Sample records for heat

  1. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Pielke, R


    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  2. Heat pipe heat storage performance

    Caruso, A; Pasquetti, R [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (FR). Inst. Universitaire des Systemes; Grakovich, L P; Vasiliev, L L [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst. of the BSSR, Academy of Sciences, Minsk (BY)


    Heat storage offers essential thermal energy saving for heating. A ground heat store equipped with heat pipes connecting it with a heat source and to the user is considered in this paper. It has been shown that such a heat exchanging system along with a batch energy source meets, to a considerable extent, house heating requirements. (author).

  3. Heat transfer

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  4. Heat Waves

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  5. Heat Islands

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  6. Heat exchangers

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik


    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  7. Heat Stress

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  8. Heat pumps

    Macmichael, DBA


    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  9. Heat pumps

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski


    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  10. Heat transfer

    Saad, M.A.


    Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously

  11. Heat exchanger

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.


    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  12. Heat pipe

    Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.


    A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)

  13. Heat exchanger

    Leigh, D.G.


    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  14. Direct Heat

    Lienau, P J


    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  15. Plasma heating

    Wilhelm, R.


    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Heat Stroke

    Mørch, Sofie Søndergaard; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Bestle, Morten Heiberg


    not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat......Heat stroke is an acute, life-threatening emergency characterized clinically by elevated body temperature and central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and treatment including aggressive cooling and management of life-threatening systemic complications are essential to reduce morbidity...... and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were...

  17. Heat pipes

    Dunn, Peter D


    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  18. Heat conduction

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.


    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  19. District heating

    Hansen, L.


    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  20. Review: heat pipe heat exchangers at IROST

    E. Azad


    The use of the heat pipe as a component in a heat recovery device has gained worldwide acceptance. Heat pipes are passive, highly reliable and offer high heat transfer rates. This study summarizes the investigation of different types of heat pipe heat recovery systems (HPHRSs). The studies are classified on the basis of the type of the HPHRS. This research is based on 30 years of experience on heat pipe and heat recovery systems that are presented in this study. Copyright , Oxford University ...

  1. Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers for heat recovery systems

    Vasiliev, L L; Grakovich, L P; Kiselev, V G; Kurustalev, D K; Matveev, Yu


    Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers are of great importance in power engineering as a means of recovering waste heat of industrial enterprises, solar energy, geothermal waters and deep soil. Heat pipes are highly effective heat transfer units for transferring thermal energy over large distance (tens of meters) with low temperature drops. Their heat transfer characteristics and reliable working for more than 10-15 yr permit the design of new systems with higher heat engineering parameters.

  2. Unwanted heat

    Benka, M.


    The number of small heating plants using biomass is growing. According to TREND's information, Hrinovska energeticka, is the only one that controls the whole supplier chain in cooperation with its parent company in Bratislava. Starting with the collection and processing of wood chips by burning, heat production and heat distribution to the end user. This gives the company better control over costs and consequently its own prices. Last year, the engineering company, Hrinovske storjarne, decided to focus only on its core business and sold its heating plant, Hrinovske tepelne hospodarstvo, to Intech Slovakia and changed the company name to Hrinovska energeticka. Local companies and inhabitants were concerned that the new owner would increase prices. But the company publicly declared and kept promises that the heat price for households would remain at 500 Slovak crowns/gigajoule (13.33 EUR/gigajoule ), one of the lowest prices in Slovakia. This year the prices increased slightly to 570 Slovak crowns (15.2 EUR). 'We needed - even at the cost of lower profit - to satisfy our customers so that we would not lose them. We used this time for transition to biomass. This will allow us to freeze our prices in the coming years,' explained the statutory representative of the company, Ivan Dudak. (authors)

  3. Heat Pipes


    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  4. Monopole heat

    Turner, M.S.


    Upper bounds on the flux of monopoles incident on the Earth with velocity -5 c(10 16 GeV m -1 ) and on the flux of monopoles incident on Jupiter with velocity -3 c(10 16 GeV m -1 ), are derived. Monopoles moving this slowly lose sufficient energy to be stopped, and then catalyse nucleon decay, releasing heat. The limits are obtained by requiring the rate of energy release from nucleon decay to be less than the measured amount of heat flowing out from the surface of the planet. (U.K.)

  5. Heat exchanger

    Drury, C.R.


    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  6. Heat Convection

    Jiji, Latif M.

    Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the follow ing ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters.

  7. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  8. Heat exchanger

    Wolowodiuk, Walter


    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  9. Heat exchangers


    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  10. Heat exchanger

    Harada, F; Yanagida, T; Fujie, K; Futawatari, H


    The purpose of this construction is the improvement of heat transfer in finned tube heat exchangers, and therefore the improvement of its efficiency or its output per unit volume. This is achieved by preventing the formation of flow boundary layers in gaseous fluid. This effect always occurs on flow of smooth adjacent laminae, and especially if these have pipes carrying liquid passing through them; it worsens the heat transfer of such a boundary layer considerably compared to that in the turbulent range. The fins, which have several rows of heat exchange tubes passing through them, are fixed at a small spacing on theses tubes. The fins have slots cut in them by pressing or punching, where the pressed-out material remains as a web, which runs parallel to the level of the fin and at a small distance from it. These webs and slots are arranged radially around every tube hole, e.g. 6 in number. For a suitable small tube spacing, two adjacent tubes opposite each other have one common slot. Many variants of such slot arrangements are illustrated.

  11. Heat exchanger

    Wolowodiuk, W.


    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  12. Heat pipe heat exchangers in heat recovery systems

    Stulc, P; Vasiliev, L L; Kiseljev, V G; Matvejev, Ju N


    The results of combined research and development activities of the National Research Institute for Machine Design, Prague, C.S.S.R. and the Institute for Heat and Mass Transfer, Minsk, U.S.S.R. concerning intensification heat pipes used in heat pipe heat exchangers are presented. This sort of research has been occasioned by increased interest in heat power economy trying to utilise waste heat produced by various technological processes. The developed heat pipes are deployed in construction of air-air, gas-air or gas-gas heat recovery exchangers in the field of air-engineering and air-conditioning. (author).

  13. Heat exchanger

    Bennett, J.C.


    A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)

  14. Heating networks and domestic central heating systems

    Kamler, W; Wasilewski, W


    This is a comprehensive survey of the 26 contributions from 8 European countries submitted to the 3rd International District Heating Conference in Warsaw held on the subject 'Heating Networks and Domestic Central Heating Systems'. The contributions are grouped according to 8 groups of subjects: (1) heat carriers and their parameters; (2) system of heating networks; (3) calculation and optimization of heating networks; (4) construction of heating networks; (5) operation control and automation; (6) operational problems; (7) corrosion problems; and (8) methods of heat accounting.

  15. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)


    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  16. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX


    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  17. Heat pipes

    Dunn, Peter D


    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  18. Heat exchanger

    Dostatni, A.W.; Dostatni, Michel.


    In the main patent, a description was given of a heat exchanger with an exchange surface in preformed sheet metal designed for the high pressure and temperature service particularly encountered in nuclear pressurized water reactors and which is characterised by the fact that it is composed of at least one exchanger bundle sealed in a containment, the said bundle or bundles being composed of numerous juxtaposed individual compartments whose exchange faces are built of preformed sheet metal. The present addendun certificate concerns shapes of bundles and their positioning methods in the exchanger containment enabling its compactness to be increased [fr

  19. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Jones, Jack A.


    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  20. Low temperature nuclear heat

    Kotakorpi, J.; Tarjanne, R. [comps.


    The meeting was concerned with the use of low grade nuclear heat for district heating, desalination, process heat, and agriculture and aquaculture. The sessions covered applications and demand, heat sources, and economics.

  1. Radiofrequency plasma heating: proceedings

    Swenson, D.G.


    The conference proceedings include sessions on Alfven Wave Heating, ICRF Heating and Current Drive, Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive, and ECRF Heating. Questions of confinement, diagnostics, instabilities and technology are considered. Individual papers are cataloged separately

  2. Split heat pipe heat recovery system

    E. Azad


    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a split heat pipe heat recovery system. The analysis is based on an Effectiveness-NTU approach to deduce its heat transfer characteristics. In this study the variation of overall effectiveness of heat recovery with the number of transfer units are presented. Copyright , Manchester University Press.

  3. Segmented heat exchanger

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann


    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  4. Dual source heat pump

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.


    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  5. Heat pipes in modern heat exchangers

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.


    Heat pipes are very flexible systems with regard to effective thermal control. They can easily be implemented as heat exchangers inside sorption and vapour-compression heat pumps, refrigerators and other types of heat transfer devices. Their heat transfer coefficient in the evaporator and condenser zones is 10 3 -10 5 W/m 2 K, heat pipe thermal resistance is 0.01-0.03 K/W, therefore leading to smaller area and mass of heat exchangers. Miniature and micro heat pipes are welcomed for electronic components cooling and space two-phase thermal control systems. Loop heat pipes, pulsating heat pipes and sorption heat pipes are the novelty for modern heat exchangers. Heat pipe air preheaters are used in thermal power plants to preheat the secondary-primary air required for combustion of fuel in the boiler using the energy available in exhaust gases. Heat pipe solar collectors are promising for domestic use. This paper reviews mainly heat pipe developments in the Former Soviet Union Countries. Some new results obtained in USA and Europe are also included

  6. Heat pipe heat exchanger for heat recovery in air conditioning

    Abd El-Baky, Mostafa A.; Mohamed, Mousa M. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minufiya University, Shebin El-Kom (Egypt)


    The heat pipe heat exchangers are used in heat recovery applications to cool the incoming fresh air in air conditioning applications. Two streams of fresh and return air have been connected with heat pipe heat exchanger to investigate the thermal performance and effectiveness of heat recovery system. Ratios of mass flow rate between return and fresh air of 1, 1.5 and 2.3 have been adapted to validate the heat transfer and the temperature change of fresh air. Fresh air inlet temperature of 32-40{sup o}C has been controlled, while the inlet return air temperature is kept constant at about 26{sup o}C. The results showed that the temperature changes of fresh and return air are increased with the increase of inlet temperature of fresh air. The effectiveness and heat transfer for both evaporator and condenser sections are also increased to about 48%, when the inlet fresh air temperature is increased to 40{sup o}C. The effect of mass flow rate ratio on effectiveness is positive for evaporator side and negative for condenser side. The enthalpy ratio between the heat recovery and conventional air mixing is increased to about 85% with increasing fresh air inlet temperature. The optimum effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger is estimated and compared with the present experimental data. The results showed that the effectiveness is close to the optimum effectiveness at fresh air inlet temperature near the fluid operating temperature of heat pipes. (author)

  7. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn


    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  8. Heat transfer: Pittsburgh 1987

    Lyczkowski, R.W.


    This book contains papers divided among the following sections: Process Heat Transfer; Thermal Hydraulics and Phase Change Phenomena; Analysis of Multicomponent Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer in Advanced Reactors; General Heat Transfer in Solar Energy; Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; High Temperature Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer Aspects of Severe Reactor Accidents; Hazardous Waste On-Site Disposal; and General Papers

  9. Industrial waste heat for district heating

    Heitner, K.L.; Brooks, P.P.


    Presents 2 bounding evaluations of industrial waste heat availability. Surveys waste heat from 29 major industry groups at the 2-digit level in Standard Industrial Codes (SIC). Explains that waste heat availability in each industry was related to regional product sales, in order to estimate regional waste heat availability. Evaluates 4 selected industries at the 4-digit SIC level. Finds that industrial waste heat represents a significant energy resource in several urban areas, including Chicago and Los Angeles, where it could supply all of these areas residential heating and cooling load. Points out that there is a strong need to evaluate the available waste heat for more industries at the 4-digit level. Urges further studies to identify other useful industrial waste heat sources as well as potential waste heat users

  10. Automation of heating system with heat pump

    Ferdin, Gašper


    Because of high prices of energy, we are upgrading our heating systems with newer, more fuel efficient heating devices. Each new device has its own control system, which operates independently from other devices in a heating system. With a relatively low investment costs in automation, we can group devices in one central control system and increase the energy efficiency of a heating system. In this project, we show how to connect an oil furnace, a sanitary heat pump, solar panels and a heat p...

  11. Intermittent heating of buildings

    Kohonen, K


    Conditions for intermittent heating of buildings are considered both theoretically and experimentally. Thermal behaviour of buildings adn rooms in intermittent heating is simulated by a program based on the convective heat balance equation and by simplified RC-models. The preheat times and the heating energy savings compared with continuous heating are presented for typical lightweight, mediumweight and heavyweight classroom and office modules. Formulaes for estimating the oversizing of the radiator network, the maximum heat output of heat exchangers in district heating and the efficiency of heating boilers in intermittent heating are presented. The preheat times and heating energy savings with different heating control systems are determined also experimentally in eight existing buildings. In addition some principles for the planning and application of intermittent heating systems are suggested.

  12. Heat pump technology

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A


    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  13. Cryogenic heat transfer

    Barron, Randall F


    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  14. Future heat supply of our cities. Heating by waste heat

    Brachetti, H E [Stadtwerke Hannover A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Technische Univ. Hannover (Germany, F.R.))


    The energy-price crisis resulted in structural changes of the complete energy supply and reactivated the question of energy management with respect to the optimum solution of meeting the energy requirements for space heating. Condensation power plants are increasingly replaced by thermal stations, the waste heat of which is used as so-called district heat. Thermal power stations must be situated close to urban areas. The problem of emission of harmful materials can partly be overcome by high-level emission. The main subject of the article, however, is the problem of conducting and distributing the heat. The building costs of heat pipeline systems and the requirements to be met by heat pipelines such as strength, heat insulation and protection against humidity and ground water are investigated.

  15. Heat-Related Illnesses

    ... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  16. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  17. Absorption heat pump system

    Grossman, G.


    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  18. Heat Related Illnesses

    Carter, R; Cheuvront, S. N; Sawka, M. N


    .... The risk of serious heat illness can be markedly reduced by implementing a variety of countermeasures, including becoming acclimated to the heat, managing heat stress exposure, and maintaining hydration...

