Open Channel Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Vertical Finned Plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Joo Hyun; Heo, Jeong Hwan; Chung, Bum Jin
2013-01-01
The natural convection heat transfer of vertical plate fin was investigated experimentally. Heat transfer systems were replaced by mass-transfer systems, based on the analogy concept. The experimental results lie within the predictions of the existing heat transfer correlations of plate-fin for the natural convections. An overlapped thermal boundary layers caused increasing heat transfer, and an overlapped momentum boundary layers caused decreasing heat transfer. As the fin height increases, heat transfer was enhanced due to increased inflow from the open side of the fin spacing. When fin spacing and fin height are large, heat transfer was unaffected by the fin spacing and fin height. Passive cooling by natural convection becomes more and more important for the nuclear systems as the station black out really happened at the Fukushima NPPs. In the RCCS (Reactor Cavity Cooling System) of a VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor), natural convection cooling through duct system is adopted. In response to the stack failure event, extra cooling capacity adopting the fin array has to be investigated. The finned plate increases the surface area and the heat transfer increases. However, the plate of fin arrays may increase the pressure drop and the heat transfer decreases. Therefore, in order to enhance the passive cooling with fin arrays, the parameters for the fin arrays should be optimized. According to Welling and Wooldridge, a natural convection on vertical plate fin is function of Gr, Pr, L, t, S, and H. The present work investigated the natural convection heat transfer of a vertical finned plate with varying the fin height and the fin spacing. In order achieve high Rayleigh numbers, an electroplating system was employed and the mass transfer rates were measured using a copper sulfate electroplating system based on the analogy concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oosthuizen, P.H.; Sun, L.; Naylor, D.
2002-01-01
Natural convective heat transfer from a wide heated vertical isothermal plate with adiabatic surfaces above and below the heated surface has been considered. There are a series of equally spaced vertical thin, flat adiabatic surfaces (termed 'slats') near the heated surface, these surfaces being, in general, inclined to the heated surface. The slats are pivoted about their center-point and thus as their angle is changed, the distance of the tip of the slat from the plate changes. The situation considered is an approximate model of a window with a vertical blind, the particular case where the window is hotter than the room air, i.e. where air-conditioning is being used, being considered. The flow has been assumed to be laminar and steady. Fluid properties have been assumed constant except for the density change with temperature that gives rise to the buoyancy forces, this being treated by means of the Biuniqueness type approximation. Although the flow is in general three-dimensional, the flow over each slat is assumed to be the same and attention can therefore be restricted to flow over a single slat by using repeating boundary conditions. The governing equations have been written in dimensionless form and the resulting dimensionless equations have been solved using a commercial finite-element package. The solution has the following parameters: (1) the Rayleigh number (2) the Prandtl number (3) the dimensionless distance of the slat center point (the pivot point) from the surface (4) the dimensionless slat size (5) the dimensionless slat spacing (6) the angle of inclination of the slats. Because of the application that motivated the study, results have only been obtained for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The effect of the other dimensionless variables on the mean dimensionless heat transfer rate from the heated surface has been examined. (author)
Heat transfer in porous medium embedded with vertical plate: Non-equilibrium approach - Part A
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Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Quadir, G. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)
2016-06-08
Heat transfer in a porous medium embedded with vertical flat plate is investigated by using thermal non-equilibrium model. Darcy model is employed to simulate the flow inside porous medium. It is assumed that the heat transfer takes place by natural convection and radiation. The vertical plate is maintained at isothermal temperature. The governing partial differential equations are converted into non-dimensional form and solved numerically using finite element method. Results are presented in terms of isotherms and streamlines for various parameters such as heat transfer coefficient parameter, thermal conductivity ratio, and radiation parameter.
Heat transfer in porous medium embedded with vertical plate: Non-equilibrium approach - Part A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Quadir, G. A.
2016-01-01
Heat transfer in a porous medium embedded with vertical flat plate is investigated by using thermal non-equilibrium model. Darcy model is employed to simulate the flow inside porous medium. It is assumed that the heat transfer takes place by natural convection and radiation. The vertical plate is maintained at isothermal temperature. The governing partial differential equations are converted into non-dimensional form and solved numerically using finite element method. Results are presented in terms of isotherms and streamlines for various parameters such as heat transfer coefficient parameter, thermal conductivity ratio, and radiation parameter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oosthuizen, P.H.; Sun, L.; Naylor, D.
2003-01-01
Natural convective heat transfer from a wide heated vertical isothermal plate with adiabatic surfaces above and below the heated surface has been considered. There are a series of equally spaced vertical thin, flat surfaces (termed 'slats') near the heated surface, these surfaces being, in general, inclined to the heated surface. There is, in general, a uniform heat generation in the slats. The slats are pivoted about their centre-point and thus as their angle is changed, the distance of the tip of the slat from the plate changes. The situation considered is an approximate model of a window with a vertical blind, the particular case where the window is hotter than the room air being considered. The heat generation in the slats in this situation is the result of solar radiation passing through the window and falling on and being absorbed by the slats of the blind. The flow has been assumed to be laminar and steady. Fluid properties have been assumed constant except for the density change with temperature that gives rise to the buoyancy forces. The governing equations have been written in dimensionless form and the resulting dimensionless equations have been solved using a commercial finite-element package. The solution has the following parameters: (1) the Rayleigh number (2) the Prandtl number (3) the dimensionless heat generation rate in the slats per unit frontal area (4) the dimensionless distance of the slat center point (the pivot point) from the surface (5) the dimensionless slat size (6) the dimensionless slat spacing (7) the angle of inclination of the slats. Because of the application that motivated the study, results have only been obtained for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The effect of the other dimensionless variables on the mean dimensionless heat transfer rate from the heated vertical surface has been examined. (author)
Patil, Harshal Bhauso; Dingare, Sunil Vishnu
2018-03-01
Heat exchange upgrade is a vital territory of research area. Utilization of reasonable systems can bring about noteworthy specialized points of interest coming about reserve funds of cost. Rectangular plates are viewed as best balance arrangement utilized for heat exchange improvement. This gives an enlargement strategy to heat exchange with beginning of limit layer and vortex development. To assess and look at the rate of heat exchange enhancement by rectangular plate fins with differing inclinations (0°-30°-60°), shifting Re and heat supply under forced convection are the principle destinations of this study. The study is done by fluctuating introductions of fins with various inclinations, input heat supply and Re under forced convection. The coefficient of heat transfer increments observed with the expansion in air speed for all the examined designs. The coefficient of the heat transfer is discovered higher at the edge of introduction of fins at 30° for inline arrangement and 0° for staggered arrangement. Looking at both the arrangements, it is discovered that the heat transfer coefficient in 0° fin staggered arrangement is about 17% higher than 30° inline arrangement and 76% higher than the vertical plate fin. For plate fin heat sink, boundary layer formation and growth results in decrease of the coefficient of heat transfer in forced convection. This issue is overcome by accommodating some rectangular fins on the plate fin. It brings about increment of heat transfer coefficient of the RPFHS under the states of trial factors. As indicated by past research, it is discovered that examination of the plate fin heat sink with various sorts of fins for horizontal orientation is done yet but this investigation expects to discover the upgrade of transfer coefficient of plate fin heat sink for its vertical position with rectangular plates at different inclinations under the shifting scopes of heat input supply, fin arrangements and Reynolds number (Re).
Mass transfer effects on vertical oscillating plate with heat flux
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Muthucumaraswamy R.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Theoretical solution of unsteady viscous incompressible flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate with uniform heat flux and mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account of the homogeneous chemical reaction of first-order. The temperature from the plate to the fluid at an uniform rate and the mass is diffused uniformly. The dimensionless governing equations has been obtained by the Laplace transform method, when the plate is oscillating harmonically in its own plane. The effects of velocity and concentration are studied for different parameters like phase angle chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number Schmidt number and time are studied. The solutions are valid only for small values of time t. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing phase angle ωt or chemical reaction parameter.
Unsteady free convection MHD flow between two heated vertical parallel conducting plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanyal, D.C.; Adhikari, A.
2006-01-01
Unsteady free convection flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid between two heated conducting vertical parallel plates subjected to a uniform transverse magnetic field is considered. The approximate analytical solutions for velocity, induced field and temperature distribution are obtained for small and large values of magnetic Reynolds number. The problem is also extended to thermometric case. (author)
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Denda Hubert
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a new method for determining heat transfer coefficients using a gradient method has been developed. To verify accuracy of the proposed method vertical isothermal heating plate with natural convection mechanism has been examined. This configuration was deliberately chosen, because of the fact that such case is historically the earliest and most thoroughly studied and its rich scientific documentation – the most reliable. New method is based on temperature field visualization made in perpendicular plane to the heating surface of the plate using infrared camera. Because the camera does not record temperature of air itself but the surface only, therefore plastic mesh with low thermal conductivity has been used as a detector. Temperature of each mesh cell, placed perpendicular to the vertical heating surface and rinsed with convection stream of heated air could be already recorded by infrared camera. In the same time using IR camera surface of heating plate has been measured. By numerical processing of the results matrix temperature gradient on the surface ∂T/∂x │ x=0, local heat transfer coefficients αy, and local values of Nusselt number Nuy, can be calculated. After integration the average Nusselt number for entire plate can be calculated. Obtained relation characteristic numbers Nu = 0.647 Ra 0.236 (R2 = 0.943, has a good correlation with literature reports and proves usefulness of the method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakraborty, S.; Borkakati, A.K.
1999-01-01
An unsteady viscous incompressible free convection flow of an electrically conducting fluid between two heated vertical parallel plates is considered in presence of a uniform magnetic field applied transversely to the flow. The approximate analytical solutions for velocity, induced field and temperature distributions are obtained for small and large magnetic Reynolds number. The skin-friction on the two plates are obtained and plotted graphically. The problem is extended for thermometric case. (author)
Effect of partial heating at mid of vertical plate adjacent to porous medium
Mulla, Mohammed Fahimuddin; Pallan, Khalid. M.; Al-Rashed, A. A. A. A.
2018-05-01
Heat and mass transfer in porous medium due to heating of vertical plate at mid-section is analyzed for various physical parameters. The heat and mass transfer in porous medium is modeled with the help of momentum, energy and concentration equations in terms of non-dimensional partial differential equations. The partial differential equations are converted into simpler form of algebraic equations with the help of finite element method. A computer code is developed to assemble the matrix form of algebraic equations into global matrices and then to solve them in an iterative manner to obtain the temperature, concentration and streamline distribution inside the porous medium. It is found that the heat transfer behavior of porous medium heated at middle section is considerably different from other cases.
Azhar, Waqas Ali; Vieru, Dumitru; Fetecau, Constantin
2017-08-01
Free convection flow of some water based fractional nanofluids over a moving infinite vertical plate with uniform heat flux and heat source is analytically and graphically studied. Exact solutions for dimensionless temperature and velocity fields, Nusselt numbers, and skin friction coefficients are established in integral form in terms of modified Bessel functions of the first kind. These solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to the similar solutions for ordinary nanofluids when the fractional parameters tend to one. Furthermore, they reduce to the known solutions from the literature when the plate is fixed and the heat source is absent. The influence of fractional parameters on heat transfer and fluid motion is graphically underlined and discussed. The enhancement of heat transfer in such flows is higher for fractional nanofluids in comparison with ordinary nanofluids. Moreover, the use of fractional models allows us to choose the fractional parameters in order to get a very good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.
Hydromagnetic flow and radiative heat transfer of nanofluid past a vertical plate
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B. Ganga
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Hydromagnetic flow of an incompressible viscous nanofluid past a vertical plate in the presence of thermal radiation is investigated both analytically and numerically. The radiative heat flux is described by the Rosseland diffusion approximation in the energy equation. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are converted into a set of ordinary differential equations by suitable similarity transformations. The resulting ordinary differential equations are successfully solved analytically with the help of homotopy analysis method and numerically by the fourth order RungeâKutta method with shooting technique. The effects of various physical parameters are analyzed and discussed in graphical and tabular forms. The effects of some physical parameters such as Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, radiation parameter and magnetic parameter are analyzed on the velocity, temperature and solid volume fraction profiles as well as on the reduced Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number. An excellent agreement is observed between present analytical and numerical results. Keywords: Nanofluid, Hydromagnetic, Homotopy analysis method, Vertical plate and thermal radiation
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Antoine Baudoin
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Heat sources, such as power electronics for offshore power, could be cooled passively—mainly by conduction and natural convection. The obvious advantage of this strategy is its high reliability. However, it must be implemented in an efficient manner (i.e., the area needs to be kept low to limit the construction costs. In this study, the placement of multiple heat sources mounted on a vertical plate was studied experimentally for optimization purposes. We chose a regular distribution, as this is likely to be the preferred choice in the construction process. We found that optimal spacing can be determined for a targeted source density by tuning the vertical and horizontal spacing between the heat sources. The optimal aspect ratio was estimated to be around two.
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O. D. Makinde
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the unsteady hydromagnetic-free convection of an incompressible electrical conducting Boussinesq’s radiating fluid past a moving vertical plate in an optically thin environment with the Navier slip, viscous dissipation, and Ohmic and Newtonian heating. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the transient problem are obtained and tackled numerically using a semidiscretization finite difference method coupled with Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration technique. Numerical data for the local skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number have been tabulated for various values of parametric conditions. Graphical results for the fluid velocity, temperature, skin friction, and the Nusselt number are presented and discussed. The results indicate that the skin friction coefficient decreases while the heat transfer rate at the plate surface increases as the slip parameter and Newtonian heating increase.
Natural convective magneto-nanofluid flow and radiative heat transfer past a moving vertical plate
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S. Das
2015-03-01
Full Text Available An investigation of the hydromagnetic boundary layer flow past a moving vertical plate in nanofluids in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field and thermal radiation has been carried out. Three different types of water-based nanofluids containing copper, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide are taken into consideration. The governing equations are solved using Laplace transform technique and the solutions are presented in closed form. The numerical values of nanofluid temperature, velocity, the rate of heat transfer and the shear stress at the plate are presented graphically for several values of the pertinent parameters. The present study finds applications in engineering devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuji, Toshihiro; Kajitani, Tsuyoshi; Nishino, Tatsuhiko
2007-01-01
An experimental study on heat transfer enhancement for a turbulent natural convection boundary layer in air along a vertical flat plate has been performed by inserting a long flat plate in the spanwise direction (simple heat transfer promoter) and short flat plates aligned in the spanwise direction (split heat transfer promoter) with clearances into the near-wall region of the boundary layer. For a simple heat transfer promoter, the heat transfer coefficients increase by a peak value of approximately 37% in the downstream region of the promoter compared with those in the usual turbulent natural convection boundary layer. It is found from flow visualization and simultaneous measurements of the flow and thermal fields with hot- and cold-wires that such increase of heat transfer coefficients is mainly caused by the deflection of flows toward the outer region of the boundary layer and the invasion of low-temperature fluids from the outer region to the near-wall region with large-scale vortex motions riding out the promoter. However, heat transfer coefficients for a split heat transfer promoter exhibit an increase in peak value of approximately 60% in the downstream region of the promoter. Flow visualization and PIV measurements show that such remarkable heat transfer enhancement is attributed to longitudinal vortices generated by flows passing through the clearances of the promoter in addition to large-scale vortex motions riding out the promoter. Consequently, it is concluded that heat transfer enhancement of the turbulent natural convection boundary layer can be substantially achieved in a wide area of the turbulent natural convection boundary layer by employing multiple column split heat transfer promoters. It may be expected that the heat transfer enhancement in excess of approximately 40% can be accomplished by inserting such promoters
Thermally optimum spacing of vertical, natural convection cooled, parallel plates
Bar-Cohen, A.; Rohsenow, W. M.
Vertical two-dimensional channels formed by parallel plates or fins are a frequently encountered configuration in natural convection cooling in air of electronic equipment. In connection with the complexity of heat dissipation in vertical parallel plate arrays, little theoretical effort is devoted to thermal optimization of the relevant packaging configurations. The present investigation is concerned with the establishment of an analytical structure for analyses of such arrays, giving attention to useful relations for heat distribution patterns. The limiting relations for fully-developed laminar flow, in a symmetric isothermal or isoflux channel as well as in a channel with an insulated wall, are derived by use of a straightforward integral formulation.
Hussanan, Abid; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Tahar, Razman Mat; Khan, Ilyas
2014-01-01
In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.
Vertical steam generator with slab-type tube-plate with even tube bundle washing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manek, O.; Masek, V.; Motejl, V.; Quitta, R.
1980-01-01
A shielding plate supporting the tubes attached to the tube plate of a vertical steam generator is mounted above the tube plate. Tube sleeves are designed with a dimensional tolerance relative to the heat transfer tubes and the sleeve end and the tube plate end. A separate space is thus formed above the tube plate in which circulation or feed water is introduced to flow between the branch and the heat transfer tube. This provides intensive washing of heat transfer tubes at a critical point and prevents deposit formation, thus excluding heat transfer tube failures. (J.B.)
Forestier, M.; Haldenwang, P.
We consider free convection driven by a heated vertical plate immersed in a nonlinearly stratified medium. The plate supplies a uniform horizontal heat flux to a fluid, the bulk of which has a stable stratification, characterized by a non-uniform vertical temperature gradient. This gradient is assumed to have a typical length scale of variation, denoted Z0, while 0, and the physical properties of the medium.We then apply the new theory to the natural convection affecting the vapour phase in a liquefied pure gas tank (e.g. the cryogenic storage of hydrogen). It is assumed that the cylindrical storage tank is subject to a constant uniform heat flux on its lateral and top walls. We are interested in the vapour motion above a residual layer of liquid in equilibrium with the vapour. High-precision axisymmetric numerical computations show that the flow remains steady for a large range of parameters, and that a bulk stratification characterized by a quadratic temperature profile is undoubtedly present. The application of the theory permits a comparison of the numerical and analytic results, showing that the theory satisfactorily predicts the primary dynamical and thermal properties of the storage tank.
Natural convection heat transfer from a vertical circular tube sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dharne, S.P.; Gaitonde, U.N.
1996-01-01
Experiments were conducted to determine natural convection heat transfer coefficients (a) on a plain vertical circular plate, and (b) on a similar plate with a square array of non-conducting tubes fixed in it. The experiments were carried out using air as the heat transfer medium. The diameter of the brass plates used was 350 mm. The diameter of the bakelite tubes used was 19.2 mm. The range of Rayleigh numbers was from 1.06x10 8 to 1.66x10 8 . The results show that the heat transfer coefficients in case (a) are very close to those obtained using standard correlations for vertical flat plates, whereas for case (b) the heat transfer coefficients are at least 50 percent higher than those predicted by the Churchill-Chu correlation. It is hence concluded that the disturbance to boundary layer caused by the presence of tubes enhances the heat transfer coefficient significantly. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs
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Abid Hussanan
Full Text Available In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.
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B. R. Rout
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the influence of chemical reaction and the combined effects of internal heat generation and a convective boundary condition on the laminar boundary layer MHD heat and mass transfer flow over a moving vertical flat plate. The lower surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid while the stream of cold fluid flows over the upper surface with heat source and chemical reaction. The basic equations governing the flow, heat transfer, and concentration are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate transformation for variables and solved numerically by Runge-Kutta fourth-order integration scheme in association with shooting method. The effects of physical parameters on the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are illustrated graphically. A table recording the values of skin friction, heat transfer, and mass transfer at the plate is also presented. The discussion focuses on the physical interpretation of the results as well as their comparison with previous studies which shows good agreement as a special case of the problem.
Compounded natural convection enhancement in a vertical parallel-plate channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreozzi, Assunta [Dipartimento di Energetica, Termofluidodinamica Applicata e Condizionamenti Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Campo, Antonio [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Vermont, 33 Colchester Ave., Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Manca, Oronzio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale e Meccanica, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, via Roma 29, Aversa (CE) 81031 (Italy)
2008-06-15
This paper addresses the natural convection behavior of air when heated in single vertical, parallel-plate channels. To enhance the heat transfer two passive schemes are combined: (1) an equidistant short plate is inserted at the inlet and (2) two parallel, colinear insulated plates are appended at the exit. The channel plates are symmetrically heated with a uniform heat flux. The computational procedure is made by solving the full elliptic Navier-Stokes and energy equations with the finite-volume methodology in an I-type computational domain that is much larger than the physical domain. Within the framework of a ''proof-of-concept'' the controlling Grashof number based on the heated plate height ranges between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 6}. The numerical velocity, pressure and temperature fields are post-processed to compute the quantities of engineering interest such as the induced mass flow rate, the pressure at the channel mid-plane and the temperature along the plates. In addition, the Nusselt number and the average Nusselt number, both based on the heated plate height, are presented in graphical form. At the end, optimal channel configurations expressed in terms of the highest average Nusselt number are obtained for the pair of pre-assigned Grashof numbers. (author)
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Florio, L.A.; Harnoy, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)
2007-09-15
A numerical investigation was conducted into an alternative method of natural convection enhancement by the transverse oscillations of a thin short plate, strategically positioned in close proximity to a rectangular heat source. The heat source is attached to a mounting board in a vertical channel. Two-dimensional laminar flow finite element studies were carried out with the oscillation parameters, the oscillating plate-heat source mean clearance spacing, and the oscillating plate position varied. Significant cooling was found for displacement amplitudes of at least one-third of the mean clearance together with frequencies (Re/{radical}(Gr)) of over 2{pi} with the displacement being more critical to the cooling level. For the parameters investigated, up to a 52% increase in the local heat transfer coefficient relative to standard natural convection was obtained. The results indicate that this method can serve as a feasible, simpler, more energy and space efficient alternative to common methods of cooling for low power dissipating devices operating at conditions just beyond the reach of pure natural convection. (author)
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M.C. Raju
2015-03-01
Full Text Available A theoretical analysis is performed to study induced magnetic field effects on free convection flow past a vertical plate. The x¯-axis is taken vertically upwards along the plate, y¯-axis normal to the plate into the fluid region. It is assumed that the plate is electrically non-conducting and the applied magnetic field is of uniform strength (H0 and perpendicular to the plate. The magnetic Reynolds number of the flow is not taken to be small enough so that the induced magnetic field is taken into account. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are solved by Perturbation technique and the effects of various physical parameters on velocity, temperature, and induced magnetic fields are studied through graphs and tables. Variations in Skin friction and rate of heat transfer are also studied. It is observed that an increase in magnetic parameter decreases the velocity for both water and air. It is also seen that there is a fall in induced magnetic field as magnetic Prandtl number, and magnetic field parameter increase.
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Malekzadeh, P., E-mail: malekzadeh@pgu.ac.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Computational Mechanics, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghimi, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shaid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nickaeen, M. [K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-05-15
Research highlights: {yields} A new application of the differential quadrature method in thermo-fluid fields. {yields} Moving vertical plate with suction and heat flux is considered. {yields} Fluid with variable viscosity subjected to thermal radiation is studied. -- Abstract: In this paper, firstly, the applicability of the differential quadrature method (DQM) as an efficient and accurate numerical method for solving the problem of variable viscosity and thermally radiative unsteady magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) flow over a moving vertical plate with suction and heat flux is investigated. The spatial as well as the temporal domains are discretized using the DQM. The fast rate of convergence of the method is demonstrated and for the cases that a solution is available, comparison is done. Then, effects of the temperature dependence of viscosity and different fluid parameters on the velocity and temperature of transient MHD flow subjected to the above mentioned boundary condition are studied.
A study of the vortex structures around circular cylinder mounted on vertical heated plate
Malah, Hamid; Chumakov, Yurii S.; Levchenya, Alexander M.
2018-05-01
In recent years, studies of natural convection boundary layer interacting with obstacles draw much of attention, because of its practical applications. Pressure gradient resulting from this interaction leads to separation of the boundary layer. The formation of vortex structure around obstacle is characteristic to any kind of convection flow. In this paper, we describe the formation of three-dimensional vortex structure for the case of natural convection flow around the circular cylinder mounted on vertical heated plate. Navier-Stokes equations were used for numerical computations. The results proved the presence of a horseshoe vortex system in the case of natural convection flow as in the forced convection flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakao, Keisuke; Hattori, Yasuo; Suto, Hitoshi
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A large-eddy simulation of a spatially developing natural convection boundary layer is conducted. • First- and second-order moments of the heat and momentum showed a reasonable agreement with past experiments. • Coherent structure of turbulent vortex inherent in this boundary layer is discussed. - Abstract: Large-eddy simulation (LES) on a spatially developing natural convection boundary layer along a vertical heated plate was conducted. The heat transfer rate, friction velocity, mean velocity and temperature, and second-order turbulent properties both in the wall-normal and the stream-wise direction showed reasonable agreement with the findings of past experiments. The spectrum of velocity and temperature fluctuation showed a -2/3-power decay slope and -2-power decay slope respectively. Quadrant analysis revealed the inclination on Q1 and Q3 in the Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux, changing their contribution along the distance from the plate surface. Following the convention, we defined the threshold region where the stream-wise mean velocity takes local maximum, the inner layer which is closer to the plate than the threshold region, the outer layer which is farther to the plate than the threshold region. The space correlation of stream-wise velocity tilted the head toward the wall in the propagating direction in the outer layer; on the other hand, the correlated motion had little inclination in the threshold region. The time history of the second invariant of gradient tensor Q revealed that the vortex strength oscillates both in the inner and the outer layers in between the laminar and the transition region. In the turbulent region, the vortex was often dominant in the outer layer. Instantaneous three-dimensional visualization of Q revealed the existence of high-speed fluid parcels associated with arch-shape vortices. These results were considered as an intrinsic structure in the outer layer, which is symmetrical to the structure of
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Huixing Li
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In order to investigate the characteristics of boiling heat transfer for hydrocarbon mixture refrigerant in plate-fin heat exchanger which is used in the petrochemical industry field, a model was established on boiling heat transfer in vertical rectangular channel. The simulated results were compared with the experimental data from literature. The results show that the deviation between the simulated results and experimental data is within ±15%. Meanwhile, the characteristic of boiling heat transfer was investigated in vertical rectangular minichannel of plate-fin heat exchanger. The results show that the boiling heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase in quality and mass flux and is slightly impacted by the heat flux. This is because that the main boiling mechanism is forced convective boiling while the contribution of nucleate boiling is slight. The correlation of Liu and Winterton is in good agreement with the simulation results. The deviation between correlation calculations and simulation results is mostly less than ±15%. These results will provide some constructive instructions for the understanding of saturated boiling mechanism in a vertical rectangular minichannel and the prediction of heat transfer performance in plate-fin heat exchanger.
Guha, Abhijit; Nayek, Subhajit
2017-10-01
A compulsory element of all textbooks on natural convection has been a detailed similarity analysis for laminar natural convection on a heated semi-infinite vertical plate and a routinely used boundary condition for such analysis is u = 0 at x = 0. The same boundary condition continues to be assumed in related theoretical analyses, even in recent publications. The present work examines the consequence of this long-held assumption, which appears to have never been questioned in the literature, on the fluid dynamics and heat transfer characteristics. The assessment has been made here by solving the Navier-Stokes equations numerically with two boundary conditions—one with constrained velocity at x = 0 to mimic the similarity analysis and the other with no such constraints simulating the case of a heated vertical plate in an infinite expanse of the quiescent fluid medium. It is found that the fluid flow field given by the similarity theory is drastically different from that given by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with unconstrained velocity. This also reflects on the Nusselt number, the prediction of the CFD simulations with unconstrained velocity being quite close to the experimentally measured values at all Grashof and Prandtl numbers (this is the first time theoretically computed values of the average Nusselt number N u ¯ are found to be so close to the experimental values). The difference of the Nusselt number (Δ N u ¯ ) predicted by the similarity theory and that by the CFD simulations (as well as the measured values), both computed with a high degree of precision, can be very significant, particularly at low Grashof numbers and at Prandtl numbers far removed from unity. Computations show that within the range of investigations (104 ≤ GrL ≤ 108, 0.01 ≤ Pr ≤ 100), the maximum value of Δ N u ¯ may be of the order 50%. Thus, for quantitative predictions, the available theory (i.e., similarity analysis) can be rather inadequate. With
Mixed convective heat transfer from a vertical plate embedded
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The effect of melting and solute dispersion on heat and mass transfer in non-Darcy fluid flow over a vertical surface has been studied numerically in the present article. The flow is assumed to be laminar and steady state. Using similarity transformations, the governing boundary layer equations are transformed into ...
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Ghalambaz, M.; Noghrehabadi, A.; Ghanbarzadeh, A., E-mail: m.ghalambaz@gmail.com, E-mail: ghanbarzadeh.a@scu.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-04-15
In this paper, the natural convective flow of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate in a saturated Darcy porous medium is studied numerically. The governing equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables, and they are numerically solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method associated with the Gauss-Newton method. The effects of parametric variation of the Brownian motion parameter (Nb), thermophoresis parameter (Nt) and the convective heating parameter (Nc) on the boundary layer profiles are investigated. Furthermore, the variation of the reduced Nusselt number and reduced Sherwood number, as important parameters of heat and mass transfer, as a function of the Brownian motion, thermophoresis and convective heating parameters is discussed in detail. The results show that the thickness of the concentration profiles is much lower than the temperature and velocity profiles. For low values of the convective heating parameter (Nc), as the Brownian motion parameter increases, the non-dimensional wall temperature increases. However, for high values of Nc, the effect of the Brownian motion parameter on the non-dimensional wall temperature is not significant. As the Brownian motion parameter increases, the reduced Sherwood number increases and the reduced Nusselt number decreases. (author)
Natural convection in an asymmetrically heated vertical channel with an adiabatic auxiliary plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taieb, Soumaya; Hatem, Laatar Ali; Balti, Jalloul
2013-01-01
The effect of an auxiliary plate on natural convection in an asymmetrically heated channel is studied numerically in laminar regime. The computational procedure is made by solving the unsteady two dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations. This nonlinear system is integrated by a finite volume approach and then solved in time using the projection method, allowing the decoupling pressure from velocity. More than hundred simulations are performed to determine the best positions of the auxiliary plate that enhance the induced mass flow and the heat transfer rate for modified Rayleigh numbers ranging from Ra m = 10 2 to Ra m = 10 5 . Contour maps are plotted and then used to precise the enhancement rates of the mass flow and the heat transfer for any position of the auxiliary plate in the channel. The numerical results (velocity, pressure and temperature fields) provide detailed information about the evolution of the flow structure according to the geometry considered in this study. In addition, they permit to explain why the mass flow rate and Nusselt number are enhanced for certain positions of the auxiliary plate and are on the contrary deteriorated for others. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abedin, Mohammad Zoynal; Tsuji, Toshihiro; Lee, Jinho
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A time-developing direct numerical simulations are done for water along a heated vertical plate. ► The objective is to see the effects of free streams on the combined-convection boundary layers. ► There are no reports for water with direct numerical simulation in this regards. ► An experiment is also conducted on the transitional and turbulent boundary layer in water. ► This is to collect informations on the integral thickness of the velocity boundary layer. - Abstract: Time-developing thermally-driven boundary layers created by imposing aiding and opposing freestreams on the natural-convection boundary layer in water along a heated vertical flat plate have been examined with a direct numerical simulation to clarify their transition and turbulence behaviors. The numerical results for aiding flow reveal that the transition begins at a thick laminar boundary layer due to the delay of the transition and large-scale vortexes centering on the spanwise direction are followed, while, for opposing flow, the transition begins at a thin laminar boundary layer due to the quickening of the transition and relatively small-scale vortexes are generated with the progress of transition. To improve the significance of the present numerical results, the association of turbulence statistics between time- and space-developing flows has been investigated. Consequently, the numerical results for time-developing flow are converted to those for space-developing flow through the integral thickness of the velocity boundary layer for pure natural convection, and thus the regimes of boundary layer flows can be quantitatively assessed. Moreover, the turbulence statistics and the flow structures in the thermally-driven boundary layers are also presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharon, J.; Lahav, C.; Kalman, H.; Shai, I.
1996-01-01
The present work deals with natural convection on a vertical flat plate, where one side of the plate is exposed to an environment of constant temperature - T a , with which heat is exchanged at an effective heat transfer coefficient, Glen. The other side of the plate is exposed to a fluid at a different temperature -T ∞ . The temperature gradient induces a natural convection in the fluid. The present investigation treats the heat transfer problem in the laminar cone in air (P r =1). An experimental apparatus has been constructed to confirm the heat transfer features predicted analytically in previous work. The local experimental Nusselt number was correlated with the modified Rayleigh number, for the laminar range. (authors)
Forced and free convection hydromagnetic flow past a vertical flat plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdelkhalek, M.M.
2004-01-01
The effects of magnetic field and temperature heat source on the free and forced convection flow past an infinite vertical plate is studied analytically. Solutions of the reduced equation appropriate in the forced convection and free convection regime are obtained using perturbation technique. The expression for the velocity field, skin friction and Nusselt number have been obtained
Mixed convective heat transfer from a vertical plate embedded in a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Melting effect with heat and mass transfer in porous media has much ... convection boundary layer flow about a vertical surface embedded in a porous medium, ..... Salama A 2008 Combined effect of thermal dispersion and radiation on free.
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Ohk, Seung Min; Chung, Bum Jin [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
The Passive Cooling System (PCS) driven by natural forces drew research attention since Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. This study investigated the natural convection heat transfer inside of vertical pipe with emphasis on the phenomena regarding the boundary layer interaction. Numerical calculations were carried out using FLUENT 6.3. Experiments were performed for the parts of the cases to explore the accuracy of calculation. Based on the analogy, heat transfer experiment is replaced by mass transfer experiment using sulfuric acid copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) electroplating system. The natural convection heat transfer inside a vertical pipe is studied experimentally and numerically. Experiments were carried out using sulfuric acid-copper sulfate (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-CuSO{sub 4}) based on the analogy concept between heat and mass transfer system. Numerical analysis was carried out using FLUENT 6.3. It is concluded that the boundary layer interaction along the flow passage influences the heat transfer, which is affected by the length, diameter, and Prandtl number. For the large diameter and high Prandtl number cases, where the thermal boundary layers do not interfered along the pipe, the heat transfer agreed with vertical flat plate for laminar and turbulent natural convection correlation within 8%. When the flow becomes steady state, the forced convective flow appears in the bottom of the vertical pipe and natural convection flow appears near the exit. It is different behavior from the flow on the parallel vertical flat plates. Nevertheless, the heat transfer was not different greatly compared with those of vertical plate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharon, J.; Lahav, C.; Kalman, H.; Shai, I.
1996-01-01
The present work deals with natural convection on a vertical flat plate, where one side of the plate is maintained at a uniform temperature - T a , and the other side of the plate is exposed to an environment of constant temperature -T∞. The plate is consisted of several layers of conductive and non-conductive materials such that the series thermal resistance can be expressed as an equivalent heat transfer coefficient h eq 1/Σ(k i /d i ). It is also assumed a negligible axial conduction, which can be neglected. The present investigation treats the heat transfer problem in the laminar zone in air (P r ∼1). The wall effective heat transfer coefficient is in the range of 4.3 to 11.5 W/m 2 - deg C. An experimental apparatus was constructed to confirm the heat transfer features predicted analytically in a previous work. The local experimental Nusselt number was correlated with the modified Rayleigh number, for the laminar range (authors)
Flow regimes and heat transfer in vertical narrow annuli
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ulke, A.; Goldberg, I.
1993-01-01
In shell side boiling heat exchangers narrow crevices that are formed between the tubes and the tube support structure provide areas for local thermal-hydraulic conditions which differ significantly from bulk fluid conditions. Understanding of the processes of boiling and dryout in flow restricted crevices can help in designing of tube support geometries to minimize the likelihood of tube support plate and tube corrosion observed in commercial power plant steam generators. This paper describes a one dimensional thermal-hydraulic model of a vertical crevice between a tube and a support plate with cylindrical holes. The annulus formed by the support plate hole and an eccentrically located tube has been represented by vertical strips. The formation, growth and collapse of a steam bubble in each strip has been determined. Based on the bubble history, and flow regimes characterized by ''isolated'' bubbles, ''coalesced'' bubbles and liquid deficient regions have been defined
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muthucumaraswamy R.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available An exact solution to the problem of flow past an exponentially accelerated infinite vertical plate with variable temperature is analyzed. The temperature of the plate is raised linearly with time t. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using Laplace-transform technique. The velocity and temperature profiles are studied for different physical parameters like thermal Grashof number Gr, time and an accelerating parameter a. It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of a or Gr.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aharon, J; Lahav, C [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev; Kalman, H; Shai, I [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel) Dept, of Mechanical engineering, Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Engineering Studies
1996-12-01
The present work deals with natural convection on a vertical flat plate, where one side of the plate is maintained at a uniform temperature - T{sub a}, and the other side of the plate is exposed to an environment of constant temperature -T{infinity}. The plate is consisted of several layers of conductive and non-conductive materials such that the series thermal resistance can be expressed as an equivalent heat transfer coefficient h{sub eq} 1/{Sigma}(k{sub i}/d{sub i}). It is also assumed a negligible axial conduction, which can be neglected. The present investigation treats the heat transfer problem in the laminar zone in air (P{sub r}{approx}1). The wall effective heat transfer coefficient is in the range of 4.3 to 11.5 W/m{sup 2} - deg C. An experimental apparatus was constructed to confirm the heat transfer features predicted analytically in a previous work. The local experimental Nusselt number was correlated with the modified Rayleigh number, for the laminar range (authors).
Heat and mass transfer effects on moving vertical plate in the presence of thermal radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muthucumaraswamy R.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal radiation effects on moving infinite vertical plate in the presence variable temperature and mass diffusion is considered. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The plate temperature and the concentration level near the plate are raised linearly with time. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace-transform technique. The velocity and skin-friction are studied for different parameters like thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, time and radiation parameter. It is observed that the velocity slightly decreases with increasing value of the radiation parameter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prasad Ramachandra V.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The interaction of free convection with thermal radiation of viscous incompressible MHD unsteady flow past an impulsively started vertical plate with uniform heat and mass flux is analyzed. This type of problem finds application in many technological and engineering fields such as rocket propulsion systems, space craft re-entry aerothermodynamics, cosmical flight aerodynamics, plasma physics, glass production and furnace engineering .The Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat transfer in the limit of the optically thin fluid. The non-linear, coupled equations are solved using an implicit finite difference scheme of Crank-Nicolson type. Velocity, temperature and concentration of the flow have been presented for various parameters such as thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, radiation parameter and magnetic parameter. The local and average skin friction, Nusslet number and Sherwood number are also presented graphically. It is observed that, when the radiation parameter increases the velocity and temperature decrease in the boundary layer. .
A Numerical Study on Laminar Free Convection between Vertical Flat Plates with Symmetric Heating
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ameer A. Jadoaa
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The development of free convection in a viscous fluid between heated plates is investigated. The basic governing continuity, momentum, and energy equations are solved numerically by finite difference method. Results are obtained for the variations of Nusselt number, velocity, temperature, and pressure throughout the flow field assuming the fluid to enter the channel with ambient temperature and a flat velocity profile. The flow and heat-transfer characteristics of the channel are studied and a development height established. Heating plate condition is (C.W.T and C.H.F. An correlation equation has been deduced for the average Nusselt number as a function of Rayligt number. A comparison is made between the results of this theoretical investigation and theoretical work of (Bodoia, J.R 1962[1].
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Pendyala, Rajashekhar; Jayanti, Sreenivas; Balakrishnan, A.R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)
2008-05-15
The effect of oscillations on the heat transfer in a vertical tube has been studied experimentally. A vertical tube was mounted on a plate and the whole plate was subjected to oscillations in the vertical plane using a mechanical oscillator to provide low frequency oscillations. A section of the tube in the middle is subjected to a constant heat flux. The effect of the oscillations on the heat transfer coefficient has been examined. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient increased with oscillations in the laminar regime. In turbulent flow regime (Re > 2,100) it is found that the effect of oscillations did not show any change. A correlation has been developed for enhancement of the local Nusselt number in terms of the effective acceleration and Reynolds number. Using this, an expression has been proposed to calculate the mean Nusselt number as a function of the tube length. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shah, Nehad Ali; Khan, Ilyas
2016-01-01
This paper presents a Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives approach to the thermal analysis of a second grade fluid over an infinite oscillating vertical flat plate. Together with an oscillating boundary motion, the heat transfer is caused by the buoyancy force induced by temperature differences between the plate and the fluid. Closed form solutions of the fluid velocity and temperature are obtained by means of the Laplace transform. The solutions of ordinary second grade and Newtonian fluids corresponding to time derivatives of integer and fractional orders are obtained as particular cases of the present solutions. Numerical computations and graphical illustrations are used in order to study the effects of the Caputo-Fabrizio time-fractional parameter α, the material parameter α 2 , and the Prandtl and Grashof numbers on the velocity field. A comparison for time derivative of integer order versus fractional order is shown graphically for both Newtonian and second grade fluids. It is found that fractional fluids (second grade and Newtonian) have highest velocities. This shows that the fractional parameter enhances the fluid flow. (orig.)
Condensation heat transfer in plate heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panchal, C.B.
1985-01-01
An Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger, previously tested as an evaporator, was retested as a condenser. Two series of tests with different chevron-angle plates were carried out using ammonia as a working fluid. The overall heat-transfer coefficient and pressure drop were measured, and the effects of operating parameters were determined. The experimental data were compared with theoretical predictions. In the analysis, a gravity-controlled condensation process was modeled theoretically, and the overall performance was calculated. The analysis shows that the overall heat-transfer coefficient can be predicted with an average uncertainty of about 10%. It is, however, important to consider the interfacial shear stress, because the effective friction factor is high for flow in plate heat exchangers
Experimental study of a water-mist jet issuing normal to a heated flat plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vouros Andreas
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A parametric experimental study on the development of a round jet spray impacting a smooth, heated, flat plate has been accomplished. The main objective of this effort was to provide information characterizing the flow structure of a developing mist jet, issuing vertically towards an upward facing, horizontal heated plate, by means of simultaneous droplet size and velocity measurements. Phase Doppler Anemometry was used, providing also information on liquid volume flux. The fine spray of small atomized droplets (0.5-5.0 μm, was generated using a medical nebulizer. Two low Reynolds number jets (Re=2952, 3773 issuing from a cylindrical pipe have been tested. The distance between the jets’ exit and the plate was 50 cm. A stainless steel non-magnetic flat plate of dimensions 1000x500x12mm3 was used as target wall. Constant heat flux boundary conditions were established during measurements. Results indicate that the heat flux from the plate is influencing the evolution of the spray jet, diminishing its velocity and turbulence. Average droplet sizes are affected little by the heat flux, although for the non-heated sprays, droplet sizes increase at locations very close to the plate. A significant effect on droplet volume flow rate is also reported.
Heat receiving plates in thermonuclear device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitamura, Kazunori.
1988-01-01
Purpose: To obtain a heat receiving plate structure capable of withstanding sputtering wear and retaining the thermal deformation and residual stress low upon junction and available at a reduced cost. Constitution: Junction structures between heat sinks and armours are the same as usual, whereas high melting armour (for example, made of tungsten) are used at the portion on a heat receiving plate where the thermal load and particle load are higher while materials having a heat expansion coefficient similar to that of the heat sink (stainless steel) are used at the portion where the thermal load and particle load are lower on a heat receiving plate depending on the thermal load and particle load distribution. This can reduce the thermal deformation for the entire divertor heat receiving plate to obtain a heat receiving plate of a good surface dimensional accuracy. (Takahashi, M.)
Unsteady natural convection flow past an accelerated vertical plate in a thermally stratified fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deka Rudra Kt.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available An exact solution to one-dimensional unsteady natural convection flow past an infinite vertical accelerated plate, immersed in a viscous thermally stratified fluid is investigated. Pressure work term and the vertical temperature advection are considered in the thermodynamic energy equation. The dimensionless governing equations are solved by Laplace Transform techniques for the Prandtl number unity. The velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer are presented graphically and discussed the effects of the Grashof number Gr, stratification parameter S at various times t.
Huixing Li; Yu Liu
2016-01-01
In order to investigate the characteristics of boiling heat transfer for hydrocarbon mixture refrigerant in plate-fin heat exchanger which is used in the petrochemical industry field, a model was established on boiling heat transfer in vertical rectangular channel. The simulated results were compared with the experimental data from literature. The results show that the deviation between the simulated results and experimental data is within ±15%. Meanwhile, the characteristic of boiling heat t...
The Impact of Reduced Gravity on Free Convective Heat Transfer from a Finite, Flat, Vertical Plate
Lotto, Michael A.; Johnson, Kirstyn M.; Nie, Christopher W.; Klaus, David M.
2017-10-01
Convective heat transfer is governed by a number of factors including various fluid properties, the presence of a thermal gradient, geometric configuration, flow condition, and gravity. Empirically-derived analytical relationships can be used to estimate convection as a function of these governing parameters. Although it is relatively straightforward to experimentally quantify the contributions of the majority of these variables, it is logistically difficult to assess the influence of reduced-gravity due to practical limitations of establishing this environment. Therefore, in order to explore this regime, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate convection under reduced-gravity conditions averaging 0.45 m/sec2 (0.05 g) achieved aboard a parabolic aircraft. The results showed a reduction in net heat transfer of approximately 61% in flight relative to a 1 g terrestrial baseline using the same setup. The average experimental Nusselt Number of 19.05 ± 1.41 statistically correlated with the predicted value of 18.90 ± 0.63 (N = 13), estimated using the Churchill-Chu correlation for free convective heat transfer from a finite, flat, vertical plate. Extrapolating this to similar performance in true microgravity (10-6 g) indicates that these conditions should yield a Nusselt Number of 1.27, which is 2.6% the magnitude of free convection at 1 g, or a reduction of 97.4%. With advection essentially eliminated, heat transfer becomes limited to diffusion and radiation, which are gravity-independent and nearly equivalent in magnitude in this case. These results offer a general guideline for integrating components that utilize natural (free) convective gas cooling in a spacecraft habitat and properly sizing the thermal control system.
High thermal load receiving heat plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shibutani, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Uchida, Takaho.
1993-01-01
The present invention concerns a high thermal load heat receiving plate such as a divertor plate of a thermonuclear device. The high thermal load heat receiving plate of the present invention has a cooling performance capable of suppressing the temperature of an armour tile to less than a threshold value of the material against high thermal loads applied from plasmas. Spiral polygonal pipes are inserted in cooling pipes at a portion receiving high thermal loads in the high temperature load heat receiving plate of the present invention. Both ends of the polygonal pipes are sealed by lids. An area of the flow channel in the cooling pipes is thus reduced. Heat conductivity on the cooling surface of the cooling pipes is increased in the high thermal load heat receiving plate having such a structure. Accordingly, temperature elevation of the armour tile can be suppressed. (I.S.)
Narahari, Marneni
2018-04-01
The unsteady free convective flow of nanofluids past a semi-infinite vertical plate with uniform heat flux has been investigated numerically. An implicit finite difference technique of Crank-Nicolson scheme has been employed to solve the governing partial differential equations. Five different types of water based nanofluids containing Cu, Ag, Al2O3, CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles are considered to study the fluid flow characteristics with various time and solid volume fraction parameters. It is found that the local as well as the average Nusselt number for nanofluids is higher than the pure fluid (water). The local skin-friction is higher for pure fluid as compared to the nanofluids. The present numerical results obtained for local Nusselt number are validated with the previously published correlation results for a limiting case and it is found that the results are in good agreement.
Thermal non-equilibrium in porous medium adjacent to vertical plate: ANN approach
Ahmed, N. J. Salman; Ahamed, K. S. Nazim; Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Athani, Abdulgaphur
2018-05-01
Thermal non-equilibrium in porous medium is a condition that refers to temperature discrepancy in solid matrix and fluid of porous medium. This type of flow is complex flow requiring complex set of partial differential equations that govern the flow behavior. The current work is undertaken to predict the thermal non-equilibrium behavior of porous medium adjacent to vertical plate using artificial neural network. A set of neurons in 3 layers are trained to predict the heat transfer characteristics. It is found that the thermal non-equilibrium heat transfer behavior in terms of Nusselt number of fluid as well as solid phase can be predicted accurately by using well-trained neural network.
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Mostafa A. A. Mahmoud
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In the present study, an analysis is carried out to study the variable viscosity and chemical reaction effects on the flow, heat, and mass transfer characteristics in a viscous fluid over a semi-infinite vertical porous plate. The governing boundary layer equations are written into a dimensionless form by similarity transformations. The transformed coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using the shooting method. The effects of different parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are shown graphically. In addition, tabulated results for the local skin-friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number, and the local Sherwood number are presented and discussed.
Combined natural convection heat and mass transfer from vertical fin arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giri, A.; Narasimham, G.S.V.L.; Krishna Murthy, M.V.
2003-01-01
Natural convection transport processes play an important role in many applications like ice-storage air-conditioning. A mathematical formulation of natural convection heat and mass transfer over a shrouded vertical fin array is developed. The base plate is maintained at a temperature below the dew point of the surrounding moist air. Hence there occurs condensation of moisture on the base plate, while the fins may be partially or fully wet. A numerical study is performed by varying the parameters of the problem. The local and average Nusselt numbers decrease in streamwise direction and tend to approach fully developed values for sufficiently large values of the fin length. The results show that beyond a certain streamwise distance, further fin length does not improve the sensible and latent heat transfer performance, and that if dry fin analysis is used under moisture condensation conditions, the overall heat transfer will be underestimated by about 50% even at low buoyancy ratios
Dry/wet performance of a plate-fin air-cooled heat exchanger with continuous corrugated fins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauser, S.G.; Kreid, D.K.; Johnson, B.M.
1981-01-01
The performance and operating characteristics of a plate-fin heat exchanger in dry/wet or deluge operations was experimentally determined. Development of the deluge heat/mass transfer model continued. The experiments were conducted in a specially-designed wind tunnel at the PNL. Air that was first heated and humidified to specified conditions was circulated at a controlled rate through a 2 ft x 6 ft heat exchanger module. The heat exchanger used in the tests was a wavy surface, plate fin on tube configuration. Hot water was circulated through the tubes at high flow rates to maintain an essentially isothermal condition on the tube side. Deionized water sprayed on the top of the vertically oriented plate fins was collected at the bottom of the core and recirculated. Instrumentation was provided for measurement of flow rates and thermodynamic conditions in the air, in the core circulation water, and in the deluge water. Measurements of the air side pressure drop and heat rejection rate were made as a function of air flow rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, deluge water flow rate, and the core inclination from the vertical. An overall heat transfer coefficient and an effective deluge film convective coefficient was determined. The deluge model, for predicting heat transfer from a wet finned heat exchanger was further developed and refined, and a major extension of the model was formulated that permits simultaneous calculation of both the heat transfer and evaporation rates from the wetted surface. The experiments showed an increase in the heat rejection rate due to wetting, accompanied by a proportional increase in the air side pressure drop. For operation at the same air side pressure drop, the enhancement ratio Q/sub w//Q/sub d/ varied between 2 and 5 for the conditions tested. Thus, the potential enhancement of heat transfer due to wetting can be substantial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. H. Hosseini
Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, hydrodynamics and gas to particle heat transfer in pseudo two dimensional spouted beds (2DSB with and without draft plates were investigated using the Eulerian-Eulerian approach. The main objective of the study was to provide an understanding of effects of the presence of draft plates on the hydrodynamics and heat transfer behavior of solid particles in the spouted beds. To validate the model, the predicted mean particle vertical velocity at the bed axis, the lateral profiles of vertical particle velocity at different bed heights for both systems, and the particle velocity vector fields in the beds were compared with the experimental measurements. A close agreement between the CFD results and the experimental data was found for both systems. The simulation results showed that the particle volume fraction in the spout and fountain regions of the spouted bed with draft plates is considerably lower than that in a conventional spouted bed (without draft plates. Simulation results also showed significant differences between the temperature distributions of gas and solid phases in spouted beds with and without draft plates.
The effect of plate heat exchanger’s geometry on heat transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oana GIURGIU
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The study presents further Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD numerical analysis for two models of plate heat exchangers. Comparatively was studied the influence of geometric characteristics of plates on the intensification process of heat exchange. For this purpose, it was examined the distribution of velocity and temperatures fields on active plate height. Heat transfer characteristics were analysed through the variation of mass flow on the primary heat agent.
Natural convective flow of a magneto-micropolar fluid along a vertical plate
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M. Ferdows
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study of natural convective flow of an electrically conducting viscous micropolar fluid past a vertical plate. Internal heat generation (IHG versus without IHG in the medium are discussed in the context of corresponding similarity solutions. Results are presented in terms of velocity, angular velocity, temperature, skin friction in tabular forms, local wall-coupled stress, and Nusselt number. Computations have been accomplished by parametrizing the micropolar, micro-rotation, magnetic field, suction parameters, and the Prandtl number. Several critical issues are addressed at the end of the paper with reference to a previous study by El-Hakiem. The study is relevant to high-temperature electromagnetic materials fabrication systems. Keywords: Natural convection, Thermal boundary layer, Micropolar fluid, Similarity transformation, Internal heat generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prasad Ramachandra V.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available An unsteady, two-dimensional, hydromagnetic, laminar free convective boundary-layer flow of an incompressible, Newtonian, electrically-conducting and radiating fluid past an infinite heated vertical porous plate with heat and mass transfer is analyzed, by taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using two-term harmonic and non-harmonic functions. Numerical evaluation of the analytical results is performed and graphical results for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles within the boundary layer and tabulated results for the skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented and discussed. It is observed that, when the radiation parameter increases, the velocity and temperature decrease in the boundary layer, whereas when thermal and solutal Grashof increases the velocity increases.
