimal control theory. Simulation results related to nonlinear nonquadratic problems show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Keserci, Bilgin M.; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Kyohei; Kumamoto, Etsuko; Okada, Atsuya; Khankan, Azzam A.; Kuroda, Kagayaki
2006-01-01
Our challenge was to design and implement a dedicated temperature imaging feedback control system to guide and assist in a thermal liver ablation procedure in a double-donut 0.5T open MR scanner. This system has near-real-time feedback capability based on a newly developed 'self-referenced' temperature imaging method using 'moving-slab' and complex-field-fitting techniques. Two phantom validation studies and one ex vivo experiment were performed to compare the newly developed self-referenced method with the conventional subtraction method and evaluate the ability of the feedback control system in the same MR scanner. The near-real-time feedback system was achieved by integrating the following primary functions: (1) imaging of the moving organ temperature; (2) on-line needle tip tracking; (3) automatic turn-on/off the heating devices; (4) a Windows operating system-based novel user-interfaces. In the first part of the validation studies, microwave heating was applied in an agar phantom using a fast spoiled gradient recalled echo in a steady state sequence. In the second part of the validation and ex vivo study, target visualization, treatment planning and monitoring, and temperature and thermal dose visualization with the graphical user interface of the thermal ablation software were demonstrated. Furthermore, MR imaging with the 'self-referenced' temperature imaging method has the ability to localize the hot spot in the heated region and measure temperature elevation during the experiment. In conclusion, we have demonstrated an interactively controllable feedback control system that offers a new method for the guidance of liver thermal ablation procedures, as well as improving the ability to assist ablation procedures in an open MR scanner
Conrad, Finn; Zhou, Jianjun; Gabacik, Andrzej
1998-01-01
Invited paper presents a new control algorithm based on feed-forward geometrical compensation strategy combined with adaptive feedback control.......Invited paper presents a new control algorithm based on feed-forward geometrical compensation strategy combined with adaptive feedback control....
van Zundert, J.C.D.; Oomen, T.A.E
2017-01-01
The combination of feedback control with inverse model feedforward control or iterative learning control is known to yield high performance. The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of feedback in the design of feedforward controllers, with specific attention to the inferential situation. Recent
Achievement of radiative feedback control for long-pulse operation on EAST
Wu, K.; Yuan, Q. P.; Xiao, B. J.; Wang, L.; Duan, Y. M.; Chen, J. B.; Zheng, X. W.; Liu, X. J.; Zhang, B.; Xu, J. C.; Luo, Z. P.; Zang, Q.; Li, Y. Y.; Feng, W.; Wu, J. H.; Yang, Z. S.; Zhang, L.; Luo, G.-N.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, L. Q.; Hu, J. S.; Li, J.
2018-05-01
The active feedback control of radiated power to prevent divertor target plates overheating during long-pulse operation has been developed and implemented on EAST. The radiation control algorithm, with impurity seeding via a supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) system, has shown great success in both reliability and stability. By seeding a sequence of short neon (Ne) impurity pulses with the SMBI from the outer mid-plane, the radiated power of the bulk plasma can be well controlled, and the duration of radiative control (feedforward and feedback) is 4.5 s during a discharge of 10 s. Reliable control of the total radiated power of bulk plasma has been successfully achieved in long-pulse upper single null (USN) discharges with a tungsten divertor. The achieved control range of {{f}rad} is 20%–30% in L-mode regimes and 18%–36% in H-mode regimes. The temperature of the divertor target plates was maintained at a low level during the radiative control phase. The peak particle flux on the divertor target was decreased by feedforward Ne injection in the L-mode discharges, while the Ne pulses from the SMBI had no influence on the peak particle flux because of the very small injecting volume. It is shown that although the radiated power increased, no serious reduction of plasma-stored energy or confinement was observed during the control phase. The success of the radiation control algorithm and current experiments in radiated power control represents a significant advance for steady-state divertor radiation and heat flux control on EAST for near-future long-pulse operation.
Salomir, Rares
2005-09-01
Therapeutic ultrasound is a mini-invasive and promising tool for in situ ablation of non-resectable tumors in uterus, breast, esophagus, kidney, liver, etc. Extracorporeal, endoluminal, and interstitial applicators have been successfully tested to date. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the only available technique providing non-invasive temperature mapping, together with excellent contrast of soft tissue. Coupling of these two technologies offers the advantage of both: (1) on line spatial guidance to the target region, and (2) thermal dose control during the treatment. This talk will provide an overview of the author's experience with automatic, active feedback control of the temperature evolution in tissues, which has been demonstrated with MRI compatible extracorporeal transducers (focused beam) or endoluminal applicators (plane waves). The feedback loop is based on fast switching capabilities of the driving electronics and real time data transfer out of the MR scanner. Precision of temperature control was typically better than 1°C. This approach is expected to improve the efficacy of the treatment (complete tumor ablation) and the thermal security of the critical regions crossed by the acoustic beam. It also permits one to reach an under-lethal heating regime for local drug delivery using thermosensitive liposomes or gene expression control based on hsp promoters.
Control oriented system analysis and feedback control of a numerical sawtooth instability model
Witvoet, G.; Westerhof, E.; Steinbuch, M.; Baar, de M.R.; Doelman, N.J.; Prater, R.
2010-01-01
A combined Porcelli-Kadomtsev numerical sawtooth instability model is analyzed using control oriented identification techniques. The resulting discrete time linear models describe the system’s behavior from crash to crash and is used in the design of a simple discrete time feedback controller, which
Mørkholt, Jakob
1997-01-01
Optimal feedback control of broadband sound radiation from a rectangular baffled panel has been investigated through computer simulations. Special emphasis has been put on the sensitivity of the optimal feedback control to uncertainties in the modelling of the system under control.A model...... in terms of a set of radiation filters modelling the radiation dynamics.Linear quadratic feedback control applied to the panel in order to minimise the radiated sound power has then been simulated. The sensitivity of the model based controller to modelling uncertainties when using feedback from actual...
Cause and Effect of Feedback: Multiphase Gas in Cluster Cores Heated by AGN Jets
Gaspari, M.; Ruszkowski, M.; Sharma, P.
2012-02-01
Multiwavelength data indicate that the X-ray-emitting plasma in the cores of galaxy clusters is not cooling catastrophically. To a large extent, cooling is offset by heating due to active galactic nuclei (AGNs) via jets. The cool-core clusters, with cooler/denser plasmas, show multiphase gas and signs of some cooling in their cores. These observations suggest that the cool core is locally thermally unstable while maintaining global thermal equilibrium. Using high-resolution, three-dimensional simulations we study the formation of multiphase gas in cluster cores heated by collimated bipolar AGN jets. Our key conclusion is that spatially extended multiphase filaments form only when the instantaneous ratio of the thermal instability and free-fall timescales (t TI/t ff) falls below a critical threshold of ≈10. When this happens, dense cold gas decouples from the hot intracluster medium (ICM) phase and generates inhomogeneous and spatially extended Hα filaments. These cold gas clumps and filaments "rain" down onto the central regions of the core, forming a cold rotating torus and in part feeding the supermassive black hole. Consequently, the self-regulated feedback enhances AGN heating and the core returns to a higher entropy level with t TI/t ff > 10. Eventually, the core reaches quasi-stable global thermal equilibrium, and cold filaments condense out of the hot ICM whenever t TI/t ff fashion. The effective spatial redistribution of heat is enabled in part by the turbulent motions in the wake of freely falling cold filaments. Increased AGN activity can locally reverse the cold gas flow, launching cold filamentary gas away from the cluster center. Our criterion for the condensation of spatially extended cold gas is in agreement with observations and previous idealized simulations.
CAUSE AND EFFECT OF FEEDBACK: MULTIPHASE GAS IN CLUSTER CORES HEATED BY AGN JETS
Gaspari, M.; Ruszkowski, M.; Sharma, P.
2012-01-01
Multiwavelength data indicate that the X-ray-emitting plasma in the cores of galaxy clusters is not cooling catastrophically. To a large extent, cooling is offset by heating due to active galactic nuclei (AGNs) via jets. The cool-core clusters, with cooler/denser plasmas, show multiphase gas and signs of some cooling in their cores. These observations suggest that the cool core is locally thermally unstable while maintaining global thermal equilibrium. Using high-resolution, three-dimensional simulations we study the formation of multiphase gas in cluster cores heated by collimated bipolar AGN jets. Our key conclusion is that spatially extended multiphase filaments form only when the instantaneous ratio of the thermal instability and free-fall timescales (t TI /t ff ) falls below a critical threshold of ≈10. When this happens, dense cold gas decouples from the hot intracluster medium (ICM) phase and generates inhomogeneous and spatially extended Hα filaments. These cold gas clumps and filaments 'rain' down onto the central regions of the core, forming a cold rotating torus and in part feeding the supermassive black hole. Consequently, the self-regulated feedback enhances AGN heating and the core returns to a higher entropy level with t TI /t ff > 10. Eventually, the core reaches quasi-stable global thermal equilibrium, and cold filaments condense out of the hot ICM whenever t TI /t ff ∼< 10. This occurs despite the fact that the energy from AGN jets is supplied to the core in a highly anisotropic fashion. The effective spatial redistribution of heat is enabled in part by the turbulent motions in the wake of freely falling cold filaments. Increased AGN activity can locally reverse the cold gas flow, launching cold filamentary gas away from the cluster center. Our criterion for the condensation of spatially extended cold gas is in agreement with observations and previous idealized simulations.
Thermoregulatory model of sleep control: losing the heat memory.
Nakao, M; McGinty, D; Szymusiak, R; Yamamoto, M
1999-12-01
Thermoregulatory mechanisms were hypothesized to provide primary control of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREM). On the basis of this hypothesis, we incorporated the thermoregulatory feedback loops mediated by the "heat memory," heat load, and loss processes associated with sleep-wake cycles, which were modulated by two circadian oscillators. In addition, hypnogenic warm-sensitive neurons (HWSNs) were assumed to integrate thermoregulation and NREM control. The heat memory described above could be mediated by some sleep-promoting substances. In this paper, considering the possible carrier of the heat memory, its losing process is newly included in the model. The newly developed model can generate the appropriate features of human sleep-wake patterns. One of the special features of the model is to generate the bimodal distribution of the sleepiness. This bimodality becomes distinct, as the losing rate of the heat memory decreases or the amplitude of the Y oscillator increases. The theoretical analysis shows the losing rate of the heat memory control's rapidity of model response to a thermal perturbation, which is confirmed by simulating the responses with various losing rates to transient heat loads ("heat load pulse"). The sleepiness exhibits large responses to the heat load pulses applied in the early and late phases of wake period, while the response is significantly reduced to the pulse applied in the supposed wake-maintenance zone. This bimodality of the response appears to reflect the sensitivity of the HWSNs. In addition, the early pulse raises the immediate sleepiness rather than the nocturnal sleepiness, while the heat load pulse applied in the later phase of waking period significantly raises the sleepiness during a nocturnal sleep. In simulations of sleep deprivation, the discontinuous relationship between recovery sleep length and deprivation time is reproduced, where the critical sleep deprivation time at which the recovery sleep length jumps is extended
Feedback control of atomic motion in an optical lattice
Morrow, N.V.; Dutta, S.K.; Raithel, G.
2002-01-01
We demonstrate a real-time feedback scheme to manipulate wave-packet oscillations of atoms in an optical lattice. The average position of the atoms in the lattice wells is measured continuously and nondestructively. A feedback loop processes the position signal and translates the lattice potential. Depending on the feedback loop characteristics, we find amplification, damping, or an entire alteration of the wave-packet oscillations. Our results are well supported by simulations
Empirical Reduced-Order Modeling for Boundary Feedback Flow Control
Seddik M. Djouadi
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the practical and theoretical implications of model reduction for aerodynamic flow-based control problems. Various aspects of model reduction are discussed that apply to partial differential equation- (PDE- based models in general. Specifically, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD of a high dimension system as well as frequency domain identification methods are discussed for initial model construction. Projections on the POD basis give a nonlinear Galerkin model. Then, a model reduction method based on empirical balanced truncation is developed and applied to the Galerkin model. The rationale for doing so is that linear subspace approximations to exact submanifolds associated with nonlinear controllability and observability require only standard matrix manipulations utilizing simulation/experimental data. The proposed method uses a chirp signal as input to produce the output in the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA. This method estimates the system's Markov parameters that accurately reproduce the output. Balanced truncation is used to show that model reduction is still effective on ERA produced approximated systems. The method is applied to a prototype convective flow on obstacle geometry. An H∞ feedback flow controller is designed based on the reduced model to achieve tracking and then applied to the full-order model with excellent performance.
Joseph-Duran, Bernat; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Cembrano, Gabriela
2015-01-01
An output-feedback control strategy for pollution mitigation in combined sewer networks is presented. The proposed strategy provides means to apply model-based predictive control to large-scale sewer networks, in-spite of the lack of measurements at most of the network sewers. In previous works, the authors presented a hybrid linear control-oriented model for sewer networks together with the formulation of Optimal Control Problems (OCP) and State Estimation Problems (SEP). By iteratively solv...
On a new time-delayed feedback control of chaotic systems
Tian Lixin; Xu Jun; Sun Mei; Li Xiuming
2009-01-01
In this paper, using the idea of the successive dislocation feedback method, a new time-delayed feedback control method called the successive dislocation time-delayed feedback control (SDTDFC) is designed. Firstly, the idea of SDTDFC is introduced. Then some analytic sufficient conditions of the chaos control from the SDTDFC approach are derived for stabilization. Finally, some established results are further clarified via a case study of the Lorenz system with the numerical simulations.
Real time plasma feedback control: An overview of Tore-Supra achievements
Martin, G.; Bucalossi, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Gil, C.; Grisolia, C.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Kazarian, F.; Moulin, D.; Pascal, J.Y.; Saint-Laurent, F.
2001-01-01
Stable and reliable fusion plasma operation requires increasingly advanced control systems. This is especially true for steady-state operation in advanced modes, when several parameters are to be simultaneously optimised: e.g. the current profile, which has been related to the formation of internal transport barrier, and the density, which plays a crucial role both in the fusion power and in the plasma wall interactions. At a more technological level, good management of the power entering and leaving the plasma is required, by efficient additional heating coupling, and with a full control of radiation and convection losses and distribution to the first wall elements. For these goals, several feed-back mechanisms have been developed with success on Tore-Supra, in the past four years. Most of them are based on software, implemented in a set of micro-computers connected through a VME network. (author)
Movement goals and feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in speech production.
Perkell, Joseph S
2012-09-01
Studies of speech motor control are described that support a theoretical framework in which fundamental control variables for phonemic movements are multi-dimensional regions in auditory and somatosensory spaces. Auditory feedback is used to acquire and maintain auditory goals and in the development and function of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms. Several lines of evidence support the idea that speakers with more acute sensory discrimination acquire more distinct goal regions and therefore produce speech sounds with greater contrast. Feedback modification findings indicate that fluently produced sound sequences are encoded as feedforward commands, and feedback control serves to correct mismatches between expected and produced sensory consequences.
Walking Flexibility after Hemispherectomy: Split-Belt Treadmill Adaptation and Feedback Control
Choi, Julia T.; Vining, Eileen P. G.; Reisman, Darcy S.; Bastian, Amy J.
2009-01-01
Walking flexibility depends on use of feedback or reactive control to respond to unexpected changes in the environment, and the ability to adapt feedforward or predictive control for sustained alterations. Recent work has demonstrated that cerebellar damage impairs feedforward adaptation, but not feedback control, during human split-belt treadmill…
Hennen, B.A.; Westerhof, E.; Nuij, Pwjm; M.R. de Baar,; Steinbuch, M.
2012-01-01
Suppression of tearing modes is essential for the operation of tokamaks. This paper describes the design and simulation of a tearing mode suppression feedback control system for the TEXTOR tokamak. The two main control tasks of this feedback control system are the radial alignment of electron
Pulsed klystrons with feedback controlled mod-anode modulators
Reass, William A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jerry, Davis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rees, Daniel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
This paper describes a fast rise and fall, totem-pole mod-anode modulators for klystron application. Details of these systems as recently installed utilizing a beam switch tube ''on-deck'' and a planar triode ''off-deck'' in a grid-catch feedback regulated configuration will be provided. The grid-catch configuration regulates the klystron mod-anode voltage at a specified set-point during switching as well as providing a control mechanism that flat-top regulates the klystron beam current during the pulse. This flat-topped klystron beam current is maintained while the capacitor bank droops. In addition, we will review more modern on-deck designs using a high gain, high voltage planar triode as a regulating and switching element. These designs are being developed, tested, and implemented for the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator refurbishment project, ''LANSCE-R''. An advantage of the planar triode is that the tube can be directly operated with solid state linear components and provides for a very compact design. The tubes are inexpensive compared to stacked semiconductor switching assemblies and also provide a linear control capability. Details of these designs are provided as well as operational and developmental results.
Feedback controlled electrical nerve stimulation: a computer simulation.
Doruk, R Ozgur
2010-07-01
The role of repetitive firing in neurophysiologic or neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson, epilepsy and bipolar type disorders, has always been a topic of medical research as therapies target either the cease of firing or a decrease in its frequency. In electrotherapy, one of the mechanisms to achieve the purpose in point is to apply a low density electric current to the nervous system. In this study, a computer simulation is provided of a treatment in which the stimulation current is computed by nerve fiber cell membrane potential feedback so that the level of the current is automatically instead of manually adjusted. The behavior of the nerve cell is represented by the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model, which is slightly modified into a linear model with state dependent coefficients. Due to this modification, the algebraic and differential Riccati equations can be applied, which allows an optimal controller minimizing a quadratic performance index given by the user. Using a controlled current injection can decrease unnecessarily long current injection times that may be harmful to the neuronal network. This study introduces a prototype for a possible future application to a network of neurons as it is more realistic than a single neuron. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quantum feedback for rapid state preparation in the presence of control imperfections
Combes, Joshua; Wiseman, Howard M
2011-01-01
Quantum feedback control protocols can improve the operation of quantum devices. Here we examine the performance of a purification protocol when there are imperfections in the controls. The ideal feedback protocol produces an x-eigenstate from a mixed state in the minimum time, and is known as rapid state preparation. The imperfections we examine include time delays in the feedback loop, finite strength feedback, calibration errors and inefficient detection. We analyse these imperfections using the Wiseman-Milburn feedback master equation and related formalism. We find that the protocol is most sensitive to time delays in the feedback loop. For systems with slow dynamics, however, our analysis suggests that inefficient detection would be the bigger problem. We also show how system imperfections, such as dephasing and damping, can be included in a model via the feedback master equation.
Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.
2008-03-01
In recent years, researchers have investigated the feasibility of utilizing piezoelectric-hydraulic pump based actuation systems for automotive transmission controls. This new concept could eventually reduce the complexity, weight, and fuel consumption of the current transmissions. In this research, we focus on how to utilize this new approach on the shift control of automatic transmissions (AT), which generally requires pressure profiling for friction elements during the operation. To illustrate the concept, we will consider the 1--> 2 up shift control using band brake friction elements. In order to perform the actuation force tracking for AT shift control, nonlinear force feedback control laws are designed based on the sliding mode theory for the given nonlinear system. This paper will describe the modeling of the band brake actuation system, the design of the nonlinear force feedback controller, and simulation and experimental results for demonstration of the new concept.
Controlled Microwave Heating Accelerates Rolling Circle Amplification.
Yoshimura, Takeo; Suzuki, Takamasa; Mineki, Shigeru; Ohuchi, Shokichi
2015-01-01
Rolling circle amplification (RCA) generates single-stranded DNAs or RNA, and the diverse applications of this isothermal technique range from the sensitive detection of nucleic acids to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Microwave chemistry is widely applied to increase reaction rate as well as product yield and purity. The objectives of the present research were to apply microwave heating to RCA and indicate factors that contribute to the microwave selective heating effect. The microwave reaction temperature was strictly controlled using a microwave applicator optimized for enzymatic-scale reactions. Here, we showed that microwave-assisted RCA reactions catalyzed by either of the four thermostable DNA polymerases were accelerated over 4-folds compared with conventional RCA. Furthermore, the temperatures of the individual buffer components were specifically influenced by microwave heating. We concluded that microwave heating accelerated isothermal RCA of DNA because of the differential heating mechanisms of microwaves on the temperatures of reaction components, although the overall reaction temperatures were the same.
Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking
Chang, Zenghu [Manhattan, KS; Yun, Chenxia [Manhattan, KS; Chen, Shouyuan [Manhattan, KS; Wang, He [Manhattan, KS; Chini, Michael [Manhattan, KS
2012-07-24
A feedback control module for stabilizing a carrier-envelope phase of an output of a laser oscillator system comprises a first photodetector, a second photodetector, a phase stabilizer, an optical modulator, and a thermal control element. The first photodetector may generate a first feedback signal corresponding to a first portion of a laser beam from an oscillator. The second photodetector may generate a second feedback signal corresponding to a second portion of the laser beam filtered by a low-pass filter. The phase stabilizer may divide the frequency of the first feedback signal by a factor and generate an error signal corresponding to the difference between the frequency-divided first feedback signal and the second feedback signal. The optical modulator may modulate the laser beam within the oscillator corresponding to the error signal. The thermal control unit may change the temperature of the oscillator corresponding to a signal operable to control the optical modulator.
Design and Validation of Optimized Feedforward with Robust Feedback Control of a Nuclear Reactor
Shaffer, Roman; He Weidong; Edwards, Robert M.
2004-01-01
Design applications for robust feedback and optimized feedforward control, with confirming results from experiments conducted on the Pennsylvania State University TRIGA reactor, are presented. The combination of feedforward and feedback control techniques complement each other in that robust control offers guaranteed closed-loop stability in the presence of uncertainties, and optimized feedforward offers an approach to achieving performance that is sometimes limited by overly conservative robust feedback control. The design approach taken in this work combines these techniques by first designing robust feedback control. Alternative methods for specifying a low-order linear model and uncertainty specifications, while seeking as much performance as possible, are discussed and evaluated. To achieve desired performance characteristics, the optimized feedforward control is then computed by using the nominal nonlinear plant model that incorporates the robust feedback control
Learning feedback and feedforward control in a mirror-reversed visual environment.
Kasuga, Shoko; Telgen, Sebastian; Ushiba, Junichi; Nozaki, Daichi; Diedrichsen, Jörn
2015-10-01
When we learn a novel task, the motor system needs to acquire both feedforward and feedback control. Currently, little is known about how the learning of these two mechanisms relate to each other. In the present study, we tested whether feedforward and feedback control need to be learned separately, or whether they are learned as common mechanism when a new control policy is acquired. Participants were trained to reach to two lateral and one central target in an environment with mirror (left-right)-reversed visual feedback. One group was allowed to make online movement corrections, whereas the other group only received visual information after the end of the movement. Learning of feedforward control was assessed by measuring the accuracy of the initial movement direction to lateral targets. Feedback control was measured in the responses to sudden visual perturbations of the cursor when reaching to the central target. Although feedforward control improved in both groups, it was significantly better when online corrections were not allowed. In contrast, feedback control only adaptively changed in participants who received online feedback and remained unchanged in the group without online corrections. Our findings suggest that when a new control policy is acquired, feedforward and feedback control are learned separately, and that there may be a trade-off in learning between feedback and feedforward controllers. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Chen, C.-C.; Hsu, C.-H.; Chen, Y.-J.; Lin, Y.-F.
2007-01-01
The almost disturbance decoupling and trajectory tracking of nonlinear control systems using an observer-based fuzzy feedback linearization control (FLC) is developed. Because not all of the state variables of the nonlinear dynamic equations are available, a nonlinear state observer is employed to estimate the state variables. The feedback linearization control guarantees the almost disturbance decoupling performance and the uniform ultimate bounded stability of the tracking error system. Once the tracking errors are driven to touch the global final attractor with the desired radius, the fuzzy logic control is immediately applied via human expert's knowledge to improve the convergence rate. One example, which cannot be solved by the first paper on the almost disturbance decoupling problem, is proposed in this paper to exploit the fact that the tracking and the almost disturbance decoupling performances are easily achieved by our proposed approach. In order to demonstrate the practical applicability, the study has investigated a pendulum control system
PC-based digital feedback control for scanning force microscope
Mohd Ashhar Khalid
2002-01-01
In the past, most digital feedback implementation for scanned-probe microscope were based on a digital signal processor (DSP). At present DSP plug-in card with the input-output interface module is still expensive compared to a fast pentium PC motherboard. For a magnetic force microscope (MFM) digital feedback has an advantage where the magnetic signal can be easily separated from the topographic signal. In this paper, a simple low-cost PC-based digital feedback and imaging system for Scanning Force Microscope (SFM) is presented. (Author)
Kamali, Mohammadreza; Jazayeri, Seyed Ali [K. N.Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Farid [University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kawashima, Kenji [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kagawa, Toshiharu [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)
2016-05-15
This paper introduces a new nozzle-flapper valve with isothermal chamber using piezoelectric actuator. It controls the pressure and flow rate simply, effectively and separately. The proposed valve uses isothermal chamber presenting practical isothermal condition due to its large heat transfer interfaces filled by metal wool. The valve uses stacked type piezoelectric actuator with unique advantages. By using this valve, a simple method has been fulfilled to control flow rate or pressure of ideal gases in a pneumatic actuators. Experimental results demonstrated applications of the proposed valve to control either pressure or flow rate in pneumatic circuits. This valve can be also used in the pilot stage valve to actuate the main stage of a much bigger pneumatic valve. Designated structure contains only one pressure sensor installed on the isothermal control chamber, capable of controlling both pressure and flow rate. The desired output mass flow rate of the valve is controlled by the pressure changes during positioning of piezoelectric actuator at proper position. The proposed valve can control steady and unsteady oscillatory flow rate and pressure effectively, using nonlinear control method such as feedback linearization approach. Its effectiveness is demonstrated and validated through simulation and experiments.