  19. Heat Roadmap Europe 1

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg


    Heat Roadmap Europe (Pre-study 1) investigates the role of district heating in the EU27 energy system by mapping local conditions across Europe, identifying the potential for district heating expansion, and subsequently simulating the potential resource in an hourly model of the EU27 energy system....... In 2010, approximately 12% of the space heating demand in Europe is met by district heating, but in this study four alternative scenarios are considered for the EU27 energy system: 1. 2010 with 30% district heating 2. 2010 with 50% district heating 3. 2030 with 30% district heating 4. 2050 with 50......% district heating These scenarios are investigated in two steps. Firstly, district heating replaces individual boilers by converting condensing power plants to combined heat and power plants (CHP) to illustrate how district heating improves the overall efficiency of the energy system. In the second step...

  20. Multidimensional Heat Conduction

    Rode, Carsten


    Analytical theory of multidimensional heat conduction. General heat conduction equation in three dimensions. Steay state, analytical solutions. The Laplace equation. Method of separation of variables. Principle of superposition. Shape factors. Transient, multidimensional heat conduction....

  1. Oscillating heat pipes

    Ma, Hongbin


    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  2. Heating in toroidal plasmas

    Knoepfel, H.; Mazzitelli, G.


    The article is a rather detailed report on the highlights in the area of the ''Heating in toroidal plasmas'', as derived from the presentations and discussions at the international symposium with the same name, held in Rome, March 1984. The symposium covered both the physics (experiments and theory) and technology of toroidal fusion plasma heating. Both large fusion devices (either already in operation or near completion) requiring auxiliary heating systems at the level of tens of megawatts, as well as physics of their heating processes and their induced side effects (as studied on smaller devices), received attention. Substantial progress was reported on the broad front of auxiliary plasma heating and Ohmic heating. The presentation of the main conclusions of the symposium is divided under the following topics: neutral-beam heating, Alfven wave heating, ion cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating, RF current drive, electron cyclotron heating, Ohmic heating and special contributions

  3. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)


    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  4. Heat Roadmap Europe

    David, Andrei; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Averfalk, Helge


    The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document that suc......The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document...

  5. Heat pumps in district heating networks

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    constraints limit the power plants. Efficient heat pumps can be used to decouple the constraints of electricity and heat production, while maintaining the high energy efficiency needed to match the politically agreed carbon emission goals. The requirements in terms of COP, location, capacity and economy...... and strategic planning in the energy sector. The paper presents a case study of optimal implementation of heat pumps in the present energy system of the Copenhagen area. By introduction of the correct capacity of heat pumps, a 1,6 % reduction in fuel consumption for electricity and heat production can...

  6. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))


    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  7. Heat pipes for ground heating and cooling

    Vasiliev, L L


    Different versions of heat pipe ground heating and cooling devices are considered. Solar energy, biomass, ground stored energy, recovered heat of industrial enterprises and ambient cold air are used as energy and cold sources. Heat pipe utilization of air in winter makes it possible to design accumulators of cold and ensures deep freezing of ground in order to increase its mechanical strength when building roadways through the swamps and ponds in Siberia. Long-term underground heat storage systems are considered, in which the solar and biomass energy is accumulated and then transferred to heat dwellings and greenhouses, as well as to remove snow from roadways with the help of heat pipes and solar collectors.

  8. Heat Roadmap Europe

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad


    compared to 1990 levels. None of these scenarios involve the large-scale implementation of district heating, but instead they focus on the electrification of the heating sector (primarily using heat pumps) and/or the large-scale implementation of electricity and heat savings. In this paper, the potential...... for district heating in the EU between now and 2050 is identified, based on extensive and detailed mapping of the EU heat demand and various supply options. Subsequently, a new ‘district heating plus heat savings’ scenario is technically and economically assessed from an energy systems perspective. The results...... indicate that with district heating, the EU energy system will be able to achieve the same reductions in primary energy supply and carbon dioxide emissions as the existing alternatives proposed. However, with district heating these goals can be achieved at a lower cost, with heating and cooling costs...

  9. Heat Roadmap Europe

    Hansen, Kenneth; Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik


    The cost of heat savings in buildings increase as more heat savings are achieved due to the state of the building stock and hence, alternatives other than savings typically become more economically feasible at a certain level of heat reductions. It is important to identify when the cost of heat...... savings become more expensive than the cost of sustainable heat supply, so society does not overinvest in heat saving measures. This study first investigates the heat saving potentials for different countries in Europe, along with their associated costs, followed by a comparison with alternative ways...... of supplying sustainable heating. Different heat production options are included in terms of individual and community heating systems. Furthermore, the levelised cost of supplying sustainable heat is estimated for both a single technology and from an energy system perspective. The results are analysed...

  10. Heat Roadmap Europe

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik


    This document is a summary of the key technical inputs for the modelling of the heat strategy for Europe outlined in the latest Heat Roadmap Europe studies [1, 2]. These studies quantify the impact of alternative heating strategies for Europe in 2030 and 2050. The study is based on geographical...... information systems (GIS) and energy system analyses. In this report, the inputs for other modelling tools such as PRIMES are presented, in order to enable other researches to generate similar heating scenarios for Europe. Although Heat Roadmap Europe presents a complete heat strategy for Europe, which...... includes energy efficiency, individual heating units (such as boilers and heat pumps), and heat networks, the recommendations here are primarily relating to the potential and modelling of district heating. Although other solutions will play a significant role in decarbonising the heating and cooling sector...

  11. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    Kirol, L.D.


    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  12. Transient Heat Conduction

    Rode, Carsten


    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  13. Thulium-170 heat source

    Walter, Carl E.; Van Konynenburg, Richard; VanSant, James H.


    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  14. District heating in Switzerland

    Herzog, F.


    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  15. Analysis of Heat Transfer


    This book deals with analysis of heat transfer which includes nonlinear analysis examples, radiation heat transfer, analysis of heat transfer in ANSYS, verification of analysis result, analysis of heat transfer of transition with automatic time stepping and open control, analysis of heat transfer using arrangement of ANSYS, resistance of thermal contact, coupled field analysis such as of thermal-structural interaction, cases of coupled field analysis, and phase change.

  16. Heating in toroidal plasmas

    Canobbio, E.


    This paper reports on the 2nd Joint Grenoble-Varenna International Symposium on Heating in Toroidal Plasmas, held at Como, Italy, from the 3-12 September 1980. Important problems in relation to the different existing processes of heating. The plasma were identified and discussed. Among others, the main processes discussed were: a) neutral beam heating, b) ion-(electron)-cyclotron resonance heating, c) hybrid resonance and low frequency heating

  17. Introduction to heat transfer



    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  18. Heat exchange apparatus

    Thurston, G.C.; McDaniels, J.D.; Gertsch, P.R.


    The present invention relates to heat exchangers used for transferring heat from the gas cooled core of a nuclear reactor to a secondary medium during standby and emergency conditions. The construction of the heat exchanger described is such that there is a minimum of welds exposed to the reactor coolant, the parasitic heat loss during normal operation of the reactor is minimized and the welds and heat transfer tubes are easily inspectable. (UK)

  19. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)


    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  20. Heat transfer from internally heated hemispherical pools

    Gabor, J.D.; Ellsion, P.G.; Cassulo, J.C.


    Experiments were conducted on heat transfer from internally heated ZnSO 4 -H 2 O pools to the walls of hemispherical containers. This experimental technique provides data for a heat transfer system that has to date been only theoretically treated. Three different sizes of copper hemispherical containers were used: 240, 280, 320 mm in diameter. The pool container served both as a heat transfer surface and as an electrode. The opposing electrode was a copper disk, 50 mm in diameter located at the top of the pool in the center. The top surface of the pool was open to the atmosphere

  1. Heat pump augmentation of nuclear process heat

    Koutz, S.L.


    A system is described for increasing the temperature of a working fluid heated by a nuclear reactor. The system consists of: a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor having a core and a primary cooling loop through which a coolant is circulated so as to undergo an increase in temperature, a closed secondary loop having a working fluid therein, the cooling and secondary loops having cooperative association with an intermediate heat exchanger adapted to effect transfer of heat from the coolant to the working fluid as the working fluid passes through the intermediate heat exchanger, a heat pump connected in the secondary loop and including a turbine and a compressor through which the working fluid passes so that the working fluid undergoes an increase in temperature as it passes through the compressor, a process loop including a process chamber adapted to receive a process fluid therein, the process chamber being connected in circuit with the secondary loop so as to receive the working fluid from the compressor and transfer heat from the working fluid to the process fluid, a heat exchanger for heating the working fluid connected to the process loop for receiving heat therefrom and for transferring heat to the secondary loop prior to the working fluid passing through the compressor, the secondary loop being operative to pass the working fluid from the process chamber to the turbine so as to effect driving relation thereof, a steam generator operatively associated with the secondary loop so as to receive the working fluid from the turbine, and a steam loop having a feedwater supply and connected in circuit with the steam generator so that feedwater passing through the steam loop is heated by the steam generator, the steam loop being connected in circuit with the process chamber and adapted to pass steam to the process chamber with the process fluid

  2. Heat recovery in industry

    Steimle, F; Paul, J [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.)


    The waste heat of industrial furnaces and other heat-consuming installations can be utilized by recuperative processes in the furnace and by energy cascades. Economy and the need for an external supply of energy are closely connected. Straight cascades can hardly be realized and if the required temperature gradient is too great such heat should be utilized repeatedly if possible by recycling through heat pumps. The possibilities depend on the relevant temperature since the technology available for this differs in its state of development. The low-temperature waste heat from the final stage can be used for space-heating and water heating by heat exchangers and heat pumps and thus be put to a useful purpose.

  3. New nuclear heat sources for district heating

    Lerouge, B.


    The means by which urban oil heating may be taken over by new energy sources, especially nuclear, are discussed. Several possibilities exist: pressurized water reactors for high powers, and low-temperature swimming-pool-type process-heat reactors for lower powers. Both these cases are discussed [fr

  4. Heat transfer system

    Not Available


    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  5. Basic heat transfer

    Bacon, D H


    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  6. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred


    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  7. Heat transfer enhancement

    Hasatani, Masanobu; Itaya, Yoshinori


    In order to develop energy-saving techniques and new energy techniques, and also most advanced techniques by making industrial equipment with high performance, heat transfer performance frequently becomes an important problem. In addition, the improvement of conventional heat transfer techniques and the device of new heat transfer techniques are often required. It is most proper that chemical engineers engage in the research and development for enhancing heat transfer. The research and development for enhancing heat transfer are important to heighten heat exchange efficiency or to cool equipment for preventing overheat in high temperature heat transfer system. In this paper, the techniques of enhancing radiative heat transfer and the improvement of radiative heat transfer characteristics are reported. Radiative heat transfer is proportional to fourth power of absolute temperature, and it does not require any heat transfer medium, but efficient heat-radiation converters are necessary. As the techniques of enhancing radiative heat transfer, the increase of emission and absorption areas, the installation of emissive structures and the improvement of radiative characteristics are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  8. Convective heat transfer

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa


    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  9. The secure heating reactor

    Pind, C.


    The SECURE heating reactor was designed by ASEA-ATOM as a realistic alternative for district heating in urban areas and for supplying heat to process industries. SECURE has unique safety characteristics, that are based on fundamental laws of physics. The safety does not depend on active components or operator intervention for shutdown and cooling of the reactor. The inherent safety characteristics of the plant cannot be affected by operator errors. Due to its very low environment impact, it can be sited close to heat consumers. The SECURE heating reactor has been shown to be competitive in comparison with other alternatives for heating Helsinki and Seoul. The SECURE heating reactor forms a basis for the power-producing SECURE-P reactor known as PIUS (Process Inherent Ultimate Safety), which is based on the same inherent safety principles. The thermohydraulic function and transient response have been demonstrated in a large electrically heated loop at the ASEA-ATOM laboratories

  10. Effective geothermal heat

    Abelsen, Atle


    Scandinavia's currently largest geothermal heating project: the New Ahus hospital, is briefly presented. 300-400 wells on a field outside the hospital are constructed to store energy for both heating and cooling purposes

  11. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... Be Prepared Safe Citizen Day Organize Important Medical Information ER Checklists Preparing for Emergencies Be ready to ... anyone can be affected. Here you will find information about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. ...

  12. Paleoclassical electron heat transport

    Callen, J.D.


    Radial electron heat transport in low collisionality, magnetically-confined toroidal plasmas is shown to result from paleoclassical Coulomb collision processes (parallel electron heat conduction and magnetic field diffusion). In such plasmas the electron temperature equilibrates along magnetic field lines a long length L, which is the minimum of the electron collision length and a maximum effective half length of helical field lines. Thus, the diffusing field lines induce a radial electron heat diffusivity M ≅ L/(πR 0q ) ∼ 10 >> 1 times the magnetic field diffusivity η/μ 0 ≅ ν e (c/ω p ) 2 . The paleoclassical electron heat flux model provides interpretations for many features of 'anomalous' electron heat transport: magnitude and radial profile of electron heat diffusivity (in tokamaks, STs, and RFPs), Alcator scaling in high density plasmas, transport barriers around low order rational surfaces and near a separatrix, and a natural heat pinch (or minimum temperature gradient) heat flux form. (author)

  13. Regenerative heat sources for heating networks

    Huenges, Ernst; Sperber, Evelyn; Eggers, Jan-Bleicke; Noll, Florian; Kallert, Anna Maria; Reuss, Manfred


    The ambitious goal, the German Federal Government has set itself, to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 80% to 95% by the year 2050. As there are currently more than half of German energy consumption for the production of heat is required, big contributions to climate protection can be expected from this area if more renewable heat sources are used. Renewable heat sources such as bioenergy, solar thermal and geothermal energy in particular can be provided as compared to fossil fuels with significantly lower specific CO 2 emissions. Objectives in the heating market and scenarios for the transformation of the heat sector have been elaborated in the BMU Lead Study 2011. The main pillar of this scenario is the reduction of final energy consumption for heat by the energy-efficient renovation of existing buildings and further increasing demands on the energetic quality of new buildings. To cover the remaining energy demand, a focus is on the expansion of heating networks based on renewable energies. [de

  14. Ion cyclotron resonance heating

    Tajima, T.