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Muthucumaraswamy R.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available An exact analysis of rotation effects on unsteady flow of an incompressible and electrically conducting fluid past a uniformly accelerated infinite isothermal vertical plate, under the action of transversely applied magnetic field has been presented. The plate temperature is raised to Tw and the concentration level near the plate is also raised to C′w . The dimensionless governing equations are solved using Laplace-transform technique. The velocity profiles, temperature and concentration are studied for different physical parameters like thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number, Prandtl number and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of thermal Grashof number or mass Grashof number. It is also observed that the velocity increases with decreasing magnetic field parameter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Periyadurai, K. [Department of Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthtamilselvan, M., E-mail: muthtamill@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamil Nadu (India); Doh, Deog-Hee [Division of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering,Korea Maritime Ocean University, Busan 606781 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-15
In the present study, the effect of inclined magnetic field on natural convection of micro-polar fluid in a square cavity with uniform and nonuniform heated thin plate built in centrally is investigated numerically. The vertical walls are cooled while the top and bottom walls are insulated. The thin plate is assumed to be isothermal with a linearly varying temperature. The governing equations were solved by finite volume method using second order central difference scheme and upwind differencing scheme. The numerical investigation is carried out for different governing parameters namely, the Hartmann number, inclination angle of magnetic field, Rayleigh number, vortex viscosity and source non-uniformity parameters. The result shows that the heat transfer rate is decreased when increasing Hartmann number, inclination angle of magnetic field and vortex viscosity parameter. It is found that the non-uniformity parameter affects the fluid flow and temperature distribution especially for the high Rayleigh numbers. Finally, the overall heat transfer rate of micro-polar fluids is found to be smaller than that of Newtonian fluid. - Highlights: • We investigate the effect of inclined magnetic field on micropolar fluid in a cavity. • The effects of uniform and non-uniform heated plate are studied. • The present numerical results are compared with the experimental results. • The addition of vortex viscosity parameter declines the heat transfer performance. • The high heat transfer rate occurs in the vertical plate compared to the horizontal one.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allan, J.A.F.
1976-10-28
Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.
Theory and design of heat exchanger : air cooled plate, spiral heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Min, Ui Dong
1960-02-01
This book deals with air cooled heat exchanger, which introduces heat rejection system, wet surface cooler in new from, explanation of structure and design, materials, basic design like plenums chambers and fan ring, finned tube fouling factor, airflow in forced draft and fan design. It also tells of plate heat exchanger and spiral heat exchanger giving descriptions of summary, selection, basic design, device and safety function, maintenance, structure of plate heat exchanger, frames and connector plate and, basic things of spiral tube heat exchanger.
New movable plate for efficient millimeter wave vertical on-chip antenna
Marnat, Loic; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Galicia Martinez, Miguel Angel; Foulds, Ian G.; Shamim, Atif
2013-01-01
A new movable plate concept is presented in this paper to realize mm-wave vertical on-chip antennas through MEMS based post-processing steps in a CMOS compatible process. By virtue of its vertical position, the antenna is isolated from the lossy Si substrate and hence performs with a better efficiency as compared to the horizontal position. In addition, the movable plate concept enables polarization diversity by providing both horizontal and vertical polarizations on the same chip. Through a first iteration fractal bowtie antenna design, dual band (60 and 77 GHz) operation is demonstrated in both horizontal and vertical positions without any change in dimensions or use of switches for two different mediums (Si and air). To support the movable plate concept, the transmission line and antenna are designed on a flexible polyamide, where the former has been optimized to operate in the bent position. The design is highly suitable for compact, low cost and efficient SoC solutions. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
New movable plate for efficient millimeter wave vertical on-chip antenna
Marnat, Loic
2013-04-01
A new movable plate concept is presented in this paper to realize mm-wave vertical on-chip antennas through MEMS based post-processing steps in a CMOS compatible process. By virtue of its vertical position, the antenna is isolated from the lossy Si substrate and hence performs with a better efficiency as compared to the horizontal position. In addition, the movable plate concept enables polarization diversity by providing both horizontal and vertical polarizations on the same chip. Through a first iteration fractal bowtie antenna design, dual band (60 and 77 GHz) operation is demonstrated in both horizontal and vertical positions without any change in dimensions or use of switches for two different mediums (Si and air). To support the movable plate concept, the transmission line and antenna are designed on a flexible polyamide, where the former has been optimized to operate in the bent position. The design is highly suitable for compact, low cost and efficient SoC solutions. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
Numerical Investigation of Jet Impingement Heat Transfer on a Flat plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asem Nabadavis
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The numerical investigation emphasizes on studying the heat transfer characteristics when a high velocity air jet impinges upon a flat plate having constant heat flux. Numerical analysis has been conducted by solving conservation equations of momentum, mass and energy with two equations based k- ε turbulence model to determine the wall temperature and Nu of the plate considering the flow to be incompressible. It was found from the investigation that the heat transfer rate increases with the increase of Reynolds number of the jet (Rej. It was also found that there is an optimum value for jet distance to nozzle diameter ratio (H/d for maximum heat transfer when all the other parameters were kept fixed. Similar results as above were found when two jets of air were used instead of one jet keeping the mass flow rate constant. For a two jets case it was also found that heat transfer rate over the surface increases when the jets are inclined outward compared to vertical and inward jets and also there exists an optimum angle of jet for maximum heat transfer. Further investigation was carried out for different jetto-jet separation distance for a twin jet impingement model where it was noted that heat transfer is more distributed in case of larger values of L and the rate of heat transfer increases as the separation between the jet increases till a certain point after which the rate of heat transfer decreases.
Heat transfer studies on spiral plate heat exchanger
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajavel Rangasamy
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the heat transfer coefficients in a spiral plate heat exchanger are investigated. The test section consists of a plate of width 0.3150 m, thickness 0.001 m and mean hydraulic diameter of 0.01 m. The mass flow rate of hot water (hot fluid is varying from 0.5 to 0.8 kg/s and the mass flow rate of cold water (cold fluid varies from 0.4 to 0.7 kg/s. Experiments have been conducted by varying the mass flow rate, temperature, and pressure of cold fluid, keeping the mass flow rate of hot fluid constant. The effects of relevant parameters on spiral plate heat exchanger are investigated. The data obtained from the experimental study are compared with the theoretical data. Besides, a new correlation for the Nusselt number which can be used for practical applications is proposed.
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER FOR VISCO-ELASTIC MHD BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW PAST A VERTICAL FLAT PLATE
Rita Choudhury; Hridi Ranjan Deb
2012-01-01
The two-dimensional free convection flow of visco-elastic and electrically conducting fluid past a vertical impermeable flat plate is considered in presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. The governing equations are reduced to ordinary differential equation by introducing appropriate co-ordinate transformation. The analytical expressions for the velocity, temperature and species concentration fields have been obtained. The corresponding expressions for the non-dimensional rates of he...
Development of stress correction formulae for heat formed steel plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyung Kyun Lim
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The heating process such as line heating, triangular heating and so on is widely used in plate forming of shell plates found in bow and stern area of outer shell in a ship. Local shrinkage during heating process is main physical phenomenon used in plate forming process. As it is well appreciated, the heated plate undergoes the change in material and mechanical properties around heated area due to the harsh thermal process. It is, therefore, important to investigate the changes of physical and mechanical properties due to heating process in order to use them plate the design stage of shell plates. This study is concerned with the development of formula of plastic hardening constitutive equation for steel plate on which line heating is applied. In this study the stress correction formula for the heated plate has been developed based on the numerical simulation of tension test with varying plate thickness and heating speed through the regression analysis of multiple variable case. It has been seen the developed formula shows very good agreement with results of numerical simulation. This paper ends with usefulness of the present formula in examining the structural characteristic of ship's hull. Keywords: Heat input, Heat transfer analysis, Line heating, Shell plate, Stress correction, Thermo-elasto-plastic analysis
Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates
Oosthuizen, Patrick H
2013-01-01
Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates deals with a heat transfer situation that is of significant practical importance but which is not adequately dealt with in any existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to recent studies of natural convection from narrow plates including the effects of plate edge conditions, plate inclination, thermal conditions at the plate surface and interaction of the flows over adjacent plates. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Garg P.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the mathematical implications of the two dimensional viscous steady laminar combined free-forced convective flow of an incompressible fluid over a semi infinite fixed vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium. It is assumed that the left surface of the plate is heated by convection from a hot fluid which is at a temperature higher than the temperature of the fluid on the right surface of the vertical plate. To achieve numerical consistency for the problem under consideration, the governing non linear partial differential equations are first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using a similarity variable and then solved numerically under conditions admitting similarity solutions. The effects of the physical parameters of both the incompressible fluid and the vertical plate on the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are studied and analysed and the results are depicted both graphically and in a tabular form. Finally, algebraic expressions and the numerical values are obtained for the local skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number.
A simple heat transfer model for a heat flux plate under transient conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryan, L.; Dale, J.D.
1985-01-01
Heat flux plates are used for measuring rates of heat transfer through surfaces under steady state and transient conditions. Their usual construction is to have a resistive layer bounded by thermopiles and an exterior layer for protection. If properly designed and constructed a linear relationship between the thermopile generated voltage and heat flux results and calibration under steady state conditions is straight forward. Under transient conditions however the voltage output from a heat flux plate cannot instantaneously follow the heat flux because of the thermal capacitance of the plate and the resulting time lag. In order to properly interpret the output of a heat flux plate used under transient conditions a simple heat transfer model was constructed and tested. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uday Singh Rajput
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Effects of rotation and radiation on unsteady MHD flow past a vertical plate with variable wall temperature and mass diffusion in the presence of Hall current is studied here. Earlier we studied chemical reaction effect on unsteady MHD flow past an exponentially accelerated inclined plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion in the presence of Hall current. We had obtained the results which were in agreement with the desired flow phenomenon. To study further, we are changing the model by considering radiation effect on fluid, and changing the geometry of the model. Here in this paper we are taking the plate positioned vertically upward and rotating with velocity Ω . Further, medium of the flow is taken as porous. The plate temperature and the concentration level near the plate increase linearly with time. The governing system of partial differential equations is transformed to dimensionless equations using dimensionless variables. The dimensionless equations under consideration have been solved by Laplace transform technique. The model contains equations of motion, diffusion equation and equation of energy. To analyze the solution of the model, desirable sets of the values of the parameters have been considered. The governing equations involved in the flow model are solved by the Laplace-transform technique. The results obtained have been analyzed with the help of graphs drawn for different parameters. The numerical values obtained for the drag at boundary and Nusselt number have been tabulated. We found that the values obtained for velocity, concentration and temperature are in concurrence with the actual flow of the fluid
Modelling of Split Condenser Heat Pump with Limited Set of Plate Heat Exchanger Dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Stefan Wuust; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke Brix
2017-01-01
in parallel to different temperature levels, whereas only one stream is heated in a THP. The length/width ratio of the plate heat exchangers on the high pressure side of a SCHP was investigated to find the optimal plate dimensions with respect to minimum area of the heat exchangers. The total heat exchanger...... area was found to decrease with an increasing length/width ratio of the plates. The marginal change in heat exchanger area was shown to be less significant for heat exchangers with high length/width ratios. In practice only a limited number of plate dimensions are available and feasible...... in the production. This was investigated to find the practical potential of a SCHP compared to a THP. Using plates optimized for a SCHP in a THP, the total required heat exchanger area increased by approximately 100% for the conditions investigated in this study, indicating that available plate dimensions influence...
El-Amin, Mohamed; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu; Reddy Gorla, Rama Subba
2012-01-01
In this paper, the effects of viscous dissipation on unsteady free convection from an isothermal vertical flat plate in a fluidsaturated porous medium are investigated. The Darcy-Brinkman model is employed to describe the flow field. A new model of viscous dissipation is used for the Darcy-Brinkman model of porous media. The simultaneous development of the momentum and thermal boundary layers is obtained by using a finite-difference method. Boundary layer and Boussinesq approximation have been incorporated. Numerical calculations are carried out for various parameters entering into the problem. Velocity and temperature profiles as well as the local friction factor and local Nusselt number are displayed graphically. It is found that as time approaches infinity, the values of the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient approach steady state. © 2012 by Begell House, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshino, R.; Kondoh, T.; Neyatani, Y.; Itami, K.; Kawano, Y.; Isei, N.
1997-01-01
A killer pellet is an impurity pellet that is injected into a tokamak plasma in order to terminate a discharge without causing serious damage to the tokamak machine. In JT-60U neon ice pellets have been injected into OH and NB heated plasmas and fast plasma shutdowns have been demonstrated without large vertical displacement. The heat pulse on the divertor plate has been greatly reduced by killer pellet injections (KPI), but a low-power heat flux tail with a long time duration is observed. The total energy on the divertor plate increases with longer heat flux tail, so it has been reduced by shortening the tail. Runaway electron (RE) generation has been observed just after KPI and/or in the later phase of the plasma current quench. However, RE generation has been avoided when large magnetic perturbations are excited. These experimental results clearly show that KPI is a credible fast shutdown method avoiding large vertical displacement, reducing heat flux on the divertor plate, and avoiding (or minimizing) RE generation. (Author)
Viscous and Joule heating effects on MHD free convection flow with variable plate temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hossain, M.A.
1990-09-01
A steady two-dimensional laminar boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible and electrically conducting fluid past a vertical heated plate with variable temperature in the presence of a transverse uniform magnetic field has been investigated by bringing the effect of viscous and Joules heating. The non-dimensional boundary layer equations are solved using the implicit finite difference method along with Newton's approximation for small Prandtl number chosen as typical of coolant liquid metals at operating temperature. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
M Hadi Kusuma; Mulya Juarsa; Anhar Riza Antariksawan
2013-01-01
Boiling heat transfer phenomena on rectangular narrow gap was related to the safety of nuclear reactors. Research done in order to study the safety of nuclear reactors in particular relating to boiling heat transfer and useful on the improvement of next-generation reactor designs. The research focused on calculation of the heat flux during the cooling process in rectangular narrow gap size 1.0 mm. with initial temperatures 200°C. 400°C, and 600°C, also the flow rates of cooling water 0,1 liters/second. 0,2 liters/second. and 0,3 liters/second. Experiments carried out by injecting water at a certain flow rate with the water temperature 85°C. Transient temperature measurement data recorded by the data acquisition system. Transient temperature measurement data is used to calculate the flux of heat gain is then used to obtain the heat transfer coefficient. This research aimed to obtain the correlation between critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient to changes in temperatures and water flow rates for bilaterally-heated cases on rectangular narrow gap. The results obtained for a constant cooling water flow rate, critical heat flux will increase when hot plate temperature also increased. While on a constant hot plate temperature, coefficient heat transfer will increase when cooling water flow rate also increased. Thus it can be said that the cooling water flow rate and temperature of the hot plate has a significant effect on the critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient resulted in quenching process of vertical rectangular narrow gap with double-heated cases. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Javaherdeh
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A numerical investigation of two-dimensional steady laminar free convection flow with heat and mass transfer past a moving vertical plate in a porous medium subjected to a transverse magnetic field is carried out. The temperature and concentration level at the plate surface are assumed to follow a power-law type of distribution. The governing non-linear set of equations is solved numerically employing a fully implicit finite difference method. Results are presented to illustrate the influence of different parameters such as Grashof number (Gr, porosity parameter (Kp, magnetic field parameter (Mn and exponents in the power law variation of the surface temperature and concentration, m and n. The dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are analyzed and numerical data for the local Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented. The study accentuates the significance of the relevant parameters.
Strauch-Sürken, L; Wendt, M
2015-01-01
On a conventionally managed piglet-producing farm, novel infrared (IR) heating plates for piglets in the farrowing pens were tested for their suitability and compared with common warm-water (WW) heating plates. In total, 134 litters (summer n = 82, winter n = 52) were investigated, which were housed on IR or WW heating plates, respectively, with or without an extra cover plate (groups 1-4). To determine the influence of the different heat sources, the wound healing after castration and tail docking, the umbilical regression and the weight gain of the piglets were investigated. Additionally, the lying behavior of the piglets and the position of the sows' udder at the time of farrowing were examined with regard to the heating plates. Furthermore, the energy consumption and costs were compared. The piglets housed on IR heating plates displayed better wound healing after castration and tail docking than the piglets housed on WW plates. The best results were obtained in piglets kept on IR heating plates with an extra cover plate. In addition, significant benefits were demonstrated for the usage of IR heating plates regarding umbilical regression. The piglets kept on IR heating plates had a slightly better weight gain in summer, whereas there were no differences between groups during winter. The lying behavior in the creep areas was similar in all groups. In general, with increasing age the percentage of time piglets spent in the lying position on the plates decreased. The percentage of time lying on the plates was higher in winter than in summer. At farrowing, 74.6% of all investigated sows directed their udder towards the heating plates. With the IR heating plates, this behavior occurred significantly more often. The energy consumption (kWh) per litter was significantly lower for the IR heating plates (electric power) both in winter and summer in comparison with the WW plates (gas). The energy costs were comparable in summer, but were higher for the IR heating plates
Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates
Gilliéron, Patrick; Kourta, Azeddine
2010-01-01
The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 × 106 and 1.6 × 106. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles.
Performance of tubes-and plate fins heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosman, E.C.
1979-11-01
By means of a two-dimensional analysis performance, and using local heat transfer coefficients, the plate fin temperature distribution, the air bulk temperature along the stream path and the fin efficiency can be obtained, for several Reynolds numbers and fin materials. Herein are also presented the average heat transfer coefficients for isothermal plate fins, referring to heat exchangers with central-tube and rear-tube row and to two-row tubes heat exchangers configurations. It is possible to obtain the real tax or the real area of heat transfer, using the average hea transfer coefficients for isothermal plate fins and the fin efficiency. (Author) [pt
Concurrent Validity of a Portable Force Plate Using Vertical Jump Force-Time Characteristics.
Lake, Jason; Mundy, Peter; Comfort, Paul; McMahon, John J; Suchomel, Timothy J; Carden, Patrick
2018-05-29
This study examined concurrent validity of countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) reactive strength index modified and force-time characteristics recorded using a one dimensional portable and laboratory force plate system. Twenty-eight men performed bilateral CMJs on two portable force plates placed on top of two in-ground force plates, both recording vertical ground reaction force at 1000 Hz. Time to take-off, jump height, reactive strength index modified, braking and propulsion impulse, mean net force, and duration were calculated from the vertical force from both force plate systems. Results from both systems were highly correlated (r≥.99). There were small (dbraking impulse, braking mean net force, propulsion impulse, and propulsion mean net force (psystem (95% CL: .9% to 2.5%), indicating very good agreement across all of the dependent variables. The largest limits of agreement belonged to jump height (2.1%), time to take-off (3.4%), and reactive strength index modified (3.8%). The portable force plate system provides a valid method of obtaining reactive strength measures, and several underpinning force-time variables, from unloaded CMJ and practitioners can use both force plates interchangeably.
Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gillieron, Patrick [Renault Group, Research Division, Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Guyancourt (France); Kourta, Azeddine [Polytech' Orleans, Institut PRISME, ESA, Orleans (France)
2010-01-15
The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 x 10{sup 6} and 1.6 x 10{sup 6}. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles. (orig.)
Analysis of sweeping heat loads on divertor plate materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassanein, A.
1991-01-01
The heat flux on the divertor plate of a fusion reactor is probably one of the most limiting constraints on its lifetime. The current heat flux profile on the outer divertor plate of a device like ITER is highly peaked with narrow profile. The peak heat flux can be as high as 30--40 MW/m 2 with full width at half maximum (FWHM) is in the order of a few centimeters. Sweeping the separatrix along the divertor plate is one of the options proposed to reduce the thermomechanical effects of this highly peaked narrow profile distribution. The effectiveness of the sweeping process is investigated parametrically for various design values. The optimum sweeping parameters of a particular heat load will depend on the design of the divertor plate as well as on the profile of such a heat load. In general, moving a highly peaked heat load results in substantial reduction of the thermomechanical effects on the divertor plate. 3 refs., 8 figs
Vortex shedding induced by a solitary wave propagating over a submerged vertical plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Chang; Ho, T.-C.; Chang, S.-C.; Hsieh, S.-C.; Chang, K.-A.
2005-01-01
Experimental study was conducted on the vortex shedding process induced by the interaction between a solitary wave and a submerged vertical plate. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used for quantitative velocity measurement while a particle tracing technique was used for qualitative flow visualization. Vortices are generated at the tip of each side of the plate. The largest vortices at each side of the plate eventually grow to the size of the water depth. Although the fluid motion under the solitary wave is only translatory, vortices are shed in both the upstream and downstream directions due to the interaction of the generated vortices as well as the vortices with the plate and the bottom. The process can be divided into four phases: the formation of a separated shear layer, the generation and shedding of vortices, the formation of a vertical jet, and the impingement of the jet onto the free surface. Similarity velocity profiles were found both in the separated shear layer and in the vertical jet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.M. Arifuzzaman
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This paper concerns with the modelling of an unsteady natural convective and higher order chemically reactive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD fluid flow with the effect of heat and radiation absorption. The flow is generated through a vertical oscillating porous plate. Boundary layer approximations is carried out to establish a flow model which represents the time dependent momentum, energy and diffusion balance equations. Before being solved numerically, the governing partial differential equations (PDEs were transformed into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODEs by using non-similar technique. A very efficient numerical approach solves the obtained nonlinear coupled ODEs so called Explicit Finite Difference Method (EFDM. An algorithm is implemented in Compaq Visual Fortran 6.6a as a solving tool. In addition, the stability and convergence analysis (SCA is examined and shown explicitly. The advantages of SCA is its optimizes the accuracy of system parameters such as Prandtl number (Pr and Schmidt number (Sc.The velocity, temperature and concentration fields in the boundary layer region are studied in detail and the outcomes are shown in graphically with the influence of various pertinent parameters such as Grashof number (Gr, modified Grashof number (Gr, magnetic parameter (M, Darcy number (Da,Prandtl number (Pr, Schmidt number (Sc, radiation (R, heat sink (Q,radiation absorption (Q1, Eckert number (Ec, Dufour number (Du,Soret number (Sr, Schmidt number (Sc, reaction index (P and chemical reaction (Kr. Furthermore, the effect of skin friction coefficient (Cf, Nusselt number (Nu and Sherwood number (Sh are also examined graphically. Keywords: MHD, Oscillating porous plate, Radiation absorption, High order chemical reaction, EFDM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khan A.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available An exact solution and analysis of an initial unsteady two dimensional free convection flow, heat and mass transfer in the presence of thermal radiation along an infinite fixed vertical plate when the plate temperature is instantaneously raised, is presented. The fluid considered is a gray, absorbing emitting radiation but a nonscattering medium. Three cases have been discussed, in particular, namely, (i when, the plate temperature is instantaneously raised to a higher constant value, (ii when, the plate temperature varies linearly with time and (iii when, the plate temperature varies non-linearly with time. A close form general solution for all the cases has been obtained in terms of repeated integrals of error functions. In two particular cases, the solutions in terms of the repeated integrals of error functions have been further simplified to forms containing only error functions. It is observed that for an increase in the radiation parameter N or a decrease in the Grashof number Gr or Gm, there is a fall in the velocity or temperature, but compared to the no radiation case or no diffusing species, there is a rise in the velocity and temperature of the fluid.
New terrestrial heat flow measurements on the Nazca Plate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, R N [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY; Langseth, M G; Vacquier, V; Francheteau, J
1976-03-01
Sixty-seven new heat flow measurements on the Nazca Plate are reported, and the thermal regimes of three specific areas on the plate are examined. The Nazca Ridge is an aseismic ridge which may have been generated as an ''island trail'' from the Easter Island ''hot spot'' and/or may be a fossil transform fault. The Nazca Ridge has lower heat flow than the surrounding sea floor implying that the ridge might have low ''effective'' thermal conductivity causing heat to preferentially flow or refract to surrounding ocean crust which has higher conductivity, or, the low heat flow values may be caused by hydrothermal circulation on the ridge. The Carnegie Plateau is an elevated region south of the Carnegie Ridge on the northeastern Nazca Plate with high heat flow and shallow topography consistent with an age of less than 20 m.y. B.P. The central Nazca Plate is an area of highly variable heat flow which is possibly related to thin sediment and to rough regional topography.
Unsteady MHD free convective flow past a vertical porous plate ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology .... dimensional MHD boundary layer on the body with time varying temperature. ... flow of an electrically conducting fluid past an infinite vertical porous flat plate coinciding with.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandeep Naramgari
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We analyse the effects of aligned magnetic field, radiation, and rotation on unsteady hydromagnetic free convection flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid past an impulsively moving vertical plate in a porous medium in presence of heat source. An exact solution of the governing equations in dimensionless form is obtained by Laplace transform technique in ramped temperature case. To compare the results obtained in this case with that of isothermal plate, the exact solution of the governing equations is also obtained for isothermal plate and results are discussed graphically in both ramped temperature and isothermal cases.
Heat analysis of the magnetic limiter plate for JT-60
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Hiroo; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Ohta, Mitsuru
1977-03-01
Heat analysis has been made of the magnetic limiter plate for JT-60. Test materials of the magnetic limiter plate are molybdenum, graphite, pyrolytic graphite and silicon carbide. It is assumed in calculation of the heat analysis that 10MW is deposited on the 2 cm wide surface of the magnetic limiter plate in about 10 sec. The magnetic limiter plate of pyrolytic graphite is a stack of pyrolytic graphite sheets, heat input is in the deposition plane to take advantage of the large heat conductivity along this plane. Pyrolytic graphite is the best in terms of temperature rise. The temperature of molybdenum and graphite rise up to 1800 0 C and 620 0 C, respectively, in an deposition of 10 MWx10sec. Silicon carbide is not suitable for the magnetic limiter plate. Because the plasma of the JT-60 discharges every 10 min, the average heat flux decreases to 17 w/cm 2 during the each interval. When the magnetic limiter plate has the above heat inflow, a maximum of above 1000 0 C occurs at the edge far from the joint to the thick ring of the vacuum vessel. To reduce heat load of the magnetic limiter plate, an alternating current (2 -- 5Hz) is superposed on the magnetic limiter coil current. The intersection of separatrix line and magnetic limiter plate then moves cyclically more than 10 cm. Concerning temperature distribution of the multi-groove magnetic limiter plate, its dimensions are determined by the limitation in vapor pressure to prevent the impurity inflow. (auth.)
Plate heat exchangers in the power plant industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wersel, M.; Ridell, B.
1984-01-01
An increase in heat transfer and stability, small investment, high flexibility, easy maintenance and corrosion resistance are obtained by the design and construction of plate heat exchangers and by the introduction of the herringbone pattern. The plate heat exchanger can be used in nearly 90% of all secondary circuits in powerstations. Examples of its installation are the WYLFA, GENTILLY, RINGHALS and TVO Finland nuclear power-stations. (DG) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, S.S. [Department of Physics, K B D A V College, Nirakarpur, Khurda-752 019 (Orissa) (India); Tripathy, R.K. [Department of Physics, D R Nayapalli College, Bhubaneswar-751 012 (Orissa) (India); Padhy, R.K. [Department of Physics, D A V Public School, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar-751 021 (Orissa) (India); Sahu, M. [Department of Physics, Jupiter +2 Women’s Science College, IRC Village, Bhubaneswar-751 015 (Orissa) (India)
2012-07-01
This paper theoretically investigates the combined natural convection and mass transfer effects on unsteady flow of a viscous incompressible fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium with heat source. The governing equations of the flow field are solved analytically for velocity, temperature, concentration distribution, skin friction and the rate of heat transfer using multi parameter perturbation technique and the effects of the flow parameters such as permeability parameter Kp, Grashof number for heat and mass transfer Gr, Gc; heat source parameter S, Schmidt number Sc, Prandtl number Pr etc. on the flow field are analyzed and discussed with the help of figures and tables. The permeability parameter Kp is reported to accelerate the transient velocity of the flow field at all points for small values of Kp (£1) and for higher values the effect reverses. The effect of increasing Grashof numbers for heat and mass transfer or heat source parameter is to enhance the transient velocity of the flow field at all points while a growing Schmidt number retards its effect at all points. A growing permeability parameter or heat source parameter increases the transient temperature of the flow field at all points, while a growing Prandtl number shows reverse effect. The effect of increasing Schmidt number is to decrease the concentration boundary layer thickness of the flow field at all points. Further, a growing permeability parameter enhances the skin friction at the wall and a growing Prandtl number shows reverse effect. The effect of increasing Prandtl number or permeability parameter leads to increase the magnitude of the rate of heat transfer at the wall.
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M. Das
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The influence of Newtonian heating on heat and mass transfer in unsteady hydromagnetic flow of a Casson fluid past a vertical plate in the presence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction is studied. The Casson fluid model is used to distinguish the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. The fluid flow is induced due to periodic oscillations of the plate along its length and a uniform transverse magnetic field is applied in a direction which is normal to the direction of fluid flow. The partial differential equations governing the flow, heat, and mass transfer are transformed to non-dimensional form using suitable non-dimensional variables which are then solved analytically by using Laplace transform technique. The numerical values of the fluid velocity, fluid temperature, and species concentration are depicted graphically whereas the values of skin-friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number are presented in tabular form. It is noticed that the fluid velocity and temperature decrease with increasing values of Casson parameter while concentration decreases with increasing values of chemical reaction parameter and Schmidt number. Such a fluid flow model has several industrial and medical applications such as in glass manufacturing, paper production, purification of crude oil and study of blood flow in the cardiovascular system.
An Experimentally Validated Numerical Modeling Technique for Perforated Plate Heat Exchangers.
White, M J; Nellis, G F; Kelin, S A; Zhu, W; Gianchandani, Y
2010-11-01
Cryogenic and high-temperature systems often require compact heat exchangers with a high resistance to axial conduction in order to control the heat transfer induced by axial temperature differences. One attractive design for such applications is a perforated plate heat exchanger that utilizes high conductivity perforated plates to provide the stream-to-stream heat transfer and low conductivity spacers to prevent axial conduction between the perforated plates. This paper presents a numerical model of a perforated plate heat exchanger that accounts for axial conduction, external parasitic heat loads, variable fluid and material properties, and conduction to and from the ends of the heat exchanger. The numerical model is validated by experimentally testing several perforated plate heat exchangers that are fabricated using microelectromechanical systems based manufacturing methods. This type of heat exchanger was investigated for potential use in a cryosurgical probe. One of these heat exchangers included perforated plates with integrated platinum resistance thermometers. These plates provided in situ measurements of the internal temperature distribution in addition to the temperature, pressure, and flow rate measured at the inlet and exit ports of the device. The platinum wires were deposited between the fluid passages on the perforated plate and are used to measure the temperature at the interface between the wall material and the flowing fluid. The experimental testing demonstrates the ability of the numerical model to accurately predict both the overall performance and the internal temperature distribution of perforated plate heat exchangers over a range of geometry and operating conditions. The parameters that were varied include the axial length, temperature range, mass flow rate, and working fluid.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.S. Tripathy
2015-09-01
Full Text Available An attempt has been made to study the heat and mass transfer effect in a boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting viscous fluid subject to transverse magnetic field past over a moving vertical plate through porous medium in the presence of heat source and chemical reaction. The governing non-linear partial differential equations have been transformed into a two-point boundary value problem using similarity variables and then solved numerically by fourth order Runge–Kutta fourth order method with shooting technique. Graphical results are discussed for non-dimensional velocity, temperature and concentration profiles while numerical values of the skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented in tabular form for various values of parameters controlling the flow system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Jong Yun; Kang, Yong Tae; Nam, Sang Chul
2008-01-01
Numerical analysis was carried out to examine the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of plate heat exchangers for absorption application using computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) technique. A commercial CFD software package, FLUENT was used to predict the characteristics of heat transfer, pressure drop and flow distribution within plate heat exchangers. In this paper, a welded plate heat exchanger with the plate of chevron embossing type was numerically analyzed by controlling mass flow rate, solution concentration, and inlet temperatures. The working fluid is H 2 O/LiBr solution with the LiBr concentration of 50∼60% in mass. The numerical simulation show reasonably good agreement with the experimental results. Also, the numerical results show that plate of the chevron shape gives better results than plate of the elliptical shape from the view points of heat transfer and pressure drop. These results provide a guideline to apply the welded PHE for the solution heat exchanger of absorption systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luanfang Duan
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In the present work, the contact heat transfer between the granular materials and heating plates inside plate rotary heat exchanger (PRHE was investigated. The heat transfer coefficient is dominated by the contact heat transfer coefficient at hot wall surface of the heating plates and the heat penetration inside the solid bed. A plot scale PRHE with a diameter of Do = 273 mm and a length of L = 1000 mm has been established. Quartz sand with dp = 2 mm was employed as the experimental material. The operational parameters were in the range of ω = 1 – 8 rpm, and F = 15, 20, 25, 30%, and the effect of these parameters on the time-average contact heat transfer coefficient was analyzed. The time-average contact heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase of rotary speed, but decreases with the increase of the filling degree. The measured data of time-average heat transfer coefficients were compared with theoretical calculations from Schlünder’s model, a good agreement between the measurements and the model could be achieved, especially at a lower rotary speed and filling degree level. The maximum deviation between the calculated data and the experimental data is approximate 10%. Keywords: Rotary heat exchanger, Contact heat transfer, Granular material, Heating plate, Overloaded
Rough horizontal plates: heat transfer and hysteresis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tisserand, J-C; Gasteuil, Y; Pabiou, H; Castaing, B; Chilla, F [Universite de Lyon, ENS Lyon, CNRS, 46 Allee d' ltalie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 7 (France); Creyssels, M [LMFA, CNRS, Ecole Centrale Lyon, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Gibert, M, E-mail: mathieu.creyssels@ec-lyon.fr [Also at MPI-DS (LFPN) Gottingen (Germany)
2011-12-22
To investigate the influence of a rough-wall boundary layer on turbulent heat transport, an experiment of high-Rayleigh convection in water is carried out in a Rayleigh-Benard cell with a rough lower plate and a smooth upper plate. A transition in the heat transport is observed when the thermal boundary layer thickness becomes comparable to or smaller than the roughness height. Besides, at larger Rayleigh numbers than the threshold value, heat transport is found to be increased up to 60%. This enhancement cannot be explained simply by an increase in the contact area of the rough surface since the contact area is increased only by a factor of 40%. Finally, a simple model is proposed to explain the enhanced heat transport.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poonia Hemant
2010-01-01
Full Text Available An unsteady, two-dimensional, hydromagnetic, laminar mixed convective boundary layer flow of an incompressible and electrically-conducting fluid along an infinite vertical plate embedded in the porous medium with heat and mass transfer is analyzed, by taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using two-term harmonic and non-harmonic functions. Numerical evaluation of the analytical results is performed and graphical results for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles within the boundary layer are discussed. The results show that increased cooling (Gr > 0 of the plate and the Eckert number leads to a rise in the velocity profile. Also, an increase in Eckert number leads to an increase in the temperature. Effects of Sc on velocity and concentration are discussed and shown graphically.
Experimental and analytical study of natural-convection heat transfer of internally heated liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, G.A.
1982-08-01
Boundary heat transfer from a liquid pool with a uniform internal heat source to a vertical or inclined boundary was investigated. The experiments were performed in an open rectangular liquid pool in which the internal heat source was generated by electrical heating. The local heat flux was measured to a boron nitride test wall which was able to be continuously inclined from vertical. Gold plated microthermocouples of 0.01 inch outside diameter were developed to measure the local surface temperature, both front and back, of the boron nitride. The local heat flux and, thus, the local heat transfer coefficient was measured at nineteen locations along the vertical axis of the test plate. A theoretical analysis of the coupled nonlinear boundary layer equations was performed. The parametric effect of the Prandtl number and the dimensionless wall temperature on the boundary heat transfer were investigated When the analytical model was used to calculate the boundary heat transfer data, agreement was achieved with the experimental data within 3% for the local heat transfer and within 2% for the average heat transfer
Adeniyan, A.,
2013-01-01
The numerical investigation of a stagnation point boundary layer flow , mass and heat transfer of a steady two dimensional , incompressible , viscous electrically conducting, chemically reacting laminar fluid over a vertical convectively heated , electrically neutral flat plate exposed to a transverse uniform magnetic field has been carried out to examine the influence of the simultaneous presence of the effects of a convective boundary condition, chemical reaction, heat transfer and suctio...
Kassem, M.
2006-03-01
The problem of heat and mass transfer in an unsteady free-convection flow over a continuous moving vertical sheet in an ambient fluid is investigated for constant heat flux using the group theoretical method. The nonlinear coupled partial differential equation governing the flow and the boundary conditions are transformed to a system of ordinary differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions. The obtained ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using the shooting method. The effect of Prandlt number on the velocity and temperature of the boundary-layer is plotted in curves. A comparison with previous work is presented.
Manideep, P.; Raju, R. Srinivasa; Rao, T. Siva Nageswar; Reddy, G. Jithender
2018-05-01
This paper deals, an unsteady magnetohydrodynamic heat transfer natural convection flow of non-Newtonian Casson fluid over an inclined vertical plate embedded in a porous media with the presence of boundary conditions such as oscillating velocity, constant wall temperature. The governing dimensionless boundary layer partial differential equations are reduced to simultaneous algebraic linear equation for velocity, temperature of Casson fluid through finite element method. Those equations are solved by Thomas algorithm after imposing the boundary conditions through MATLAB for analyzing the behavior of Casson fluid velocity and temperature with various physical parameters. Also analyzed the local skin-friction and rate of heat transfer. Compared the present results with earlier reported studies, the results are comprehensively authenticated and robust FEM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baoku, I.G.; Olajuwon, B.I.; Mustapha, A.O.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► We model the flow of a MHD third grade fluid, heat and mass transfer in a porous medium with partial slip flow regime. ► We examine the effects of pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature and species concentration distributions. ► The values momentum and thermal boundary layers increase with increasing third grade parameter β. ► The consequences of increasing the permeability parameter m and partial slip parameter λ give rise to fluid velocity. ► The magnetic field parameter H decreases the momentum boundary layer and increases the concentration boundary layer. -- Abstract: The influence of third grade, partial slip and other thermophysical parameters on the steady flow, heat and mass transfer of viscoelastic third grade fluid past an infinite vertical insulated plate subject to suction across the boundary layer has been investigated. The space occupying the fluid is porous. The momentum equation is characterized by a highly nonlinear boundary value problem in which the order of the differential equation exceeds the number of available boundary conditions. An efficient numerical scheme of midpoint technique with Richardson’s extrapolation is employed to solve the governing system of coupled nonlinear equations of momentum, energy and concentration. Numerical calculations were carried out for different values of various interesting non-dimensional quantities in the slip flow regime with heat and mass transfer and were shown with the aid of figures. The values of the wall shear stress, the local rate of heat and mass transfers were obtained and tabulated. The analysis shows that as the fluid becomes more shear thickening, the momentum boundary layer decreases but the thermal boundary layer increases; the magnetic field strength is found to decrease with an increasing temperature distribution when the porous plate is insulated. The consequences of increasing the permeability parameter and Schmidt number decrease both the momentum
A one-dimensional heat transfer model for parallel-plate thermoacoustic heat exchangers
de Jong, Anne; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries
2014-01-01
A one-dimensional (1D) laminar oscillating flow heat transfer model is derived and applied to parallel-plate thermoacoustic heat exchangers. The model can be used to estimate the heat transfer from the solid wall to the acoustic medium, which is required for the heat input/output of thermoacoustic
Transient convective heat transfer to laminar flow from a flat plate with constant heat capacity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanawa, Juichi
1980-01-01
Most basic transient heat transfer problem is the transient response characteristics of forced convection heat transfer in the flow along a flat plate or in a tube. In case of the laminar flow along a flat plate, the profile method using steady temperature distribution has been mostly adopted, but its propriety has not been clarified yet. About the unsteady heat transfer in the laminar flow along a flat plate, the analysis or experiment evaluating the heat capacity of the flat plate exactly was never carried out. The purpose of this study is to determine by numerical calculation the unsteady characteristics of the boundary layer in laminar flow and to confirm them by experiment concerning the unsteady heat transfer when a flat plate with a certain heat capacity is placed in parallel in uniform flow and given a certain quantity of heat generation suddenly. The basic equation and the solution are given, and the method of numerical calculation and the result are explained. The experimental setup and method, and the experimental results are shown. Both results were in good agreement, and the response of wall temperature, the response of Nusselt number and the change of temperature distribution in course of time were able to be determined by applying Laplace transformation and numerical Laplace inverse transformation to the equation. (Kako, I.)
Plate heat exchanger - inertia flywheel performance in loss of flow transient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abou-El-Maaty, Talal; Abd-El-Hady, Amr
2009-01-01
One of the most versatile types of heat exchangers used is the plate heat exchanger. It has principal advantages over other heat exchangers in that plates can be added and/or removed easily in order to change the area available for heat transfer and therefore its overall performance. The cooling systems of Egypt's second research reactor (ETRR 2) use this type of heat exchanger for cooling purposes in its primary core cooling and pool cooling systems. In addition to the change in the number of heat exchanger cooling channels, the effect of changing the amount of mass flow rate on the heat exchanger performance is an important issues in this study. The inertia flywheel mounted on the primary core cooling system pump with the plate heat exchanger plays an important role in the case of loss of flow transients. The PARET code is used to simulate the effect of loss of flow transients on the reactor core. Hence, the core outlet temperature with the pump-flywheel flow coast down is fed into the plate heat exchanger model developed to estimate the total energy transferred to the cooling tower, the primary side heat exchanger temperature variation, the transmitted heat exchanger power, and the heat exchanger effectiveness. In addition, the pressure drop in both, the primary side and secondary side of the plate heat exchanger is calculated in all simulated transients because their values have limits beyond which the heat exchanger is useless. (orig.)
Chemical reaction in MHD flow past a vertical plate with mass ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
flow in a vertical double passage channel using Robin boundary conditions. ... the diffusion of a chemically reactive species in a laminar boundary layer flow. ...... hydrodynamic flow past a flat plate will Hall effects, Journal of the Physical.
Transient heat transfer to laminar flow from a flat plate with heat capacity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanawa, Juichi
1975-01-01
As the most basic problem in transient heat transfer, a plate with heat capacity was studied, which is placed in uniform laminar flow in parallel with it, is initially at the same temperature as that of the fluid, and then abruptly is given a specific heating value. The equation of transient heat transfer in this case was solved by numerical calculation. The following matters were revealed. (1) The equation was able to be solved by the application of Laplace transformation and numerical inverse transformation. (2) Wall temperature when the heat capacity of a plate was zero initially agreed well with heat conduction solution. With increase of the heat capacity, the delay in wall temperature rise was increased. (3) Heat transfer rate in case of the heat capacity of zero initially agreed well with the heat-conduction solution. With increase of the heat capacity, the Nusselt number increased. (4) Temperature distribution in case of the heat capacity of zero initially agreed well with the heat-conduction solution. (Mori, K.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cieśliński Janusz T.
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This study is focused on experimental investigation of selected type of brazed plate heat exchanger (PHEx. The Wilson plot approach was applied in order to estimate heat transfer coefficients for the PHEx passages. The main aim of the paper was to experimentally check ability of several correlations published in the literature to predict heat transfer coefficients by comparison experimentally obtained data with appropriate predictions. The results obtained revealed that Hausen and Dittus-Boelter correlations underestimated heat transfer coefficient for the tested PHEx by an order of magnitude. The Aspen Plate code overestimated heat transfer coefficient by about 50%, while Muley-Manglik correlation overestimated it from 1% to 25%, dependent on the value of Reynolds number and hot or cold liquid side.
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R. Muthucumaraswamy
2013-06-01
Full Text Available An exact solution of unsteady flow past a parabolic starting motion of the infinite isothermal vertical plate with uniform mass diffusion, in the presence of a homogeneous chemical reaction of the first order, has been studied. The plate temperature and the concentration level near the plate are raised uniformly. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace transform technique. The effect of velocity profiles are studied for different physical parameters, such as chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number, and time. It is observed that velocity increases with increasing values of thermal Grashof number or mass Grashof number. The trend is reversed with respect to the chemical reaction parameter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Yueh-Hung; Li, Guang-Cheng; Yang, Chien-Yuh
2015-01-01
This study provides an Infrared Thermal Image observation on the evaporation heat transfer of refrigerant R-410A in plate heat exchanger with various flow arrangement and exit superheat conditions. An experimental method was derived for estimating the superheat region area of two-phase refrigerant evaporation in plate heat exchanger. The experimental results show that the superheat region area for parallel flow is much larger than that for counter flow as that estimated by Yang et al. [9]. There is an early superheated region at the central part of the plate heat exchanger for parallel flow arrangement. This effect is not significant for counter flow arrangement. The Yang et al. [9] method under estimated the superheat area approximately 40%–53% at various flow rates and degree of exit superheat. Even though the flow inside a plate heat exchanger is extremely turbulent because of the chevron flow passages, the assumption of uniform temperature distribution in the cross section normal to the bulk flow direction will cause significant uncertainties for estimating the superheat area for refrigerant evaporating in a plate heat exchanger
Butt, A. R.; Abdullah, M.; Raza, N.; Imran, M. A.
2017-10-01
In this work, semi analytical solutions for the heat and mass transfer of a fractional MHD Jeffery fluid over an infinite oscillating vertical plate with exponentially heating and constant mass diffusion via the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative are obtained. The governing equations are transformed into dimensionless form by introducing dimensionless variables. A modern definition of the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative has been used to develop the fractional model for a Jeffery fluid. The expressions for temperature, concentration and velocity fields are obtained in the Laplace transformed domain. We have used the Stehfest's and Tzou's algorithm for the inverse Laplace transform to obtain the semi analytical solutions for temperature, concentration and velocity fields. In the end, in order to check the physical impact of flow parameters on temperature, concentration and velocity fields, results are presented graphically and in tabular forms.
On the material properties of shell plate formed by line heating
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyung Kyun Lim
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with investigating the plastic material properties of steel plate formed by line heating method, and is aimed at implementing more rational design considering the accidental limit states such as collision or grounding. For the present study, line heating test for marine grade steel plate has been carried out with varying plate thickness and heating speed, and then microscopic examination and tensile test have been carried out. From the microscopic, it is found that the grain refined zones like ferrite and pearlite are formed all around the heat affected zone. From the tensile test results, it is seen that yield strength, tensile strength, fracture strain, hardening exponent and strength coefficient vary with plate thickness and heat input quantity. The formulae relating the material properties and heat input parameter should be, therefore, derived for the design purpose considering the accidental impact loading. This paper ends with describing the extension of the present study.
Experimental and numerical study of the wave run-up along a vertical plate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Molin, Bernard; Kimmoun, O.; Liu, Y.
2010-01-01
Results from experiments on wave interaction with a rigid vertical plate are reported. The 5m long plate is set against the wall of a 30m wide basin, at 100m from the wavemaker. This set-up is equivalent to a 10m plate in the middle of a 60m wide basin. Regular waves are produced, with wavelength...... on extended Boussinesq equations. In most of the experimental tests, despite the large distance from the wavemaker to the plate and the small amplitude of the incident wave, no steady state is attained by the end of the exploitable part of the records....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rath, Pravat Kumar; Dash, G.C.; Patra, Ajit Kumar
2010-01-01
Effect of Hall current on the unsteady free convection flow of an electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid past an exponentially accelerated vertical porous flat plate with internal heat absorption/generation in the presence of foreign gases (such as H 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O, NH 3 ) and chemical reaction has been investigated. An uniform magnetic field transverse to the plate has been applied. The effects of the Hall current m, the hydromagnetic parameter Mt, the chemical reaction parameter K c the Grashof number for heat transfer G r , the Grashof number for mass transfer G c , the Schmidt number S c , the Prandtl number P r and the transpiration parameter α are discussed in detail. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussain, S.M., E-mail: hussain.modassir@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, OP Jindal University, Raigarh 496109 (India); Jain, J., E-mail: jj.28481@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, OP Jindal University, Raigarh 496109 (India); Seth, G.S., E-mail: gsseth_ism@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Rashidi, M.M., E-mail: mm_rashidi@yahoo.com [Shanghai Key Lab of Vehicle Aerodynamics and Vehicle Thermal Management System, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China)
2017-01-15
The unsteady MHD free convective heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting, viscous and incompressible fluid over an accelerated moving vertical plate in the presence of heat absorption and chemical reaction with ramped temperature and ramped surface concentration through a porous medium in a rotating system is studied, taking Hall effects into account. The governing equations are solved analytically with the help of Laplace transform technique. The unified closed-form expressions are obtained for fluid velocity, fluid temperature, species concentration, skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers. The effects of various parameters on fluid velocity, fluid temperature and species concentration are discussed by graphs whereas numerical values of skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented in tabular form for different values of pertinent flow parameters. The numerical results are also compared with free convective flow near ramped temperature plate with ramped surface concentration with the corresponding flow near isothermal plate with uniform surface concentration. - Highlights: • Magnetic field, Hall current, rotation and chemical reaction play vital role on flow field. • Hall current tends to accelerate secondary fluid velocity in the boundary layer region. • Rotation tends to retard primary fluid velocity throughout the boundary layer region. • Rotation and chemical reaction tend to enhance primary skin friction. • Solutal buoyancy force and permeability of medium reduce primary skin friction.
Modeling of the heat transfer performance of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements
Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong; Yan, XiaoQing
2009-08-01
Considering the mutual actions between fuel particles and the metal matrix, the three-dimensional finite element models are developed to simulate the heat transfer behaviors of dispersion nuclear fuel plates. The research results indicate that the temperatures of the fuel plate might rise more distinctly with considering the particle swelling and the degraded surface heat transfer coefficients with increasing burnup; the local heating phenomenon within the particles appears when their thermal conductivities are too low. With rise of the surface heat transfer coefficients, the temperatures within the fuel plate decrease; the temperatures of the fuel plate are sensitive to the variations of the heat transfer coefficients whose values are lower, but their effects are weakened and slight when the heat transfer coefficients increase and reach a certain extent. Increasing the heat generation rate leads to elevating the internal temperatures. The temperatures and the maximum temperature differences within the plate increase along with the particle volume fractions. The surface thermal flux goes up along with particle volume fractions and heat generation rates, but the effects of surface heat transfer coefficients are not evident.
Heat convection in a set of three vertical cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serrano Ramirez, M.L. de.
1993-01-01
Experimental results on temperature and heat flow in a set of three vertical cylinders with internal generation of heat, water submerged and in free convection are presented in this work . Temperature distribution, Nusselt number and convective coefficient (h) for each rod, developed for the distance between the axis of cylinders in vertical position, as a consequence of the application of power in its outside, are analyzed. Experimental information about heat transfer by free convection in vertical cylinders and surfaces is analyzed. Information of the several author who have carried out studies about the heat transfer on vertical cylinders was compiled, and the proposed equations with the experimental data obtained in the thermo fluids laboratory of National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) were tested. The way in which separation distance, s, distribution temperature array, Nusselt number, and convective coefficient calculated for the proposed channel with the Keyhani, Dutton and experimental equations are tabulated and they are plotted for each power value and for each separation between rods. The scheme of the used equipment and the experimentation description as well as the observations of tests and graphical results are included. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venkataraman, N.S.; Cardoso, H.P.; Oliveira Filho, O.B. de
1981-01-01
The conductive heat transfer in a rectangular plate with nonuniform internal heat generation, with one end convectively cooled and a part of the opposite end subjected to external heat flux is considered. The remaining part of this end as well as the other two sides are thermally insulated. The governing differential equation is solved by a finite difference scheme. The variation of the thermal resistance with Biot modulus, the plate geometry, the internal heat generation parameter and the type of profile of internal heat generation is discussed. (author) [pt
Effects of Unsteady Flow Past An Infinite Vertical Plate With Variable ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The effects of unsteady flow past an infinite vertical plate with variable temperature and constant mass flux are investigated. Laplace transform technique is used to obtain velocity and concentration fields. The computation of the results indicates that the velocity profiles increase with increase in Grashof numbers, mass ...
A concept of PWR using plate and shell heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freire, Luciano Ondir; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de
2015-01-01
In previous work it was verified the physical possibility of using plate and shell heat exchangers for steam generation in a PWR for merchant ships. This work studies the possibility of using GESMEX commercial of the shelf plate and shell heat exchanger of series XPS. It was found it is feasible for this type of heat exchanger to meet operational and accidental requirements for steam generation in PWR. Additionally, it is proposed an arrangement of such heat exchangers inside the reactor pressure vessel. Such arrangement may avoid ANSI/ANS51.1 nuclear class I requirements on those heat exchangers because they are contained in the reactor coolant pressure barrier and play no role in accidental scenarios. Additionally, those plates work under compression, preventing the risk of rupture. Being considered non-nuclear safety, having a modular architecture and working under compression may turn such architectural choice a must to meet safety objectives with improved economics. (author)
A concept of PWR using plate and shell heat exchangers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freire, Luciano Ondir; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de, E-mail: luciano.ondir@gmail.com, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2015-07-01
In previous work it was verified the physical possibility of using plate and shell heat exchangers for steam generation in a PWR for merchant ships. This work studies the possibility of using GESMEX commercial of the shelf plate and shell heat exchanger of series XPS. It was found it is feasible for this type of heat exchanger to meet operational and accidental requirements for steam generation in PWR. Additionally, it is proposed an arrangement of such heat exchangers inside the reactor pressure vessel. Such arrangement may avoid ANSI/ANS51.1 nuclear class I requirements on those heat exchangers because they are contained in the reactor coolant pressure barrier and play no role in accidental scenarios. Additionally, those plates work under compression, preventing the risk of rupture. Being considered non-nuclear safety, having a modular architecture and working under compression may turn such architectural choice a must to meet safety objectives with improved economics. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, H.M.S.