Sagers, Jason; Blotter, Jonathan
2008-01-01
This paper addresses the construction, measurement, and analysis of a double panel active partition (DPAP) and its accompanying analog feedback controllers. The DPAP was constructed by attaching an aluminum cone loudspeaker at each end of a short segment of a circular duct. Two analog feedback controllers were designed and built using the measured frequency response function of each panel. Two independent (decoupled) feedback controllers were then used to minimize the vibration amplitude of e...
Capacitive Sensors for Feedback Control of Microfluidic Devices
Chen, J. Z.; Darhuber, A. A.; Troian, S. M.; Wagner, S.
2003-11-01
Automation of microfluidic devices based on thermocapillary flow [1] requires feedback control and detection techniques for monitoring the location, and ideally also composition and volume of liquid droplets. For this purpose we have developed a co-planar capacitance technique with a sensitivity of 0.07 pF at a frequency of 370 kHz. The variation in capacitance due to the presence of a droplet is monitored by the output frequency of an RC relaxation oscillator consisting of two inverters, one resistor and one capacitor. We discuss the performance of this coplanar sensor as a function of the electrode dimensions and geometry. These geometric variables determine the electric field penetration depth within the liquid, which in our studies ranged from 30 to 450 microns. Numerical solutions for the capacitance corresponding to the exact fabricated geometry agree very well with experimental data. An approximate analytic solution, which ignores fringe field effects, provides a simple but excellent guide for design development. [1] A. A. Darhuber et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 657 (2003).
Developing an active artificial hair cell using nonlinear feedback control
Joyce, Bryan S.; Tarazaga, Pablo A.
2015-09-01
The hair cells in the mammalian cochlea convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals. These cells have inspired a variety of artificial hair cells (AHCs) to serve as biologically inspired sound, fluid flow, and acceleration sensors and could one day replace damaged hair cells in humans. Most of these AHCs rely on passive transduction of stimulus while it is known that the biological cochlea employs active processes to amplify sound-induced vibrations and improve sound detection. In this work, an active AHC mimics the active, nonlinear behavior of the cochlea. The AHC consists of a piezoelectric bimorph beam subjected to a base excitation. A feedback control law is used to reduce the linear damping of the beam and introduce a cubic damping term which gives the AHC the desired nonlinear behavior. Model and experimental results show the AHC amplifies the response due to small base accelerations, has a higher frequency sensitivity than the passive system, and exhibits a compressive nonlinearity like that of the mammalian cochlea. This bio-inspired accelerometer could lead to new sensors with lower thresholds of detection, improved frequency sensitivities, and wider dynamic ranges.
NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe
Yan, X.; Zhang, J. T.; Merlone, A.; Duan, Y.; Wang, W.
2013-09-01
Gas controlled heat pipes (GCHPs) provide a uniform, stable and reproducible temperature zone to calibrate thermometers and thermocouples, and to realize defining fixed points using a calorimetric method. Therefore, to perform such investigations, a GCHP furnace using sodium as its working fluid was constructed at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. Also, investigations into the thermal characteristics of the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe were carried out. The temperature stability over 5 hours was better than ±0.25 mK while controlling the pressure at 111250 Pa. The temperature uniformity within 14 cm from the bottom of the thermometer well was within 0.3 mK. While keeping the pressure stable at the same value, 17 temperature determinations were performed over 14 days, obtaining a temperature reproducibility of 1.27 mK. Additionally, the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe was compared with the sodium heat pipe produced by INRiM. The temperature in the INRiM sodium heat pipe operating at 111250 Pa was determined, obtaining a difference of 21 mK with respect to the NIM GCHP. This difference was attributed to sodium impurities, pressure controller capabilities and reproducibility, and instabilities of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs). Further investigations will be carried out on extending the pressure/temperature range and connecting both GCHPs to the same pressure line.
Output Feedback Adaptive Control of Non-Minimum Phase Systems Using Optimal Control Modification
Nguyen, Nhan; Hashemi, Kelley E.; Yucelen, Tansel; Arabi, Ehsan
2018-01-01
This paper describes output feedback adaptive control approaches for non-minimum phase SISO systems with relative degree 1 and non-strictly positive real (SPR) MIMO systems with uniform relative degree 1 using the optimal control modification method. It is well-known that the standard model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) cannot be used to control non-SPR plants to track an ideal SPR reference model. Due to the ideal property of asymptotic tracking, MRAC attempts an unstable pole-zero cancellation which results in unbounded signals for non-minimum phase SISO systems. The optimal control modification can be used to prevent the unstable pole-zero cancellation which results in a stable adaptation of non-minimum phase SISO systems. However, the tracking performance using this approach could suffer if the unstable zero is located far away from the imaginary axis. The tracking performance can be recovered by using an observer-based output feedback adaptive control approach which uses a Luenberger observer design to estimate the state information of the plant. Instead of explicitly specifying an ideal SPR reference model, the reference model is established from the linear quadratic optimal control to account for the non-minimum phase behavior of the plant. With this non-minimum phase reference model, the observer-based output feedback adaptive control can maintain stability as well as tracking performance. However, in the presence of the mismatch between the SPR reference model and the non-minimum phase plant, the standard MRAC results in unbounded signals, whereas a stable adaptation can be achieved with the optimal control modification. An application of output feedback adaptive control for a flexible wing aircraft illustrates the approaches.
Li, Ang; Liang, Wenxuan; Li, Xingde
2017-02-01
Fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy represents a strong promise to enable translation of nonlinear microscopy technologies to in vivo applications, particularly imaging of internal organs. Two-dimensional imaging beam scanning has been accomplished by using fiber-optic scanners or MEMS scanners. Yet nonlinear endomicroscopy still cannot perform rapid and reliable depth or focus scanning while maintaining a small form factor. Shape memory alloy (SMA) wire had shown promise in extending 2D endoscopic imaging to the third dimension. By Joule heating, the SMA wire would contract and move the endomicroscope optics to change beam focus. However, this method suffered from hysteresis, and was susceptible to change in ambient temperature, making it difficult to achieve accurate and reliable depth scanning. Here we present a feedback-controlled SMA actuator which addressed these challenges. The core of the feedback loop was a Hall effect sensor. By measuring the magnetic flux density from a tiny magnet attached to the SMA wire, contraction distance of the SMA wire could be tracked in real time. The distance was then fed to the PID algorithm running in a microprocessor, which computed the error between the command position and the current position of the actuator. The current running through the SMA wire was adjusted accordingly. Our feedback-controlled SMA actuator had a tube-like shape with outer diameter of 5.5 mm and length of 25 mm, and was designed to house the endomicroscope inside. Initial test showed that it allowed more than 300 microns of travel distance, with an average positioning error of less than 2 microns. 3D imaging experiments with the endomicroscope is underway, and its imaging performance will be assessed and discussed.
Fast computational scheme for feedback control of high current fusion tokamaks
Dong, J.Q.; Khayrutdinov, R.; Azizov, E.; Jardin, S.
1992-01-01
An accurate and fast numerical model of tokamak plasma evolution is presented. In this code (DINA) the equilibrium problem of plasmas with free boundaries in externally changing magnetic fields is solved simultaneously with the plasma transport equation. The circuit equations are solved for the vacuum vessel and passive and active coils. The code includes pellet injection, neutral beam heating, auxiliary heating, and alpha particle heating. Bootstrap and beam-driven plasma currents are accounted for. An inverse variable technique is utilized to obtain the coordinates of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. This numerical algorithm permits to determine the flux coordinates very quickly and accurately. The authors show that using the fully resistive MHD analysis the region of stability (to vertical motions) is wider than using the rigid displacement model. Comparing plasma motions with the same gain, it is seen that the plasma oscillates more in the rigid analysis than in the MHD analysis. They study the influence of the pick up coil's location and the possibility of control of the plasma vertical position. They use a simple modification of the standard control law that enables the control of the plasma with pick up coils located at any position. This flexibility becomes critical in the design of future complex high current tokamak systems. The fully resistive MHD model permits to obtain accurate estimates of the plasma response. This approach yields computational time savings of one to two orders of magnitude with respect to other existing MHD models. In this sense, conventional numerical algorithms do not provide suitable models for application of modern control techniques into real time expert systems. The proposed inverse variable technique is rather suitable for incorporation in a comprehensive expert system for feedback control of fusion tokamaks in real time
Grand, Kirk F; Bruzi, Alessandro T; Dyke, Ford B; Godwin, Maurice M; Leiker, Amber M; Thompson, Andrew G; Buchanan, Taylor L; Miller, Matthew W
2015-10-01
It was tested whether learners who choose when to receive augmented feedback while practicing a motor skill exhibit enhanced augmented feedback processing and intrinsic motivation, along with superior learning, relative to learners who do not control their feedback. Accordingly, participants were assigned to either self-control (Self) or yoked groups and asked to practice a non-dominant arm beanbag toss. Self participants received augmented feedback at their discretion, whereas Yoked participants were given feedback schedules matched to Self counterparts. Participants' visual feedback was occluded, and when they received augmented feedback, their processing of it was indexed with the electroencephalography-derived feedback-related negativity (FRN). Participants self-reported intrinsic motivation via the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) after practice, and completed a retention and transfer test the next day to index learning. Results partially support the hypothesis. Specifically, Self participants reported higher IMI scores, exhibited larger FRNs, and demonstrated better accuracy on the transfer test, but not on the retention test, nor did they exhibit greater consistency on the retention or transfer tests. Additionally, post-hoc multiple regression analysis indicated FRN amplitude predicted transfer test accuracy (accounting for IMI score). Results suggest self-controlled feedback schedules enhance feedback processing, which enhances the transfer of a newly acquired motor skill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang Jing; Gao Jinfeng; Ma Xikui
2007-01-01
This Letter presents a novel cross active backstepping design method for synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system, in which the ordinary backstepping design is unavailable. The proposed control method, combining backstepping design and active control approach, extends the application of backstepping technique in chaos control. Based on this method, different combinations of controllers can be designed to meet the needs of different applications. The proposed method is applied to achieve chaos synchronization of two identical cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic systems. Also it is used to implement synchronization between cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system and Roessler hyperchaotic system. Numerical examples illustrate the validity of the control method
Controlling chaos in a nonlinear pendulum using an extended time-delayed feedback control method
Souza de Paula, Aline; Savi, Marcelo Amorim
2009-01-01
Chaos control is employed for the stabilization of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) embedded in chaotic attractors. The extended time-delayed feedback control uses a continuous feedback loop incorporating information from previous states of the system in order to stabilize unstable orbits. This article deals with the chaos control of a nonlinear pendulum employing the extended time-delayed feedback control method. The control law leads to delay-differential equations (DDEs) that contain derivatives that depend on the solution of previous time instants. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with linear interpolation on the delayed variables is employed for numerical simulations of the DDEs and its initial function is estimated by a Taylor series expansion. During the learning stage, the UPOs are identified by the close-return method and control parameters are chosen for each desired UPO by defining situations where the largest Lyapunov exponent becomes negative. Analyses of a nonlinear pendulum are carried out by considering signals that are generated by numerical integration of the mathematical model using experimentally identified parameters. Results show the capability of the control procedure to stabilize UPOs of the dynamical system, highlighting some difficulties to achieve the stabilization of the desired orbit.
Shin, Chang Joo; Jeong, Weui Bong; Hong, Chin Suk
2012-01-01
This paper investigates the active vibration control of clamp beams using positive position feedback (PPF) controllers with a sensor/ moment pair actuator. The sensor/moment pair actuator which is the non-collocated configuration leads to instability of the control system when using the direct velocity feedback (DVFB) control. To alleviate the instability problem, a PPF controller is considered in this paper. A parametric study of the control system with PPF controller is first conducted to characterize the effects of the design parameters (gain and damping ratio in this paper) on the stability and performance. The gain of the controller is found to affect only the relative stability. Increasing the damping ratio of the controller slightly improves the stability condition while the performance gets worse. In addition, the higher mode tuned PPF controller affects the system response at the lower modes significantly. Based on the characteristics of PPF controllers, a multi-mode controllable SISO PPF controller is then considered and tuned to different modes (in this case, three lowest modes) numerically and experimentally. The multi-mode PPF controller can be achieved to have a high gain margin. Moreover, it reduces the vibration of the beam significantly. The vibration levels at the tuned modes are reduced by about 11 dB
Direct torque control via feedback linearization for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives
Lascu, Cristian; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede
2012-01-01
The paper describes a direct torque controlled (DTC) permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive that employs feedback linearization and uses sliding-mode and linear controllers. We introduce a new feedback linearization approach that yields a decoupled linear PMSM model with two state...
Feedback Linearization Control of a Shunt Active Power Filter Using a Fuzzy Controller
Tianhua Li
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel feedback linearization based sliding mode controlled parallel active power filter using a fuzzy controller is presented in a three-phase three-wire grid. A feedback linearization control with fuzzy parameter self-tuning is used to implement the DC side voltage regulation while a novel integral sliding mode controller is applied to reduce the total harmonic distortion of the supply current. Since traditional unit synchronous sinusoidal signal calculation methods are not applicable when the supply voltage contains harmonics, a novel unit synchronous sinusoidal signal computing method based on synchronous frame transforming theory is presented to overcome this disadvantage. The simulation results verify that the DC side voltage is very stable for the given value and responds quickly to the external disturbance. A comparison is also made to show the advantages of the novel unit sinusoidal signal calculating method and the super harmonic treatment property of the designed active power filter.
Theoretical and experimental study of Chen chaotic system with notch filter feedback control
Ming, Zhang Xiao; Jian-Hua, Peng; Ju-Fang, Chen
2010-01-01
Since the past two decades, the time delay feedback control method has attracted more and more attention in chaos control studies because of its simplicity and efficiency compared with other chaos control schemes. Recently, it has been proposed to suppress low-dimensional chaos with the notch filter feedback control method, which can be implemented in a laser system. In this work, we have analytically determined the controllable conditions for notch filter feedback controlling of Chen chaotic system in terms of the Hopf bifurcation theory. The conditions for notch filter feedback controlled Chen chaoitc system having a stable limit cycle solution are given. Meanwhile, we also analysed the Hopf bifurcation direction, which is very important for parameter settings in notch filter feedback control applications. Finally, we apply the notch filter feedback control methods to the electronic circuit experiments and numerical simulations based on the theoretical analysis. The controlling results of notch filter feedback control method well prove the feasibility and reliability of the theoretical analysis. (general)
Aggregated Control of Domestic Heat Pumps
Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.
2013-01-01
A challenge in Denmark in the near future is to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. In this work an aggregated control system using heat pumps in single family houses to help balancing the grid is investigated....... The control system is able to adjust the consumptions of the heat pump without affecting the comfort in the houses and uses this ability to shift the total consumption to hours with high wind energy production....
Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Godfroy, Thomas J.; Webster, Kenny
2010-01-01
Nonnuclear test platforms and methodologies can be employed to reduce the overall cost, risk and complexity of testing nuclear systems while allowing one to evaluate the operation of an integrated nuclear system within a reasonable timeframe, providing valuable input to the overall system design. In a nonnuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Standard electric test techniques allow one to fully assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but these approaches fail to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. The integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and testing with nuclear fuel elements installed. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assess potential design improvements at a relatively small fiscal investment. This paper summarizes the results of initial system dynamic response testing for two electrically heated reactor concepts: a heat pipe-cooled reactor simulator with integrated heat exchanger and a gas-cooled reactor simulator with integrated Brayton power conversion system. Initial applications apply a simplified reactor kinetics model with either a single or an averaged measured state point. Preliminary results demonstrate the applicability of the dynamic test methodology to any reactor type, elucidating the variation in system response characteristics in different reactor concepts. These results suggest a need to further enhance the dynamic test approach by incorporating a more accurate model of the reactor dynamics and improved hardware instrumentation for better state estimation in application of the
A randomized controlled trial of a personalized feedback intervention for problem gamblers.
John A Cunningham
Full Text Available Personalized feedback is a promising self-help for problem gamblers. Such interventions have shown consistently positive results with other addictive behaviours, and our own pilot test of personalized normative feedback materials for gamblers yielded positive findings. The current randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness, and the sustained efficacy, of the personalized feedback intervention materials for problem gamblers.Respondents recruited by a general population telephone screener of Ontario adults included gamblers with moderate and severe gambling problems. Those who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to receive: 1 the full personalized normative feedback intervention; 2 a partial feedback that contained all the feedback information provided to those in condition 1 but without the normative feedback content (i.e., no comparisons provided to general population gambling norms; or 3 a waiting list control condition. The primary hypothesis was that problem gamblers who received the personalized normative feedback intervention would reduce their gambling more than problem gamblers who did not receive any intervention (waiting list control condition by the six-month follow-up.The study found no evidence for the impact of normative personalized feedback. However, participants who received, the partial feedback (without norms reduced the number of days they gambled compared to participants who did not receive the intervention. We concluded that personalized feedback interventions were well received and the materials may be helpful at reducing gambling. Realistically, it can be expected that the personalized feedback intervention may have a limited, short term impact on the severity of participants' problem gambling because the intervention is just a brief screener. An Internet-based version of the personalized feedback intervention tool, however, may offer an easy to access and non-threatening portal that can be used to
The role played by thermal feedback in heated Farley-Buneman waves at high latitudes
J.-P. St.-Maurice
2000-05-01
Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that electron thermal effects have to be taken into account when dealing with the theory of ionospheric instabilities in the high-latitude ionosphere. Unfortunately, the mathematical complexity often hides the physical processes at work. We follow the limiting cases of a complex but systematic generalized fluid approach to get to the heart of the thermal processes that affect the stability of E region waves during electron heating events. We try to show as simply as possible under what conditions thermal effects contribute to the destabilization of strongly field-aligned (zero aspect angle Farley-Buneman modes. We show that destabilization can arise from a combination of (1 a reduction in pressure gradients associated with temperature fluctuations that are out of phase with density fluctuations, and (2 thermal diffusion, which takes the electrons from regions of enhanced temperatures to regions of negative temperature fluctuations, and therefore enhanced densities. However, we also show that, contrary to what has been suggested in the past, for modes excited along the E0×B direction thermal feedback decreases the growth rate and raises the threshold speed of the Farley-Buneman instability. The increase in threshold speed appears to be important enough to explain the generation of `Type IV' waves in the high-latitude ionosphere.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; iono- spheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities
Golbahar Haghighi, M.R.; Eghtesad, M.; Necsulescu, D.S.; Malekzadeh, P.
2010-01-01
As a first endeavor, an approach for the two- and three-dimensional temperature control of functionally graded (FG) plates by using the inverse solution and the proportional-differential (PD) controller is provided. For this purpose, firstly, having the desired temperatures at different locations and times, heat fluxes at the boundaries of the plates are estimated by inverse solution techniques offline. Then, the estimated heat fluxes as feedforward control inputs are combined with a PD controller to introduce a hybrid feedforward-feedback control input to the FG domain in the presence of disturbance and noise. In order to show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed (inverse + PD) controller in two- and three-dimensional domains, different distinct examples, which include different boundary conditions, material properties and disturbance sources are presented. It is shown that the presented approach can adjust heat fluxes for control of the temperature accurately; also, the PD controller gains do not need to be re-adjusted for different problems.
Golbahar Haghighi, M.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eghtesad, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Necsulescu, D.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Malekzadeh, P., E-mail: malekzadeh@pgu.ac.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Computational Mechanics, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-01-15
As a first endeavor, an approach for the two- and three-dimensional temperature control of functionally graded (FG) plates by using the inverse solution and the proportional-differential (PD) controller is provided. For this purpose, firstly, having the desired temperatures at different locations and times, heat fluxes at the boundaries of the plates are estimated by inverse solution techniques offline. Then, the estimated heat fluxes as feedforward control inputs are combined with a PD controller to introduce a hybrid feedforward-feedback control input to the FG domain in the presence of disturbance and noise. In order to show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed (inverse + PD) controller in two- and three-dimensional domains, different distinct examples, which include different boundary conditions, material properties and disturbance sources are presented. It is shown that the presented approach can adjust heat fluxes for control of the temperature accurately; also, the PD controller gains do not need to be re-adjusted for different problems.
Scheerer, Nichole E; Jones, Jeffery A
2014-12-01
Speech production requires the combined effort of a feedback control system driven by sensory feedback, and a feedforward control system driven by internal models. However, the factors that dictate the relative weighting of these feedback and feedforward control systems are unclear. In this event-related potential (ERP) study, participants produced vocalisations while being exposed to blocks of frequency-altered feedback (FAF) perturbations that were either predictable in magnitude (consistently either 50 or 100 cents) or unpredictable in magnitude (50- and 100-cent perturbations varying randomly within each vocalisation). Vocal and P1-N1-P2 ERP responses revealed decreases in the magnitude and trial-to-trial variability of vocal responses, smaller N1 amplitudes, and shorter vocal, P1 and N1 response latencies following predictable FAF perturbation magnitudes. In addition, vocal response magnitudes correlated with N1 amplitudes, vocal response latencies, and P2 latencies. This pattern of results suggests that after repeated exposure to predictable FAF perturbations, the contribution of the feedforward control system increases. Examination of the presentation order of the FAF perturbations revealed smaller compensatory responses, smaller P1 and P2 amplitudes, and shorter N1 latencies when the block of predictable 100-cent perturbations occurred prior to the block of predictable 50-cent perturbations. These results suggest that exposure to large perturbations modulates responses to subsequent perturbations of equal or smaller size. Similarly, exposure to a 100-cent perturbation prior to a 50-cent perturbation within a vocalisation decreased the magnitude of vocal and N1 responses, but increased P1 and P2 latencies. Thus, exposure to a single perturbation can affect responses to subsequent perturbations. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Liu Zhuo; Kuang Luelin; Hu Kai; Xu Luting; Wei Suhua; Guo Lingzhen; Li Xinqi
2010-01-01
In a solid-state circuit QED system, we demonstrate that a homodyne-current-based feedback can create and stabilize highly entangled two-qubit states in the presence of a moderate noisy environment. Particularly, we present an extended analysis for the current-based Markovian feedback, which leads to an improved feedback scheme. We show that this is essential to achieve a desirable control effect by the use of dispersive measurement.
Dynamics and control of a financial system with time-delayed feedbacks
Chen, W.-C.
2008-01-01
Complex behaviors in a financial system with time-delayed feedbacks are discussed in this study via numerical modeling. The system shows complex dynamics such as periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic behaviors. Both period doubling and inverse period doubling routes were found in this system. This paper also shows that the attractor merging crisis is a fundamental feature of nonlinear financial systems with time-delayed feedbacks. Control of the deterministic chaos in the financial system can be realized using Pyragas feedbacks
Controlling chaos and synchronization for new chaotic system using linear feedback control
Yassen, M.T.
2005-01-01
This paper is devoted to study the problem of controlling chaos for new chaotic dynamical system (four-scroll dynamical system). Linear feedback control is used to suppress chaos to unstable equilibria and to achieve chaos synchronization of two identical four-scroll systems. Routh-Hurwitz criteria is used to study the conditions of the asymptotic stability of the equilibrium points of the controlled system. The sufficient conditions for achieving synchronization of two identical four-scroll systems are derived by using Lyapunov stability theorem. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed chaos control and synchronization schemes
Fahad A Al-Hussein
2009-01-01
Conclusions: A process of audits in the context of statistical process control is necessary for any improvement in the implementation of guidelines in primary care. Statistical process control charts are an effective means of visual feedback to the care providers.
Rapid feedback control and stabilization of an optical tweezers with a budget microcontroller
Nino, Daniel; Wang, Haowei; N Milstein, Joshua
2014-01-01
Laboratories ranging the scientific disciplines employ feedback control to regulate variables within their experiments, from the flow of liquids within a microfluidic device to the temperature within a cell incubator. We have built an inexpensive, yet fast and rapidly deployed, feedback control system that is straightforward and flexible to implement from a commercially available Arduino Due microcontroller. This is in comparison with the complex, time-consuming and often expensive electronics that are commonly implemented. As an example of its utility, we apply our feedback controller to the task of stabilizing the main trapping laser of an optical tweezers. The feedback controller, which is inexpensive yet fast and rapidly deployed, was implemented from hacking an open source Arduino Due microcontroller. Our microcontroller based feedback system can stabilize the laser intensity to a few tenths of a per cent at 200 kHz, which is an order of magnitude better than the laser's base specifications, illustrating the utility of these devices. (paper)
Barr, D.S.