    Ion cyclotron resonance heating of plasmas in tokamak and EBT configurations has been studied using 1-2/2 and 2-1/2 dimensional fully self-consistent electromagnetic particle codes. We have tested two major antenna configurations; we have also compared heating efficiencies for one and two ion species plasmas. We model a tokamak plasma with a uniform poloidal field and 1/R toroidal field on a particular q surface. Ion cyclotron waves are excited on the low field side by antennas parallel either to the poloidal direction or to the toroidal direction with different phase velocities. In 2D, minority ion heating (vsub(perpendicular)) and electron heating (vsub(parallel),vsub(perpendicular)) are observed. The exponential electron heating seems due to the decay instability. The minority heating is consistent with mode conversion of fast Alfven waves and heating by electrostatic ion cyclotron modes. Minority heating is stronger with a poloidal antenna. The strong electron heating is accompanied by toroidal current generation. In 1D, no thermal instability was observed and only strong minority heating resulted. For an EBT plasma we model it by a multiple mirror. We have tested heating efficiency with various minority concentrations, temperatures, mirror ratios, and phase velocities. In this geometry we have beach or inverse beach heating associated with the mode conversion layer perpendicular to the toroidal field. No appreciable electron heating is observed. Heating of ions is linear in time. For both tokamak and EBT slight majority heating above the collisional rate is observed due to the second harmonic heating. (author)

  15. Heat roadmap China

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad


    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore...

  16. Heat Recovery System


    Ball Metal's design of ducting and controls for series of roof top heat exchangers was inspired by Tech Briefs. Heat exchangers are installed on eight press and coating lines used to decorate sheet metal. The heat recovery system provides an estimated energy savings of more than $250,000 per year.

  17. Microwave processing heats up

    Microwaves are a common appliance in many households. In the United States microwave heating is the third most popular domestic heating method food foods. Microwave heating is also a commercial food processing technology that has been applied for cooking, drying, and tempering foods. It's use in ...

  18. Solar heating pipe

    Hinson-Rider, G.


    A fluid carrying pipe is described having an integral transparent portion formed into a longitudinally extending cylindrical lens that focuses solar heat rays to a focal axis within the volume of the pipe. The pipe on the side opposite the lens has a heat ray absorbent coating for absorbing heat from light rays that pass through the focal axis.

  19. Champagne Heat Pump

    Jones, Jack A.


    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  20. Designing heat exchangers for process heat reactors

    Quade, R.N.


    A brief account is given of the IAEA specialist meeting on process heat applications technology held in Julich, November 1979. The main emphasis was on high temperature heat exchange. Papers were presented covering design requirements, design construction and prefabrication testing, and selected problems. Primary discussion centered around mechanical design, materials requirements, and structural analysis methods and limits. It appears that high temperature heat exchanges design to nuclear standards, is under extensive development but will require a lengthy concerted effort before becoming a commercial reality. (author)

  1. Condensation heat transfer in plate heat exchangers

    Panchal, C.B.


    An Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger, previously tested as an evaporator, was retested as a condenser. Two series of tests with different chevron-angle plates were carried out using ammonia as a working fluid. The overall heat-transfer coefficient and pressure drop were measured, and the effects of operating parameters were determined. The experimental data were compared with theoretical predictions. In the analysis, a gravity-controlled condensation process was modeled theoretically, and the overall performance was calculated. The analysis shows that the overall heat-transfer coefficient can be predicted with an average uncertainty of about 10%. It is, however, important to consider the interfacial shear stress, because the effective friction factor is high for flow in plate heat exchangers

  2. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.


    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is reabsorbed...

  3. Introduction to heat transfer

    Weisman, J.


    Heat may be defined as that form of energy which spontaneously flows between two bodies, or two regions of a body, by virtue of a temperature difference. The second law of thermodynamics tells us that we cannot have heat flow from a low temperature to high temperature without doing work. Heat flows spontaneously from a high temperature to a low temperature region. Thermodynamics, which is concerned with equilibrium states, cannot tell us anything about the rate of heat flow in the presence of a finite temperature difference. It is to the discipline of heat transfer to which we must turn for this answer

  4. Heat Roadmap Europe 2

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    Many strategies have already been proposed for the decarbonisation of the EU energy system by the year 2050. These typically focus on the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector and subsequently, electrifying both the heat and transport sectors as much as possible. In these strate......Many strategies have already been proposed for the decarbonisation of the EU energy system by the year 2050. These typically focus on the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector and subsequently, electrifying both the heat and transport sectors as much as possible....... In these strategies, the role of district heating has never been fully explored system, nor have the benefits of district heating been quantified at the EU level. This study combines the mapping of local heat demands and local heat supplies across the EU27. Using this local knowledge, new district heating potentials...... are identified and then, the EU27 energy system is modelled to investigate the impact of district heating. The results indicate that a combination of heat savings, district heating in urban areas, and individual heat pumps in rural areas will enable the EU27 to reach its greenhouse gas emission targets by 2050...

  5. Nuclear process heat

    Barnert, H.; Hohn, H.; Schad, M.; Schwarz, D.; Singh, J.


    In a system for the application of high temperature heat from the HTR one must distinguish between the current generation and the use of process heat. In this respect it is important that the current can be generated by dual purpose power plants. The process heat is used as sensible heat, vaporisation heat and as chemical energy at the chemical conversion for the conversion of raw materials, the refinement of fossil primary energy carriers and finally circuit processes for the fission of water. These processes supply the market for heat, fuels, motor fuels and basic materials. Fifteen examples of HTR heat processes from various projects and programmes are presented in form of energy balances, however in a rather short way. (orig./DG) [de

  6. Space Heating Equipment

    Rafferty, Kevin D.


    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  7. FTR europia gamma heating

    Ward, J.T. Jr.


    Calculated and experimental gamma heating rates of europia in the Engineering Mockup Critical Assembly (EMC) were correlated. A calculated to experimental (C/E) ratio of 1.086 was established in validating the theoretical approach and computational technique applied in the calculations. Gamma heat deposition rates in the FTR with Eu 2 O 3 control absorbers were determined from three-dimensional calculations. Maximum gamma heating was found to occur near the tip of a half-inserted row 5 control rod assembly--12.8 watts/gm of europia. Gamma heating profiles were established for a single half-inserted europia absorber assembly. Local heat peaking was found not to alter significantly heating rates computed in the FTR core model, where larger mesh interval sizes precluded examination of spatially-limited heating gradients. These computations provide the basis for thermal-hydraulic analyses to ascertain temperature profiles in the FTR under europia control

  8. Miniature Heat Pipes


    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  9. Heat Roadmap Europe

    Connolly, David


    This paper compares the electricity, heating, and cooling sectors at national level for various European countries. Annual energy demands are compared for all 28 EU countries, while peak hourly demands are compared for four countries that vary significantly. The results indicate that the heat...... demand is currently the largest of the three demand types considered in terms of both annual and peak demands: it is the largest annual demand in 25 of the 28 EU countries, and it represents the largest peak demand in all four countries analysed. Electricity, heating, and cooling demands are all likely...... that the demand for electricity could double compared to today, depending on how these changes occur. Considering the scale of additional electricity required to electrify future heating and cooling demands, heat pumps should be prioritised over electric heating and other alternatives, such as district heating...

  10. District heating versus local heating - Social supportability

    Matei, Magdalena; Enescu, Diana; Varjoghie, Elena; Radu, Florin; Matei, Lucian


    District heating, DH, is an energy source which can provide a cost-effective, environmentally friendly source of heat and power for cities, but only in the case of well running systems, with reasonable technological losses. The benefits of DH system are well known: environmental friendly, energy security, economic and social advantages. DH already covers 60% of heating and hot water needs in transition economies. Today, 70 % of Russian, Latvian and Belarus homes use DH, and heating accounts for one-third of total Russian energy consumption. Yet a large number of DH systems in the region face serious financial, marketing or technical problems because of the policy framework. How can DH issues be best addressed in national and local policy? What can governments do to create the right conditions for the sustainable development of DH while improving service quality? What policies can help capture the economic, environmental and energy security benefits of co-generation and DH? To address these questions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) hosted in 2002 and 2004 conference focusing on the crucial importance of well-designed DH policies, for exchanging information on policy approaches. The conclusions of the conference have shown that 'DH systems can do much to save energy and boost energy security, but stronger policy measures are needed to encourage wise management and investment. With a stronger policy framework, DH systems in formerly socialist countries could save the equivalent of 80 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year through supply side efficiency improvements. This is greater than total annual natural gas consumption in Italy'. More efficient systems will also decrease costs, reducing household bills and making DH competitive on long-term. This paper presents the issues: -Theoretical benefits of the district heating and cooling systems; - Municipal heating in Romania; - Technical and economic problems of DH systems and social supportability; - How

  11. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat loss/heat gain shall be determined by methods outlined in...

  12. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    Catton, Ivan


    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics (pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger design.

  13. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.


    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  14. District heating and heat storage using the solution heat of an ammonia/water system

    Taube, M.; Peier, W.; Mayor, J.C.


    The article describes a model for the optimum use of the heat energy generated in a nuclear power station for district heating and heat storage taking account of the electricity and heat demand varying with time. (HR/AK) [de

  15. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G


    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  16. Heat pipe development

    Bienart, W. B.


    The objective of this program was to investigate analytically and experimentally the performance of heat pipes with composite wicks--specifically, those having pedestal arteries and screwthread circumferential grooves. An analytical model was developed to describe the effects of screwthreads and screen secondary wicks on the transport capability of the artery. The model describes the hydrodynamics of the circumferential flow in triangular grooves with azimuthally varying capillary menisci and liquid cross-sections. Normalized results were obtained which give the influence of evaporator heat flux on the axial heat transport capability of the arterial wick. In order to evaluate the priming behavior of composite wicks under actual load conditions, an 'inverted' glass heat pipe was designed and constructed. The results obtained from the analysis and from the tests with the glass heat pipe were applied to the OAO-C Level 5 heat pipe, and an improved correlation between predicted and measured evaporator and transport performance were obtained.

  17. District heating in Italy

    Sacchi, E.


    The legislative act establishing the electric monopoly virtually shut out the district heating associated with electricity cogeneration, while other laws, issued to counteract the effects of oil shocks, allowed municipal utilities to do so. Thus, district heating has experienced some development, though well below its possibilities. The article analyses the reasons for this lagging, reports district heating data and projects its forecasts against the Kyoto Protocol objectives [it

  18. Convection heat transfer

    Bejan, Adrian


    Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.

  19. Resorption heat pump

    Vasiliev, L.L.; Mishkinis, D.A.; Antukh, A.A.; Kulakov, A.G.; Vasiliev, L.L.


    Resorption processes are based on at least two solid-sorption reactors application. The most favorable situation for the resorption heat pumps is the case, when the presence of a liquid phase is impossible. From simple case--two reactors with two salts to complicated system with two salts + active carbon fiber (fabric) and two branch of the heat pump acting out of phase to produce heat and cold simultaneously, this is the topic of this research program

  20. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    Kugel, H.W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.


    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly IBW-generated sheared flows

  1. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    Kugel, H.W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.


    The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral-beam injection, and radio-frequency. Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The plan is to provide 3 MW of 50 keV balanced neutral-beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 msec for initial experiments, and to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. Subsequent upgrades will add 3 MW of neutral-beam injection. This Chapter discusses the NCSX neutral-beam injection requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification) neutral-beam injection system. In addition, estimations are given for beam-heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size an d magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam-injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of radio-frequency heating by mode-conversion ion-Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron-cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the radio-frequency system lend themselves to current drive, so that if current drive became desirable for any reason only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The radio-frequency system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly ion-Bernstein-wave-generated sheared flows

  2. Heat transfer II essentials

    REA, The Editors of


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.

  3. Heat and thermodynamics

    Saxena, A K


    Heat and thermodynamics aims to serve as a textbook for Physics, Chemistry and Engineering students. The book covers basic ideas of Heat and Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Transport Phenomena, Real Gases, Liquafaction and Production and Measurement of very Low Temperatures, The First Law of Thermodynamics, The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines and Black Body Radiation. KEY FEATURES Emphasis on concepts Contains 145 illustrations (drawings), 9 Tables and 48 solved examples At the end of chapter exercises and objective questions

  4. Advances in heat transfer

    Hartnett, James P; Cho, Young I; Greene, George A


    Heat transfer is the exchange of heat energy between a system and its surrounding environment, which results from a temperature difference and takes place by means of a process of thermal conduction, mechanical convection, or electromagnetic radiation. Advances in Heat Transfer is designed to fill the information gap between regularly scheduled journals and university-level textbooks by providing in-depth review articles over a broader scope than is allowable in either journals or texts.

  5. New waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power based on absorption heat exchange cycle in China

    Sun Fangtian; Fu Lin; Zhang Shigang; Sun Jian


    A new waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power based on absorption heat exchange cycle (DHAC) was developed to increase the heating capacity of combined heat and power (CHP) through waste heat recovery, and enhance heat transmission capacity of the existing primary side district heating network through decreasing return water temperature by new type absorption heat exchanger (AHE). The DHAC system and a conventional district heating system based on CHP (CDH) were analyzed in terms of both thermodynamics and economics. Compared to CDH, the DHAC increased heating capacity by 31% and increased heat transmission capacity of the existing primary side district heating network by 75%. The results showed that the exergetic efficiency of DHAC was 10.41% higher and the product exergy monetary cost was 36.6¥/GJ less than a CHD. DHAC is an effective way to increase thermal utilization factor of CHP, and to reduce district heating cost. - Highlights: ► Absorption heat pumps are used to recover waste heat in CHP. ► Absorption heat exchanger can reduce exergy loss in the heat transfer process. ► New waste heat heating system (DHAC) can increase heating capacity of CHP by 31%. ► DHAC can enhance heat transmission capacity of the primary pipe network by 75%. ► DHAC system has the higher exergetic efficiency and the better economic benefit.

  6. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Ku, Jentung


    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  7. Isotope heating block

    Wenk, E.


    A suggestion is made not to lead the separated nuclear 'waste' from spent nuclear fuel elements directly to end storage, but to make use of the heat produced from the remaining radiation, e.g. for seawater desalination. According to the invention, the activated fission products are to be processed, e.g. by calcination or vitrification, so that one can handle them. They should then be arranged in layers alternately with plate-shaped heat conducting pipes to form a homogeneous block; the heat absorbed by the thermal plates should be further passed on to evaporators or heat exchangers. (UWI) [de

  8. Heated Tube Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Heated Tube Facility at NASA GRC investigates cooling issues by simulating conditions characteristic of rocket engine thrust chambers and high speed airbreathing...