2007-01-01
In this work, a wickless heat pipes flat plate solar collector with a cross flow heat exchanger was investigated theoretically and experimentally under the meteorological conditions of Cairo, Egypt. The author's earlier simulation program of wickless heat pipes flat plate solar water heaters was modified to be valid for the present type of wickless heat pipes solar collector by including the solution of the dimensionless governing equations of the present analysis. For verifying the modified simulation program, a wickless heat pipes flat plate solar collector with a cross flow heat exchanger was designed, constructed, and tested at different meteorological conditions and operating parameters. These parameters include different cooling water mass flow rates and different inlet cooling water temperatures. The comparison between the experimental results and their corresponding simulated ones showed considerable agreement. Under different climatic conditions, the experimental and theoretical results showed that the optimal mass flow rate is very close to the ASHRAE standard mass flow rate for testing conventional flat plate solar collectors. Also, the experimental and theoretical results indicated that the number of wickless heat pipes has a significant effect on the collector efficiency
Heat and momentum transport scalings in vertical convection
Shishkina, Olga
2016-11-01
For vertical convection, where a fluid is confined between two differently heated isothermal vertical walls, we investigate the heat and momentum transport, which are measured, respectively, by the Nusselt number Nu and the Reynolds number Re . For laminar vertical convection we derive analytically the dependence of Re and Nu on the Rayleigh number Ra and the Prandtl number Pr from our boundary layer equations and find two different scaling regimes: Nu Pr 1 / 4 Ra 1 / 4 , Re Pr - 1 / 2 Ra 1 / 2 for Pr > 1 . Direct numerical simulations for Ra from 105 to 1010 and Pr from 0.01 to 30 are in excellent ageement with our theoretical findings and show that the transition between the regimes takes place for Pr around 0.1. We summarize the results from and present new theoretical and numerical results for transitional and turbulent vertical convection. The work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Grant Sh 405/4 - Heisenberg fellowship.
Pin fin compliant heat sink with enhanced flexibility
Schultz, Mark D.
2018-04-10
Heat sinks and methods of using the same include a top and bottom plate, at least one of which has a plurality of pin contacts flexibly connected to one another, where the plurality of pin contacts have vertical and lateral flexibility with respect to one another; and pin slice layers, each having multiple pin slices, arranged vertically between the top and bottom plates such that the plurality of pin slices form substantially vertical pins connecting the top and bottom plates.
Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G
2013-09-26
The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amblard, Alain
1986-01-01
As corrugations are often used in heat exchangers in order to promote heat exchange mechanisms through a reduction of boundary layer thickness, an increase of turbulence within the boundary layer, and an increase of exchange surface, the objectives of this research thesis are, on the one hand, to determine the influence of corrugation geometry on heat exchange and friction laws, and, on the other hand, to develop a computing software to describe the flow and heat exchange in the elementary canal. This study is limited to the case of single-phase forced convection in water. After a bibliographical overview on the hydraulic and thermal behaviour of corrugated surfaces used in heat exchangers, the author presents the different studied geometries, and the experimental installation used to determine the friction and exchange coefficient in a vertical duct formed by two corrugated plates. Experimental results are presented and compared with respect to the shape of exchange surfaces. The author then reports the use of two-dimensional code used to describe the flow in an exchanger duct [fr
Numerical Methods for Plate Forming by Line Heating
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Henrik Bisgaard
2000-01-01
Line heating is the process of forming originally flat plates into a desired shape by means of heat treatment. Parameter studies are carried out on a finite element model to provide knowledge of how the process behaves with varying heating conditions. For verification purposes, experiments are ca...... are carried out; one set of experiments investigates the actual heat flux distribution from a gas torch and another verifies the validty of the FE calculations. Finally, a method to predict the heating pattern is described....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robertson, J.M.; Blundell, N.; Clarke, R.H.
1987-01-01
Measurements of the total two-phase gradients have been made during the downflow condensing of nitrogen in a vertical plain, plate-fin test-section. The results show that pressure recovery occurs only at very low qualities, at low mass flux the falling film is smooth and at high mass flux it is rough. A relationship between the apparent film roughness and the calculated film thickness has been established. The implications for designers of heat exchangers are discussed
Assessment of Real Heat Transfer Coefficients through Shell and Tube and Plate Heat Exchangers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan CONSTANTINESCU
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure used in the assessment of the real heat transfer characteristic of shell and tube and plate heat exchangers. The theoretical fundamentals of the procedure are introduced as well as the measured data collection and processing. The theoretical analysis is focused on the adoption of criterial equations which, subjected to certain verification criteria presented in the paper, provide the most credible value of the convection heat transfer coefficients inside the circular and flat tubes. In the end two case studies are presented, one concerning a shell and tube heat exchanger operational at INCERC Thermal Substation and the other concerning a plate heat exchanger tested on the Laboratory Stand of the Department of Building Services and Efficient Use of Energy in Buildings of INCERC Bucharest.
A heat exchanger provided with plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaix, J.E.; Fajeau, Maurice; Chlique, Bernard.
1976-01-01
The invention relates to a heat exchanger of the plate type, in which two fluids exchange calories through parallel metal plates, delimiting spaces separated from each other in which two fluids respectively flow without direct contact between them. The invention particularly applies in the case where one of the two fluids is water under pressure or else a circulating liquid metal, specially sodium, used in the system of a pressurised water or fast neutron reactor, the second fluid being water to be vaporised in the exchanger by the calories supplied by the first fluid. The arrangement is designed to give minimum bulk, particularly enabling the exchanger to be housed in the area between the core of a nuclear reactor and a casing or outer vessel, or else in an external sealed containment, with a view to recovering with the best efficiency the heat acquired by a coolant flowing through the core [fr
Rana, B. M. Jewel; Ahmed, Rubel; Ahmmed, S. F.
2017-06-01
Unsteady MHD free convection flow past a vertical porous plate in porous medium with radiation, diffusion thermo, thermal diffusion and heat source are analyzed. The governing non-linear, partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless by using non-dimensional quantities. Then the resultant dimensionless equations are solved numerically by applying an efficient, accurate and conditionally stable finite difference scheme of explicit type with the help of a computer programming language Compaq Visual Fortran. The stability and convergence analysis has been carried out to establish the effect of velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction, Nusselt number, Sherwood number, stream lines and isotherms line. Finally, the effects of various parameters are presented graphically and discussed qualitatively.
Development of structural design procedure of plate-fin heat exchanger for HTGR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mizokami, Yorikata, E-mail: yorikata_mizokami@mhi.co.jp [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1, Wadasaki-cho 1-Chome, Hyogo-ku, Kobe 652-8585 (Japan); Igari, Toshihide [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 5-717-1, Fukahori-machi, Nagasaki 851-0392 (Japan); Kawashima, Fumiko [Kumamoto University, 39-1 Kurokami 2-Chome, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Sakakibara, Noriyuki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 5-717-1, Fukahori-machi, Nagasaki 851-0392 (Japan); Tanihira, Masanori [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 16-5, Konan 2-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8215 (Japan); Yuhara, Tetsuo [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Hiroe, Tetsuyuki [Kumamoto University, 39-1 Kurokami 2-Chome, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)
2013-02-15
Highlights: ► We propose high temperature structural design procedure for plate-fin heat exchanger ► Allowable stresses for brazed structures will be newly discussed ► Validity of design procedure is confirmed by carrying out partial model tests ► Proposed design procedure is applied to heat exchangers for HTGR. -- Abstract: Highly efficient plate-fin heat exchanger for application to HTGR has been focused on recently. Since this heat exchanger is fabricated by brazing a lot of plates and fins, a new procedure for structural design of brazed structures in the HTGR temperature region up to 950 °C is required. Firstly in this paper influences on material strength due to both thermal aging during brazing process and helium gas environment were experimentally examined, and failure mode and failure limit of brazed side-bar structures were experimentally clarified. Secondly allowable stresses for aging materials and brazed structures were newly determined on the basis of the experimental results. For the purpose of validating the structural design procedure including homogenization FEM modeling, a pressure burst test and a thermal fatigue test of partial model for plate-fin heat exchanger were carried out. Finally, results of reference design of plate-fin heat exchangers of recuperator and intermediate heat exchanger for HTGR plant were evaluated by the proposed design criteria.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grabenstein, V; Kabelac, S
2012-01-01
Plate heat exchanger (PHE) are today widely used in industrial heat transfer applications due to their good thermal performance, modest space requirement, easy accessibility to all areas and their lower capital and operating costs as compared to shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Although authoritative models for the design of PHE used as condensers are missing, the number of applications where a PHE is operating as a condenser increases. On the way to a reliable model based on physical approaches for the prediction of heat transfer and pressure drop during the condensation process inside a PHE, the flow and heat interactions as well as their dependence on the geometrical parameters of the corrugated plates and the operating conditions must be studied in detail. In this work the stepwise procedure for the fundamental construction of such a model is described. An experimental setup was built to analyze the characteristics of the two-phase-flow in PHE. A single gap, consisting of two transparent corrugated plates, was tested with a two-phase flow of air/water and also with boiling refrigerant R365mfc. Flow pattern maps were constructed for plates with corrugation angles of 27 and 63 degrees relative to the direction of flow. Investigations of the local heat transfer coefficients and the pressure drop were done with the same plates. The measurement of the local heat transfer coefficients was carried out by the use of the 'Temperature Oscillation InfraRed Thermography' (TOIRT) method. Based on these results three main flow patterns are defined: film flow, bubbly flow and slug flow. For each of the three flow patterns an own model for the heat transfer and pressure drop mechanism are developed and the heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor is calculated with different equations depending on the actual steam quality, mass flow and geometrical parameters by means of a flow pattern map. The theory of the flow pattern based prediction models is proved with own
Alfa-Laval plate heat exchangers for the power industries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitae, Junnosuke; Mtsuura, Kazuyuki
1979-01-01
Within power-generating plants, the transfer and conversion of heat energy of very large quantity are carried out in the process of energy conversion, accordingly the importance of heat exchangers is very high. Heretofore, multi-tube heat exchangers have been used mostly, but Alfa-Laval group developed the heat exchanger with very high efficiency to incorporate it effectively into a power-generating plant. In this plate type heat exchanger, the heat transfer efficiency is very high, and the quantity of stagnation is small as it is compact, consequently it is suitable to the secondary cooling for power-generating plant or the heat exchange of high-priced liquid heat media such as heavy water. Originally, plate type heat exchangers were used for food and chemical industries, therefore the prevention of mixing two liquids, sanitary construction, and corrosion resistance were required. Then they were adopted in iron and steel industry, and large thermal load, large heat transfer area and corrosion resistance to sea water were required. They were adopted in a nuclear power plant for the first time in 1964. In this heat exchanger, channels are formed with corrugated metal sheets, and titanium, stainless steels, Incoloy, Hastelloy and others are used as occasion demands. The Alfa-Laval heat exchangers and their features are explained. (Kako, I.)
Thermal performance of plate-type loop thermosyphon at sub-atmospheric pressures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsoi, Vadim; Chang, Shyy Woei; Chiang Kuei Feng; Huang, Chuan Chin
2011-01-01
This experimental study examines the thermal performance of a newly devised plate-type two-phase loop thermosyphon with cooling applications to electronic boards of telecommunication systems. The evaporation section is configured as the inter-connected multi channels to emulate the bridging boiling mechanism in pulsating thermosyphon. Two thermosyphon plates using water as the coolant with filling ratios (FR) of 0.22 and 0.32 are tested at sub-atmospheric pressures. The vapor-liquid flow images as well as the thermal resistances and effective spreading thermal conductivities are individually measured for each thermosyphon test plate at various heating powers. The high-speed digital images of the vapor-liquid flow structures reveal the characteristic boiling phenomena and the vapor-liquid circulation in the vertical thermosyphon plate, which assist to explore the thermal physics for this type of loop thermosyphon. The bubble agglomeration and pumping action in the inter-connected boiling channels take place at metastable non-equilibrium conditions, leading to the intermittent slug flows with a pulsation character. Such hybrid loop-pulsating thermosyphon permits the vapor-liquid circulation in the horizontal plate. Thermal resistances and spreading thermal conductivities detected from the present thermosyphon plates; the vapor chamber flat plate heat pipe and the copper plate at free and forced convective cooling conditions with both vertical and horizontal orientations are cross-examined. In most telecommunication systems and units, the electrical boards are vertical so that the thermal performance data on the vertical thermosyphon are most relevant to this particular application. - Highlights: → We examine thermal performances of plate-type loop thermosyphon. → Thermal resistances and spreading conductivities are examined. → Bubble agglomeration in inter-connected boiling channels generates intermittent slug flows with pulsations. → Boiling instability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Skočilas
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation of the heat transfer process during turbulent hot water flow between two chevron plates in a plate heat exchanger. A three-dimensional model with the simplified geometry of two cross-corrugated channels provided by chevron plates, taking into account the inlet and outlet ports, has been designed for the numerical study. The numerical model was based on the shear-stress transport (SST k-! model. The basic characteristics of the heat exchanger, as values of heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop, have been investigated. A comparative analysis of analytical calculation results, based on experimental data obtained from literature, and of the results obtained by numerical simulation, has been carried out. The coefficients and the exponents in the design equations for the considered plates have been arranged by using simulation results. The influence on the main flow parameters of the corrugation inclination angle relative to the flow direction has been taken into account. An analysis of the temperature distribution across the plates has been carried out, and it has shown the presence of zones with higher heat losses and low fluid flow intensity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Constantin Fetecau
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The studies of classical nanofluids are restricted to models described by partial differential equations of integer order, and the memory effects are ignored. Fractional nanofluids, modeled by differential equations with Caputo time derivatives, are able to describe the influence of memory on the nanofluid behavior. In the present paper, heat and mass transfer characteristics of two water-based fractional nanofluids, containing nanoparticles of CuO and Ag, over an infinite vertical plate with a uniform temperature and thermal radiation, are analytically and graphically studied. Closed form solutions are determined for the dimensionless temperature and velocity fields, and the corresponding Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient. These solutions, presented in equivalent forms in terms of the Wright function or its fractional derivatives, have also been reduced to the known solutions of ordinary nanofluids. The influence of the fractional parameter on the temperature, velocity, Nusselt number, and skin friction coefficient, is graphically underlined and discussed. The enhancement of heat transfer in the natural convection flows is lower for fractional nanofluids, in comparison to ordinary nanofluids. In both cases, the fluid temperature increases for increasing values of the nanoparticle volume fraction.
Group analysis for natural convection from a vertical plate
Rashed, A. S.; Kassem, M. M.
2008-12-01
The steady laminar natural convection of a fluid having chemical reaction of order n past a semi-infinite vertical plate is considered. The solution of the problem by means of one-parameter group method reduces the number of independent variables by one leading to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Two different similarity transformations are found. In each case the set of differential equations are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta and the shooting method. For each transformation different Schmidt numbers and chemical reaction orders are tested.
A one-dimensional heat transfer model for parallel-plate thermoacoustic heat exchangers.
de Jong, J A; Wijnant, Y H; de Boer, A
2014-03-01
A one-dimensional (1D) laminar oscillating flow heat transfer model is derived and applied to parallel-plate thermoacoustic heat exchangers. The model can be used to estimate the heat transfer from the solid wall to the acoustic medium, which is required for the heat input/output of thermoacoustic systems. The model is implementable in existing (quasi-)1D thermoacoustic codes, such as DeltaEC. Examples of generated results show good agreement with literature results. The model allows for arbitrary wave phasing; however, it is shown that the wave phasing does not significantly influence the heat transfer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pedersen, Svend V. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark); Thoegersen, L.; Soerensen, Inga [VIA University College, Risskov (Denmark)] [and others
2013-01-15
This report presents instructions on what to consider when you have to establish vertical wells as energy sources for ground source heating systems. The report provides an introduction into what to be aware of when it comes to sizing vertical ground hoses as heat absorbers for heat pumps. The initial geological assessments, you have to make are described and there are references to the available tools and websites that exist today. A calculation model is developed for the design of vertical ground hoses. This calculation model is intended as a tool for installers and consultants as well as well drillers. The calculation model contains two computational models, one can be used for initial calculations and dimensioning of vertical ground hoses, and the detailed model can be used for costing by well driller. The simple calculation is based on proven design approach from the German standard VDI 4640, and the detailed calculation is based on a known empirical calculation, which assumes that you know the geology in more detail. In the project measurements were carried out on four installations, and the calculations show that there is good agreement between the measurements and the calculation model. (LN)
Forced convection heat transfer correlation for finned plates in a duct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chae, Myeong-Seon; Moon, Je-Young; Chung, Bum-Jin
2014-01-01
Forced convection heat transfer experiments were conducted for plate-fin in a duct using various fin spacing, fin height, duct width, Reynolds number for Prandtl numbers 2,014. Based upon analogy concept, mass transfer rate were measured instead of heat transfer rates. The heat transfer rates were enhanced with the increase of fin height and decrease of fin spacing as they increase the heat transfer area. Meanwhile, heat transfer rates were impaired with the increase of the duct width as the bypass flows increased to tip clearance region. Forced convection heat transfer correlations were developed for laminar and turbulent flow conditions and for narrow and wide ducts. The work draws attention to the tip clearance on the heat transfer of the finned plate in a duct. (author)
Characteristics of Vertical Mantle Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heaters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shah, Louise Jivan; Morrison, G.L.; Behnia, M.
1999-01-01
- The flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers was investigated using a full-scale tank designed to facilitate flow visualisation. The flow structure and velocities in the mantle were measured using a particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. A CFD simulation model of vertical mantle heat...... exchangers was also developed for detailed evaluation of the heat flux distribution over the mantle surface. Both the experimental and simulation results indicate that distribution of the flow around the mantle gap is governed by buoyancy driven recirculation in the mantle. The operation of the mantle...
Analysis of dynamic enhancement of natural convection cooling by a discrete vibrating plate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Florio, L.A.; Harnoy, A. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Newark, NJ (United States)
2006-12-15
A dynamic means of locally enhancing laminar natural convection cooling in a vertical channel through the localized application of fluid oscillations is numerically investigated. The two-dimensional system considered for these purposes is a vertical channel with a small transversely oscillating plate placed near a constant heat flux channel wall. The flow and heat transfer in the system resulting from the combined effects of the natural convection and the oscillating plate were determined. The results indicate that for displacement amplitudes of at least one-third of the mean spacing and with dimensionless frequencies (Re/{radical}(Gr)) of at least 2{pi}, the local heat transfer coefficient can be enhanced by as much as 41%. (orig.)
Feasibility study on development of plate-type heat exchanger for BWR plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohyama, Nobuhiro; Suda, Kenichi; Ogata, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Shinichi; Nagasaka, Kazuhiro; Fujii, Toshi; Nozawa, Toshiya; Ishihama, Kiyoshi; Higuchi, Tomokazu
2004-01-01
In order to apply plate-type heat exchanger to RCW, TCW and FPC system in BWR plants, heat test and seismic test of RCW system heat exchanger sample were carried out. The results of these tests showed new design plate-type heat exchanger satisfied the fixed pressure resistance and seismic resistance and keep the function. The evaluation method of seismic design was constructed and confirmed by the results of tests. As anti-adhesion measure of marine organism, an ozone-water circulation method, chemical-feed method and combination of circulation of hot water and air bubbling are useful in place of the chlorine feeding method. Application of the plate-type heat exchanger to BWR plant is confirmed by these investigations. The basic principles, structure, characteristics, application limit and reliability are stated. (S.Y.)
Heat transfer in flow past a continuously moving porous flat plate with heat flux
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Murty, T.V.R.; Sarma, Y.V.B.
The analysis of the heat transfer in flow past a continuously moving semi-infinite plate in the presence of suction/ injection with heat flux has been presented. Similarity solutions have been derived and the resulting equations are integrated...
Analysis of the flow structure and heat transfer in a vertical mantle heat exchanger
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Søren; Morrison, GL; Behnia, M
2005-01-01
initially mixed and initially stratified inner tank and mantle. The analysis of the heat transfer showed that the flow in the mantle near the inlet is mixed convection flow and that the heat transfer is dependent on the mantle inlet temperature relative to the core tank temperature at the mantle level. (C......The flow structure inside the inner tank and inside the mantle of a vertical mantle heat exchanger was investigated using a full-scale tank designed to facilitate flow visualisation. The flow structure and velocities in the inner tank and in the mantle were measured using a Particle Image...... Velocimetry (PIV) system. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the vertical mantle heat exchanger was also developed for a detailed evaluation of the heat flux at the mantle wall and at the tank wall. The flow structure was evaluated for both high and low temperature incoming flows and for both...
Heat adaptation of bioabsorbable craniofacial plates: a critical review of science and technology.
Pietrzak, William S
2009-11-01
Bioabsorbable fixation plates often require adaptation to the bone. This is typically accomplished by heating the plates to above the glass transition temperature and placing the softened plates against the bone or a prebent template until cool. Upon cooling, the plates regain stiffness and can be attached to bone to obtain anatomic fixation. This procedure is both efficient and effective and has been used throughout the craniofacial skeleton. There are many types of equipment available to heat the plates, each with advantages and disadvantages. Although a conceptually simple process, there are several nuances that have been reported in the literature, including transient effects on plate mechanical properties, memory effects, differences between wet and dry heating, and others. Upon the backdrop of the overwhelming clinical success of heat adaptation, this review critically evaluates the method and provides a comprehensive examination and explanation of the basic science and technology involved. This should help give surgeons a better understanding of the process that can help improve their use and further advance the technology.
Application of nanofluids in plate heat exchanger: A review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Vikas; Tiwari, Arun Kumar; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Use of nanofluid improves the heat transfer performance of plate heat exchanger. • Thermo-physical properties of the nanofluid have been discussed. • Optimum particle concentrations for maximum heat transfer is found to exist. - Abstract: Writing, or even making an attempt to write anything on or about Plate Heat Exchangers (Henceforth, PHE) would be no more than a futile effort to reassert and glorify an already stronghold state of PHEs, as is evident with the kind of multilayered and multi-tasked functions it performs, obviously in different forms, in various domains of work & walks of life, since a good long time. Nonetheless, in a bid to bring about a certain makeshift in the way the PHE has been functioning and sustaining, there was a need to revisit the structural pattern and the fluids that contribute to the performance of PHE. Summarily, this brings the researcher and designers to shift the focus not only from the conventional design but also to introduce a new substance which could further contribute to enhance the performance of the PHE. That is why, in recent times, the miniaturization of PHE and energy efficiency have become focal point of attention, discourse and research. While exploring for better alternates, the nanofluids have surfaced as probable (replaceable) substitutes. The Nanofluid is a relatively recent (in contrast with the PHEs) finding that promises, pronouncedly, greater heat absorbing and heat transport ability. The review article attempts to take a sneak peak into some of the important published articles that deal with the function and performance of PHEs using nanofluids. The first section of the paper presents observations by several authors on experimental and numerical results regarding thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat and heat transfer coefficients. The second section talks of application of nanofluids in plate heat exchangers. It has also examined the utility of nanofluids, particularly in PHEs
Eddy current heating of irregularly shaped plates by slow ramped fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dresner, L.
1979-01-01
Theorems are presented for estimating eddy current heating of irregularly shaped plates by a perpendicular ramped field. The theorems, which are derived from two complementary variational principles, give upper and lower bounds to the eddy current heating. Illustrative results are given for rectangles, isosceles triangles, sectors of circular annuli, rhombuses, and L-shaped plates. A comparison is made with earlier work
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kadhum Audaa Jehhef
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Anumerical solutions is presented to investigate the effect of inclination angle (θ , perforation ratio (m and wall temperature of the plate (Tw on the heat transfer in natural convection from isothermal square flat plate up surface heated (with and without concentrated hole. The flat plate with dimensions of (128 mm length × (64 mm width has been used five with square models of the flat plate that gave a rectangular perforation of (m=0.03, 0.06, 0.13, 0.25, 0.5. The values of angle of inclination were (0o, 15o 30o 45o 60o from horizontal position and the values of wall temperature (50oC, 60 oC, 70 oC, 90 oC, 100oC. To investigate the temperature, boundary layer thickness and heat flux distributions; the numerical computation is carried out using a very efficient integral method to solve the governing equation. The results show increase in the temperature gradient with increase in the angle of inclination and the high gradient and high heat transfer coefficients located in the external edges of the plate, for both cases: with and without holed plate. There are two separation regions of heat transfer in the external edge and the internal edges. The boundary layer thickness is small in the external edge and high in the center of the plate and it decreases as the inclination angle of plate increases. Theoretical results are compared with previous result and it is found that the Nusslet numbers in the present study are higher by (22 % than that in the previous studies. And the results show good agreement in range of Raleigh number from 105 to 106.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muthucumaraswamy R.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available An exact solution to the flow of a viscous incompressible unsteady flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account of the homogeneous chemical reaction of first-order. Both the plate temperature and the concentration level near the plate are raised linearly with respect to time. The dimensionless governing equations has been obtained by the Laplace transform method, when the plate is oscillating harmonically in its own plane. The effects of velocity and concentration are studied for different parameters like phase angle, chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number and time are studied. The solutions are valid only for small values of time t. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing phase angle ωt or chemical reaction parameter. .
Internal (Annular) and Compressible External (Flat Plate) Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Correlations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dechant, Lawrence [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Justin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2016-01-01
Here we provide a discussion regarding the applicability of a family of traditional heat transfer correlation based models for several (unit level) heat transfer problems associated with flight heat transfer estimates and internal flow heat transfer associated with an experimental simulation design (Dobranich 2014). Variability between semi-empirical free-flight models suggests relative differences for heat transfer coefficients on the order of 10%, while the internal annular flow behavior is larger with differences on the order of 20%. We emphasize that these expressions are strictly valid only for the geometries they have been derived for e.g. the fully developed annular flow or simple external flow problems. Though, the application of flat plate skin friction estimate to cylindrical bodies is a traditional procedure to estimate skin friction and heat transfer, an over-prediction bias is often observed using these approximations for missile type bodies. As a correction for this over-estimate trend, we discuss a simple scaling reduction factor for flat plate turbulent skin friction and heat transfer solutions (correlations) applied to blunt bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. The method estimates the ratio between axisymmetric and 2-d stagnation point heat transfer skin friction and Stanton number solution expressions for sub-turbulent Reynolds numbers %3C1x10 4 . This factor is assumed to also directly influence the flat plate results applied to the cylindrical portion of the flow and the flat plate correlations are modified by
Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)
1999-10-01
Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)
Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F.
1999-01-01
Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)
Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)
1999-07-01
Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robin, M; Schwab, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1957-07-01
In the thermal study of a 'swimming-pool' type of pile, the flow of water between vertical plates of 'combustible' material must be investigated. Therefore starting from general equations of natural convection, we have determined, the law of distribution of velocities, then that of temperatures, and finally the value of the Biot-Nusselt number, assuming steady-state conditions (both dynamic and thermal) and a constant heat flow at the surface. An abacus (fig. 7, 8 and 9) allows working power to be related to the average velocity and to the heating of the water which passes through the pile. For purposes of comparison, the curves on the calculation presented by S. GLASSTONE (31) have been drawn. (author) [French] L'etude thermique d'une pile du type 'piscine' necessite l'etude de l'ecoulement de l'eau entre les plaques verticales de materiau 'combustible'. Nous avons donc, a partir des equations generales de la convection naturelle, determine la loi de repartition des vitesses, puis celle des temperatures et enfin la valeur du nombre de Biot-Niisselt, en supposant les regimes, dynamique et thermique, etablis et la densite de flux calorifique a la paroi constante. Un abaque (fig. 7, 8 et 9) permet de relier a la puissance de fonctionnement, la vitesse moyenne de l'echauffement de l'eau qui traverse la pile. On a trace a titre de comparaison, les courbes du calcul presente par S. GLASSTONE (3). (auteur)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, Dong Soo; Lee, Joo Seong; Ahn, Jae Hwan; Kim, Dongwoo; Kim, Yongchan
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Flat plate pulsating heat pipes with asymmetric and aspect ratios were tested. • Flow patterns were investigated according to channel geometry and flow condition. • Heat transfer characteristics were analyzed with various heat inputs. • Optimum asymmetric and aspect ratios were suggested for maximum thermal performance. - Abstract: The thermal performance of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) in compact electronic devices can be improved by adopting asymmetric channels with increased pressure differences and an unbalanced driving force. The objective of this study is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of flat plate PHPs with various asymmetric ratios and aspect ratios in the channels. The thermal performance and flow pattern of the flat plate PHPs were measured by varying the asymmetric ratio from 1.0 to 4.0, aspect ratio from 2.5 to 5.0, and heat input from 2 to 28 W. The effects of the asymmetric ratio and aspect ratio on the thermal resistance were analyzed with the measured evaporator temperature and flow patterns at various heat inputs. With heat inputs of 6 W and 12 W, the optimum asymmetric ratio and aspect ratio for the flat plate PHPs were determined to be 4.0 and 2.5, respectively. With the heat input of 18 W, the optimum asymmetric ratio and aspect ratio were determined to be 1.5 and 2.5, respectively.
Inverse heat transfer problem in digital temperature control in plate fin and tube heat exchangers
Taler, Dawid; Sury, Adam
2011-12-01
The aim of the paper is a steady-state inverse heat transfer problem for plate-fin and tube heat exchangers. The objective of the process control is to adjust the number of fan revolutions per minute so that the water temperature at the heat exchanger outlet is equal to a preset value. Two control techniques were developed. The first is based on the presented mathematical model of the heat exchanger while the second is a digital proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control. The first procedure is very stable. The digital PID controller becomes unstable if the water volumetric flow rate changes significantly. The developed techniques were implemented in digital control system of the water exit temperature in a plate fin and tube heat exchanger. The measured exit temperature of the water was very close to the set value of the temperature if the first method was used. The experiments showed that the PID controller works also well but becomes frequently unstable.
Florio, L. A.; Harnoy, A.
2011-06-01
In this study, a unique combination of a vibrating plate and a cross-flow passage is proposed as a means of enhancing natural convection cooling. The enhancement potential was estimated based on numerical studies involving a representative model which includes a short, transversely oscillating plate, placed over a transverse cross-flow opening in a uniformly heated vertical channel wall dividing two adjacent vertical channels. The resulting velocity and temperature fields are analyzed, with the focus on the local thermal effects near the opening. The simulation indicates up to a 50% enhancement in the local heat transfer coefficient for vibrating plate amplitudes of at least 30% of the mean clearance space and frequencies of over 82 rad/s.
Analysis of Heat Transfer in Cooling of a Hot Plate by Planar Impingement Jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahn, Dae Hwan; Kim, Dong Sik
2009-01-01
Water jet impingement cooling is used to remove heat from high-temperature surfaces such as hot steel plates in the steel manufacturing process (thermo-mechanical cooling process; TMCP). In those processes, uniform cooling is the most critical factor to ensure high strength steel and good quality. In this study, experiments are performed to measure the heat transfer coefficient together with the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) analysis for a plate cooled by planar water jet. In the inverse heat transfer analysis, spatial and temporal variations of heat transfer coefficient, with no information regarding its functional form, are determined by employing the conjugate gradient method with an adjoint problem. To estimate the two dimensional distribution of heat transfer coefficient and heat flux for planar waterjet cooling, eight thermo-couple are installed inside the plate. The results show that heat transfer coefficient is approximately uniform in the span-wise direction in the early stage of cooling. In the later stage where the forced-convection effect is important, the heat transfer coefficient becomes larger in the edge region. The surface temperature vs. heat flux characteristics are also investigated for the entire boiling regimes. In addition, the heat transfer rate for the two different plate geometries are compared at the same Reynolds number
Performance measurement of plate fin heat exchanger by exploration: ANN, ANFIS, GA, and SA
A.K. Gupta; P. Kumar; R.K. Sahoo; A.K. Sahu; S.K. Sarangi
2017-01-01
An experimental work is conducted on counter flow plate fin compact heat exchanger using offset strip fin under different mass flow rates. The training, testing, and validation set of data has been collected by conducting experiments. Next, artificial neural network merged with Genetic Algorithm (GA) utilized to measure the performance of plate-fin compact heat exchanger. The main aim of present research is to measure the performance of plate-fin compact heat exchanger and to provide full exp...
MHD and radiation effects on moving isothermal vertical plate with variable mass diffusion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muthucumaraswamy R.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis is performed to study the effects of thermal radiation on unsteady free convective flow over a moving vertical plate with mass transfer in the presence of magnetic field. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non- scattering medium. The plate temperature is raised to T 0 and the concentration level near the plate is also raised linearly with time. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace transform technique. The velocity, temperature and concentration are studied for different parameters like the magnetic field parameter, radiation parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number and time. It is observed that the velocity decreases with increasing magnetic field parameter or radiation parameter. .
Enhancement of plate heat exchanger performance using electric fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Down, E.M.
2000-12-01
The falling film plate evaporator is often used in the food processing industry to remove large amounts of water from liquids, pulps and slurries. Although a compact efficient device with high heat transfer rates, there is a requirement for even greater performance, particularly when fuelled by the low grade energy from many renewable sources. Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) has been shown to give large heat transfer enhancements under many conditions, but most of this previous research has been with working fluids having much lower electrical conductivities than the water-based fluids that are the main concern of this study. The liquid flow in falling film plate evaporators is in the form of a very thin (less than a millimetre) film falling down a heated plate under the effect of gravity. The film surface exhibits waviness over much of the operating range of industrial heat exchangers, and the degree of waviness has previously been shown to have a large effect on the rate of heat transfer. A theoretical model was developed which suggested that significant increases in waviness, and therefore heat transfer, could be stimulated using high voltage electrodes, and these were subsequently observed on the surface of a pool of water during bench-top experiments. An experimental falling film rig was designed to study this EHD effect but the 2.5 kV maximum voltage attainable was thought to be too low to stimulate wave enlargement and no heat transfer enhancement was seen. Significant heat transfer enhancement was observed in the falling film rig when utilising corona discharge electrodes. This was thought to be due to a thinning of the film in the vicinity of the electrode via the corona wind and increased fluid mixing downstream of the electrode. Both point and wire electrodes improved heat transfer rates but wire electrodes were thought to have more potential for integration into existing industrial heat exchanger designs, so were studied more closely. Heat transfer rates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asma Khalid
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The unsteady free flow of a Casson fluid past an oscillating vertical plate with constant wall temperature has been studied. The Casson fluid model is used to distinguish the non-Newtonian fluid behaviour. The governing partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum and energy equations are transformed into linear ordinary differential equations by using nondimensional variables. Laplace transform method is used to find the exact solutions of these equations. Expressions for shear stress in terms of skin friction and the rate of heat transfer in terms of Nusselt number are also obtained. Numerical results of velocity and temperature profiles with various values of embedded flow parameters are shown graphically and their effects are discussed in detail.
Kuang, A. Q.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Leccacorvi, R.; Vieira, R.
2018-04-01
An array of flush-mounted and toroidally elongated Langmuir probes (henceforth called rail probes) have been specifically designed for the Alcator C-Mod's vertical target plate divertor and operated over multiple campaigns. The "flush" geometry enables the tungsten electrodes to survive high heat flux conditions in which traditional "proud" tungsten electrodes suffer damage from melting. The toroidally elongated rail-like geometry reduces the influence of sheath expansion, which is an important effect to consider in the design and interpretation of flush-mounted Langmuir probes. The new rail probes successfully operated during C-Mod's FY2015 and FY2016 experimental campaigns with no evidence of damage, despite being regularly subjected to heat flux densities parallel to the magnetic field exceeding ˜1 GW m-2 for short periods of time. A comparison between rail and proud probe data indicates that sheath expansion effects were successfully mitigated by the rail design, extending the use of these Langmuir probes to incident magnetic field line angles as low as 0.5°.
CFD analysis of heat transfer in a vertical annular gas gap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borgohain, A.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Vijayan, P.K.
2011-01-01
Heat transfer analysis in a vertical annulus is carried out by using a CFD code TRIO-U. The results are used to understand heat transfer in the vertical annulus. An experimental study is taken from literature for the CFD analysis. The geometry of the test section of the experiment is simulated in TRIO-U. The operating conditions of the experiment are simulated by imposing appropriate boundary conditions. Three modes of the heat transfer, conduction, radiation and convection in the gas gap are considered in the analysis. From the analysis it is found that TRIO-U can successfully handle all modes heat transfer. The theoretical results for heat transfer have been compared with experimental data. This paper deals with the detailed CFD modelling and analysis. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jin Sung; Kim, Tae Gyu; Park, Tae Sang; Kim, Choong Sik; Park, Chan Hoon
2002-01-01
An analytic approach has been employed to study condensate film thickness distribution inside cave-shaped cavity of a flat plate heat pipe. The results indicate that the condensate film thickness largely depends on mass flow rate and local velocity of condensate. The increasing rate of condensate film for circular region reveals about 50% higher value than that of vertical region. The physical properties of working fluid affect significantly the condensate film thickness, such as the condensate film thickness for the case of FC-40 are 5 times larger than that of water. In comparison with condensation on a vertical wall, the average heat transfer coefficient in the cave-shaped cavity presented 10∼15% lower values due to the fact that the average film thickness formed inside the cave-shaped cavity was larger than that of the vertical wall with an equivalent flow length. A correlation formula which is based on the condensate film analysis for the cave-shaped cavity to predict average heat transfer coefficient is presented. Also, the critical minimum fill charge ratio of working fluid based on condensate film analysis has been predicted, and the minimum fill charge ratios for FC-40 and water are about Ψ crit =3∼7%, Ψ crit =0.5∼1.3%, respectively, in the range of heat flux q = 5∼90kW/m 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuriyama, Shinji; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Funatani, Shumpei
2014-01-01
The inherent properties of the Very-High-Temperature Reactor facilitate the design of the VHTR with high degree of passive safe performances, compared to other type of reactors. However; it is still not clear if the VHTR can maintain a passive safe function during the severe accident, or what would be a design criterion to guarantee the VHTR with the high degree of passive safe performances during the accidents. In the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) which is a next generation nuclear reactor system, ceramics and graphite are used as a fuel coating material and a core structural material, respectively. Even if the depressurization accident occurs and the reactor power goes up instantly, the temperature of the core will change slowly. This is because the thermal capacity of the core is so large. Therefore, the VHTR system can passively remove the decay heat of the core by natural convection and radiation from the surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). This study is to develop the passive cooling system for the VHTR using the vertical channel inserting porous materials. The objective of this study is to investigate heat transfer characteristics of natural convection of a one-side heated vertical channel inserting the porous materials with high porosity. In order to obtain the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a vertical channel inserting porous material, we have also carried out a numerical analysis using the commercial CFD code. From the analytical results obtained in the natural convection cooling, an amount of removed heat enhanced inserting the copper wire. It was found that an amount of removed heat inserting the copper wire (porosity = 0.9972) was about 10% higher than that without the copper wire. This paper describes a thermal performance of the one-side heated vertical channel inserting copper wire with high porosity. (author)
Transient Heat Transfer Model for Car Body Primer Curing
D. Zabala; N. Sánchez; J. Pinto
2010-01-01
A transient heat transfer mathematical model for the prediction of temperature distribution in the car body during primer baking has been developed by considering the thermal radiation and convection in the furnace chamber and transient heat conduction governing equations in the car framework. The car cockpit is considered like a structure with six flat plates, four vertical plates representing the car doors and the rear and front panels. The other two flat plates are the...
Vertical-borehole ground-coupled heat pumps: A review of models and systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, H.; Cui, P. [Renewable Energy Research Group, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Fang, Z. [Ground Source Heat Pump Research Center, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan (China)
2010-01-15
A large number of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems have been used in residential and commercial buildings throughout the world due to the attractive advantages of high efficiency and environmental friendliness. This paper gives a detailed literature review of the research and developments of the vertical-borehole GCHP technology for applications in air-conditioning. A general introduction on the ground source heat pump system and its development is briefly presented first. Then, the most typical simulation models of the vertical ground heat exchangers currently available are summarized in detail including the heat transfer processes outside and inside the boreholes. The various design/simulation programs for vertical GCHP systems primarily based on the typical simulation models are also reviewed in this paper. Finally, the various hybrid GCHP systems for cooling or heating-dominated buildings are well described. It is found that the GCHP technology can be used both in cold and hot weather areas and the energy saving potential is significant. (author)
Natural convection in a water tank with a heated horizontal plate facing downward
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Sun Kyoo; Jung, Moon Kee; Helmut Hoffmann
1995-01-01
Experimental and computational studies were carried out to investigate the natural convection of the single phase flow in a tank with a heated horizontal plate facing downward. This is a simplified model for investigations of the influence of a core melt at the bottom of a reactor vessel on the thermal hydraulic behavior in a water filled cavity surrounding the vessel. In this case the vessel is simulated by a hexahedron insulated box with a heated plate horizontally mounted at the bottom of the box. The box with the heated plate is installed in a water filled hexahedron tank. Coolers are immersed in the U-type water volume between the box and the tank. Although the multicomponent flows exist more probably below the heated plate in reality, present study concentrates on the single phase flow in a first step prior to investigating the complicated multicomponent thermal hydraulic phenomena. In the present study, in order to get a better understanding for the natural convection characteristics below the heated plate, the velocity and temperature are measured by LDA(Laser Doppler Anemometry) and thermocouples, respectively. And flow fields are visualized by taking pictures of the flow region with suspended particles. The results show the occurrence of a very effective circulation of the fluid in the whole flow area as the heater and coolers are put into operation. In the remote region below the heated plate the flow is nearly stagnant, and a remarkable temperature stratification can be observed with very thin thermal boundary. Analytical predictions using the FLUTAN code show a reasonable matching of the measured velocity fields. 18 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs. (Author)
Hybrid heat recovery - flat plate Stirling engine system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogdanizh, A.M.; Budin, R.; Sutlovizh, I.
2000-01-01
In this paper, the possibility of process condensate heat recovery for boiler water preheating as well as for combined heat and power production for chosen process in textile industry has been investigated. The garment industry requires low pressure process steam or hot water for which production expensive fossil fuel should be used. Fuel usage can be reduced by various energy conservation methods. During the process a great quantity of hot condensate or waste hot water is rejected in the sewage system. To reduce heat wastes and improve technological process this condensate could be returned to the boiler for feed water preheating. When 60% condensate is returned to the steam generator about 8 % natural gas is saved. The rest of the condensate should be used for driving low temperature flat plate Stirling motor the advantage of the flat plate Stirling engine is ability to work at low temperatures. This engine produces electrical energy which can put in motion an electrogenerator in the same plant. While Stirling engine can be used electrical power and economical effect could be much greater using such a hybrid system the process waste heat is not only converted into useful work but at the same time thermal pollution is greatly diminished. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahn, Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyouck Ju [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
In a gas engine based cogeneration system, heat may be recovered from two parts: Jacket water and exhaust gas. The heat from the jacket water is often recovered using a plate-type heat exchanger, and is used for room heating and/or hot water supply applications. Depending on the operating conditions of an engine and heat recovery system, there may be an imbalance in the flow rate and supply pressure between the engine side and the heat-recovery side of the heat exchanger. This imbalance causes deformation of the plate, which affects heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. In the present study, the heat transfer and pressure drop inside a heat exchanger were investigated under varying hot-side and cold-side operating conditions. Thermal efficiency of the plate heat exchanger decreases up to 30% with an operating engine load of 50%. A correction factor for the pressure drop correlation is proposed to account for the deformation caused by an imbalance between the two sides of a heat exchanger.
Transient turbulent heat transfer for heating of water in a short vertical tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hata, Koichi; Kai, Naoto; Shirai, Yasuyuki; Masuzaki, Suguru
2011-01-01
The transient turbulent heat transfer coefficients in a short vertical Platinum test tube were systematically measured for the flow velocities (u=4.0 to 13.6 m/s), the inlet liquid temperatures (T in =296.93 to 304.81 K), the inlet pressures (P in =794.39 to 858.27 kPa) and the increasing heat inputs (Q 0 exp(t/τ), exponential periods, τ, of 18.6 ms to 25.7 s) by an experimental water loop comprised of a multistage canned-type circulation pump with high pump head. The Platinum test tubes of test tube inner diameters (d=3 and 6 mm), heated lengths (L=66.5 and 69.6 mm), effective lengths (L eff =56.7 and 59.2 mm), ratios of heated length to inner diameter (L/d=22.16 and 11.6), ratios of effective length to inner diameter (L eff /d=18.9 and 9.87) and wall thickness (δ=0.5 and 0.4 mm) with average surface roughness (Ra=0.40 and 0.45 μm) were used in this work. The surface heat fluxes between the two potential taps were given the difference between the heat generation rate per unit surface area and the rate of change of energy storage in the test tube obtained from the faired average temperature versus time curve. The heater inner surface temperature between the two potential taps was also obtained by solving the unsteady heat conduction equation in the test tube under the conditions of measured average temperature and heat generation rate per unit surface area of the test tube. The transient turbulent heat transfer data for Platinum test tubes were compared with the values calculated by authors' correlation for the steady state turbulent heat transfer. The influence of inner diameter (d), ratio of effective length to inner diameter (L eff /d), flow velocity (u) and exponential period (τ) on the transient turbulent heat transfer is investigated into details and the widely and precisely predictable correlation of the transient turbulent heat transfer for heating of water in a short vertical tube is given based on the experimental data and authors' studies for the
Transient turbulent heat transfer for heating of water in a short vertical tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hata, Koichi; Kai, Naoto; Shirai, Yasuyuki; Masuzaki, Suguru
2011-01-01
The transient turbulent heat transfer coefficients in a short vertical Platinum test tube were systematically measured for the flow velocities (u=4.0 to 13.6 m/s), the inlet liquid temperatures (T in =296.93 to 304.81 K), the inlet pressures (P in =794.39 to 858.27 kPa) and the increasing heat inputs (Q 0 exp(t/τ), exponential periods, τ, of 18.6 ms to 25.7 s) by an experimental water loop comprised of a multistage canned-type circulation pump with high pump head. The Platinum test tubes of test tube inner diameters (d=3 and 6 mm), heated lengths (L=66.5 and 69.6 mm), effective lengths (L eff =56.7 and 59.2 mm), ratios of heated length to inner diameter (L/d=22.16 and 11.6), ratios of effective length to inner diameter (L eff /d=18.9 and 9.87) and wall thickness (δ=0.5 and 0.4 mm) with average surface roughness (Ra=0.40 and 0.45 μm) were used in this work. The surface heat fluxes between the two potential taps were given the difference between the heat generation rate per unit surface area and the rate of change of energy storage in the test tube obtained from the faired average temperature versus time curve. The heater inner surface temperature between the two potential taps was also obtained by solving the unsteady heat conduction equation in the test tube under the conditions of measured average temperature and heat generation rate per unit surface area of the test tube. The transient turbulent heat transfer data for Platinum test tubes were compared with the values calculated by authors' correlation for the steady state turbulent heat transfer. The influence of inner diameter (d), ratio of effective length to inner diameter (L eff /d), flow velocity (u) and exponential period (τ) on the transient turbulent heat transfer is investigated into details and the widely and precisely predictable correlation of the transient turbulent heat transfer for heating of water in a short vertical tube is given based on the experimental data and authors' studies for the
Numerical prediction of dryout heat flux in vertical uniformly heated round tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okawa, Tomio; Kotani, Akio; Kataoka, Isao; Naito, Masanori
2003-01-01
Dryout heat fluxes in vertical uniformly heated round tubes were predicted using a film flow model. The correlations adopted in the present analysis were summarized as follows: (1) Entrainment rate and deposition rate were evaluated by the correlations whose validity was confirmed in wide range of thermal-hydraulic conditions. (2) In addition to the droplet entrainment due to interfacial shear force, the entrainment resulting from the boiling in liquid film was considered. (3) The vapor quality at the onset of annular flow was evaluated by the correlation based on the measurement of minimum droplet flowrate. (4) It was postulated that the droplet flowrate at the starting point of annular flow was to be approximated by that in equilibrium state. (5) The onset of critical heat flux condition was determined by the complete disappearance of liquid film. Though several assumptions were used in the present model, all the correlations adopted here were based on experimental data or considerations of the physical processes in annular flow. The resulting model required no parameters that should be adjusted from the measured data of critical heat flux. A number of experimental data of critical heat flux in forced flow of water in vertical uniformly heated round tubes were used to test the basic performance of the model. The comparisons between the calculated and measured critical heat fluxes showed that the predicted results by the present model agree with the experimental data fairly well if the flow pattern at burnout is considered annular flow. The predictive capability was not deteriorated even in the cases of small diameter tube, short length tube as well as low vapor quality at the onset of critical heat flux condition. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ch.Ram Reddy
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the heat and mass transfer characteristics on mixed convective fully developed flow in an electrically conducting Newtonian fluid between vertical parallel plates. The chemical reaction, heat generation, Hall and ion-slip effects are taken into consideration. By using similarity transformations the nonlinear governing equations are reduced into dimensionless form and hence solved using Adomian decomposition method (ADM. The influence of magnetic parameter, Hall parameter, ion-slip parameter, chemical reaction parameter, and heat generation/absorption parameter on non-dimensional velocities, temperature and concentration profiles are exhibited graphically. In addition, the numerical data for skin friction, heat and mass transfer rates are shown in tabular form.
Non-newtonian heat transfer on a plate heat exchanger with generalized configurations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carezzato, A.; Tadini, C.C.; Gut, J.A.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Escola Politecnica, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Alcantara, M.R. [Department of Fundamental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Telis-Romero, J. [Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Brazil)
2007-01-15
For the configuration optimization of plate heat exchangers (PHEs), the mathematical models for heat transfer and pressure drop must be valid for a wide range of operational conditions of all configurations of the exchanger or the design results may be compromised. In this investigation, the thermal model of a PHE is adjusted to fit experimental data obtained from non-Newtonian heat transfer for eight different configurations, using carboxymethylcellulose solutions (CMC) as test fluid. Although it is possible to successfully adjust the model parameters, Newtonian and non-Newtonian heat transfer cannot be represented by a single generalized correlation. In addition, the specific heat, thermal conductivity and power-law rheological parameters of CMC solutions were correlated with temperature, over a range compatible with a continuous pasteurization process. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Numerical Study of Compact Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger for Rotary-Vane Gas Refrigeration Machine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Trandafilov
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Plate-fin heat exchangers are widely used in refrigeration technique. They are popular because of their compactness and excellent heat transfer performance. Here we present a numerical model for the development, research and optimization of a plate-fin heat exchanger for a rotary-vane gas refrigeration machine. The method of analysis by graphic method of plate - fin heat exchanger is proposed. The model describes the effects of secondary parameters such as axial thermal conductivity through a metal matrix of the heat exchanger. The influence of geometric parameters and heat transfer coefficient is studied. Graphs of dependences of length, efficiency of a fin and pressure drop in a heat exchanger on the thickness of the fin and the number of fins per meter are obtained. To analyze the results of numerical simulation, the heat exchanger was designed in the Aspen HYSYS program. The simulation results show that the total deviation from the proposed numerical model is not more than 15%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizokami, Yorikata; Igari, Toshihide; Nakashima, Keiichi; Kawashima, Fumiko; Sakakibara, Noriyuki; Kishikawa, Ryouji; Tanihira, Masanori
2010-01-01
The helium/helium heat exchanger (i.e., intermediate heat exchanger: IHX) of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) system with nuclear heat applications is installed between a primary system and a secondary system. IHX is operated at the highest temperature of 950degC and has a high capacity of up to 600 MWt. A plate-fin-type heat exchanger is the most suitable for IHX to improve construction cost. The purpose of this study is to develop an ultrafine plate-fin-type heat exchanger with a finer pitch fin than a conventional technology. In the first step, fabrication conditions of the ultrafine plate fin were optimized by press tests. In the second step, a brazing material was selected from several candidates through brazing tests of rods, and brazing conditions were optimized for plate-fin structures. In the third step, tensile strength, creep rupture, fatigue, and creep-fatigue tests were performed as typical strength tests for plate-fin structures. The obtained data were compared with those of the base metal and plate-fin element fabricated from SUS316. Finally, the accuracy of the creep-fatigue life prediction using both the linear cumulative damage rule and the equivalent homogeneous solid method was confirmed through the evaluation of creep-fatigue test results of plate-fin structures. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Herrera, C; Murillo-Ramírez, J G; Pérez-Reyes, I; Moreno-Hernández, D
2015-01-01
This work reports the thermal convection with imposed shear flow in a thin two-plate channel. Flow structures are investigated under heating asymmetric conditions and different laminar flow conditions. The dynamics of heat flow and the energy distribution were determined by visualization with the Schlieren technique and application of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method. The obtained results from the POD mode analysis revealed that for some flow conditions the heat transfer is related to the energy of the POD modes and their characteristic numbers. It was possible to detect periodic motion in the two-plate channel flow from the POD mode analysis. It was also found that when the energy is distributed among many POD modes, the fluid flow is disorganized and unsteady. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, Ahmed Hamza H.; Ahmed, Mahmoud; Abdel-Gaied, S.M.
2013-01-01
This study investigates experimentally and theoretically the effects of operating and configuration parameters on convection heat transfer process and fluid flow characteristics for air flowing in transitional regimes through parallel plate channels with staggered plates segments heated by radiant heat flux. This configuration is to be utilized in air heater solar collectors and/or in a combined photovoltaic and air heater solar collector systems (PV/T). The operating parameters tested were Reynolds number (Re) values ranging from 2580 to 4650 with a combination of incident radiation heat flux (q inc ) values of 400, 700, and 1000 W/m 2 , respectively. The experimental results show that the local Nusselt number (Nu x ) is not unique function of the axial distance, in addition, a linear relationship between Re and apparent friction factor (f) was observed. Moreover, the model results show that combination of Re values in the laminar flow regime with proper selection of both plate's length and thickness can lead to enhancement in the heat transfer from the plate segments to the air stream. This is due to self-oscillatory flow mixer in wake zone behind each plate segment. Consequently, this will lead to avoid the need of more pumping power for the case of the flow falling within the transitional regime in the channel. - Highlights: • The local heat transfer coefficient is not unique function in the axial distance. • A linear relationship between Reynolds number and apparent friction factor is observed for Re > 3500. • The plate thickness is the dominant parameter affects both values of the heat transfer and friction factor. • Shorter plates' length, at any plate thickness, leads to periodic boundary layers interruption mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terzi, A.; Foudhil, W.; Harmand, S.; Ben Jabrallah, S.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Experimental study of the evaporation of a wet porous layer inside a vertical channel. • Resolution of the heat equation by inverse method. • The use of the porous layer is more efficient for high heating flux and low liquid inlet flow. • To improve the evaporation, the system must operate at low water inlet flow. - Abstract: In this paper, we realize an Experimental study of the evaporation of a wet porous layer inside a vertical channel. To develop this study, an experimental dispositive was realised. We measure the temperature along the plate and the evaporated flow rate using the test bed. From these measurements we note that the profiles of the temperature are divided into two areas: the heating and the evaporation zone. We also note that the use of the porous layer is more efficient for high heating flux and low liquid inlet flow. In addition, we studied different dimensionless numbers by solving the energy equation by inverse method. We note that the latent Nusselt number is more important than the sensible Nusselt Number, which proves that the flow dissipated by evaporation is greater than the one used by the film to increase its temperature.