1993-01-01
It is desired to design a position and angle jitter control system for pulsed linear accelerators that will increase the accuracy of correction over that achieved by currently used standard feedback jitter control systems. Interpulse or pulse-to-pulse correction is performed using the average value of each macropulse. The configuration of such a system resembles that of a standard feedback correction system with the addition of an adaptive controller that dynamically adjusts the gain-phase contour of the feedback electronics. The adaptive controller makes changes to the analog feedback system between macropulses. A simulation of such a system using real measured jitter data from the Stanford Linear Collider was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by over two and a half times. The system also increased and stabilized the correction at high frequencies; a typical problem with standard feedback systems
Rapid feedback control and stabilization of an optical tweezers with a budget microcontroller
Nino, Daniel; Wang, Haowei; N Milstein, Joshua, E-mail: josh.milstein@utoronto.ca [Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6 (Canada)
2014-09-01
Laboratories ranging the scientific disciplines employ feedback control to regulate variables within their experiments, from the flow of liquids within a microfluidic device to the temperature within a cell incubator. We have built an inexpensive, yet fast and rapidly deployed, feedback control system that is straightforward and flexible to implement from a commercially available Arduino Due microcontroller. This is in comparison with the complex, time-consuming and often expensive electronics that are commonly implemented. As an example of its utility, we apply our feedback controller to the task of stabilizing the main trapping laser of an optical tweezers. The feedback controller, which is inexpensive yet fast and rapidly deployed, was implemented from hacking an open source Arduino Due microcontroller. Our microcontroller based feedback system can stabilize the laser intensity to a few tenths of a per cent at 200 kHz, which is an order of magnitude better than the laser's base specifications, illustrating the utility of these devices. (paper)
Barr, D.S.
1992-01-01
It is desired to design a position and angle jitter control system for pulsed linear accelerators that will increase the accuracy of correction over that achieved by currently used standard feedback jitter control systems. Interpulse or pulse-to-pulse correction is performed using the average value of each macropulse. The configuration of such a system resembles that of a standard feedback correction system with the addition of an adaptive controller that dynamically adjusts the gain-phase contour of the feedback electronics. The adaptive controller makes changes to the analog feedback system between macropulses. A simulation of such a system using real measured jitter data from the Stanford Linear Collider was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by over two and a half times. The system also increased and stabilized the correction at high frequencies; a typical problem with standard feedback systems
Iterative learning control with sampled-data feedback for robot manipulators
Delchev Kamen
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the improvement of the stability of sampled-data (SD feedback control for nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output time varying systems, such as robotic manipulators, by incorporating an off-line model based nonlinear iterative learning controller. The proposed scheme of nonlinear iterative learning control (NILC with SD feedback is applicable to a large class of robots because the sampled-data feedback is required for model based feedback controllers, especially for robotic manipulators with complicated dynamics (6 or 7 DOF, or more, while the feedforward control from the off-line iterative learning controller should be assumed as a continuous one. The robustness and convergence of the proposed NILC law with SD feedback is proven, and the derived sufficient condition for convergence is the same as the condition for a NILC with a continuous feedback control input. With respect to the presented NILC algorithm applied to a virtual PUMA 560 robot, simulation results are presented in order to verify convergence and applicability of the proposed learning controller with SD feedback controller attached
Controlling thermal chaos in the mantle by positive feedback from radiative thermal conductivity
F. Dubuffet
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The thermal conductivity of mantle materials has two components, the lattice component klat from phonons and the radiative component krad due to photons. These two contributions of variable thermal conductivity have a nonlinear dependence in the temperature, thus endowing the temperature equation in mantle convection with a strongly nonlinear character. The temperature derivatives of these two mechanisms have different signs, with ∂klat /∂T negative and dkrad /dT positive. This offers the possibility for the radiative conductivity to control the chaotic boundary layer instabilities developed in the deep mantle. We have parameterized the weight factor between krad and klat with a dimensionless parameter f , where f = 1 corresponds to the reference conductivity model. We have carried out two-dimensional, time-dependent calculations for variable thermal conductivity but constant viscosity in an aspect-ratio 6 box for surface Rayleigh numbers between 106 and 5 × 106. The averaged Péclet numbers of these flows lie between 200 and 2000. Along the boundary in f separating the chaotic and steady-state solutions, the number decreases and the Nusselt number increases with internal heating, illustrating the feedback between internal heating and radiative thermal conductivity. For purely basal heating situation, the time-dependent chaotic flows become stabilized for values of f of between 1.5 and 2. The bottom thermal boundary layer thickens and the surface heat flow increases with larger amounts of radiative conductivity. For magnitudes of internal heating characteristic of a chondritic mantle, much larger values of f , exceeding 10, are required to quench the bottom boundary layer instabilities. By isolating the individual conductive mechanisms, we have ascertained that the lattice conductivity is partly responsible for inducing boundary layer instabilities, while the radiative conductivity and purely depth-dependent conductivity exert a stabilizing
Controlling Price-Responsive Heat Pumps for Overload Elimination in Distribution Systems
Csetvei, Zsuzsa; Østergaard, Jacob; Nyeng, Preben
2011-01-01
This paper investigates the possibility of applying electric heat pumps with the control-by-price-concept in order to avoid overload in a local distribution system. The proposed control algorithm is based upon a centrally dispatched real-time market price, reflecting the state of a larger power...... system, and is extended with a local price control for overload elimination on the corresponding feeder. The paper presents the mathematical models of a two-node system with price-responsive heat pumps, the chosen methodology of the central price calculation, and the proposed local feedback control...
Feedback control of one's own action: Self-other sensory attribution in motor control.
Asai, Tomohisa
2015-12-15
The sense of agency, the subjective experience of controlling one's own action, has an important function in motor control. When we move our own body or even external tools, we attribute that movement to ourselves and utilize that sensory information in order to correct "our own" movement in theory. The dynamic relationship between conscious self-other attribution and feedback control, however, is still unclear. Participants were required to make a sinusoidal reaching movement and received its visual feedback (i.e., cursor). When participants received a fake movement that was spatio-temporally close to their actual movement, illusory self-attribution of the fake movement was observed. In this situation, since participants tried to control the cursor but it was impossible to do so, the movement error was increased (Experiment 1). However, when the visual feedback was reduced to make self-other attribution difficult, there was no further increase in the movement error (Experiment 2). These results indicate that conscious self-other sensory attribution might coordinate sensory input and motor output. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Feedback power control strategies in wireless sensor networks with joint channel decoding.
Abrardo, Andrea; Ferrari, Gianluigi; Martalò, Marco; Perna, Fabio
2009-01-01
In this paper, we derive feedback power control strategies for block-faded multiple access schemes with correlated sources and joint channel decoding (JCD). In particular, upon the derivation of the feasible signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region for the considered multiple access schemes, i.e., the multidimensional SNR region where error-free communications are, in principle, possible, two feedback power control strategies are proposed: (i) a classical feedback power control strategy, which aims at equalizing all link SNRs at the access point (AP), and (ii) an innovative optimized feedback power control strategy, which tries to make the network operational point fall in the feasible SNR region at the lowest overall transmit energy consumption. These strategies will be referred to as "balanced SNR" and "unbalanced SNR," respectively. While they require, in principle, an unlimited power control range at the sources, we also propose practical versions with a limited power control range. We preliminary consider a scenario with orthogonal links and ideal feedback. Then, we analyze the robustness of the proposed power control strategies to possible non-idealities, in terms of residual multiple access interference and noisy feedback channels. Finally, we successfully apply the proposed feedback power control strategies to a limiting case of the class of considered multiple access schemes, namely a central estimating officer (CEO) scenario, where the sensors observe noisy versions of a common binary information sequence and the AP's goal is to estimate this sequence by properly fusing the soft-output information output by the JCD algorithm.
Xing-Yuan, Wang; Na, Zhang
2010-01-01
Coupled map lattices are taken as examples to study the synchronisation of spatiotemporal chaotic systems. First, a generalised synchronisation of two coupled map lattices is realised through selecting an appropriate feedback function and appropriate range of feedback parameter. Based on this method we use the phase compression method to extend the range of the parameter. So, we integrate the feedback control method with the phase compression method to implement the generalised synchronisation and obtain an exact range of feedback parameter. This technique is simple to implement in practice. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness and the feasibility of the proposed program. (general)
Hennen, B.A.; Westerhof, E.; Nuij, P.W.J.M.; Ayten, B.; Baar, de M.R.; Bongers, W.A.; Bürger, A.; Lazzari, De D.; Oosterbeek, J.W.; Thoen, D.J.; Steinbuch, M.
2010-01-01
A demonstration of real-time feedback control for autonomous tracking and stabilization of m/n = 2/1 tearing modes in a tokamak using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating and Current Drive (ECRH/ECCD) is reported. The prototype system on TEXTOR combines in the same sight-line an Electron Cyclotron
Model-based Optimization and Feedback Control of the Current Density Profile Evolution in NSTX-U
Ilhan, Zeki Okan
Nuclear fusion research is a highly challenging, multidisciplinary field seeking contributions from both plasma physics and multiple engineering areas. As an application of plasma control engineering, this dissertation mainly explores methods to control the current density profile evolution within the National Spherical Torus eXperiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U), which is a substantial upgrade based on the NSTX device, which is located in Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ. Active control of the toroidal current density profile is among those plasma control milestones that the NSTX-U program must achieve to realize its next-step operational goals, which are characterized by high-performance, long-pulse, MHD-stable plasma operation with neutral beam heating. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop model-based, feedforward and feedback controllers that can enable time regulation of the current density profile in NSTX-U by actuating the total plasma current, electron density, and the powers of the individual neutral beam injectors. Motivated by the coupled, nonlinear, multivariable, distributed-parameter plasma dynamics, the first step towards control design is the development of a physics-based, control-oriented model for the current profile evolution in NSTX-U in response to non-inductive current drives and heating systems. Numerical simulations of the proposed control-oriented model show qualitative agreement with the high-fidelity physics code TRANSP. The next step is to utilize the proposed control-oriented model to design an open-loop actuator trajectory optimizer. Given a desired operating state, the optimizer produces the actuator trajectories that can steer the plasma to such state. The objective of the feedforward control design is to provide a more systematic approach to advanced scenario planning in NSTX-U since the development of such scenarios is conventionally carried out experimentally by modifying the tokamak's actuator
Heating control system for nuclear reactor
Shinohara, Kaoru.
1981-01-01
Purpose: To automatically control reactor heating while keeping the condition of temperature rising rate by determining the deviations based on the reactor water temperature, the aimed temperature and the aimed temperature rising rate and operating control rods. Constitution: Actual temperature in the reactor is measured by a temperature detector and compared with a value from a setter to determine the temperature deviation. While on the other hand, the rising rate for the measured temperature is calculated in a differentiator and compared with a value from a setter to determine the deviation, which is passed through an integrator to calculate the deviation for the temperature rising rate. The signals for the temperature deviation and the temperature rising rate deviation are selected in a lower value preference circuit and the operation amount for the control rod is judged in a control rod operation judging section depending on the deviation amount. The control rod to be operated is determined in a sequence control section for the selection of control rod. The control rod selected and the direction of the operation are displayed on a display and the selected control rod is automatically driven by a control rod drives to thereby carry our reactor heating. (Furukawa, Y.)
Feedback control of occupant motion during a crash
Hesseling, R.J.; Steinbuch, M.; Veldpaus, F.E.; Klisch, T.
2006-01-01
Passive in-vehicle safety systems such as the air bag and the belt restrain the occupant during a crash. However, often their behavior is not optimal in terms of occupant injuries. This paper discusses an approach to design an ideal restraint system. The problem is formulated as a feedback tracking
A preliminary study on the feedback of heat transfer on groundwater flow in a Karst geothermal field
Kong, Y.; Pang, Z.; Hu, S.; Pang, J.; Shao, H.; Kolditz, O.
2014-12-01
In deep sedimentary basins, groundwater movement can significantly alter the heat flow pattern. At the same time, heat flux induced temperature change can reversely determine the flow regime through density dependent convection process. In Karst aquifers, the heterogeneity in the carbonate rocks makes the identification of this feedback much more complex. In this work, a preliminary study has been made on this feedback in Xiongxian geothermal field. The Karst aquifer in our site has an average thickness of about 1000 m, and is overlaid by over 400 m of quaternary clay, and subsequently 600 m of Neogene sandstone. Geothermal energy has been exploited in the site for space heating. During the heating period from Nov 15th to Mar 15th every year, hot water was extracted from the aquifer and re-injected after the heat extraction. A detailed temperature logging has been carried out in the field, both before and after the heating period, with the consideration that temperature distribution will be affected by the re-injection of cold water. The vertical distribution of temperature in the cap rock shows a constant positive gradient over depth. The heat flux at different locations has been calculated respectively. It is found to decline from southwest to northeast, with the highest value of 113.9 mW/m2 to the lowest of 80.6 mW/m2. This pattern can be well explained by the tectonic features. More interestingly, two inflection points appear on the temperature profile of the Karst layer, revealing strong influence from the cold re-injection water. Also, a 3℃ temperature difference was observed in the June and October measurement, which is related to the reservoir recovery. Currently, a 3D numerical model is being constructed, using the open-source software OpenGeoSys. Heat transport process is coupled with density dependent flow in a monolithic approach, to simulate both heat conduction and groundwater convection. This model will help to quantify the feedback from heat
The effects of self-controlled video feedback on the learning of the basketball set shot
Christopher Adam Aiken
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Allowing learners to control some aspect of instructional support (e.g., augmented feedback appears to facilitate motor skill acquisition. No studies, however, have examined self-controlled (SC video feedback without the provision of additional attentional cueing. The purpose of this study was to extend previous SC research using video feedback about movement form for the basketball set shot without explicitly directing attention to specific aspects of the movement. The SC group requested video feedback of their performance following any trial during the acquisition phase. The yoked (YK group received feedback according to a schedule created by a SC counterpart. During acquisition participants were also allowed to view written instructional cues at any time. Results revealed that the SC group had significantly higher form scores during the transfer phase and utilized the instructional cues more frequently during acquisition. Post-training questionnaire responses indicated no preference for requesting or receiving feedback following good trials as reported by Chiviacowsky and Wulf (2002, 2005. The nature of the task was such that participants could have assigned both positive and negative evaluations to different aspects of the movement during the same trial. Thus, the lack of preferences along with the similarity in scores for feedback and no-feedback trials may simply have reflected this complexity. Importantly, however, the results indicated that SC video feedback conferred a learning benefit without the provision of explicit additional attentional cueing.
Feedback Control of a Solid-State Qubit Using High-Fidelity Projective Measurement
Riste, D.; Bultink, C.C.; Lehnert, K.W.; DiCarlo, L.
2012-01-01
We demonstrate feedback control of a superconducting transmon qubit using discrete, projective measurement and conditional coherent driving. Feedback realizes a fast and deterministic qubit reset to a target state with 2.4% error averaged over input superposition states, and allows concatenating
Nonlinear H-infinity State Feedback Controllers: Computation of Valid Region
Pedersen, Michael; Møller-Pedersen, J.; Pagh Petersen, M.
1996-01-01
"From a general point of view the state feedback QTR H-infinitysuboptimal control probelm is reasonable well-understood. Inportantproblems remain with regard to a priori information of the size of theneighbourhood where the local state feedback QTR H-infinityproblem is solvable, and with regard t...
Mokhtar, N. F. M.; Khalid, I. K.; Siri, Z.; Ibrahim, Z. B.; Gani, S. S. A.
2017-10-01
The influences of feedback control and internal heat source on the onset of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a horizontal nanofluid layer is studied analytically due to Soret and Dufour parameters. The confining boundaries of the nanofluid layer (bottom boundary-top boundary) are assumed to be free-free, rigid-free, and rigid-rigid, with a source of heat from below. Linear stability theory is applied, and the eigenvalue solution is obtained numerically using the Galerkin technique. Focusing on the stationary convection, it is shown that there is a positive thermal resistance in the presence of feedback control on the onset of double-diffusive convection, while there is a positive thermal efficiency in the existence of internal heat generation. The possibilities of suppress or augment of the Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a nanofluid layer are also discussed in detail.
Feedback control of the lower hybrid power deposition profile on Tore Supra
Barana, O; Mazon, D; Laborde, L; Turco, F
2007-01-01
The Tore Supra facility is well suited to study ITER relevant topics such as the real-time control of plasma current and the sustaining of steady-state discharges. This work describes a tool that was recently developed and implemented on Tore Supra to control in real time, by means of the direct knowledge of the suprathermal electron local emission profile, the width of the lower hybrid power deposition profile. This quantity can be considered to some extent equivalent to the width of the plasma current density profile in case of fully non-inductive discharges. This system takes advantage of an accurate hard x-ray diagnostics, of an efficient lower hybrid additional heating and of a reliable real-time communication network. The successful experiments carried out to test the system employed, as actuators, the parallel refractive index n // and the total power P LH . The control of the suprathermal electron local emission profile through n // was also integrated with the feedback control of the total plasma current I P with P LH and of the loop voltage V loop with the central solenoid flux. These results demonstrate that the system is robust, reliable and able to counterbalance destabilizing events. This tool can be effectively used in the future in fully non-inductive discharges to improve the MHD stability and to maintain internal transport barriers or lower hybrid enhanced performance modes. The real-time control of the lower hybrid power deposition profile could also be used in conjunction with the electron-cyclotron radiofrequency heating for synergy studies
The Roles of Feedback and Feedforward as Humans Learn to Control Unknown Dynamic Systems.
Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Shaoqian; Hoagg, Jesse B; Seigler, T Michael
2018-02-01
We present results from an experiment in which human subjects interact with an unknown dynamic system 40 times during a two-week period. During each interaction, subjects are asked to perform a command-following (i.e., pursuit tracking) task. Each subject's performance at that task improves from the first trial to the last trial. For each trial, we use subsystem identification to estimate each subject's feedforward (or anticipatory) control, feedback (or reactive) control, and feedback time delay. Over the 40 trials, the magnitudes of the identified feedback controllers and the identified feedback time delays do not change significantly. In contrast, the identified feedforward controllers do change significantly. By the last trial, the average identified feedforward controller approximates the inverse of the dynamic system. This observation provides evidence that a fundamental component of human learning is updating the anticipatory control until it models the inverse dynamics.
Heating systems with PLC and frequency control
Abdallah, Salah; Abu-Mallouh, Riyad
2008-01-01
In this work, medium capacity controlled heating system is designed and constructed. The programming method of control of heating process is achieved by means of integrated programmable logic controller (PLC) and frequency inverter (FI). The PLC main function is to determine the required temperatures levels and the related time intervals of the heating hold time in the furnace. FI is used to control the dynamic change of temperature between various operating points. The designed system shows the capability for full control of temperature from zero to maximum for any required range of time in case of increasing or decreasing the temperature. All variables of the system will be changed gradually until reaching their needed working points. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of tempering temperature and tempering time on hardness and fatigue resistance of 0.4% carbon steel. It was found that increasing tempering temperature above 550 deg. C or tempering time decreases the hardness of the material. It was also found that there is a maximum number of cycles to which the specimen can survive what ever the applied load was
Stretchable Tattoo-Like Heater with On-Site Temperature Feedback Control
Andrew Stier
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Wearable tissue heaters can play many important roles in the medical field. They may be used for heat therapy, perioperative warming and controlled transdermal drug delivery, among other applications. State-of-the-art heaters are too bulky, rigid, or difficult to control to be able to maintain long-term wearability and safety. Recently, there has been progress in the development of stretchable heaters that may be attached directly to the skin surface, but they often use expensive materials or processes and take significant time to fabricate. Moreover, they lack continuously active, on-site, unobstructive temperature feedback control, which is critical for accommodating the dynamic temperatures required for most medical applications. We have developed, fabricated and tested a cost-effective, large area, ultra-thin and ultra-soft tattoo-like heater that has autonomous proportional-integral-derivative (PID temperature control. The device comprises a stretchable aluminum heater and a stretchable gold resistance temperature detector (RTD on a soft medical tape as fabricated using the cost and time effective “cut-and-paste” method. It can be noninvasively laminated onto human skin and can follow skin deformation during flexure without imposing any constraint. We demonstrate the device’s ability to maintain a target temperature typical of medical uses over extended durations of time and to accurately adjust to a new set point in process. The cost of the device is low enough to justify disposable use.
Wen Guilin; Wang Qingguo; Lin Chong; Han Xu; Li Guangyao
2006-01-01
Synchronization under output feedback control with multiple random time delays is studied, using the paradigm in nonlinear physics-Chua's circuit. Compared with other synchronization control methods, output feedback control with multiple random delay is superior for a realistic synchronization application to secure communications. Sufficient condition for global stability of delay-dependent synchronization is established based on the LMI technique. Numerical simulations fully support the analytical approach, in spite of the random delays
Controlled Microwave Heating Accelerates Rolling Circle Amplification.
Takeo Yoshimura
Full Text Available Rolling circle amplification (RCA generates single-stranded DNAs or RNA, and the diverse applications of this isothermal technique range from the sensitive detection of nucleic acids to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Microwave chemistry is widely applied to increase reaction rate as well as product yield and purity. The objectives of the present research were to apply microwave heating to RCA and indicate factors that contribute to the microwave selective heating effect. The microwave reaction temperature was strictly controlled using a microwave applicator optimized for enzymatic-scale reactions. Here, we showed that microwave-assisted RCA reactions catalyzed by either of the four thermostable DNA polymerases were accelerated over 4-folds compared with conventional RCA. Furthermore, the temperatures of the individual buffer components were specifically influenced by microwave heating. We concluded that microwave heating accelerated isothermal RCA of DNA because of the differential heating mechanisms of microwaves on the temperatures of reaction components, although the overall reaction temperatures were the same.
Barbara eDrueke
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Executive control describes a wide range of cognitive processes which are critical for the goal-directed regulation of stimulus processing and action regulation. Previous studies have shown that executive control performance declines with age but yet, it is still not clear whether different internal and external factors - as performance feedback and age - influence these cognitive processes and how they might interact with each other. Therefore, we investigated feedback effects in the flanker task in young as well as in older adults in two experiments. Performance feedback significantly improved executive performance in younger adults at the expense of errors. In older adults, feedback also led to higher error rates, but had no significant effect on executive performance which might be due to stronger interference. Results indicate that executive functions can be positively influenced by performance feedback in younger adults, but not necessarily in older adults.
Yang, Li-Farn; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Park, K. C.; Su, Renjeng
1993-01-01
This paper presents a moment-gyro control approach to the maneuver and vibration suppression of a flexible truss arm undergoing a constant slewing motion. The overall slewing motion is triggered by a feedforward input, and a companion feedback controller is employed to augment the feedforward input and subsequently to control vibrations. The feedforward input for the given motion requirement is determined from the combined CMG (Control Momentum Gyro) devices and the desired rigid-body motion. The rigid-body dynamic model has enabled us to identify the attendant CMG momentum saturation constraints. The task for vibration control is carried out in two stages; first in the search of a suitable CMG placement along the beam span for various slewing maneuvers, and subsequently in the development of Liapunov-based control algorithms for CMG spin-stabilization. Both analytical and numerical results are presented to show the effectiveness of the present approach.
Feedforward-feedback control of dissolved oxygen concentration in a predenitrification system.
Yong, Ma; Yongzhen, Peng; Shuying, Wang
2005-07-01
As the largest single energy-consuming component in most biological wastewater treatment systems, aeration control is of great interest from the point of view of saving energy and improving wastewater treatment plant efficiency. In this paper, three different strategies, including conventional constant dissolved oxygen (DO) set-point control, cascade DO set-point control, and feedforward-feedback DO set-point control were evaluated using the denitrification layout of the IWA simulation benchmark. Simulation studies showed that the feedforward-feedback DO set-point control strategy was better than the other control strategies at meeting the effluent standards and reducing operational costs. The control strategy works primarily by feedforward control based on an ammonium sensor located at the head of the aerobic process. It has an important advantage over effluent measurements in that there is no (or only a very short) time delay for information; feedforward control was combined with slow feedback control to compensate for model approximations. The feedforward-feedback DO control was implemented in a lab-scale wastewater treatment plant for a period of 60 days. Compared to operation with constant DO concentration, the required airflow could be reduced by up to 8-15% by employing the feedforward-feedback DO-control strategy, and the effluent ammonia concentration could be reduced by up to 15-25%. This control strategy can be expected to be accepted by the operating personnel in wastewater treatment plants.
Experience feedback from high heat flux component manufacturing for Tore Supra
Schlosser, J.; Durocher, A.; Huber, T.; Garin, P.; Schedler, B.; Agarici, G.