  9. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    Findikakis, A.


    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  10. 2-component heating systems

    Radtke, W


    The knowledge accumulated only recently of the damage to buildings and the hazards of formaldehyde, radon and hydrocarbons has been inducing louder calls for ventilation, which, on their part, account for the fact that increasing importance is being attached to the controlled ventilation of buildings. Two-component heating systems provide for fresh air and thermal comfort in one. While the first component uses fresh air blown directly and controllably into the rooms, the second component is similar to the Roman hypocaustic heating systems, meaning that heated outer air is circulating under the floor, thus providing for hot surfaces and thermal comfort. Details concerning the two-component heating system are presented along with systems diagrams, diagrams of the heating system and tables identifying the respective costs. Descriptions are given of the two systems components, the fast heat-up, the two-component made, the change of air, heat recovery and control systems. Comparative evaluations determine the differences between two-component heating systems and other heating systems. Conclusive remarks are dedicated to energy conservation and comparative evaluations of costs. (HWJ).

  11. Automatic heating control system

    Whittle, A.J.


    A heating control system for buildings comprises at least one heater incorporating heat storage means, a first sensor for detecting temperature within the building, means for setting a demand temperature, a second sensor for detecting outside temperature, a timer, and means for determining the switch on time of the heat storage means on the basis of the demand temperature and the internal and external temperatures. The system may additionally base the switch on time of the storage heater(s) on the heating and cooling rates of the building (as determined from the sensed temperatures); or on the anticipated daytime temperature (determined from the sensed night time temperature). (author).

  12. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.


    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  13. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    Heller, Alfred


    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  14. Utilising heat from nuclear waste for space heating

    Deacon, D.


    A heating unit utilising the decay heat from irradiated material comprises a storage envelope for the material associated with a heat exchange system, means for producing a flow of air over the heat exchange system to extract heat from the material, an exhaust duct capable of discharging the heated air to the atmosphere, and means for selectively diverting at least some of the heated air to effect the required heating. With the flow of air over the heat exchange system taking place by a natural thermosyphon process the arrangement is self regulating and inherently reliable. (author)

  15. Radioisotopic heat source

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.


    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  16. Heat insulation support device

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Koda, Tomokazu; Motojima, Osamu; Yamamoto, Junya.


    The device of the present invention comprises a plurality of heat insulation legs disposed in a circumferential direction. Each of the heat insulative support legs has a hollow shape, and comprises an outer column and an inner column as support structures having a heat insulative property (heat insulative structure), and a thermal anchor which absorbs compulsory displacement by a thin flat plate (displacement absorber). The outer column, the thermal anchor and the inner column are connected by a support so as to offset the positional change of objects to be supported due to shrinkage when they are shrunk. In addition, the portion between the superconductive coils as the objects to be supported and the inner column is connected by the support. The superconductive thermonuclear device is entirely contained in a heat insulative vacuum vessel, and the heat insulative support legs are disposed on a lower lid of the heat insulative vacuum vessel. With such a constitution, they are strengthened against lateral load and buckling, thereby enabling to reduce the amount of heat intrusion while keeping the compulsory displacement easy to be absorbed. (I.N.)

  17. Heat sterilization of wood

    Xiping Wang


    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  18. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Polcyn, Adam D.


    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  19. Experimental investigation of a manifold heat-pipe heat exchanger

    Konev, S.V.; Wang Tszin' Lyan'; D'yakov, I.I.


    Results of experimental investigations of a heat exchanger on a manifold water heat pipe are given. An analysis is made of the temperature distribution along the heat-transfer agent path as a function of the transferred heat power. The influence of the degree of filling with the heat transfer agent on the operating characteristics of the construction is considered

  20. Industrial excess heat for district heating in Denmark

    Bühler, Fabian; Petrović, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth; Elmegaard, Brian


    Highlights: •Method for utilisation potential of industrial excess heat for district heating. •Industrial excess heat from thermal processes is quantified at single production units. •Linking of industrial excess heat sources and district heating demands done in GIS. •Excess heat recovery using direct heat transfer and heat pumps. •5.1% of the Danish district heating demand could be supplied by industrial excess heat. -- Abstract: Excess heat is available from various sources and its utilisation could reduce the primary energy use. The accessibility of this heat is however dependent amongst others on the source and sink temperature, amount and potential users in its vicinity. In this work a new method is developed which analyses excess heat sources from the industrial sector and how they could be used for district heating. This method first allocates excess heat to single production units by introducing and validating a new approach. Spatial analysis of the heat sources and consumers are then performed to evaluate the potential for using them for district heating. In this way the theoretical potential of using the excess heat for covering the heating demand of buildings is determined. Through the use of industry specific temperature profiles the heat usable directly or via heat pumps is further found. A sensitivity analysis investigates the impact of future energy efficiency measures in the industry, buildings and the district heating grid on the national potential. The results show that for the case study of Denmark, 1.36 TWh of district heat could be provided annually with industrial excess heat from thermal processes which equals 5.1% of the current demand. More than half of this heat was found to be usable directly, without the need for a heat pump.

  1. Gas fired heat pumps

    Seifert, M.


    The condensing gas boiler is now state of the art and there is no more room for improvement in performance, technically speaking. The next logical step to improve the overall efficiency is to exploit ambient heat in combination with the primary source of energy, natural gas. That means using natural-gas driven heat pumps and gas-fired heat pumps. Based on this, the Swiss Gas Industry decided to set up a practical test programme enjoying a high priority. The aim of the project 'Gas-fired heat pump practical test' is to assess by field tests the characteristics and performance of the foreign serial heat pumps currently on the market and to prepare and promote the introduction on the market place of this sustainable natural-gas technology. (author)

  2. Graphene heat dissipating structure

    Washburn, Cody M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Wheeler, David R.; Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Railkar, Tarak A.


    Various technologies presented herein relate to forming one or more heat dissipating structures (e.g., heat spreaders and/or heat sinks) on a substrate, wherein the substrate forms part of an electronic component. The heat dissipating structures are formed from graphene, with advantage being taken of the high thermal conductivity of graphene. The graphene (e.g., in flake form) is attached to a diazonium molecule, and further, the diazonium molecule is utilized to attach the graphene to material forming the substrate. A surface of the substrate is treated to comprise oxide-containing regions and also oxide-free regions having underlying silicon exposed. The diazonium molecule attaches to the oxide-free regions, wherein the diazonium molecule bonds (e.g., covalently) to the exposed silicon. Attachment of the diazonium plus graphene molecule is optionally repeated to enable formation of a heat dissipating structure of a required height.

  3. Solar heating system

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.


    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from to F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  4. Mesoscopic photon heat transistor

    Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir-Wingreen-Landauer-typ......We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir......-Wingreen-Landauer-type of conductance formula, which gives the photonic heat current through an arbitrary circuit element coupled to two dissipative reservoirs at finite temperatures. As an illustration we present an exact solution for the case when the intermediate circuit can be described as an electromagnetic resonator. We discuss...

  5. Heat flux microsensor measurements

    Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.


    A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

  6. Improved solar heating systems

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.


    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  7. Heat tolerance in wheat

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    As a consequence of global climate change, heat stress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an important determinant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop of the world feeding one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate...... climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology...... and quantitative genetics in particular, plant phenotyping based quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery for a physiological trait under heat stress. Chlorophyll a fluorescence trait, Fv/Fm was used as a phenotyping tool, as it reflects the effect of heat stress on maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem...

  8. Industrial excess heat for district heating in Denmark

    Bühler, Fabian; Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard


    analyses excess heat sources from the industrial sector and how they could be used for district heating. This method first allocates excess heat to single production units by introducing and validating a new approach. Spatial analysis of the heat sources and consumers are then performed to evaluate...... the potential for using them for district heating. In this way the theoretical potential of using the excess heat for covering the heating demand of buildings is determined. Through the use of industry specific temperature profiles the heat usable directly or via heat pumps is further found. A sensitivity...... analysis investigates the impact of future energy efficiency measures in the industry, buildings and the district heating grid on the national potential. The results show that for the case study of Denmark, 1.36 TWh of district heat could be provided annually with industrial excess heat from thermal...

  9. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)


    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  10. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene


    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  11. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.


    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  12. Heat recovery apparatus

    McFarland, I.


    Heat transfer is a living science and technical advances are constantly being made. However, in many cases, progress is limited by the equipment that is available on the market, rather than by knowledge of the heat transfer process. A case in point is the design of economizers: in such equipment a small quantity of water (with a relatively good heat transfer coefficient) is heated by a large quantity of low-pressure gas (with an inherently low heat transfer coefficient). As a first step in design finned tubing is used to lessen the discrepancy in coefficients. From this point, it becomes apparent that the equipment consists of a small number of tubes (to maintain good velocity on the water side) of considerable length (to provide sufficient area). In the process industries the base pressure, though low, may be in the region of 0.5 bar, and there is no convenient flue in which to place the heat recovery coil. It is therefore contained in a flat-sided enclosure, which is ill-fitted to pressure containment and is therefore reinforced with a plethora of structural sections. Such inelegant construction is quite common in North America; in Europe, cylindrical containments of vast size have been supplied for the same purposes. The real shortcoming is a successful marriage of different disciplines to produce reliable and efficient heat transfer equipment suitably contained

  13. Fluidised bed heat exchangers

    Elliott, D.E.; Healey, E.M.; Roberts, A.G.


    Problems that have arisen during the initial stages of development of fluidised bed boilers in which heat transfer surfaces are immersed in fluidised solids are discussed. The very high heat transfer coefficients that are obtained under these conditions can be exploited to reduce the total heat transfer surface to a fraction of that in normal boilers. However, with the high heat flux levels involved, tube stressing becomes more important and it is advantageous to use smaller diameter tubes. One of the initial problems was that the pumping power absorbed by the fluidised bed appeared to be high. The relative influence of the fluidising velocity (and the corresponding bed area), tube diameter, tube spacing, heat transfer coefficient and bed temperature on pumping power and overall cost was determined. This showed the importance of close tube packing and research was undertaken to see if this would adversely affect the heat transfer coefficient. Pressure operation also reduces the pumping power. Fouling and corrosion tests in beds burning coal suggest that higher temperatures could be reached reliably and cost studies show that, provided the better refractory metals are used, the cost of achieving higher temperatures is not unduly high. It now remains to demonstrate at large scale that the proposed systems are viable and that the methods incorporated to overcome start up and part lead running problems are satisfactory. The promising role of these heat transfer techniques in other applications is briefly discussed

  14. Heating great residential units with combustion-motor heat pumps

    Vossen, W


    Economic usage of combustion-motor heat pumps requires: reliable technology and delivery of the heat pump; design and operation. The heat pump must be integrated perfectly into the heating system. This contributions is based on a three-year operational experience with over 150 heat pumps used mainly in residential and administrative buildings (plus commercial buildings, swimming pools, sport centres etc.). These are heat pumps operating on the compression principle with natural gas, liquid gas, or fuel oil.

  15. Elementary heat transfer analysis

    Whitaker, Stephen; Hartnett, James P


    Elementary Heat Transfer Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of the nature of transient heat conduction. This book presents a thorough understanding of the thermal energy equation and its application to boundary layer flows and confined and unconfined turbulent flows. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the use of heat transfer coefficients in formulating the flux condition at phase interface. This text then explains the specification as well as application of flux boundary conditions. Other chapters consider a derivation of the tra

  16. Microwave heating denitration device

    Sato, Hajime; Morisue, Tetsuo.


    Purpose: To suppress energy consumption due to a reflection of microwaves. Constitution: Microwaves are irradiated to the nitrate solution containing nuclear fuel materials, to cause denitrating reaction under heating and obtain oxides of the nuclear fuel materials. A microwave heating and evaporation can for reserving the nitrate solution is disposed slantwise relative to the horizontal plane and a microwave heating device is connected to the evaporation can, and inert gases for agitation are supplied to the solution within the can. Since the evaporation can is slanted, wasteful energy consumption due to the reflection of the microwaves can be suppressed. (Moriyama, K.)

  17. Ventilation with heat recovery

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend


    This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...... and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain...

  18. Containment condensing heat transfer

    Gido, R.G.; Koestel, A.


    This report presents a mechanistic heat-transfer model that is valid for large scale containment heat sinks. The model development is based on the determination that the condensation is controlled by mass diffusion through the vapor-air boundary layer, and the application of the classic Reynolds' analogy to formulate expressions for the transfer of heat and mass based on hydrodynamic measurements of the momentum transfer. As a result, the analysis depends on the quantification of the shear stress (momentum transfer) at the interface between the condensate film and the vapor-air boundary layer. In addition, the currently used Tagami and Uchida test observations and their range of applicability are explained

  19. Heat pump planning handbook

    Bonin, Jürgen


    The Heat Pump Planning Handbook contains practical information and guidance on the design, planning and selection of heat pump systems, allowing engineers, designers, architects and construction specialists to compare a number of different systems and options. Including detailed descriptions of components and their functions and reflecting the current state of technology this guide contains sample tasks and solutions as well as new model calculations and planning evaluations. Also economic factors and alternative energy sources are covered, which are essential at a time of rising heat costs. T

  20. District heating from Forsmark


    The district heating system of Greater Stockholm must be based on other energy sources than oil. Two alternatives are assessed, namely heat from Forsmark or a coal fueled plant in the region of Stockholm. Forsmark 3 can produce both electricity and heat from the year 1988 on. The capacity can be increased by coal fueled blocks. For low electricity use, 115 TWh in the year 1990, the Forsmark alternative will be profitable. The alternative will be profitable. The alternative with a fossile fuelled plant will be profitable when planning for high consumption of electricity, 125 TWh. The Forsmark alternative means high investments and the introduction of new techniques. (G.B.)