Development of a micro-heat exchanger with stacked plates using LTCC technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Vásquez-Alvarez
2010-09-01
Full Text Available A green ceramic tape micro-heat exchanger was developed using Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics technology (LTCC. The device was designed by using Computational Aided Design software and simulations were made using a Computational Fluid Dynamics package (COMSOL Multiphysics to evaluate the homogeneity of fluid distribution in the microchannels. Four geometries were proposed and simulated in two and three dimensions to show that geometric details directly affect the distribution of velocity in the micro-heat exchanger channels. The simulation results were quite useful for the design of the microfluidic device. The micro-heat exchanger was then constructed using the LTCC technology and is composed of five thermal exchange plates in cross-flow arrangement and two connecting plates, with all plates stacked to form a device with external dimensions of 26 x 26 x 6 mm³.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ranganayakulu, C. [Aeronautical Development Agency, Bangalore (India); Seetharamu, K.N. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Southern Malaysia (KCP), Tronoh (Malaysia)
2000-05-01
An analysis of a crossflow plate-fin compact heat exchanger, accounting for the combined effect of two-dimensional longitudinal heat conduction through the exchanger wall and nonuniform inlet fluid flow distribution on both hot and cold fluid sides is carried out using a finite element method. Using the fluid flow maldistribution models, the exchanger effectiveness and its deterioration due to the combined effects of longitudinal heat conduction and flow nonuniformity are calculated for various design and operating conditions of the exchanger. It was found that the performance deteriorations are quite significant in some typical applications due to the combined effects of wall longitudinal heat conduction and inlet fluid flow nonuniformity on crossflow plate-fin heat exchanger. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Truong Thinh; Yang, Young Soo; Bae, Kang Yul; Choi, Sung Nam
2009-01-01
To control a heat source easily in the forming process of steel plate with heating, the electro-magnetic induction process has been used as a substitute of the flame heating process. However, only few studies have analyzed the deformation of a workpiece in the induction heating process by using a mathematical model. This is mainly due to the difficulty of modeling the heat flux from the inductor traveling on the conductive plate during the induction process. In this study, the heat flux distribution over a steel plate during the induction process is first analyzed by a numerical method with the assumption that the process is in a quasi-stationary state around the inductor and also that the heat flux itself greatly depends on the temperature of the workpiece. With the heat flux, heat flow and thermo-mechanical analyses on the plate to obtain deformations during the heating process are then performed with a commercial FEM program for 34 combinations of heating parameters. An artificial neural network is proposed to build a simplified relationship between deformations and heating parameters that can be easily utilized to predict deformations of steel plate with a wide range of heating parameters in the heating process. After its architecture is optimized, the artificial neural network is trained with the deformations obtained from the FEM analyses as outputs and the related heating parameters as inputs. The predicted outputs from the neural network are compared with those of the experiments and the numerical results. They are in good agreement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Myeong Gie
2012-01-01
It is important to find a way of enhancing heat transfer coefficients if the space for heat exchanger installation is limited, as it is in advanced light water reactors. One of the effective methods to increase heat transfer coefficients ( h b ) of pool boiling is to consider a confined space. It is well known from the literature that the confined boiling is an effective technique to enhance heat transfer. Once the flow inlet at the tube bottom is closed, a very rapid increase in heat transfer coefficient is observed at low heat fluxes ( q ' ). The similar tendency is observed regardless of the geometric shape. Yao and Chang and Kang investigated a vertical annulus while Rops et al. investigated a confined plate. Fujita et al., in other wise, used parallel plates with side and bottom inflow is restricted. Around the upper region of the annulus with closed bottoms the downward liquid interrupts the upward movement of the bubble slugs. Thereafter, bubbles are coalescing into much bigger bubbles while fluctuating up and down in the annular space. As the heat flux increases (1) the isolate bubble region, (2) the coalesced big size bubble region, and (3) the dryout region is observed in series. The major causes of the heat transfer enhancement are related with the liquid film evaporation and active liquid agitation. Literature review on the previous studies about crevice effects on pool boiling denotes that heat transfer is highly dependent on the geometric parameters. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify the effect of each geometric parameter to estimate heat transfer coefficients accurately. Although some correlations were developed to predict pool boiling heat transfer in confined spaces based on open bottoms, the application of them to a confined space with closed bottoms could result in much error. To overcome the limits of the published correlations, Kang developed a correlation to predict pool boiling heat transfer in annuli with closed bottoms. However, the
Kumaresan, E.; Vijaya Kumar, A. G.; Rushi Kumar, B.
2017-11-01
This article studies, an exact solution of unsteady MHD free convection boundary-layer flow of a silver nanofluid past an exponentially accelerated moving vertical plate through aporous medium in the presence of thermal radiation, transverse applied amagnetic field, radiation absorption and Heat generation or absorption with chemical reaction are investigated theoretically. We consider nanofluids contain spherical shaped nanoparticle of silverwith a nanoparticle volume concentration range smaller than or equal to 0.04. This phenomenon is modeled in the form of partial differential equations with initial boundary conditions. Some suitable dimensional variables are introduced. The corresponding dimensionless equations with boundary conditions are solved by using Laplace transform technique. The exact solutions for velocity, energy, and species are obtained, also the corresponding numerical values of nanofluid velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are represented graphically. The expressions for skin friction coefficient, the rate of heat transfer and mass transfer are derived. The present study finds applications involving heat transfer, enhancement of thermal conductivity and other applications like transportation, industrial cooling applications, heating buildings and reducing pollution, energy applications and solar absorption. The effect of heat transfer is found to be more pronounced in a silver-water nanofluid than in the other nanofluids.
3D CFD fluid flow and thermal analyses of a new design of plate heat exchanger
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pianko-Oprych Paulina
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD numerical study for a new design of a plate heat exchanger with two different flow patterns. The impact of geometric characteristics of the two studied geometries of exchanger plates on the intensification process of heat transfer was considered. The velocity, temperature and pressure distributions along the heat exchanger were examined. The CFD results were validated against experimental data and a good agreement was achieved. The results revealed that geometrical arrangement of the plates strongly influence the fluid flow. An increase in the Reynolds number led to lowering the friction factor value and increasing the pressure drop. The configuration II of the plate heat exchanger resulted in lower outlet hot fluid temperature in comparison with the configuration I, which means improvement of heat transfer.
Boiling heat transfer in a flat slot between heating surface and perforated plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirichenko, Yu.A.; Rusanov, K.V.; Tyurina, E.G.
1987-01-01
The results are presented of the experimental study of heat transfer and crisis at nitrogen boiling in a flat gap between the horizontal heating surface and perforated plate. The gap width is 1.0 to 5.6 mm, diameter of holes is 1.0 to 2.0 mm, their spacing being 3.0 to 12.0 mm. The geometrical parameters dependence of the heat transfer coefficient and crisis characteristics is invesigated, the experimental data are compared with the results reported by other authors and calculations by some well-known formulas. 12 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Jie; Liu, Wei
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A novel shell-and-tube heat exchanger with plate baffles is proposed. • Heat transfer and pressure drop of computational calculations are studied. • Experimental method is carried out to verify the modeling approach. • Path lines, temperature field and pressure field are analyzed. - Abstract: A novel shell-and-tube heat exchanger with new plate baffles is proposed. It is numerically investigated in comparison with a shell-and-tube heat exchanger with rod baffles. Commercial softwares FLUENT 6.3 and GAMBIT 2.3 are adopted for modeling and computational calculations. The modeling approach is verified with experimental approach. The shell-side results of heat transfer, flow performance, and comprehensive performance are analyzed. The Nusselt number for the plate baffles heat exchanger is around 128–139% of that for the rod baffles heat exchanger. The pressure drop for the novel one is about 139–147% of that for the rod baffles heat exchanger. Overall, the novel plate baffles heat exchanger illustrates evidently higher comprehensive performance (115–122%) than the rod baffles one. The temperature field, pressure field, and path lines are analyzed to demonstrate the advantage of the novel shell-and-tube heat exchanger
Natural convection heat transfer experiments of horizontal plates with fin arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Je Young; Chung, Bum Jin [Jeju National University 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)
2012-10-15
Core melt in a severe accident condition, forms a molten pool in the reactor vessel lower head. The molten pool is divided by a metallic pool (top) and an oxide pool (bottom) by the density difference. The crust between the metallic layer and the oxide pool may be formed by solidification of the molten metallic materials. So the surface of the crust is formed irregularly. Experiments were performed to investigate the irregular crust as a preparatory study before an in-depth severe accident study. The natural convection heat transfer were investigated experimentally varying the height and spacing of fins, top plate of different kinds and the plate separation distance with/without the side walls. In order to simulate irregular crust surface condition, the finned plates was used. Using the analogy concept, heat transfer experiments were replaced by mass transfer experiments. A cupric acid.copper sulfate (H{sup 2S}O{sup 4-}CuSO{sup 4)} electroplating system was adopted as the mass transfer system and the electric currents were measured rather than the heat transfer rates.
Analysis of Self-Heating Effects on vertical FET according to Shallow Trench Isolation
Myeong, Ilho; Son, Dokyun; Kim, Hyunsuk; Kang, Myounggon; Shin, Hyungcheol
2017-11-01
In this paper, Self-Heating Effect (SHE) according to depth of STI was analyzed and STI thickness optimization was performed in the plate-shaped vertical field effect transistor (VFET). In case of a VFET, the path of leakage current (Ioff) is different from that of a lateral FET (LFET). As a result, Ioff of VFET is not influenced by STI depth. For this reason, the STI depth of the VFET is not needed as much as the depth needed to reduce Ioff in the LFET. As a result, if the STI depth of the VFET is reduced from 100 nm to 20 nm, which is the drain region depth doped with Arsenic, thermal resistance (Rth) is expected to be reduced by 32.19% and on current (Ion) is expected to be increased by 1.54% without affecting the Ioff as compared with STI depth of 100 nm in VFET.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Mahanthesh
Full Text Available Impact of induced magnetic field over a flat porous plate by utilizing incompressible water-copper nanoliquid is examined analytically. Flow is supposed to be laminar, steady and two-dimensional. The plate is subjected to a regular free stream velocity as well as suction velocity. Flow formulation is developed by considering MaxwellâGarnetts (MG and Brinkman models of nanoliquid. Impacts of thermal radiation, viscous dissipation, temperature dependent heat source/sink and first order chemical reaction are also retained. The subjected non-linear problems are non-dimensionalized and analytic solutions are presented via series expansion method. The graphs are plotted to analyze the influence of pertinent parameters on flow, magnetism, heat and mass transfer fields as well as friction factor, current density, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. It is found that friction factor at the plate is more for larger magnetic Prandtl number. Also the rate of heat transfer decayed with increasing nanoparticles volume fraction and the strength of magnetism. Keywords: Induced magnetic field, Nanoliquids, Heat source/sink, Series expansion method, Chemical reaction, Thermal radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muthucumaraswamy R.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal radiation effects on unsteady flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate in the presence of variable temperature and uniform mass flux is considered. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The plate temperature is raised linearly with time and the mass is diffused from the plate to the fluid at an uniform rate. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace transform technique. The velocity, concentration and temperature are studied for different physical parameters like the phase angle, radiation parameter, Schmidt number, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing phase angle ωt.
Calculation of Vertical Temperature Gradients in Heated Rooms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Overby, H.; Steen-Thøde, Mogens
This paper deals with a simple model which predicts the vertical temperature gradient in a heated room. The gradient is calculated from a dimensionless temperature profile which is determined by two room air temperatures only, the mean temperature in the occupied zone and the mean temperature...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muthucumaraswamy R.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal radiation effects on unsteady free convective flow of a viscous incompressible flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion has been studied. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The plate temperature is raised linearly with respect to time and the concentration level near the plate is also raised linearly with respect to time. An exact solution to the dimensionless governing equations has been obtained by the Laplace transform method, when the plate is oscillating harmonically in its own plane. The effects of velocity, temperature and concentration are studied for different parameters like phase angle, radiation parameter, Schmidt number, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number and time are studied. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing phase angle ωt. .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oulaid, Othmane; Benhamou, Brahim; Galanis, Nicolas
2010-01-01
This paper, deals with a numerical study of the effects of buoyancy forces on an upward, steady state, laminar flow of humid air in a vertical parallel-plate channel. The plates are wetted by a thin liquid water film and maintained at a constant temperature which is lower than that of the air entering the channel. A 2D fully elliptical model, associated with the Boussinesq assumption, is used to take into account axial diffusion. The solution of this mathematical model is based on the finite volume method and the velocity-pressure coupling is handled by the SIMPLER algorithm. Numerical results show that buoyancy forces have a significant effect on the hydrodynamic, thermal and mass fraction fields. Additionally, these forces induce flow reversal for high air temperatures and mass fractions at the channel entrance. It is established that heat transfer associated with phase change is, sometimes, more significant than sensible heat transfer. Furthermore, this importance depends on the mass fraction gradient. The conditions for the existence of flow reversal are presented in charts and analytical expressions specifying the critical thermal Grashof number as a function of the Reynolds number for different values of the solutal Grashof number and different aspect ratios of the channel.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muthucumaraswamy R.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Theoretical study of unsteady flow past an exponentially accelerated infinite isothermal vertical plate with variable mass diffusion has been presented in the presence of homogeneous chemical reaction of first order. The plate temperature is raised to Tw and species concentration level near the plate is made to rise linearly with time. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using Laplace-transform technique. The velocity profiles are studied for different physical parameters like chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, a and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of a or t. But the trend is just reversed with respect to K.
Saturated flow boiling heat transfer in water-heated vertical annulus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Licheng; Yan Changqi; Sun Zhonning
2005-01-01
This paper describes the saturated flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of water at 1 atm and low velocities in water-heated vertical annuli with equivalent diameters of 10 mm and 6 mm. Test section is consisted of two concentric circular tubes outer of which is made of quartz, so the whole test courses can be visualized. There are three main flow patterns of bubble flow, churn flow and churn-annular flow in the annuli, most important of which is churn flow. Flooding is the mechanism of churn flow and churn can enhance the heat transport between steam and water; Among the three factors of mass flux, inlet subcooling and annulus width, the last one has great effect on heat transport, moderately decreasing the annulus width can enhance the heat transfer; Combined annular flow model with theory of flooding and turbulent Prandtl Number, the numerical value of heat flux is given, the shape of test boiling curve and that of calculated by model is very alike, but there is large discrepancy between test data and calculated results, the most possible reason is that some parameters given by fluid flooding model are based on experimental data of common circular tubes, but not of annuli. Doing more research on flooding in annulus, particularly narrow annulus, is necessary for calculating the saturated boiling in annulus. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.A. Imran
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the unsteady natural convection flow of Maxwell fluid with fractional derivative over an exponentially accelerated infinite vertical plate. Moreover, slip condition, radiation, MHD and Newtonian heating effects are also considered. A modern definition of fractional derivative operator recently introduced by Caputo and Fabrizio has been used to formulate the fractional model. Semi analytical solutions of the dimensionless problem are obtained by employing Stehfest’s and Tzou’s algorithms in order to find the inverse Laplace transforms for temperature and velocity fields. Temperature and rate of heat transfer for non-integer and integer order derivatives are computed and reduced to some known solutions from the literature. Finally, in order to get insight of the physical significance of the considered problem regarding velocity and Nusselt number, some graphical illustrations are made using Mathcad software. As a result, in comparison between Maxwell and viscous fluid (fractional and ordinary we found that viscous (fractional and ordinary fluids are swiftest than Maxwell (fractional and ordinary fluids. Keywords: Free convection, Slip, Maxwell fluid, Newtonian heating, Exponentially accelerated plate, Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives, Stehfest’s and Tzou’s algorithms
Effect of Liquid/Vapour Maldistribution on the Performance of Plate Heat Exchanger Evaporators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Ommen, Torben Schmidt
2015-01-01
Plate heat exchangers are often applied as evaporators in industrial refrigeration and heat pump systems. In the design and modelling of such heat exchangers the flow and liquid/vapour distribution is often assumed to be ideal. However, maldistribution may occur and will cause each channel...... to behave differently due to the variation of the mass flux and vapour quality. To evaluate the effect of maldistribution on the performance of plate heat exchangers, a numerical model is developed in which the mass, momentum and energy balances are applied individually to each channel, including suitable...... correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop. The flow distribution on both the refrigerant and secondary side is determined based on equal pressure drop while the liquid/vapour distribution is imposed to the model. Results show that maldistribution may cause up to a 25 % reduction of the overall heat...
Turbulent mixed convection in asymmetrically heated vertical channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mokni Ameni
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper an investigation of mixed convection from vertical heated channel is undertaken. The aim is to explore the heat transfer obtained by adding a forced flow, issued from a flat nozzle located in the entry section of a channel, to the up-going fluid along its walls. Forced and free convection are combined studied in order to increase the cooling requirements. The study deals with both symmetrically and asymmetrically heated channel. The Reynolds number based on the nozzle width and the jet velocity is assumed to be 3 103 and 2.104; whereas, the Rayleigh number based on the channel length and the wall temperature difference varies from 2.57 1010 to 5.15 1012. The heating asymmetry effect on the flow development including the mean velocity and temperature the local Nusselt number, the mass flow rate and heat transfer are examined.
Transfer coefficients in elliptical tubes and plate fin heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saboya, S.M.
1979-09-01
Mean transfer coefficients in elliptical tubes and plate fin heat exchangers were determined by application of heat and mass transfer analogy in conjunction with the naphthalene sublimation technique. The transfer coefficients are presented in a dimensionless form as functions of the Reynolds number. By using the least squares method analytical expressions for the transfer coefficients were determined with low scattering. (E.G.) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rapp, H.; Niedermeyer, H.; Kornherr, M.
1987-01-01
After dismantling of the titanium neutralizer plates inspection yielded satisfactory status of flat areas whereas edges and curved shapes were heavily melted. At the inner plates of the lower divertor strongly focused melting and cutting was found which is caused by fast electrons. These electrons are continuously produced. The production mechanism is not yet clear but runaway processes can be excluded. With long-pulse additional heating of 6 MW/10s as planned for ASDEX in 1987, the total energy delivered to the plasma will increase by a factor of 30. Therefore new water-cooled neutralizer plates have been constructed which consist of a copper-steel compound. The construction principle and the topology of the cooling circuits is presented
Heat transfer to MHD oscillatory dusty fluid flow in a channel filled ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The flow of fluids through porous media has become ... convection-radiation interaction with heat transfer in boundary layer flow over a flat plate sub- ... Unsteady MHD free convection flow of a compressible fluid past a moving vertical plate in.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riman, J; Manek, O; Rybnicek, J
1979-09-15
A special structure consisting of a system of channels and a distribution plate with ports in-built above the tube-plate of a vertical-type steam generator prevents secondary water vaporization in the space above the tube-plate and thus also salt and sludge sedimentation which causes increased corrosion of heat transfer tubes. The size of the distribution plate ports is variable in the radial direction. The distribution plate is divided by means of the system of channels into at least two parts. The middle section of each part is of the through-flow type.
Grigoryan, M. S.
2018-04-01
This paper considers two connected contact problems on the interaction of stringers with an elastic semi-infinite plate. In the first problem, an elastic half-infinite continuous plate is reinforced on its boundary by two identical stringers exposed to a tensile external force. In the second problem, in the presence of the same stringers, the plate contains a collinear system of cracks on its vertical axis. The solution of both problems is reduced to the solution of singular integral equations (SIE) that are solved by a known numerical-analytical method.
Three-dimensional inverse transient heat transfer analysis of thick functionally graded plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haghighi, M.R. Golbahar; Malekzadeh, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran); Eghtesad, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154 (Iran); Necsulescu, D.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)
2009-03-15
In this paper, a three-dimensional transient inverse heat conduction (IHC) procedure is presented to estimate the unknown boundary heat flux of thick functionally graded (FG) plates. For this purpose, the conjugate gradient method (CGM) in conjunction with adjoint problem is used. A recently developed three-dimensional efficient hybrid method is employed to solve variable-coefficient initial-boundary-value differential equations of direct problem as a part of the inverse solution. The accuracy of the inverse analysis is examined by simulating the exact and noisy data for problems with different types of boundary conditions and material properties. In addition to rectangular domain, skew plates are considered. The results obtained show good accuracy for the estimation of boundary heat fluxes. (author)
Copper vertical micro dendrite fin arrays and their superior boiling heat transfer capability
Wang, Ya-Qiao; Lyu, Shu-Shen; Luo, Jia-Li; Luo, Zhi-Yong; Fu, Yuan-Xiang; Heng, Yi; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Mo, Dong-Chuan
2017-11-01
Micro pin fin arrays have been widely used in electronic cooling, micro reactors, catalyst support, and wettability modification and so on, and a facile way to produce better micro pin fin arrays is demanded. Herein, a simple electrochemical method has been developed to fabricate copper vertical micro dendrite fin arrays (Cu-VMDFA) with controllable shapes, number density and height. High copper sulphate concentration is one key point to make the dendrite stand vertically. Besides, the applied current should rise at an appropriate rate to ensure the copper dendrite can grow vertically on its own. The Cu-VMDFA can significantly enhance the heat transfer coefficient by approximately twice compared to the plain copper surface. The Cu-VMDFA may be widely used in boiling heat transfer areas such as nuclear power plants, electronic cooling, heat exchangers, and so on.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walraven, Daniël; Laenen, Ben; D’haeseleer, William
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Binary cycles for low-temperature heat sources are investigated. • Shell-and-tube and plate heat exchangers are modeled. • System optimization of the cycle variables and heat exchanger geometry. • ORCs with plate heat exchangers obtain in most cases higher efficiencies. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) can be used for electricity production from low-temperature heat sources. These ORCs are often designed based on experience, but this experience will not always lead to the most optimal configuration. The ultimate goal is to design ORCs by performing a system optimization. In such an optimization, the configuration of the components and the cycle parameters (temperatures, pressures, mass flow rate) are optimized together to obtain the optimal configuration of power plant and components. In this paper, the configuration of plate heat exchangers or shell-and-tube heat exchangers is optimized together with the cycle configuration. In this way every heat exchanger has the optimum allocation of heat exchanger surface, pressure drop and pinch-point-temperature difference for the given boundary conditions. ORCs with plate heat exchangers perform mostly better than ORCs with shell-and-tube heat exchangers, but one disadvantage of plate heat exchangers is that the geometry of both sides is the same, which can result in an inefficient heat exchanger. It is also shown that especially the cooling-fluid inlet temperature and mass flow have a strong influence on the performance of the power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Mingyu; Qiu Suizheng; Jia Dounan
2005-01-01
Experimental investigation on the subcooled boiling heat transfer was carried out in a vertical up-flow double narrow annulus with 1.5 mm gap. The working fluid is deionized water. The ranges of parameters as follows: pressure 0.84-6.09 MPa, mass flux 41.9-300.2 kg/(m 2 ·s), heat flux 2.61-114.41kW/m 2 . An empiric correlation used to predict the heat transfer of subcooled boiling in narrow annulus is induced from the experimental data. (author)
Natural convection heat transfer of fluid with temperature-dependent specific heat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Amane; Kubo, Shinji; Akino, Norio
1998-01-01
The present study investigates natural convection from a heated vertical plate of fluid with temperature-dependent specific heat, which is introduced as a model of microencapsulated phase change material slurries (MCPCM slurries). The temperature dependence of specific heat is represented by Gauss function with three physical parameters (peak temperature, width of phase change temperature and latent heat). Boundary layer equations are solved numerically, and the velocity and temperature fields of the flow are obtained. The relation between the heat transfer coefficients and the physical parameters of specific heat is discussed. The results show that the velocities and temperatures are smaller, and the heat transfer coefficients are larger comparing with those of the fluid with constant specific heat. (author)
Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: An experimental study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kozanoglu, Bulent, E-mail: bulentu.kozanoglu@udlap.mx [Universidad de las Americas, Puebla (Mexico); Zarate, Luis [Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (Mexico); Gomez-Mares, Mercedes [Universita di Bologna (Italy); Casal, Joaquim [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain)
2011-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiments were carried out to analyze convection around a vertical jet fire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convection heat transfer is enhanced increasing the flame length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nusselt number grows with higher values of Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In subsonic flames, Nusselt number increases with Froude number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convection and radiation are equally important in causing a domino effect. - Abstract: The convection heat transfer phenomenon in vertical jet fires was experimentally analyzed. In these experiments, turbulent propane flames were generated in subsonic as well as sonic regimes. The experimental data demonstrated that the rate of convection heat transfer increases by increasing the length of the flame. Assuming the solid flame model, the convection heat transfer coefficient was calculated. Two equations in terms of adimensional numbers were developed. It was found out that the Nusselt number attains greater values for higher values of the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the Froude number was analyzed only for the subsonic flames where the Nusselt number grows by this number and the diameter of the orifice.
Heat transfer effects in vertically emplaced high level nuclear waste container
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moujaes, S.F.; Lei, Y.M.
1994-01-01
Modeling free convection heat transfer in an cylindrical annular enclosure is still an active area of research and an important problem to be addressed in the high level nuclear waste repository. For the vertically emplaced waste container, the air gap which is between the container shell and the rock borehole, have an important role of dissipating heat to surrounding rack. These waste containers are vertically emplaced in the borehole 300 meters below ground, and in a horizontal grid of 30 x 8 meters apart. The borehole will be capped after the container emplacement. The expected initial heat generated is between 3--4.74 kW per container depending on the type of waste. The goal of this study is to use a computer simulation model to find the borehole wall, air-gap and the container outer wall temperature distributions
Mixed Convection Heat Transfer on the Outside of a Vertical Cylinder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharyya, A
1965-10-15
An experimental study was made of turbulent heat transfer from a vertical cylinder placed in a square channel. The flow medium was water flowing upwards. Basic differential equations governing the mixed flow heat transfer phenomena in a vertical annulus are presented. A dimensional analysis is done to find the dimensionless variables affecting the relative magnitude of the effect of buoyancy on forced convection heat transfer. Dimensionless equations correlating the experimental data ana incorporating a buoyancy parameter of the form Gr/Re{sup 2} are presented. Reynolds number range covered is 690 to 129,500 and the Rayleigh num- ber range covered is 10{sup 9} to 4.2 x 10{sup 13} . Effect of different length parameters, like hydraulic diameter and distance of the measuring point from the inlet of the test section, on dimensionless equations are studied.
Terminal project heat convection in thin cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morales Corona, J.
1992-01-01
Heat convection in thin cylinders and analysis about natural convection for straight vertical plates, and straight vertical cylinders submersed in a fluid are presented some works carry out by different authors in the field of heat transfer. In the part of conduction, deduction of the equation of heat conduction in cylindrical coordinates by means of energy balance in a control volume is presented. Enthalpy and internal energy are used for the outlining of the equation and finally the equation in its vectorial form is obtained. In the convection part development to calculate the Nusselt number for a straight vertical plate by a forces analysis, an energy balance and mass conservation over a control volume is outlined. Several empiric correlations to calculate the Nusselt number and its relations with other dimensionless numbers are presented. In the experimental part the way in which a prototype rode is assembled is presented measurements of temperatures attained in steady state and in free convection for working fluids as air and water are showed in tables. Also graphs of Nusselt numbers obtained in the experimental way through some empiric correlations are showed (Author)
MHD Boundary Layer Slip Flow and Heat Transfer over a Flat Plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, Krishnendu; Mukhopadhyay, Swati; Layek, G. C.
2011-01-01
An analysis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a flat plate with slip condition at the boundary is presented. A complete self-similar set of equations are obtained from the governing equations using similarity transformations and are solved by a shooting method. In the boundary slip condition no local similarity occurs. Velocity and temperature distributions within the boundary layer are presented. Our analysis reveals that the increase of magnetic and slip parameters reduce the boundary layer thickness and also enhance the heat transfer from the plate. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sahin Ahmed
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Analytical and numerical solutions of a non-linear MHD flow with heat and mass transfer characteristics of an incompressible, viscous, electrically conducting and Boussinesq’s fluid over a vertical oscillating plate embedded in a Darcian porous medium in the presence of thermal radiation effect have been presented. The fluid considered here is gray, absorbing/emitting radiating, but non-scattering medium. At time t > 0, the plate temperature and concentration near the plate raised linearly with time t. The dimensionless governing coupled, non-linear boundary layer partial differential equations are solved by an efficient, accurate, extensively validated and unconditionally stable finite difference scheme of the Crank–Nicolson type as well as by the Laplace Transform technique. An increase in porosity parameter (K is found to depress fluid velocities and shear stress in the regime. Also it has been found that, when the conduction-radiation (R increased, the fluid velocity and the temperature profiles decreased. Applications of the study arise in materials processing and solar energy collector systems.
Thermosolutal MHD flow and radiative heat transfer with viscous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper investigates double diffusive convection MHD flow past a vertical porous plate in a chemically active fluid with radiative heat transfer in the presence of viscous work and heat source. The resulting nonlinear dimensionless equations are solved by asymptotic analysis technique giving approximate analytic ...
Experimental study of natural convective heat transfer in a vertical hexagonal sub channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tandian, Nathanael P.; Umar, Efrizon; Hardianto, Toto; Febriyanto, Catur
2012-01-01
The development of new practices in nuclear reactor safety aspects and optimization of recent nuclear reactors, including the APWR and the PHWR reactors, needs a knowledge on natural convective heat transfer within sub-channels formed among several nuclear fuel rods or heat exchanger tubes. Unfortunately, the currently available empirical correlation equations for such heat transfer modes are limited and researches on convective heat transfer within a bundle of vertical cylinders (especially within the natural convection modes) are scarcely done. Although boundary layers around the heat exchanger cylinders or fuel rods may be dominated by their entry regions, most of available convection correlation equations are for fully developed boundary layers. Recently, an experimental study on natural convective heat transfer in a subchannel formed by several heated parallel cylinders that arranged in a hexagonal configuration has been being done. The study seeks for a new convection correlation for the natural convective heat transfer in the sub-channel formed among the hexagonal vertical cylinders. A new convective heat transfer correlation equation has been obtained from the study and compared to several similar equations in literatures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Achten, N.; Herbsleb, G.; Wieling, N.
1986-01-01
It must be guaranteed by construction and manufacture of heat exchangers that primary and secondary medium are completely separated from each other. When this requirement is fullfilled, the operational use of heat exchangers can be impaired by corrosion reactions within the crevice formed between tube and tube plate which may result in corrosion damage. The various techniques which are in use to connect tubes and tube plate and which are described in the present report, must be valued with respect to the tightness of the connection as well as to the formation of crevices between tubes and tube plate. Corrosion resistant copperbase alloys and stainless steels are the most important materials which are in use for the construction of heat exchangers. The mechanisms of crevice corrosion with unalloyed and low alloy carbon steels, stainless steels, and mixed connections between tube and tube plate with these materials are described in detail. Crevice corrosion may be caused also by the formation of galvanic cells between materials of differing electrochemical response. Furthermore, the concentration of aggressive media in crevices between tubes and tube plate can lead to corrosion damage of heat exchanger tubes. For the service operation of heat exchangers without any hazard of corrosion damage in crevices between tubes and tube plate, such crevices must be avoided by proper construction and manufacture. As a model for suitable measures to avoid crevices, the manufacture of steam generators for PWR's is described. (orig.) [de
茂地, 徹; 山田, たかし
1997-01-01
The film boiling heat transfer from a vertical slab with horizontal bottom surface to saturated liquids was analyzed theoretically. Bromley's solution for the vertical surface was modified to accommodate the continuity of the vapor mass flow rate around the lower corner of the vertical slab. The thickness of the vapor film covering the vertical surface of the slab was increased owing to the inflow of vapor generated under the horizontal bottom surface and resulted in a decrease in the heat tr...
Advanced thermal management of a solar cell by a nano-coated heat pipe plate: A thermal assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du, Yanping
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The nano-coated heat pipe plate provides sufficient cooling energy to the solar cell. • The induced solar cell temperature is below 40 °C in normal range of solar irradiance. • The evaporative heat flux is tuneable and varies with the change of operating conditions. • Additional cooling at the condenser is helpful to improve the heat removal of the device. - Abstract: The significant temperature effect on solar cells results in loss of photovoltaic (PV) efficiency by up to 20–25%, which may over-negate the efforts in technology development for promoting PV efficiency. This motivates studies in thermal management for solar cells. This study concerns the thermal assessment of an advanced system composed by a solar cell and a nano-coated heat pipe plate for thermal management. Solar cell temperature and the corresponding evaporative heat flux are evaluated based on a conjugated heat transfer model. It indicates that the solar cell can be cooled down to be below 40 °C and suffers no temperature effect due to the use of the heat pipe plate. The heat pipe plate can provide sufficient cooling to the solar cell under different solar irradiance. The analytical and experimental results show that the maximum evaporative heat flux of the current heat pipe plate is around 450 W/m"2. However, the practical heat removal flux at the condenser is 390 W/m"2. The loss of cooling energy is due to the gathered vapour at the condenser section, which prevents the liquid-vapour circulation inside the vacuum chamber of the device. By using additional cooling strategies (i.e. heat sink, PCMs, water jacket) at the condenser section, the heat removal ability can be further improved.
Solar-heated swimming school--Wilmington, Delaware
1981-01-01
Report describes operation, installation, and performance of solar-energy system which provides alternative to natural gas pool heating. System is comprised of 2,500 square feet of liquid flat-plate collectors connected to 3,600 galloon; gallongalloon storage tank, with microcomputer-based controls. Extension of building incorporates vertical-wall, passive collection system which provides quarter of heated fresh air for office.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma Hongqiang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the stresses of plate-fin structures at the different operation parameters were analyzed in actual operation process of LNG plate-fin heat exchanger based on finite element method and thermal elastic theory. Stress characteristics of plate-fin structures were investigated at the different operation parameters of that. The results show that the structural failure of plate-fin structures is mainly induced by the maximum shear stress at the brazing filler metal layer between plate and fin while by the maximum normal stress in the region of brazed joint near the fin side. And a crack would initiate in brazed joint near the fin side. The maximum normal stress is also main factor to result in the structural failure of plate-fin structures at the different temperature difference (between Natural Gas (NG and Mixture Refrigerant (MR, MR temperature and NG pressure of LNG heat exchanger. At the same time, the peak stresses obviously increase as the temperature difference, MR temperature and NG pressure increase. These results will provide some constructive instructions in the safe operation of LNG plate-fin heat exchanger in a large-scale LNG cold-box.
Design consideration of high voltage Ga2O3 vertical Schottky barrier diode with field plate
Choi, J.-H.; Cho, C.-H.; Cha, H.-Y.
2018-06-01
Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) based vertical Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were designed for high voltage switching applications. Since p-type Ga2O3 epitaxy growth or p-type ion implantation technique has not been developed yet, a field plate structure was employed in this study to maximize the breakdown voltage by suppressing the electric field at the anode edge. TCAD simulation was used for the physical analysis of Ga2O3 SBDs from which it was found that careful attention must be paid to the insulator under the field plate. Due to the extremely high breakdown field property of Ga2O3, an insulator with both high permittivity and high breakdown field must be used for the field plate formation.
Mathematical modeling and control of plate fin and tube heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taler, Dawid
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A method for numerical modeling of plate fin and tube heat exchangers was proposed. • A numerical model of an automobile radiator was developed. • Numerical models of the radiator were compared with an exact analytical model. • A model-based control system of water outlet temperature was built and tested. • A digital proportional–integral–derivative controller of heat exchanger was tested. - Abstract: The aim of the study is to develop a new method for numerical modeling of tubular cross-flow heat exchangers. Using the method proposed in the paper, a numerical model of a car radiator was developed and implemented in a digital control system of the radiator. To evaluate the accuracy of the numerical method proposed in the paper, the numerical model of the car radiator was compared with an analytic model. The proposed method based on a finite volume method and integral averaging of gas temperature across a tube row is appropriate for modeling of plate fin and tube heat exchangers, especially for exchangers in which substantial gas temperature differences in one tube row occur. The target of control is to regulate the number of fan revolutions per minute so that the water temperature at the heat exchanger outlet is equal to a set value. Two control techniques were developed. The first is based on the numerical model of the heat exchanger developed in the paper while the second is a digital proportional–integral–derivative control. The first control method is very stable. The digital proportional–integral–derivative controller becomes unstable when the water volume flow rate varies considerably. The developed techniques were implemented in digital control system of the water exit temperature in a plate fin and tube heat exchanger. The measured exit temperature of the water was very close to the set value of the temperature if the first method was used. The experiments show that the proportional–integral–derivative controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moo-Yeon Lee
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to provide the numerical model for prediction of the frost growth of the round plate fin for the purpose of using it as a round plate fin-tube heat exchanger (evaporator under frosting conditions. In this study, numerical model was considering the frost density change with time, and it showed better agreement with experimental data of Sahin (1994 than that of the Kim model (2004 and the Jonse and Parker model (1975. This is because the prediction on the frost height with time was improved by using the frost thermal conductivity reflecting the void fraction and density of ice crystal with frost growth. Therefore, the developed numerical model could be used for frosting performance prediction of the round plate fin-tube heat exchanger.
Heat transfer effects in vertically emplaced high level nuclear waste container
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moujaes, S.F.; Lei, Y.M.
1994-01-01
Modeling free convection heat transfer in a cylindrical annular enclosure is still an active area of research and an important problem to be addressed in the high level nuclear waste repository. For the vertically emplaced waste container, the air gap which is between the container shell and the rock borehole, have an important role of dissipating heat to surrounding rock. These waste containers are vertically emplaced in the borehole 300 meters just below ground, and in a horizontal grid of 30 x 8 meters apart. The borehole will be capped after the container emplacement. The expected initial heat generated is between 3-4.74 kW per container depending on the type of waste. The goal of this study is to use a computer simulation model to find the borehole wall, air-gap and the container outer wall temperature distributions. The borehole wall temperature history has been found in the previous study, and was estimated to reach a maximum temperature of about 218 degrees C after 18 years from the emplacement. The temperature history of the rock surface is then used for the air-gap simulation. The problem includes convection and radiation heat transfer in a vertical enclosure. This paper will present the results of the convection in the air-gap over one thousand years after the containers' emplacement. During this long simulation period it was also observed that a multi-cellular air flow pattern can be generated in the air gap
Numerical analysis of thermal deformation in laser beam heating of a steel plate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Chao; Kim, Yong-Rae; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)
2017-05-15
Line heating is a widely used process for plate forming or thermal straightening. Flame heating and induction heating are the traditional heating processes used by industry for line heating. However, these two heating processes are ineffective when used on small steel plates. Thus, the laser beam heating with various power profiles were carried out in this study. A comparison of numerical simulation results and experimental results found a significant difference in the thermal deformation when apply a different power profile of laser beam heating. The one-sinusoid power profile produced largest thermal deformation in this study. The laser beam heating process was simulated by established a combined heat source model, and simulated results were compared with experimental results to confirm the model’s accuracy. The mechanism of thermal deformation was investigated and the effects of model parameters were studied intensively with the finite element method. Thermal deformation was found to have a significant relationship with the amount of central zone plastic deformation. Scientists and engineers could use this study’s verified model to select appropriate parameters in laser beam heating process. Moreover, by using the developed laser beam model, the analysis of welding residual stress or hardness could also be investigated from a power profile point of view.
Vertical retort with arrangements for special heating, etc
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hengstenberg, R
1922-02-28
A vertical retort with arrangements for special heating of upper and lower zones and special gas outlets on the highest and lowest parts of the retort is characterized in that the lower gas outlet on the one side serves for feeding the burner for heating both upper zone as well as the lower, and on the other side runs to the collecting line for the gas, which emerges from the upper opening, while on the lower end of the retort is fastened a coke cooler, whose walls can be cooled with air supplied for the drying of the combustibles or with water, which is supplied for the steam generation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Jiafeng; Zhou, Jiahao; Chen, Yaping; Wang, Mingchao; Dong, Cong; Guo, Ya
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Trisection helical baffles are introduced for vertical condenser enhancement. • Condensation in short-section and intermediate drainage is applied in new schemes. • Helical baffles with liquid dam and drainage gaps can promote condenser performance. • Dual-thread baffle scheme is superior to that of single-thread one by about 19%. • Condensation enhancement ratio of helical schemes is 1.5–2.5 over segment one. - Abstract: The vertical condensers have advantages of small occupation area, convenient in assemble or dismantle tube bundle and simple structure etc. However, the low heat transfer performance limits their applications. To enhance the heat transfer, a novel type of vertical condensers was designed by introducing trisection helical baffles with liquid dams and gaps for facilitating condensate drainage. Four configurations of vertical condensers with trisection helical baffle are experimentally studied and compared to a traditional segment baffle condenser. The enhancement ratio of trisection helical baffle schemes is about 1.5–2.5 and the heat transfer coefficient of the dual-thread trisection helical baffle scheme is superior to that of the single-thread one by about 19%. Assistant by the theoretical study, the experimental data is simulated and the condensation enhancement mechanisms by applying trisection helical baffle in vertical condenser are summarized as condensate drainage, short tube construct and reduce steam dead zone functions of the helical baffles.
Freezing mechanisms of aqueous binary solution on the oscillating vertical cooled plate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawabe, Hiromichi; Fukusako, Shoichiro; Yamada, Masahiko; Yanagida, Koki
1999-07-01
An experimental and analytical study concerning the freezing characteristics of aqueous binary solution on the oscillating cooled wall was conducted for the purpose of establishment of the continuous production method of slush ice. Ethylene glycol solution was adopted as the test fluid and froze on a vertical cooled plate with an oscillation motion in a vessel. Experiments were carried out for a variety of conditions such as initial concentration of solution, oscillating acceleration, and stroke of the motion. As a result, it was found that the frozen layer being formed on the cooled plate continuously separated from it under the appropriate conditions. Furthermore, the condition range where the continuous production of slush ice may be available was well predicted by using the present analytical results. The experimental setup is depicted in Figure A-1. The essential components of the apparatus are the test section, a cooling brine circulation loop, and associated instrumentation. Figure A-2 presents the continuous production range of slush ice, in which the ordinate is the maximum acceleration of the cooled plate and the abscissa denotes the initial concentration of aqueous binary solution. It is evident from the figure that the tendency of the production range of slush ice obtained by the present analysis well predicts the experimental results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norfifah Bachok
Full Text Available The steady boundary layer flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over a moving vertical flat plate in an external moving fluid with viscous dissipation is theoretically investigated. Using appropriate similarity variables, the governing system of partial differential equations is transformed into a system of ordinary (similarity differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a Maple software. Results for the skin friction or shear stress coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. It is found that the set of the similarity equations has unique solutions, dual solutions or no solutions, depending on the values of the mixed convection parameter, the velocity ratio parameter and the Eckert number. The Eckert number significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the heat transfer rate at the surface.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biage, M.
1983-04-01
A heat transfer problem in parallel plates with infinite with has been solved, with axial heat conduction in the fluid and in the wall, considering steady-state laminar flow for a Newtonian fluid and a fully developed velocity profile. The duct consists of an infinite inicial part, insulated on both plates, an intermediale part of finite length, with a prescribed heat flux in the upper plate and insulated on the botton plate, and by another infinite part also insulated on both plates. The problem has been solved by a numerical combination of the integral equation method and the variational method. Both, the performance of the numerical technique employed and results obtained are analyzed in this work. It is demostrated that the heat conduction in the wall significantly modifies the heat transfer parameters. (Author) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Jung Hun; Jeong, Yong Ki; Jeon, Chung Hwan; Chang, Young June [Busan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyeok [DHT, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2003-07-01
An experiment was performed to study heat transfer characteristics between corrugated heat exchanger and flat plate type one. While heat capacity(13.86kW) was provided constantly and the flow speed was varied from 2.8 to 17.9m/s, the temperature and the pressure drop were measured. Furthermore, heat transfer coefficient, Colburn factor and Nusselt number were calculated using them. With increase of the flow speed for both exchangers, the coefficient and the pressure drop increased, but Colburn factor decreased. The coefficient, pressure drop and Colburn factor of the corrugated type were all higher than those of the flat one, which is due to the flow interruption with recirculation and reattachment of the corrugated type. The empirical correlations of Nusselt number were suggested for the tested two heat exchangers.
Heat transfer analysis to investigate the core catcher plate assembly in SFR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patil, Swapnil; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Velusamy, K.; Nashine, B.K.; Selvaraj, P.
2015-01-01
Severe accident scenario in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is the major concern for public acceptance. After severe accident, the molten core continuously generates substantial decay heat. However, an in-vessel core catcher plate is provided to remove the decay heat passively. The numerical investigation of pool hydraulics phenomena in sodium pool of typical Indian SFR has been carried out. The debris may form a heap with different angle over the core catcher plate due to molten fuel density and interaction force. Therefore, the debris bed with different heap angle has been analyzed for steady and transient state conditions. The governing equation of fluid flow and heat transfer are solved by finite volume method based solver with the k-ε turbulent model. The time period Δ for which temperature is exceeding above safety limit with different debris heap angle have been established. (author)
Prediction of critical heat flux in vertical pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levy, S.; Healzer, J.M.; Abdollahian, D.
1981-01-01
A previously developed semi-empirical model for adiabatic two-phase annular flow ix extended to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) in a vertical pipe. The model exhibits a sharply declining curve of CHF versus steam quality (X) at low X, and is relatively independent of the heat flux distribution. In this region, vaporization of the liquid film controls. At high X, net deposition upon the liquid film becomes important and CHF versus X flattens considerably. In this zone, CHF is dependent upon the heat flux distribution. Model predictions are compared to test data and an empirical correlation. The agreement is generally good if one employs previously reported mass transfer coefficients. (orig.)
Investigation of one-dimensional heat flow in a solarflat plate collector with sun tracing system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Samimi Akhijahani
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Introduction Drying is one of the most common methods for storing food and agricultural products. During drying process, free water that causes the growth of microorganisms and spoilage of products is removed from the product. There are several methods for drying of agricultural products. one of the most important methods of investment is drying by using sunlight. Iran is situated at 25- 43oE longitude and mean solar radiation is about 4.9 kwh.m-2.d-1. Because of the proper solar radiations in 95% of the agricultural areas in Iran, solar drying is widely used for drying of fruits and vegetables. The use of solar dryer causes saving in energy consumption and processing costs for drying of products in farms and gardens. Several researchers investigated heat transfer and heat flow in dryers. Selection of appropriate method was carried out for drying of agricultural products using heat pump. Experiments were done and mathematical relationships were estimated to obtain correlation parameters between Reynolds number and Nusselt number for the three cases of solar dryer (cabinet, indirect and combination.The best working conditions were determined for three types of solar collectors (flat, finned and corrugated. In this study, the process of heat transfer and heat transfer coefficient of a solar dryer with and without rotation of absorber plate was compared. Materials and Methods The experiments were conducted in Azarshahr, East Azarbayjan province, Iran in September 2014. Newton's law of thermodynamic was used to analyze the working condition of solar absorber. For this purpose the absorber plate was divided into four equal parts. According to the thermal equations and related boundary conditions as well as the relationship between heat transfer coefficient and the temperature gradient, equation 1 for the Nusselet number obtained: 1 Beside the relationship between Nusselt number and heat transfer coefficient is defined as equation 2: 2 Finally
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lepach, T.; Marttila, E.; Hammo, S.
1997-12-31
This report presents a practical model for designers whose job it is to dimension a plate heat exchanger used especially in heat recovery systems for ventilation. Special attention was given to the economic optimization of such a unit. The first part of the report presents the most important types of heat exchangers and then goes on to present those that are normally used in ventilation systems for heat recovery. The second part discusses the operating costs, investments required and the savings in costs that can be achieved through heat recovery. The third part takes a look at the theory of heat transfer and the characteristics of heat exchanger. In the finally part, a utilization of this model is presented. The results from this are discussed in the following. The developed equations have been calculated and plotted by the use of the numeric software MATLAB. The code used for calculation with MATLAB is listed in the appendix. (orig.) 16 refs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xin, Gao; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Chen, Min
2012-01-01
on a finite-element approach. On each discretized segment, fluid properties, heat transfer process and TEG performance are locally calculated for higher model precision. To benefit both the system design and fabrication, the way to model TEG modules is herein reconsidered; a database of commercialized compact......This paper presents a numerical model of an exhaust heat recovery system for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HTPEMFC) stack. The system is designed as thermoelectric generators (TEGs) sandwiched in the walls of a compact plate-fin heat exchanger. Its model is based...... plate-fin heat exchangers is adopted. Then the model is validated against experimental data and the main variables are identified by means of a sensitivity analysis. Finally, the system configuration is optimized for recovering heat from the exhaust gas. The results exhibit the crucial importance...
Momentum, heat, and mass transfer analogy for vertical hydraulic transport of inert particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaćimovski Darko R.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Wall-to-bed momentum, heat and mass transfer in vertical liquid-solids flow, as well as in single phase flow, were studied. The aim of this investigation was to establish the analogy among those phenomena. Also, effect of particles concentration on momentum, heat and mass transfer was studied. The experiments in hydraulic transport were performed in a 25.4 mm I.D. cooper tube equipped with a steam jacket, using spherical glass particles of 1.94 mm in diameter and water as a transport fluid. The segment of the transport tube used for mass transfer measurements was inside coated with benzoic acid. In the hydraulic transport two characteristic flow regimes were observed: turbulent and parallel particle flow regime. The transition between two characteristic regimes (γ*=0, occurs at a critical voidage ε≈0.85. The vertical two-phase flow was considered as the pseudofluid, and modified mixture-wall friction coefficient (fw and modified mixture Reynolds number (Rem were introduced for explanation of this system. Experimental data show that the wall-to-bed momentum, heat and mass transfer coefficients, in vertical flow of pseudofluid, for the turbulent regime are significantly higher than in parallel regime. Wall-to-bed, mass and heat transfer coefficients in hydraulic transport of particles were much higher then in single-phase flow for lower Reynolds numbers (Re15000, there was not significant difference. The experimental data for wall-to-bed momentum, heat and mass transfer in vertical flow of pseudofluid in parallel particle flow regime, show existing analogy among these three phenomena. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172022
Transfer coefficients for plate fin and elliptical tube heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saboya, S.M.; Saboya, F.E.M.
1981-01-01
In order to determine transfer coefficients for plate fin and elliptical tube exchangers, mass transfer experiments have been performed using the naphthalene sublimation technique. By means of the heat-mass transfer analogy, the results can be converted to heat transfer results. The transfer coefficients were compared with those for circular tube exchangers and the comparison revealed no major differences. This is a positive outcome, since the use of elliptical tubes may reduce substantially the pressure drop, without affecting the transfer characteristics.(Author) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nizami, D.J.; Lightstone, M.F. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Harrison, S.; Cruickshank, C. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
2008-08-15
An external natural convection heat exchanger (NCHE) was used as an alternative to forced convection for transferring energy from solar collector loops to a hot water storage tank. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was used to predict interactions between the natural convection-driven side-arm heat exchanger and a hot water storage tank. A solar domestic hot water tank with a vertical compact plate natural convection heat exchanger was modelled. In addition, the heat exchanger was modelled as a section of pipe with high flow resistance and a volumetric energy source. Transient analyses were conducted and the CFD model was then compared with data obtained from laboratory experiments. Simulations were conducted on the fluid domain in order to investigate the influence of the flow on the thermal stratification in the tank, the heat transfer inside the tank, and the natural convection in the tank loop. Buoyancy for an incompressible fluid with constant fluid properties was modelled using a Boussinesq approximation. Temperature distributions were measured as a function of time. Results of the study indicated that assuming a constant thermal expansion coefficient in evaluation buoyancy forces for a wide range of operating temperatures did not result in accurate predictions. Future studies will model natural convection with a full buoyancy model. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.
MHD free convection flow past an oscillating plate in the presence of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study of unsteady magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer in MHD flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate through porous medium, taking account of the presence of free convection and mass transfer. The energy and chemical species equations are solved in closed form by Laplace-transform technique and ...
Taha, T.J.; Lefferts, Leonardus; van der Meer, Theodorus H.
2016-01-01
An experimental heat transfer investigation was carried out to examine the influence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) layer deposits on the convective heat transfer performance inside rectangular microchannels. Successful synthesis of vertically aligned CNTs was achieved using a catalytic vapor deposition
Transient heating and entropy generation of a fluid inside a large aspect ratio cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cajas, J.C.; Trevino, C.
2013-01-01
In this work, the transient heating of a fluid inside a vertical cavity of large aspect ratio (height/length) was studied numerically by the use of the SIMPLE algorithm. The heat sources are two vertical plates localized in the side walls of the cavity near the bottom. Calculations were performed for a fixed value of the Prandtl number, Pr = 7, aspect ratio of 12 and six different Rayleigh numbers between 10 3 and 10 6 . The temperature and entropy production fields, the non-dimensional heat flux on the heated plates (given by the average Nusselt number) have been obtained. From a clear dependence on the Rayleigh number, different mechanisms of symmetry break and heat transfer in the cavity were found, where vortices dynamics play a very important role. A universal behavior of the mean values of the overall reduced entropy production rate was found, valid after a short initial transient. (authors)
Numerical simulation of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) fouling in the plate heat exchanger
Xu, Zhiming; Zhao, Yu; Han, Zhimin; Wang, Jingtao
2018-07-01
Plate heat exchanger is a widely used apparatus in the industrial production processes. Through a numerical simulation method, this paper calculates the deposition rate of CaSO4 fouling on heat transfer surfaces of the plate heat exchanger under saturation in the bulk. The effects of CaSO4 concentration in the range 0.7 kg/m3 to 1.5 kg/m3, inlet flow velocity under turbulent flow, and the fluid's inlet temperature from 288 K to 328 K on the deposition rate, removal mass rate and fouling resistance are investigated. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results showing similar trend. The simulation results show that the concentration and the flow velocity affect significantly the fouling characteristics in the plate heat exchanger. The deposition mass rate, removal mass rate, and asymptotic value of fouling resistance all increase with the increase in CaSO4 concentration and the inlet temperature of the hot fluid, while the asymptotic value of fouling resistance decreases with the increasing of inlet flow velocity. The influence of the inlet temperature of cold fluid may be negligible.