2001-01-01
Tore Supra is involved in flat tile carbon armoured plasma facing components (PFCs) since 1985. In 1997, a third generation of components, based on the original concept developed with Plansee Company, called active metal casting (AMC[reg]), has been launched. Since 1998, 660 elementary components for the toroidal pump limiter (TPL) are in production. The route of the manufacture is rather complex and many controls were requested all along the fabrication to insure a high reliability of the elements. One of the main controls is the final infrared (IR) test allowing to determine the quality of the bonding between the carbon fibre composite (CFC) tiles and the heat sink made of copper-chromium-zirconium alloy (CuCrZr). Although results for the first batch of elements were as expected (less than 5% rejected at the final test), unexpected defects appeared with the followings batches. Investigations on the fabrication processes underlined the importance of having a better heat treatment of the pieces in copper alloy (CuCrZr), however this was not sufficient to completely explain the observed defects
Tsuzuki, T.; Toi, K.; Matsuura, K.
1991-04-01
A feedback control system aided by a personal computer is developed to maintain plasma position on the required position in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. The personal computer enables to adjust various control parameters easily. In this control system, a control demand for driving the power supply of feedback controlled vertical field coils is composed to be proportional to a total plasma current. This system has been successfully employed throughout the discharge where the plasma current substantially changes from zero to hundreds of kiloamperes, because the feedback control can be done, being independent of the plasma current. The analysis of this feedback control system taken into account of digital sampling agrees well with the experimental results. (author)
Zou, An-Min; Dev Kumar, Krishna; Hou, Zeng-Guang
2010-09-01
This paper investigates the problem of output feedback attitude control of an uncertain spacecraft. Two robust adaptive output feedback controllers based on Chebyshev neural networks (CNN) termed adaptive neural networks (NN) controller-I and adaptive NN controller-II are proposed for the attitude tracking control of spacecraft. The four-parameter representations (quaternion) are employed to describe the spacecraft attitude for global representation without singularities. The nonlinear reduced-order observer is used to estimate the derivative of the spacecraft output, and the CNN is introduced to further improve the control performance through approximating the spacecraft attitude motion. The implementation of the basis functions of the CNN used in the proposed controllers depends only on the desired signals, and the smooth robust compensator using the hyperbolic tangent function is employed to counteract the CNN approximation errors and external disturbances. The adaptive NN controller-II can efficiently avoid the over-estimation problem (i.e., the bound of the CNNs output is much larger than that of the approximated unknown function, and hence, the control input may be very large) existing in the adaptive NN controller-I. Both adaptive output feedback controllers using CNN can guarantee that all signals in the resulting closed-loop system are uniformly ultimately bounded. For performance comparisons, the standard adaptive controller using the linear parameterization of spacecraft attitude motion is also developed. Simulation studies are presented to show the advantages of the proposed CNN-based output feedback approach over the standard adaptive output feedback approach.
Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L; Kirsch, Robert F; Triolo, Ronald J
2010-12-01
Previous investigations of feedback control of standing after spinal cord injury (SCI) using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have primarily targeted individual joints. This study assesses the potential efficacy of comprehensive (trunk, hips, knees, and ankles) joint feedback control against postural disturbances using a bipedal, 3-D computer model of SCI stance. Proportional-derivative feedback drove an artificial neural network trained to produce muscle excitation patterns consistent with maximal joint stiffness values achievable about neutral stance given typical SCI muscle properties. Feedback gains were optimized to minimize upper extremity (UE) loading required to stabilize against disturbances. Compared to the baseline case of maximum constant muscle excitations used clinically, the controller reduced UE loading by 55% in resisting external force perturbations and by 84% during simulated one-arm functional tasks. Performance was most sensitive to inaccurate measurements of ankle plantar/dorsiflexion position and hip ab/adduction velocity feedback. In conclusion, comprehensive joint feedback demonstrates potential to markedly improve FNS standing function. However, alternative control structures capable of effective performance with fewer sensor-based feedback parameters may better facilitate clinical usage.
Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Triolo, Ronald J.
2013-01-01
Previous investigations of feedback control of standing after spinal cord injury (SCI) using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have primarily targeted individual joints. This study assesses the potential efficacy of comprehensive (trunk, hips, knees, and ankles) joint-feedback control against postural disturbances using a bipedal, three-dimensional computer model of SCI stance. Proportional-derivative feedback drove an artificial neural network trained to produce muscle excitation patterns consistent with maximal joint stiffness values achievable about neutral stance given typical SCI muscle properties. Feedback gains were optimized to minimize upper extremity (UE) loading required to stabilize against disturbances. Compared to the baseline case of maximum constant muscle excitations used clinically, the controller reduced UE loading by 55% in resisting external force perturbations and by 84% during simulated one-arm functional tasks. Performance was most sensitive to inaccurate measurements of ankle plantar/dorsiflexion position and hip ab/adduction velocity feedback. In conclusion, comprehensive joint-feedback demonstrates potential to markedly improve FNS standing function. However, alternative control structures capable of effective performance with fewer sensor-based feedback parameters may better facilitate clinical usage. PMID:20923741
Feedback Linearization Based Arc Length Control for Gas Metal Arc Welding
Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg
2005-01-01
a linear system to be controlled by linear state feedback control. The advantage of using a nonlinear approach as feedback linearization is the ability of this method to cope with nonlinearities and different operating points. However, the model describing the GMAW process is not exact, and therefore......In this paper a feedback linearization based arc length controller for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is described. A nonlinear model describing the dynamic arc length is transformed into a system where nonlinearities can be cancelled by a nonlinear state feedback control part, and thus, leaving only......, the cancellation of nonlinear terms might give rise to problems with respect to robustness. Robustness of the closed loop system is therefore nvestigated by simulation....
Verifying detailed fluctuation relations for discrete feedback-controlled quantum dynamics
Camati, Patrice A.; Serra, Roberto M.
2018-04-01
Discrete quantum feedback control consists of a managed dynamics according to the information acquired by a previous measurement. Energy fluctuations along such dynamics satisfy generalized fluctuation relations, which are useful tools to study the thermodynamics of systems far away from equilibrium. Due to the practical challenge to assess energy fluctuations in the quantum scenario, the experimental verification of detailed fluctuation relations in the presence of feedback control remains elusive. We present a feasible method to experimentally verify detailed fluctuation relations for discrete feedback control quantum dynamics. Two detailed fluctuation relations are developed and employed. The method is based on a quantum interferometric strategy that allows the verification of fluctuation relations in the presence of feedback control. An analytical example to illustrate the applicability of the method is discussed. The comprehensive technique introduced here can be experimentally implemented at a microscale with the current technology in a variety of experimental platforms.
A dynamic feedback-control toll pricing methodology : a case study on Interstate 95 managed lanes.
2013-06-01
Recently, congestion pricing emerged as a cost-effective and efficient strategy to mitigate the congestion problem on freeways. This study develops a feedback-control based dynamic toll approach to formulate and solve for optimal tolls. The study com...
Phase and amplitude feedback control system for the Los Alamos free-electron laser
Lynch, M.T.; Tallerico, P.J.; Higgins, E.F.
1985-01-01
Phase and amplitude feedback control systems for the Los Alamos free-electron laser (FEL) are described. Beam-driven voltages are very high in the buncher cavity because the electron gun is pulsed at the fifth subharmonic of the buncher resonant frequency. The high beam loading necessitated a novel feedback and drive configuration for the buncher. A compensation cirucit has been added to the gun/driver system to reduce observed drift. Extremely small variations in the accelerator gradients had dramatic effects on the laser output power. These problems and how they were solved are described and plans for improvements in the feedback control system are discussed. 5 refs., 7 figs
The phase detection and calculation for low hybrid wave phase-feedback control system
Liu Qiang; Liang Hao; Zhou Yongzhao; Shan Jiafang
2008-01-01
A method of phase detection and calculation for low hybrid wave phase-feedback control system and the implementing the algorithms on DSP cores embedded in FPGA is introduced. By taking the advantages of matlab-aided design and algorithms optimization to carry out parallel processing of multi-channel phase calculation in FPGA with rich resources, the purposed of fast phase-feedback control is achieved under the need of complicated mathematical operations. (authors)
Feedback controlled dephasing and population relaxation in a two-level system
Wang Jin
2009-01-01
This Letter presents the maximum achievable stability and purity that can be obtained in a two-level system with both dephasing and population relaxation processes by using homodyne-mediated feedback control. An analytic formula giving the optimal amplitudes of the driving and feedback for the steady-state is also presented. Experimental examples are used to show the importance of controlling the dephasing process.
Synchronization of cellular neural networks of neutral type via dynamic feedback controller
Park, Ju H.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we aim to study global synchronization for neural networks with neutral delay. A dynamic feedback control scheme is proposed to achieve the synchronization between drive network and response network. By utilizing the Lyapunov function and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), we derive simple and efficient criterion in terms of LMIs for synchronization. The feedback controllers can be easily obtained by solving the derived LMIs.
Feedback and feedforward control of frequency tuning to naturalistic stimuli.
Chacron, Maurice J; Maler, Leonard; Bastian, Joseph
2005-06-08
Sensory neurons must respond to a wide variety of natural stimuli that can have very different spatiotemporal characteristics. Optimal responsiveness to subsets of these stimuli can be achieved by devoting specialized neural circuitry to different stimulus categories, or, alternatively, this circuitry can be modulated or tuned to optimize responsiveness to current stimulus conditions. This study explores the mechanisms that enable neurons within the initial processing station of the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish to shift their tuning properties based on the spatial extent of the stimulus. These neurons are tuned to low frequencies when the stimulus is restricted to a small region within the receptive field center but are tuned to higher frequencies when the stimulus impinges on large regions of the sensory epithelium. Through a combination of modeling and in vivo electrophysiology, we reveal the respective contributions of the filtering characteristics of extended dendritic structures and feedback circuitry to this shift in tuning. Our results show that low-frequency tuning can result from the cable properties of an extended dendrite that conveys receptor-afferent information to the cell body. The shift from low- to high-frequency tuning, seen in response to spatially extensive stimuli, results from increased wide-band input attributable to activation of larger populations of receptor afferents, as well as the activation of parallel fiber feedback from the cerebellum. This feedback provides a cancellation signal with low-pass characteristics that selectively attenuates low-frequency responsiveness. Thus, with spatially extensive stimuli, these cells preferentially respond to the higher-frequency components of the receptor-afferent input.
Application of Predictive Control in District Heating Systems
Palsson, Olafur Petur; Madsen, Henrik; Søgaard, Henning Tangen
1993-01-01
In district heating systems, and in particular if the heat production cakes place at a combined heat and power (CHP) plant, a reasonable control strategy is to keep the supply temperature from the district heating plant as low as possible. However, the control is subject to some restrictions, for...
Nonclassical state generation for linear quantum systems via nonlinear feedback control
Ohki, Kentaro; Tsumura, Koji; Takeuchi, Reiji
2017-01-01
In this paper, we propose a measurement nonlinear feedback control scheme to generate Wigner-function negativity in an optical cavity having dynamics described as a linear quantum system. In general, linear optical quantum systems can be easily constructed with reliable devices; therefore, the idea of constructing the entire system with such an optical system and nonlinear feedback is reasonable for generating Wigner-function negativity. However, existing studies have insufficiently examined the realizability or actual implementation of feedback control, which essentially requires fast responses from the sensors and actuators. In order to solve this problem, we consider the realizable feedback control of the optical phase of a pumping beam supplied to a cavity by using electro-optical modulation, which can be utilized as a fast control actuator. Then, we introduce mathematical models of the feedback-controlled system and evaluate its effect on the generation of the Wigner-function negativity by using numerical simulation. Through various numerical simulations, we show that the proposed feedback control can effectively generate the negativity of the Wigner function. (paper)
A novel controller for bipedal locomotion integrating feed-forward and feedback mechanisms
Xiong, Xiaofeng; Sartori, Massimo; Dosen, Strahinja; González-Vargas, José; Wörgötter, Florentin; Farina, Dario; Ibanez, J.; González-Vargas, J.; Azorin, J.M.; Akay, M.; Pons, J.L.
2017-01-01
It has been recognized that bipedal locomotion is controlled using feed-forward (e.g., patterned) and feedback (e.g., reflex) control schemes. However, most current controllers fail to integrate the two schemes to simplify speed control of bipedal locomotion. To solve this problem, we here propose a
Advanced feedback control methods in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch
Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Paccagnella, R.
2006-07-01
Previous experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch device have shown the possibility of suppression of multiple resistive wall modes (RWM). A feedback system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R having 100% coverage of the toroidal surface by the active coil array. Predictions based on theory and the previous experimental results show that the number of active coils should be sufficient for independent stabilization of all unstable RWMs in the EXTRAP T2R. Experiments using different feedback schemes are performed, comparing the intelligent shell, the fake rotating shell, and the mode control with complex feedback gains. Stabilization of all unstable RWMs throughout the discharge duration of td≈10τw is seen using the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Mode rotation and the control of selected Fourier harmonics is obtained simultaneously using the mode control scheme with complex gains. Different sensor signals are studied. A feedback system with toroidal magnetic field sensors could have an advantage of lower feedback gain needed for the RWM suppression compared to the system with radial magnetic field sensors. In this study, RWM suppression is demonstrated, using also the toroidal field component as a sensor signal in the feedback system.
Advanced feedback control methods in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch
Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Paccagnella, R.
2006-01-01
Previous experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch device have shown the possibility of suppression of multiple resistive wall modes (RWM). A feedback system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R having 100% coverage of the toroidal surface by the active coil array. Predictions based on theory and the previous experimental results show that the number of active coils should be sufficient for independent stabilization of all unstable RWMs in the EXTRAP T2R. Experiments using different feedback schemes are performed, comparing the intelligent shell, the fake rotating shell, and the mode control with complex feedback gains. Stabilization of all unstable RWMs throughout the discharge duration of t d ≅10τ w is seen using the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Mode rotation and the control of selected Fourier harmonics is obtained simultaneously using the mode control scheme with complex gains. Different sensor signals are studied. A feedback system with toroidal magnetic field sensors could have an advantage of lower feedback gain needed for the RWM suppression compared to the system with radial magnetic field sensors. In this study, RWM suppression is demonstrated, using also the toroidal field component as a sensor signal in the feedback system
Winkens, R A; Pop, P; Bugter-Maessen, A M; Grol, R P; Kester, A D; Beusmans, G H; Knottnerus, J A
1995-02-25
Feedback can be described as a way to provide information on doctors' performance to enable changes in future behaviour. Feedback is used with the aim of changing test-ordering behaviour. It can lead to reductions in test usage and cost savings. It is not sufficiently clear, however, whether feedback leads to more appropriate test use. Since 1985, the Diagnostic Coordinating Center Maastricht has been giving feedback on diagnostic tests as a routine health care activity to all family doctors in its region. Both quantity and quality of requests are discussed. In a randomised, controlled trial over 2.5 years, discussion of tests not included previously was added to the existing routine feedback. One group of family doctors (n = 39) received feedback on test-group A (electrocardiography, endoscopy, cervical smears, and allergy tests), the other (n = 40) on test-group B (radiographic and ultrasonographic tests). Thus, each group of doctors acted as a control group for the other. Changes in volume and rationality of requests were analysed. The number of requests decreased during the trial (p = 0.036). Request numbers decreased particularly for test-group A (p = 0.04). The proportion of requests that were non-rational decreased more in the intervention than in the control groups (p = 0.009). Rationality improved predominantly for test-group B (p = 0.043). Thus, routine feedback can change the quantity and quality of requests.
Bifurcation Regulations Governed by Delay Self-Control Feedback in a Stochastic Birhythmic System
Ma, Zhidan; Ning, Lijuan
2017-12-01
We aim to investigate bifurcation behaviors in a stochastic birhythmic van der Pol (BVDP) system subjected to delay self-control feedback. First, the harmonic approximation is adopted to drive the delay self-control feedback to state variables without delay. Then, Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation and stationary probability density function (SPDF) for amplitude are obtained by applying stochastic averaging method. Finally, dynamical scenarios of the change of delay self-control feedback as well as noise that markedly influence bifurcation performance are observed. It is found that: the big feedback strength and delay will suppress the large amplitude limit cycle (LC) while the relatively big noise strength facilitates the large amplitude LC, which imply the proposed regulation strategies are feasible. Interestingly enough, the inner LC is never destroyed due to noise. Furthermore, the validity of analytical results was verified by Monte Carlo simulation of the dynamics.
Santoso, Fendy
2003-01-01
In industrial process, there are many variables that must be controlled. Control Action can be done manually by operator, but because in industrial process contains hundred of variables that must be controlled, so the consequence is hundred of operators are needed. Therefore the best way is applied automatic s control in industrial process. Process heat is used for many various applications. Temperatures depend on industry type, such as high heat up to 1500 oC. Chemical industry is an exa...
Fendy Santoso
2003-01-01
In industrial process, there are many variables that must be controlled. Control Action can be done manually by operator, but because in industrial process contains hundred of variables that must be controlled, so the consequence is hundred of operators are needed. Therefore the best way is applied automatic s control in industrial process. Process heat is used for many various applications. Temperatures depend on industry type, such as high heat up to 1500 oC. Chemical industry is an example...
Output Feedback Control of Electro-Hydraulic Cylinder Drives using the Twisting Algorithm
Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.
2014-01-01
contributions in literature. This paper considers the twisting algorithm when applied directly for output feedback control, and with the design based on a reduced order model representation of an arbitrary valve driven hydraulic cylinder drive. The consequence of implementing such a controller with the well......This paper discusses the utilization of the so-called twisting algorithm when applied in output feedback position control schemes for electro-hydraulic cylinder drives. The twisting controller was the first second order sliding controller ever introduced, and can structure-wise be considered...... feedback controller may be successfully applied to hydraulic valve driven cylinder drives, with performance being on the level with a conventional surface based first order sliding mode controller....
Combined feedforward and feedback control of a redundant, nonlinear, dynamic musculoskeletal system.
Blana, Dimitra; Kirsch, Robert F; Chadwick, Edward K
2009-05-01
A functional electrical stimulation controller is presented that uses a combination of feedforward and feedback for arm control in high-level injury. The feedforward controller generates the muscle activations nominally required for desired movements, and the feedback controller corrects for errors caused by muscle fatigue and external disturbances. The feedforward controller is an artificial neural network (ANN) which approximates the inverse dynamics of the arm. The feedback loop includes a PID controller in series with a second ANN representing the nonlinear properties and biomechanical interactions of muscles and joints. The controller was designed and tested using a two-joint musculoskeletal model of the arm that includes four mono-articular and two bi-articular muscles. Its performance during goal-oriented movements of varying amplitudes and durations showed a tracking error of less than 4 degrees in ideal conditions, and less than 10 degrees even in the case of considerable fatigue and external disturbances.
Maruthai Suresh
2010-10-01
Full Text Available A nonlinear process, the heat exchanger whose parameters vary with respect to the process variable, is considered. The time constant and gain of the chosen process vary as a function of temperature. The limitations of the conventional feedback controller tuned using Ziegler-Nichols settings for the chosen process are brought out. The servo and regulatory responses through simulation and experimentation for various magnitudes of set-point changes and load changes at various operating points with the controller tuned only at a chosen nominal operating point are obtained and analyzed. Regulatory responses for output load changes are studied. The efficiency of feedforward controller and the effects of modeling error have been brought out. An IMC based system is presented to understand clearly how variations of system parameters affect the performance of the controller. The present work illustrates the effectiveness of Feedforward and IMC controller.
Microbial fouling control in heat exchangers
McCoy, W.F.
1991-01-01
Biofilm formation in turbulent flow has been studied a great deal during the last 15 years. Such studies have provided the basis for further experiments designed to test the efficacy of industrial antimicrobials against biofilms in laboratory models and in actual real-world industrial water-treatment programs. Biofilm microbiology is relevant from the industrial perspective because adherent populations of microorganisms often cause an economic impact on industrial processes. For example, it is the adherent population of microorganisms in cooling-water systems that can eventually contribute to significant heat transfer and fluid frictional resistances. The microbiology of biofilms in heat exchangers can be related to the performance of industrial antimicrobials. The development of fouling biofilms and methods to quantitatively observe the effect of biofouling control agents are discussed in this paper
Halyo, Nesim
1987-01-01
A combined stochastic feedforward and feedback control design methodology was developed. The objective of the feedforward control law is to track the commanded trajectory, whereas the feedback control law tries to maintain the plant state near the desired trajectory in the presence of disturbances and uncertainties about the plant. The feedforward control law design is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem and is embedded into the stochastic output feedback problem where the plant contains unstable and uncontrollable modes. An algorithm to compute the optimal feedforward is developed. In this approach, the use of error integral feedback, dynamic compensation, control rate command structures are an integral part of the methodology. An incremental implementation is recommended. Results on the eigenvalues of the implemented versus designed control laws are presented. The stochastic feedforward/feedback control methodology is used to design a digital automatic landing system for the ATOPS Research Vehicle, a Boeing 737-100 aircraft. The system control modes include localizer and glideslope capture and track, and flare to touchdown. Results of a detailed nonlinear simulation of the digital control laws, actuator systems, and aircraft aerodynamics are presented.
Research of a New 6-Dof Force Feedback Hand Controller System
Xin Gao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The field of teleoperation with force telepresence has expanded its scope to include manipulation at different scales and in virtual worlds, and the key component of which is force feedback hand controller. This paper presents a novel force feedback hand controller system, including a 3-dof translational and 3-dof rotational hand controllers, respectively, to implement position and posture teleoperation of the robot end effector. The 3-dof translational hand controller adopts innovative three-axes decoupling structure based on the linear motor; the 3-dof rotational hand controller adopts serial mechanism based on three-axes intersecting at one point, improving its overall stiffness. Based on the kinematics, statics, and dynamics analyses for two platforms separately, the system applies big closed-loop force control method based on the zero force/torque, improving the feedback force/torque accuracy effectively. Experimental results show that self-developed 6-dof force feedback hand controller has good mechanical properties. The translational hand controller has the following advantages: simple kinematics solver, fast dynamic response, and better than 0.05 mm accuracy of three-axis end positioning, while the advantages of the rotational hand controller are wide turning space, larger than 1 Nm feedback, greater than 180 degrees of operating space of three axes, respectively, and high operation precision.
Chaotification of vibration isolation floating raft system via nonlinear time-delay feedback control
Zhang Jing; Xu Daolin; Zhou Jiaxi; Li Yingli
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A chaotification method based on nonlinear time-delay feedback control is present. ► An analytical function of nonlinear time-delay feedback control is derived. ► A large range of parametric domain for chaotification is obtained. ► The approach allows using small control gain. ► Design of chaotification becomes a standard process without uncertainty. - Abstract: This paper presents a chaotification method based on nonlinear time-delay feedback control for a two-dimensional vibration isolation floating raft system (VIFRS). An analytical function of nonlinear time-delay feedback control is derived. This approach can theoretically provide a systematic design of chaotification for nonlinear VIFRS and completely avoid blind and inefficient numerical search on the basis of trials and errors. Numerical simulations show that with a proper setting of control parameters the method holds the favorable aspects including the capability of chaotifying across a large range of parametric domain, the advantage of using small control and the flexibility of designing control feedback forms. The effects on chaotification performance are discussed in association with the configuration of the control parameters.
Humans can integrate feedback of discrete events in their sensorimotor control of a robotic hand.
Cipriani, Christian; Segil, Jacob L; Clemente, Francesco; ff Weir, Richard F; Edin, Benoni
2014-11-01
Providing functionally effective sensory feedback to users of prosthetics is a largely unsolved challenge. Traditional solutions require high band-widths for providing feedback for the control of manipulation and yet have been largely unsuccessful. In this study, we have explored a strategy that relies on temporally discrete sensory feedback that is technically simple to provide. According to the Discrete Event-driven Sensory feedback Control (DESC) policy, motor tasks in humans are organized in phases delimited by means of sensory encoded discrete mechanical events. To explore the applicability of DESC for control, we designed a paradigm in which healthy humans operated an artificial robot hand to lift and replace an instrumented object, a task that can readily be learned and mastered under visual control. Assuming that the central nervous system of humans naturally organizes motor tasks based on a strategy akin to DESC, we delivered short-lasting vibrotactile feedback related to events that are known to forcefully affect progression of the grasp-lift-and-hold task. After training, we determined whether the artificial feedback had been integrated with the sensorimotor control by introducing short delays and we indeed observed that the participants significantly delayed subsequent phases of the task. This study thus gives support to the DESC policy hypothesis. Moreover, it demonstrates that humans can integrate temporally discrete sensory feedback while controlling an artificial hand and invites further studies in which inexpensive, noninvasive technology could be used in clever ways to provide physiologically appropriate sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics with much lower band-width requirements than with traditional solutions.
Self-controlled feedback facilitates motor learning in both high and low activity individuals.
Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Laughlin, David D; Nguyen, Timothy V
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA) and low activity (LA) participants were assigned to self-control (SC) and yoked (YK) feedback conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control-High Activity; Self-Control-Low Activity; Yoked-High Activity; and Yoked-Low Activity. SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be "good" trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after "good" trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity.
Self-controlled feedback facilitates motor learning in both high and low activity individuals
Jeffrey T. Fairbrother
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA and low activity (LA participants were assigned to self-control (SC and yoked (YK feedback conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control High Activity (SC-HA; Self-Control Low Activity (SC-LA; Yoked High Activity (YK-HA; and Yoked Low Activity (YK-LA. SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be good trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after good trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity.
Exponential synchronization of the Genesio-Tesi chaotic system via a novel feedback control
Park, Ju H
2007-01-01
A novel feedback control scheme is proposed for exponential synchronization of the Genesio-Tesi chaotic system. The feedback controller consists of two parts: a linear dynamic control law and a nonlinear control one. For exponential synchronization between the drive and response Genesio-Tesi systems, the Lyapunov stability analysis is used. Then an existence criterion for the stabilizing controller is presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The LMIs can be solved easily by various convex optimization algorithms. Finally, a numerical simulation is illustrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed chaos synchronization scheme
Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control
Marriott, Craig D
2013-06-04
A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.
Neutron behavior, reactor control, and reactor heat transfer. Volume four
Anon.
1986-01-01
Volume four covers neutron behavior (neutron absorption, how big are nuclei, neutron slowing down, neutron losses, the self-sustaining reactor), reactor control (what is controlled in a reactor, controlling neutron population, is it easy to control a reactor, range of reactor control, what happens when the fuel burns up, controlling a PWR, controlling a BWR, inherent safety of reactors), and reactor heat transfer (heat generation in a nuclear reactor, how is heat removed from a reactor core, heat transfer rate, heat transfer properties of the reactor coolant)
Robust wide-range control of nuclear reactors by using the feedforward-feedback concept
Weng, C.K.; Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.
1994-01-01
A robust feedforward-feedback controller is proposed for wide-range operations of nuclear reactors. This control structure provides (a) optimized performance over a wide operating range resulting form the feedforward element and (b) guaranteed robust stability and performance resulting from the feedback element. The feedforward control law is synthesized via nonlinear programming, which generates an optimal control sequence over a finite-time horizon under specified constraints. The feedback control is synthesized via the structured singular value μ approach to guarantee robustness in the presence of disturbances and modeling uncertainties. The results of simulation experiments are presented to demonstrate efficacy of the proposed control structure for a large rapid power reduction to avoid unnecessary plant trips
Jiang, Jian-ping; Li, Dong-xu
2010-01-01
This paper is devoted to the study of the decentralized guaranteed cost static output feedback vibration control for piezoelectric smart structures. A smart panel with collocated piezoelectric actuators and velocity sensors is modeled using a finite element method, and then the size of the model is reduced in the state space using the modal Hankel singular value. The necessary and sufficient conditions of decentralized guaranteed cost static output feedback control for the reduced system have been presented. The decentralized and centralized static output feedback matrices can be obtained from solving two linear matrix inequalities. A comparison between centralized control and decentralized control is performed in order to investigate their effectiveness in suppressing vibration of a smart panel. Numerical results show that when the system is subjected to initial displacement or white noise disturbance, the decentralized and centralized controls are both very effective and the control results are very close
Squeezed light in an optical parametric oscillator network with coherent feedback quantum control.
Crisafulli, Orion; Tezak, Nikolas; Soh, Daniel B S; Armen, Michael A; Mabuchi, Hideo
2013-07-29
We present squeezing and anti-squeezing spectra of the output from a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) network arranged in different coherent quantum feedback configurations. One OPO serves as a quantum plant, the other as a quantum controller. The addition of coherent feedback enables shaping of the output squeezing spectrum of the plant, and is found to be capable of pushing the frequency of maximum squeezing away from the optical driving frequency and broadening the spectrum over a wider frequency band. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the developed theory, and illustrate the use of coherent quantum feedback to engineer the quantum-optical properties of the plant OPO output.
Al-Jundi, Wissam; Elsharif, Mohamed; Anderson, Melanie; Chan, Phillip; Beard, Jonathan; Nawaz, Shah
Constructive feedback plays an important role in learning during surgical training. Standard feedback is usually given verbally following direct observation of the procedure by a trained assessor. However, such feedback requires the physical presence of expert faculty members who are usually busy and time-constrained by clinical commitments. We aim to evaluate electronic feedback (e-feedback) after video observation of surgical suturing in comparison with standard face-to-face verbal feedback. A prospective, blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing e-feedback with standard verbal feedback was carried out in February 2015 using a validated pro formas for assessment. The study participants were 38 undergraduate medical students from the University of Sheffield, UK. They were recorded on video performing the procedural skill, completed a self-evaluation form, and received e-feedback on the same day (group 1); observed directly by an assessor, invited to provide verbal self-reflection, and then received standard verbal feedback (group 2). In both groups, the feedback was provided after performing the procedure. The participants returned 2 days later and performed the same skill again. Poststudy questionnaire was used to assess the acceptability of each feedback among the participants. Overall, 19 students in group 1 and 18 students in group 2 completed the study. Although there was a significant improvement in the overall mean score on the second performance of the task for all participants (first performance mean 11.59, second performance mean 15.95; p ≤ 0.0001), there was no difference in the overall mean improvement score between group 1 and group 2 (4.74 and 3.94, respectively; p = 0.49). The mean overall scores for the e-feedback group at baseline recorded by 2 independent investigators showed good agreement (mean overall scores of 12.84 and 11.89; Cronbach α = 0.86). Poststudy questionnaire demonstrated that both e-feedback and standard verbal feedback
Feedback Power Control Strategies inWireless Sensor Networks with Joint Channel Decoding
Fabio Perna
2009-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we derive feedback power control strategies for block-faded multiple access schemes with correlated sources and joint channel decoding (JCD. In particular, upon the derivation of the feasible signal-to-noise ratio (SNR region for the considered multiple access schemes, i.e., the multidimensional SNR region where error-free communications are, in principle, possible, two feedback power control strategies are proposed: (i a classical feedback power control strategy, which aims at equalizing all link SNRs at the access point (AP, and (ii an innovative optimized feedback power control strategy, which tries to make the network operational point fall in the feasible SNR region at the lowest overall transmit energy consumption. These strategies will be referred to as “balanced SNR” and “unbalanced SNR,” respectively. While they require, in principle, an unlimited power control range at the sources, we also propose practical versions with a limited power control range. We preliminary consider a scenario with orthogonal links and ideal feedback. Then, we analyze the robustness of the proposed power control strategies to possible non-idealities, in terms of residual multiple access interference and noisy feedback channels. Finally, we successfully apply the proposed feedback power control strategies to a limiting case of the class of considered multiple access schemes, namely a central estimating officer (CEO scenario, where the sensors observe noisy versions of a common binary information sequence and the AP’s goal is to estimate this sequence by properly fusing the soft-output information output by the JCD algorithm.
Humans can integrate force feedback to toes in their sensorimotor control of a robotic hand.
Panarese, Alessandro; Edin, Benoni B; Vecchi, Fabrizio; Carrozza, Maria C; Johansson, Roland S
2009-12-01
Tactile sensory feedback is essential for dexterous object manipulation. Users of hand myoelectric prostheses without tactile feedback must depend essentially on vision to control their device. Indeed, improved tactile feedback is one of their main priorities. Previous research has provided evidence that conveying tactile feedback can improve prostheses control, although additional effort is required to solve problems related to pattern recognition learning, unpleasant sensations, sensory adaptation, and low spatiotemporal resolution. Still, these studies have mainly focused on providing stimulation to hairy skin regions close to the amputation site, i.e., usually to the upper arm. Here, we explored the possibility to provide tactile feedback to the glabrous skin of toes, which have mechanical and neurophysiological properties similar to the fingertips. We explored this paradigm in a grasp-and-lift task, in which healthy participants controlled two opposing digits of a robotic hand by changing the spacing of their index finger and thumb. The normal forces applied by the robotic fingertips to a test object were fed back to the right big and second toe. We show that within a few lifting trials, all the participants incorporated the force feedback received by the foot in their sensorimotor control of the robotic hand.
Modular control of fusion power heating applications
Demers, D. R.
2012-01-01
This work is motivated by the growing demand for auxiliary heating on small and large machines worldwide. Numerous present and planned RF experiments (EBW, Lower Hybrid, ICRF, and ECH) are increasingly complex systems. The operational challenges are indicative of a need for components of real-time control that can be implemented with a moderate amount of effort in a time- and cost-effective fashion. Such a system will improve experimental efficiency, enhance experimental quality, and expedite technological advancements. The modular architecture of this control-suite serves multiple purposes. It facilitates construction on various scales from single to multiple controller systems. It enables expandability of control from basic to complex via the addition of modules with varying functionalities. It simplifies the control implementation process by reducing layers of software and electronic development. While conceived with fusion applications in mind, this suite has the potential to serve a broad range of scientific and industrial applications. During the Phase-I research effort we established the overall feasibility of this modular control-suite concept. We developed the fundamental modules needed to implement open-loop active-control and demonstrated their use on a microwave power deposition experiment
Application of a New Dynamic Heating System Model Using a Range of Common Control Strategies
Joshua Fong
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This research investigates the overall heating energy consumptions using various control strategies, secondary heat emitters, and primary plant for a building. Previous research has successfully demonstrated that a dynamic distributed heat emitter model embedded within a simplified third-order lumped parameter building model is capable of achieving improved results when compared to other commercially available modelling tools. With the enhanced ability to capture transient effects of emitter thermal capacity, this research studies the influence of control strategies and primary plant configurations on the rate of energy consumption of a heating system. Four alternative control strategies are investigated: zone feedback; weather-compensated; a combination of both of these methods; and thermostatic control. The plant alternative configurations consist of conventional boilers, biomass boilers, and heat pumps supporting radiator heating and underfloor heating. The performance of the model is tested on a primary school building and can be applied to any residential or commercial building with a heating system. Results show that the new methods reported offer greater detail and rigor in the conduct of building energy modelling.
Optimal control of nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form.
Zargarzadeh, Hassan; Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani
2015-10-01
This paper proposes a novel optimal tracking control scheme for nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form with uncertain dynamics. The optimal tracking problem is transformed into an equivalent optimal regulation problem through a feedforward adaptive control input that is generated by modifying the standard backstepping technique. Subsequently, a neural network-based optimal control scheme is introduced to estimate the cost, or value function, over an infinite horizon for the resulting nonlinear continuous-time systems in affine form when the internal dynamics are unknown. The estimated cost function is then used to obtain the optimal feedback control input; therefore, the overall optimal control input for the nonlinear continuous-time system in strict-feedback form includes the feedforward plus the optimal feedback terms. It is shown that the estimated cost function minimizes the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman estimation error in a forward-in-time manner without using any value or policy iterations. Finally, optimal output feedback control is introduced through the design of a suitable observer. Lyapunov theory is utilized to show the overall stability of the proposed schemes without requiring an initial admissible controller. Simulation examples are provided to validate the theoretical results.
Eliminating oscillations in the Internet by time-delayed feedback control
Liu Chenglin; Tian Yuping
2008-01-01
In this paper, a time-delayed feedback control method is applied to congestion control in order to eliminate oscillations in the Internet. The stability of the proposed control method is demonstrated based on frequency-domain analysis. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated using simulation
Web/smart phone based control and feedback systems for irrigation systems
The role of the internet and mobile devices in the control and feedback of irrigation systems is reviewed. This role is placed in the larger context of four distinct components required for irrigation management, including 1. the control panel; 2. remote control; 3. soil, plant, and weather (SPW) se...
Eliminating oscillations in the Internet by time-delayed feedback control
Liu Chenglin [Department of Automatic Control, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Tian Yuping [Department of Automatic Control, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)], E-mail: yptian@seu.edu.cn
2008-03-15
In this paper, a time-delayed feedback control method is applied to congestion control in order to eliminate oscillations in the Internet. The stability of the proposed control method is demonstrated based on frequency-domain analysis. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated using simulation.
Feedback-controlled NTM stabilization on ASDEX Upgrade
Stober J.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available On ASDEX Upgrade a concept for real-time stabilization of NTMs has been realized and successfully applied to (3,2- and (2,1-NTMs. Since most of the work has meanwhile been published elsewhere, a short summary with the appropriate references is given. Limitations, deficits and future extensions of the system are discussed. In a second part the recent work on using modulated ECCD for NTM stabilisation is described in some detail. In these experiments ECCD power is modulated according to a magnetic footprint of the rotating NTM. In agreement with earlier results it could be shown that O-point heating reduces the necessary average power for stabilisation whereas X-point heating hampers stabilisation. Although this modulated scheme is not relevant for routine NTM stabilisation on ASDEX Upgrade it may be mandatory for ITER or DEMO. On ASDEX Upgrade it has been re-developed to demonstrate the usage of a FAst DIrectional Switch to continously heat the O-point of the rotating island with only one gyrotron switching between two launchers which target the mode at locations separated in phase by 180 degrees as described in [1].
Robust output feedback H-infinity control and filtering for uncertain linear systems
Chang, Xiao-Heng
2014-01-01
"Robust Output Feedback H-infinity Control and Filtering for Uncertain Linear Systems" discusses new and meaningful findings on robust output feedback H-infinity control and filtering for uncertain linear systems, presenting a number of useful and less conservative design results based on the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. Though primarily intended for graduate students in control and filtering, the book can also serve as a valuable reference work for researchers wishing to explore the area of robust H-infinity control and filtering of uncertain systems. Dr. Xiao-Heng Chang is a Professor at the College of Engineering, Bohai University, China.
Cates, C.; Shilov, M.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Maurer, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Nadle, D.; Bialek, J.; Boozer, A.
2000-01-01
External kink instabilities are suppressed in a tokamak experiment by either (1) energizing a distributed array of independently controlled active feedback coils mounted outside a segmented resistive wall or (2) inserting a second segmented wall having much higher electrical conductivity. When the active feedback coils are off and the highly conducting wall is withdrawn, kink instabilities excited by plasma current gradients grow at a rate comparable to the magnetic diffusion rate of the resistive wall. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Preparing to reach: selecting an adaptive long-latency feedback controller
Ahmadi-Pajouh, Mohammad Ali; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Shadmehr, Reza
2012-01-01
In a voluntary movement, the nervous system specifies not only the motor commands, but also the gains associated with reaction to sensory feedback. For example, suppose that during reaching a perturbation tends to push the hand to the left. With practice, the brain not only learns to produce commands that predictively compensate for the perturbation, but also increases the long-latency reflex gain associated with leftward displacements of the arm. That is, the brain learns a feedback controll...
Adaptive optimal stochastic state feedback control of resistive wall modes in tokamaks
Sun, Z.; Sen, A.K.; Longman, R.W.
2006-01-01
An adaptive optimal stochastic state feedback control is developed to stabilize the resistive wall mode (RWM) instability in tokamaks. The extended least-square method with exponential forgetting factor and covariance resetting is used to identify (experimentally determine) the time-varying stochastic system model. A Kalman filter is used to estimate the system states. The estimated system states are passed on to an optimal state feedback controller to construct control inputs. The Kalman filter and the optimal state feedback controller are periodically redesigned online based on the identified system model. This adaptive controller can stabilize the time-dependent RWM in a slowly evolving tokamak discharge. This is accomplished within a time delay of roughly four times the inverse of the growth rate for the time-invariant model used
Improvement of density control by feedback on Langmuir probe signals in Tore Supra
Gunn, J.; Bucalossi, J.; Costanzo, L.; Grisolia, C.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grosman, A.; Loarer, T.; Martin, G.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moulin, D.; Pascal, J.Y.; Saint-Laurent, F.
1999-12-01
Real time control of deuterium or helium gas injection by feedback on Langmuir probe signals is implemented in Tore Supra ergodic divertor discharges. The feedback schemes are based on the robust experimental observation that the density limit coincides with edge temperature T e ∼ 10 eV. Three control algorithms are used: (1) proportional feedback on the central line-averaged density with real-time attenuation of the system gain and security cut-off of the gas injection if the edge temperature becomes too low; (2) proportional feedback on the central line-averaged density with security cut-off controlled by the degree of detachment (DoD); (3) proportional feedback on edge temperature with security cut-off on the DoD. The DoD is defined for deuterium discharges, but not for helium since those do not detach. All three feedback modes permit operation close to the density limit and have been successfully applied for plasma currents 0.4 p p =1.4 MA with up to 4 MW of ICRH power. (author)
Stabilization of Networked Control Systems Under Feedback-based Communication
Zhang, Lei; Hristu-Varsakelis, Dimitrios
2004-01-01
We study the stabilization of a networked control system (NSC) in which multiple sensors and actuators of a physical plant share a communication medium to exchange information with a remote controller...
Numerical simulation of side heating for controlling angular ...
In the present study, a 3-D coupled transient thermal analysis model with auxiliary side heating (parallel heating) is developed to control angular distortion. During analysis, parallel heating flames are placed at several locations from weld line in cross direction. A user defined subroutine is used to apply transient heat source ...
Design and fabrication of the active feedback control coils for EAST
Du Shijun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)], E-mail: dsj@ipp.ac.cn; Liu Xufeng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)
2008-10-15
As the active feedback control coils are located inside vacuum vessel, a reasonable design is important not only for safe operation of the coils but also for reliable operation of EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak). There are some different characteristics from other coils in the design and fabrication of the coils, such as the insulation structure bearing the high baking temperature, the insulation joint with special flexible structure and the brazing method of the large size conductor inside vacuum vessel. All joints of coils are located outside the vacuum vessel for providing more connection. The conductors of the coils are designed inside the stainless steel tube and actively water cooled to prevent overheating. The ceramic rings with fiberglass tapes are used to separate the conductors and the steel tube. This insulation structure adopted in the coils can bear the high baking temperature of the vacuum vessel and its details are given in the paper. For protecting the hermetic and insulating property of the insulation joint, the small bellows is located on insulation joints to eliminate the forces on the insulator. In the fabrication, the coils are built in sections and then assembled together to form whole coils inside the vacuum vessel. The 8 kHz frequency induction heater is used to braze the conductors for cutting short brazing time and reducing heating area. The electromagnetic loads acting on the current leaders, the electrical parameters of the coil and the coil temperature are also analyzed in this paper.
Design and fabrication of the active feedback control coils for EAST
Du Shijun; Liu Xufeng
2008-01-01
As the active feedback control coils are located inside vacuum vessel, a reasonable design is important not only for safe operation of the coils but also for reliable operation of EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak). There are some different characteristics from other coils in the design and fabrication of the coils, such as the insulation structure bearing the high baking temperature, the insulation joint with special flexible structure and the brazing method of the large size conductor inside vacuum vessel. All joints of coils are located outside the vacuum vessel for providing more connection. The conductors of the coils are designed inside the stainless steel tube and actively water cooled to prevent overheating. The ceramic rings with fiberglass tapes are used to separate the conductors and the steel tube. This insulation structure adopted in the coils can bear the high baking temperature of the vacuum vessel and its details are given in the paper. For protecting the hermetic and insulating property of the insulation joint, the small bellows is located on insulation joints to eliminate the forces on the insulator. In the fabrication, the coils are built in sections and then assembled together to form whole coils inside the vacuum vessel. The 8 kHz frequency induction heater is used to braze the conductors for cutting short brazing time and reducing heating area. The electromagnetic loads acting on the current leaders, the electrical parameters of the coil and the coil temperature are also analyzed in this paper.
Nonlinear free vibration control of beams using acceleration delayed-feedback control
Alhazza, Khaled A; Alajmi, Mohammed; Masoud, Ziyad N
2008-01-01
A single-mode delayed-feedback control strategy is developed to reduce the free vibrations of a flexible beam using a piezoelectric actuator. A nonlinear variational model of the beam based on the von Kàrmàn nonlinear type deformations is considered. Using Galerkin's method, the resulting governing partial differential equations of motion are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. A linear model using the first mode is derived and is used to characterize the damping produced by the controller as a function of the controller's gain and delay. Three-dimensional figures showing the damping magnitude as a function of the controller gain and delay are presented. The characteristic damping of the controller as predicted by the linear model is compared to that calculated using direct long-time integration of a three-mode nonlinear model. Optimal values of the controller gain and delay using both methods are obtained, simulated and compared. To validate the single-mode approximation, numerical simulations are performed using a three-mode full nonlinear model. Results of the simulations demonstrate an excellent controller performance in mitigating the first-mode vibration
Feedback control of Zero Moment Point for stable bipedal walking
Looij, van de R.M.A.; Nijmeijer, H.; Kostic, D.
2014-01-01
In order to prevent the humanoid robot TUlip from falling a start has been made with a Zero Moment Point (ZMP) based controller. The chosen controller, which is called the Linear Inverted Pendulum Tracker (LIPT) controller, is based upon a lag between the real and reference ZMP and is used in
Ling Gao
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Fed-batch culture is often used in industry, and dissolved oxygen (DO concentration control is important in fermentation process control. DO control is often applied by using feedback (FB control strategy. But, feedforward-feedback (FF-FB control has the advantage in dealing with the time-varying characteristics resulted from the cell growth during the fermentation process. Mathematical modeling and computer simulation is a useful tool in analysis of the control system. In this research, the FF-FB DO control and FB substrate control of repeated fed-batch culture process is modeled and simulated. The results showed the feasibility of the control strategy. These results are useful for control system development and process analyses and optimization.
Ninu, Andrei; Dosen, Strahinja; Muceli, Silvia; Rattay, Frank; Dietl, Hans; Farina, Dario
2014-09-01
In closed-loop control of grasping by hand prostheses, the feedback information sent to the user is usually the actual controlled variable, i.e., the grasp force. Although this choice is intuitive and logical, the force production is only the last step in the process of grasping. Therefore, this study evaluated the performance in controlling grasp strength using a hand prosthesis operated through a complete grasping sequence while varying the feedback variables (e.g., closing velocity, grasping force), which were provided to the user visually or through vibrotactile stimulation. The experiments were conducted on 13 volunteers who controlled the Otto Bock Sensor Hand Speed prosthesis. Results showed that vibrotactile patterns were able to replace the visual feedback. Interestingly, the experiments demonstrated that direct force feedback was not essential for the control of grasping force. The subjects were indeed able to control the grip strength, predictively, by estimating the grasping force from the prosthesis velocity of closing. Therefore, grasping without explicit force feedback is not completely blind, contrary to what is usually assumed. In our study we analyzed grasping with a specific prosthetic device, but the outcomes are also applicable for other devices, with one or more degrees-of-freedom. The necessary condition is that the electromyography (EMG) signal directly and proportionally controls the velocity/grasp force of the hand, which is a common approach among EMG controlled prosthetic devices. The results provide important indications on the design of closed-loop EMG controlled prosthetic systems.
Sang-Hoon Yeo
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Movement planning is thought to be primarily determined by motor costs such as inaccuracy and effort. Solving for the optimal plan that minimizes these costs typically leads to specifying a time-varying feedback controller which both generates the movement and can optimally correct for errors that arise within a movement. However, the quality of the sensory feedback during a movement can depend substantially on the generated movement. We show that by incorporating such state-dependent sensory feedback, the optimal solution incorporates active sensing and is no longer a pure feedback process but includes a significant feedforward component. To examine whether people take into account such state-dependency in sensory feedback we asked people to make movements in which we controlled the reliability of sensory feedback. We made the visibility of the hand state-dependent, such that the visibility was proportional to the component of hand velocity in a particular direction. Subjects gradually adapted to such a sensory perturbation by making curved hand movements. In particular, they appeared to control the late visibility of the movement matching predictions of the optimal controller with state-dependent sensory noise. Our results show that trajectory planning is not only sensitive to motor costs but takes sensory costs into account and argues for optimal control of movement in which feedforward commands can play a significant role.
Yeo, Sang-Hoon; Franklin, David W; Wolpert, Daniel M
2016-12-01
Movement planning is thought to be primarily determined by motor costs such as inaccuracy and effort. Solving for the optimal plan that minimizes these costs typically leads to specifying a time-varying feedback controller which both generates the movement and can optimally correct for errors that arise within a movement. However, the quality of the sensory feedback during a movement can depend substantially on the generated movement. We show that by incorporating such state-dependent sensory feedback, the optimal solution incorporates active sensing and is no longer a pure feedback process but includes a significant feedforward component. To examine whether people take into account such state-dependency in sensory feedback we asked people to make movements in which we controlled the reliability of sensory feedback. We made the visibility of the hand state-dependent, such that the visibility was proportional to the component of hand velocity in a particular direction. Subjects gradually adapted to such a sensory perturbation by making curved hand movements. In particular, they appeared to control the late visibility of the movement matching predictions of the optimal controller with state-dependent sensory noise. Our results show that trajectory planning is not only sensitive to motor costs but takes sensory costs into account and argues for optimal control of movement in which feedforward commands can play a significant role.