  1. Waste heat recovery system

    Phi Wah Tooi


    Full text: The Konzen in-house designed anaerobic digester system for the POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) treatment process is one of the registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Malaysia. It is an organic wastewater treatment process which achieves excellent co-benefits objectives through the prevention of water pollution and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is estimated to be 40,000 to 50,000 t-CO 2 per year. The anaerobic digester was designed in mesophile mode with temperature ranging from 37 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius. A microorganisms growth is optimum under moderately warm temperature conditions. The operating temperature of the anaerobic digester needs to be maintained constantly. There are two waste heat recovery systems designed to make the treatment process self-sustaining. The heat recovered will be utilised as a clean energy source to heat up the anaerobic digester indirectly. The first design for the waste heat recovery system utilises heat generated from the flue gas of the biogas flaring system. A stainless steel water tank with an internal water layer is installed at the top level of the flare stack. The circulating water is heated by the methane enriched biogas combustion process. The second design utilizes heat generated during the compression process for the biogas compressor operation. The compressed biogas needs to be cooled before being recycled back into the digester tank for mixing purposes. Both the waste heat recovery systems use a design which applies a common water circulation loop and hot water tank to effectively become a closed loop. The hot water tank will perform both storage and temperature buffer functions. The hot water is then used to heat up recycled sludge from 30 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius with the maximum temperature setting at 50 degree Celsius. The recycled sludge line temperature will be measured and monitored by a temperature sensor and transmitter, which will activate the

  2. Heat treatment furnace

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T


    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  3. [Clothing and heat disorder].

    Satsumoto, Yayoi


    The influence of the clothing material properties(like water absorbency and rapid dryness, water vapor absorption, water vapor permeability and air permeability) and the design factor of the clothing(like opening condition and fitting of clothing), which contributed to prevent heat disorder, was outlined. WBGT(wet-bulb globe temperature) is used to show a guideline for environmental limitation of activities to prevent heat disorder. As the safety function is more important than thermal comfort for some sportswear and protective clothing with high cover area, clothing itself increases the risk of heat disorder. WBGT is corrected by CAF (clothing adjustment factor) in wearing such kind of protective clothing.

  4. Decentralized central heating

    Savic, S.; Hudjera, A.


    The decentralized central heating is essentially based on new technical solutions for an independent heating unit, which allows up to 20% collectible energy savings and up to 15% savings in built-in-material. These savings are already made possible by the fact that the elements described under point A are thus eliminated from the classical heating. The thus superfluous made elements are replaced by new technical solutions described under point B - technical problem - and point E - patent claim. The technical solutions described in detail under point B and point E form together a technical unit and are essential parts of the invention protected by the patent. (author)

  5. Modeling of heat transfer into a heat pipe for a localized heat input zone

    Rosenfeld, J.H.


    A general model is presented for heat transfer into a heat pipe using a localized heat input. Conduction in the wall of the heat pipe and boiling in the interior structure are treated simultaneously. The model is derived from circumferential heat transfer in a cylindrical heat pipe evaporator and for radial heat transfer in a circular disk with boiling from the interior surface. A comparison is made with data for a localized heat input zone. Agreement between the theory and the model is good. This model can be used for design purposes if a boiling correlation is available. The model can be extended to provide improved predictions of heat pipe performance

  6. Radiation effects on heat transfer in heat exchangers, (2)

    Mori, Yasuo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taira, Tatsuji.


    In a high temperature gas-cooled reactor system, in which the working fluid exchanges heat at high temperature near 1000 deg C, the heat transfer acceleration by positively utilizing the radiation heat transfer between solid surfaces should be considered. This paper reports on the results of experiment and analysis for the effects of radiant heat on the heat transfer performance at elevated temperature by applying the heat transfer-accelerating method using radiators to the heat exchanger with tube bundle composed of two channels of heating and heated sides. As the test heat exchangers, a parallel counter flow exchanger and the cross flow exchanger simulating helical tubes were employed, and the results studied on the characteristics of each heat exchanger are described. The plates placed in parallel to flow in every space of the tube bundle arranged in a matrix were used as the heat transfer accelerator. The effects of acceleration with the plates were the increase of heat transmission from 12 to 24% and 12 to 38% in the parallel flow and cross flow heat exchangers, respectively. Also, it was clarified that the theoretical analysis, in which it was assumed that the region within pitch S and two radiator plates, with a heat-transferring tube placed at the center, is the minimum domain for calculation, and that the heat exchange by radiation occurs only between the domain and the adjacent domains, can estimate the heat transfer-accelerating effect and the temperature distribution in a heat exchanger with sufficient accuracy. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Design of serially connected district heating heat pumps utilising a geothermal heat source

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix


    The design of two heat pumps (HP), connected in series, was investigated for operation in the district heating (DH) network of the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark. The installation was dimensioned to supply 7.2 MW of heat at a temperature of 85 °C. The heat pumps utilise a geothermal heat source...

  8. Pulsating Heat Pipes, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An advanced heat transport technology is presented that can enable space nuclear power systems to transfer reactor heat, convert heat into electricity, reject waste...

  9. Absorption heat pumps

    Formigoni, C.


    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it


    Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.


    A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.

  11. Heat and mass transfer

    Karwa, Rajendra


    This textbook presents the classical treatment of the problems of heat transfer in an exhaustive manner with due emphasis on understanding of the physics of the problems. This emphasis is especially visible in the chapters on convective heat transfer. Emphasis is laid on the solution of steady and unsteady two-dimensional heat conduction problems. Another special feature of the book is a chapter on introduction to design of heat exchangers and their illustrative design problems. A simple and understandable treatment of gaseous radiation has been presented. A special chapter on flat plate solar air heater has been incorporated that covers thermo-hydraulic modeling and simulation. The chapter on mass transfer has been written looking specifically at the needs of the students of mechanical engineering. The book includes a large number and variety of solved problems with supporting line diagrams. The author has avoided duplicating similar problems, while incorporating more application-based examples. All the end-...

  12. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... exhaustion symptoms include cool, moist, pale or flushed skin; headache; dizziness; weakness; feeling exhausted; heavy sweating; nausea; ... stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, dry skin; fainting; a rapid, weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; ...

  13. Policies for Renewable Heat



    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  14. Passive solar heating

    Wiberg, K


    The present work treats the possibilities for heating according to the passive solar heating method. Problems of 'spatial organization in an energy-saving society' are distinguished from among other social problems. The final delimination of the actual problems under investigation consists of the use of passive solar heating and especially the 'consequences of such solar heating exploitation upon the form and structures' of planning and construction. In the concluding chapter an applied example shows how this method can be used in designing an urban area and what are its limitations. The results indicate the possibilities and difficulties in attempting to transfer this ideal and general method into models and directives for form and structure from which examples of the actual possibilities in practical planning can be given.

  15. Active transport and heat.

    Tait, Peter W


    Increasing heat may impede peoples' ability to be active outdoors thus limiting active transport options. Co-benefits from mitigation of and adaptation to global warming should not be assumed but need to be actively designed into strategies.

  16. Heat Island Compendium

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  17. Radiative heat transfer

    Modest, Michael F


    The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...

  18. Computed Heats of Formation

    Politzer, Peter


    ..., the heats of vaporization and sublimation. The latter are determined by means of relationships that we have developed involving the computed electrostatic potential on the molecular surface 2,3...

  19. Heat and spin interconversion

    Ohnuma, Yuichi; Matsuo, Mamoru; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eeiji


    Spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects, which are mutual conversion phenomena of heat and spin, are discussed on the basis of the microscopic theory. First, the spin Seebeck effect, which is the spin-current generation due to heat current, is discussed. The recent progress in research on the spin Seebeck effect are introduced. We explain the origin of the observed sign changes of the spin Seebeck effect in compensated ferromagnets. Next, the spin Peltier effect, which is the heat-current generation due to spin current, is discussed. Finally, we show that the spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects are summarized by Onsager's reciprocal relation and derive Kelvin's relation for the spin and heat transports. (author)

  20. Analytical heat transfer

    Han, Je-Chin


    … it will complete my library … [and] complement the existing literature on heat transfer. It will be of value for both graduate students and faculty members.-Bengt Sunden, Lund University, Sweden

  1. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... Your Wishes Visiting The ER Who Takes Care Of You In An Emergency? Checking Into ... Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be ...

  2. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or ... the elderly are most at risk, but anyone can be affected. Here you will find information about ...

  3. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... moist, pale skin, rapid pulse, elevated or lowered blood pressure, nausea, loss of consciousness, vomiting or a high body temperature. For late stage heat stroke symptoms, cool the person further by positioning ...

  4. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... ICE” in Your Cell Phone Prepare for Disasters Communication With Your Family And Your Doctor About Your ... Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be ...

  5. Beam induced RF heating

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J E; Nosych, A A; Nougaret, J L; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M


    After the 2011 run, actions were put in place during the 2011/2012 winter stop to limit beam induced radio frequency (RF) heating of LHC components. However, some components could not be changed during this short stop and continued to represent a limitation throughout 2012. In addition, the stored beam intensity increased in 2012 and the temperature of certain components became critical. In this contribution, the beam induced heating limitations for 2012 and the expected beam induced heating limitations for the restart after the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) will be compiled. The expected consequences of running with 25 ns or 50 ns bunch spacing will be detailed, as well as the consequences of running with shorter bunch length. Finally, actions on hardware or beam parameters to monitor and mitigate the impact of beam induced heating to LHC operation after LS1 will be discussed.

  6. Pulse induction heating

    Vasiliev, A S; Kachanov, B Y; Kogan, B V


    Induction heating and three types of pulse processes were studied. It was found that in pulse processes the frequency and pulse duration of heat treatments do not remain constant. High frequency pulse heat treatments can be used on sprayed coatings; such treatments will result in stronger surfaces with no cracks. For induction hardening, the rate of specific power was 1 to 1.5 kW/, for forging it was 0.2 to 0.3 kW/ and for melting it was 0.05 to 0.1 kW/ The application of pulse heating will result in higher rates of specific power.

  7. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; vomiting; and increased body temperature of more than 104 degrees. People with ... nausea, loss of consciousness, vomiting or a high body temperature. For late stage heat stroke symptoms, cool ...

  8. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... or a high body temperature. For late stage heat stroke symptoms, cool the person further by positioning ice or cold packs on ... Injury Chest Pain Is ALWAYS A Reason To Go To The ...

  9. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; vomiting; and increased body temperature of more than 104 degrees. People with these ... nausea, loss of consciousness, vomiting or a high body temperature. For late stage heat stroke symptoms, cool the ...

  10. Heat transport and storage

    Despois, J.


    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  11. Heat transfer. V. 1


    This volume contains the 4 key-note lectures and 83 of the 148 papers presented at the 3rd UK National Conference on Heat Transfer. The papers are grouped under the following broad headings: boiling and condensation; heat exchangers; refrigeration and air-conditioning; natural convection; process safety and nuclear reactors; two-phase flow; post dry-out; combustion, radiation and chemical reaction. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 13 papers of relevance to nuclear reactors. (UK)

  12. Solar heating and cooling.

    Duffie, J A


    Solar energy is discussed as an energy resource that can be converted into useful energy forms to meet a variety of energy needs. The review briefly explains the nature of this energy resource, the kinds of applications that can be made useful, and the status of several systems to which it has been applied. More specifically, information on solar collectors, solar water heating, solar heating of buildings, solar cooling plus other applications, are included.

  13. Heat flux limiting sleeves

    Harris, William G.


    A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

  14. Protected isotope heat source

    Burns, R.K.; Shure, L.I.; Katzen, E.D.


    A radioactive isotope capsule is disposed in a container (heat shield) which will have a single stable trim attitude when reentering the earth's atmosphere and while falling to earth. The center of gravity of the heat source is located forward of the midpoint between the front face and the rear face of the container. The capsule is insulated from the front face of the container but not from the rear surface of the container. (auth)

  15. Heat exchanger cleaning

    Gatewood, J.R.


    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  16. VII international district heating conference


    The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

  17. Refrigeration waste heat recovery


    UK Super A Stores was built in 1972 and is part of a small indoor shopping complex linked together by a heated mall. The store has a public floor area of approximately 1,232 m{sup 2} (13,261 ft.{sup 2}) and sells the usual variety of food produce including a large selection of frozen foods. There are five lengths of refrigerated display cabinets with a total area of approximately 78 m{sup 2}. There are also some frozen food storage rooms at the back of the store. This report provides a description of a waste heat recovery system within a medium sized food store. It details how the waste heat that is produced by the conventional frozen food display cabinets, can be reused by the store's space heating system. Recommended uses for this waste heat include: diverting to the loading bays which would make the reheat coil unnecessary, diverting to the front of the shop, and heating the adjacent shopping mall. The CREDA (Conservation and Renewable Energy Demonstration Assistance) program contributed $17,444 towards the total project cost of $30,444. The project was initiated by the store owner, who is now realizing a lower annual fuel consumption, with the resulting financial savings. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Radial flow heat exchanger

    Valenzuela, Javier


    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  19. Convective heat flow probe

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.


    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  20. Optimal usage of low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps

    Pieper, Henrik; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix


    This paper presents a theoretical study on the optimal usage of different low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps. The study is based on data for the Copenhagen region. The heat sources were prioritized based on the coefficient of performance calculated for each hour...... and the covered demand of each heat source as well as required peak unit capacity. The results showed that heat pumps using different heat sources yield better performance than a heat pump based on a single one. The performance was influenced by the composition of the different heat sources. It was found that 78......% groundwater, 22% seawater and 0% air resulted in highest COP of 3.33 for the given heat demand. Furthermore, the implementation of rule based short term storage made peak units redundant. The variation in base load capacity showed that heat pumps utilizing the analyzed heat sources could perform very...

  1. Heat transfer capability analysis of heat pipe for space reactor

    Li Huaqi; Jiang Xinbiao; Chen Lixin; Yang Ning; Hu Pan; Ma Tengyue; Zhang Liang


    To insure the safety of space reactor power system with no single point failures, the reactor heat pipes must work below its heat transfer limits, thus when some pipes fail, the reactor could still be adequately cooled by neighbor heat pipes. Methods to analyze the reactor heat pipe's heat transfer limits were presented, and that for the prevailing capillary limit analysis was improved. The calculation was made on the lithium heat pipe in core of heat pipes segmented thermoelectric module converter (HP-STMC) space reactor power system (SRPS), potassium heat pipe as radiator of HP-STMC SRPS, and sodium heat pipe in core of scalable AMTEC integrated reactor space power system (SAIRS). It is shown that the prevailing capillary limits of the reactor lithium heat pipe and sodium heat pipe is 25.21 kW and 14.69 kW, providing a design margin >19.4% and >23.6%, respectively. The sonic limit of the reactor radiator potassium heat pipe is 7.88 kW, providing a design margin >43.2%. As the result of calculation, it is concluded that the main heat transfer limit of HP-STMC SRPS lithium heat pipe and SARIS sodium heat pipe is prevailing capillary limit, but the sonic limit for HP-STMC SRPS radiator potassium heat pipe. (authors)

  2. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    Koplow, Jeffrey P


    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  3. Heat transfer characteristics of a direct contact heat exchanger

    Kinoshita, I.; Nishi, Y.