Numerical simulation of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) fouling in the plate heat exchanger
Xu, Zhiming; Zhao, Yu; Han, Zhimin; Wang, Jingtao
2018-01-01
Plate heat exchanger is a widely used apparatus in the industrial production processes. Through a numerical simulation method, this paper calculates the deposition rate of CaSO4 fouling on heat transfer surfaces of the plate heat exchanger under saturation in the bulk. The effects of CaSO4 concentration in the range 0.7 kg/m3 to 1.5 kg/m3, inlet flow velocity under turbulent flow, and the fluid's inlet temperature from 288 K to 328 K on the deposition rate, removal mass rate and fouling resistance are investigated. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results showing similar trend. The simulation results show that the concentration and the flow velocity affect significantly the fouling characteristics in the plate heat exchanger. The deposition mass rate, removal mass rate, and asymptotic value of fouling resistance all increase with the increase in CaSO4 concentration and the inlet temperature of the hot fluid, while the asymptotic value of fouling resistance decreases with the increasing of inlet flow velocity. The influence of the inlet temperature of cold fluid may be negligible.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seki, Nobuhiro; Fukusako, Shoichiro; Inaba, Hideo
1978-01-01
In the present study the behavior of heat transfer in a rectangular cavity with one isothermal vertical wall heated and the other cooled is investigated. Heat transfer coefficients on the vertical walls are measured for fluids with Prandtl number Pr of 3 to 40,000 in case of aspect-ratio H/W from 5 to 47.5 and their correlated results are presented for laminar, transition and turbulent regions, respectively. It is shown that the present arrangement (Nu sub(H) - Ra sub(H)) using the height of cavity as a representative length may significantly be useful in the various heat transfer modes accompanied with flow patterns of them. (auth.)
Performance of a LiBr water absorption chiller operating with plate heat exchangers
Vega Blázquez, Mercedes de; Almendros Ibáñez, José Antonio; Ruiz, G.
2006-01-01
This paper studies the performance of a lithium bromide water absorption chiller operating with plate heat exchangers (PHE). The overall heat transfer coefficients in the desorber, the condenser and the solution heat recoverer are calculated using the correlations provided in the literature for evaporation, condensation and liquid to liquid heat transfer in PHEs. The variable parameters are the external driving temperatures. In the desorber, the inlet temperature of the hot fluid ranges from ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugano, Y.
1980-01-01
The transient thermal stresses in an orthotropic finite rectangular plate due to arbitrary surface heat-generations on two edges are studied by means of the Airy stress function. The purposes of this paper are to present a method of determing the transient thermal stresses in an orthographic rectangular plate with four edges of distinct thermal boundary condition of the third kind which exactly satisfy the traction-free conditions of shear stress over all boundaries including four corners of the plate, and to consider the effects of the anisotropies of material properties and the convective heat transfer on the upper and lower surfaces on the thermal stress distribution. (orig.)
Heat transfer in the post-dryout region of vertical and horizontal tubes uniformly heated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kastner, W.; Koehler, W.; Kraetzer, W.
1983-11-01
Increased knowledge of the heat transfer in the post-dryout region is required for novel design of environmentally acceptable power plant technologies (e.g. fluidized bed combustion) and further development of proved steam generators. In particular, the influence of tube orientation and diameter are of consequence. Relating to the onset of critical boiling conditions and the heat transfer in the post-dryout region these aspects were investigated performing 357 tests which cover the operating conditions of fossil fired steam generators. In certain regions of parameters significant differences of the heat transfer behaviour of horizontal and vertical steam generator tubes occured. The experimental results were analysed and compared with theoretical models which were taken from the literature or developed within the frame of this project. (orig.) [de
Turbulent heat transfer for heating of water in a short vertical tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hata, Koichi; Noda, Nobuaki
2008-01-01
The turbulent heat transfer coefficients for the flow velocities (u=4.0 to 21 m/s), the inlet liquid temperatures (T in =296.5 to 353.4 K), the inlet pressures (P in =810 to 1014 kPa) and the increasing heat inputs (Q 0 exp(t/τ), τ=10, 20 and 33.3 s) are systematically measured by an experimental water loop. The Platinum test tubes of test tube inner diameters (d=3, 6 and 9 mm), heated lengths (L=32.7 to 100 mm), ratios of heated length to inner diameter (L/d=5.51 to 33.3) and wall thickness (δ=0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mm) with surface roughness (Ra=0.40 to 0.78 μm) are used in this work. The turbulent heat transfer data for Platinum test tubes were compared with the values calculated by other workers' correlations for the turbulent heat transfer. The influence of Reynolds number (Re), Prandtl number (Pr), Dynamic viscosity (μ) and L/d on the turbulent heat transfer is investigated into details and, the widely and precisely predictable correlation of the turbulent heat transfer for heating of water in a short vertical tube is given based on the experimental data. The correlation can describe the turbulent heat transfer coefficients obtained in this work for the wide range of the temperature difference between heater inner surface temperature and average bulk liquid temperature (ΔT L =5 to 140 K) with d=3, 6 and 9 mm, L=32.7 to 100 mm and u=4.0 to 21 m/s within ±15%, difference. (author)
Turbulent heat transfer for heating of water in a short vertical tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hata, Koichi; Noda, Nobuaki
2007-01-01
The turbulent heat transfer coefficients for the flow velocities (u=4.0 to 21 m/s), the inlet liquid temperatures (T in =296.5 to 353.4 K), the inlet pressures (P in =810 to 1014 kPa) and the increasing heat inputs (Q 0 exp(t/τ), τ=10, 20 and 33.3 s) are systematically measured by the experimental water loop. The Platinum test tubes of test tube inner diameters (d=3, 6 and 9 mm), heated lengths (L=32.7 to 100 mm), ratios of heated length to inner diameter (L/d=5.51 to 33.3) and wall thicknesses (δ=0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mm) with surface roughness (Ra=0.40 to 0.78 μm) are used in this work. The turbulent heat transfer data for Platinum test tubes were compared with the values calculated by other workers' correlations for the turbulent heat transfer. The influences of Reynolds number (Re), Prandtl number (Pr), Dynamic viscosity (μ) and L/d on the turbulent heat transfer are investigated into details and, the widely and precisely predictable correlation of the turbulent heat transfer for heating of water in a short vertical tube is given based on the experimental data. The correlation can describe the turbulent heat transfer coefficients obtained in this work for wide range of the temperature difference between heater inner surface temperature and average bulk liquid temperature (ΔT L =5 to 140 K) with d=3, 6 and 9 mm, L=32.7 to 100 mm and u=4.0 to 21 m/s within ±15% difference. (author)
Effects of chemical reaction on moving isothermal vertical plate with variable mass diffusion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muthucumaraswamy R.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available An exact solution to the problem of flow past an impulsively started infinite vertical isothermal plate with variable mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account of the homogeneous chemical reaction of first-order. The dimensionless governing equations are solved by using the Laplace - transform technique. The velocity and skin-friction are studied for different parameters like chemical reaction parameter, Schmidt number and buoyancy ratio parameter. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing chemical reaction parameter and increases with increasing buoyancy ratio parameter.
Performance measurement of plate fin heat exchanger by exploration: ANN, ANFIS, GA, and SA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.K. Gupta
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An experimental work is conducted on counter flow plate fin compact heat exchanger using offset strip fin under different mass flow rates. The training, testing, and validation set of data has been collected by conducting experiments. Next, artificial neural network merged with Genetic Algorithm (GA utilized to measure the performance of plate-fin compact heat exchanger. The main aim of present research is to measure the performance of plate-fin compact heat exchanger and to provide full explanations. An artificial neural network predicted simulated data, which verified with experimental data under 10–20% error. Then, the authors examined two well-known global search techniques, simulated annealing and the genetic algorithm. The proposed genetic algorithm and Simulated Annealing (SA results have been summarized. The parameters are impartially important for good results. With the emergence of a new data-driven modeling technique, Neuro-fuzzy based systems are established in academic and practical applications. The neuro-fuzzy interference system (ANFIS has also been examined to undertake the problem related to plate-fin heat exchanger performance measurement under various parameters. Moreover, Parallel with ANFIS model and Artificial Neural Network (ANN model has been created with emphasizing the accuracy of the different techniques. A wide range of statistical indicators used to assess the performance of the models. Based on the comparison, it was revealed that technical ANFIS improve the accuracy of estimates in the small pool and tropical ANN.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henky P Rahardjo; V I S Wardhani
2007-01-01
In order to reduce the existing bubble in the core of Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor during its operation above 1000 kW, was done by increasing the effectivity of the heat exchanger (HE). One of the methods for increasing this effectivity is done by adding the number of plate to heat exchanger. To get an appropriate number of plate to be added on achieving its requirement, the analysis to know how the comparison of its performance on variation of addition the number of plate, is needed. The analysis was done by using the NTU-Effectivity method. The variables which influence its effectivity was obtained from the operational experiences since of the year 2000 until 2005. Besides that, it was assumed that the properties of working fluid had not much changed on its temperature and its pressure and small fouling deposit on the plate of HE. The results show that generally the addition of the number of plate would increase the effectivity of the heat exchanger. But for the low flow rate of the primary(600 gpm) and the high flow rate of the secondary(6000 gpm), a little bit of increasing effectivity was obtained for the addition the number of plate, and the effectivity had been reached to above 98%. (author)
Conjugate heat transfer of laminar film condensation along a horizontal plate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Euk Soo [Pusan National Univesity, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2006-03-15
This paper proposes appropriate conjugate parameters and dimensionless temperatures to analysis the conjugate problem of heat conduction in solid wall coupled with laminar film condensation flow adjacent to horizontal flat plate. An efficient methods for some fluids are proposed for its solution. The momentum and energy balance equations are reduced to a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations with four parameters: the Prandtl number, Pr, Modified Jacob number, Ja{sup *}/Pr, defined by an overall temperature difference, a property ratio {radical}{rho}{sub {iota}}{mu}{sub {iota}} {radical}{rho}{sub {upsilon}}{mu}{sub {upsilon}} and the conjugate parameter {zeta}. The obtained similarity solution reveals the effect of the conjugate parameter, and the results are compared with the simplified solution. The variations of the heat transfer rates as well as the interface temperature and frictions along the plate are shown explicitly.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Weibo; Liu, Guangyuan [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou City (China); Shi, Mingheng; Chen, Zhenqian [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing City (China)
2009-10-15
Heat transfer around vertical ground heat exchanger (GHE) is a common problem for the design and simulation of ground coupled heat pump (GCHP). In this paper, an updated two-region vertical U-tube GHE analytical model, which is fit for system dynamic simulation of GCHP, is proposed and developed. It divides the heat transfer region of GHE into two parts at the boundary of borehole wall, and the two regions are coupled by the temperature of borehole wall. Both steady and transient heat transfer method are used to analyze the heat transfer process inside and outside borehole, respectively. The transient borehole wall temperature is calculated for the soil region outside borehole by use of a variable heat flux cylindrical source model. As for the region inside borehole, considering the variation of fluid temperature along the borehole length and the heat interference between two adjacent legs of U-tube, a quasi-three dimensional steady-state heat transfer analytical model for the borehole is developed based on the element energy conservation. The implement process of the model used in the dynamic simulation of GCHPs is illuminated in detail and the application calculation example for it is also presented. The experimental validation on the model is performed in a solar-geothermal multifunctional heat pump experiment system with two vertical boreholes and each with a 30 m vertical 1 1/4 in nominal diameter HDPE single U-tube GHE, the results indicate that the calculated fluid outlet temperatures of GHE by the model are agreed well with the corresponding test data and the guess relative error is less than 6%. (author)
Effect of Tube Pitch on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Vertical Tube Bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Myeong Gie
2016-01-01
Summarizing the previous results it can be stated that heat transfer coefficients are highly dependent on the tube pitch and the heat flux of the relevant tube. The published results are mostly about the horizontal tubes. However, there are many heat exchangers consisting of vertical tubes like AP600. Therefore, the focus of the present study is an identification of the effects of a tube pitch as well as the heat flux of a relevant tube on the heat transfer of a tube bundle installed vertically. When the heat flux is increased many bubbles are generating due to the increase of the nucleation sites. The bubbles become coalescing with the nearby bubbles and generates big bunches of bubbles on the tube surface. This prevents the access of the liquid to the surface and deteriorates heat transfer. The bubble coalescence is competing with the mechanisms enhancing heat transfer. The pitch was varied from 28.5 mm to 95 mm and the heat flux of the nearby tube was changed from 0 to 90kW/m"2. The enhancement of the heat transfer is clearly observed when the heat flux of the nearby tube becomes larger and the heat flux of the upper tube is less than 40kW/m"2. The effect of the tube pitch on heat transfer is negligible as the value of DP/ is increased more than 4.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Li; Liu, Qiusheng; Fukuda, Katsuya
2015-01-01
This study was conducted to investigate the transient heat transfer process between the solid surface and the coolant (helium gas) in Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Forced convection transient heat transfer for helium gas flowing over a twisted plate with different length was experimentally and theoretically studied. The heat generation rate of the twisted plate was increased with a function of Q = Q_0exp(t/τ)(where t is time, τ is period). Experiment was carried out at various periods ranged from 35 ms to 14 s and gas temperature of 303 K under 500 kPa. The flow velocities ranged from 4 m/s to 10 m/s. Platinum plates with a thickness of 0.1 mm and width of 4 mm were used as the test heaters. The plates were twisted with the same helical pitch of 20 mm, and length of 26.8 mm, 67.8 mm and 106.4 mm (pitch numbers of 1, 3 and 5), respectively. Based on the experimental data, it was found that the average heat transfer coefficient approaches the quasi-steady-state value when the dimensionless period τ* (τ* = τU/L, U is flow velocity, and L is effective length) is larger than about 100 and it becomes higher when τ* is small. The heat transfer coefficient decreases with the increase of twisted plate length under the same period of heat generation rate. According to the experimental data, the distribution for heat transfer coefficient along the heater is nonlinear. Numerical simulation results were obtained for average surface temperature difference, heat flux and heat transfer coefficient of the twisted plates with different length and showed reasonable agreement with experimental data. Based on the numerical simulation, mechanism of local heat transfer coefficient distribution was clarified. (author)
Temperature distributions in boreholes of a vertical ground-coupled heat pump system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Esen, Hikmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Esen, Yuksel [Department of Construction Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)
2009-12-15
The objective of this study is to show the temperature distribution development in the borehole of the ground-coupled heat pump systems (GCHPs) with time. The time interval for the study is 48 h. The vertical GCHP system using R-22 as refrigerant has a three single U-tube ground heat exchanger (GHE) made of polyethylene pipe with a 40 mm outside diameter. The GHE was placed in a vertical borehole (VB) with 30 (VB1), 60 (VB2) and 90 (VB3) m depths and 150 mm diameters. The experimental results were obtained in cooling and heating seasons of 2006-2007. A two-dimensional finite element model (FEM) was developed to simulate temperature distribution development in the soil surrounding the GHEs of GCHPs operating in the cooling and the heating modes. The finite element modelling of the GCHP system was performed using the ANSYS code. The FEM incorporated pipes, the grout and the surrounding formation. From the cases studied, this approach appears to be the most promising for estimation the temperature distribution response of GHEs to thermal loading. (author)
Mathematical modelling of thermal and flow processes in vertical ground heat exchangers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pater Sebastian
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The main task of mathematical modelling of thermal and flow processes in vertical ground heat exchanger (BHE-Borehole Heat Exchanger is to determine the unit of borehole depth heat flux obtainable or transferred during the operation of the installation. This assignment is indirectly associated with finding the circulating fluid temperature flowing out from the U-tube at a given inlet temperature of fluid in respect to other operational parameters of the installation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian R.H.
2013-01-01
of 50 random stacks having equal average channel thicknesses with 20 channels each are used to provide a statistical base. The standard deviation of the stacks is varied as are the flow rate (Reynolds number) and the thermal conductivity of the solid heat exchanger material. It is found that the heat...... transfer performance of inhomogeneous stacks of parallel plates may be reduced significantly due to the maldistribution of the fluid flow compared to the ideal homogeneous case. The individual channels experience different flow velocities and this further induces an inter-channel thermal cross talk.......The heat transfer performance of inhomogeneous parallel plate heat exchangers in transient operation is investigated using an established model. A performance parameter, denoted the Nusselt-scaling factor, is used as benchmark and calculated using a well-established single blow technique. A sample...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhaorigetu; Huang Weitang; Lv Xiangbo; Liu Feng
2005-01-01
The investigation of enhanced condensation heat transfer had been conducted on the outside vertical Titanium circularly-grooved tube. The experimental result indicates that the Titanium circularly-grooved tube is fairly efficient in enhancing the heat transfer. Within the experimental scope, the total heat transfer coefficient of the optimum circularly-grooved tube is 1.12 to 1.36 times of that of the Titanium smooth tube. Through regression analysis on the experimental data, the experimental correlations for the inside heat transfer coefficient, the condensation heat transfer coefficient on film condensation and the friction coefficient were achieved. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sernas, V.; Boyd, R.D.; Jensen, M.K.
1995-01-01
The papers in the first section cover falling films and heat transfer. Papers in the second section address issues associated with heat exchangers, such as: plate-and-frame heat exchanger technology; thermal design issues; condensation; and single-phase flows. The papers in the third section deal with studies related to: the turbulent velocity field in a vertical annulus; the effects of curvature and a dissolved noncondensable gas on nucleate boiling heat transfer; the effects of flow obstruction on the onset of a Ledinegg-type flow instability; pool boiling from a large-diameter tube; and two-dimensional wall temperature distributions and convection in a single-sided heated vertical tube. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Makarushkin Danila
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A hyperbolic boundary value problem of the thermal conduction of a two-dimensional plate with the third kind boundary conditions is formulated. The transient thermal process in the plate is due to the temperature changes of the external medium over time and along the plate length, and also by a multiple step change of the plate surface heat transfer coefficient throughout the transient process. An analytical solution with improved convergence adjusted for thermal relaxation and thermal damping is obtained for the temperature field in the plate.
Conjugated heat transfer in laminar flow between parallel-plates channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guedes, R.O.C.; Cotta, R.M.; Brum, N.C.L.
1989-01-01
An analysis is made of conjugated convective-conductive heat transfer in laminar flow of a newtonian fluid between parallel-plates channel, taking into account the longitudinal conduction along the duct walls only, by neglecting the transversal temperature gradients in the solid. This extended Graetz-type problem is then analytically handled through the generalized integral transform technique, providing accurate numerical results for quantities of practical interest sucyh as bulk and wall temperatures, and Nusselt numbers. The effects of a conjugation parameter and Biot number on heat transfer behavior are then investigated. (author)
Heat transfer and carryover of low pressure water in a heated vertical tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, T.A.
1976-01-01
Local heat transfer coefficients in the stable film boiling and dispersed flow regimes were studied for the upward flow of low pressure water in a heated vertical tube. Wall temperatures were maintained constant with time and along the tube so that both axial and time temperature gradients approached zero. Heat flux along the tube was not constant but was applied so as to maintain a steady state temperature profile. A preheater was used to bring the liquid to saturation before it entered the main portion of the test section and in some cases the equilibrium quality was greater than zero at the entrance to the main test section. The test section was made of stainless steel, and the lower portion, the preheater, was heated directly by dc current. Copper block heat spikes were clamped to the upper test section and were used to apply the heat flux to maintain the wall temperature constant with time. Several theories for the different possible types of flow (laminar or turbulent, tube or film) were compared with the experimental data. The carry-over point for low flooding rates (1 inch/sec or less) was inferred from these comparisons and gave good agreement with the Plummer critical mass criterion for liquid carry-over
Zhu, Chen-Xi; Wang, Chi-Chuan
2018-01-01
This study proposes a numerical model for plate heat exchanger that is capable of handling supercritical CO2 fluid. The plate heat exchangers under investigation include Z-type (1-pass), U-type (1-pass), and 1-2 pass configurations. The plate spacing is 2.9 mm with a plate thickness of 0.8 mm, and the size of the plate is 600 mm wide and 218 mm in height with 60 degrees chevron angle. The proposed model takes into account the influence of gigantic change of CO2 properties. The simulation is first compared with some existing data for water-to-water plate heat exchangers with good agreements. The flow distribution, pressure drop, and heat transfer performance subject to the supercritical CO2 in plate heat exchangers are then investigated. It is found that the flow velocity increases consecutively from the entrance plate toward the last plate for the Z-type arrangement, and this is applicable for either water side or CO2 side. However, the flow distribution of the U-type arrangement in the water side shows opposite trend. Conversely, the flow distribution for U-type arrangement of CO2 depends on the specific flow ratio (C*). A lower C* like 0.1 may reverse the distribution, i.e. the flow velocity increases moderately alongside the plate channel like Z-type while a large C* of 1 would resemble the typical distribution in water channel. The flow distribution of CO2 side at the first and last plate shows a pronounced drop/surge phenomenon while the channels in water side does not reveal this kind of behavior. The performance of 2-pass plate heat exchanger, in terms of heat transfer rate, is better than that of 1-pass design only when C* is comparatively small (C* < 0.5). Multi-pass design is more effective when the dominant thermal resistance falls in the CO2 side.
CFD Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff
2015-01-01
Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. This study uses first-principles based CFD methodology to compute heat transfer from the tank wall to the cryogenic fluids and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between the tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between the tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that the commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over-predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.
Free convection effects and radiative heat transfer in MHD Stokes ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The present note deals with the effects of radiative heat transfer and free convection in MHD for a ﬂow of an electrically conducting, incompressible, dusty viscous ﬂuid past an impulsively started vertical non-conducting plate, under the inﬂuence of transversely applied magnetic ﬁeld. The heat due to viscous dissipation and ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, H.M.S.; El-Ghetany, H.H.; Nada, S.A.
2006-01-01
In the present study, the effect of wickless heat pipe cross section geometry and its working fluid filling ratio on the performance of flat plate solar collectors has been investigated experimentally. Three groups of wickless heat pipes having three different cross section geometries (namely, circular, elliptical and semi-circular cross sections) were designed and manufactured. Each group of three wickless heat pipes was charged with three different distilled water filling ratios of 10%, 20% and 35%. Each wickless heat pipe was then incorporated into a prototype flat plate solar collector developed for the purpose of the present study. The prototypes wickless heat pipe flat plate solar collectors have been investigated experimentally at different inlet cooling water temperatures, two different cooling water mass flow rates and under the meteorological conditions of Cairo, Egypt. The experimental results indicate that the elliptical cross section wickless heat pipe flat plate solar collectors have better performance than the circular cross section ones at low water filling ratios. The optimum water filling ratio of the elliptical cross section wickless heat pipe solar collector is about 10%, while it is very close to 20% for the circular cross section one. Also, the water filling ratio corresponding to the flooding limit of the elliptical wickless heat pipe solar collector is lower than that of the circular one. At 20% water filling ratio, the semi-circular cross section wickless heat pipe solar collector has bad performance compared with that of the other cross sections
General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test program: Edge-on flyer plate tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
George, T.G.
1987-03-01
The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The GPHS modules provide power by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu α-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Each module contains four 238 PuO 2 -fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of a launch vehicle explosion always exists, and because such an explosion could generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must survive fragment impact. The edge-on flyer plate tests were included in the Safety Verification Test series to provide information on the module/clad response to the impact of high-energy plate fragments. The test results indicate that the edge-on impact of a 3.2-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (2219-T87) plate traveling at 915 m/s causes the complete release of fuel from capsules contained within a bare GPHS module, and that the threshold velocity sufficient to cause the breach of a bare, simulant-fueled clad impacted by a 3.5-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (5052-T0) plate is approximately 140 m/s
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muthucumaraswamy R.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis is performed to study the thermal radiation effects on unsteady free convective flow over a moving vertical plate in the presence of variable temperature and uniform mass flux. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The temperature is raised linearly with time and the concentration level near the plate are raised linearly with time. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace transform technique. The velocity and skinfriction are studied for different parameters like the radiation parameter, Schmidt number, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing radiation parameter.
On the pressure drop in Plate Heat Exchangers used as desorbers in absorption chillers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Hernando, N.; Almendros-Ibanez, J.A.; Ruiz, G.; Vega, M. de
2011-01-01
The influence of the pressure drop in Plate Heat Exchangers (PHE) in the boiling temperature of LiBr-H 2 O and NH 3 -H 2 O solutions is studied. For the NH 3 -H 2 O solution, the pressure drop-temperature saturation relationship estates that high pressure drops can be allowed in the solution with negligible changes in the saturation temperature, and in the PHE performance. Besides, in the case of the LiBr-H 2 O solution, as the working pressure is usually very low, the analysis of the pressure drop must be taken as a main limiting parameter for the use of Plate Heat Exchangers as vapour generators. In this case, the pressure drop may considerably change the boiling temperature of the solution entering the heat exchanger and therefore a higher heating fluid temperature may be required. A guideline to design these systems is proposed.
Jakkareddy, Pradeep S.; Balaji, C.
2016-09-01
This paper employs the Bayesian based Metropolis Hasting - Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to solve inverse heat transfer problem of determining the spatially varying heat transfer coefficient from a flat plate with flush mounted discrete heat sources with measured temperatures at the bottom of the plate. The Nusselt number is assumed to be of the form Nu = aReb(x/l)c . To input reasonable values of ’a’ and ‘b’ into the inverse problem, first limited two dimensional conjugate convection simulations were done with Comsol. Based on the guidance from this different values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ are input to a computationally less complex problem of conjugate conduction in the flat plate (15mm thickness) and temperature distributions at the bottom of the plate which is a more convenient location for measuring the temperatures without disturbing the flow were obtained. Since the goal of this work is to demonstrate the eficiacy of the Bayesian approach to accurately retrieve ‘a’ and ‘b’, numerically generated temperatures with known values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ are treated as ‘surrogate’ experimental data. The inverse problem is then solved by repeatedly using the forward solutions together with the MH-MCMC aprroach. To speed up the estimation, the forward model is replaced by an artificial neural network. The mean, maximum-a-posteriori and standard deviation of the estimated parameters ‘a’ and ‘b’ are reported. The robustness of the proposed method is examined, by synthetically adding noise to the temperatures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yen-Tso Chang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study applied the commercial software ANSYS CFD (FLUENT, for simulating the transient flow field and investigating the influence of each parameter of longitudinal vortex generators (LVGs on the thermal flux of a plate-fin heat sink. Vortex generator was set in front of plate-fin heat sink and under the channel, which was in common-flow-down (CFD and common-flow-up (CFU conditions, which have the result of vortex generator of delta winglet pair (DWP. In this study the parameters were varied, such as the minimum transverse distance between winglet pair, the attack angle of the vortex generator, fins number, the fin height, and the distance between the vortex generator and plate-fin. The coolant fluid flew into the fin-to-fin channel and pushed the vortex from different geometry toward the bottom. This phenomenon took off the heat from the plate to enhance the heat transfer. The numerical results indicated that the LVGs located close to the plate-fin heat sink are zero with the attack angle being 30°, presenting optimal overall conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terai, Kensuke; Someki, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yuya
2017-01-01
In Japanese pressurized water reactors (PWR), heat loads of spent fuel pools (SFP) is increasing due to rising spent fuels and use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. Therefore, SFP cooling capacities are necessary to be enhanced, and replacement of SFP coolers or installation of additional coolers is needed. On the other hand, installation spaces of SFP coolers are limited in existing buildings. Therefore, plate type heat exchangers which can be designed to be compact because of the high heat efficiency have often been adopted for SFP coolers instead of shell and tube type heat exchangers in general use. Plate type heat exchangers have to be overhauled periodically for inspection and gasket replacement. However, in plate type SFP coolers, radioactive SFP water and non-radioactive component cooling water (CCW) alternately run through between each plate. Thus there is a concern that the CCW system may be contaminated by radioactive materials from the SFP water during overhaul of the SFP cooler. In order to solve this problem, we have developed the maintenance procedure of the plate type SFP coolers to prevent CCW side contamination by coating the contaminated surfaces with strippable paint prior to disassembly. Before applying this developed maintenance procedure to actual equipment, we have performed the following verification tests. (1) Confirmation of fundamental characteristics for strippable paint. Firstly, we selected both water-based and solvent-based strippable paints. Secondly, we tested and confirmed the detachability and the drying time of the selected strippable paints respectively. Moreover we also confirmed that the selected strippable paints are appropriate materials from the viewpoint of chemical composition restriction of consumable materials used in nuclear power plant. (2) Confirmation of workability for paint filling, drying and peeling off. The strippable paints need to be peeled off after filling into plate type heat exchanger and draining
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hosseini, R.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Alipour, M.
2012-01-01
In this work, the natural convection heat transfer from a long vertical electrically heated cylinder to an adjacent air gap is experimentally studied. The aspect and diameter ratios of the cylinder are 55.56 and 6.33, respectively. The experimental measurements were obtained for a concentric cond...
Numerical calculation of velocity distribution near a vertical flat plate immersed in bubble flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuura, Akihiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Horihata, Hideyuki; Hiraoka, Setsuro; Aragaki, Tsutomu; Yamada, Ikuho; Isoda, Shinji.
1992-01-01
Liquid and gas velocity distributions for bubble flow near a vertical flat plate were calculated numerically by using the SIMPLER method, where the flow was assumed to be laminar, two-dimensional, and at steady state. The two-fluid flow model was used in the numerical analysis. To calculate the drag force on a small bubble, Stokes' law for a rigid sphere is applicable. The dimensionless velocity distributions which were arranged with characteristic boundary layer thickness and maximum liquid velocity were adjusted with a single line and their forms were similar to that for single-phase wall-jet flow. The average wall shear stress derived from the velocity gradient at the plate wall was strongly affected by bubble diameter but not by inlet liquid velocity. The present dimensionless velocity distributions obtained numerically agreed well with previous experimental results, and the proposed numerical algorithm was validated. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luna, N. [Direccion de Operacion Petrolera, Direccion General de Exploracion y Explotacion de Hidrocarburos, Secretaria de Energia, 03100 Mexico DF (Mexico); Mendez, F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)
2005-07-01
The steady-state analysis of conjugated heat transfer process for the hydrodynamically developed forced convection flow on a heated flat plate embedded in a porous medium is studied. The governing equations for the fluid-saturated porous medium are solved analytically using the integral boundary layer approximation. This integral solution is coupled to the energy equation for the flat plate, where the longitudinal heat conduction effects are taken into account. The resulting equations are then reduced to an integro-differential equation which is solved by regular perturbation techniques and numerical methods. The analytical and numerical predictions for the temperature profile of the plate and appropriate local and average Nusselt numbers are plotted for finite values of the conduction parameter, {alpha}, which represents the presence of the longitudinal heat conduction effects. (authors)
New Configurations of Micro Plate-Fin Heat Sink to Reduce Coolant Pumping Power
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Rosendahl, Lasse
2012-01-01
the optimum heat sink configuration. The particular focus of this study is to reduce the coolant mass flow rate by considering the thermal resistances of the heat sinks and, thereby, to reduce the coolant pumping power in the system. The threedimensional governing equations for the fluid flow and the heat......The thermal resistance of heat exchangers has a strong influence on the electric power produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). In this work, a real TEG device is applied to three configurations of micro plate-fin heat sink. The distance between certain microchannels is varied to find...... heat sink configurations reduces the coolant pumping power in the system....
On the pressure drop in Plate Heat Exchangers used as desorbers in absorption chillers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia-Hernando, N.; de Vega, M. [Energy System Engineering (ISE), Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Almendros-Ibanez, J.A. [Escuela de Ingenieros Industriales de Albacete, Departamento de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Renewable Energy Research Institute, c/de la Investigacion s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz, G. [Energy Efficiency and Renewables Department, Tecnicas Reunidas S.A., C/Arapiles No. 13, 10a, 28015 Madrid (Spain)
2011-02-15
The influence of the pressure drop in Plate Heat Exchangers (PHE) in the boiling temperature of LiBr-H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O solutions is studied. For the NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O solution, the pressure drop-temperature saturation relationship estates that high pressure drops can be allowed in the solution with negligible changes in the saturation temperature, and in the PHE performance. Besides, in the case of the LiBr-H{sub 2}O solution, as the working pressure is usually very low, the analysis of the pressure drop must be taken as a main limiting parameter for the use of Plate Heat Exchangers as vapour generators. In this case, the pressure drop may considerably change the boiling temperature of the solution entering the heat exchanger and therefore a higher heating fluid temperature may be required. A guideline to design these systems is proposed. (author)
Heat transfer in porous medium embedded with vertical plate: Non-equilibrium approach - Part B
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quadir, G. A., E-mail: Irfan-magami@Rediffmail.com, E-mail: gaquadir@gmail.com [School of Mechatronic Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia)
2016-06-08
This work is continuation of the paper Part A. Due to large number of results, the paper is divided into two section with section-A (Part A) discussing the effect of various parameters such as heat transfer coefficient parameter, thermal conductivity ratio etc. on streamlines and isothermal lines. Section-B highlights the heat transfer characteristics in terms of Nusselt number The Darcy model is employed to simulate the flow inside the medium. It is assumed that the heat transfer takes place by convection and radiation. The governing partial differential equations are converted into non-dimensional form and solved numerically using finite element method.
Heat transfer characteristics of supercritical pressure waster in vertical upward annular channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Han; Bi Qincheng; Yang Zhendong; Wu Gang
2013-01-01
Within the range of pressure from 23 to 28 MPa, mass flux from 350 to 1000 kg/(m 2 · s), and outside wall heat flux from 200 to 1000 kW/m 2 , experimental investigation was conducted on the heat transfer characteristics of supercritical pressure water in vertical upward annular channels. The effects of heat flux, pressure, mass flux and spiral spacer on heat transfer were analyzed, and two types of heat transfer deterioration occurred in the experiments were compared. The experimental results show that the heat transfer of water can be enhanced by increasing the mass flux or decreasing the wall heat flux. The effect of pressure on heat transfer is not uniform and depends on heat transfer form. It was found that the spiral spacer not only enhances the heat transfer of water, but also delays the heat transfer deterioration which occurs in high heat flux and low mass flux conditions. (authors)
M. Benyoub; B. Aour; B. Bouhacina; K. Sadek
2018-01-01
Low-temperature geothermal energy is a promising technique for heating and cooling residential and commercial premises, especially since it is one of the green energy solutions that respect the environment. The principle of this technique is based on thermal exchange between the heat pump and the basement using a vertically buried heat exchanger. This is usually made of a U-shaped tube inserted vertically in a borehole made in the ground and filled with a filler material. The purpose of the p...
Further comparisons of critical heat flux correlations for vertical tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govan, A.H.
1986-11-01
An earlier report by Govan (1984, AERE-R11298), described a data-bank of critical heat flux measurements in vertical upflow in tubes, and compared the predictions of the Harwell Annular Flow Model with two previously reported correlations. In this report two further correlations, those of Biasi [1967, Studies on burnout, Part 3] and Zuber [1961, Int. Devel. Heat Transfer, Part 2, PB230-236]/ Griffith,[1977, Nucl. Safety vol 18, no3] have been tested. These two correlations are used extensively in reactor design. Overall comparisons are given between all the correlations tested so far. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamaguchi, Y; Asako, Y [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology
1997-06-25
The combined natural convection and radiation heat transfer characteristics in a vertical porous layer with a hexagonal honeycomb core were investigate experimentally. The temperature distributions on the honeycomb core wall and the combined heat transfer rates through the porous layer were measured. The measurements of the heat transfer were accomplished using the guarded hot plate (GHP) method. The honeycomb core wall was made of paper and large mesh foamed resins were inserted into the honeycomb enclosures. The measurements were performed while varying the radiation parameters between 0.5 to 0.65, varying the temperature ratios between 0.01 to 0.1 and varying the Darcy-Rayleigh numbers between 5 to 80, and for a fixed aspect ratio of H/L=1. The experimental results for Nusselt numbers agreed well with our available numerical results. 9 refs., 8 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Longo, Giovanni A. [University of Padova, Department of Management and Engineering, Str.lla S.Nicola 3, I-36100 Vicenza (Italy)
2010-08-15
This paper presents the heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop measured during HC-600a, HC-290 and HC-1270 saturated vapour condensation inside a brazed plate heat exchanger: the effects of refrigerant mass flux, saturation temperature (pressure) and fluid properties are investigated. The heat transfer coefficients show weak sensitivity to saturation temperature (pressure) and great sensitivity to refrigerant mass flux and fluid properties. A transition point between gravity controlled and forced convection condensation has been found for a refrigerant mass flux around 15-18 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. In the forced convection condensation region the heat transfer coefficients show a 35-40% enhancement for a 60% increase of the refrigerant mass flux. The frictional pressure drop shows a linear dependence on the kinetic energy per unit volume of the refrigerant flow. HC-1270 shows heat transfer coefficients 5% higher than HC-600a and 10-15% higher than HC-290, together with frictional pressure drop 20-25% lower than HC-290 and 50-66% lower than HC-600a. (author)
Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Plate Forming by Line Heating
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Henrik Bisgaard
1999-01-01
addressed the problem of simulating the process, and although very few have been successful in gaining accurate results valuable information about the mechanics have been derived. However, the increasing power of computers now allows for numerical simulations of the forming process using a three......Line Heating is the process of forming (steel) plates into shape by means of localised heating often along a line. Though any focussed heat source will do, the inexpensive and widely available oxyacettylene gas torch is commonly applied in ship production.Over the years, many researchers have......-dimensional thermo-mechanical model. Although very few have been successful in gaining accurate results valuable information about the mechanics has been derived. However, the increasing power of computers now allows for numerical simulations of the forming process using a three-dimensional thermo-mechanical model....
Kegerise, Michael A.; Rufer, Shann J.
2016-08-01
In this paper, we report on the application of the atomic layer thermopile (ALTP) heat-flux sensor to the measurement of laminar-to-turbulent transition in a hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer. The centerline of the flat-plate model was instrumented with a streamwise array of ALTP sensors, and the flat-plate model was exposed to a Mach 6 freestream over a range of unit Reynolds numbers. Here, we observed an unstable band of frequencies that are associated with second-mode instability waves in the laminar boundary layer that forms on the flat-plate surface. The measured frequencies, group velocities, phase speeds, and wavelengths of these instability waves are consistent with data previously reported in the literature. Heat flux time series, and the Morlet wavelet transforms of them, revealed the wave-packet nature of the second-mode instability waves. In addition, a laser-based radiative heating system was used to measure the frequency response functions (FRF) of the ALTP sensors used in the wind tunnel test. These measurements were used to assess the stability of the sensor FRFs over time and to correct spectral estimates for any attenuation caused by the finite sensor bandwidth.
Zhang, Yinan; Du, Yanping; Shum, Clifford; Cai, Boyuan; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Chen, Xi; Duck, Benjamin; Fell, Christopher; Zhu, Yonggang; Gu, Min
2016-04-01
Solar photovoltaics (PV) are emerging as a major alternative energy source. The cost of PV electricity depends on the efficiency of conversion of light to electricity. Despite of steady growth in the efficiency for several decades, little has been achieved to reduce the impact of real-world operating temperatures on this efficiency. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient cooling solution to the recently emerging high performance plasmonic solar cell technology by integrating an advanced nano-coated heat-pipe plate. This thermal cooling technology, efficient for both summer and winter time, demonstrates the heat transportation capability up to ten times higher than those of the metal plate and the conventional wickless heat-pipe plates. The reduction in temperature rise of the plasmonic solar cells operating under one sun condition can be as high as 46%, leading to an approximate 56% recovery in efficiency, which dramatically increases the energy yield of the plasmonic solar cells. This newly-developed, thermally-managed plasmonic solar cell device significantly extends the application scope of PV for highly efficient solar energy conversion.
Li, Kuang-Hui; Alotaibi, Hamad S.; Sun, Haiding; Lin, Ronghui; Guo, Wenzhe; Torres-Castanedo, Carlos G.; Liu, Kaikai; Galan, Sergio V.; Li, Xiaohang
2018-01-01
In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.
Li, Kuang-Hui
2018-02-23
In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Srinivasa Raju R.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this research paper, we found both numerical and analytical solutions for the effect of chemical reaction on unsteady, incompressible, viscous fluid flow past an exponentially accelerated vertical plate with heat absorption and variable temperature in a magnetic field. The flow problem is governed by a system of coupled non-linear partial differential equations with suitable boundary conditions. We have solved the governing equations by an efficient, accurate, powerful finite element method (FEM as well as Laplace transform technique (LTT. The evaluation of the numerical results are performed and graphical results for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles within the boundary layer are discussed. Also, the expressions for the skin-friction, Nusselt number and the Sherwood number coefficients have been derived and discussed through graphs and tabular forms for different values of the governing parameters.
Experimental research on heat transfer performance of supercritical water in vertical tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Fei; Yang Jue; Li Hongbo; Lu Donghua; Gu Hanyang; Zhao Meng
2013-01-01
Experimental research under supercritical pressure conditions was carried out on heat transfer performance in vertical tube of φ10 mm with a wide range of experimental parameters. The impacts of heat flux, mass flow rate and pressure on wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient were investigated. The experimental parameters are following: The pressures are 23, 25, 26 MPa, the mass flow rate range is 450 1200 kg/(m 2 ·s), and the heat flux range is 200-1200 kW/m 2 . Experimental results indicate that the wall temperature gradually increases with the bulk temperature, and heat transfer enhancement exists near the critical temperature as the drastic changes in physical properties. The increase in heat flux and the decrease in mass flow rate reduce heat transfer enhancement and lead to deterioration of heat transfer. The main effects of pressure are reflected in the difference of heat flux and bulk temperature of the start point where heat transfer deterioration and enhancement occur. (authors)
Becker, Harry
The possible application of Compact Heat and Mass Exchangers (CHME) in a gas fired Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) for domestic heating is studied. The above mentioned heat and mass exchangers are of the plate type. The space between the parallel and plain plates is filled up with corrugated plates of a certain height. The plain and finned plates are stacked and welded together. This gives a heat and mass exchanger which is very compact, expressed by a high area density (m2/m3). This leads to heat and mass transfer processes with small temperature and concentration differences. For testing purposes a pilot plant was built using the above type of components in order to test their heat and/or mass transfer performance. Only the generator is of the Shell And Tube (SAT) type. As the working pair, CH3OH - LiBr/ ZnBr2 was chosen, with the alcohol as the solvent and the salt mixture as the absorbent. This leads to sub atmospheric working pressures with only solvent in the vapor phase. Three series of experiments have been carried out, during which the input parameters were varied over a certain range. It is concluded that the plate fin CHMES are very suitable for application in an AHP for domestic heating purposes.
Sarper, Bugra; Saglam, Mehmet; Aydin, Orhan; Avci, Mete
2018-04-01
In this study, natural convection in a vertical channel is studied experimentally and numerically. One of the channel walls is heated discretely by two flush-mounted heaters while the other is insulated. The effects of the clearance between the heaters on heat transfer and hot spot temperature while total length of the heaters keeps constant are investigated. Four different settlements of two discrete heaters are comparatively examined. Air is used as the working fluid. The range of the modified Grashof number covers the values between 9.6 × 105 and 1.53 × 10.7 Surface to surface radiation is taken into account. Flow visualizations and temperature measurements are performed in the experimental study. Numerical computations are performed using the commercial CFD code ANSYS FLUENT. The results are represented as the variations of surface temperature, hot spot temperature and Nusselt number with the modified Grashof number and the clearance between the heaters as well as velocity and temperature variations of the fluid.
Time-Dependent Natural Convection Couette Flow of Heat ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Time-Dependent Natural Convection Couette Flow of Heat Generating/Absorbing Fluid between Vertical Parallel Plates Filled With Porous Material. ... The numerical simulation conducted for some saturated liquids reveled that at t ≥ Pr the steady and unsteady state velocities (as well as the temperature of the fluid) ...
Billiet, Marijn; De Schampheleire, Sven; Huisseune, Henk; De Paepe, Michel
2015-01-01
Two differently-produced open-cell aluminum foams were compared to a commercially available finned heat sink. Further, an aluminum plate and block were tested as a reference. All heat sinks have the same base plate dimensions of four by six inches. The first foam was made by investment casting of a polyurethane preform and has a porosity of 0.946 and a pore density of 10 pores per linear inch. The second foam is manufactured by casting over a solvable core and has a porosity of 0.85 and a pore density of 2.5 pores per linear inch. The effects of orientation and radiative heat transfer are experimentally investigated. The heat sinks are tested in a vertical and horizontal orientation. The effect of radiative heat transfer is investigated by comparing a painted/anodized heat sink with an untreated one. The heat flux through the heat sink for a certain temperature difference between the environment and the heat sink’s base plate is used as the performance indicator. For temperature differences larger than 30 ∘C, the finned heat sink outperforms the in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink on average by 17%. Furthermore, the in-house-made aluminum foam dissipates on average 12% less heat than the other aluminum foam for a temperature difference larger than 40 ∘C. By painting/anodizing the heat sinks, the heat transfer rate increased on average by 10% to 50%. Finally, the thermal performance of the horizontal in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink is up to 18% larger than the one of the vertical aluminum foam heat sink. PMID:28793601
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marijn Billiet
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Two differently-produced open-cell aluminum foams were compared to a commercially available finned heat sink. Further, an aluminum plate and block were tested as a reference. All heat sinks have the same base plate dimensions of four by six inches. The first foam was made by investment casting of a polyurethane preform and has a porosity of 0.946 and a pore density of 10 pores per linear inch. The second foam is manufactured by casting over a solvable core and has a porosity of 0.85 and a pore density of 2.5 pores per linear inch. The effects of orientation and radiative heat transfer are experimentally investigated. The heat sinks are tested in a vertical and horizontal orientation. The effect of radiative heat transfer is investigated by comparing a painted/anodized heat sink with an untreated one. The heat flux through the heat sink for a certain temperature difference between the environment and the heat sink’s base plate is used as the performance indicator. For temperature differences larger than 30 °C, the finned heat sink outperforms the in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink on average by 17%. Furthermore, the in-house-made aluminum foam dissipates on average 12% less heat than the other aluminum foam for a temperature difference larger than 40 °C. By painting/anodizing the heat sinks, the heat transfer rate increased on average by 10% to 50%. Finally, the thermal performance of the horizontal in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink is up to 18% larger than the one of the vertical aluminum foam heat sink.
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Murty, T.V.R.
Thermal boundary layer on a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate in the presence of transverse magnetic field with heat flux has been examined. Similarity solutions have been derived and the resulting equations are integrated numerically...
Experimental study of supercritical water flow and heat transfer in vertical tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Hongbo; Yang Jue; Lu Donghua; Gu Hanyang; Zhao Meng
2012-01-01
The experiment of flow and heat transfer of supercritical water has been performed on the supercritical water multipurpose test loop co-constructed by China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group and Shanghai Jiao Tong University with a 7.6 mm vertical tube. Heat transfer experimental data is obtained. The results of experimental research of thermal-hydraulic parameters on flow and heat transfer of supercritical water show that: (1) Heat transfer enhancement occurs when the bulk temperature reaches pseudo-critical point with low mass flow velocity; (2) The heat transfer co- efficient and Nusselt number are decreased with the increasing of heat flux; (3) The wall temperature is decreased, but the heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number are increased with the increasing of mass flow velocity; (4) The wall temperature is increased, but the heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number are decreased with the increasing of sys- tem pressure. (authors)
Enhancement of combined heat and mass transfer in a vertical-tube heat and mass exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, R.L.; Perez-Blanco, H.
1986-01-01
This paper studies enhancement of heat and mass transfer between a countercurrent, gravity-drained water film and air flowing in a vertical tube. The enhancement technique employed is spaced, transverse wires placed in the air boundary layer, near the air--water interface. Heat transfer correlations for turbulent, single-phase heat transfer in pipes having wall-attached spaced ribs are used to select the preferred wire diameter, and to predict the gas phase heat and mass transfer coefficients. Tests were run with two different radial placements of the rib roughness: (1) at the free surface of the liquid film, and (2) the base of the roughness displaced 0.51 mm into the air flow. The authors hypothesize that the best heat/mass transfer and friction performance will be obtained with the roughness at the surface of the water film. Experiments conducted with both roughness placements show that the authors' hypothesis is correct. The measured heat/mass transfer enhancement agreed very closely with the predicted values. A unique feature of the enhancement concept is that it does not require surface wetting of the enhancement device to provide enhancement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rezania, Alireza; Rosendahl, L. A.
2015-01-01
. In this study, a micro-structured plate-fin heat sink is compared to a modified design of cross-cut heat sink applied to TEGs over a range of temperatures and thermal conductivities. The particular focus of this study is to explore the net power output from the TEG module. The three-dimensional governing...... equations for the flow and heat transfer are solved using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in conjunction with the thermoelectric characteristics of the TEG over a wide range of flow inlet velocities. The results show that at small flow inlet velocity, the maximum net power output in TEG with plate......Heat sink configuration has strong impact on net power output from thermoelectric generators (TEGs). A weak cooling strategy can even cause negative net power output from the thermoelectric device. However, the net power output can be significantly improved by optimal design of the heat sink...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T.; Saito, K.
2008-10-01
A long pulse plasma discharge experiment was carried out using RF heating power in the Large Helical Device (LHD), a currentless magnetic confining system. Progress in long pulse operation is summarized since the 10th experimental campaign (2006). A scaling relation of the plasma duration time to the applied RF power has been derived from the experimental data so far collected. It indicates that there exists a critical divertor temperature and consequently a critical RF heating power P RFcrit =0.65 MW. The area on the graph of the duration time versus the RF heating power was extended over the scaling relation by replacing divertor plates with new ones with better heat conductivity. The cause of the plasma collapse at the end of the long pulse operation was found to be the penetration of metal impurities. Many thin flakes consisting of heavy metals and graphite in stratified layers were found on the divertor plates and it was thought that they were the cause of impurity metals penetrating into the plasma. In a simulation involving injecting a graphite-coated Fe pellet to the plasma it was found that 230 Eμm in the diameter of the Fe pellet sphere was the critical size which led the plasma to collapse. A mode-conversion heating method was examined in place of the minority ICRF heating which has been employed in almost all the long-pulse plasma discharges. It was found that this method was much better from the viewpoint of achieving uniformity of the plasma heat load to the divertors. It is expected that P RFcrit will be increased by using the mode-conversion heating method. (author)
A compact dilution refrigerator with vertical heat exchangers for operation to 2 mK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunkov, Yu.M.; Guenault, A.M.; Hayward, D.J.; Jackson, D.A.; Kennedy, C.J.; Nichols, T.R.; Miller, I.E.; Pickett, G.R.; Ward, M.G.
1991-01-01
A compactly designed dilution refrigerator with closely packed, vertical heat exchangers is described. The refrigerator reaches a temperature of 2 mK and is easily constructed, since the sintered heat exchangers are straight units. Vibrating wire resonators are employed in the mixing chamber as diagnostic tools, which may act as both thermometers and phase-boundary level indicators. There is a design problem in the vertical arrangement, namely, the sumps on the concentrated phase side that can slowly fill with dilute phase and degrade the performance. The problem is solved by draining the superfluid 4 He component in any collected dilute phase through superleaks into the mixing chamber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hożejowska Sylwia
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of investigations into flow boiling heat transfer in an asymmetrically heated vertical minichannel of 1.7 mm depth. The heated element for FC-72 flowing in the minichannel was an alloy plate 0.45 mm thick, microstructured on one side, in direct contact with the flowing fluid. The computational part of the study contains approximate steady state solutions of the heat transfer problems described by Poisson.s equation and the energy equation for the heated plate and the fluid, respectively. For both equations, the boundary conditions were specified on the basis of experimental data. Temperature of the outer plate surface, measured by infrared thermography, and heat losses to ambient air were included in the calculations. For the energy equation we assumed parabolic profile of fluid velocity and the equality of temperatures and heat fluxes at the interface between the heated surface and the fluid. The void fraction was taken from a single-phase flow model. Two-dimensional temperature distributions were obtained by the Trefftz method and, due to the Robin condition at the interface between them, it was possible to calculate the heat transfer coefficient. Its values were compared to those obtained by other correlations known from literature.
Mixed convection flow and heat transfer in a vertical wavy channel ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Mixed convection flow and heat transfer in a vertical wavy channel filled with porous and fluid layers is studied analytically. The flow in the porous medium is modeled using Darcy-Brinkman equation. The coupled non-linear partial differential equations describing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy are solved ...
Desideri, Adriano; Schmidt Ommen, Torben; Wronski, Jorrit; Quoilin, Sylvain; Lemort, Vincent; Haglind, Fredrik
2016-01-01
In this contribution, the experimental heat transfer coefficient Â and the pressure drop measured during HFC refrigerants vaporization inside small brazed plate heat exchanger (PHE) at typical evaporation temperature for organic Rankine cycle systems for low thermal energy quality applications are presented. Scientific work focusing on the heat transfer in PHEs has been carried out since the late 19th century. More recent publications have been focusing on vaporization and condensation of ref...
Desideri, Adriano; Rhyl Kaern, Martin; Ommen Schmidt, Torben; Wronski, Jorrit; Quoilin, Sylvain; Lemort, Vincent; Haglind, Fredrik
2016-01-01
In recent years the interest in small capacity organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems for harvesting low quality waste thermal energy from industrial processes has been steadily growing. Micro ORC systems are normally equipped with brazed plate heat exchangers which allows for efficient heat transfer with a compact design. An accurate prediction of the heat transfer process characterizing these devices is required from the design phase to the development of model- based control strategies....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon
2017-01-01
Flat plate collectors have relatively low efficiency at the typical supply temperatures of district heating networks (70–95 °C). Parabolic trough collectors retain their high efficiency at these temperatures. To maximize the advantages of flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in l...... for this type of hybrid solar district heating plants with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in the Nordic region, but also introduce a novel design concept of solar district heating plants to other high solar radiation areas....... in large solar heating plants for a district heating network, a hybrid solar collector field with 5960 m2 flat plate collectors and 4039 m2 parabolic trough collectors in series was constructed in Taars, Denmark. The design principle is that the flat plate collectors preheat the return water from...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugano, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Takanori; Ito, Masahiko; Saito, Koichi.