Distributed Cooperative Secondary Control of Microgrids Using Feedback Linearization
Bidram, Ali; Davoudi, Ali; Lewis, Frank
2013-01-01
This paper proposes a secondary voltage control of microgrids based on the distributed cooperative control of multi-agent systems. The proposed secondary control is fully distributed; each distributed generator (DG) only requires its own information and the information of some neighbors. The dist......This paper proposes a secondary voltage control of microgrids based on the distributed cooperative control of multi-agent systems. The proposed secondary control is fully distributed; each distributed generator (DG) only requires its own information and the information of some neighbors...... parameters can be tuned to obtain a desired response speed. The effectiveness of the proposed control methodology is verified by the simulation of a microgrid test system....
Grosman, A.; Bayetti, P.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Cordier, J.J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Lipa, M.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.; Reichle, R.; Schlosser, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Vallet, J.C.
2004-01-01
The implementation of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) are one of the major ingredients required for operating the Tore Supra tokamak with very long pulses. A pioneering activity has been developed in this field from the very beginning of the device operation that is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW.m -2 of nominal convected heat flux. A technical feedback is given from the whole development up to the industrialization and focuses on a number of critical issues, such as bonding technology analysis, manufacture processes, repair processes, destructive and non destructive testing. The actual experience in Tore Supra allows to address the question of D retention on carbon walls. Redeposition on surfaces without plasma flux is suspected to cause the final 'burial' of about the injected gas during long discharges. (authors)
Grosman, A.; Bayetti, P.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Cordier, J.J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Lipa, M.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.; Reichle, R.; Schlosser, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Vallet, J.C
2004-07-01
The implementation of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) are one of the major ingredients required for operating the Tore Supra tokamak with very long pulses. A pioneering activity has been developed in this field from the very beginning of the device operation that is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW.m{sup -2} of nominal convected heat flux. A technical feedback is given from the whole development up to the industrialization and focuses on a number of critical issues, such as bonding technology analysis, manufacture processes, repair processes, destructive and non destructive testing. The actual experience in Tore Supra allows to address the question of D retention on carbon walls. Redeposition on surfaces without plasma flux is suspected to cause the final 'burial' of about the injected gas during long discharges. (authors)
Mizumoto, Ikuro; Tsunematsu, Junpei; Fujii, Seiya
2016-09-01
In this paper, a design method of an output feedback control system with a simple feedforward input for a combustion model of diesel engine will be proposed based on the almost strictly positive real-ness (ASPR-ness) of the controlled system for a combustion control of diesel engines. A parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) design scheme which renders the resulting augmented controlled system ASPR will also be proposed in order to design a stable output feedback control system for the considered combustion model. The effectiveness of our proposed method will be confirmed through numerical simulations.
Event-Triggered Output-Feedback Control for Disturbed Linear Systems
Hao Jiang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In the last few decades, event-triggered control received considerable attention, because of advantages in reducing the resource utilization, such as communication load and processor. In this paper, we propose an event-triggered output-feedback controller for disturbed linear systems, in order to achieve both better resource utilization and disturbance attenuation properties at the same time. Based on our prior work on state-feedback H∞ control for disturbed systems, we propose an approach to design an output-feedback H∞ controller for the system whose states are not completely observable, and a sufficient condition guaranteeing the asymptotic stability and robustness of the system is given in the form of LMIs (Linear Matrix Inequalities.
Cooling and squeezing the fluctuations of a nanomechanical beam by indirect quantum feedback control
Zhang Jing; Liu Yuxi; Nori, Franco
2009-01-01
We study cooling and squeezing the fluctuations of a nanomechanical beam using quantum feedback control. In our model, the nanomechanical beam is coupled to a transmission line resonator via a superconducting quantum interference device. The leakage of the electromagnetic field from the transmission line resonator is measured using homodyne detection. This measured signal is then used to design a quantum feedback control signal to drive the electromagnetic field in the transmission line resonator. Although the control is imposed on the transmission line resonator, this quantum feedback control signal indirectly affects the thermal motion of the nanomechanical beam via the inductive beam-resonator coupling, making it possible to cool and squeeze the fluctuations of the beam, allowing it to approach the standard quantum limit.
Hamed, Kaveh Akbari; Gregg, Robert D.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a systematic algorithm to design time-invariant decentralized feedback controllers to exponentially stabilize periodic orbits for a class of hybrid dynamical systems arising from bipedal walking. The algorithm assumes a class of parameterized and nonlinear decentralized feedback controllers which coordinate lower-dimensional hybrid subsystems based on a common phasing variable. The exponential stabilization problem is translated into an iterative sequence of optimization problems involving bilinear and linear matrix inequalities, which can be easily solved with available software packages. A set of sufficient conditions for the convergence of the iterative algorithm to a stabilizing decentralized feedback control solution is presented. The power of the algorithm is demonstrated by designing a set of local nonlinear controllers that cooperatively produce stable walking for a 3D autonomous biped with 9 degrees of freedom, 3 degrees of underactuation, and a decentralization scheme motivated by amputee locomotion with a transpelvic prosthetic leg. PMID:27990059
Reversed field pinch operation with intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R
Brunsell, P. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.; Hedqvist, A.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J. R.; Rachlew, E.
2006-11-01
Discharges in the thin shell reversed field pinch (RFP) device EXTRAP T2R without active feedback control are characterized by growth of non-resonant m = 1 unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) in agreement with linear MHD theory. Resonant m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) exhibit initially fast rotation and the associated perturbed radial fields at the shell are small, but eventually TMs wall-lock and give rise to a growing radial field. The increase in the radial field at the wall due to growing RWMs and wall-locked TMs is correlated with an increase in the toroidal loop voltage, which leads to discharge termination after 3-4 wall times. An active magnetic feedback control system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R. A two-dimensional array of 128 active saddle coils (pair-connected into 64 independent m = 1 coils) is used with intelligent shell feedback control to suppress the m = 1 radial field at the shell. With feedback control, active stabilization of the full toroidal spectrum of 16 unstable m = 1 non-resonant RWMs is achieved, and TM wall locking is avoided. A three-fold extension of the pulse length, up to the power supply limit, is observed. Intelligent shell feedback control is able to maintain the plasma equilibrium for 10 wall times, with plasma confinement parameters sustained at values comparable to those obtained in thick shell devices of similar size.
Reversed field pinch operation with intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R
Brunsell, P.R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.; Hedqvist, A.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J.R.; Rachlew, E.
2006-01-01
Discharges in the thin shell reversed field pinch (RFP) device EXTRAP T2R without active feedback control are characterized by growth of non-resonant m = 1 unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) in agreement with linear MHD theory. Resonant m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) exhibit initially fast rotation and the associated perturbed radial fields at the shell are small, but eventually TMs wall-lock and give rise to a growing radial field. The increase in the radial field at the wall due to growing RWMs and wall-locked TMs is correlated with an increase in the toroidal loop voltage, which leads to discharge termination after 3-4 wall times. An active magnetic feedback control system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R. A two-dimensional array of 128 active saddle coils (pair-connected into 64 independent m = 1 coils) is used with intelligent shell feedback control to suppress the m = 1 radial field at the shell. With feedback control, active stabilization of the full toroidal spectrum of 16 unstable m = 1 non-resonant RWMs is achieved, and TM wall locking is avoided. A three-fold extension of the pulse length, up to the power supply limit, is observed. Intelligent shell feedback control is able to maintain the plasma equilibrium for 10 wall times, with plasma confinement parameters sustained at values comparable to those obtained in thick shell devices of similar size
Chaos control in delayed chaotic systems via sliding mode based delayed feedback
Vasegh, Nastaran [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Seyed Khandan Bridge, Shariati St. 16314, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: vasegh@eetd.kntu.ac.ir; Sedigh, Ali Khaki [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Seyed Khandan Bridge, Shariati St. 16314, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2009-04-15
This paper investigates chaos control for scalar delayed chaotic systems using sliding mode control strategy. Sliding surface design is based on delayed feedback controller. It is shown that the proposed controller can achieve stability for an arbitrary unstable fixed point (UPF) or unstable periodic orbit (UPO) with arbitrary period. The chaotic system used in this study to illustrate the theoretical concepts is the well known Mackey-Glass model. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the designed nonlinear sliding mode controller.
Chaos control in delayed chaotic systems via sliding mode based delayed feedback
Vasegh, Nastaran; Sedigh, Ali Khaki
2009-01-01
This paper investigates chaos control for scalar delayed chaotic systems using sliding mode control strategy. Sliding surface design is based on delayed feedback controller. It is shown that the proposed controller can achieve stability for an arbitrary unstable fixed point (UPF) or unstable periodic orbit (UPO) with arbitrary period. The chaotic system used in this study to illustrate the theoretical concepts is the well known Mackey-Glass model. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the designed nonlinear sliding mode controller.
Adaptive H∞ synchronization of chaotic systems via linear and nonlinear feedback control
Fu Shi-Hui; Lu Qi-Shao; Du Ying
2012-01-01
Adaptive H ∞ synchronization of chaotic systems via linear and nonlinear feedback control is investigated. The chaotic systems are redesigned by using the generalized Hamiltonian systems and observer approach. Based on Lyapunov's stability theory, linear and nonlinear feedback control of adaptive H ∞ synchronization is established in order to not only guarantee stable synchronization of both master and slave systems but also reduce the effect of external disturbance on an H ∞ -norm constraint. Adaptive H ∞ synchronization of chaotic systems via three kinds of control is investigated with applications to Lorenz and Chen systems. Numerical simulations are also given to identify the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis. (general)
Output-Feedback Model Predictive Control of a Pasteurization Pilot Plant based on an LPV model
Karimi Pour, Fatemeh; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Puig, Vicenç
2017-01-01
This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a pasteurization pilot plant based on an LPV model. Since not all the states are measured, an observer is also designed, which allows implementing an output-feedback MPC scheme. However, the model of the plant is not completely observable when augmented with the disturbance models. In order to solve this problem, the following strategies are used: (i) the whole system is decoupled into two subsystems, (ii) an inner state-feedback controller is implemented into the MPC control scheme. A real-time example based on the pasteurization pilot plant is simulated as a case study for testing the behavior of the approaches.
Heli Hu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The design of the dynamic output feedback H∞ control for uncertain interconnected systems of neutral type is investigated. In the framework of Lyapunov stability theory, a mathematical technique dealing with the nonlinearity on certain matrix variables is developed to obtain the solvability conditions for the anticipated controller. Based on the corresponding LMIs, the anticipated gains for dynamic output feedback can be achieved by solving some algebraic equations. Also, the norm of the transfer function from the disturbance input to the controlled output is less than the given index. A numerical example and the simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Joseph-Duran, Bernat; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Cembrano, Gabriela
2015-10-01
An output-feedback control strategy for pollution mitigation in combined sewer networks is presented. The proposed strategy provides means to apply model-based predictive control to large-scale sewer networks, in-spite of the lack of measurements at most of the network sewers. In previous works, the authors presented a hybrid linear control-oriented model for sewer networks together with the formulation of Optimal Control Problems (OCP) and State Estimation Problems (SEP). By iteratively solving these problems, preliminary Receding Horizon Control with Moving Horizon Estimation (RHC/MHE) results, based on flow measurements, were also obtained. In this work, the RHC/MHE algorithm has been extended to take into account both flow and water level measurements and the resulting control loop has been extensively simulated to assess the system performance according different measurement availability scenarios and rain events. All simulations have been carried out using a detailed physically based model of a real case-study network as virtual reality.
SOS based robust H(∞) fuzzy dynamic output feedback control of nonlinear networked control systems.
Chae, Seunghwan; Nguang, Sing Kiong
2014-07-01
In this paper, a methodology for designing a fuzzy dynamic output feedback controller for discrete-time nonlinear networked control systems is presented where the nonlinear plant is modelled by a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model and the network-induced delays by a finite state Markov process. The transition probability matrix for the Markov process is allowed to be partially known, providing a more practical consideration of the real world. Furthermore, the fuzzy controller's membership functions and premise variables are not assumed to be the same as the plant's membership functions and premise variables, that is, the proposed approach can handle the case, when the premise of the plant are not measurable or delayed. The membership functions of the plant and the controller are approximated as polynomial functions, then incorporated into the controller design. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the controller are derived in terms of sum of square inequalities, which are then solved by YALMIP. Finally, a numerical example is used to demonstrate the validity of the proposed methodology.
Tank waste remediation system heat stress control program report, 1995
Carls, D.R.
1995-01-01
Protecting employees from heat stress within tank farms during the summer months is challenging. Work constraints typically experienced in tank farms complicate the measures taken to protect employees from heat stress. TWRS-Industrial Hygiene (IH) has endeavored to control heat stress injuries by anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling the factors which lead or contribute to heat stress in Tank Farms. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program covers such areas as: employee and PIC training, communication of daily heat stress alerts to tank farm personnel, setting work/rest regimens, and the use of engineering and personal protective controls when applicable. The program has increased worker awareness of heat stress and prevention, established provisions for worker rest periods, increased drinking water availability to help ensure worker hydration, and allowed for the increased use of other protective controls to combat heat stress. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program is the cornerstone for controlling heat stress among tank farm employees. The program has made great strides since it's inception during the summer of 1994. Some improvements can still be made to enhance the program for the summer of 1996, such as: (1) procurement and use of personal heat stress monitoring equipment to ensure appropriate application of administrative controls, (2) decrease the need for use of containment tents and anti-contamination clothing, and (3) providing a wider variety of engineering and personal protective controls for heat stress prevention
Neuro-fuzzy control of structures using acceleration feedback
Schurter, Kyle C.; Roschke, Paul N.
2001-08-01
This paper described a new approach for the reduction of environmentally induced vibration in constructed facilities by way of a neuro-fuzzy technique. The new control technique is presented and tested in a numerical study that involves two types of building models. The energy of each building is dissipated through magnetorheological (MR) dampers whose damping properties are continuously updated by a fuzzy controller. This semi-active control scheme relies on the development of a correlation between the accelerations of the building (controller input) and the voltage applied to the MR damper (controller output). This correlation forms the basis for the development of an intelligent neuro-fuzzy control strategy. To establish a context for assessing the effectiveness of the semi-active control scheme, responses to earthquake excitation are compared with passive strategies that have similar authority for control. According to numerical simulation, MR dampers are less effective control mechanisms than passive dampers with respect to a single degree of freedom (DOF) building model. On the other hand, MR dampers are predicted to be superior when used with multiple DOF structures for reduction of lateral acceleration.
Resolvent-based feedback control for turbulent friction drag reduction
Kawagoe, Aika; Nakashima, Satoshi; Luhar, Mitul; Fukagata, Koji
2017-11-01
Suboptimal control for turbulent friction drag reduction has been studied extensively. Nakashima et al. (accepted) extended resolvent analysis to suboptimal control, and for the control where the streamwise wall shear stress is used as an input (Case ST), they revealed the control effect across spectral space is mixed: there are regions of drag increase as well as reduction. This suggests that control performance may be improved if the control is applied for selective wavelengths, or if a new law is designed to suppress the spectral region leading to drag increase. In the present study, we first assess the effect of suboptimal control for selective wavelengths via DNS. The friction Reynolds number is set at 180. For Case ST, resolvent analysis predicts drag reduction at long streamwise wavelengths. DNS with control applied only for this spectral region, however, did not result in drag reduction. Then, we seek an effective control law using resolvent analysis and propose a new law. DNS results for this law are consistent with predictions from resolvent analysis, and about 10% drag reduction is attained. Further, we discuss how this law reduces the drag from a dynamical and theoretical point of view. This work was supported through Grant-in-Aid for Scientic Research (C) (No. 25420129) by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).
Simultaneous Feedback Control of Plasma Rotation and Stored Energy on the DIII-D Tokamak
Scoville, J.T.; Ferron, J.R.; Humphreys, D.A.; Walker, M.L.
2006-01-01
One of the major modifications made to the DIII-D tokamak during the 2005 Long Torus Opening was the rotation of one of the four two-source neutral beam injection systems. Prior to this modification, all beams injected power with a component in the same direction as the usual plasma current ('' co-injection ''). Starting in early 2006, two of the seven beams inject with a component in the opposite direction ('' counter-injection ''). This new capability allows, for the first time, a partial decoupling of the injected energy and momentum during neutral beam heating experiments. An immediate advantage of mixed co- and counter-injection beams is the capability to control the plasma rotation velocity. High beta plasmas can now be studied over a wide range of the plasma rotation velocity. The stabilizing effect of rotation on the resistive wall mode (RWM), for example, can be directly compared to the stabilization achieved by external feedback coils. This is an advantage over previous techniques to control plasma rotation, such as magnetic braking, which have had only limited success. We describe development and implementation of a model-based control algorithm for simultaneous regulation of plasma rotation and beta. The model includes the two relevant plasma states (plasma rotation and stored energy), and describes the dynamic effects of the relevant actuators on those states. The actuators include the applied beam torque and beam power, which depend on the amount of co and counter-injected beams. Implementation of the model-based control within the plasma control system (PCS) [B.G. Penaflor, et al, '' Current Status of DIII-D Plasma Control System Computer Upgrades,'' Fusion Eng. and Design 71 (2004) 47] requires real-time measurements of the plasma rotation, obtained from the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic, and stored energy calculated by the real-time EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. Details of this model and its development, and a comparison with
Reality Monitoring and Feedback Control of Speech Production Are Related Through Self-Agency.
Subramaniam, Karuna; Kothare, Hardik; Mizuiri, Danielle; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Houde, John F
2018-01-01
Self-agency is the experience of being the agent of one's own thoughts and motor actions. The intact experience of self-agency is necessary for successful interactions with the outside world (i.e., reality monitoring) and for responding to sensory feedback of our motor actions (e.g., speech feedback control). Reality monitoring is the ability to distinguish internally self-generated information from outside reality (externally-derived information). In the present study, we examined the relationship of self-agency between lower-level speech feedback monitoring (i.e., monitoring what we hear ourselves say) and a higher-level cognitive reality monitoring task. In particular, we examined whether speech feedback monitoring and reality monitoring were driven by the capacity to experience self-agency-the ability to make reliable predictions about the outcomes of self-generated actions. During the reality monitoring task, subjects made judgments as to whether information was previously self-generated (self-agency judgments) or externally derived (external-agency judgments). During speech feedback monitoring, we assessed self-agency by altering environmental auditory feedback so that subjects listened to a perturbed version of their own speech. When subjects heard minimal perturbations in their auditory feedback while speaking, they made corrective responses, indicating that they judged the perturbations as errors in their speech output. We found that self-agency judgments in the reality-monitoring task were higher in people who had smaller corrective responses ( p = 0.05) and smaller inter-trial variability ( p = 0.03) during minimal pitch perturbations of their auditory feedback. These results provide support for a unitary process for the experience of self-agency governing low-level speech control and higher level reality monitoring.
Feedback control of a cupola - concepts and experimental results
Moore, K.L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Abdelrahman, M.A. [Tenn. Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Larsen, E.; Clark, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); King, P. [US Dept. of Energy Albany Research Center, Albany, OR (United States)
1998-10-01
In this paper we present some final results from a research project focused on introducing automatic control to the operation of cupola iron furnaces. The main aim of this research is to improve the operational efficiency and performance of the cupola furnace, an important foundry process used to melt iron. Previous papers have described the development of appropriate control system architectures for the cupola. These results are summarized. Then we describe the experimental results obtained with the U.S. Department of Energy Albany Research Center`s research cupola. First, experimental data is used to calibrate the model, which is taken as a first-order multivariable system with time delay. Then relative gain analysis is used to select loop pairings to be used in a multi-loop controller. The resulting controller pairs meltrate with blast volume, iron temperature with oxygen addition, and carbon composition with percent coke. Special (nonlinear) filters are used to compute meltrate from actual scale readings of the amount of iron produced and to smooth the temperature measurement. The temperature and meltrate loops use single-loop PI control. The composition loop uses a Smith predictor to discount the deadtime associated with mass transport through the furnace. Experimental results validate the conceptual controller design and provide proof-of-concept of the idea of controlling a foundry cupola. Future research directions are discussed, including the concept of an integrated, intelligent industrial process controller, or I{sup 3}PC.
Use of feedback control to address flight safety issues
Ganguli, Subhabrata
This thesis addresses three control problems related to flight safety. The first problem relates to the scope of improvement in performance of conventional flight control laws. In particular, aircraft longitudinal axis control based on the Total Energy Control System (TECS) is studied. The research draws attention to a potentially sluggish and undesirable aircraft response when the engine dynamics is slow (typically the case). The proposed design method uses a theoretically well-developed modern design method based on Hinfinity optimization to improve the aircraft dynamic behavior in spite of slow engine characteristics. At the same time, the proposed design method achieves other desirable performance goals such as insensitivity to sensor noise and wind gust rejection: all addressed in one unified framework. The second problem is based on a system level analysis of control structure hierarchy for aircraft flight control. The objective of the analysis problem is to translate outer-loop stability and performance specifications into a comprehensive inner-loop metric. The prime motivation is to make the flight control design process more systematic and the system-integration reliable and independent of design methodology. The analysis problem is posed within the robust control analysis framework. Structured singular value techniques and free controller parameterization ideas are used to impose a hierarchical structure for flight control architecture. The third problem involves development and demonstration of a new reconfiguration strategy in the flight control architecture that has the potential of improving flight safety while keeping cost and complexity low. This research proposes a fault tolerant feature based on active robust reconfiguration. The fault tolerant control problem is formulated in the Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) design framework. A prime advantage of this approach is that the synthesis results in a single nonlinear controller (as opposed to a bank
A new criterion for chaos and hyperchaos synchronization using linear feedback control
Wang Faqiang; Liu Chongxin
2006-01-01
Based on the characteristic of the chaotic or hyperchaotic system and linear feedback control method, synchronization of the two identical chaotic or hyperchaotic systems with different initial conditions is studied. The range of the control parameter for synchronization is derived. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method
Robust output-feedback control to eliminate stick-slip oscillations in drill-string systems
Vromen, T.G.M.; Dai, C.H.; van de Wouw, N.; Oomen, T.A.E.; Astrid, P.; Nijmeijer, H.
2015-01-01
The aim of this paper is to design a robust output-feedback controller to eliminate torsional stick-slip vibrations. A multi-modal model of the torsional dynamics with a nonlinear bit-rock interaction model is used. The controller design is based on skewed-μ DK-iteration and the stability of the
Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression
Miller, Christopher
2017-01-01
These slide sets describe the OCLA formulation and associated algorithms as a set of new technologies in the first practical application of load limiting flight control utilizing load feedback as a primary control measurement. Slide set one describes Experiment Development and slide set two describes Flight-Test Performance.
Synchronizing tracking control for flexible joint robots via estimated state feedback
Rodriguez Angeles, A.; Nijmeijer, H.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we propose a synchronization controller for flexible joint robots, which are interconnected in a master-slave scheme. The synchronization controller is based on feedback linearization and only requires measurements of the master and slave link positions, since the velocities and
Constrained state-feedback control of an externally excited synchronous machine
Carpiuc, S.C.; Lazar, M.
2013-01-01
State-feedback control of externally excited synchronous machines employed in applications such as hybrid electric vehicles and full electric vehicles is a challenging problem. Indeed, these applications are characterized by fast dynamics that are subject to hard physical and control constraints.
Kim, Kwang S; Max, Ludo
2014-01-01
To estimate the contributions of feedforward vs. feedback control systems in speech articulation, we analyzed the correspondence between initial and final kinematics in unperturbed tongue and jaw movements for consonant-vowel (CV) and vowel-consonant (VC) syllables. If movement extents and endpoints are highly predictable from early kinematic information, then the movements were most likely completed without substantial online corrections (feedforward control); if the correspondence between early kinematics and final amplitude or position is low, online adjustments may have altered the planned trajectory (feedback control) (Messier and Kalaska, 1999). Five adult speakers produced CV and VC syllables with high, mid, or low vowels while movements of the tongue and jaw were tracked electromagnetically. The correspondence between the kinematic parameters peak acceleration or peak velocity and movement extent as well as between the articulators' spatial coordinates at those kinematic landmarks and movement endpoint was examined both for movements across different target distances (i.e., across vowel height) and within target distances (i.e., within vowel height). Taken together, results suggest that jaw and tongue movements for these CV and VC syllables are mostly under feedforward control but with feedback-based contributions. One type of feedback-driven compensatory adjustment appears to regulate movement duration based on variation in peak acceleration. Results from a statistical model based on multiple regression are presented to illustrate how the relative strength of these feedback contributions can be estimated.