    As a first step for development of a direct contact steam generator for FBRs, fundamental heat transfer characteristics of a liquid-liquid contact heat exchanger were evaluated by heat transfer experiment with low melting point alloy and water. Distinctive characteristics of direct contact heat transfer with liquid metal and water was obtained. (author)

  4. Passive heat removal from containment

    Gou, P.F.; Townsend, H.E.


    This patent describes a heat removal system for removing heat from a containment of a nuclear reactor. It comprises: a sealed suppression chamber in the containment; means for venting steam from the nuclear reactor into the suppression chamber upon occurrence of an event requiring dissipation of heat from the nuclear reactor. The suppression chamber containing a quantity of water; the suppression chamber having a gas-containing space above the water; a heat exchanger disposed within the gas-containing space of the suppression chamber; the heat exchanger including an enclosed structure for holding a heat-exchange fluid; means for metering a supply of heat-exchange fluid to the heat exchanger to maintain a predetermined level thereof in the enclosed structure. The heat-exchange fluid boiling in the heat exchanger in consequence of heat transfer thereto from steam present in the suppression chamber; means for separating a heat-exchange fluid vapor in the heat exchanger from the heat-exchange fluid; and means for discharging the vapor immediately following its separation from heat-exchange fluid directly from the heat exchanger to a location exterior of the containment, whereby heat is discharged from the suppression chamber, and the containment is maintained at a temperature and pressure below its design value

  5. Heating plant privatization stagnates

    Janoska, J.; Benka, M.; Sobinkovic, B.; Haluza, I.


    The state has been talking about privatization of 6 municipal heating plants since 2001. The tenders were to start last year. But nothing has happened and the future is uncertain. The city councils would prefer to receive, if not 100%, then at least a majority stake in the heating plants free of charge. But the Cabinet has decided to sell 51% to investors. The privatization agency - the National Property Fund (FNM) is preparing a proposal to increase the stake offered for sale to 67%. According to information provided by the FNM the sale will begin after Cabinet approval. The Fund intends to apply the same model to the sale of all the heating plants. Last year, a major German company Verbundnetz Gas declared its interest in purchasing large municipal heating plants in Slovakia. But it has been waiting for a response ever since. The French company - Dalkia, which has 10-years' experience of doing business in Slovakia, is interested in all the heating plants to be offered for sale. The Austrian company - Stefe is not new to the business either, it is interested mainly in the regions where it has already established itself - Central and Eastern Slovakia. Strategic investors expect financial groups to show interest too. The Penta Group has not hid its ambitions - it has already privatised a company which represents the key to the future development of heat management in Bratislava - Paroplynovy cyklus. Whereas Penta is not new to the heat production business another financial group - Slavia Capital is still surveying the sector. Should it not succeed, it plans several projects that would allow it to take a stake in the sector

  6. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu


    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  7. Innovative heat exchangers

    Scholl, Stephan


    This accessible book presents unconventional technologies in heat exchanger design that have the capacity to provide solutions to major concerns within the process and power-generating industries. Demonstrating the advantages and limits of these innovative heat exchangers, it also discusses micro- and nanostructure surfaces and micro-scale equipment, and introduces pillow-plate, helical and expanded metal baffle concepts. It offers step-by-step worked examples, which provide instructions for developing an initial configuration and are supported by clear, detailed drawings and pictures. Various types of heat exchangers are available, and they are widely used in all fields of industry for cooling or heating purposes, including in combustion engines. The market in 2012 was estimated to be U$ 42.7 billion and the global demand for heat exchangers is experiencing an annual growth of about 7.8 %. The market value is expected to reach U$ 57.9 billion in 2016, and approach U$ 78.16 billion in 2020. Providing a valua...

  8. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.


    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summary herein

  9. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.


    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein

  10. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.


    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized

  11. Heat simulation via Scilab programming

    Hasan, Mohammad Khatim; Sulaiman, Jumat; Karim, Samsul Arifin Abdul


    This paper discussed the used of an open source sofware called Scilab to develop a heat simulator. In this paper, heat equation was used to simulate heat behavior in an object. The simulator was developed using finite difference method. Numerical experiment output show that Scilab can produce a good heat behavior simulation with marvellous visual output with only developing simple computer code.

  12. Solar Process Heat Basics | NREL

    Process Heat Basics Solar Process Heat Basics Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be

  13. After-heat removing device

    Iwashige, Kengo; Otsuka, Masaya; Yokoyama, Iwao; Yamakawa, Masanori.


    The present invention concerns an after-heat removing device for first reactors. A heat accumulation portion provided in a cooling channel of an after-heat removing device is disposed before a coil-like heat conduction pipe for cooling of the after-heat removing device. During normal reactor operation, the temperature in the heat accumulation portion is near the temperature of the high temperature plenum due to heat conduction and heat transfer from the high temperature plenum. When the reactor is shutdown and the after-heat removing device is started, coolants cooled in the air cooler start circulation. The coolants arriving at the heat accumulation portion deprive heat from the heat accumulation portion and, ion turn, increase their temperature and then reach the cooling coil. Subsequently, the heat calorie possessed in the heat accumulation portion is reduced and the after-heat removing device is started for the operation at a full power. This can reduce the thermal shocks applied to the cooling coil or structures in a reactor vessel upon starting the after-heat removing device. (I.N.)

  14. Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process

    Roman, Harry T.


    When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

  15. Structures to radiate heat softly

    Perilae, T.; Wikstroem, T. [ed.


    Over the past fifty years, heating systems in single-family houses have taken a great leap forward. First wood-burning stoves gave way to oil heaters; then these were superseded by central heating systems; and now conventional central heating systems have lost their way with the increasingly widespread use of room-specific heating systems

  16. Targeting the maximum heat recovery for systems with heat losses and heat gains

    Wan Alwi, Sharifah Rafidah; Lee, Carmen Kar Mun; Lee, Kim Yau; Abd Manan, Zainuddin; Fraser, Duncan M.


    Graphical abstract: Illustration of heat gains and losses from process streams. - Highlights: • Maximising energy savings through heat losses or gains. • Identifying location where insulation can be avoided. • Heuristics to maximise heat losses or gains. • Targeting heat losses or gains using the extended STEP technique and HEAT diagram. - Abstract: Process Integration using the Pinch Analysis technique has been widely used as a tool for the optimal design of heat exchanger networks (HENs). The Composite Curves and the Stream Temperature versus Enthalpy Plot (STEP) are among the graphical tools used to target the maximum heat recovery for a HEN. However, these tools assume that heat losses and heat gains are negligible. This work presents an approach that considers heat losses and heat gains during the establishment of the minimum utility targets. The STEP method, which is plotted based on the individual, as opposed to the composite streams, has been extended to consider the effect of heat losses and heat gains during stream matching. Several rules to guide the proper location of pipe insulation, and the appropriate procedure for stream shifting have been introduced in order to minimise the heat losses and maximise the heat gains. Application of the method on two case studies shows that considering heat losses and heat gains yield more realistic utility targets and help reduce both the insulation capital cost and utility cost of a HEN

  17. Mapping of potential heat sources for heat pumps for district heating in Denmark

    Lund, Rasmus; Persson, Urban


    The ambitious policy in Denmark on having a 100% renewable energy supply in 2050 requires radical changes to the energy systems to avoid an extensive and unsustainable use of biomass resources. Currently, wind power is being expanded and the increasing supply of electricity is slowly pushing the CHP (combined heat and power) plants out of operation, reducing the energy efficiency of the DH (district heating) supply. Here, large heat pumps for district heating is a frequently mentioned solution as a flexible demand for electricity and an energy efficient heat producer. The idea is to make heat pump use a low temperature waste or ambient heat source, but it has so far been very unclear which heat sources are actually available for this purpose. In this study eight categories of heat sources are analysed for the case of Denmark and included in a detailed spatial analysis where the identified heat sources are put in relation to the district heating areas and the corresponding demands. The analysis shows that potential heat sources are present near almost all district heating areas and that sea water most likely will have to play a substantial role as a heat source in future energy systems in Denmark. - Highlights: • The availability of heat sources for heat pumps in Denmark are mapped and quantified. • A novel methodology for assessment of low temperature industrial excess heat is presented. • There are heat sources available for 99% of district heating networks in Denmark. • The concentration of heat sources is generally bigger around bigger cities than smaller. • Ambient temperature heat sources will be more needed in district heating of big cities.

  18. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.


    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.


    E. V. Biloshytskyi


    Full Text Available Purpose. The research paper proposes to estimate the effect of heat inertia of the water heating system, in transient operation modes, on the temperature condition in the passenger car, as well as to offer technical solutions intended to reduce the heating system inertia effect and to maintain a stable temperature condition in the passenger car premises in transitional modes of the heating system. Methodology. The author developed the method for controlling the heat transfer of heating system pipes with the help of regulating casing. To control the heating system and the heat transfer of heating pipes, two types of temperature control sensors were used in the passenger car: certain sensors interacted with regulatory casings, while the others interacted with high-voltage tubular heating element control devices. To assess the efficiency of heat interchange regulation of heating pipes and the heating system control, with installed regulating casings, the operation of the heating system with regulating casings and two types of sensors was mathematically modelled. Mathematical modelling used the experimental test data. The results of experimental tests and mathematical modelling were compared. Findings. Currently in operated passenger cars, control of heating appliances is not constructively provided. Automatic maintenance of the set temperature in a passenger car is limited to switching on and off of high-voltage tubular heating elements. The use of regulating casings on heating pipes allows reducing the effects of heat inertia and maintaining stable thermal conditions in a passenger car, using the heating system as a heat accumulator, and also provides the opportunity to realize an individual control of air temperature in the compartment. Originality. For the first time, the paper studied the alternative ways of regulating the temperature condition in a passenger car. Using of the heating system as a heat accumulator. Practical value. The

  20. Heat and power from combustibles

    Zogg, M.


    This article compares four ways of generating heat and power from liquid and gaseous fuels. Various combinations of conventional boilers, heat pumps, combined heat and power units and combined-cycle power plants are considered and the ratio of heat to electrical power produced is discussed. Fuel requirements for the four combinations are looked at and net emissions of carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide presented in graphical form. The author makes recommendations on the choice of the technology to be used to generate heat and electricity for different heat/power ratios and criticises the all too slack emission limits for small combined heat and power units

  1. Acclimatization to extreme heat

    Warner, M. E.; Ganguly, A. R.; Bhatia, U.


    Heat extremes throughout the globe, as well as in the United States, are expected to increase. These heat extremes have been shown to impact human health, resulting in some of the highest levels of lives lost as compared with similar natural disasters. But in order to inform decision makers and best understand future mortality and morbidity, adaptation and mitigation must be considered. Defined as the ability for individuals or society to change behavior and/or adapt physiologically, acclimatization encompasses the gradual adaptation that occurs over time. Therefore, this research aims to account for acclimatization to extreme heat by using a hybrid methodology that incorporates future air conditioning use and installation patterns with future temperature-related time series data. While previous studies have not accounted for energy usage patterns and market saturation scenarios, we integrate such factors to compare the impact of air conditioning as a tool for acclimatization, with a particular emphasis on mortality within vulnerable communities.

  2. Nuclear district heating

    Ricateau, P.


    An economic study of nuclear district heating is concerned with: heat production, its transmission towards the area to be served and the distribution management towards the consumers. Foreign and French assessments show that the high cost of now existing techniques of hot water transport defines the competing limit distance between the site and township to be below some fifty kilometers for the most important townships (provided that the fuel price remain stationary). All studies converge towards the choice of a high transport temperature as soon as the distance is of some twenty kilometers. As for fossile energy saving, some new possibilities appear with process heat reactors; either PWR of about 1000MWth for large townships, or pool-type reactors of about 100MWth when a combination with an industrial steam supply occurs [fr

  3. Shape memory heat engines

    Salzbrenner, R.


    The mechanical shape memory effect associated with a thermoelastic martensitic transformation can be used to convert heat directly into mechanical work. Laboratory simulation of two types of heat engine cycles (Stirling and Ericsson) has been performed to measure the amount of work available/cycle in a Ni-45 at. pct Ti alloy. Tensile deformations at ambient temperature induced martensite, while a subsequent increase in temperature caused a reversion to the parent phase during which a load was carried through the strain recovery (i.e., work was accomplished). The amount of heat necessary to carry the engines through a cycle was estimated from calorimeter measurements and the work performed/cycle. The measured efficiency of the system tested reached a maximum of 1.4 percent, which was well below the theoretical (Carnot) maximum efficiency of 35.6 percent.

  4. Nuclear process heat

    Schulten, R [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorentwicklung


    It is anticipated that the coupled utilization of coal and nuclear energy will achieve great importance in the future, the coal serving mainly as raw material and nuclear energy more as primary energy. Prerequisite for this development is the availability of high-temperature reactors, the state of development of which is described here. Raw materials for coupled use with nuclear process heat are petroleum, natural gas, coal, lignite, and water. Steam reformers heated by nuclear process heat, which are suitable for numerous processes, are expected to find wide application. The article describes several individual methods, all based on the transport of gas in pipelines, which could be utilized for the long distance transport of 'nuclear energy'.

  5. Geothermal heat pump

    Bruno, R.; Tinti, F.


    In recent years, for several types of buildings and users, the choice of conditioning by heat pump and low enthalpy geothermal reservoir has been increasing in the Italian market. In fact, such systems are efficient in terms of energy and consumption, they can perform, even at the same time, both functions, heating and cooling and they are environmentally friendly, because they do not produce local emissions. This article will introduce the technology and will focus on critical points of a geothermal field design, from actual practice, to future perspectives for the geo exchanger improvement. Finally, the article presents a best practice case in Bologna district, with an economic analysis showing the convenience of a geothermal heat pump. Conclusions of the real benefits of these plants can be drawn: compared to a non-negligible initial cost, the investment has a pay-back period almost always acceptable, usually less than 10 years. [it

  6. Large Scale Solar Heating

    Heller, Alfred


    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out...... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors......). Simulation programs are proposed as control supporting tool for daily operation and performance prediction of central solar heating plants. Finaly the CSHP technolgy is put into persepctive with respect to alternatives and a short discussion on the barries and breakthrough of the technology are given....