1982-01-01
Recently, anisotropic materials have been used widely for reactor core elements and fast flying objects, therefore, the problem of thermal stress in anisotropic bodies has been studied actively. In this study, the unsteady plane thermal stress in an orthotropic rectangular thin plate heated by the temperature of ambient medium was analyzed, taking the heat transfer on both surfaces into account. The influence that the anisotropy of material constants and the heat transfer on both surfaces exert on the temperature and thermal stress of the plate was examined. Moreover, in order to investigate into the effect of the aspect ratio of the plate on the temperature and thermal stress, the unsteady distributions of temperature and thermal stress in an orthotropic semi-infinite band, of which the end surfaces are heated by ambient medium, were analyzed. The numerical calculation was carried out, and the results are shown. Before, it was difficult to satisfy the boundary condition related to shearing stress, accordingly, the analysis has not been performed, but in this study, it was shown that the analysis is possible. (Kako, I.)
Numerical investigation of heat transfer enhancement by carbon nano fibers deposited on a flat plate
Pelevic, Nikola; van der Meer, Theo
2013-01-01
Numerical simulations of flow and heat transfer have been performed for flow over a plate surface covered with carbon nano fibers (CNFs). The CNFs influence on fluid flow and heat transfer has been investigated. Firstly, a stochastic model for CNFs deposition has been explained. Secondly, the
Viscous dissipation effects on heat transfer in flow past a continuous moving plate
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Soundalgekar, V.M.; Murty, T.V.R.
The study of thermal boundary layer on taking into account the viscous dissipative heat, on a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate is presented here.Similarity solutions are derived and the resulting equations are integrated numerically...
Groeneveld, Gerben; Van Gerner, Henk Jan; Wits, Wessel W.
2017-01-01
The thermal performance of a flat-plate closed-loop pulsating heat pipe (PHP) is experimentally obtained. The PHP is manufactured by means of CNC-milling and vacuum brazing of a stainless steel 316L bottom plate and lid. Each channel of the PHP has a 2×2 mm2 square cross section. In total 12
Peng, Zhang; Liangfa, Xie; Ming, Wei; Jianli, Li
In the shipbuilding industry, the welding efficiency of the ship plate not only has a great effect on the construction cost of the ship, but also affects the construction speed and determines the delivery cycle. The steel plate used for large heat input welding was developed sufficiently. In this paper, the composition of the steel with a small amount of Nb, Ti and large amount of Mn had been designed in micro-alloyed route. The content of C and the carbon equivalent were also designed to a low level. The technology of oxide metallurgy was used during the smelting process of the steel. The rolling technology of TMCP was controlled at a low rolling temperature and ultra-fast cooling technology was used, for the purpose of controlling the transformation of the microstructure. The microstructure of the steel plate was controlled to be the mixed microstructure of low carbon bainite and ferrite. Large amount of oxide particles dispersed in the microstructure of steel, which had a positive effects on the mechanical property and welding performance of the steel. The mechanical property of the steel plate was excellent and the value of longitudinal Akv at -60 °C is more than 200 J. The toughness of WM and HAZ were excellent after the steel plate was welded with a large heat input of 100-250 kJ/cm. The steel plate processed by mentioned above can meet the requirement of large heat input welding.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ava Azadi Chegeni
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Two rolled plates of 7075 aluminum alloy were used as starting material. The plates were welded using a simultaneous double-sided friction stir welding (FSW process. One way of obtaining feedstock materials for Semi-solid processing or thixoforming is via deformation routes followed by partial melting in the semi-solid state. As both the base plate materials and the friction weld area have undergone extensive deformation specimens were subjected to a post welding heat-treatment in the semi-solid range at a temperature of 628 °C, for 3 min in order to observe the induced microstructural changes. A comparison between the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of friction stir welded plates was performed before and after the heat-treatment in the Base Metal (BM, the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ, the Thermomechanically Affected Zone (TMAZ and the Nugget Zone (NZ using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM and Vickers hardness tests. The results revealed that an extremely fine-grained structure, obtained in the NZ after FSW, resulted in a rise of hardness from the BM to the NZ. Furthermore, post welding heat-treatment in the semi-solid state gave rise to a consistent morphology throughout the material which was similar to microstructures obtained by the thixoforming process. Moreover, a drop of hardness was observed after heat treatment in all regions as compared to that in the welded microstructure.
Heat Transfer Experiments with Supercritical CO{sub 2} in a Vertical Circular Tube (9.0 mm)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, Tae Ho; Kim, Hwan Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Woo Gun; Bae, Yoon Yeong [Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2008-10-15
Heat transfer test facility, SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), has been operated at KAERI for an investigation of the thermal-hydraulic behaviors of supercritical CO{sub 2} at several test sections with a different geometry. The loop uses CO{sub 2} because it has critical pressure and temperature which is much lower than water. Experimental study of heat transfer to supercritical CO{sub 2} in a vertical circular tube with and inner diameter of 9.0mm has been performed. CO{sub 2} flows downward through the vertical circular tube for the simulation of the water rod which may be used for a moderation of the reactor. The heat transfer characteristics were analyzed and compared with the upward flow test results previously performed at the same test section at KAERI.
Imran, M. A.; Riaz, M. B.; Shah, N. A.; Zafar, A. A.
2018-03-01
The aim of this article is to investigate the unsteady natural convection flow of Maxwell fluid with fractional derivative over an exponentially accelerated infinite vertical plate. Moreover, slip condition, radiation, MHD and Newtonian heating effects are also considered. A modern definition of fractional derivative operator recently introduced by Caputo and Fabrizio has been used to formulate the fractional model. Semi analytical solutions of the dimensionless problem are obtained by employing Stehfest's and Tzou's algorithms in order to find the inverse Laplace transforms for temperature and velocity fields. Temperature and rate of heat transfer for non-integer and integer order derivatives are computed and reduced to some known solutions from the literature. Finally, in order to get insight of the physical significance of the considered problem regarding velocity and Nusselt number, some graphical illustrations are made using Mathcad software. As a result, in comparison between Maxwell and viscous fluid (fractional and ordinary) we found that viscous (fractional and ordinary) fluids are swiftest than Maxwell (fractional and ordinary) fluids.
Einstein, Thomas H.
1961-01-01
Equations were derived representing heat transfer and pressure drop for a gas flowing in the passages of a heater composed of a series of parallel flat plates. The plates generated heat which was transferred to the flowing gas by convection. The relatively high temperature level of this system necessitated the consideration of heat transfer between the plates by radiation. The equations were solved on an IBM 704 computer, and results were obtained for hydrogen as the working fluid for a series of cases with a gas inlet temperature of 200 R, an exit temperature of 5000 0 R, and exit Mach numbers ranging from 0.2 to O.8. The length of the heater composed of the plates ranged from 2 to 4 feet, and the spacing between the plates was varied from 0.003 to 0.01 foot. Most of the results were for a five- plate heater, but results are also given for nine plates to show the effect of increasing the number of plates. The heat generation was assumed to be identical for each plate but was varied along the length of the plates. The axial variation of power used to obtain the results presented is the so-called "2/3-cosine variation." The boundaries surrounding the set of plates, and parallel to it, were assumed adiabatic, so that all the power generated in the plates went into heating the gas. The results are presented in plots of maximum plate and maximum adiabatic wall temperatures as functions of parameters proportional to f(L/D), for the case of both laminar and turbulent flow. Here f is the Fanning friction factor and (L/D) is the length to equivalent diameter ratio of the passages in the heater. The pressure drop through the heater is presented as a function of these same parameters, the exit Mach number, and the pressure at the exit of the heater.
New application of plate-fin heat exchanger with regenerative cryocoolers
Chang, Ho-Myung; Gwak, Kyung Hyun
2015-09-01
A design idea is newly proposed and investigated for the application of plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHX) with regenerative cryocoolers. The role of this heat exchanger is to effectively absorb heat from the stream of coolant and deliver it to the cold-head of a cryocooler. While various types of tubular HX's have been developed so far, a small PFHX could be more useful for this purpose by taking advantage of compactness and design flexibility. In order to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness, a prototype of aluminum-brazed PFHX is designed, fabricated, and tested with a single-stage GM cryocooler in experiments for subcooling liquid nitrogen from 78 K to 65-70 K. The results show that the PFHX is 30-50% more effective in cooling rate than the tubular HX's. Several potential applications of PFHX are presented and discussed with specific design concepts.
A thermal design method for the performance optimization of multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Zhe; Li, Yanzhong [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an (China); Sunden, Bengt [Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Han, Fenghui [Dalian Maritime University, Dalian (China)
2017-06-15
An optimization design method based on field synergy principle is developed for Multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangers (MPHEs) with a segmented differential model. The heat exchanger is divided into a number of sub-exchangers along the main stream, and each sub-exchanger consists of N passages along the height of the exchanger. Compared with the traditional heat exchanger design, this method allows temperature and pressure fields to be obtained via coupling calculation with consideration of variable physical properties and the axial heat loss of the heat exchanger. Finally, the heat exchanger is optimally designed using a temperature-difference uniformity optimization factor based on field synergy principle. This design model can provide an accurate temperature field and pressure field, because the stream properties are determined by the mean temperature and pressure of each local sub-exchanger. Optimum results indicate that the temperature distribution on the cross section of the heat exchanger is relatively uniform and that the temperature difference of heat transfer for each stream is always a small value. These characteristics prove the feasibility and effectiveness of this design model. In this paper, a case of five stream plate-fin heat exchangers for an ethylene plant is designed under a practical cold box operating condition with the proposed model, the structure and heat transfer of which are optimally determined. The design model and optimization method proposed in this work can provide theoretical and technical support to the optimization design of MPHEs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daddy Setyawan
2011-01-01
There are several passive safety systems on APWR reactor design. One of the passive safety system is the cooling system with natural circulation air on the surface of concentric vertical cylinder containment wall. Since the natural circulation air performance in the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) application is related to safety, the cooling characteristics of natural circulation air on concentric vertical cylinder containment wall should be studied experimentally. This paper focuses on the experimental study of the heat transfer coefficient of natural circulation air with heat flux level varied on the characteristics of APWR concentric vertical cylinder containment wall. The procedure of this experimental study is composed of 4 stages as follows: the design of APWR containment with scaling 1:40, the assembling of APWR containment with its instrumentation, calibration and experimentation. The experimentation was conducted in the transient and steady-state with the variation of heat flux, from 119 W/m 2 until 575 W/m 2 . From The experimentation result obtained average heat transfer empirical correlation of natural convection Nu L = 0,008(Ra * L ) 0,68 for the concentric vertical cylinder geometry modelling of APWR. (author)
Experimental study on the CHF in uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annuli
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chun, Se Young; Moon, Sang Ki; Chung, Heung June; Park, Jong Kuk; Kim, Bok Deuk; Youn, Young Jung; Chung, Moon Ki
2001-09-01
Up to now, KAERI has performed critical heat flux experiments in water under zero-flow and low-flow conditions using a RCS CHF loop facility with uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annulus. Since the existing CHF experiments were mainly performed under low-pressure conditions, we performed the CHF experiment to investigate the pressure effect on the CHF under zero-flow and low-flow conditions for a wide range of system pressures. Also, two vertical annuli with the same geometry have been used to investigate the axial heat flux distributions on the CHF. This report summarizes the experimental results and provides the CHF data that can be used for the development for CHF correlation and a thermal hydraulic analysis code. The CHF data have been collected for system pressures ranging from 0.57 to 15.15 MPa, mass flux 0 and from 200 to 650 kg/m2s, inlet subcooling from 75 to 360 kJ/kg and exit quality from 0.07 to 0.57. At low-flow conditions, the total number of data are 242 and 290 with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively. 41 and 94 CHF data are generated with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively, in zero-flow CHF experiments that are performed by blocking test section bottoms. The CHF experiment result shows that the effects of system pressure, mass flux and inlet subcooling are consistent with conventional understandings and similar to those for round tubes. The behavior of the CHF is relatively complex at low pressures. Also, the effects of axial heat flux profile are large at low-pressure conditions.
Experimental study on the CHF in uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annuli
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun, Se Young; Moon, Sang Ki; Chung, Heung June; Park, Jong Kuk; Kim, Bok Deuk; Youn, Young Jung; Chung, Moon Ki
2001-09-01
Up to now, KAERI has performed critical heat flux experiments in water under zero-flow and low-flow conditions using a RCS CHF loop facility with uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annulus. Since the existing CHF experiments were mainly performed under low-pressure conditions, we performed the CHF experiment to investigate the pressure effect on the CHF under zero-flow and low-flow conditions for a wide range of system pressures. Also, two vertical annuli with the same geometry have been used to investigate the axial heat flux distributions on the CHF. This report summarizes the experimental results and provides the CHF data that can be used for the development for CHF correlation and a thermal hydraulic analysis code. The CHF data have been collected for system pressures ranging from 0.57 to 15.15 MPa, mass flux 0 and from 200 to 650 kg/m2s, inlet subcooling from 75 to 360 kJ/kg and exit quality from 0.07 to 0.57. At low-flow conditions, the total number of data are 242 and 290 with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively. 41 and 94 CHF data are generated with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively, in zero-flow CHF experiments that are performed by blocking test section bottoms. The CHF experiment result shows that the effects of system pressure, mass flux and inlet subcooling are consistent with conventional understandings and similar to those for round tubes. The behavior of the CHF is relatively complex at low pressures. Also, the effects of axial heat flux profile are large at low-pressure conditions
Simulation and experiment on the thermal performance of U-vertical ground coupled heat exchanger
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xinguo; Chen, Zhihao; Zhao, Jun [Department of Thermal Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)
2006-10-15
This paper presented both the numerical simulations and experiments on the thermal performance of U-vertical ground coupled heat exchanger (UGCHE). The variation of the ground temperature and heat balance of the system were analyzed and compared in different operation modes in the numerical simulation. Experiments on the operation performance of the ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) with the UGCHE were carried out. It shows that the ground source can be used as the heat source/sink for GCHP systems to have higher efficiency in saving energy. To preserve the ground resource for the sustainable utilization as heat source/sink, the heat emitted to ground and heat extracted from ground should be balanced. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Shuangfeng; Chen Jinjian; Hu Yanxin; Zhang Wei
2011-01-01
Flat plate heat pipes (FPHPs) are one of the available technologies to deal with the high density electronic cooling problem due to their high thermal conductivity, reliability, and low weight penalty. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the effect of evaporation and condensation length on thermal performance of flat plate heat pipes. In the experiments, the FPHP had heat transfer length of 255 mm and width of 25 mm, and pure water was used as the working fluid. The results show that comparing to vapor chamber, the FPHP could realize long-distance heat transfer; comparing to the traditional heat pipe, the FPHP has large area contact with heat sources; the thermal resistance decreased and the heat transfer limit increased with the increase of evaporation section length; the FPHP would dry out at a lower heating power with the increase of condensation section length, which indicated that the heat transfer limit decreased, but the evaporator temperature also decreased; when the condensation section length approached to evaporation section length, the FPHP had a better thermal performance. - Highlights: → A strip sintered FPHP is proposed and tested. → The total heat transfer length reaches 255 mm → The efficiency of heat transport reaches 94.4%. → When the condensation section length approached to evaporation section length, the FPHP has better overall performance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Son, Hyung M.; Suh, Kune Y.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Performed experiment for the upward SCO 2 flow surrounded by highly conducting metal. ► Selected dimensionless groups representing the property variations and buoyancy. ► Developed the heat transfer correlation for the mixed thermal boundary condition. ► Wrote a finite element heat transfer code to find the appropriate correlation. ► Coupled the 1D convection and 2D heat conduction via heat transfer coefficient. - Abstract: This paper presents heat transfer characteristics of supercritical carbon dioxide flow inside vertical circular pipe surrounded by highly conducting material, and develops an adequate tool to test the performance of available heat transfer correlations with. The possible situations are illustrated for the nuclear power plant to which the above-mentioned geometric configuration might be applicable. An experimental loop with vertical circular geometry is designed and constructed to test the upward flow in supercritical state when the axial heat transfer is enhanced by the surrounding metals, resulting in a wall boundary condition between the constant heat flux and temperature. The set of correlations and important findings are critically reviewed from extensive literature survey. Incorporating nondimensional groups resorting to past insights from the available literature, a convective heat transfer correlation is proposed. The optimization procedure is described which utilizes a random walk method along with the in-house finite element heat transfer code to determine the coefficients of the proposed heat transfer correlation. The proposed methodology can be applied to evaluation of heat transfer when the heat transfer coefficient data cannot directly be determined from the experiment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Waowaew, N.; Terdtoon, P.; Kamonpet, P.; Klongpanich, W. [Chiang Mai University (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maezawa, S. [Seikei University (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2003-06-01
The heat transfer characteristics of a radially rotating heat pipe (RRHP) depend on a number of parameters. This paper is a study of the effects of these parameters. They are the inner diameter of the tube, aspect ratio, rotational acceleration, working fluid and the dimensionless parameters of heat transfer. RRHPs, made of copper tubes with inner diameters of 11, 26, and 50.4 mm, were used in the experiments. The aspect ratios were 5, 10, 20 and 40 respectively. The selected working fluids were water, ethanol and R123 (CHCI{sub 2}CF{sub 3}) with a filling ratio of 60% of evaporator volume. The experiments were conducted at inclination angles of 0-90{sup o} from horizontal axis and the rotational accelerations were lower, higher and equal to gravitational acceleration. The working temperature was 90{sup o}C. The evaporator section was heated by electric power while heat in the condenser section was removed naturally by air. The evaporator and adiabatic section of the RRHP were well insulated with ceramic fibers. The experimental results showed that the heat flux decreases with an increasing inner diameter, and decreases with an increasing aspect ratio. The heat flux increases with an increasing rotational acceleration and decreases with an increasing liquid density of the working fluid. A correlation to predict the heat transfer rate at vertical position can be established. Further research will investigate a visual study of internal flow pattern and the formulation of a mathematical model. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peilun Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents a numerical analysis of the melting process of phase change materials (PCMs within a latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES system employing zigzag plate. The numerical model used NaCl-MgCl2 mixture as PCMs and hot air as heat transfer fluid (HTF. An experimental system was built to validate the model, and the experimental data agrees reasonably well with the simulation results. The simulation results revealed the effects of the Reynolds and Stefan numbers and the surface topography of the zigzag plate on the charging process. Besides, the effect of the relationship between Reynolds and Stefan numbers on the charging process under a new boundary condition employing a fixed input power was studied. It is found that by modifying the shape of the zigzag plate surface it is feasible to enhance the heat transfer of the LHTES unit remarkably. The melting rate of PCMs increases with the value of Ste or Re numbers with only one of them changing; however, the melting rate of PCMs decreases with the increasing Ste (or decreasing Re in a fixed input power condition.
Entropy generation in natural convection in a symmetrically and uniformly heated vertical channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreozzi, Assunta [Dipartimento di Energetica, Termofluidodinamica applicata e Condizionamenti ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Auletta, Antonio [CIRA - Centro Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali, Via Maiorise 1, 81043 Capua (CE) (Italy); Manca, Oronzio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale e Meccanica, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Real Casa dell' Annunziata, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy)
2006-08-15
In this study numerical predictions of local and global entropy generation rates in natural convection in air in a vertical channel symmetrically heated at uniform heat flux are reported. Results of entropy generation analysis are obtained by solving the entropy generation equation based on the velocity and temperature data. The analyzed regime is two-dimensional, laminar and steady state. The numerical procedure expands an existing computer code on natural convection in vertical channels. Results in terms of fields and profiles of local entropy generation, for various Rayleigh number, Ra, and aspect ratio values, L/b, are given. The distributions of local values show different behaviours for the different Ra values. A correlation between global entropy generation rates, Rayleigh number and aspect ratio is proposed in the ranges 10{sup 3}=
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piasecka, Magdalena; Strąk, Kinga; Grabas, Bogusław; Maciejewska, Beata
2016-01-01
The paper presents results concerning flow boiling heat transfer in a vertical minichannel with a depth of 1.7 mm and a width of 16 mm. The element responsible for heating FC-72, which flowed laminarly in the minichannel, was a plate with an enhanced surface. Two types of surface textures were considered. Both were produced by vibration-assisted laser machining. Infrared thermography was used to record changes in the temperature on the outer smooth side of the plate. Two-phase flow patterns were observed through a glass pane. The main aim of the study was to analyze how the two types of surface textures affect the heat transfer coefficient. A two-dimensional heat transfer approach was proposed to determine the local values of the heat transfer coefficient. The inverse problem for the heated wall was solved using a semi-analytical method based on the Trefftz functions. The results are presented as relationships between the heat transfer coefficient and the distance along the minichannel length and as boiling curves. The experimental data obtained for the two types of enhanced heated surfaces was compared with the results recorded for the smooth heated surface. The highest local values of the heat transfer coefficient were reported in the saturated boiling region for the plate with the type 1 texture produced by vibration-assisted laser machining. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Chi Young; Kim, Jae Han [Pukyong Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2017-09-15
In this study, experiments were conducted on the MFB(minimum film boiling) point of highly heated vertical metal rod quenched in aqueous surfactant solution at various temperature conditions. The aqueous Triton X-100 solution(100 wppm) and pure water were used as the liquid pool. Their temperatures ranged from 77 °C to 100 °C. A stainless steel vertical rod of initial center temperature of 500 °C was used as a test specimen. In both liquid pools, as the liquid temperature decreased, the time to reach the MFB point decreased with a parallel increase in the temperature and heat flux of the MFB point. However, over the whole present temperature range, in the aqueous Triton X-100 solution, the time to reach the MFB point was longer, while the temperature and heat flux of the MFB point were reduced when compared with pure water. Based on the present experimental data, this study proposed the empirical correlations to predict the MFB temperature of a high temperature vertical metal rod in pure water and in aqueous Triton X-100 solution.
Natural convection heat transfer between vertical channel with flow resistance at the lower end
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwamoto, S.; Nishimura, S.; Ishihara, I.
2003-01-01
For natural convection in the geometrically complicated channel, the convection flow is suppressed by flow resistance due to such channel itself and the lopsided flow may take place. This could result in serious influences on the heat transfer in the channel. In order to investigate fundamentally the natural convection flow and heat transfer in such the channel, the vertical channel in which wall was heated with uniform heat flux and the flow resistance was given by small clearance between the lower end of channel and a wide horizontal floor. Flow pattern was observed by illuminating smoke filled in the channel and heat transfer rate was measured. (author)
Kudo, Rei; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Aoyagi, Toshinori
2016-07-01
The SKYLIDAR algorithm was developed to estimate vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties from sky radiometer (SKYNET) and lidar (AD-Net) measurements. The solar heating rate was also estimated from the SKYLIDAR retrievals. The algorithm consists of two retrieval steps: (1) columnar properties are retrieved from the sky radiometer measurements and the vertically mean depolarization ratio obtained from the lidar measurements and (2) vertical profiles are retrieved from the lidar measurements and the results of the first step. The derived parameters are the vertical profiles of the size distribution, refractive index (real and imaginary parts), extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor. Sensitivity tests were conducted by applying the SKYLIDAR algorithm to the simulated sky radiometer and lidar data for vertical profiles of three different aerosols, continental average, transported dust, and pollution aerosols. The vertical profiles of the size distribution, extinction coefficient, and asymmetry factor were well estimated in all cases. The vertical profiles of the refractive index and single-scattering albedo of transported dust, but not those of transported pollution aerosol, were well estimated. To demonstrate the performance and validity of the SKYLIDAR algorithm, we applied the SKYLIDAR algorithm to the actual measurements at Tsukuba, Japan. The detailed vertical structures of the aerosol optical properties and solar heating rate of transported dust and smoke were investigated. Examination of the relationship between the solar heating rate and the aerosol optical properties showed that the vertical profile of the asymmetry factor played an important role in creating vertical variation in the solar heating rate. We then compared the columnar optical properties retrieved with the SKYLIDAR algorithm to those produced with the more established scheme SKYRAD.PACK, and the surface solar irradiance calculated from the SKYLIDAR
Variable viscosity effects on mixed convection heat and mass ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An analysis is carried out to study the viscous dissipation and variable viscosity effects on the flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics in a viscous fluid over a semi-infinite vertical porous plate in the presence of chemical reaction. The governing boundary layer equations are written into a dimensionless form by similarity ...
Effects of parabolic motion on an isothermal vertical plate with constant mass flux
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Muthucumaraswamy
2014-12-01
Full Text Available An analytical study of free convection flow near a parabolic started infinite vertical plate with isothermal in the presence of uniform mass flux was considered. The mathematical model is reduced to a system of linear partial differential equations for the velocity, the concentration and the temperature; the closed form exact solutions were obtained by the Laplace transform technique. The velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for the different parameters as thermal Grashof number Gr, mass Grashof number Gc, Prandtl number Pr, Schmidt number Sc and time t were graphed and the numerical values for the skin friction were as tabulated. It is observed that the velocity is enhanced as the time increased and the velocity is decreased as the Prandtl number increased.
New Configurations of Micro Plate-Fin Heat Sink to Reduce Coolant Pumping Power
Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.
2012-06-01
The thermal resistance of heat exchangers has a strong influence on the electric power produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). In this work, a real TEG device is applied to three configurations of micro plate-fin heat sink. The distance between certain microchannels is varied to find the optimum heat sink configuration. The particular focus of this study is to reduce the coolant mass flow rate by considering the thermal resistances of the heat sinks and, thereby, to reduce the coolant pumping power in the system. The three-dimensional governing equations for the fluid flow and the heat transfer are solved using the finite-volume method for a wide range of pressure drop laminar flows along the heat sink. The temperature and the mass flow rate distribution in the heat sink are discussed. The results, which are in good agreement with previous computational studies, show that using suggested heat sink configurations reduces the coolant pumping power in the system.
Flat plate solar air heater with latent heat storage
Touati, B.; Kerroumi, N.; Virgone, J.
2017-02-01
Our work contains two parts, first is an experimental study of the solar air heater with a simple flow and forced convection, we can use thatlaste oneit in many engineering's sectors as solardrying, space heating in particular. The second part is a numerical study with ansys fluent 15 of the storage of part of this solar thermal energy produced,using latent heat by using phase change materials (PCM). In the experimental parts, we realize and tested our solar air heater in URER.MS ADRAR, locate in southwest Algeria. Where we measured the solarradiation, ambient temperature, air flow, thetemperature of the absorber, glasses and the outlet temperature of the solar air heater from the Sunrise to the sunset. In the second part, we added a PCM at outlet part of the solar air heater. This PCM store a part of the energy produced in the day to be used in peak period at evening by using the latent heat where the PCMs present a grateful storagesystem.A numerical study of the fusion or also named the charging of the PCM using ANSYS Fluent 15, this code use the method of enthalpies to solve the fusion and solidification formulations. Furthermore, to improve the conjugate heat transfer between the heat transfer fluid (Air heated in solar plate air heater) and the PCM, we simulate the effect of adding fins to our geometry. Also, four user define are write in C code to describe the thermophysicalpropriety of the PCM, and the inlet temperature of our geometry which is the temperature at the outflow of the solar heater.
Flat plate solar collector for water pre-heating using concentrated solar power (CSP)
Peris, Leonard Sunny; Shekh, Md. Al Amin; Sarker, Imran
2017-12-01
Numerous attempt and experimental conduction on different methods to harness energy from renewable sources are being conducted. This study is a contribution to the purpose of harnessing solar energy as a renewable source by using flat plate solar collector medium to preheat water. Basic theory of solar radiation and heat convection in water (working fluid) has been combined with heat conduction process by using copper tubes and aluminum absorber plate in a closed conduit, covered with a glazed through glass medium. By this experimental conduction, a temperature elevation of 35°C in 10 minutes duration which is of 61.58% efficiency range (maximum) has been achieved. The obtained data and experimental findings are validated with the theoretical formulation and an experimental demonstration model. A cost effective and simple form of heat energy extraction method for space heating/power generation has been thoroughly discussed with possible industrial implementation possibilities. Under-developed and developing countries can take this work as an illustration for renewable energy utilization for sustainable energy prospect. Also a full structure based data to derive concentrated solar energy in any geographical location of Bangladesh has been outlined in this study. These research findings can contribute to a large extent for setting up any solar based power plant in Bangladesh irrespective of its installation type.
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff
2015-01-01
Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from: inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. The work presented under this task uses the first-principles based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique to compute heat transfer from tank wall to the cryogenic fluids, and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.
Analysis of gamma heating at TRIGA mark reactor core Bandung using plate type fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Setiyanto; Tukiran Surbakti
2016-01-01
In accordance with the discontinuation of TRIGA fuel element production by its producer, the operation of all TRIGA type reactor of at all over the word will be disturbed, as well as TRIGA reactor in Bandung. In order to support the continuous operation of Bandung TRIGA reactor, a study on utilization of fuel plate mode, as used at RSG-GAS reactor, to replace the cylindrical model has been done. Various assessments have been done, including core design calculation and its safety aspects. Based on the neutronic calculation, utilization of fuel plate shows that Bandung TRIGA reactor can be operated by 20 fuel elements only. Compared with the original core, the new reactor core configuration is smaller and it results in some empty space that can be used for in-core irradiation facilities. Due to the existing of in-core irradiation facilities, the gamma heating value became a new factor that should be evaluated for safety analysis. For this reason, the gamma heating for TRIGA Bandung reactor using fuel plate was calculated by Gamset computer code. The calculations based on linear attenuation equations, line sources and gamma propagation on space. Calculations were also done for reflector positions (Lazy Susan irradiation facilities) and central irradiation position (CIP), especially for any material samples. The calculation results show that gamma heating for CIP is significantly important (0.87 W/g), but very low value for Lazy Susan position (lest then 0.11 W/g). Based on this results, it can be concluded that the utilization of CIP as irradiation facilities need to consider of gamma heating as data for safety analysis report. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Xiaozhou; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Fang, Lei
2013-01-01
In this paper, the development of a nodal model that predicts vertical temperature distribution in a typical office room with floor heating and displacement ventilation (FHDV) is described. The vertical air flow distribution is first determined according to the principle of displacement ventilati...
Kostichev, P. I.; Poddubnyi, I. I.; Razuvanov, N. G.
2017-11-01
In some DEMO blanket designs liquid metal flows in vertical ducts of rectangular cross-section between ceramic breeder units providing their cooling. Heat exchange in these conditions is governed by the influence of magnetic field (coplanar) and by buoyancy effects that depend on the flow orientation to the gravity vector (downward and upward flow). Magnetohydrodynamic and heat transfer of liquid metal in vertical rectangular ducts is not well researched. Experimental study of buoyancy effects in rectangular duct with coplanar magnetic field for one-sided heat load and downward and upward flowsis presented in this paper. The detail research with has been done on mercury MHD close loop with using of the probe technique allow to discover several advantageous and disadvantageous effects. The intensive impact of buoyancy force has been observed in a few regime of downward flow which has been laminarized by magnetic field. Due to the development in the flow of the secondary large-scale vortices heat transfer improved and the temperature fluctuations of the abnormally high intensity have been fixed. On the contrary, in the upward flow the buoyancy force stabilized the flow which lead to decreasing of the turbulence heat transfer ratio and, consequently, deterioration of heat transfer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hady, F. M.; Ibrahim, F. S.; Abdel-Gaied, S. M.; Eid, M. R.
2011-01-01
The effect of yield stress on the free convective heat transfer of dilute liquid suspensions of nanofluids flowing on a vertical plate saturated in porous medium under laminar conditions is investigated considering the nanofluid obeys the mathematical model of power-law. The model used for non-Newtonian nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The governing boundary- layer equations are cast into dimensionless system which is solved numerically using a deferred correction technique and Newton iteration. This solution depends on yield stress parameter Ω, a power-law index n, Lewis number Le, a buoyancy-ratio number Nr, a Brownian motion number Nb, and a thermophoresis number Nt. Analyses of the results found that the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are decreasing functions of the higher yield stress parameter for each dimensionless numbers, n and Le, except the reduced Sherwood number is an increasing function of higher Nb for different values of yield stress parameter
Deriving guidelines for the design of plate evaporators in heat pumps using zeotropic mixtures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mancini, Roberta; Zühlsdorf, Benjamin; Jensen, Jonas Kjær
2018-01-01
This paper presents a derivation of design guidelines for plate heat exchangers used for evaporation of zeotropic mixtures in heat pumps. A mapping of combined heat exchanger and cycle calculations for different combinations of geometrical parameters and working fluids allowed estimating the trade....... It was found that the pressure drop limit leading to infeasible designs was dependent on the working fluid, thereby making it impossible to define a guideline based on maximum allowable pressure drops. It was found that economically feasible designs could be obtained by correlating the vapour Reynolds number...
Experimental studies of PWR vertical steam generator performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding Xunshen
1998-06-01
The characteristics of heat transfer, natural circulation and moisture separation equipment with a vertical steam generator model are tested on a high-temperature and high-pressure test facility. The primary loop pipe is made of low alloy steel. the primary water at 10.13 MPa is driven by two centrifugal pumps. Boiler is designed to elevate the primary water temperature by 60 degree C at a flow rate of 65 t/h. The test model can produce a maximum steam flow of 8 t/h; 240 stainless steel U tubes are invert connected with the tubesheet, the tube dimensions are φ15 mm x 1.5 mm. The model has a height of 5.789 m. Heat transfer characteristics experiment is obtained: The steam generator thermal design can neglect the existence of preheating region, considering the saturated boiling takes place over all the tube surface. This does not exactly reflect the actual heat transfer coefficient and temperature difference. But, the product of two parameters is lower for design than for experiment so that heat transfer coefficient and temperature difference combine to result in a larger heat transfer area for design than for experiment. Moisture separator is a swirl vane separator. Dryer is a single circle of vertical chevron plate separator. Test results indicate the separation efficiency of the moisture separator and dryer is very satisfactory and the exit moisture is much better than 0.25% (the required content)
Improvement of critical heat flux correlation for research reactors using plate-type fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaminaga, Masanori; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Sudo, Yukio
1998-01-01
In research reactors, plate-type fuel elements are generally adopted so as to produce high power densities and are cooled by a downward flow. A core flow reversal from a steady-state forced downward flow to an upward flow due to natural convection should occur during operational transients such as Loss of the primary coolant flow'. Therefore, in the thermal hydraulic design of research reactors, critical heat flux (CHF) under a counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) or a flooding condition are important to determine safety margins of fuel against CHF during a core flow reversal. The authors have proposed a CHF correlation scheme for the thermal hydraulic design of research reactors, based on CHF experiments for both upward and downward flows including CCFL condition. When the CHF correlation scheme was proposed, a subcooling effect for CHF correlation under CCFL condition had not been considered because of a conservative evaluation and a lack of enough CHF data to determine the subcooling effect on CHF. A too conservative evaluation is not appropriate for the design of research reactors because of construction costs etc. Also, conservativeness of the design must be determined precisely. In this study, therefore, the subcooling effect on CHF under the CCFL conditions in vertical rectangular channels heated from both sides were investigated quantitatively based on CHF experimental results obtained under uniform and non-uniform heat flux conditions. As a result, it was made clear that CHF in this region increase linearly with an increase of the channel inlet subcooling and a new CHF correlation including the effect of channel inlet subcooling was proposed. The new correlation could be adopted under the conditions of the atmospheric pressure, the inlet subcooling less than 78K, the channel gap size between 2.25 to 5.0mm, the axial peaking factor between 1.0 to 1.6 and L/De between 71 to 174 which were the ranges investigated in this study. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anand Rao, J.; Prabhakar Reddy, B.
2010-01-01
The numerical solution of unsteady hydro-magnetic natural convection heat and mass transfer flow of a rotating, incompressible, viscous Boussinesq fluid is presented in this study in the presence of radiative heat transfer and a first order chemical reaction between the fluid and diffusing species. The Rosseland approximation for an optically thick fluid is invoked to describe the radiative flux. The solutions for velocity, temperature and concentration fields have been obtained by using Ritz finite element method. The results obtained are discussed for Grashof number(G r > 0) corresponding to cooling of the plate and (G r r , Sc, M, N, K, G r , G c and t with the help of graphs and tables. The numerical values of skin-friction coefficient entered in the tables. Results obtained show that a decrease in the temperature boundary layer occurs when the Prandtl number and the radiation parameter are increased and the flow velocity approaches steady state as the time parameter t, is increased. These findings are in quantitative agreement with earlier reported studies. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Xuan Hung; Sung, Byung Ho; Choi, Jee Hoon; Kim, Chul Ju; Yoo, Jung Hyung; Seo, Min Whan
2008-01-01
This paper investigates the plate loop heat pipe system with an evaporator mounted with fin-wick structure to dissipate effectively the heat generated by the electronic components. The heat transfer formulation is modeled and predicted through thermal resistance analysis of the fin-wick structure in the evaporator. The experimental approach measures the thermal resistances and the operating characteristics. These results gathered in this investigation have been used to the objective of the information to improve the LHP system design so as to apply as the future cooling devices of the electronic components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michopoulos, A.; Kyriakis, N. [Process Equipment Design Laboratory, Mechanical Engineer Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh), P.O. Box 487, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)
2010-07-15
The use of heat pumps combined with vertical ground heat exchangers for heating and cooling of buildings, has significantly gained popularity in recent years. The design method for these systems, as it is proposed by ASHRAE, is taking into account the maximum thermal and cooling loads of the building, the thermophysical properties of the soil at the area of installation and a minimum Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the heat pumps. This approach usually results in larger than needed length of the ground heat exchanger, thus increasing the installation cost. A new analytical simulation tool, capable to determine the required ground heat exchanger length has been developed at the Process Equipment Design Laboratory (PEDL) of the AUTh. It models the function of the system as a whole over long time periods, e.g. 20 years, using as input parameters the thermal and cooling loads of the building, the thermophysical properties of the borehole and the characteristic curves of the heat pumps. The results include the electricity consumption of the heat pumps and the heat absorbed from or rejected to the ground. The aim of this paper is to describe the developed simulation algorithm and present the results of such a simulation in a case study. It is proved that the total required length of the ground heat exchanger is less than that calculated using the common numerical method. (author)
Variable viscosity effects on mixed convection heat and mass ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DR OKE
the effects of viscous dissipation and variable viscosity on the flow of heat and mass transfer characteristics in a viscous fluid over a semi-infinite vertical porous plate in the ..... been solved by Gauss-. Seidel iteration method and numerical values are carried out after executing the computer program for it. In order to prove.
The study of development of welded compact plate heat exchanger for high temperature and pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jae Hong; Lim, Hyug; Kim, Jung Kyu; Cho, Sung Youl; Kwon, Oh Boong
2009-01-01
In view of space saving, the design of more compact heat exchangers is relatively important. Also, to meet the demand for saving energy and resources today, manufacturers are trying to enhance efficiency and reduce the size and weight of heat exchangers. Over the past decade, there has been tremendous advancement in the manufacturing technology of high efficiency heat exchangers. This has allowed the use of smaller and high performance heat exchangers. Consequently, the use of smaller and high performance heat exchanger becomes popular in the design of heat exchangers. Welded compact plate heat exchanger is used in high temperature and pressure. In the design of heat exchanger, it is necessary to understand the heat transfer characteristics, so performance data are provided to help design of this type heat exchanger.
A heat transfer study for vertical straight-tube steam generators heated by liquid metal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valette, M.
1984-04-01
A single-tube mockup of a vertical straight-tube steam generator heated by sodium-potassium alloy NaK was submitted to thermal and hydraulic testing in conditions representative of fast breeder reactor operation. The mockup consisted of a 10mm I.D. ferritic steel heat exchange tube centered inside a cylindrical stainless steel shell. The complete assembly was 20.9 meters long. Water flowed upward inside the exchange tube, and NaK flowed downward in the annular gap between the tube and the shell. The steam outlet pressure ranged from 90 to 195 bars, while the liquid metal temperature at the mockup inlet was between 480 and 580 0 C. The water flowrate in the tube ranged from 153 to 2460 kg.m -2 .s -1 . During the tests the fluid inlet and outlet temperatures, flowrate and pressures were measured, as was the NaK temperature profile over the full length of the device. The test results were subsequently compared with heat exchange and pressure drop values calculated using the standard formulas for straight-tube heat exchangers. The heat exchange coefficients predicted by these correlations in the boiling zone were found to be largely overestimated, while the calculated pressure drop values proved satisfactory. A set of modified correlations is proposed to account for the observed phenomena, and for use in designing commercial units, provided the sodium flow in the tube bundle is adequately distributed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baek, Seong Gu; Park, Seung O.
2003-01-01
This paper provides the assessment of prediction performance of explicit algebraic stress and heat-flux models under conditions of mixed convective gas flows in a strongly-heated vertical tube. Two explicit algebraic stress models and four algebraic heat-flux models are selected for assessment. Eight combinations of explicit algebraic stress and heat-flux models are used in predicting the flows experimentally studied by Shehata and McEligot (IJHMT 41(1998) p.4333) in which property variation was significant. Among the various model combinations, the Wallin and Johansson (JFM 403(2000) p. 89) explicit algebraic stress model-Abe, Kondo, and Nagano (IJHFF 17(1996) p. 228) algebraic heat-flux model combination is found to perform best. We also found that the dimensionless wall distance y + should be calculated based on the local property rather than the property at the wall for property-variation flows. When the buoyancy or the property variation effects are so strong that the flow may relaminarize, the choice of the basic platform two-equation model is a most important factor in improving the predictions
Effect of nanofluids on the performance of a miniature plate heat exchanger with modulated surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pantzali, M.N.; Kanaris, A.G.; Antoniadis, K.D.; Mouza, A.A.; Paras, S.V.
2009-01-01
In the present work, the effect of the use of a nanofluid in a miniature plate heat exchanger (PHE) with modulated surface has been studied both experimentally and numerically. First, the thermophysical properties (i.e., thermal conductivity, heat capacity, viscosity, density and surface tension) of a typical nanofluid (CuO in water, 4% v/v) were systematically measured. The effect of surface modulation on heat transfer augmentation and friction losses was then investigated by simulating the existing miniature PHE as well as a notional similar PHE with flat plate using a CFD code. Finally, the effect of the nanofluid on the PHE performance was studied and compared to that of a conventional cooling fluid (i.e., water). The results suggest that, for a given heat duty, the nanofluid volumetric flow rate required is lower than that of water causing lower pressure drop. As a result, smaller equipment and less pumping power are required. In conclusion, the use of the nanofluids seems to be a promising solution towards designing efficient heat exchanging systems, especially when the total volume of the equipment is the main issue. The only drawbacks so far are the high price and the possible instability of the nanoparticle suspensions.
The flow in an oil/water plate heat exchanger for the automotive industry
Lozano , A.; Barreras , F.; Fueyo , N.; Santodomingo , S.
2008-01-01
The flow in an oil/water plate heat exchanger for the automotive industry correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +34976716463; fax: +34976716456. (Lozano, A.) (Lozano, A.) LITEC/CSIC--> , Mar?'a de Luna 10--> , 50018--> , Zaragoza--> - SPAIN (Lozano, A.) SPAIN (Lozano, A.) LITEC/CSIC--> , Mar?'a de Luna 10--> , 50018--> , Zaragoza--> - S...
Experimental transient natural convection heat transfer from a vertical cylindrical tank
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Uhia, Francisco J.; Alberto Dopazo, J.
2011-01-01
In this paper heat transfer experimental data is presented and compared to general correlations proposed in the literature for transient laminar free convection from a vertical cylindrical tank. The experimental data has been obtained from heating and cooling experiments carried out with a cylindrical full-scale hot water storage tank working under real operating conditions. The experimental device and the data acquisition system are described. The calculation procedures established to obtain the experimental values of the heat transfer coefficients, as well as the data reduction process, are detailed. The local convection and radiation heat transfer coefficients are obtained from different heating power conditions for local Rayleigh numbers within the range of 1x10 5 -3x10 8 . The great quantity of available experimental data allows a detailed analysis with a reliable empirical base. The experimental local convection heat transfer coefficients are correlated and compared to correlations proposed in open literature for engineering calculations. - Highlights: → Experimental data of transient local convection heat transfer coefficients from a cylindrical tank for heating and cooling processes is obtained. → The transient behaviour of the convection coefficients is dependent on temperature difference evolutions between the surface and the air. → The Nu.Ra -1/4 ratio decreases proportionally in (T s -T ∞ ) -0.9 . → A new correlation based on the semi-infinite region theory for laminar transient free convection is proposed.
Three-dimensional fluctuating Couette flow through the porous plates with heat transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Guria
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Unsteady Couette flow of a viscous incompressible fluid between two horizontal porous flat plates is considered. The stationary plate is subjected to a periodic suction and the plate in uniform motion is subjected to uniform injection. Approximate solutions have been obtained for the velocity and the temperature fields, skin friction by using perturbation technique. The heat transfer characteristic has also been studied on taking viscous dissipation into account. It is found that the main flow velocity decreases with increase in frequency parameter. On the other hand, the magnitude of the cross-flow velocity increases with increase in frequency parameter. It is seen that the amplitude of the shear stress due to main flow decreases while that due to cross-flow increases with increase in frequency parameter. It is also seen that the tangent of phase shifts both due to the main and cross-flows decrease with increase in frequency parameter. It is observed that the temperature increases with increase in frequency parameter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boričić Zoran
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with laminar, unsteady flow of viscous, incompressible and electro conductive fluid caused by variable motion of flat plate. Fluid electro conductivity is variable. Velocity of the plate is time function. Plate moves in its own plane and in "still" fluid. Present external magnetic filed is perpendicular to the plate. Plate temperature is a function of longitudinal coordinate and time. Viscous dissipation, Joule heat, Hole and polarization effects are neglected. For obtaining of universal equations system general similarity method is used as well as impulse and energy equation of described problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koon Beng Ooi
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The ground heat exchanger is traditionally used as a heat source or sink for the heat pump that raises the temperature of water to about 50 °C to heat houses. However, in winter, the heating thermostat (temperature at which heating begins in the Australian Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS is only 20 °C during daytime and 15 °C at night. In South-East Melbourne, the temperature at the bottom of a 50-meter-deep borehole has been recorded with an Emerson™ recorder at 17 °C. Melbourne has an annual average temperature of 15 °C, so the ground temperature increases by 2 °C per 50-m depth. A linear projection gives 23 °C at 200-m of depth, and as the average undisturbed temperature of the ground for a 400-m-deep vertical ground heat exchanger (VGHE. This study, by simulation and experimentation, aims to verify that the circulation of water in the VGHE’s U-tube to low-temperature radiators (LTRs could heat a house to thermal comfort. A literature review is included in the introduction. A simulation, using a model of a 60-m2 experimental house, shows that the daytime circulation of water in this VGHE/LTR-on-opposite-walls system during the 8-month cold half of the year, heats the indoors to NatHERS settings. Simulation for the cold half shows that this VGHE-LTR system could cool the indoors. Instead, a fan creating a cooling sensation of up to 4 °C is used so that the VGHE is available for the regeneration of heat extracted from the ground during the cold portion. Simulations for this hot portion show that a 3.4-m2 flat plate solar collector can collect more than twice the heat extracted from the ground in the cold portion. Thus, it can thus replenish the ground heat extracted for houses double the size of this 60-m2 experimental house. Therefore, ground heat is sustainable for family-size homes. Since no heat pump is used, the cost of VGHE-LTR systems could be comparable to systems using the ground source heat pump. Water
Heat conduction in a plate-type fuel element with time-dependent boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faya, A.J.G.; Maiorino, J.R.
1981-01-01
A method for the solution of boundary-value problems with variable boundary conditions is applied to solve a heat conduction problem in a plate-type fuel element with time dependent film coefficient. The numerical results show the feasibility of the method in the solution of this class of problems. (Author) [pt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Das
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The combined effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on the momentum and thermal transport for the magnetohydrodynamic flow past an inclined plate in both aiding and opposing buoyancy situations have been carried out. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge–Kutta fourth order method with shooting technique. Numerical results are obtained for the fluid velocity, temperature as well as the shear stress and the rate of heat transfer at the plate. The results show that there are significant effects of pertinent parameters on the flow fields.
Modeling and analysis of waves in a heat conducting thermo-elastic plate of elliptical shape
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Selvamani
Full Text Available Wave propagation in heat conducting thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-section is studied using the Fourier expansion collocation method based on Suhubi's generalized theory. The equations of motion based on two-dimensional theory of elasticity is applied under the plane strain assumption of generalized thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-sections composed of homogeneous isotropic material. The frequency equations are obtained by using the boundary conditions along outer and inner surface of elliptical cross-sectional plate using Fourier expansion collocation method. The computed non-dimensional frequency, velocity and quality factor are plotted in dispersion curves for longitudinal and flexural (symmetric and antisymmetric modes of vibrations.
Elias, M. M.; Saidur, R.; Ben-Mansour, R.; Hepbasli, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Jesbains, K.
2018-04-01
Nanofluid is a new class of engineering fluid that has good heat transfer characteristics which is essential to increase the heat transfer performance in various engineering applications such as heat exchangers and cooling of electronics. In this study, experiments were conducted to compare the heat transfer performance and pressure drop characteristics in a plate heat exchanger (PHE) for 30° and 60° chevron angles using water based Al2O3 nanofluid at the concentrations from 0 to 0.5 vol.% for different Reynolds numbers. The thermo-physical properties has been determined and presented in this paper. At 0.5 vol% concentration, the maximum heat transfer coefficient, the overall heat transfer coefficient and the heat transfer rate for 60° chevron angle have attained a higher percentage of 15.14%, 7.8% and 15.4%, respectively in comparison with the base fluid. Consequently, when the volume concentration or Reynolds number increases, the heat transfer coefficient and the overall heat transfer coefficient as well as the heat transfer rate of the PHE (Plate Heat Exchangers) increases respectively. Similarly, the pressure drop increases with the volume concentration. 60° chevron angle showed better performance in comparison with 30° chevron angle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melnikov, I.A., E-mail: corpuskula@gmail.com; Sviridov, E.V.; Sviridov, V.G.; Razuvanov, N.G.
2016-11-15
Highlights: • Local and averaged heat transfer coefficient are measured. • Free convection influence on MHD-flow is investigated. • The region with the free convection effect of MHD-heat transfer is found. • Temperature low-frequency fluctuations of abnormally high amplitude are detected. • Analysis of the MHD-heat transfer experimental data is performed. - Abstract: The article is devoted to the results of experimental investigation of heat transfer for a downward mercury flow in a vertical round tube in the presence of a transverse magnetic with non-uniform heat flux along the tube circumference.
A Green's function solution for a rectangular heat source on an infinite plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bainbridge, B.L.
1989-01-01
The applications associated with a rectangular heat source on an infinite plate range from integrated circuits to thin film heat flux sensors on thin substrates. The particular problem from which the solution is developed concerns the use of a resistive strip for monitoring currents generated in circuits exposed to electromagnetic fields. The Green's function formulation is solved by using early and late time approximations for which analytical solutions can be derived. In this paper expressions are developed for three sets of boundary conditions and compared to the experimental performance of a physical device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mingjong Wang; Weichung Wang
1994-01-01
In this paper, the maximum transient thermal stresses on the boundary of a near-edge elliptical defect in a semi-infinite thin plate were determined by the digital photoelastic technique, when the plate edge experiences a moving heat source. The relationships between the maximum transient thermal stresses and the size and inclination of the elliptical defect, the minimum distance from the elliptical defect to the plate edge as well as the speed of the moving heat source were also studied. Finally, by using a statistical analysis package, the variations of the maximum transient thermal stresses were then correlated with the time, the minimum distance between the edge and the elliptical defect, temperature difference, and speed of the moving heat source. (author)
Pandit, K. K.; Sarma, D.; Singh, S. I.
2017-12-01
An investigation of the effects of a chemical reaction and thermal radiation on unsteady MHD free convection heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible fluid past a vertical infinite flat plate embedded in a porous medium is carried out. The flow is induced by a general time-dependent movement of the vertical plate, and the cases of ramped temperature and isothermal plates are studied. An exact solution of the governing equations is obtained in closed form by the Laplace Transform technique. Some applications of practical interest for different types of plate motions are discussed. The numerical values of fluid velocity, temperature and species concentration are displayed graphically whereas the numerical values of skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented in a tabular form for various values of pertinent flow parameters for both ramped temperature and isothermal plates.
Modeling and computation of heat exchanges in the configuration of an impinging jet on a hot plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seiler, N.; Mimouni, S.; Simonin, O.; Gardin, P.; Seiler, J.M.
2003-01-01
The knowledge of the metal temperature history is essential, especially when strip leave the rolling mill, to get adequate final mechanical properties of steel. Some experiments have yet been carried out on the heat transfer associated with the impingement of a planar (1*9 mm 2 ) subcooled (5-16 K) water jet on a heated plate. Complete boiling curves were then obtained at different locations from the stagnation point and it was observed a phenomenon of 'shoulder of flux' in the transition boiling region near the impingement point. The aim of this work is to compute the heat flux transferred between a very hot plate and a subcooled liquid under a planar impinging jet to obtain the transient temperature distribution in the plate. To achieve this goal, a physical modelling of the phenomenon of 'shoulder of flux' has been carried out. This modelling is based on the assumption that the apparition of periodic bubble oscillations at the wall surface is due to the hydrodynamic fragmentation by the jet. The relation derived from this modelling is validated against experimental results from the literature obtained for a wide range of jet velocity, subcooling and jet diameter. This model is implemented in the new multiphase flow solver developed by EDF 'SATURNE polyphasique'. Numerical results are then compared to experimental heat fluxes obtained on previous experiments. (authors)
Natural convection in an adiabatic vertical channel due to a dissipated heat element
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos, M.A.M.S.