Brown, Jennifer; Pan, Wei-Xing; Dudman, Joshua Tate
2014-05-21
Dysfunction of the basal ganglia produces severe deficits in the timing, initiation, and vigor of movement. These diverse impairments suggest a control system gone awry. In engineered systems, feedback is critical for control. By contrast, models of the basal ganglia highlight feedforward circuitry and ignore intrinsic feedback circuits. In this study, we show that feedback via axon collaterals of substantia nigra projection neurons control the gain of the basal ganglia output. Through a combination of physiology, optogenetics, anatomy, and circuit mapping, we elaborate a general circuit mechanism for gain control in a microcircuit lacking interneurons. Our data suggest that diverse tonic firing rates, weak unitary connections and a spatially diffuse collateral circuit with distinct topography and kinetics from feedforward input is sufficient to implement divisive feedback inhibition. The importance of feedback for engineered systems implies that the intranigral microcircuit, despite its absence from canonical models, could be essential to basal ganglia function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02397.001. Copyright © 2014, Brown et al.
Sain, M. K.; Antsaklis, P. J.; Gejji, R. R.; Wyman, B. F.; Peczkowski, J. L.
1981-01-01
Zames (1981) has observed that there is, in general, no 'separation principle' to guarantee optimality of a division between control law design and filtering of plant uncertainty. Peczkowski and Sain (1978) have solved a model matching problem using transfer functions. Taking into consideration this investigation, Peczkowski et al. (1979) proposed the Total Synthesis Problem (TSP), wherein both the command/output-response and command/control-response are to be synthesized, subject to the plant constraint. The TSP concept can be subdivided into a Nominal Design Problem (NDP), which is not dependent upon specific controller structures, and a Feedback Synthesis Problem (FSP), which is. Gejji (1980) found that NDP was characterized in terms of the plant structural matrices and a single, 'good' transfer function matrix. Sain et al. (1981) have extended this NDP work. The present investigation is concerned with a study of FSP for the unity feedback case. NDP, together with feedback synthesis, is understood as a Total Synthesis Problem.
Thosar, Archana; Patra, Amit; Bhattacharyya, Souvik
2008-07-01
Design of a nonlinear control system for a Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning (VAVAC) plant through feedback linearization is presented in this article. VAVAC systems attempt to reduce building energy consumption while maintaining the primary role of air conditioning. The temperature of the space is maintained at a constant level by establishing a balance between the cooling load generated in the space and the air supply delivered to meet the load. The dynamic model of a VAVAC plant is derived and formulated as a MIMO bilinear system. Feedback linearization is applied for decoupling and linearization of the nonlinear model. Simulation results for a laboratory scale plant are presented to demonstrate the potential of keeping comfort and maintaining energy optimal performance by this methodology. Results obtained with a conventional PI controller and a feedback linearizing controller are compared and the superiority of the proposed approach is clearly established.
Active Disturbance Rejection Control of a Heat Integrated Distillation Column
Al-Kalbani, Fahad; Zhang, Jie; Bisgaard, Thomas
2016-01-01
pressure. However, the control of some HiDC processesis generally difficult due to the strong control loop interaction, high purity of the components and undesired disturbances. Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is used in this paperto control a simulated HiDC for separating benzene-toluene......Heat integrated distillation column (HiDC) is the most energy efficient distillation approach making efficient utilization of internal heat integration through heat pump. The rectifying section acts as a heat source with high pressure, while the stripping section operates as a heat sink with low...
End-Point Contact Force Control with Quantitative Feedback Theory for Mobile Robots
Shuhuan Wen
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Robot force control is an important issue for intelligent mobile robotics. The end-point stiffness of a robot is a key and open problem in the research community. The control strategies are mostly dependent on both the specifications of the task and the environment of the robot. Due to the limited stiffness of the end-effector, we may adopt inherent torque to feedback the oscillations of the controlled force. This paper proposes an effective control strategy which contains a controller using quantitative feedback theory. The nested loop controllers take into account the physical limitation of the system's inner variables and harmful interference. The biggest advantage of the method is its simplicity in both the design process and the implementation of the control algorithm in engineering practice. Taking the one-link manipulator as an example, numerical experiments are carried out to verify the proposed control method. The results show the satisfactory performance.
Nonlinear feedback control of chaotic pendulum in presence of saturation effect
Alasty, Aria [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics, and Automation (CEDRA), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, Tehran 1458889694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: aalasti@sharif.edu; Salarieh, Hassan [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics, and Automation (CEDRA), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, Tehran 1458889694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: salarieh@mehr.sharif.edu
2007-01-15
In present paper, a feedback linearization control is applied to control a chaotic pendulum system. Tracking the desired periodic orbits such as period-one, period-two, and period-four orbits is efficiently achieved. Due to the presence of saturation in real world control signals, the stability of controller is investigated in presence of saturation and sufficient stability conditions are obtained. At first feedback linearization control law is designed, then to avoid the singularity condition, a saturating constraint is applied to the control signal. The stability conditions are obtained analytically. These conditions must be investigated for each specific case numerically. Simulation results show the effectiveness and robustness of proposed controller. A major advantage of this method is its shorter chaotic transient time in compare to other methods such as OGY and Pyragas controllers.
Physiological Feedback Control 2011-2012 Annual Report
2013-01-07
Desai, James R. Baker Jr., Bradford G. Orr, Mark M. Banaszak Holl. The effect of mass transport in the synthesis of partially acetylated dendrimer ...Invention Title: UM 3709 – Dendrimeric Prodrug as a Controlled Release Formulation in Pain Management – Patent Title: Dendrimer Conjugates Patent... Dendrimeric Prodrug as a Controlled Release Formulation in Pain Management – Patent Title: Dendrimer Conjugates Patent/Application Numbers: 61/101,461; 12
Finstein, M. S.; Hogan, J. A.; Sager, J. C.; Cowan, R. M.; Strom, P. F.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)
1999-01-01
Whereas Earth-based composting reactors that effectively control the process are batch operations with bottom-to-top airflow, in extraterrestrial application both the fresh waste and the air need to be introduced from above. Stabilized compost and used air would exit below. This materials flow pattern permits the addition of waste whenever generated, obviating the need for multiple reactors, and the incorporation of a commode in the lid. Top loading in turn dictates top-down aeration, so that the most actively decomposing material (greatest need for heat removal and O2 replenishment) is first encountered. This novel material and aeration pattern was tested in conjunction with temperature feedback process control. Reactor characteristics were: working, volume, 0.15 m3; charge, 2 kg dry biomass per day (comparable to a 3-4 person self-sufficient bioregenerative habitat); retention time, 7 days. Judging from temperature profile, O2 level, air usage, pressure head loss, moisture, and odor, the system was effectively controlled over a 35-day period. Dry matter disappearance averaged 25% (10-42%). The compost product was substantially, though not completely, stabilized. This demonstrates the compatibility of top-wise introduction of waste and air with temperature feedback process control.
Dzielski, John Edward
1988-01-01
Recent developments in the area of nonlinear control theory have shown how coordiante changes in the state and input spaces can be used with nonlinear feedback to transform certain nonlinear ordinary differential equations into equivalent linear equations. These feedback linearization techniques are applied to resolve two problems arising in the control of spacecraft equipped with control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). The first application involves the computation of rate commands for the gimbals that rotate the individual gyroscopes to produce commanded torques on the spacecraft. The second application is to the long-term management of stored momentum in the system of control moment gyroscopes using environmental torques acting on the vehicle. An approach to distributing control effort among a group of redundant actuators is described that uses feedback linearization techniques to parameterize sets of controls which influence a specified subsystem in a desired way. The approach is adapted for use in spacecraft control with double-gimballed gyroscopes to produce an algorithm that avoids problematic gimbal configurations by approximating sets of gimbal rates that drive CMG rotors into desirable configurations. The momentum management problem is stated as a trajectory optimization problem with a nonlinear dynamical constraint. Feedback linearization and collocation are used to transform this problem into an unconstrainted nonlinear program. The approach to trajectory optimization is fast and robust. A number of examples are presented showing applications to the proposed NASA space station.
Chopra, Rajiv; Tang, Kee; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Boyes, Aaron; Bronskill, Michael; Sugar, Linda; Appu, Sree; Klotz, Laurence
2009-01-01
A new MRI-guided therapy is being developed as a minimally invasive treatment for localized prostate cancer utilizing high-intensity ultrasound energy to generate a precise region of thermal coagulation within the prostate gland. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo the capability to produce a spatial heating pattern in the prostate that accurately matched the shape of a target region using transurethral ultrasound heating and active MR temperature feedback. Experiments were performed in a canine model (n = 9) in a 1.5 T MR imager using a prototype device comprising a single planar transducer operated under rotational control. The spatial temperature distribution, measured every 5 s with MR thermometry, was used to adjust the acoustic power and rotation rate in order to achieve a temperature of 55 0 C along the outer boundary of the target region. The results demonstrated the capability to produce accurate spatial heating patterns within the prostate gland. An average temperature of 56.2 ± 0.6 0 C was measured along the outer boundary of the target region across all experiments in this study. The average spatial error between the target boundary and the 55 0 C isotherm was 0.8 ± 0.7 mm (-0.2 to 3.2 mm), and the overall treatment time was ≤20 min for all experiments. Excellent spatial agreement was observed between the temperature information acquired with MRI and the pattern of thermal damage measured on H and E-stained tissue sections. This study demonstrates the benefit of adaptive energy delivery using active MR temperature feedback, and an excellent capability to treat precise regions within the prostate gland with this technology.
Shen, Gang; Zhu, Zhencai; Zhao, Jinsong; Zhu, Weidong; Tang, Yu; Li, Xiang
2017-03-01
This paper focuses on an application of an electro-hydraulic force tracking controller combined with an offline designed feedback controller (ODFC) and an online adaptive compensator in order to improve force tracking performance of an electro-hydraulic force servo system (EHFS). A proportional-integral controller has been employed and a parameter-based force closed-loop transfer function of the EHFS is identified by a continuous system identification algorithm. By taking the identified system model as a nominal plant model, an H ∞ offline design method is employed to establish an optimized feedback controller with consideration of the performance, control efforts, and robustness of the EHFS. In order to overcome the disadvantage of the offline designed controller and cope with the varying dynamics of the EHFS, an online adaptive compensator with a normalized least-mean-square algorithm is cascaded to the force closed-loop system of the EHFS compensated by the ODFC. Some comparative experiments are carried out on a real-time EHFS using an xPC rapid prototype technology, and the proposed controller yields a better force tracking performance improvement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Aelen, P; Jurkov, A; Aulanier, A; Mintchev, M P
2009-01-01
Neural gastric electrical stimulation (NGES) is a new method for invoking gastric contractions under microprocessor control. However, optimization of this technique using feedback mechanisms to minimize power consumption and maximize effectiveness has been lacking. The present pilot study proposes a prototype feedback-controlled neural gastric electric stimulator for the treatment of obesity. Both force-based and inter-electrode impedance-based feedback neurostimulators were implemented and tested. Four mongrel dogs (2 M, 2 F, weight 14.9 ± 2.3 kg) underwent subserosal implantation of two-channel, 1 cm, bipolar electrode leads and two force transducers in the distal antrum. Two of the dogs were stimulated with a force feedback system utilizing the force transducers, and the other two animals were stimulated utilizing an inter-electrode impedance-based feedback system utilizing the proximal electrode leads. Both feedback systems were able to recognize erythromycin-driven contractions of the stomach and were capable of overriding them with NGES-invoked retrograde contractions which exceeded the magnitudes of the erythromycin-driven contractions by an average of 100.6 ± 33.5% in all animals. The NGES-invoked contractions blocked the erythromycin-driven contractions past the proximal electrode pair and induced temporary gastroparesis in the vicinity of the distal force transducer despite the continuing erythromycin infusion. The amplitudes of the erythromycin-invoked contractions in the vicinity of the proximal force transducer decreased abruptly by an average of 47.9 ± 6.3% in all four dogs after triggering-invoked retrograde contractions, regardless of the specific feedback-controlled mechanism. The proposed technique could be helpful for retaining food longer in the stomach, thus inducing early satiety and diminishing food intake
Edge turbulence control on the KT-5C tokamak by feedback using electrostatic probes
Zhai Kan; Wang Cheng; Wen Yizi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Shude; Liu Wandong; Xu Zhizhan
1998-01-01
Experiments on edge turbulence control have been performed on the KT-5C tokamak by feedback using two sets of electrostatic probes as the driving probe and detective probe. The results indicate that the feedback can enhance or reduce the turbulence amplitude depending upon the phase shift and gain of the feedback network. When the feedback with 90 degree phase shift and with certain loop gain is applied, the spectrum component of turbulence is reduced obviously and the fluctuation amplitude of the electron density and electron temperature become lower by about 25%. consistently the particle flux across the magnetic field induced by the electrostatic fluctuation also decreases by about 25%. On the other hand, the feedback with 0 degree or 180 degree or -90 degree phase shift can enhance the amplitude of the edge turbulence. These results indicate a nonlinear mechanism of the influence of feedback on the edge turbulence, which to some extent also reflect a specific nonlinear characteristic of the edge turbulence
JT-60 configuration parameters for feedback control determined by regression analysis
Matsukawa, Makoto; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Ninomiya, Hiromasa (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment)
1991-12-01
The stepwise regression procedure was applied to obtain measurement formulas for equilibrium parameters used in the feedback control of JT-60. This procedure automatically selects variables necessary for the measurements, and selects a set of variables which are not likely to be picked up by physical considerations. Regression equations with stable and small multicollinearity were obtained and it was experimentally confirmed that the measurement formulas obtained through this procedure were accurate enough to be applicable to the feedback control of plasma configurations in JT-60. (author).
JT-60 configuration parameters for feedback control determined by regression analysis
Matsukawa, Makoto; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Ninomiya, Hiromasa
1991-12-01
The stepwise regression procedure was applied to obtain measurement formulas for equilibrium parameters used in the feedback control of JT-60. This procedure automatically selects variables necessary for the measurements, and selects a set of variables which are not likely to be picked up by physical considerations. Regression equations with stable and small multicollinearity were obtained and it was experimentally confirmed that the measurement formulas obtained through this procedure were accurate enough to be applicable to the feedback control of plasma configurations in JT-60. (author)
Complex dynamics of a Holling type II prey-predator system with state feedback control
Jiang Guirong; Lu Qishao; Qian Linning
2007-01-01
The complex dynamics of a Holling type II prey-predator system with impulsive state feedback control is studied in both theoretical and numerical ways. The sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of semi-trivial and positive periodic solutions are obtained by using the Poincare map and the analogue of the Poincare criterion. The qualitative analysis shows that the positive periodic solution bifurcates from the semi-trivial solution through a fold bifurcation. The bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, and phase portraits are illustrated by an example, in which the chaotic solutions appear via a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations. The superiority of the state feedback control strategy is also discussed
Transition from weak to strong measurements by nonlinear quantum feedback control
Zhang Jing; Liu Yuxi; Wu Rebing; Li Chunwen; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong
2010-01-01
We find that feedback control may induce 'pseudo'-nonlinear dynamics in a damped harmonic oscillator, whose centroid trajectory in the phase space behaves like a classical nonlinear system. Thus, similar to nonlinear amplifiers (e.g., rf-driven Josephson junctions), feedback control on the harmonic oscillator can induce nonlinear bifurcation, which can be used to amplify small signals and further to measure quantum states of qubits. Using the cavity QED and the circuit QED systems as examples, we show how to apply our method to measuring the states of two-level atoms and superconducting charge qubits.
Low Voltage CMOS Fully Differential Current Feedback Amplifier with Controllable 3-dB Bandwidth
Madian, A.H.; Mahmoud, S.A.; Ashour, M.A.; Soliman, A.M.
2008-01-01
This paper presents a new CMOS fully differential current feedback operational amplifier with controllable 3-dB bandwidth suitable for analog data processing and acquisition applications. The FDCFOA has the advantage of a wide range controllable 3-dB bandwidth (∼57 MHz to 500 MHz) without changing the feedback resistance this guarantee the stability of the circuit. The FDCFOA has a standby current of 320μA. PSpice simulations of the FDCFOA block were given using 0.25μm CMOS technology from AMI MOSIS and dual supply voltages ±0.75 V
An overview of neural function and feedback control in human communication.
Hood, L J
1998-01-01
The speech and hearing mechanisms depend on accurate sensory information and intact feedback mechanisms to facilitate communication. This article provides a brief overview of some components of the nervous system important for human communication and some electrophysiological methods used to measure cortical function in humans. An overview of automatic control and feedback mechanisms in general and as they pertain to the speech motor system and control of the hearing periphery is also presented, along with a discussion of how the speech and auditory systems interact.
Grid-Current-Feedback Control for LCL-Filtered Grid Converters With Enhanced Stability
Xin, Zhen; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a Second-Order-Generalized- Integrator (SOGI)-based time delay compensation method for extending the stable region of dual-loop Grid-Current-Feedback (GCF) control system. According to the analysis, stable region of the dual-loop system should be designed below a certain...... critical frequency, before time delay compensation method can be applied. To always meet the requirement, relationship between single-loop converter-current-feedback and dual-loop GCF control is clarified, before a robust inner-loop gain for the dualloop GCF scheme is determined. Enforcing this gain allows...
Controlling chaos in RCL-shunted Josephson junction by delayed linear feedback
Feng Yuling; Shen Ke
2008-01-01
The resistively-capacitively-inductively-shunted (RCL-shunted) Josephson junction (RCLSJJ) shows chaotic behaviour under some parameter conditions. Here a scheme for controlling chaos in the RCLSJJ is presented based on the linear feedback theory. Numerical simulations show that this scheme can be effectively used to control chaotic states in this junction into stable periodic states. Moreover, the different stable period states with different period numbers can be obtained by appropriately adjusting the feedback intensity and delay time without any pre-knowledge of this system required
Integrated Heat Air & Moisture Modeling and control
Schijndel, van A.W.M.
2007-01-01
The paper presents a recently developed Heat Air & Moisture Laboratory in SimuLink. The simulation laboratory facilitates the integration of the following models: (1) a whole building model; (2) Heating Venting and Air-Conditioning and primary systems; (3) 2D indoor airflow, 3D Heat Air & Moisture
Partial state feedback control of chaotic neural network and its application
He Guoguang; Shrimali, Manish Dev; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2007-01-01
The chaos control in the chaotic neural network is studied using the partial state feedback with a control signal from a few control neurons. The controlled CNN converges to one of the stored patterns with a period which depends on the initial conditions, i.e., the set of control neurons and other control parameters. We show that the controlled CNN can distinguish between two initial patterns even if they have a small difference. This implies that such a controlled CNN can be feasibly applied to information processing such as pattern recognition
Neural network-based optimal adaptive output feedback control of a helicopter UAV.
Nodland, David; Zargarzadeh, Hassan; Jagannathan, Sarangapani
2013-07-01
Helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are widely used for both military and civilian operations. Because the helicopter UAVs are underactuated nonlinear mechanical systems, high-performance controller design for them presents a challenge. This paper introduces an optimal controller design via an output feedback for trajectory tracking of a helicopter UAV, using a neural network (NN). The output-feedback control system utilizes the backstepping methodology, employing kinematic and dynamic controllers and an NN observer. The online approximator-based dynamic controller learns the infinite-horizon Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation in continuous time and calculates the corresponding optimal control input by minimizing a cost function, forward-in-time, without using the value and policy iterations. Optimal tracking is accomplished by using a single NN utilized for the cost function approximation. The overall closed-loop system stability is demonstrated using Lyapunov analysis. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design for trajectory tracking.
Controllable recirculators with charged capacitors in a feedback loop
Malevich, I.A.; Postoyanov, Yu.I.; Efremenko, D.A.
1975-01-01
Devices for generating stable pulse trains in the 100 nsec-10 μsec range and trains of paired pulses with a controllable generation period are described. The parameters of the long-term generation-frequency stability and the probability density of short fluctuations of the period were investigated
Quadratic theory and feedback controllers for linear time delay systems
Lee, E.B.
1976-01-01
Recent research on the design of controllers for systems having time delays is discussed. Results for the ''open loop'' and ''closed loop'' designs will be presented. In both cases results for minimizing a quadratic cost functional are given. The usefulness of these results is not known, but similar results for the non-delay case are being routinely applied. (author)
Intuitive control of self-propelled microjets with haptic feedback
Pacchierotti, Claudio; Magdanz, V.; Medina-Sanchez, M.; Schmidt, O.G.; Prattichizzo, D.; Misra, Sarthak
2015-01-01
Self-propelled microrobots have recently shown promising results in several scenarios at the microscale, such as targeted drug delivery and micromanipulation of cells. However, none of the steering systems available in the literature enable humans to intuitively and effectively control these
Temporal control and compensation for perturbed voicing feedback
Mitsuya, Takashi; MacDonald, Ewen; Munhall, Kevin G.
2014-01-01
Previous research employing a real-time auditory perturbation paradigm has shown that talkers monitor their own speech attributes such as fundamental frequency, vowel intensity, vowel formants, and fricative noise as part of speech motor control. In the case of vowel formants or fricative noise...
Progress in real-time feedback control systems in RFX
Barana, O.; Luchetta, A. E-mail: adriano.luchetta@igi.cnr.it; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C
2004-06-01
Major modifications of the RFX load assembly and power supplies are in progress to allow extensive active control schemes, such as equilibrium and plasma position control and innovative control of the MHD modes. The digital control system is implemented in VME64 using a distributed architecture. The use of a 'stable' operating system that is likely to survive some generations of processors can help coping with evolution of technology. PowerPC and Pentium processors were thus considered as candidates and tested and the first one has been selected due to the better performance in floating point computation. Wind River VxWorks has been chosen as real-time operating system. 100 Mbit switched Ethernet has been evaluated for real-time communication by using the user datagram protocol (UDP). Measurements have been executed on a prototype system to assess data transfer latency, jitter and reliability and the results confirm that the solution is suitable for the application. The paper describes in detail the reasons for the choice in the hardware components. Results from several tests comparing the performance of different solutions are also provided.
Controlling a negative loaded hydraulic cylinder using pressure feedback
Hansen, M.R.; Andersen, T.O.
2010-01-01
This paper is concerned with the inherent oscillatory nature of pressure compensated velocity control of a hydraulic cylinder subjected to a negative load and suspended by means of an over-center valve. Initially, a linearized stability analysis of such a hydraulic circuit is carried out clearly ...... in a nonlinear time domain simulation model validating the linear stability analysis....
Electromagnetic Signal Feedback Control for Proximity Detection Systems
Smith, Adam K.
Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel in the United States and remains an essential source of energy. While more than half of coal production comes from surface mining, nearly twice as many workers are employed by underground operations. One of the key pieces of equipment used in underground coal mining is the continuous mining machine. These large and powerful machines are operated in confined spaces by remote control. Since 1984, 40 mine workers in the U. S. have been killed when struck or pinned by a continuous mining machine. It is estimated that a majority of these accidents could have been prevented with the application of proximity detection systems. While proximity detection systems can significantly increase safety around a continuous mining machine, there are some system limitations. Commercially available proximity warning systems for continuous mining machines use magnetic field generators to detect workers and establish safe work areas around the machines. Several environmental factors, however, can influence and distort the magnetic fields. To minimize these effects, a control system has been developed using electromagnetic field strength and generator current to stabilize and control field drift induced by internal and external environmental factors. A laboratory test set-up was built using a ferrite-core magnetic field generator to produce a stable magnetic field. Previous work based on a field-invariant magnetic flux density model, which generically describes the electromagnetic field, is expanded upon. The analytically established transferable shell-based flux density distribution model is used to experimentally validate the control system. By controlling the current input to the ferrite-core generator, a more reliable and consistent magnetic field is produced. Implementation of this technology will improve accuracy and performance of existing commercial proximity detection systems. These research results will help reduce the risk of traumatic
\\mathscr{H}_2 optimal control techniques for resistive wall mode feedback in tokamaks
Clement, Mitchell; Hanson, Jeremy; Bialek, Jim; Navratil, Gerald
2018-04-01
DIII-D experiments show that a new, advanced algorithm enables resistive wall mode (RWM) stability control in high performance discharges using external coils. DIII-D can excite strong, locked or nearly locked external kink modes whose rotation frequencies and growth rates are on the order of the magnetic flux diffusion time of the vacuum vessel wall. Experiments have shown that modern control techniques like linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control require less current than the proportional controller in use at DIII-D when using control coils external to DIII-D’s vacuum vessel. Experiments were conducted to develop control of a rotating n = 1 perturbation using an LQG controller derived from VALEN and external coils. Feedback using this LQG algorithm outperformed a proportional gain only controller in these perturbation experiments over a range of frequencies. Results from high βN experiments also show that advanced feedback techniques using external control coils may be as effective as internal control coil feedback using classical control techniques.
Watanabe, Takashi; Sugi, Yoshihiro
2010-01-01
Feedforward controller would be useful for hybrid Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) system using powered orthotic devices. In this paper, Feedback Error Learning (FEL) controller for FES (FEL-FES controller) was examined using an inverse statics model (ISM) with an inverse dynamics model (IDM) to realize a feedforward FES controller. For FES application, the ISM was tested in learning off line using training data obtained by PID control of very slow movements. Computer simulation tests ...
Ideomotor feedback control in a recurrent neural network.