  7. District heating in Flensburg

    Prinz, W.


    The majority of our population, but also of our authorities, are still skeptical or even disapproving towards district heating. The reasons of this negative attitude are partly psychological - e.g. the individualism of the Swiss and their dislike for too centralised structures and ''forced connections'' - but also the existence of finished gas supply networks and the fear of considerable pre-investments and torn streets over years. The following article - held as a speech on the information meeting ''District heating and the possible contribution of nuclear energy'' organised by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy in Bern shows a practical problem solving at the example of the district heating in Flensburg and deals with these questions.

  8. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar


    Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...

  9. Heat dispersion in rivers

    Shaw, T.L.


    One of the tasks of the Sonderforschungsbereich 80 is to study the dispersion of heat discharged into rivers and other bodies of water and to develop methods which permit prediction of detrimental effects caused by the heated discharges. In order to help the SFB 80 to specify this task, Dr. Shaw, lecturer of Civil Engineering at the Bristol University, conducted a literature survey on heat-dispersion studies during the two months which he spent as a visiting research fellow with the SFB 80 at the University of Karlsruhe in the summer of 1973. The following report is the outcome of this survey. It gives Dr. Shaw's assessment of the present state of knowledge - based almost exclusively on literature in the English language - and compares this with the knowledge required by river planners. The apparent discrepancy leads to suggestions for future research. Selected references as well as a representative bibliography can be found at the end of the report. (orig.) [de

  10. RF Pulsed Heating

    Pritzkau, David P.


    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  11. Irreversible Brownian Heat Engine

    Taye, Mesfin Asfaw


    We model a Brownian heat engine as a Brownian particle that hops in a periodic ratchet potential where the ratchet potential is coupled with a linearly decreasing background temperature. We show that the efficiency of such Brownian heat engine approaches the efficiency of endoreversible engine η =1-√{{Tc/Th}} [23]. On the other hand, the maximum power efficiency of the engine approaches η ^{MAX}=1-({Tc/Th})^{1\\over 4}. It is shown that the optimized efficiency always lies between the efficiency at quasistatic limit and the efficiency at maximum power while the efficiency at maximum power is always less than the optimized efficiency since the fast motion of the particle comes at the expense of the energy cost. If the heat exchange at the boundary of the heat baths is included, we show that such a Brownian heat engine has a higher performance when acting as a refrigerator than when operating as a device subjected to a piecewise constant temperature. The role of time on the performance of the motor is also explored via numerical simulations. Our numerical results depict that the time t and the external load dictate the direction of the particle velocity. Moreover, the performance of the heat engine improves with time. At large t (steady state), the velocity, the efficiency and the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator attain their maximum value. Furthermore, we study the effect of temperature by considering a viscous friction that decreases exponentially as the background temperature increases. Our result depicts that the Brownian particle exhibits a fast unidirectional motion when the viscous friction is temperature dependent than that of constant viscous friction. Moreover, the efficiency of this motor is considerably enhanced when the viscous friction is temperature dependent. On the hand, the motor exhibits a higher performance of the refrigerator when the viscous friction is taken to be constant.

  12. Update heat exchanger designing principles

    Lipets, A.U.; Yampol'skij, A.E.


    Update heat exchanger design principles are analysed. Different coolant pattern in a heat exchanger are considered. It is suggested to rationally organize flow rates irregularity in it. Applying on heat exchanger designing measures on using really existing temperature and flow rate irregularities will permit to improve heat exchanger efficiency. It is expedient in some cases to artificially produce irregularities. In this connection some heat exchanger design principles must be reviewed now

  13. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.


    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  14. Engineering heat transfer

    Welty, J.R.


    The basic concepts of heat transfer are covered with special emphasis on up-to-date techniques for formulating and solving problems in the field. The discussion progresses logically from phenomenology to problem solving, and treats numerical, integral, and graphical methods as well as traditional analytical ones. The book is unique in its thorough coverage of the fundamentals of numerical analysis appropriate to solving heat transfer problems. This coverage includes several complete and readable examples of numerical solutions, with discussions and interpretations of results. The book also contains an appendix that provides students with physical data for often-encountered materials. An index is included. (U.S.)

  15. Alfven wave heating

    Stix, H.


    The physics of Alfven-wave heating is particularly sensitive to the character of the linear mode conversion which occurs at the Alfven resonance layer. Parameter changes can profoundly affect both the location within the plasma and the mechanism for the power absorption. Under optimal conditions the heating power may be absorbed by electron Landau damping and by electron transit-time magnetic pumping in the plasma interior, or by the same processes acting near the resonance layer on the mode-converted kinetic Alfven wave. The method is outlined for computing the coefficients for reflection, transmission and absorption at the resonance layer and some representative results are offered

  16. A heat transfer textbook

    Lienhard, John H


    This introduction to heat transfer offers advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students a solid foundation in the subjects of conduction, convection, radiation, and phase-change, in addition to the related topic of mass transfer. A staple of engineering courses around the world for more than three decades, it has been revised and updated regularly by the authors, a pair of recognized experts in the field. The text addresses the implications, limitations, and meanings of many aspects of heat transfer, connecting the subject to its real-world applications and developing students' ins

  17. Geothermal heat pump performance

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.


    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  18. Geothermal Heat Pump Performance

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.


    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  19. Harnessing solar heat

    Norton, Brian


    Systems engineered by man to harness solar heat in a controlled manner now include a diverse range of technologies each serving distinctive needs in particular climate contexts. This text covers the breadth of solar energy technologies for the conversion of solar energy to provide heat, either as the directly-used output or as an intermediary to other uses such as power generation or cooling. It is a wholly updated, extended and revised version of “Solar Energy Thermal Technology” first published in 1992. The text draws on the own author’s research and that of numerous colleagues and

  20. Nanocrystallinity induced by heating

    Mørup, Steen; Meaz, T.M.; Bender Koch, C.


    Samples of akaganeite (beta-FeOOH) and goethite (alpha-FeOOH) have been studied after heating at various temperatures up to 800 C. X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy measurements showed that slightly below the temperatures at which the samples transform to hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) the oxy......Samples of akaganeite (beta-FeOOH) and goethite (alpha-FeOOH) have been studied after heating at various temperatures up to 800 C. X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy measurements showed that slightly below the temperatures at which the samples transform to hematite (alpha-Fe2O3...

  1. Fuel fired heat sources

    Ortlinghaus, U


    Fuel fired heat sources with a valve-controlled ignition and main burner, whose flame is monitored and whose control valve is closed or opened by a controller according to the control deviation between actual and reference heat source temperature, previously suffered the disadvantage of high consumption of ignition gas. According to the invention this disadvantage is avoided by closing the ignition valve from the controller via a delay unit and having the delay time of the delay unit controlled either by the temperature measured by the sensor or increasing it with increasing deviation of the actual value of pre-temperature from the reference value of the pre-temperature.

  2. Monitoring wood heating plants



    The overall aim of the project is to support the increased use of biomass heating plant in the UK by improving the quality and quantity of information available to suppliers and users. This aim will be achieved by: providing a qualitative assessment of the operational performance of a representative range of biomass heating installations including summaries of technical information; providing good case studies for a range of installations addressing the varied market demands; collating performance data of existing installations so as to improve the performance and/or reduce capital and operating costs of existing and future installations; and providing basic operator training and recommending methods optimising/improving plant performance. (author)

  3. Microwave heating type evaporator

    Taura, Masazumi; Nishi, Akio; Morimoto, Takashi; Izumi, Jun; Tamura, Kazuo; Morooka, Akihiko.


    Purpose: To prevent evaporization stills against corrosion due to radioactive liquid wastes. Constitution: Microwaves are supplied from a microwave generator by way of a wave guide tube and through a microwave permeation window to the inside of an evaporatization still. A matching device is attached to the wave guide tube for transmitting the microwaves in order to match the impedance. When the microwaves are supplied to the inside of the evaporization still, radioactive liquid wastes supplied from a liquid feed port by way of a spray tower to the inside of the evaporization still is heated and evaporated by the induction heating of the microwaves. (Seki, T.)

  4. Geothermal heating saves energy

    Romsaas, Tor


    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  5. Primary energy savings using heat storage for biomass heating systems

    Mitrović Dejan M.


    Full Text Available District heating is an efficient way to provide heat to residential, tertiary and industrial users. The heat storage unit is an insulated water tank that absorbs surplus heat from the boiler. The stored heat in the heat storage unit makes it possible to heat even when the boiler is not working, thus increasing the heating efficiency. In order to save primary energy (fuel, the boiler operates on nominal load every time it is in operation (for the purpose of this research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the water temperature variation in the heat storage, depending on the heat load and the heat storage volume. Heat load is calculated for three reference days, with average daily temperatures from -5 to 5°C. The primary energy savings are also calculated for those days in the case of using heat storage in district heating.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  6. Waste heat of HTR power stations for district heating

    Bonnenberg, H.; Schlenker, H.V.


    The market situation, the applied techniques, and the transport, for district heating in combination with HTR plants are considered. Analysis of the heat market indicates a high demand for heat at temperatures between 100 and 150 0 C in household and industry. This market for district heating can be supplied by heat generated in HTR plants using two methods: (1) the combined heat and power generation in steam cycle plants by extracting steam from the turbine, and (2) the use of waste heat of a closed gas turbine cycle. The heat generation costs of (2) are negligible. The cost for transportation of heat over the average distance between existing plant sites and consumer regions (25 km) are between 10 and 20% of the total heat price, considering the high heat output of nuclear power stations. Comparing the price of heat gained by use of waste heat in HTR plants with that of conventional methods, considerable advantages are indicated for the combined heat and power generation in HTR plants. (author)

  7. Urban district heating using nuclear heat - a survey

    Beresovski, T.; Oliker, I.


    The use of heat from nuclear power plants is of great interest in connection with projected future expansions of large urban district heating systems. Oil price escalation and air pollution from increased burning of fossil fuels are substantial incentivers for the adoption of nuclear heat and power plants. The cost of the hot water piping system from the nuclear plant to the city is a major factor in determining the feasibility of using nuclear heat. To achieve reasonable costs, the heat load should be at least 1500 MW(th), transport temperatures 125-200 0 C and distances preferably 50 km or less. Heat may be extracted from the turbines of conventional power reactors. Alternatively, some special-purpose smaller reactors are under development which are specially suited to production of heat with little or no power coproduct. Many countries are conducting studies of future expansions of district heating systems to use nuclear heat. Several countries are developing technology suitable for this application. Actual experience with the use of nuclear heat for district heating is currently being gained only in the USSR, however. While district heating appears to be a desirable technology at a time of increasing fossil-fuel costs, the use of nuclear heat will require siting of nuclear plants within transmission radius of cities. The institutional barries toward use of nuclear heating will have to be overcome before the energy conservation potential of this approach can be realized on a significant scale. (author)

  8. Heat Transfer Characteristics of SiC-coated Heat Pipe for Passive Decay Heat Removal

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol


    The main concern with the Fukushima accident was the failure of active and passive core cooling systems. The main function of existing passive decay heat removal systems is feeding additional coolant to the reactor core. Thus, an established emergency core cooling system (ECCS) cannot operate properly because of impossible depressurization under the station blackout (SBO) condition. Therefore, a new concept for passive decay heat removal system is required. In this study, an innovative hybrid control rod concept is considered for passive in-core decay heat removal that differs from the existing direct vessel injection core cooling system and passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). The heat transfer between the evaporator and condenser sections occurs by phase change of the working fluid and capillary action induced by wick structures installed on the inner wall of the heat pipe. In this study, a hybrid control rod is developed to take the roles of both neutron absorption and heat removal by combining the functions of a heat pipe and control rod. Previous studies on enhancing the heat removal capacity of heat pipes used nanofluids, self-rewetting fluids, various wick structures and condensers. Many studies have examined the thermal performances of heat pipes using various nanofluids. They concluded that the enhanced thermal performance of the heat pipe using nanofluids is due to nanoparticle deposition on the wick structures. Thus, the wick structure of heat pipes has been modified by nanoparticle deposition to enhance the heat removal capacity. However, previous studies used relatively small heat pipes and narrow ranges of heat loads. The environment of a nuclear reactor is very specific, and the decay heat produced by fission products after shutdown is relatively large. Thus, this study tested a large-scale heat pipe over a wide range of power. The concept of a hybrid heat pipe for an advanced in-core decay heat removal system was introduced for complete

  9. Heat Transfer Characteristics of SiC-coated Heat Pipe for Passive Decay Heat Removal

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    The main concern with the Fukushima accident was the failure of active and passive core cooling systems. The main function of existing passive decay heat removal systems is feeding additional coolant to the reactor core. Thus, an established emergency core cooling system (ECCS) cannot operate properly because of impossible depressurization under the station blackout (SBO) condition. Therefore, a new concept for passive decay heat removal system is required. In this study, an innovative hybrid control rod concept is considered for passive in-core decay heat removal that differs from the existing direct vessel injection core cooling system and passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). The heat transfer between the evaporator and condenser sections occurs by phase change of the working fluid and capillary action induced by wick structures installed on the inner wall of the heat pipe. In this study, a hybrid control rod is developed to take the roles of both neutron absorption and heat removal by combining the functions of a heat pipe and control rod. Previous studies on enhancing the heat removal capacity of heat pipes used nanofluids, self-rewetting fluids, various wick structures and condensers. Many studies have examined the thermal performances of heat pipes using various nanofluids. They concluded that the enhanced thermal performance of the heat pipe using nanofluids is due to nanoparticle deposition on the wick structures. Thus, the wick structure of heat pipes has been modified by nanoparticle deposition to enhance the heat removal capacity. However, previous studies used relatively small heat pipes and narrow ranges of heat loads. The environment of a nuclear reactor is very specific, and the decay heat produced by fission products after shutdown is relatively large. Thus, this study tested a large-scale heat pipe over a wide range of power. The concept of a hybrid heat pipe for an advanced in-core decay heat removal system was introduced for complete

  10. Postaccident heat removal. II. Heat transfer from an internally heated liquid to a melting solid

    Faw, R.E.; Baker, L. Jr.