1986-01-01
An experimental study was perfomed on natural convection heat transfer to air in a vertical channel due to an isothermal heated element attached in one of the walls of the channel. The heated element dissipates heat due to the Joule effect. To determine the heat transfer coefficient, it is necessary to evaluate the heat transferred to air by natural convenction alone. Hence, the heat lost by the element due to conduction and radiation is evaluated in order to correct the measured heat transfer. The natural-convenction heat transfer coefficient is a function of the following parameters: the temperature difference between the element and the ambient air, the position of the element in the channel, and the channel spacing. An optimal value of the channel spacing, when the heat transfer coefficient attains its maximum value, was observed for each of the temperature difference investigated. These maximum values may be up to 25% higher than the value for the case of infinite spacing. Comparisons are made with results available in the literature for similar configurations, and the values found in this work are higher. (author) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernier, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mecanique
2000-12-01
The successful design and analysis of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems depends in large part on the adequate prediction of ground water heat transfer. The author presented a detailed review of the cylindrical heat source method utilized for the prediction of transient heat transfer in vertical U-tube ground heat exchangers. The physics that underlies the theory applicable to this technology is explained in a step-by-step manner. Explanations are also provided for the equations that govern the determination of design lengths for the cylindrical heat method, as presented in the ASHRAE handbook. Some improvements were recommended by the author, such as the calculation of the effective thermal resistances using the borehole diameter instead of the equivalent U-tube diameter now in use. Annual hour-by-hour building load calculations should be used to calculate ground loads. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs., 3 appendices.
Irradiation effects on weld heat-affected zone and plate materials (series 11)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nanstad, R.K.; McCabe, D.E.
1995-01-01
The purpose of this task is to examine the effects of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness (ductile and brittle) of the HAZ of welds and of A 302 grade B (A302B) plate materials typical of those used fabricating older RPVs. The initial plate material of emphasis will be A302B steel, not the A302B modified with nickel additions. This decision was made by the NRC following a survey of the materials of construction for RPBs in operating U.S. nuclear plants. Reference 1 was used for the preliminary survey, and the information from that report was revised by NRC staff based on information contained in the licensee responses to Generic Letter (GL) 92-01, open-quotes Reactor Vessel Structural Integrity, 10CFR50.54(f).close quotes The resulting survey showed a total of eight RPVs with A302B, ten with A302B (modified), and one with A302 grade A plate. Table 5.1 in the previous semiannual report provides a summary of that survey. For the HAZ portion of the program, the intent is to examine HAZ material in the A302B (i.e., with low nickel content) and in A302B (modified) or A533B-1 (i.e., with medium nickel content). During this reporting period, two specific plates were identified as being applicable to this task. One plate is A302B and the other is A302B (modified). The A302B plate (43 x 42 x 7 in.) will be prepared for welding, while the A302B (modified) plate already contains a commercially produced weld (heat 33A277, Linde 0091 flux). These plates were identified from a list of ten materials provided by Mr. E. Biemiller of Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC). The materials have been requested from YAEC for use in this irradiation task, and arrangements are being made with YAEC for procurement of the plates mentioned above
Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate
Vitale, Nicholas G.; Jones, Daniel O.
2000-01-01
A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.
A mechanistic model of heat transfer for gas-liquid flow in vertical wellbore annuli.
Yin, Bang-Tang; Li, Xiang-Fang; Liu, Gang
2018-01-01
The most prominent aspect of multiphase flow is the variation in the physical distribution of the phases in the flow conduit known as the flow pattern. Several different flow patterns can exist under different flow conditions which have significant effects on liquid holdup, pressure gradient and heat transfer. Gas-liquid two-phase flow in an annulus can be found in a variety of practical situations. In high rate oil and gas production, it may be beneficial to flow fluids vertically through the annulus configuration between well tubing and casing. The flow patterns in annuli are different from pipe flow. There are both casing and tubing liquid films in slug flow and annular flow in the annulus. Multiphase heat transfer depends on the hydrodynamic behavior of the flow. There are very limited research results that can be found in the open literature for multiphase heat transfer in wellbore annuli. A mechanistic model of multiphase heat transfer is developed for different flow patterns of upward gas-liquid flow in vertical annuli. The required local flow parameters are predicted by use of the hydraulic model of steady-state multiphase flow in wellbore annuli recently developed by Yin et al. The modified heat-transfer model for single gas or liquid flow is verified by comparison with Manabe's experimental results. For different flow patterns, it is compared with modified unified Zhang et al. model based on representative diameters.
Thermo-mechanical design of the Plasma Driver Plate for the MITICA ion source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pavei, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.pavei@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Palma, Mauro Dalla; Marcuzzi, Diego [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)
2010-12-15
In the framework of the activities for the development of the Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) for ITER, the detailed design of the Radio-Frequency (RF) negative ion source has been carried out. One of the most heated components of the RF source is the rear vertical plate, named Plasma Driver Plate (PDP), where the Back-Streaming positive Ions (BSI+) generated from stripping losses in the accelerator and back scattered on the plasma source impinge on. The heat loads that result are huge and concentrated, with first estimate of the power densities up to 60 MW/m{sup 2}. The breakdowns that occur into the accelerator cause such heat loads to act cyclically, so that the PDP is thermo-mechanically fatigue loaded. Moreover, the surface of the PDP facing the plasma is functionally required to be temperature controlled and to be molybdenum or tungsten coated. The thermo-hydraulic design of the plate has been carried out considering active cooling with ultra-pure water. Different heat sink materials, hydraulic circuit layout and manufacturing processes have been considered. The heat exhaust has been optimized by changing the channels geometry, the path of the heat flux in the heat sink, the thickness of the plate and maximizing the Heat Transfer Coefficient. Such optimization has been carried out by utilizing 3D Finite Element (FE) models. Afterwards all the suitable mechanical (aging, structural monotonic and cyclic) verifications have been carried out post-processing the results of the thermo-mechanical 3D FE analyses in accordance to specific procedures for nuclear components exposed to high temperature. The effect of sputtering phenomenon due to the high energy BSI+ impinging on the plate has been considered and combined with fatigue damage for the mechanical verification of the PDP. Alternative solutions having molybdenum (or tungsten coatings) facing the plasma, aiming to reduce the sputtering rate and the consequent plasma pollution, have been evaluated and related 3D FE
Effect of Buoyancy on Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Channels - a Literature Survey
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharyya, A
1965-03-15
This report contains a short resume of the available information from various sources on the effect of free convection flow on forced convection heat transfer in vertical channels. Both theoretical and experimental investigations are included. Nearly all of the theoretical investigations are concerned with laminar flow with or without internal heat generation. More consistent data are available for upward flow than for downward flow. Curves are presented to determine whether free convection or forced convection mode of heat transfer is predominant for a particular Reynolds number and Rayleigh number. At Re{sub b} > 10{sup 5} free convection effects are negligible. Downward flow through a heated channel at low Reynolds number is unstable. Under similar conditions the overall heat transfer coefficient for downward flow tends to be higher than that for upward flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Seok; Chun, Se Young; Moon, Sang Ki; Baek, Won Pil
2003-11-01
KAERI has performed an experimental study of water Critical Heat Flux (CHF) under zero flow conditions with a non-uniformly heated 3 by 3 rod bundle. Experimental conditions are in the range of a system pressure from 0.5 to 15.0 MPa and inlet water subcooling enthalpies from 67.5 to 351.5 kJ/kg. The test section used in the present experiments consisted of a vertical flow channel, upper and lower plenums, and a non-uniformly heated 3 by 3 rod bundle. The experimental results show that the CHFs in low-pressure conditions are somewhat scattered within a narrow range. As the system pressure increases, however, the CHFs show a consistent parametric trend. The CHFs occur in the upper region of the heated section, but the vertical distances of the detected CHFs from the bottom of the heated section are reduced as the system pressure increases. Even though the effects of the inlet water subcooling enthalpies and system pressure in the flooding CHF are relatively smaller than those of the flow boiling CHF, the CHF increases by increasing the inlet water subcooling enthalpies. Several existing correlations for the countercurrent flooding CHF based on Wallis's flooding correlation and Kutateladze's criterion for the onset of flooding are compared with the CHF data obtained in the present experiments to examine the applicability of the correlations.
A Heat Transfer Correlation in a Vertical Upward Flow of CO2 at Supercritical Pressures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyung Rae; Bae, Yoon Yeong; Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Hwan Yeol
2006-01-01
Heat transfer data has been collected in the heat transfer test loop, named SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), in KAERI. The facility primarily aims at the generation of heat transfer data in the flow conditions and geometries relevant to SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor). The produced data will aid the thermohydraulic design of a reactor core. The loop uses carbon dioxide, and later the results will be scaled to the water flows. The heat transfer data has been collected for a vertical upward flow in a circular tube with varying mass fluxes, heat fluxes, and operating pressures. The results are compared with the existing correlations and a new correlation is proposed by fine-tuning the one of the existing correlations
Slip effects on MHD flow and heat transfer of ferrofluids over a moving flat plate
Ramli, Norshafira; Ahmad, Syakila; Pop, Ioan
2017-08-01
In this study, the problem of MHD flow and heat transfer of ferrofluids over a moving flat plate with slip effect and uniform heat flux is considered. The governing ordinary differential equations are solved via shooting method. The effect of slip parameter on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt numbers are numerically studied for the three selected ferroparticles; magnetite (Fe3O4), cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) and Mn-Zn ferrite (Mn-ZnFe2O4) with water-based fluid. The results indicate that dual solutions exist for a plate moving towards the origin. It is found that the slip process delays the boundary layer separation. Moreover, the velocity and thermal boundary-layer thicknesses decrease in the first solution while increase with the increase of the value of slip parameters in second solution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Fan
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the clinical effect of heat gutta-percha vertical condensation in the treatment of pulpitis and periapical periodontitis. Methods: A total of 120 patients with pulpitis and periapical periodontitis who were admitted in our hospital from February, 2015 to February, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the observation group were given heat gutta-percha vertical condensation for root canal filling, while the patients in the control group were given cold gutta-percha lateral condensation root canal filling. The root canal filling was evaluated. The changes of GI, SBI, and PD before and after treatment were observed. Results: The correct filling, shorting filling, and extra filling in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group. After treatment, GI, SBI, and PD were significantly reduced, and the reduced degree in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group. Conclusions: Heat gutta-percha vertical condensation in the treatment of pulpitis and periapical periodontitis can significantly enhance the therapeutic effect, and improve GI, SBI, and PD, with a significant clinical effect; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended.
ali shokrgozar abbasi; Asghar Baradaran Rahimi; Hamidreza Mozayeni
2016-01-01
General formulation and solution of Navier-Stokes and energy equations are sought in the study of threedimensional axisymmetric unsteady stagnation-point flow and heat transfer impinging on a flat plate when the plate is moving with variable velocity and acceleration towards the main stream or away from it. As an application, among others, this accelerated plate can be assumed as a solidification front which is being formed with variable velocity. An external fluid, along z - directi...
Turbulent mixed convection from a large, high temperature, vertical flat surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, G.; Greif, R.; Siebers, D.; Tieszen, S.
2005-01-01
Turbulent mixed convection heat transfer at high temperatures and large length scales is an important and seldom studied phenomenon that can represent a significant part of the overall heat transfer in applications ranging from solar central receivers to objects in fires. This work is part of a study to validate turbulence models for predicting heat transfer to or from surfaces at large temperature differences and large length scales. Here, turbulent, three-dimensional, mixed convection heat transfer in air from a large (3m square) vertical flat surface at high temperatures is studied using two RANS turbulence models: a standard k-ε model and the v2-bar -f model. Predictions for three cases spanning the range of the experiment (Siebers, D.L., Schwind, R.G., Moffat, R.F., 1982. Experimental mixed convection from a large, vertical plate in a horizontal flow. Paper MC13, vol. 3, Proc. 7th Int. Heat Transfer Conf., Munich; Siebers, D.L., 1983. Experimental mixed convection heat transfer from a large, vertical surface in a horizontal flow. PhD thesis, Stanford University) from forced (GrH/ReL2=0.18) to mixed (GrH/ReL2=3.06) to natural (GrH/ReL2=∼) convection are compared with data. The results show a decrease in the heat transfer coefficient as GrH/ReL2 is increased from 0.18 to 3.06, for a free-stream velocity of 4.4m/s. In the natural convection case, the experimental heat transfer coefficient is approximately constant in the fully turbulent region, whereas the calculated heat transfer coefficients show a slight increase with height. For the three cases studied, the calculated and experimental heat transfer coefficients agree to within 5-35% over most of the surface with the v2-bar -f model results showing better agreement with the data. Calculated temperature and velocity profiles show good agreement with the data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malekzadeh, S; Mirzaee, I; Pourmahmoud, N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirvani, H, E-mail: s.malekzadeh.d@gmail.com [Department of Computing Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford (United Kingdom)
2017-04-15
This paper presents three-dimensional simulation results to investigate the reduction of fluid forces acting on a square cylinder by a passive control method, i.e. placing a vertical control plate upstream of the cylinder. The simulations were carried out for Re{sub W} = 500, based on the width of the square cylinder (W) and the inlet flow velocity. The width of the control plate (h) varied between 0.1 W and 0.9 W and the distance between the control plate and cylinder (S) was set in the range of 1.1 W –5 W. The flow patterns, vortex shedding frequency, and wake vorticity structures were studied to determine the flow instabilities that existed over the square cylinder and control plate. In addition, the reduction of mean and fluctuating fluid forces acting on the square cylinder in the presence of a control plate was studied, and compared with the single square cylinder in order to identify optimum conditions. The results indicated that the case with h = 0.7 W and 2.5 W ≤ S ≤ 3 W emerged as optimal, offering the highest reduction in the fluid forces that occurred over the square cylinder. (paper)
Radiation Effects on the Flow and Heat Transfer over a Moving Plate in a Parallel Stream
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishak, Anuar
2009-01-01
Effects of thermal radiation on the steady laminar boundary layer flow over a moving plate in a moving fluid is investigated. Under certain conditions, the present problem reduces to the classical Blasius and Sakiadis problems. It is found that dual solutions exist when the plate and the fluid move in the opposite directions. Moreover, the existence of thermal radiation is to reduce the heat transfer rate at the surface. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuda, F.; Kondr, M.; Kresta, M.; Kusak, V.; Manek, O.; Turon, S.
1982-01-01
A vertical steam generator for nuclear power plants and dual purpose power plants consists of a cylindrical vessel in which are placed heating tubes in the form upside-down U. The heating tubes lead to the jacket of the cylindrical collector placed in the lower part of the steam generator perpendicularly to its vertical axis. The cylindrical collector is divided by a longitudinal partition into the inlet and outlet primary water sections of the heating tubes. One ends of the heating tube leads to the jacket of the collector for primary water feeding and the second ends of the heating tubes into the jacket of the collector which feeds and offtakes primary water from the heating tubes. (B.S.)
High-Power Laser Cutting of Steel Plates: Heat Affected Zone Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imed Miraoui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The thermal effect of CO2 high-power laser cutting on cut surface of steel plates is investigated. The effect of the input laser cutting parameters on the melted zone depth (MZ, the heat affected zone depth (HAZ, and the microhardness beneath the cut surface is analyzed. A mathematical model is developed to relate the output process parameters to the input laser cutting parameters. Three input process parameters such as laser beam diameter, cutting speed, and laser power are investigated. Mathematical models for the melted zone and the heat affected zone depth are developed by using design of experiment approach (DOE. The results indicate that the input laser cutting parameters have major effect on melted zone, heat affected zone, and microhardness beneath cut surface. The MZ depth, the HAZ depth, and the microhardness beneath cut surface increase as laser power increases, but they decrease with increasing cutting speed. Laser beam diameter has a negligible effect on HAZ depth but it has a remarkable effect on MZ depth and HAZ microhardness. The melted zone depth and the heat affected zone depth can be reduced by increasing laser cutting speed and decreasing laser power and laser beam diameter.
On a non-linear problem posed by the temperature determination in an electrically heated plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerber, R.
1958-01-01
Let us consider a flat plate, electrically heated, with one face thermally insulated and the other face isothermal. It is shown that a two-dimensional perturbation of the insulated face has no influence on the temperature of this face. (author) [fr
Flow and pressure drop fluctuations in a vertical tube subject to low frequency oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pendyala, Rajashekhar; Jayanti, Sreenivas; Balakrishnan, A.R.
2008-01-01
Heat transfer and other equipment mounted on off-shore platforms may be subjected to low frequency oscillations. The effect of these oscillations, typically in the frequency range of 0.1-1 Hz, on the flow rate and pressure drop in a vertical tube has been studied experimentally in the present work. A 1.75 m-long vertical tube of inner diameter 0.016 m was mounted on a plate and the whole plate was subjected to oscillations in the vertical plane using a mechanical simulator capable of providing low frequency oscillations in the range of 8-30 cycles/min at an amplitude of 0.125 m. The effect of the oscillations on the flow rate and the pressure drop has been measured systematically in the Reynolds number range 500-6500. The induced flow rate fluctuations were found to be dependent on the Reynolds number with stronger fluctuations at lower Reynolds numbers. The effective friction factor, based on the mean pressure drop and the mean flow rate, was also found to be higher than expected. Correlations have been developed to quantify this Reynolds number dependence
Flow and pressure drop fluctuations in a vertical tube subject to low frequency oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pendyala, Rajashekhar; Jayanti, Sreenivas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Balakrishnan, A.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: arbala@iitm.ac.in
2008-01-15
Heat transfer and other equipment mounted on off-shore platforms may be subjected to low frequency oscillations. The effect of these oscillations, typically in the frequency range of 0.1-1 Hz, on the flow rate and pressure drop in a vertical tube has been studied experimentally in the present work. A 1.75 m-long vertical tube of inner diameter 0.016 m was mounted on a plate and the whole plate was subjected to oscillations in the vertical plane using a mechanical simulator capable of providing low frequency oscillations in the range of 8-30 cycles/min at an amplitude of 0.125 m. The effect of the oscillations on the flow rate and the pressure drop has been measured systematically in the Reynolds number range 500-6500. The induced flow rate fluctuations were found to be dependent on the Reynolds number with stronger fluctuations at lower Reynolds numbers. The effective friction factor, based on the mean pressure drop and the mean flow rate, was also found to be higher than expected. Correlations have been developed to quantify this Reynolds number dependence.
Thermal-economic modeling and optimization of vertical ground-coupled heat pump
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanaye, Sepehr; Niroomand, Behzad [Energy Systems Improvement Laboratory (ESIL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran 16488 (Iran)
2009-04-15
The optimal design process of a ground source heat pump includes thermal modeling of the system and selection of optimal design parameters which affect the system performance as well as initial and operational costs. In this paper, the modeling and optimizing processes of a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) with closed vertical ground heat exchanger (VGHX) are presented. To verify the modeling procedure of heat pump and VGHX systems, the simulation outputs were compared with the corresponding values reported in the literature and acceptable accuracy was obtained. Then an objective function (the sum of annual operating and investment costs of the system) was defined and minimized, exposed to the specified constraints to estimate the optimum design parameters (decision variables). Two Nelder-Mead and genetic algorithm optimization techniques were applied to guarantee the validity of the optimization results. For the given heating/cooling loads and various climatic conditions, the optimum values of heat pump design parameters (saturated temperature/pressure of condenser and evaporator) as well as VGHX design parameters (inlet and outlet temperatures of the ground water source, pipe diameter, depth and number of boreholes) were predicted. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of change in the total annual cost of the system and optimum design parameters with the climatic conditions, cooling/heating capacity, soil type, and number of boreholes were discussed. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of change in optimum design parameters with increase in the investment and electricity costs was performed. (author)
Thermal-economic modeling and optimization of vertical ground-coupled heat pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanaye, Sepehr; Niroomand, Behzad
2009-01-01
The optimal design process of a ground source heat pump includes thermal modeling of the system and selection of optimal design parameters which affect the system performance as well as initial and operational costs. In this paper, the modeling and optimizing processes of a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) with closed vertical ground heat exchanger (VGHX) are presented. To verify the modeling procedure of heat pump and VGHX systems, the simulation outputs were compared with the corresponding values reported in the literature and acceptable accuracy was obtained. Then an objective function (the sum of annual operating and investment costs of the system) was defined and minimized, exposed to the specified constraints to estimate the optimum design parameters (decision variables). Two Nelder-Mead and genetic algorithm optimization techniques were applied to guarantee the validity of the optimization results. For the given heating/cooling loads and various climatic conditions, the optimum values of heat pump design parameters (saturated temperature/pressure of condenser and evaporator) as well as VGHX design parameters (inlet and outlet temperatures of the ground water source, pipe diameter, depth and number of boreholes) were predicted. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of change in the total annual cost of the system and optimum design parameters with the climatic conditions, cooling/heating capacity, soil type, and number of boreholes were discussed. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of change in optimum design parameters with increase in the investment and electricity costs was performed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimming, M.; Sundberg, C.; Nordberg, Å.; Hansson, P.-A.
2015-01-01
Farmers can use their own agricultural biomass residues for heat production in small-scale systems, enabling synergies between the district heating (DH) sector and agriculture. The barriers to entry into the Swedish heat market were extremely high as long as heat distribution were considered natural monopoly, but were recently lowered due to the introduction of a regulated third party access (TPA) system in the DH sector. This study assesses the potential impact on greenhouse gas emissions and cost-based heat price in the DH sector when farmers vertically integrate into the heat supply chain and introduce more local and agricultural crops and residues into the fuel mix. Four scenarios with various degree of farmer integration, were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and by analysis of the heat production costs. The results show that full integration of local farm and forest owners in the value chain can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower production costs/heat price, if there is an incentive to utilise local and agricultural fuels. The results imply that farmer participation in the DH sector should be encouraged by e.g. EU rural development programmes. - Highlights: • Five DH production systems based on different fuels and ownership were analysed. • Lower GHG emissions were obtained when farmers integrate fully into the DH chain. • Lower heat price was obtained by full vertical integration of farmers. • Salix and straw-based production resulted in the lowest GHG and heat price
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goyal M.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, triple diffusive natural convection under Darcy flow over an inclined plate embedded in a porous medium saturated with a binary base fluid containing nanoparticles and two salts is studied. The model used for the nanofluid is the one which incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. In addition, the thermal energy equations include regular diffusion and cross-diffusion terms. The vertical surface has the heat, mass and nanoparticle fluxes each prescribed as a power law function of the distance along the wall. The boundary layer equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of group theory transformations. A wide range of parameter values are chosen to bring out the effect of buoyancy ratio, regular Lewis number and modified Dufour parameters of both salts and nanofluid parameters with varying angle of inclinations. The effects of parameters on the velocity, temperature, solutal and nanoparticles volume fraction profiles, as well as on the important parameters of heat and mass transfer, i.e., the reduced Nusselt, regular and nanofluid Sherwood numbers, are discussed. Such problems find application in extrusion of metals, polymers and ceramics, production of plastic films, insulation of wires and liquid packaging.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pandit K. K.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available An investigation of the effects of a chemical reaction and thermal radiation on unsteady MHD free convection heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible fluid past a vertical infinite flat plate embedded in a porous medium is carried out. The flow is induced by a general time-dependent movement of the vertical plate, and the cases of ramped temperature and isothermal plates are studied. An exact solution of the governing equations is obtained in closed form by the Laplace Transform technique. Some applications of practical interest for different types of plate motions are discussed. The numerical values of fluid velocity, temperature and species concentration are displayed graphically whereas the numerical values of skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented in a tabular form for various values of pertinent flow parameters for both ramped temperature and isothermal plates.
Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer of ethanol aqueous solutions in vertical annulus space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarafraz M.M.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The subcooled flow boiling heat-transfer characteristics of water and ethanol solutions in a vertical annulus have been investigated up to heat flux 132kW/m2. The variations in the effects of heat flux and fluid velocity, and concentration of ethanol on the observed heat-transfer coefficients over a range of ethanol concentrations implied an enhanced contribution of nucleate boiling heat transfer in flow boiling, where both forced convection and nucleate boiling heat transfer occurred. Increasing the ethanol concentration led to a significant deterioration in the observed heat-transfer coefficient because of a mixture effect, that resulted in a local rise in the saturation temperature of ethanol/water solution at the vapor-liquid interface. The reduction in the heat-transfer coefficient with increasing ethanol concentration is also attributed to changes in the fluid properties (for example, viscosity and heat capacity of tested solutions with different ethanol content. The experimental data were compared with some well-established existing correlations. Results of comparisons indicate existing correlations are unable to obtain the acceptable values. Therefore a modified correlation based on Gnielinski correlation has been proposed that predicts the heat transfer coefficient for ethanol/water solution with uncertainty about 8% that is the least in comparison to other well-known existing correlations.
Heat Transfer Characteristics of CO2 at Supercritical Pressure in a Vertical Circular Tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Tae Ho; Bae, Yoon Yong; Kim, Hwan Yeol
2011-01-01
At supercritical pressure, the physical properties of fluid change substantially and the heat transfer at a temperature similar to the critical or pseudo-critical temperature improves considerably: however, the heat transfer may deteriorate due to a sudden increase in the wall temperature at a certain condition of a mass and heat flux. In this study, the heat transfer rates in CO 2 flowing vertically upward and downward in a circular tube with a diameter of 4.57 mm under various conditions were calculated by measuring the temperature of the outer wall of the tube. The published heat transfer correlations(6,7) were analyzed by comparing their prediction values with 7,250 experimental data. By introducing a buoyancy parameter, a heat transfer correlation, which could be applied only to a normal heat transfer regime, was extended such that it can be applied to regime of heat transfer deterioration. The published criteria for heat transfer deterioration(9-12) were evaluated against the conditions obtained from the experiment in this study
Numerical analysis of mixing process of two component gases in vertical fluid layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatori, Hirofumi; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Funatani, Shumpei
2015-01-01
When the depressurization accident occurs in the Very-High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR), it is expected that air enter into the reactor core. Therefore, it is important to know a mixing process of different kind of gases in the stable or unstable stratified fluid layer. Especially, it is also important to examine an influence of localized natural convection and molecular diffusion on mixing process from a viewpoint of safety. In order to research the mixing process of two component gases and flow characteristics of the localized natural convection, we have carried out numerical analysis using three dimensional CFD code. The numerical model was consisted of a storage tank and a reverse U-shaped vertical slot. They were separated by a partition plate. One side of the left vertical fluid layer was heated and the other side was cooled. The right vertical fluid layer was also cooled. The procedure of numerical analysis is as follows. Firstly, the storage tank was filled with heavy gas and the reverse U-shaped vertical slot was filled with light gas. In the left vertical fluid layer, the localized natural convection was generated by the temperature difference between the vertical walls. The flow characteristics were obtained by a steady state analysis. The unsteady state analysis was started when the partition plate was opened. The gases were mixed by molecular diffusion and natural convection. After the time elapsed, natural circulation occurred. The result obtained in this numerical analysis is as follows. The temperature difference of the left vertical fluid layer was set to 100 K. The combination of the mixed gas was nitrogen and argon. After 76 minutes elapsed, natural circulation occurred. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Alcantar Martínez
2017-07-01
Full Text Available At present in Mexico, the renewable energy has become more important due to the great dependence of the country for fossil fuels. Within the several applications of renewable energy, there are the geothermal applications for the air conditioning of spaces. This technology employs heat pumps that interexchange heat with the ground. This technology is relatively young in Mexico, leaving a large field for study and application throughout the country. In this way, to calculate the correct sizing of geothermal heat exchangers, it is necessary to calculate the thermal loads of the complex in which this technology of geothermal heat pumps using vertical heat exchangers type U will be installed, to perform the calculation of thermal loads Autodesk Revit® software was used, with which was possible to make a virtual model in detail of the botanical center that is located in Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico and belongs to the Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo (UMNSH. This study shows the results of the analysis of the installations and determination of the thermal loads of the complex due to this type of infrastructure. By obtaining the values of the thermal loads, the dimensioning of the heat exchanger was archived, which will have to be installed to cover the thermal requirement of this system and his installation, in addition to the selection of the heat pump. This complex of 2 levels, where, on the first floor there are cubicles and laboratories and on the second floor, several common areas. The design was developed in detail in Autodesk Revit 2015. After obtaining the thermal loads, the GLHEPro software was used for dimensioning the Vertical heat exchangers with the number and depth of the exchangers was obtained. the GLD 2014 software was used for dimensioning the Horizontal heat exchangers with the number and depth of the exchangers was obtained.
Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.
2003-01-01
The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method in...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avezova, N.R.; Avezov, R.R.
2015-01-01
A brand new no-contact method of determining the average working-surface temperature of plate-type radiation-absorbing thermal exchange panels (RATEPs) of flat solar collectors (FSCs) for heating a heat-transfer fluid (HTF) is suggested on the basis of the results of thermal tests in full-scale quasistationary conditions. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Sung Kook; Rhee, Dong Ho; Cho, Hyung Hee
2005-01-01
Impingement/effusion cooling technique is used for combustor liner or turbine parts cooling in gas turbine engine. In the impingement/effusion cooling system, the crossflow generated in the cooling channel induces an adverse effect on the cooling performance, which consequently affects the durability of the cooling system. In the present study, to reduce the adverse effect of the crossflow and improve the cooling performance, circular pin fins are installed in impingement/effusion cooling system and the heat transfer characteristics are investigated. The pin fins are installed between two perforated plates and the crossflow passes between these two plates. A blowing ratio is changed from 0.5 to 1.5 for the fixed jet Reynolds number of 10,000 and five circular pin fin arrangements are considered in this study. The local heat/mass transfer coefficients on the effusion plate are measured using a naphthalene sublimation method. The results show that local distributions of heat/mass transfer coefficient are changed due to the installation of pin fins. Due to the generation of vortex and wake by the pin fin, locally low heat/mass transfer regions are reduced. Moreover, the pin fin prevents the wall jet from being swept away, resulting in the increase of heat/mass transfer. When the pin fin is installed in front of the impinging jet, the blockage effect on the crossflow enhances the heat/mass transfer. However, the pin fin installed just behind the impinging jet blocks up the wall jet, decreasing the heat/mass transfer. As the blowing ratio increases, the pin fins lead to the higher Sh value compared to the case without pin fins, inducing 16%∼22% enhancement of overall Sh value at high blowing ratio of M=1.5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Dew Hey; Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Choi, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun; Kim, Seong Jong
2002-03-01
In this study, The regulatory condition and analysis condition is analyzed for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis to develop the safety assessment technology. Analysis is performed with finite element method which is one of the many analysis methods of the shipping cask. ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is suitable for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis of the shipping cask. For the analysis model, the KSC-4 that is the shipping cask to transport spent nuclear fuel is investigated. The results of both LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for thick plate free drop and the results of ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for heat and thermal stress analysis is completely corresponded. And the integrity of the shipping cask is verified. Using this study, the reliable safety assessment technology is supplied to the staff. The efficient and reliable regulatory tasks is performed using the standard safety assessment technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Dew Hey [Korea Institute of Nuclear and Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Choi, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun; Kim, Seong Jong [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
2002-03-15
In this study, The regulatory condition and analysis condition is analyzed for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis to develop the safety assessment technology. Analysis is performed with finite element method which is one of the many analysis methods of the shipping cask. ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is suitable for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis of the shipping cask. For the analysis model, the KSC-4 that is the shipping cask to transport spent nuclear fuel is investigated. The results of both LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for thick plate free drop and the results of ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for heat and thermal stress analysis is completely corresponded. And the integrity of the shipping cask is verified. Using this study, the reliable safety assessment technology is supplied to the staff. The efficient and reliable regulatory tasks is performed using the standard safety assessment technology.
Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications
Ababneh, Mohammed T.; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Alvarez-Hernandez, Angel R.
2016-01-01
Novel hybrid wick heat pipes are developed to operate against gravity on planetary surfaces, operate in space carrying power over long distances and act as thermosyphons on the planetary surface for Lunar and Martian landers and rovers. These hybrid heat pipes will be capable of operating at the higher heat flux requirements expected in NASA's future spacecraft and on the next generation of polar rovers and equatorial landers. In addition, the sintered evaporator wicks mitigate the start-up problems in vertical gravity aided heat pipes because of large number of nucleation sites in wicks which will allow easy boiling initiation. ACT, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center, are working together on the Advanced Passive Thermal experiment (APTx) to test and validate the operation of a hybrid wick VCHP with warm reservoir and HiK"TM" plates in microgravity environment on the ISS.
Park, Hyun-Wook; Jang, Jae-Won; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Jin-Ho; Jeon, Dae-Woo; Lee, Jong-Heun; Hwang, Hae-jin; Lee, Mi-Jai
2017-11-01
This study aims to develop an anode catalyst for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using electroless nickel plating. We have proposed a new method for electroless plating of Ni metal on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) particles. We examine the uniformity of the Ni layer on the plated core-shell powder, in addition to the content of Ni and the reproducibility of the plating. We have also evaluated the carbon deposition rate and characteristics of the SOFC anode catalyst. To synthesize Ni-plated YSZ particles, the plated powder is heat-treated at 1200 °C. The resultant particles, which have an average size of 50 μm, were subsequently used in the experiment. The size of the Ni particles and the Ni content both increase with increasing plating temperature and plating time. The X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the growth of Ni particles. After heat-treatment, Ni is oxidized to NiO, leading to the co-existence of Ni and NiO; Ni3P is also observed due to the presence of phosphorous in the plating solution. Following heat treatment for 1 h at 1200 °C, Ni is mostly oxidized to NiO. The carbon deposition rate of the reference YSZ powder is 135%, while that of the Ni-plated YSZ is 1%-6%.
El-Amin, Mohamed; Salama, Amgad; El-Amin, Ammaarah A.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy
2013-01-01
In this paper, the effects of thermal dispersion and variable viscosity on the non-Darcy free, mixed, and forced convection heat transfer along a vertical flat plate embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium are investigated. Forchheimer extension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahmattulla, A.A.; Taghite, M.B.
1996-01-01
In this paper was studied a thermal problem with the fourier boundary conditions on the edges of the holes in a periodically perforated plate of a heat exchanger. This problem contains several reduced parameters which can be very small (the period ε of the distribution of the holes, the reduced thickness e of the plate and the three Biot numbers relative to the different parts of the boundary). The homogenization technique was used to estimate the field of temperatures attainable in the upper plate, depending on the relative order of magnitude of the smell parameters. (authors). 9 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elnaggar, Mohamed H.A.; Abdullah, M.Z.; Abdul Mujeebu, M.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Detailed characterization of working fluid of vertical finned U-shape heat pipe. ► The present configuration, considering the working fluid, was not studied previously. ► The low difference in evaporator and condenser temperatures enhances heat transfer. ► The high pressure drop across the porous wick causes easy return flow of the liquid. ► The predicted evaporator and condenser temperatures are validated by experiment. - Abstract: As part of the ongoing research on finned U-shape heat pipes for CPU cooling, the present work focuses on the characterization of working fluid in vertically oriented twin U-shape heat pipe, by taking into account the gravity of flow. Two-dimensional FE simulation is performed under natural and forced convection modes, by using ANSYS-FLOTRAN. The best heat input and coolant velocity for the simulations are determined experimentally, corresponding to the least thermal resistance. The wall temperatures at the evaporator, adiabatic and condenser sections, and the velocity and pressure distributions of vapor and liquid, are analyzed. The total heat input for minimum thermal resistance in both natural and forced convection is found to be 50 W, and the coolant velocity is 3 m/s. The predicted and experimental wall temperatures are found in excellent match. It is observed that for the present U-shape heat pipe configuration, the difference in evaporator and condenser temperatures is significantly small, resulting in enhanced heat transfer compared to the conventional heat pipes. The sintered copper wick has a small pore size, resulting in low wick permeability, leading to the generation of high capillary forces for anti-gravity applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Z.D.; Fraser, D.; Samarasekera, I.V.
2002-01-01
Within a hot strip steel mill, red hot steel is hot rolled into a long continuous slab that is led onto what is called the runout table. Temperatures of the steel at the beginning of this table are around 900 o C. Above and below the runout table are banks of water jets, sprays or water curtains that rapidly cool the steel slab. The heat transfer process itself may be considered one of the most complicated in the industrial world. The cooling process that occurs on the runout table is crucial and governs the final mechanical properties and flatness of a steel strip. However, very limited data of industrial conditions has been available and that which is available is poorly understood. To study heat transfer during runout table cooling, an industrial scale pilot runout table facility was constructed at the University of British Columbia (UBC). This paper describes the experimental details, data acquisition and data handling techniques for steel plates during water jet impingement cooling by one circular water jet from industrial headers. The effect of cooling water temperature and initial steel plate temperature as well as varying water jet diameters on heat transfer was systematically investigated. A two-dimensional finite element scheme based inverse heat conduction model was developed to calculate surface heat transfer coefficients along the impinging surface. Heat flux curves at the stagnation area were obtained for selected tests. A quantitative relationship between adjustable processing parameters and heat transfer coefficients along the impinging surface during runout table operation is discussed. The results of the study were used to upgrade an extensive process model developed at UBC. The model ties in the cooling rate and hence two dimensional temperature gradients to the resulting microstructure and final mechanical properties of the steel. This process model is widely used by major steel industries in Canada and the United States. (author)
Experimental study on flow boiling heat transfer of LNG in a vertical smooth tube
Chen, Dongsheng; Shi, Yumei
2013-10-01
An experimental apparatus is set up in this work to study the upward flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of LNG (liquefied natural gas) in vertical smooth tubes with inner diameters of 8 mm and 14 mm. The experiments were performed at various inlet pressures from 0.3 to 0.7 MPa. The results were obtained over the mass flux range from 16 to 200 kg m-2 s-1 and heat fluxes ranging from 8.0 to 32 kW m-2. The influences of quality, heat flux and mass flux, tube diameter on the heat transfer characteristic are examined and discussed. The comparisons of the experimental heat transfer coefficients with the predicted values from the existing correlations are analyzed. The correlation by Zou et al. [16] shows the best accuracy with the RMS deviation of 31.7% in comparison with the experimental data.
Kedia, Kushal S.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.
2012-01-01
The objective of this work is to investigate the flame stabilization mechanism and the conditions leading to the blowoff of a laminar premixed flame anchored downstream of a heat-conducting perforated-plate/multi-hole burner, with overall nearly
Heat transfer and pressure drop for air-water mixtures in an isoflux vertical annulus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattab, M.; El-Sallak, M.; Morcos, S.M.; Salama, A.
1996-01-01
Heat transfer and pressure drop in flows of air-water mixtures have been investigated experimentally in an isoflux vertical annulus. The superficial liquid Reynolds number, as a reference parameter, varied from 4500 to 30 000, at different values of gas-to-liquid superficial velocity ratios up to 20 and surface heat fluxes from 50 to 240 kW/m 2 . Enhancement of the two-phase heat transfer coefficient is pronounced particularly at low liquid superficial velocities. The results are correlated and compared with some models of two-phase, two-component flows for air-water mixtures within their range of validity. Satisfactory agreement is obtained from the trend of the experimental data. (orig.) [de
Nonlinear periodic wavetrains in thin liquid films falling on a uniformly heated horizontal plate
Issokolo, Remi J. Noumana; Dikandé, Alain M.
2018-05-01
A thin liquid film falling on a uniformly heated horizontal plate spreads into fingering ripples that can display a complex dynamics ranging from continuous waves, nonlinear spatially localized periodic wave patterns (i.e., rivulet structures) to modulated nonlinear wavetrain structures. Some of these structures have been observed experimentally; however, conditions under which they form are still not well understood. In this work, we examine profiles of nonlinear wave patterns formed by a thin liquid film falling on a uniformly heated horizontal plate. For this purpose, the Benney model is considered assuming a uniform temperature distribution along the film propagation on the horizontal surface. It is shown that for strong surface tension but a relatively small Biot number, spatially localized periodic-wave structures can be analytically obtained by solving the governing equation under appropriate conditions. In the regime of weak nonlinearity, a multiple-scale expansion combined with the reductive perturbation method leads to a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation: the solutions of which are modulated periodic pulse trains which amplitude and width and period are expressed in terms of characteristic parameters of the model.
A Heat Transfer Correlation in a Vertical Upward Flow of CO{sub 2} at Supercritical Pressures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Hyung Rae; Bae, Yoon Yeong; Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Hwan Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
2006-07-01
Heat transfer data has been collected in the heat transfer test loop, named SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), in KAERI. The facility primarily aims at the generation of heat transfer data in the flow conditions and geometries relevant to SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor). The produced data will aid the thermohydraulic design of a reactor core. The loop uses carbon dioxide, and later the results will be scaled to the water flows. The heat transfer data has been collected for a vertical upward flow in a circular tube with varying mass fluxes, heat fluxes, and operating pressures. The results are compared with the existing correlations and a new correlation is proposed by fine-tuning the one of the existing correlations.
Transmission of heat from a flat plate to a fluid flowing at a high velocity
Crocco, Luigi
1932-01-01
The writer, starting with the consideration of the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic equations for the turbulent boundary layer of a flat plate when it is necessary to take into account the heat produced by friction, arrives at the conclusion that the transmission of the heat follows the same law that is valid when the frictional heat is negligible, provided the temperature of the fluid is considered to be that which the fluid would reach if arrested adiabatically. It is then shown how the same law holds good for faired bodies, and some applications of the law are made to the problems of flight at very high speeds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jianguo; Li Huixiong; Guo Bin; Yu Shuiqing; Zhang Yuqian; Chen Tingkuan
2009-01-01
In the present paper, the forced convection heat transfer characteristics of water in a vertically upward internally ribbed tube at supercritical pressures were investigated experimentally. The six-head internally ribbed tube is made of SA-213T12 steel with an outer diameter of 31.8 mm and a wall thickness of 6 mm and the mean inside diameter of the tube is measured to be 17.6 mm. The experimental parameters were as follows. The pressure at the inlet of the test section varied from 25.0 to 29.0 MPa, and the mass flux was from 800 to 1200 kg/(m 2 s), and the inside wall heat flux ranged from 260 to 660 kW/m 2 . According to experimental data, the effects of heat flux and pressure on heat transfer of supercritical pressure water in the vertically upward internally ribbed tube were analyzed, and the characteristics and mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement, and also that of heat transfer deterioration, were also discussed in the so-called large specific heat region. The drastic changes in thermophysical properties near the pseudocritical points, especially the sudden rise in the specific heat of water at supercritical pressures, may result in the occurrence of the heat transfer enhancement, while the covering of the heat transfer surface by fluids lighter and hotter than the bulk fluid makes the heat transfer deteriorated eventually and explains how this lighter fluid layer forms. It was found that the heat transfer characteristics of water at supercritical pressures were greatly different from the single-phase convection heat transfer at subcritical pressures. There are three heat transfer modes of water at supercritical pressures: (1) normal heat transfer, (2) deteriorated heat transfer with low HTC but high wall temperatures in comparison to the normal heat transfer, and (3) enhanced heat transfer with high HTC and low wall temperatures in comparison to the normal heat transfer. It was also found that the heat transfer deterioration at supercritical pressures was
Vertical repositioning accuracy of magnetic mounting systems on 4 articulator models.
Lee, Wonsup; Kwon, Ho-Beom
2018-03-01
Research of the ability of a cast mounted on an articulator on maintaining the identical position of a cast mounted on an articulator after repeated repositioning is lacking, despite the possible effects this may have on the occlusion of a mounted cast. The purpose of this in vitro study was to verify and compare the vertical repositioning accuracy of 4 different, commercially available articulator magnetic mounting plate systems. Four articulators and their associated magnetic mounting plates were selected for the study. These were the Artex AR articulator (Amann Girrbach AG), the Denar Mark II articulator (Whip Mix Corp), the Kavo Protar Evo articulator (Kavo Dental GmbH), and the SAM3 articulator (SAM Präzisionstechnik GmbH). Three new magnetic mounting plates were prepared for each articulator system. The repositioning accuracy of each mounting plate was evaluated by comparing the standard deviation of the vertical distances measured between the mounting plate and a laser displacement sensor. The lower arm of the articulator was secured, and the vertical distance was measured by positioning the laser displacement sensor positioned vertically above the mounting plate. Once the vertical distance was measured, the mounting plate was detached from the articulator and reattached manually to prepare for the next measurement. This procedure was repeated 30 times for each of the 3 magnetic mounting plates. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for 2-stage nested design and the Levene test (α=.05). Significant differences were detected among articulator systems and between magnetic mounting plates of the same type. The standard deviations of the measurements made with the Artex AR articulator, Denar Mark II articulator, Kavo Protar Evo articulator, and SAM3 articulator were 0.0027, 0.0308, 0.0214, and 0.0215 mm, respectively. Thus, the repositioning accuracy could be ranked in the order as follows: Artex AR, Kavo Protar Evo, SAM3, and Denar Mark II. The position of the
Riel, Nicolas; Jaillard, Etienne; Guillot, Stéphane; Martelat, Jean-Emmanuel; Braun, Jean
2013-04-01
From Permian to Triassic times, tectonic plate reorganization provoked Pangaea breakup, counterclockwise rotation of Gondwana, closing of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean and opening of the Neo-Tethys oceanic realm. Meanwhile, the switch from arc volcanism to widespread S-type magmatism along the western South American active margin around 275-265 Ma is symptomatic of the onset of a large-scale Permian-Triassic thermal anomaly (PTTA)affecting the whole margin. Here we report metamorphic and U-Pb geochronological results from the El Oro metamorphic complex in the forearc zone of southwestern Ecuador, which recorded the last step, at 230-225 Ma, of the PTTA. The change in the drift direction of Gondwana from north to east at ca. 270 Ma was related to plate reorganization and provoked the verticalization of the subducted Panthalassa slab. As the slab verticalized, strong heat advection produced a high heat flow beneath the active margin inducing the development of a huge thermal anomaly responsible for the PTTA, which lasted 30 Ma. This voluminous magmatic activity culminated at the Permian-Triassic boundary, and may have contributed to the degradation of life conditions on the Earth surface.
A theory for natural convection turbulent boundary layers next to heated vertical surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
George, W.K. Jr.; Capp, S.P.
1979-01-01
The turbulent natural convection boundary layer next to a heated vertical surface is analyzed by classical scaling arguments. It is shown that the fully developed turbulent boundary layer must be treated in two parts: and outer region consisting of most of the boundary layer in which viscous and conduction terms are negligible and an inner region in which the mean convection terms are negligible. The inner layer is identified as a constant heat flux layer. A similarity analysis yields universal profiles for velocity and temperature in the outer and constant heat flux layers. An asymptotic matching of these profiles in an intermediate layer (the buoyant sublayer) yields analytical expressions for the buoyant sublayer profiles. Asymptotic heat transfer and friction laws are obtained for the fully developed boundary layers. Finally, conductive and thermo-viscous sublayers characterized by a linear variation of velocity and temperature are shown to exist at the wall. All predictions are seen to be in excellent agreement with the abundant experimental data. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reinaldy Nazar
2016-01-01
Results of several researches have shown that nano fluids have better thermal characteristics than conventional fluid (water). In this regard, ideas for using nano fluids as an alternative heat transfer fluid in the reactor coolant system have been well developed. Meanwhile the natural convection in a vertical annulus pipe is one of the important mechanisms of heat transfer and is found at the TRIGA research reactor, the new generation nuclear power plants and other energy conversion devices. On the other hand, the heat transfer characteristics of nano fluids in a vertical annulus pipe has not been known. Therefore, it is important to do research continuously to analyze the heat transfer nano fluids in a vertical annulus pipe. This study has carried out numerical analysis by using computer code of CFD (computational of fluids dynamic) on natural convection heat transfer characteristics of nano fluids flow of Al_2O_3-water 2 % volume in the vertical annulus pipe. The results showed an increase in heat transfer performance (Nusselt numbers - NU) by 20.5 % - 35 %. In natural convection mode with Rayleigh numbers 2.471 e"+"0"9 ≤ Ra ≤ 1.955 e"+"1"3 obtained empirical correlations for water is N_U = 1.065 (R_a(D_H/x))"0"."1"7"9 and empirical correlations for Al_2O_3-water nano fluids is N_U = 14.869 (R_a(D_H/x))"0"."1"1"5.(author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cowan, G.H.; Irvine, T.J. Jr.; Quarini, G.L.
1983-01-01
The velocity and temperature equations for laminar buoyancy and forced convection flows between vertical flat parallel plates are presented. The thermal boundary conditions on the plate define the buoyancy driven field, while the channel Reynolds number defines the forced flow field. Specific examples relating to tall narrow channels with laminar convention and to closed high ratio cavities (as may be found in the proposed active and passive insulation systems for sodium cooled fast reactors) are presented. The analysis is limited to the laminar flow regimes, whilst some reactor situations are likely to be turbulent, hence a proposal for a simple extension of this analysis to the turbulent regime is made. It is shown how the analysis can be made to apply to fluids of various Prandtl numbers. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behrangzade, Ali; Heyhat, Mohammad Mahdi
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The effect of using nano-silver on a commercial plate heat exchanger was studied. • An experimental rig was designed to investigate the thermo-hydrodynamic features of nanofluid. • The overall heat transfer coefficient becomes larger 16.79% for 100 ppm nanofluid. • No significant growth in pressure drop values was observed. • The process temperatures have important role in nanofluid influence. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to verify the potential using of nano-silver dispersed water based nanofluid on efficiency improvement of a commercial corrugated plate heat exchanger. In this regards, an experimental rig was provided to recognize the heat transfer rate and pressure drop of Ag–water nanofluid as the working fluid. The two most key thermo-physical properties, i.e. dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids were experimentally gauged. The findings, which were achieved, displayed that the overall heat transfer coefficient becomes larger, from 6.18% to 16.79%, for 100 ppm silver nanofluid. While using nanofluid, no significant growth in pressure drop values was observed. Moreover, the process temperatures and flow rates have significant impacts on the helpfulness of applying nanofluid in a plate heat exchanger.
Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Supercritical CO2 Flowing in a Vertical Annular Channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Tae Ho; Bae, Yoon Yeong; Kim, Hwan Yeol
2010-01-01
Heat transfer test facility, SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), has been operated at KAERI for an investigation of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of supercritical CO 2 at several test sections with a different geometry. The loop uses CO 2 because it has much lower critical pressure and temperature than those of water. Experimental study of heat transfer to supercritical CO 2 in a vertical annular channel with and hydraulic diameter of 4.5 mm has been performed. CO 2 flows downward through the annular channel simulating the downward-flowing coolant in a multi-pass reactor or water rod moderator in a single pass reactor. The heat transfer characteristics in a downward flow were analyzed and compared with the upward flow test results performed previously with the same test section at KAERI
Transitional and turbulent flat-plate boundary layers with heat transfer
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz
2010-11-01
We report on our direct numerical simulation of two incompressible, nominally zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layers from momentum thickness Reynolds number 80 to 1950. Heat transfer between the constant-temperature solid surface and the free-stream is also simulated with molecular Prandtl number=1. Throughout the entire flat-plate, the ratio of Stanton number and skin-friction St/Cfdeviates from the exact Reynolds analogy value of 0.5 by less than 1.5%. Turbulent Prandtl number t peaks at the wall. Preponderance of hairpin vortices is observed in both the transitional and turbulent regions of the boundary layers. In particular, the internal structure of merged turbulent spots is hairpin forest; the internal structure of infant turbulent spots is hairpin packet. Numerous hairpin vortices are readily detected in both the near-wall and outer regions of the boundary layers up to momentum thickness Reynolds number 1950. This suggests that the hairpin vortices in the turbulent region are not simply the aged hairpin forests convected from the upstream transitional region. Temperature iso-surfaces in the companion thermal boundary layers are found to be a useful tracer in identifying hairpin vortex structures.
Review of Critical Heat Flux Correlations for Upward Flow in a Vertical Thin Rectangular Channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Gil Sik; Chang, Soon Heung
2014-01-01
From the view point of safety, this type of fuel has higher resistance to earthquake and external impact. The cross section of coolant flow channel in the reactor core composed with the plate fuel is a thin rectangular shape. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of this thin rectangular channel are different with those of general circular rod fuel bundle flow channel. Accordingly it could be thought that the CHF correlation in a thin rectangular channel is different with that in a circular channel, for which a large number of researches on CHF prediction have been carried out. The objective of this paper is to review previous researches on CHF in a thin rectangular channel, summarize the important conclusion and propose the new simple CHF correlation, which is based on the data set under high pressure and high flow rate condition. The researches on CHF in rectangular channel have been partially carried out according to the pressure, heated surface number, heated surface wettability effect, flow driving force and flow direction conditions. From the literature researches on CHF for upward flow in a vertical thin rectangular channel, some CHF prediction methods were reviewed and compared. There is no universal correlation which can predict CHF at all conditions, but generally, Katto empirical correlation is known to be useful at high pressure and high flow rate. The new simple correlation was developed from the restricted data set, the CHF prediction capacity of which is better than that of Katto. Even though the prediction consistency of the new simple correlation is lower, MAE and RMS error decreased quite. For the more development of the new simple CHF correlation, the more advanced regression analysis method and theoretical analysis should be studied in future
Review of Critical Heat Flux Correlations for Upward Flow in a Vertical Thin Rectangular Channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Gil Sik; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
From the view point of safety, this type of fuel has higher resistance to earthquake and external impact. The cross section of coolant flow channel in the reactor core composed with the plate fuel is a thin rectangular shape. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of this thin rectangular channel are different with those of general circular rod fuel bundle flow channel. Accordingly it could be thought that the CHF correlation in a thin rectangular channel is different with that in a circular channel, for which a large number of researches on CHF prediction have been carried out. The objective of this paper is to review previous researches on CHF in a thin rectangular channel, summarize the important conclusion and propose the new simple CHF correlation, which is based on the data set under high pressure and high flow rate condition. The researches on CHF in rectangular channel have been partially carried out according to the pressure, heated surface number, heated surface wettability effect, flow driving force and flow direction conditions. From the literature researches on CHF for upward flow in a vertical thin rectangular channel, some CHF prediction methods were reviewed and compared. There is no universal correlation which can predict CHF at all conditions, but generally, Katto empirical correlation is known to be useful at high pressure and high flow rate. The new simple correlation was developed from the restricted data set, the CHF prediction capacity of which is better than that of Katto. Even though the prediction consistency of the new simple correlation is lower, MAE and RMS error decreased quite. For the more development of the new simple CHF correlation, the more advanced regression analysis method and theoretical analysis should be studied in future.
Similarity solutions for unsteady free-convection flow from a continuous moving vertical surface
Abd-El-Malek, Mina B.; Kassem, Magda M.; Mekky, Mohammad L.