Galtier, Mathieu
2015-06-01
The architecture of a neural network controlling an unknown environment is presented. It is based on a randomly connected recurrent neural network from which both perception and action are simultaneously read and fed back. There are two concurrent learning rules implementing a sort of ideomotor control: (i) perception is learned along the principle that the network should predict reliably its incoming stimuli; (ii) action is learned along the principle that the prediction of the network should match a target time series. The coherent behavior of the neural network in its environment is a consequence of the interaction between the two principles. Numerical simulations show a promising performance of the approach, which can be turned into a local and better "biologically plausible" algorithm.
Adrian TOADER
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The paper was conceived in two parts. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the main steps of adaptive output feedback control for non-affine uncertain systems, having a known relative degree. The main paradigm of this approach was the feedback linearization (dynamic inversion with neural network augmentation. Meanwhile, based on new contributions of the authors, a new paradigm, that of robust servomechanism problem solution, has been added to the controller architecture. The current Part II of the paper presents the validation of the controller hereby obtained by using the longitudinal channel of a hovering VTOL-type aircraft as mathematical model.
Fuzzy PID Feedback Control of Piezoelectric Actuator with Feedforward Compensation
Ziqiang Chi; Minping Jia; Qingsong Xu
2014-01-01
Piezoelectric actuator is widely used in the field of micro/nanopositioning. However, piezoelectric hysteresis introduces nonlinearity to the system, which is the major obstacle to achieve a precise positioning. In this paper, the Preisach model is employed to describe the hysteresis characteristic of piezoelectric actuator and an inverse Preisach model is developed to construct a feedforward controller. Considering that the analytical expression of inverse Preisach model is difficult to deri...
Ghandour, J; Aberkane, S; Ponsart, J-C
2014-01-01
In this paper the control problem of a quadrotor vehicle experiencing a rotor failure is investigated. We develop a Feedback linearization approach to design a controller whose task is to make the vehicle performs trajectory following. Then we use the same approach to design a controller whose task is to make the vehicle enter a stable spin around its vertical axis, while retaining zero angular velocities around the other axis when a rotor failure is present. These conditions can be exploited to design a second control loop, which is used to perform trajectory following. The proposed double control loop architecture allows the vehicle to perform both trajectory and roll/pitch control. At last, to test the robustness of the feedback linearization technique, we applied wind to the quadrotor in mid flight
Nonlinear Feedback Control and Stability Analysis of a Proof-of-Work Blockchain
Geir Hovland
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper a novel feedback controller and stability analysis of a blockchain implementation is developed by using a control engineering perspective. The controller output equals the difficulty adjustment in the mining process while the feedback variable is the average block time over a certain time period. The computational power (hash rate of the miners is considered a disturbance in the model. The developed controller is tested against a simulation model with constant disturbance, step and ramp responses as well as with a high-frequency sinusoidal disturbance. Stability and a fast response is demonstrated in all these cases with a controller which adjusts it's output at every new block. Finally the performance of the controller is implemented and demonstrated on a testnet with a constant hash rate as well as on the mainnet of a public open source blockchain project.
Yu, Jue; Zhuang, Jian; Yu, Dehong
2015-01-01
This paper concerns a state feedback integral control using a Lyapunov function approach for a rotary direct drive servo valve (RDDV) while considering parameter uncertainties. Modeling of this RDDV servovalve reveals that its mechanical performance is deeply influenced by friction torques and flow torques; however, these torques are uncertain and mutable due to the nature of fluid flow. To eliminate load resistance and to achieve satisfactory position responses, this paper develops a state feedback control that integrates an integral action and a Lyapunov function. The integral action is introduced to address the nonzero steady-state error; in particular, the Lyapunov function is employed to improve control robustness by adjusting the varying parameters within their value ranges. This new controller also has the advantages of simple structure and ease of implementation. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed controller can achieve higher control accuracy and stronger robustness. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Co-Design of Event Generator and Dynamic Output Feedback Controller for LTI Systems
Dan Ma
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a co-design method of the event generator and the dynamic output feedback controller for a linear time-invariant (LIT system. The event-triggered condition on the sensor-to-controller and the controller-to-actuator depends on the plant output and the controller output, respectively. A sufficient condition on the existence of the event generator and the dynamic output feedback controller is proposed and the co-design problem can be converted into the feasibility of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The LTI system is asymptotically stable under the proposed event-triggered controller and also reduces the computing resources with respect to the time-triggered one. In the end, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Mosconi, Matthew W; Mohanty, Suman; Greene, Rachel K; Cook, Edwin H; Vaillancourt, David E; Sweeney, John A
2015-02-04
Sensorimotor abnormalities are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and among the earliest manifestations of the disorder. They have been studied far less than the social-communication and cognitive deficits that define ASD, but a mechanistic understanding of sensorimotor abnormalities in ASD may provide key insights into the neural underpinnings of the disorder. In this human study, we examined rapid, precision grip force contractions to determine whether feedforward mechanisms supporting initial motor output before sensory feedback can be processed are disrupted in ASD. Sustained force contractions also were examined to determine whether reactive adjustments to ongoing motor behavior based on visual feedback are altered. Sustained force was studied across multiple force levels and visual gains to assess motor and visuomotor mechanisms, respectively. Primary force contractions of individuals with ASD showed greater peak rate of force increases and large transient overshoots. Individuals with ASD also showed increased sustained force variability that scaled with force level and was more severe when visual gain was highly amplified or highly degraded. When sustaining a constant force level, their reactive adjustments were more periodic than controls, and they showed increased reliance on slower feedback mechanisms. Feedforward and feedback mechanism alterations each were associated with more severe social-communication impairments in ASD. These findings implicate anterior cerebellar circuits involved in feedforward motor control and posterior cerebellar circuits involved in transforming visual feedback into precise motor adjustments in ASD. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352015-11$15.00/0.
Auditory reafferences: The influence of real-time feedback on movement control
Christian eKennel
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Auditory reafferences are real-time auditory products created by a person’s own movements. Whereas the interdependency of action and perception is generally well studied, the auditory feedback channel and the influence of perceptual processes during movement execution remain largely unconsidered. We argue that movements have a rhythmic character that is closely connected to sound, making it possible to manipulate auditory reafferences online to understand their role in motor control. We examined if step sounds, occurring as a by-product of running, have an influence on the performance of a complex movement task. Twenty participants completed a hurdling task in three auditory feedback conditions: a control condition with normal auditory feedback, a white noise condition in which sound was masked, and a delayed auditory feedback condition. Overall time and kinematic data were collected. Results show that delayed auditory feedback led to a significantly slower overall time and changed kinematic parameters. Our findings complement previous investigations in a natural movement situation with nonartificial auditory cues. Our results support the existing theoretical understanding of action–perception coupling and hold potential for applied work, where naturally occurring movement sounds can be implemented in the motor learning processes.
Auditory reafferences: the influence of real-time feedback on movement control.
Kennel, Christian; Streese, Lukas; Pizzera, Alexandra; Justen, Christoph; Hohmann, Tanja; Raab, Markus
2015-01-01
Auditory reafferences are real-time auditory products created by a person's own movements. Whereas the interdependency of action and perception is generally well studied, the auditory feedback channel and the influence of perceptual processes during movement execution remain largely unconsidered. We argue that movements have a rhythmic character that is closely connected to sound, making it possible to manipulate auditory reafferences online to understand their role in motor control. We examined if step sounds, occurring as a by-product of running, have an influence on the performance of a complex movement task. Twenty participants completed a hurdling task in three auditory feedback conditions: a control condition with normal auditory feedback, a white noise condition in which sound was masked, and a delayed auditory feedback condition. Overall time and kinematic data were collected. Results show that delayed auditory feedback led to a significantly slower overall time and changed kinematic parameters. Our findings complement previous investigations in a natural movement situation with non-artificial auditory cues. Our results support the existing theoretical understanding of action-perception coupling and hold potential for applied work, where naturally occurring movement sounds can be implemented in the motor learning processes.
Investigation of control system of traction electric drive with feedbacks on load
Kuznetsov, N. K.; Iov, I. A.; Iov, A. A.
2018-03-01
In the article, by the example of a walking excavator, the results of a study of a control system of traction electric drive with a rigid and flexible feedback on the load are mentioned. Based on the analysis of known works, the calculation scheme has been chosen; the equations of motion of the electromechanical system have been obtained, taking into account the elasticity of the rope and feedbacks on the load in the elastic element. A simulation model of this system has been developed and mathematical modeling of the transient processes to evaluate the influence of feedback on the dynamic characteristics of the mechanism and its efficiency of work was carried out. It is shown that the use of rigid and flexible feedbacks makes it possible to reduce dynamic loads in the traction mechanism and to limit the elastic oscillation of the executive mechanism in transient operating modes in comparison with the standard control system; however, there is some decrease in productivity. It has been also established that the sign-variable of the loading of the electric drive, connected with the opening of the backlashes in the gearbox due to the action of feedbacks on the load in the elastic element, under certain conditions, can lead to undesirable phenomena in the operation of the drive and a decrease in the reliability of its operation.
Using Feedback Error Learning for Control of Electro Hydraulic Servo System by Laguerre
Amir Reza Zare Bidaki
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new Laguerre controller is proposed to control the electro hydraulic servo system. The proposed controller uses feedback error learning method and leads to significantly improve performance in terms of settling time and amplitude of control signal rather than other controllers. All derived results are validated by simulation of nonlinear mathematical model of the system. The simulation results show the advantages of the proposed method for improved control in terms of both settling time and amplitude of control signal.
A high precision dual feedback discrete control system designed for satellite trajectory simulator
Liu, Ximin; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng; Xu, Nan
2005-08-01
Cooperating with the free-space laser communication terminals, the satellite trajectory simulator is used to test the acquisition, pointing, tracking and communicating performances of the terminals. So the satellite trajectory simulator plays an important role in terminal ground test and verification. Using the double-prism, Sun etc in our group designed a satellite trajectory simulator. In this paper, a high precision dual feedback discrete control system designed for the simulator is given and a digital fabrication of the simulator is made correspondingly. In the dual feedback discrete control system, Proportional- Integral controller is used in velocity feedback loop and Proportional- Integral- Derivative controller is used in position feedback loop. In the controller design, simplex method is introduced and an improvement to the method is made. According to the transfer function of the control system in Z domain, the digital fabrication of the simulator is given when it is exposed to mechanism error and moment disturbance. Typically, when the mechanism error is 100urad, the residual standard error of pitching angle, azimuth angle, x-coordinate position and y-coordinate position are 0.49urad, 6.12urad, 4.56urad, 4.09urad respectively. When the moment disturbance is 0.1rad, the residual standard error of pitching angle, azimuth angle, x-coordinate position and y-coordinate position are 0.26urad, 0.22urad, 0.16urad, 0.15urad respectively. The digital fabrication results demonstrate that the dual feedback discrete control system designed for the simulator can achieve the anticipated high precision performance.
Including model uncertainty in the model predictive control with output feedback
Rodrigues M.A.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of an efficient numerical output feedback robust model predictive controller for open-loop stable systems. Stability of the closed loop is guaranteed by using an infinite horizon predictive controller and a stable state observer. The performance and the computational burden of this approach are compared to a robust predictive controller from the literature. The case used for this study is based on an industrial gasoline debutanizer column.
Implementation of Real-Time Feedback Flow Control Algorithms on a Canonical Testbed
Tian, Ye; Song, Qi; Cattafesta, Louis
2005-01-01
This report summarizes the activities on "Implementation of Real-Time Feedback Flow Control Algorithms on a Canonical Testbed." The work summarized consists primarily of two parts. The first part summarizes our previous work and the extensions to adaptive ID and control algorithms. The second part concentrates on the validation of adaptive algorithms by applying them to a vibration beam test bed. Extensions to flow control problems are discussed.
Suzete Chiviacowsky
2012-06-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One factor that has consistently been shown to enhance learning in typical participants is self-controlled practice. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled feedback found previously in non-disabled adults would also be found in adults with Down syndrome. METHODS: Participants with Down syndrome practiced a linear positioning task. In the self-control group, learners were provided with feedback about the movement outcome at their request. Each participant in the yoked group received the same feedback schedule as their counterpart in the self-control group. RESULTS: Learning was assessed by a retention test, consisting of 10 trials without feedback, one day later. The self-control group demonstrated more effective learning of the task than the yoked group. CONCLUSION: Self-controlled feedback enhanced motor learning in participants with Down syndrome.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Uma variável que consistentemente tem mostrado melhorar a aprendizagem em sujeitos típicos é a prática autocontrolada. OBJETIVOS: Examinar se os benefícios do feedback autocontrolado para a aprendizagem, encontrados previamente em adultos típicos, também serão encontrados em adultos que apresentam a Síndrome de Down. MÉTODOS: Participantes com a Síndrome de Down praticaram uma tarefa de posicionamento linear. Os aprendizes do grupo autocontrolado receberam feedback sobre o resultado do movimento, quando solicitado. Já os participantes do grupo pareado receberam o mesmo arranjo de feedback dos sujeitos do grupo autocontrolado. RESULTADOS: A aprendizagem foi avaliada por meio de um teste de retenção, o qual consistiu em dez tentativas sem feedback, um dia depois da fase de prática. O grupo autocontrolado demonstrou aprendizagem mais efetiva da tarefa do que o grupo pareado. CONCLUSÃO: Feedback autocontrolado melhora a aprendizagem motora em sujeitos com a Síndrome de Down.
Dynamic model for the control system simulation and design of a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor
Zhang Yuai; Liu Longzhi; Ma Changwen
1999-01-01
The author develops a nonlinear dynamic model used in a wide range control system simulation for a 200 MW Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR-200). Besides a one-point neutron kinetics equation and temperature feedback based on the lumped fuel and coolant temperature, which are the usual methods used in modeling of PWR, two other factors are also considered in order to suit the wide range operation. The first consideration is the natural circulation in the primary loop because it affects the heat transfer coefficients in the core and in the primary heat exchanger (PHE). The second consideration is the flow rate variation in the secondary loop which leads to some nonlinear properties. The simulation results show that the model is accurate enough for control system simulation. Some model reduction basis can be obtained through the dynamic analysis
An Integrated Control System for Heating and Indoor Climate Applications
Tahersima, Fatemeh
2012-01-01
which geothermal heat pump, solar driven heat pumps and the other types are categorized as renewable or renewable energy sources. In the present study, we investigated modeling and control of hydronic heat emitters integrated with a ground-source heat pump. Optimization of the system performance...... in terms of energy efficiency, associated energy cost and occupants’ thermal comfort is the main objective to be fulfilled via design of an integrated controller. We also proposed control strategies to manage energy consumption of the building to turn domestic heat demands into a flexible load in the smart...... in order to maximize the heat pump’s efficiency and by this means reduce the power consumption of the heat pump. The hypothesis is that such an optimal point coincides with saturation of at least one of the subsystems control valves. The idea is implemented experimentally using simple PI and on...
Model-Based State Feedback Controller Design for a Turbocharged Diesel Engine with an EGR System
Tianpu Dong
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a method for the control of transient exhaust gas recirculation (EGR systems. Firstly, a state space model of the air system is developed by simplifying a mean value model. The state space model is linearized by using linearization theory and validated by the GT-Power data with an operating point of the diesel engine. Secondly, a state feedback controller based on the intake oxygen mass fraction is designed for EGR control. Since direct measurement of the intake oxygen mass fraction is unavailable on the engine, the estimation method for intake oxygen mass fraction has been proposed in this paper. The control strategy is analyzed by using co-simulation with the Matlab/Simulink and GT-Powers software. Finally, the whole control system is experimentally validated against experimental data of a turbocharged diesel engine. The control effect of the state feedback controller compared with PID controller proved to be further verify the feasibility and advantages of the proposed state feedback controller.
Design of output feedback UPFC controller for damping of electromechanical oscillations using PSO
Shayeghi, H. [Technical Engineering Dept., Univ. of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Dept., Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran); Jalilzadeh, S.; Safari, A. [Technical Engineering Dept., Zanjan Univ., Zanjan (Iran)
2009-10-15
In this paper, a novel method for the design of output feedback controller for unified power flow controller (UPFC) is developed. The selection of the output feedback gains for the UPFC controllers is converted to an optimization problem with the time domain-based objective function which is solved by a particle swarm optimization technique (PSO) that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. Only local and available state variables are adopted as the input signals of each controller for the decentralized design. Thus, structure of the designed UPFC controller is simple and easy to implement. To ensure the robustness of the proposed stabilizers, the design process takes into account a wide range of operating conditions and system configurations. The effectiveness of the proposed controller for damping low frequency oscillations is tested and demonstrated through nonlinear time-domain simulation and some performance indices studies. The results analysis reveals that the designed PSO-based output feedback UPFC damping controller has an excellent capability in damping power system low frequency oscillations and enhance greatly the dynamic stability of the power systems. Moreover, the system performance analysis under different operating conditions show that the {delta}{sub E} based controller is superior to both the m{sub B} based controller and conventional power system stablizer. (author)
Scheduling of radio-controlled heating load
Fox, B.; McCartney, A.I.; McCann, B.M.
1998-01-01
An economic loading program has been adapted to enable it to obtain an optimum heat-load profile to meet the forecast heat requirement. The heat load is represented by a 'generator' whose load is constrained to be negative. The incremental cost of this unit is a heat energy price. This is adjusted to obtain a heat profile containing the requisite energy. The profile is then used by a dynamic programming algorithm to derive a commitment pattern for each block. A case study is presented which shows that the procedure can minimise heat energy cost. It is also shown that use of the proposed method results in less generator load cycling. This reduced regulation duty should improve reliability. (author)
Robust Feedback Linearization-based Control Design for a Wheeled Mobile Robot
Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard
This paper considers the trajectory tracking problem for a four-wheel driven, four-wheel steered mobile robot moving in outdoor terrain. The robot is modeled as a non-holonomic dynamic system subject to pure rolling, no-slip constraints. A nonlinear trajectory tracking feedback control law based...
Support surface related changes in feedforward and feedback control of standing posture.
Mohapatra, Sambit; Kukkar, Komal K; Aruin, Alexander S
2014-02-01
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different support surfaces on feedforward and feedback components of postural control. Nine healthy subjects were exposed to external perturbations applied to their shoulders while standing on a rigid platform, foam, and wobble board with eyes open or closed. Electrical activity of nine trunk and leg muscles and displacements of the center of pressure were recorded and analyzed during the time frames typical of feedforward and feedback postural adjustments. Feedforward control of posture was characterized by earlier activation of anterior muscles when the subjects stood on foam compared to a wobble board or a firm surface. In addition, the magnitude of feedforward muscle activity was the largest when the foam was used. During the feedback control, anterior muscles were activated prior to posterior muscles irrespective of the nature of surface. Moreover, the largest muscle activity was seen when the supporting surface was foam. Maximum CoP displacement occurred when subjects were standing on a rigid surface. Altering support surface affects both feedforward and feedback components of postural control. This information should be taken into consideration in planning rehabilitation interventions geared towards improvement of balance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Observer-based output-feedback control to eliminate torsional drill-string vibrations
Vromen, T.G.M.; Wouw, van de N.; Doris, A.; Astrid, P.; Nijmeijer, H.
2014-01-01
Torsional stick-slip vibrations decrease the performance and reliability of drilling systems used for the exploration of energy and mineral resources. In this work, we present the design of a nonlinear observer-based output-feedback control strategy to eliminate these vibrations. We apply the
Mrňa, Libor; Šarbort, Martin; Řeřucha, Šimon; Jedlička, Petr
2012-01-01
Roč. 39, NOV (2012), s. 784-791 ISSN 1875-3892. [LANE 2012. Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering /7./ International Conference on Photonic Technologies. Fürth, 12.11.2012-15.12.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : laser welding * feedback control * frequency analysis * adaptive beam shaping Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers
Monolithically Integrated Light Feedback Control Circuit for Blue/UV LED Smart Package
Koladouz Esfahani, Z.; Tohidian, M.; van Zeijl, H.W.; Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza; Zhang, G.Q.
2017-01-01
Given the performance decay of high-power light-emitting diode (LED) chips over time and package condition changes, having a reliable output light for sensitive applications is a point of concern. In this study, a light feedback control circuit, including blue-selective photodiodes, for
Plasma luminescence feedback control system for precise ultrashort pulse laser tissue ablation
Kim, Beop-Min; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Gold, David M.; Darrow, Christopher B.; Marion, John E., II; Da Silva, Luiz B.
1998-05-01
Plasma luminescence spectroscopy was used for precise ablation of bone tissue without damaging nearby soft tissue using an ultrashort pulse laser. Strong contrast of the luminescence spectra between bone marrow and spinal cord provided the real time feedback control so bone tissue is selectively ablated while preserving the spinal cord.
Lin, Jih-Hsuan
2015-06-01
In Asia, dance games are among the most popular types of exergames. Whereas traditional dance-based games emphasize step movements on a dance pad, more recent dance games emphasize intuitive dance movements using simple controllers or players' own bodies to "just dance." However, because of limited space and access, young adults in Taiwan often do not use these games. Popular dance videos on YouTube are more readily available to students because these videos can be accessed on a computer. Therefore, the current study examines the effects of interactivity (the role of feedback) and controller use on participants' physiological and psychological outcomes during exergames. The dance game "Just Dance 3" (Ubisoft, Montreuil, France) was chosen as the stimulus for this study. Participants danced through one song for rehearsal and warm-up, followed by three songs for the experiment, which lasted approximately 12 minutes. One hundred twenty-nine college students participated in a 2×2×2 (interactivity, feedback versus no feedback; controller, with versus without; sex, male versus female) between-subject factorial design. A series of 2×2×2 (interactivity, controller, and sex) analyses of variance showed no significant differences in interaction effects on participants' heart rates, blood pressures, body movements, step counts, or perceived psychological outcomes. Dance game videos without feedback are also effective tools for achieving moderate-level exercise intensity. These videos can supplement the limited access to games in Asian countries, such as Taiwan.
A Three-Year Feedback Study of a Remote Laboratory Used in Control Engineering Studies
Chevalier, Amélie; Copot, Cosmin; Ionescu, Clara; De Keyser, Robin
2017-01-01
This paper discusses the results of a feedback study for a remote laboratory used in the education of control engineering students. The goal is to show the effectiveness of the remote laboratory on examination results. To provide an overview, the two applications of the remote laboratory are addressed: 1) the Stewart platform, and 2) the quadruple…
Jia Li-Xin; Dai Hao; Hui Meng
2010-01-01
This paper focuses on the synchronisation between fractional-order and integer-order chaotic systems. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and numerical differentiation, a nonlinear feedback controller is obtained to achieve the synchronisation between fractional-order and integer-order chaotic systems. Numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method
Operating wind turbines in strong wind conditions by using feedforward-feedback control
Feng, Ju; Sheng, Wen Zhong
2014-01-01
Due to the increasing penetration of wind energy into power systems, it becomes critical to reduce the impact of wind energy on the stability and reliability of the overall power system. In precedent works, Shen and his co-workers developed a re-designed operation schema to run wind turbines in strong wind conditions based on optimization method and standard PI feedback control, which can prevent the typical shutdowns of wind turbines when reaching the cut-out wind speed. In this paper, a new control strategy combing the standard PI feedback control with feedforward controls using the optimization results is investigated for the operation of variable-speed pitch-regulated wind turbines in strong wind conditions. It is shown that the developed control strategy is capable of smoothening the power output of wind turbine and avoiding its sudden showdown at high wind speeds without worsening the loads on rotor and blades
Pyragas, V.; Pyragas, K.
2011-01-01
We propose a simple adaptive delayed feedback control algorithm for stabilization of unstable periodic orbits with unknown periods. The state dependent time delay is varied continuously towards the period of controlled orbit according to a gradient-descent method realized through three simple ordinary differential equations. We demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm with the Roessler and Mackey-Glass chaotic systems. The stability of the controlled orbits is proven by computation of the Lyapunov exponents of linearized equations. -- Highlights: → A simple adaptive modification of the delayed feedback control algorithm is proposed. → It enables the control of unstable periodic orbits with unknown periods. → The delay time is varied continuously according to a gradient descend method. → The algorithm is embodied by three simple ordinary differential equations. → The validity of the algorithm is proven by computation of the Lyapunov exponents.
To Stabilize Power Systems from Various Kind of Oscillations using a State Feedback Controller
Afridi, M. A.
2012-01-01
Damping of electromechanical oscillations in power systems is one of the major concerns in the operation of power system since many years. These oscillations cause improper of the power system incorporating losses. This thesis work presents the coordinated AVR+PSS structure, called the Desensitized four loops Regulator, designed to damp these oscillations in the power system. It is shown here that it is possible to transform the structure of this controller into any standard IEEE AVR+PSS structure. The AVR+PSS structure obtained through this structure is efficient to damp out many types of oscillations present in the Power system. These models are to be incorporated with the generator models to get a power system model with state feedback control. On simulating the system in Simulink with the controllers we have obtained the power system model with state feedback control and observed that how these controllers are helpful in damping the oscillations. (author)