2004-03-01
The transformation group theoretic approach is applied to present an analysis of the problem of unsteady free convection flow over a continuous moving vertical sheet in an ambient fluid. The thermal boundary layer induced within a vertical semi-infinite layer of Boussinseq fluid by a constant heated bounding plate. The application of two-parameter groups reduces the number of independent variables by two, and consequently the system of governing partial differential equations with the boundary conditions reduces to a system of ordinary differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions. The obtained ordinary differential equations are solved analytically for the temperature and numerically for the velocity using the shooting method. Effect of Prandtl number on the thermal boundary-layer and velocity boundary-layer are studied and plotted in curves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, Ahmed Hamza H.; Ahmed, Mahmoud; Youssef, M.S.
2010-01-01
This study has been carried out to investigate the characteristics of convective heat transfer and fluid flow for a single row of oblique plates array to the flow direction inside a channel. The flow inside the channel is laminar and the plates array have spanwise distance between the plates and heated by radiation. This configuration has been designed to be used for Photovoltaic/Thermal system (PV/T) applications. The theoretical results are validated with measured values, and a good agreement prevailed. The results show that an increase in the plate oblique angle (γ) in the range from 0 to 15 degrees, leads to an increase in the Nusselt number (Nu) up to a maximum value and then decreases. The oblique angle at the maximum value of Nu depends on the flow Reynolds Number (Re), and (l w /l pl ), where (l w /l pl ) is defined as the ratio of the plates' spacing at zero oblique angle to the plate length. Furthermore, increasing (l w /l pl ) results in a significant increase in the heat transfer coefficient depending on the values of Re, and plate oblique angle (γ). In addition, increasing (γ) from 0 to 15 degrees results in a decrease in the friction factor up to a certain value, after which the friction value approaches a constant value depending on Re value and (l w /l pl ). It was found that for any value of the plate oblique angle (γ), the friction factor decreases with the increase of the values of (l w /l pl ) and Re, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casso-Torralba, P.; Rosa Soler, M.; Vila-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Bosveld, F.; Vermeulen, A.; Werner, C.; Moors, E.
2008-08-01
The diurnal and vertical variability of heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmospheric surface layer are studied by analyzing measurements from a 213 m tower in Cabauw (Netherlands). Observations of thermodynamic variables and CO2 mixing ratio as well as vertical profiles of the turbulent fluxes are used to retrieve the contribution of the budget terms in the scalar conservation equation. On the basis of the daytime evolution of turbulent fluxes, we calculate the budget terms by assuming that turbulent fluxes follow a linear profile with height. This assumption is carefully tested and the deviation from linearity is quantified. The budget calculation allows us to assess the importance of advection of heat and CO2 during day hours for three selected days. It is found that, under nonadvective conditions, the diurnal variability of temperature and CO2 is well reproduced from the flux divergence measurements. Consequently, the vertical transport due to the turbulent flux plays a major role in the daytime evolution of both scalars and the advection is a relatively small contribution. During the analyzed days with a strong contribution of advection of either heat or carbon dioxide, the flux divergence is still an important contribution to the budget. For heat, the quantification of the advection contribution is in close agreement with results from a numerical model. For carbon dioxide, we qualitatively corroborate the results with a Lagrangian transport model. Our estimation of advection is compared with traditional estimations based on the Net Ecosystem-atmosphere Exchange (NEE)
Anjum, Aisha; Mir, N. A.; Farooq, M.; Javed, M.; Ahmad, S.; Malik, M. Y.; Alshomrani, A. S.
2018-06-01
The present article concentrates on thermal stratification in the flow of second grade fluid past a Riga plate with linear stretching towards a stagnation region. Heat transfer phenomenon is disclosed with heat generation/absorption. Riga plate is known as electromagnetic actuator which comprises of permanent magnets and alternating electrodes placed on a plane surface. Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is implemented to analyze the features of heat transfer. This new heat flux model is the generalization of classical Fourier's law with the contribution of thermal relaxation time. For the first time heat generation/absorption effect is computed with non-Fourier's law of heat conduction (i.e., Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model). Transformations are used to obtain the governing non-linear ordinary differential equations. Approximate convergent solutions are developed for the non-dimensionalized governing problems. Physical features of velocity and temperature distributions are graphically analyzed corresponding to various parameters in 2D and 3D. It is noted that velocity field enhances with an increment of modified Hartman number while it reduces with increasing variable thickness parameter. Increment in modified heat generation parameter results in reduction of temperature field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Usui, Tohru; Kaminaga, Masanori; Sudo, Yukio.
1988-07-01
Quantitative understanding of critical heat flux (CHF) in the narrow vertical rectangular channel is required for the thermo-hydroulic design and the safety analysis of research reactors in which flat-plate-type fuel is adopted. Especially, critical heat flux under low downward velocity has a close relation with falling water limitation under counter-current flow. Accordingly, CCFL (Counter-current Flow Limitation) experiments were carried out for both vertical rectangular channels and vertical circular tubes varried in their size and configuration of their cross sections, to make clear CCFL characteristics in the vertical rectangular channels. In the experiments, l/de of the rectangular channel was changed from 3.5 to 180. As the results, it was clear that different equivalent hydraulic diameter de, namely width or water gap of channel, gave different CCFL characteristics of rectangular channel. But the influence of channel length l on CCFL characteristics was not observed. Besides, a dimensionless correlation to estimate a relation between upward air velocity and downward water velocity was proposed based on the present experimental results. The difference of CCFL characteristics between rectangular channels and circular tubes was also investigated. Especially for the rectangular channels, dry-patches appearing condition was made clear as a flow-map. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jha, P.K.
1986-01-01
An attempt has been made to study the problem of free convection hydromagnetic flow of an elastico-viscous fluid past a porous vertical plate in a rotating frame of reference taking ohmic and viscous dissipations into account in the presence of Hall current. The nature of velocity profile shows the existence of multiple boundary layers. Their 'thickness' is seen to decrease with increasing values of Ekman, Hartman and Prandtl numbers and Hall parameter. The graphical study reveals that the increasing values of Hall parameter and Ekman number (for a fixed large value of Hall parameter) exert opposite influence on the flow. (author). 11 refs., 2 tables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akbulut, U.; Yoru, Y.; Kincay, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University (Turkey)], email: akbulutugur@yahoo.com, email: yilmazyoru@gmail.com, email: okincay@yildiz.edu.tr
2011-07-01
Wall heating and cooling systems (WHCS) are equipped with heating serpentines or panels for water circulation. These systems operate in a low temperature range so they are preferable to other, conventional systems. Furthermore, when these systems are connected to a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system, energy performance and thermal comfort are further enhanced. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an annual inspection done on a vertical type ground-coupled heat pump systems (V-GSHP) WHCS in Istanbul and present the results. The performance data from the Yildiz Renewable Energy House at Davutpasa Campus of Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, during the year 2010 were collected and analyzed. The conclusions drawn from the inspection and analysis were listed in this paper. Using renewable energy sources effectively will bring both economic and environmental benefits and it is hoped that the use of these energy efficient WHCS systems will become widespread.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zhe; Li, Yanzhong
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The first application of IMOCS for plate-fin heat exchanger design. • Irreversibility degrees of heat transfer and fluid friction are minimized. • Trade-off of efficiency, total cost and pumping power is achieved. • Both EGM and EDM methods have been compared in the optimization of PFHE. • This study has superiority over other single-objective optimization design. - Abstract: This paper introduces and applies an improved multi-objective cuckoo search (IMOCS) algorithm, a novel met-heuristic optimization algorithm based on cuckoo breeding behavior, for the multi-objective optimization design of plate-fin heat exchangers (PFHEs). A modified irreversibility degree of the PFHE is separated into heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibility degrees which are adopted as two initial objective functions to be minimized simultaneously for narrowing the search scope of the design. The maximization efficiency, minimization of pumping power, and total annual cost are considered final objective functions. Results obtained from a two dimensional normalized Pareto-optimal frontier clearly demonstrate the trade-off between heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibility. Moreover, a three dimensional Pareto-optimal frontier reveals a relationship between efficiency, total annual cost, and pumping power in the PFHE design. Three examples presented here further demonstrate that the presented method is able to obtain optimum solutions with higher accuracy, lower irreversibility, and fewer iterations as compared to the previous methods and single-objective design approaches
Estimation of pressure drop in gasket plate heat exchangers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neagu Anisoara Arleziana
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present comparatively different methods of pressure drop calculation in the gasket plate heat exchangers (PHEs, using correlations recommended in literature on industrial data collected from a vegetable oil refinery. The goal of this study was to compare the results obtained with these correlations, in order to choose one or two for practical purpose of pumping power calculations. We concluded that pressure drop values calculated with Mulley relationship and Buonopane & Troupe correlation were close and also Bond’s equation gave results pretty close to these but the pressure drop is slightly underestimated. Kumar correlation gave results far from all the others and its application will lead to oversize. In conclusion, for further calculations we will chose either the Mulley relationship or the Buonopane & Troupe correlation.
Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu
1987-06-27
As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compact for separator of phosphoric acid fuel cell, there is a process to knead carbonaceous powder and thermosetting resin solution, to form and harden the kneaded material and then to bake, carbonize and graphitize it. However in this baking and carbonization treatment, many thin plate compacts are set in a compiled manner within a heating furnace and receive a heat treatment from their circumference. Since the above compacts to be heated tend generally to be heated from their peripheries, their baked conditions are not homogeneous easily causing the formation of cracks, etc.. As a process to heat and bake homogeneously by removing the above problematical points, this invention offers a process to set in a heating furnace a laminate consisting of the lamination of thin plate carbonaceous compacts and the heat resistant soaking plates which hold the upper and lower ends of the above lamination, to fill the upper and under peripheries of the laminate above with high heat conductive packing material and its side periphery with low heat conductive packing material respectively and to heat and sinter it. In addition, the invention specifies the high and low heat conductive packing materials respectively. (1 fig, 2 tabs)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong
2018-02-13
A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Jafari
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Introduction Greenhouses provide a suitable environment in which all the parameters required for growing the plants can be controlled throughout the year. Greenhouse heating is one of the most important issues in productivity of a greenhouse. In many countries, heating costs in the greenhouses are very high, having almost 60-80% of the total production costs. In recent years, several studies have attempted to reduce the heating costs of the greenhouses by applying more energy efficient equipment and using the renewable energy sources as alternatives or supplementary to the fossil fuels. In the present study a novel solar greenhouse heating system equipped with a parabolic trough solar concentrator (PTC and a flat-plate solar collector has been developed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of the proposed heating system at different working conditions. Materials and Methods The presented solar greenhouse heating system was comprised of a parabolic trough solar concentrator (PTC, a heat storage tank, a pump and a flat plate solar collector. The PTC was constructed from a polished stainless steel sheet (as the reflector and a vacuum tube receiver. The PTC was connected to the tank by using insulated tubes and a water pump was utilized to circulate the working fluid trough the PTC and the heat exchanger installed between walls of the tank. The uncovered solar collector was located inside the greenhouse. During the sunshine time, a fraction of the total solar radiation received inside the greenhouse is absorbed by the solar collector. This rises the temperature of the working fluid inside the collector which led to density reduction and natural flow of the fluid. In other words, the collector works as a natural flow flat plate solar collector during the sunshine time. At night, when the greenhouse temperature is lower than tank temperature, the fluid flows in a reverse direction through the solar collector and the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wissink, Jan G.; Rodi, Wolfgang
2009-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flow over and heat transfer from a flat plate affected by free-stream fluctuations were performed. A contoured upper wall was employed to generate a favourable streamwise pressure gradient along a large portion of the flat plate. The free-stream fluctuations originated from a separate LES of isotropic turbulence in a box. In the laminar portions of the accelerating boundary layer flow the formation of streaks was observed to induce an increase in heat transfer by the exchange of hot fluid near the surface of the plate and cold fluid from the free-stream. In the regions where the streamwise pressure gradient was only mildly favourable, intermittent turbulent spots were detected which relaminarised downstream as the streamwise pressure gradient became stronger. The relaminarisation of the turbulent spots was reflected by a slight decrease in the friction coefficient, which converged to its laminar value in the region where the streamwise pressure gradient was strongest.
Controllability study of EAST plasma vertical instability and improvement in future
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, L.; Xiao, B.J.; Humphreys, D.A.; Luo, Z.P.; Chen, S.L.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The discontinuous passive plate model is developed and verified by experiment. • The power supply upgrade requirements for VDE control are evaluated. • We investigate efficacy of internal control coil location for VDE control. • Maximum controllable vertical displacement experiments are done. • EAST VDE controllability is roughly given by VDE experiments. - Abstract: In order to enhance control speed, each up/down Cu passive plate in EAST is cut into 8 pieces. These discontinuous plate segments are still connected to the inner vacuum vessel by steel supporting legs. A model of this plate segments-vessel-supporting leg loop is developed and verified by EAST vertical displacement event (VDE) experiments. The internal coil (IC) power supply requirements for VDE control are also evaluated. In particularly, we investigate the efficacy of internal control coil location to minimize the power supply capability. The IC power supply upgrade requirements for the optimized location and actual location are discussed. VDE experiments to evaluate maximum controllable vertical displacement (dZmax) were done with varying elongation and resulting EAST vertical controllability estimates are summarized here. These experimental results verified previous simulation results that present IC power supply capacity cannot provide robust vertical control
Controllability study of EAST plasma vertical instability and improvement in future
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, L., E-mail: liulei@ipp.ac.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Xiao, B.J., E-mail: bjxiao@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Humphreys, D.A., E-mail: dave.humphreys@gat.com [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Luo, Z.P., E-mail: zhpluo@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Chen, S.L., E-mail: slchen@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)
2014-05-15
Highlights: • The discontinuous passive plate model is developed and verified by experiment. • The power supply upgrade requirements for VDE control are evaluated. • We investigate efficacy of internal control coil location for VDE control. • Maximum controllable vertical displacement experiments are done. • EAST VDE controllability is roughly given by VDE experiments. - Abstract: In order to enhance control speed, each up/down Cu passive plate in EAST is cut into 8 pieces. These discontinuous plate segments are still connected to the inner vacuum vessel by steel supporting legs. A model of this plate segments-vessel-supporting leg loop is developed and verified by EAST vertical displacement event (VDE) experiments. The internal coil (IC) power supply requirements for VDE control are also evaluated. In particularly, we investigate the efficacy of internal control coil location to minimize the power supply capability. The IC power supply upgrade requirements for the optimized location and actual location are discussed. VDE experiments to evaluate maximum controllable vertical displacement (dZmax) were done with varying elongation and resulting EAST vertical controllability estimates are summarized here. These experimental results verified previous simulation results that present IC power supply capacity cannot provide robust vertical control.
A screening method for the optimal selection of plate heat exchanger configurations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pinto J.M.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available An optimization method for determining the best configuration(s of gasketed plate heat exchangers is presented. The objective is to select the configuration(s with the minimum heat transfer area that still satisfies constraints on the number of channels, the pressure drop of both fluids, the channel flow velocities and the exchanger thermal effectiveness. The configuration of the exchanger is defined by six parameters, which are as follows: the number of channels, the numbers of passes on each side, the fluid locations, the feed positions and the type of flow in the channels. The resulting configuration optimization problem is formulated as the minimization of the exchanger heat transfer area and a screening procedure is proposed for its solution. In this procedure, subsets of constraints are successively applied to eliminate infeasible and nonoptimal solutions. Examples show that the optimization method is able to successfully determine a set of optimal configurations with a minimum number of exchanger evaluations. Approximately 5 % of the pressure drop and channel velocity calculations and 1 % of the thermal simulations are required for the solution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, Ahmed Hamza H. [Department of Energy Resources and Environmental Engineering, Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST), P.O. Box 179, New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria 21934 (Egypt); Ahmed, Mahmoud; Youssef, M.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)
2010-09-15
This study has been carried out to investigate the characteristics of convective heat transfer and fluid flow for a single row of oblique plates array to the flow direction inside a channel. The flow inside the channel is laminar and the plates array have spanwise distance between the plates and heated by radiation. This configuration has been designed to be used for Photovoltaic/Thermal system (PV/T) applications. The theoretical results are validated with measured values, and a good agreement prevailed. The results show that an increase in the plate oblique angle ({gamma}) in the range from 0 to 15 degrees, leads to an increase in the Nusselt number (Nu) up to a maximum value and then decreases. The oblique angle at the maximum value of Nu depends on the flow Reynolds Number (Re), and (l{sub w}/l{sub pl}), where (l{sub w}/l{sub pl}) is defined as the ratio of the plates' spacing at zero oblique angle to the plate length. Furthermore, increasing (l{sub w}/l{sub pl}) results in a significant increase in the heat transfer coefficient depending on the values of Re, and plate oblique angle ({gamma}). In addition, increasing ({gamma}) from 0 to 15 degrees results in a decrease in the friction factor up to a certain value, after which the friction value approaches a constant value depending on Re value and (l{sub w}/l{sub pl}). It was found that for any value of the plate oblique angle ({gamma}), the friction factor decreases with the increase of the values of (l{sub w}/l{sub pl}) and Re, respectively. (author)
Numerical study of evaporation in a vertical annulus heated at the inner wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben Radhia, R.; Ben Jabrallah, S.; Ben Jabrallah, S.; Corriou, J.P.; Harmand, S.
2011-01-01
Mixed convection during evaporation of a water falling film in a vertical concentric annulus was studied numerically. The water thin film falls on the inner tube and is subjected to a constant heat flux density, whereas the outer cylinder is assumed to be insulated and dry. An imposed air flow circulates within the gap between the two concentric tubes. The objective of this work is to understand the evaporation phenomenon in order to improve the average evaporated mass flux density and heat and mass transfer. Conservative equations governing the gas phase are solved numerically using the finite volume method. In the liquid phase, a method based on local heat and mass balances on each level is used. Thus, the following liquid film parameters, feed water mass flow, feed temperature and heat flux density, are taken into account. The obtained results are analyzed to emphasize and evaluate the influence of the previous operating parameters and the annulus curvature on the effective evaporation surface and on the mass flux density of evaporated water. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suripto, A; Yuwono
1998-01-01
Heat treatment experiments upon U 3 Si 2 - U ss ingot have been cam e d out to obtain free uranium particle size improvement which is required to enhance the U-Al inter-diffusion reaction in the fuel plate meat. . Heat treatment experiments upon fuel plates containing dispersion of U 3 Si 2 - U ss in Al matrix have also been carried out to study the effect of temperature and treatment duration on the extent of inter-diffusion reaction between free uranium particle and aluminium matrix in the fuel plate meat. Both the experiments indicate that a drastic size improvement has occurred with the U 3 Si 2 as well as free uranium particles upon heat treatment at controlled temperature between the U 3 Si 2 peritectic and peritectoid temperatures and that the inter-diffusion reaction between free uranium and Al matrix occurs quite significantly at temperatures higher than that ordinarily used in the fabrication procedure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ismael Fernando Meza Castro
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction: This project carried out an experimental research with the design, assembly, and commissioning of a convection heat transfer test bench. Objective: To determine new statistical correlations that allow knowing the heat transfer coefficients by air convection with greater accuracy in applications with different heating geometry configurations. Methodology: Three geometric configurations, such as flat plate, cylinders and tube banks were studied according to their physical properties through Reynolds and Prandtl numbers, using a data transmission interface using Arduino® controllers Measured the air temperature through the duct to obtain real-time data and to relate the heat transferred from the heating element to the fluid and to perform mathematical modeling in specialized statistical software. The study was made for the three geometries mentioned, one power per heating element and two air velocities with 10 repetitions. Results: Three mathematical correlations were obtained with regression coefficients greater than 0.972, one for each heating element, obtaining prediction errors in the heat transfer convective coefficients of 7.50% for the flat plate, 2.85% for the plate Cylindrical and 1.57% for the tube bank. Conclusions: It was observed that in geometries constituted by several individual elements, a much more accurate statistical adjustment was obtained to predict the behavior of the convection heat coefficients, since each unit reaches a stability in the surface temperature profile with Greater speed, giving the geometry in general, a more precise measurement of the parameters that govern the transfer of heat, as it is in the case of the geometry of the tube bank.
Multi-objective optimization of a vertical ground source heat pump using evolutionary algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Amlashi, Emad Hadaddi; Amidpour, Majid
2009-01-01
Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic optimization of a vertical ground source heat pump system has been studied. A model based on the energy and exergy analysis is presented here. An economic model of the system is developed according to the Total Revenue Requirement (TRR) method. The objective functions based on the thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis are developed. The proposed vertical ground source heat pump system including eight decision variables is considered for optimization. An artificial intelligence technique known as evolutionary algorithm (EA) has been utilized as an optimization method. This approach has been applied to minimize either the total levelized cost of the system product or the exergy destruction of the system. Three levels of optimization including thermodynamic single objective, thermoeconomic single objective and multi-objective optimizations are performed. In Multi-objective optimization, both thermodynamic and thermoeconomic objectives are considered, simultaneously. In the case of multi-objective optimization, an example of decision-making process for selection of the final solution from available optimal points on Pareto frontier is presented. The results obtained using the various optimization approaches are compared and discussed. Further, the sensitivity of optimized systems to the interest rate, to the annual number of operating hours and to the electricity cost are studied in detail.
Fracture Characteristics Analysis of Double-layer Rock Plates with Both Ends Fixed Condition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. R. Wang
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In order to research on the fracture and instability characteristics of double-layer rock plates with both ends fixed, the three-dimension computational model of double-layer rock plates under the concentrated load was built by using PFC3D technique (three-dimension particle flow code, and the mechanical parameters of the numerical model were determined based on the physical model tests. The results showed the instability process of the double-layer rock plates had four mechanical response phases: the elastic deformation stage, the brittle fracture of upper thick plate arching stage, two rock-arch bearing stage and two rock-arch failure stage; moreover, with the rock plate particle radius from small to large change, the maximum vertical force of double rock-arch appeared when the particle size was a certain value. The maximum vertical force showed an upward trend with the increase of the rock plate temperature, and in the case of the same thickness the maximum vertical force increased with the increase of the upper rock plate thickness. When the boundary conditions of double-layer rock plates changed from the hinged support to the fixed support, the maximum horizontal force observably decreased, and the maximum vertical force showed small fluctuations and then tended towards stability with the increase of cohesive strength of double-layer rock plates.
Xu, Bin; Shi, Yumei; Chen, Dongsheng
2014-03-01
This paper presents an experimental investigation on the heat transfer characteristics of liquefied natural gas flow boiling in a vertical micro-fin tube. The effect of heat flux, mass flux and inlet pressure on the flow boiling heat transfer coefficients was analyzed. The Kim, Koyama, and two kinds of Wellsandt correlations with different Ftp coefficients were used to predict the flow boiling heat transfer coefficients. The predicted results showed that the Koyama correlation was the most accurate over the range of experimental conditions.
Haddout, Y.; Essaghir, E.; Oubarra, A.; Lahjomri, J.
2018-06-01
Thermally developing laminar slip flow through a micropipe and a parallel plate microchannel, with axial heat conduction and uniform wall heat flux, is studied analytically by using a powerful method of self-adjoint formalism. This method results from a decomposition of the elliptic energy equation into a system of two first-order partial differential equations. The advantage of this method over other methods, resides in the fact that the decomposition procedure leads to a selfadjoint problem although the initial problem is apparently not a self-adjoint one. The solution is an extension of prior studies and considers a first order slip model boundary conditions at the fluid-wall interface. The analytical expressions for the developing temperature and local Nusselt number in the thermal entrance region are obtained in the general case. Therefore, the solution obtained could be extended easily to any hydrodynamically developed flow and arbitrary heat flux distribution. The analytical results obtained are compared for select simplified cases with available numerical calculations and they both agree. The results show that the heat transfer characteristics of flow in the thermal entrance region are strongly influenced by the axial heat conduction and rarefaction effects which are respectively characterized by Péclet and Knudsen numbers.
IFMIF Li target back-plate design integration and thermo-mechanical analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riccardi, B.; Roccella, S.; Micciche, G.
2006-01-01
The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-driven intense neutron source where fusion reactor candidate materials will be tested. The neutron flux is produced by means of a deuteron beam (current 250 mA, energy 40 MeV) that strikes a liquid lithium target circulating in a lithium loop. The support on which the liquid lithium flows, i.e. the back-plate, is the most heavily exposed component to neutron flux. A '' bayonet '' concept solution for the back-plate was proposed by ENEA with the objectives of improving the back-plate reliability and simplifying the remote handling procedures. On the base of this concept, a back-plate mock-up was fabricated and validated. Starting from the findings of the mock up design, a back-plate design integration exercise was carried out in order to check if the back-plate geometrical features are compatible with the target assembly and the Vertical Test Assemblies (VTA). The work carried out has demonstrated that even with the changes operated for the design integration (increase of in-plane dimensions and reduction of thickness) the bayonet concept is able to guarantee a tight connection to the target assembly. A thermo-mechanical analysis of the back-plate has been carried out by means of ABAQUS code. The thermal load used as input for the calculations, i.e. the neutron heat generation, has been estimated by means of Monte Carlo Mc-Delicious code. The two boundary constraint cases (full and minimum contact with target assembly) considered for each back-plate geometry option represent the extreme cases of the real operating condition of the plate. The influence of the contact heat exchange coefficient and the back-plate thickness has been also evaluated. For all these reasons, the results of the analysis can be considered as the domain of variability of the real working conditions. The results show that AISI 316L steel is not suitable as black-plate material: the stress induced in the plate, in
Direct numerical simulation of heat transfer to CO2 at supercritical pressure in a vertical tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bae, Joong-Hun; Yoo, Jung-Yul; Choi, Hae-Cheon
2003-01-01
In the present study, the turbulent heat transfer to CO 2 at supercritical pressure in a vertical tube is investigated using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), where no turbulence model is adopted. Heat transfer to the supercritical pressure fluids is characterized by rapid variation of thermodynamic/ thermo-physical properties in the fluids. This change in properties occurs within a very narrow range of temperature across the so-called pseudo-critical temperature, causing a peculiar behavior of heat transfer characteristics. The buoyancy effects associated with very large changes in density proved to play a major role in turbulent heat transfer to supercritical pressure fluids. Depending on the degree of buoyancy effects, turbulent heat transfer may increase or significantly decrease, resulting in a local hot spot along the wall. Based on the results of the present DNS study combined with theoretical considerations for turbulent mixed convection heat transfer, the basic mechanism of this local heat transfer deterioration is explained
Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Supercritical CO{sub 2} Flowing in a Vertical Annular Channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, Tae Ho; Bae, Yoon Yeong; Kim, Hwan Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2010-05-15
Heat transfer test facility, SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), has been operated at KAERI for an investigation of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of supercritical CO{sub 2} at several test sections with a different geometry. The loop uses CO{sub 2} because it has much lower critical pressure and temperature than those of water. Experimental study of heat transfer to supercritical CO{sub 2} in a vertical annular channel with and hydraulic diameter of 4.5 mm has been performed. CO{sub 2} flows downward through the annular channel simulating the downward-flowing coolant in a multi-pass reactor or water rod moderator in a single pass reactor. The heat transfer characteristics in a downward flow were analyzed and compared with the upward flow test results performed previously with the same test section at KAERI
Likhanskii, V. V.; Loboiko, A. I.; Antonova, G. F.; Krasyukov, A. G.; Sayapin, V. P.
1999-02-01
The possibility of making a hole in a vertical plate with the aid of laser radiation at a surface temperature not exceeding the boiling point is analysed neglecting the vapour pressure. The mechanism of the degradation of the liquid layer involving a reduction of its thickness, as a result of the redistribution of the molten mass owing to the operation of the force of gravity and of thermocapillary convection, is examined. The theoretical dependence of the critical size of the molten zone on the plate thickness is obtained and a comparison is made with experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Deog Ji; Kim, Sin; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Bae, Yoon Yeong
2007-01-01
Heat transfer experiments at a vertical annulus passage were carried out in the SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt Generation) to investigate the heat transfer behaviors of supercritical CO 2 . The collected test data are to be used for the reactor core design of the SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor). The mass flux was in the range of 400 ∼1200 kg/m 2 s and the heat flux was chosen up to 150 kW/m 2 . The selected pressures were 7.75 and 8.12 MPa. The heat transfer data were analyzed and compared with the previous tube test data. The test results showed that the heat transfer characteristics were similar to those of the tube in case of a normal heat transfer mode and degree of heat transfer deterioration became smaller than that in the tube. Comparison of the experimental heat transfer coefficients with the predicted ones by the existing correlations showed that there was not a distinct difference between the correlations
Performance of a LiBr-water absorption chiller operating with plate heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vega, M. de; Almendros-Ibanez, J.A.; Ruiz, G.
2006-01-01
This paper studies the performance of a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller operating with plate heat exchangers (PHE). The overall heat transfer coefficients in the desorber, the condenser and the solution heat recoverer are calculated using the correlations provided in the literature for evaporation, condensation and liquid to liquid heat transfer in PHEs. The variable parameters are the external driving temperatures. In the desorber, the inlet temperature of the hot fluid ranges from 75 deg. C to 105 deg. C. In the condenser and the absorber, the inlet temperature of the cooling water goes from 20 deg. C to 40 deg. C. The coefficient of performance (COP) obtained ranges from 0.5 to 0.8 for cooling duties ranging from 2 kW to 12 kW. The chiller response to different hot fluid temperatures and circulated mass flow rates is also presented. The performance and the internal parameters of the chiller at part load are, therefore, calculated. A higher efficiency results when the solution pumped from the absorber to the desorber decreases. The heat transfer analysis of the PHEs is also presented. The overall heat transfer coefficient in the desorber, equal to 790 W/m 2 K at the design conditions, is also analysed at part load. The condenser performance can be represented by a similar relationship found in conventional air cooled condensers
Fluid flow and heat transfer of carbon nanotubes along a flat plate with Navier slip boundary
Khan, W. A.; Khan, Z. H.; Rahi, M.
2014-06-01
Homogeneous flow model is used to study the flow and heat transfer of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) along a flat plate subjected to Navier slip and uniform heat flux boundary conditions. This is the first paper on the flow and heat transfer of CNTs along a flat plate. Two types of CNTs, namely, single- and multi-wall CNTs are used with water, kerosene or engine oil as base fluids. The empirical correlations are used for the thermophysical properties of CNTs in terms of the solid volume fraction of CNTs. For the effective thermal conductivity of CNTs, Xue (Phys B Condens Matter 368:302-307, 2005) model has been used and the results are compared with the existing theoretical models. The governing partial differential equations and boundary conditions are converted into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformations. These equations are solved numerically using a very efficient finite difference method with shooting scheme. The effects of the governing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction, and Nusselt numbers are investigated and presented in graphical and tabular forms. The numerical results of skin friction and Nusselt numbers are compared with the available data for special cases and are found in good agreement.
Solution of the two- dimensional heat equation for a rectangular plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nurcan BAYKUŞ SAVAŞANERİL
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Laplace equation is a fundamental equation of applied mathematics. Important phenomena in engineering and physics, such as steady-state temperature distribution, electrostatic potential and fluid flow, are modeled by means of this equation. The Laplace equation which satisfies boundary values is known as the Dirichlet problem. The solutions to the Dirichlet problem form one of the most celebrated topics in the area of applied mathematics. In this study, a novel method is presented for the solution of two-dimensional heat equation for a rectangular plate. In this alternative method, the solution function of the problem is based on the Green function, and therefore on elliptic functions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo Mingkun; Wang Fei; Huang Wei; Zhang Wenqi; Zhao Shan; Lu Lianghong
2001-01-01
A kind of approximate theoretical calculating formula of the vertical U-bend tube natural-circuit steam generator is deduced by using an approximate method, the results of this formula is compared with the heat exchanging areas of the real vertical U-bend tube natural-circuit steam generators, the absolute errors of them are below 8%
Kedia, Kushal S.
2012-03-01
The objective of this work is to investigate the flame stabilization mechanism and the conditions leading to the blowoff of a laminar premixed flame anchored downstream of a heat-conducting perforated-plate/multi-hole burner, with overall nearly adiabatic conditions. We use unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. Results show a bell-shaped flame stabilizing above the burner plate hole, with a U-shaped section anchored between neighboring holes. The base of the positively curved U-shaped section of the flame is positioned near the stagnation point, at a location where the flame displacement speed is equal to the flow speed. This location is determined by the combined effect of heat loss and flame stretch on the flame displacement speed. As the mass flow rate of the reactants is increased, the flame displacement speed at this location varies non-monotonically. As the inlet velocity is increased, the recirculation zone grows slowly, the flame moves downstream, and the heat loss to the burner decreases, strengthening the flame and increasing its displacement speed. As the inlet velocity is raised, the stagnation point moves downstream, and the flame length grows to accommodate the reactants mass flow. Concomitantly, the radius of curvature of the flame base decreases until it reaches an almost constant value, comparable to the flame thickness. While the heat loss decreases, the higher flame curvature dominates thereby reducing the displacement speed of the flame base. For a stable flame, the gradient of the flame base displacement speed normal to the flame is higher than the gradient of the flow speed along the same direction, leading to dynamic stability. As inlet velocity is raised further, the former decreases while the latter increases until the stability condition is violated, leading to blowoff. The flame speed during blow off is determined by the feedback between the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatami, M., E-mail: m.hatami@tue.nl [Esfarayen University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department, Esfarayen, North Khorasan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jing, Dengwei; Song, Dongxing [International Research Center for Renewable Energy, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Sheikholeslami, M.; Ganji, D.D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-12-15
In this study, effect of variable magnetic field on nanofluid flow and heat transfer analysis between two parallel disks is investigated. By using the appropriate transformation for the velocity, temperature and concentration, the basic equations governing the flow, heat and mass transfer were reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations. These equations subjected to the associated boundary conditions were solved analytically using Homotopy perturbation method. The analytical investigation is carried out for different governing parameters namely: squeeze number, suction parameter, Hartmann number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophrotic parameter and Lewis number. Results show that Nusselt number has direct relationship with Brownian motion parameter and thermophrotic parameter but it is a decreasing function of squeeze number, suction parameter, Hartmann number and Lewis number. - Highlights: • Heat and mass transfer of nanofluids between parallel plates investigated. • A variable magnetic field is applied on the plates. • Governing equations are solved analytically. • Effects of physical parameters are discussed on the Nusselt number.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatami, M.; Jing, Dengwei; Song, Dongxing; Sheikholeslami, M.; Ganji, D.D.
2015-01-01
In this study, effect of variable magnetic field on nanofluid flow and heat transfer analysis between two parallel disks is investigated. By using the appropriate transformation for the velocity, temperature and concentration, the basic equations governing the flow, heat and mass transfer were reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations. These equations subjected to the associated boundary conditions were solved analytically using Homotopy perturbation method. The analytical investigation is carried out for different governing parameters namely: squeeze number, suction parameter, Hartmann number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophrotic parameter and Lewis number. Results show that Nusselt number has direct relationship with Brownian motion parameter and thermophrotic parameter but it is a decreasing function of squeeze number, suction parameter, Hartmann number and Lewis number. - Highlights: • Heat and mass transfer of nanofluids between parallel plates investigated. • A variable magnetic field is applied on the plates. • Governing equations are solved analytically. • Effects of physical parameters are discussed on the Nusselt number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colorado-Garrido, D.; Santoyo-Castelazo, E. [Posgrado en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001. Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez, J.A.; Siqueiros, J.; Juarez-Romero, D. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencia Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001. Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico(UNAM), Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, 62580 Morelos (Mexico)
2009-07-15
A predictive model is developed to describe heat transfer and fluid dynamic behavior of a helical double-pipe vertical evaporator used in an absorption heat transformer integrated to a water purification process. The evaporator uses water as working fluid connected in countercurrent. Heat transfer by conduction in the internal tube wall is considered; in addition the change of phase is carried out into the internal tube. The dynamic model considers equations of continuity, momentum and energy in each flow. The discretized governing equations are coupled using an implicit step by step method. The results of this model are compared with the experimental data in steady state, obtaining good agreement in the evaporation process. The model is also evaluated of form dynamic to determine the principal operation variables that affect the evaporator with the main objective to optimize and control the system. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dogan, M.; Sivrioglu, Mecit; Yılmaz, Onder
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Optimum fin shape is determined for natural convection and radiation heat transfer. • Fin array with the optimum shape has a much greater average heat transfer coefficient. • The most important factors affecting the heat transfer coefficient are determined. - Abstract: Steady state natural convection and radiation heat transfer from various shaped thin fin-arrays on a horizontal base plate has been numerically investigated. A conjugate analysis has been carried out in which the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy for the fluid in the two fin enclosure are solved together with the heat conduction equation in the fin and the base plate. Heat transfer by radiation is also considered in analysis. The heat transfer coefficient has been determined for each of the fin array considered in the present study at the same base and the same total area. The results of the analysis show that there are some important geometrical factors affecting the design of fin arrays. Taking into consideration these factors, an optimum fin shape that yields the highest average heat transfer coefficient has been determined
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, Zhongyuan; Dong, Tao
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A constructal thermohydraulic optimization was carried out. • The effect of manufacturing limit on the Pareto solution set was discussed. • The suitable constraints may differ from those on a quasi-continuous basis. - Abstract: A synthetic optimization is presented for the Pareto layouts of discrete heat sources (with uniform heat flux) flush mounted on a flat plate over which laminar flow serves for cooling purpose. The peak temperatures and the flow drag loss are minimizing simultaneously provided that the total heat dissipation rate and the plate length are held constant. The impact of the manufacturing limit, i.e. the minimum length of the heated or the adiabatic patch, on the optimum layout is discussed. The results in general comply with analytical deduction based on the constructal theory. However in a finite length scenario, geometric constraints on the adiabatic spacing differ from that fits the situation in which maximum heat transfer performance alone is to be achieved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, W.J.
1981-12-01
Comparisons have been made between experimental critical heat flux (CHF) data for upflow of water in uniformly heated vertical tubes and values calculated from an empirical CHF correlation developed from Freon-12 data. When this correlation is re-evaluated to account for vapour Prandtl number effects, very good agreement is obtained between experimental data and calculated values over a wide range of coolant conditions. Comparison of values calculated from the revised correlation with 2063 sets of CHF data obtained from experiments with water in vertical, uniformly heated tubes shows a mean ratio of the calculated to experimental CHF of 0.82 and an r.m.s. error of 5.8 per cent for the following coolant conditions: (1) local pressure of 3.4 to 12 MPa; (2) mass flux greater than approx. 300 kg s -1 m -2 , and (3) thermal equilibrium value of exit quality greater than 0.1
Zufía, Juan; Abella, Francesc; Trebol, Ivan; Gómez-Meda, Ramón
2017-09-01
Tooth replacement often leads to inadequate vertical volume in the recipient site bone when a tooth has been extracted because of a vertical root fracture (VRF). This case report presents the autotransplantation of a mandibular third molar (tooth #32) with the attached buccal cortical plate to replace a mandibular second molar (tooth #31) diagnosed with a VRF. After extraction of tooth #31, the recipient socket was prepared based on the size measured in advance with cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. The precise and calculated osteotomy of the cortical bone of tooth #32 allowed for the exact placement of the donor tooth in the position of tooth #31. The total extraoral time was only 25 minutes. The block was fixed to the recipient socket with an osteosynthesis screw and splinted with a double resin wire for 8 weeks. At the 6-month follow-up, the screw was removed, and the stability of the tooth and the regeneration obtained throughout the vestibular area were confirmed. At the 2-year follow-up, the transplanted tooth was asymptomatic and maintained a normal bone level. Advantages of autotransplantation over dental implants include maintenance of proprioception, possible orthodontic movements, and a relatively low cost. This case report demonstrates that an autotransplantation of a third molar attached to its buccal cortical plate is a viable option to replace teeth with a VRF. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, W.J.; Stevens, J.R.
1981-08-01
Experiments have been performed using vertical heated tubes, cooled internally by Freon-12, to determine critical heat fluxes (CHFs) for both a uniformly heated section and an exit region with a separately controlled power supply. Heated lengths of the main separately were 2870 mm (8.48 and 16.76 mm tube bores) and 3700 mm (for 21.34 mm tube bore); heated length of the exit section was 230 mm. Coolant pressures, exit qualities and mass fluxes were in the range 0.9 to 1.3 MPa, 0.19 to 0.86, and 380 to 2800 kg m -2 s -1 , respectively. The data have been compared with published empirical correlations specifically formulated to predict CHFs in Freon-cooled, vertical tubes; relevant published CHF data have also been compared with these correlations. These comparisons show that, even over the ranges of conditions for which the correlations were developed, predicted values are only accurate to within +-20 per cent. Moreover, as mass fluxes increase above 3500 kg m -2 s -1 , the modified Groeneveld correlation becomes increasingly inadequate, and the Bertoletti and modified Bertoletti correlations under-predict CHF values by increasing amounts. At mass fluxes below 750 kg m -2 s -1 the Bertoletti correlations exhibit increasing inaccuracy with a decrease in mass flux. For non-uniform heating, the correlations are at variance with the experimental data
On the vertical exchange of heat, mass and momentum over complex, mountainous terrain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathias Walter Rotach
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The role of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL in the atmosphere-climate system is the exchange of heat, mass and momentum between ‘the earth’s surface’ and the atmosphere. Traditionally, it is understood that turbulent transport is responsible for this exchange and hence the understanding and physical description of the turbulence structure of the boundary layer is key to assess the effectiveness of earth-atmosphere exchange. This understanding is rooted in the (implicit assumption of a scale separation or spectral gap between turbulence and mean atmospheric motions, which in turn leads to the assumption of a horizontally homogeneous and flat (HHF surface as a reference, for which both physical understanding and model parameterizations have successfully been developed over the years. Over mountainous terrain, however, the ABL is generically inhomogeneous due to both thermal (radiative and dynamic forcing. This inhomogeneity leads to meso-scale and even sub-meso-scale flows such as slope and valley winds or wake effects. It is argued here that these (submeso-scale motions can significantly contribute to the vertical structure of the boundary layer and hence vertical exchange of heat and mass between the surface and the atmosphere. If model grid resolution is not high enough the latter will have to be parameterized (in a similar fashion as gravity wave drag parameterizations take into account the momentum transport due to gravity waves in large-scale models. In this contribution we summarize the available evidence of the contribution of (submeso-scale motions to vertical exchange in mountainous terrain from observational and numerical modeling studies. In particular, a number of recent simulation studies using idealized topography will be summarized and put into perspective – so as to identify possible limitations and areas of necessary future research.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muratov, V.M.; Lyubimov, V.K.; Rakovets, S.M.; Kucharina, G.G.
1987-01-01
The authors present the results of an investigation of the continuous process of separation of extractive emulsion in a long vertical plate-like settling tank used in mixing-settling extractors. The object of study consisted of a section of the mixer-settler with pulsational mixing and a platelike settler 60 mm wide, 1000 mm long, and 300 mm high, made of acrylic plastic. The setup was used to demonstrate the circulation of each of the reagents (phases) in its own contour; they were injected into the mixing chamber by submersible centrifugal pumps, one placed in the volume with the light phase and the other in the volume with the heavy phase. After separation in the settling tank the liquid phases were each continuously poured into their own volume
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahola, M.P.; Karimi, A.
1996-01-01
In boundary layer analyses involving heat transfer, the Prandtl number (Pr) relates the diffusion of momentum to the diffusion of heat, and can be shown to directly correlate to the ratio of the thermal boundary layer thickness to the velocity boundary layer thickness. For large Prandtl number fluids (i.e., Pr > 1) the velocity boundary layer thickness is larger than the thermal boundary layer thickness, and vice versa. In some applications in the industry heating does not occur over the entire plate, such as in the case of an unheated starting region or spot heating along a finite segment of the plate. For such applications solutions only exist for the simpler case of large Prandtl number fluids where the thermal boundary layer is assumed to be smaller than the velocity boundary layer. The analyses presented in this paper extends the solution to the unheated starting region problem for small Prandtl number fluids, where the thermal boundary layer grows larger and crosses the velocity boundary layer. The solution is based on the integral method approach assuming laminar flow, and both cases of constant wall temperature as well as constant wall heat flux are analyzed
Heat transfer test in a vertical tube using CO2 at supercritical pressures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hwan Yeol; Kim, Hyungrae; Song, Jin Ho; Cho, Bong Hyun; Bae, Yoon Yeong
2007-01-01
Heat transfer test facility, SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt Generation), was constructed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for an investigation of the thermal-hydraulic behaviors of supercritical CO 2 at the various geometries of the test section. The test data will be used for the reactor core design of the SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor). As a working fluid, CO 2 was selected to make use of the low critical pressure and temperature of CO 2 compared with water. An experimental study was carried out in the SPHINX to investigate the characteristics of heat transfer and pressure drop at a vertical single tube with an inside diameter of 4.4 mm in case of an upward flow of supercritical CO 2 . The heat and mass fluxes were varied at a given pressure. The mass flux was in the range of 400-1,200 kg/m 2 s and the heat flux was chosen up to 150 kW/m 2 . The selected pressures were 7.75, 8.12, and 8.85 MPa. A heat transfer deterioration occurred at the lower mass fluxes. The experimental heat transfer coefficients were compared with the ones predicted by several existing correlations. The standard deviation was about 20% for each correlation and an apparent discrepancy was not found among the correlations. The major components of the pressure drop were a gravitational pressure drop and a frictional pressure drop. The frictional pressure drop increases as the mass flux and heat flux increase. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gang Wu; Bi Qincheng; Yang Zhendong; Wang Han; Zhu Xiaojing; Hao Hou; Leung, L.K.H.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Two annular test sections were constructed with annular gaps of 4 and 6 mm. → Two heat transfer regions have been observed: normal and deteriorated heat transfer. → The spacer enhances the heat transfer at downstream locations. → The Jackson correlation agrees quite closely with the experimental data. - Abstract: An experiment has recently been completed at Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU) to obtain wall-temperature measurements at supercritical pressures with upward flow of water inside vertical annuli. Two annular test sections were constructed with annular gaps of 4 and 6 mm, respectively, and an internal heater of 8 mm outer diameter. Experimental-parameter ranges covered pressures of 23-28 MPa, mass fluxes of 350-1000 kg/m 2 /s, heat fluxes of 200-1000 kW/m 2 , and bulk inlet temperatures up to 400 deg. C. Depending on the flow conditions and heat fluxes, two distinctive heat transfer regimes, referring to as the normal heat transfer and deteriorated heat transfer, have been observed. At similar flow conditions, the heat transfer coefficients for the 6 mm gap annular channel are larger than those for the 4 mm gap annular channel. A strong effect of spiral spacer on heat transfer has been observed with a drastic reduction in wall temperature at locations downstream of the device in the annuli. Two tube-data-based correlations have been assessed against the experimental heat transfer results. The Jackson correlation agrees with the experimental trends and overpredicts slightly the heat transfer coefficients. The Dittus-Boelter correlation is applicable only for the normal heat transfer region but not for the deteriorated heat transfer region.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joong Hun Bae; Jung Yul Yoo; Haecheon Choi
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: The influence of variable fluid property on turbulent convective heat transfer is investigated using direct numerical simulations. We consider thermally-developing flows of air and supercritical-pressure CO 2 in a vertical annular channel where the inner wall is heated with a constant heat flux and the outer wall is insulated. Turbulence statistics show that the heat and momentum transport characteristics of variable-property flows are significantly different from those of constant-property flows. The difference is mainly caused by the spatial and temporal variations of fluid density. The non-uniform density distribution causes fluid particles to be accelerated either by expansion or buoyancy force, while the temporal density fluctuations change the heat and momentum transfer via transport of turbulent mass flux, ρ'u' i . Both effects of the spatial and temporal variations of density are shown to be important in the analysis of turbulent convective heat transfer for supercritical-pressure fluids. For variable-property heated air flows, however, the effect of temporal density fluctuations can be neglected at low Mach number, which is in good accordance with the Morkovin's hypothesis. (authors)
Analysis of the vertical penetration of a heated fluid layer in a solid, miscible bed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eck, G.
1982-03-01
The present study investigates the mass and heat transfer for the vertical penetration of a heated fluid layer in a solid, miscible bed using water-salt solutions (ZnBr 2 , NaBr) and polyethylenglycol 1500 (PEG) as simulation materials. The time depending spatial distribution of the molten material (PEG) has been measured for the first time with conductivity probes. The dependence of the downward heat flux on the density ratio rho*, i.e. the density of the fluid / the density of the molten solid, has been investigated with two different methods of heating, planar heating with a heat exchanger in a defined initial distance to the PEG-surface and electrolytical volume heating with a defined and timely constant power input. For 1 2 two layers have been observed in the fluid. This phenomenon is caused among other things by an anomality of the mixture density of the system salt solution-PEG. This process affects the downward heat flux so strongly, that it is impossible to transfer the results of such a system in this region of rho* to another system, for example to a corecatcher. The discrepancies between the measured heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients of this study and that of other authors can be explained by the different construction of the planar heater, or by different boundary conditions in the case of volume heating. (orig.) [de
Turbulent Heat Transfer of a Finned Plate in a Duct as Tip Clearance Changes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Hae-Kyun; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
Fins are employed to enhance the cooling performance of a system. There are a number of studies relevant to geometry of fins. Meanwhile, the studies relevant to tip clearance, have not performed enough, which is the distance between the tips of the fins and the wall. We investigated the optimal tip clearance, which maximizes the heat transfers by experimental and numerical analyses with wider range of Re{sub Dh} than the previous studies. Turbulent heat transfers of a finned plate were measured. For an extended range of tip clearance and Re{sub Dh} than other studies. A joint experimental and numerical analyses was performed to measure heat transfers. Mass transfer experiments using electroplating system was used and FLUENT 6.3.26 was used for the calculation. For the narrow tip clearances below 5 mm, were investigated by numerical method only. The bypass flow to the tip clearance region contributes to heat transfer area at the tip clearance region and does not contributes that of the fin region. Thus, the optimal tip clearance was founded and it exists vicinity of 0.2 mm.
Heat and momentum transfer for magnetoconvection in a vertical external magnetic field
Zürner, Till; Liu, Wenjun; Krasnov, Dmitry; Schumacher, Jörg
2016-11-01
The scaling theory of Grossmann and Lohse for the turbulent heat and momentum transfer is extended to the magnetoconvection case in the presence of a (strong) vertical magnetic field. The comparison with existing laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations in the quasistatic limit allows to restrict the parameter space to very low Prandtl and magnetic Prandtl numbers and thus to reduce the number of unknown parameters in the model. Also included is the Chandrasekhar limit for which the outer magnetic induction field B is large enough such that convective motion is suppressed and heat is transported by diffusion. Our theory identifies four distinct regimes of magnetoconvection which are distinguished by the strength of the outer magnetic field and the level of turbulence in the flow, respectively. LIMTECH Research Alliance and Research Training Group GK 1567 on Lorentz Force Velocimetry, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
E.Hemalatha; N. Bhaskar Reddy
2015-01-01
This paper analyzes the radiation and chemical reaction effects on MHD steady two-dimensional laminar viscous incompressible radiating boundary layer flow over a flat plate in the presence of internal heat generation and convective boundary condition. It is assumed that lower surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid while a stream of cold fluid flows steadily over the upper surface with a heat source that decays exponentially. The Rosseland approximation is used to desc...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farhad Ali
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to analyze the influence of thermal radiation on some unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD free convection flows of an incompressible Brinkman type fluid past a vertical flat plate embedded in a porous medium with the Newtonian heating boundary condition. The fluid is considered as a gray absorbing-emitting but nonscattering medium and the Rosseland approximation in the energy equations is used to describe the radiative heat flux for optically thick fluid. For a detailed analysis of the problem, four important situations of flow due to (i impulsive motion of the plate (ii uniform acceleration of the plate (iii nonuniform acceleration of the plate, and (iv highly nonuniform acceleration of the plate are considered. The governing equations are first transformed into a system of dimensionless equations and then solved analytically using the Laplace transform technique. Numerical results for temperature and velocity are shown graphically, while skin friction and Nusselt number are computed in tables. The results show that temperature and velocity increase on increasing radiation and Newtonian heating parameters. However, the results of magnetic and porosity parameters on velocity are found quite opposite.
A condensation experiment in the accumulated conditions of noncondensable gas in a vertical tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Kwon Yeong; Kim, Moo Hwan
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: It has been well known that the presence of noncondensable gases in vapors can greatly inhibit the condensation process. Many analytical and experimental studies were conducted to investigate the effect of noncondensable gases on steam condensation for both stagnant and forced-convective situations either over a plate or outside a horizontal tube. Recently, several researches have been performed for the condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases taken place inside the vertical tube in order to give the information to design the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). Generally, the experimental results showed that the heat transfer coefficient depends on inlet noncondensable gas mass fraction, inlet saturated steam temperature related with system pressure and inlet mixture Reynolds number. This research was performed for the System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor-Pilot (SMART-P), in which the remaining heat is removed from the core passively by Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS) condenser in a period of serious accident. The PRHRS is separated from working fluid loop, and pressurized by a nitrogen gas during the normal operation of SMART-P. But when the PRHRS starts operating, the nitrogen gas acts as a noncondensable gas and affects the heat transfer characteristics of the PRHRS. The experimental conditions of this study were almost similar with those of previous researches except the noncondensable gas was accumulated and remained inside the vertical tube. In the previous researches, the noncondensable gas was flowing with constant flow rate. Because of the condensate inside condenser tube, the accumulation of noncondensable gas could be developed inside the vertical tube. At steady-state condition the local temperatures and system pressure were measured to obtain heat transfer characteristics. This study also gave the information about the distribution of the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Baag
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the steady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD mixed convection stagnation point flow of an incompressible and electrically conducting micropolar fluid past a vertical flat plate is investigated. The effects of induced magnetic field, heat generation/absorption and chemical reaction have been taken into account during the present study. Numerical solutions are obtained by using the Runge–Kutta fourth order scheme with shooting technique. The skin friction and rate of heat and mass transfer at the bounding surface are also calculated. The generality of the present study is assured of by discussing the works of Ramachandran et al. (1988, Lok et al. (2005 and Ishak et al. (2008 as particular cases. It is interesting to note that the results of the previous authors are in good agreement with the results of the present study tabulated which is evident from the tabular values. Further, the novelty of the present analysis is to account for the effects of first order chemical reaction in a flow of reactive diffusing species in the presence of heat source/sink. The discussion of the present study takes care o