    Microwave heating has been used in studies of heat transfer from a horizontal layer of internally heated liquid to a melting solid. Experiments were designed to simulate heat transfer and meltthrough processes of importance in the analysis of postaccident heat removal capabilities of nuclear reactors. Glycerin, heated by 2.45-GHz microwave radiation, was used to simulate molten fuel. Paraffin wax was used to simulate a melting barrier confining the fuel. Experimentally measured heat fluxes and melting rates were consistent with a model based on downward heat transfer by conduction through a stagnant liquid layer and upward heat transfer augmented by natural convection. Melting and displacement of the barrier material occurred by upward-moving droplets randomly distributed across the melting surface. Results indicated that the melting and displacement process had no effect on the heat transfer process

  11. Influence on Heat Transfer Coefficient of Heat Exchanger by Velocity and Heat Transfer Temperature Difference

    WANG Fang


    Full Text Available Aimed to insufficient heat transfer of heat exchanger, research the influence on the heat transfer coefficient impacted by velocity and heat transfer temperature difference of tube heat exchanger. According to the different heat transfer temperature difference and gas velocity,the experimental data were divided into group. Using the control variable method,the above two factors were analyzed separately. K一△T and k一:fitting curve were clone to obtain empirical function. The entire heat exchanger is as the study object,using numerical simulation methods,porous media,k一£model,second order upwind mode,and pressure一velocity coupling with SIMPLE algorithm,the entire heat exchanger temperature field and the heat transfer coefficient distribution were given. Finally the trend of the heat transfer coefficient effected by the above two factors was gotten.

  12. The log mean heat transfer rate method of heat exchanger considering the influence of heat radiation

    Wong, K.-L.; Ke, M.-T.; Ku, S.-S.


    The log mean temperature difference (LMTD) method is conventionally used to calculate the total heat transfer rate of heat exchangers. Because the heat radiation equation contains the 4th order exponential of temperature which is very complicate in calculations, thus LMTD method neglects the influence of heat radiation. From the recent investigation of a circular duct in some practical situations, it is found that even in the situation of the temperature difference between outer duct surface and surrounding is low to 1 deg. C, the heat radiation effect can not be ignored in the situations of lower ambient convective heat coefficient and greater surface emissivities. In this investigation, the log mean heat transfer rate (LMHTR) method which considering the influence of heat radiation, is developed to calculate the total heat transfer rate of heat exchangers.

  13. Conjugate heat and mass transfer in heat mass exchanger ducts

    Zhang, Li-Zhi


    Conjugate Heat and Mass Transfer in Heat Mass Exchanger Ducts bridges the gap between fundamentals and recent discoveries, making it a valuable tool for anyone looking to expand their knowledge of heat exchangers. The first book on the market to cover conjugate heat and mass transfer in heat exchangers, author Li-Zhi Zhang goes beyond the basics to cover recent advancements in equipment for energy use and environmental control (such as heat and moisture recovery ventilators, hollow fiber membrane modules for humidification/dehumidification, membrane modules for air purification, desi

  14. Enhanced Condensation Heat Transfer

    Rose, John Winston

    The paper gives some personal observations on various aspects of enhanced condensation heat transfer. The topics discussed are external condensation (horizontal low-finned tubes and wire-wrapped tubes), internal condensation (microfin tubes and microchannels) and Marangoni condensation of binary mixtures.

  15. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  16. Congenital heat disease

    Higgins, C.B.; Silverman, N.H.; Kersting-Somerhoff, B.A.


    The book covers the tomographic anatomy of the normal and congenitally malformed heart and tomographic imaging of the normal heat. It then compares echocardiographic evaluation and the use of MR imaging in the diagnosis and evaluation of individual congenital cardiac malformations

  17. Heat flow method

    Chen Yunmei


    In this paper we study the heat flow of harmonic maps between two compact Riemannian manifolds. The global existence of the regular solution and the weak solution, as well as the blow up of the weak solution are discussed. (author). 14 refs

  18. Jet operated heat pump

    Collard, T.H.


    A jet pump system is shown that utilizes waste heat to provide heating and/or cooling. Waste heat diverted through a boiler causes a refrigerant to evaporate and expand for supersonic discharge through a nozzle thereby creating a vacuum in an evaporator coil. The vacuum draws the refrigerant in a gaseous state into a condensing section of a jet pump along with refrigerant from a reservoir in a subcooled liquid form. This causes condensation of the gas in a condensation section of the jet pump, while moving at constant velocity. The change in momentum of the fluid overcomes the system high side pressure. Some of the condensate is cooled by a subcooler. Refrigerant in a subcooled liquid state from the subcooler is fed back into the evaporator and the condensing section with an adequate supply being insured by the reservoir. The motive portion of the condensate is returned to the boiler sans subcooling. By proper valving start-up is insured, as well as the ability to switch from heating to cooling

  19. Heat loss from Buildings

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke


    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...

  20. Floor heating systems

    Radtke, U


    The question of whether PPC- and VPE-floor heating pipes can endure damage when incompletely imbedded in the floor finish is investigated in an experimental setup. An expansion of the pipe, caused by a temperature increase from 20/sup 0/C to 50/sup 0/C was measured and considered too small to deduce the degree of danger from the damage.

  1. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    Kronberg, J.W.


    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  2. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    Edwards, D. Jr.


    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification

  3. Heat exchanger vibration

    Richards, D.J.W.


    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration

  4. Electricity from waste heat

    Larjola, Jaakko; Lindgren, Olli; Vakkilainen, Esa

    In industry and in ships, large amounts of waste heat with quite a high release temperature are produced: examples are combustion gases and the exhaust gases of ceramic kilns. Very often they cannot be used for heating purposes because of long transport distances or because there is no local district heating network. Thus, a practical solution would be to convert this waste heat into electric power. This conversion may be carried out using an ORC-plant (Organic Rankine Cycle). There are probably some twenty ORC-plants in commercial use in the world. They are, however, usually based on conventional power plant technology, and are rather expensive, complicated and may have significant maintenance expenses. In order to obviate these problems, a project was started at Lappeenranta University of Technology at the beginning of 1981 to develop a high-speed, hermetic turbogenerator as the prime mover of the ORC. With this new technology the whole ORC-plant is quite simple, with only one moving part in the power system. It is expected to require very little maintenance, and the calculations made give for it significantly lower specific price than for the conventional technology ORC-plant. Two complete prototypes of the new technology ORC-plant have been built, one to the laboratory, other to industrial use. The nominal output of both is 100 kW electricity. Calculated amortization times for the new ORC-plant range from 2.1 to 6.

  5. Heat exchanger vibration

    Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)


    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.

  6. Tidally Heated Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Henning, Wade Garrett

    This work models the surface and internal temperatures for hypothetical terrestrial planets in situations involving extreme tidal heating. The feasibility of such planets is evaluated in terms of the orbital perturbations that may give rise to them, their required proximity to a hoststar, and the potential for the input tidal heating to cause significant partial melting of the mantle. Trapping terrestrial planets into 2:1 resonances with migrating Hot Jupiters is considered as a reasonable way for Earth-like worlds to both maintain high eccentricities and to move to short enough orbital periods (1-20 days) for extreme tidal heating to occur. Secular resonance and secular orbital perturbations may support moderate tidal heating at a low equilibrium eccentricity. At orbital periods below 10-30 days, with eccentricities from 0.01 to 0.1, tidal heat may greatly exceed radiogenic heat production. It is unlikely to exceed insolation, except when orbiting very low luminosity hosts, and thus will have limited surface temperature expression. Observations of such bodies many not be able to detect tidal surface enhancements given a few percent uncertainty in albedo, except on the nightside of spin synchronous airless objects. Otherwise detection may occur via spectral detection of hotspots or high volcanic gas concentrations including sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The most extreme cases may be able to produce magma oceans, or magma slush mantles with up to 40-60% melt fractions. Tides may alter the habitable zones for smaller red dwarf stars, but are generally detrimental. Multiple viscoelastic models, including the Maxwell, Voigt-Kelvin, Standard Anelastic Solid, and Burgers rheologies are explored and applied to objects such as Io and the super-Earth planet GJ 876d. The complex valued Love number for the Burgers rheology is derived and found to be a useful improvement when modeling the low temperature behavior of tidal bodies, particularly during low eccentricity

  7. Heat exchanger performance monitoring guidelines

    Stambaugh, N.; Closser, W. Jr.; Mollerus, F.J.


    Fouling can occur in many heat exchanger applications in a way that impedes heat transfer and fluid flow and reduces the heat transfer or performance capability of the heat exchanger. Fouling may be significant for heat exchanger surfaces and flow paths in contact with plant service water. This report presents guidelines for performance monitoring of heat exchangers subject to fouling. Guidelines include selection of heat exchangers to monitor based on system function, safety function and system configuration. Five monitoring methods are discussed: the heat transfer, temperature monitoring, temperature effectiveness, delta P and periodic maintenance methods. Guidelines are included for selecting the appropriate monitoring methods and for implementing the selected methods. The report also includes a bibliography, example calculations, and technical notes applicable to the heat transfer method

  8. Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying strategic heat synergy regions

    Persson, U.; Möller, B.; Werner, S.


    This study presents a methodology to assess annual excess heat volumes from fuel combustion activities in energy and industry sector facilities based on carbon dioxide emission data. The aim is to determine regional balances of excess heat relative heat demands for all third level administrative regions in the European Union (EU) and to identify strategic regions suitable for large-scale implementation of district heating. The approach is motivated since the efficiency of current supply structures to meet building heat demands, mainly characterised by direct use of primary energy sources, is low and improvable. District heating is conceived as an urban supply side energy efficiency measure employable to enhance energy system efficiency by increased excess heat recoveries; hereby reducing primary energy demands by fuel substitution. However, the importance of heat has long been underestimated in EU decarbonisation strategies and local heat synergies have often been overlooked in energy models used for such scenarios. Study results indicate that 46% of all excess heat in EU27, corresponding to 31% of total building heat demands, is located within identified strategic regions. Still, a realisation of these rich opportunities will require higher recognition of the heat sector in future EU energy policy. - Highlights: • EU27 energy and industry sector heat recycling resources are mapped and quantified. • Target regions for large-scale implementation of district heating are identified. • 46% of total EU27 excess heat volume is seized in 63 strategic heat synergy regions. • Large urban zones have lead roles to play in transition to sustainability in Europe. • Higher recognition of heat sector is needed in future EU energy policy for realisation

  9. Member for conducting excess heat away from heat sources

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.


    Should a radioisotope-powered engine (e.g., a Stirling cycle engine for generating electricity) stop working for any reason, the radioisotope heat source will continue to generate heat. This will result in a rise in temperature which may cause overheating of and possible damage to the engine as well as to the heat source itself. The invention provides a support/location member for conducting excess heat from the heat source and which, in normal operation of the engine, will impede the conduction of heat away from the heat source and so reduce thermal losses. The member is of elongated form and comprises a stack of heat-conductive slugs disposed in a tube and in interspaced relationship along the axis of the tube. The tube supports the slugs in axial alignment. Means are provided for attaching an end one of the slugs to the heat source and means operable on overheating of said end one of the slugs are also provided whereby the slugs are able to move into heat-conducting contact with each other so as to conduct the excess heat away from said heat source. The slugs may be brazed to the tube whereby progressive overheating of the slugs along the stack results in an overheated slug being freed from attachment to the tube so as to allow the overheated slug to move along the stack and engage the next slug in line in heat-conducting contact. (U.S.)

  10. Competitivity of biofuels in heating

    Flyktman, M.


    The competitivity of indigenous fuels in heating of residential houses in comparison with imported fuels, and both electricity and district heating, has been studied in this research, ordered by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. Heating plants of residential house scale (20-1000 kW) have been investigated in the research. Only the new heating plants are included in the investigation. The heat generation calculations concerning the residential heating plants have been made for following indigenous fuels: sod peat, fuel-chips, peat and wood pellets, firewood and straw. In addition to these, the calculations have been made for light fuel-oil, electric heating, district heating and natural gas. The local energy tariffs have to be taken into account in electric heating, district heating and natural gas heating. A calculation model, based on flowsheet calculation, forms the main result of the project. By using the model it is possible to update the competitivity data rapidly. Of all the indigenous fuels, sod peat and fuel-chips appeared to be competitive with electric and district heating costs in nearly all scales investigated. The construction of the heat generation costs of solid indigenous fuels differs remarkably from those of electric and district heating. The main part of the heating costs of wood chips and sod peat is formed of fixed costs; i.e. of investment costs and of the costs of heating and control work. The energy costs are the highest costs items in electric an district heating, as well as in the oil heating. It is possible to improve the competitivity of biofuels by developing cheaper boilers and fuel processing and storage devices

  11. Features of heat stress control

    Bernard, T.E.


    Heat stress is caused by hot environments and physical demands of work. It is further complicated by protective clothing requirements commonly found in the nuclear power industry. The resulting physiological strain is reflected in increased sweating, heart rate and body temperature. Uncontrolled exposures to heat stress will lead to decreased personnel performance and increased risk of accidents and heat disorders. The article describes major heat disorders, a method of heat stress evaluation, and some basic interventions to reduce the stress and strain of working in the heat

  12. Small heating reactors for local heating of communities

    Seifritz, W.


    The incentives to introduce relatively small heating reactors for local heating of communities are presented and the reasons why this vertically integrated energy system will meet the requirement of an emission - free substitution system are outlined. (author)

  13. Component Cooling Heat Exchanger Heat Transfer Capability Operability Monitoring

    Mihalina, M.; Djetelic, N.


    The ultimate heat sink (UHS) is of highest importance for nuclear power plant safe and reliable operation. The most important component in line from safety-related heat sources to the ultimate heat sink water body is a component cooling heat exchanger (CC Heat Exchanger). The Component Cooling Heat Exchanger has a safety-related function to transfer the heat from the Component Cooling (CC) water system to the Service Water (SW) system. SW systems throughout the world have been the root of many plant problems because the water source, usually river, lake, sea or cooling pond, are conductive to corrosion, erosion, biofouling, debris intrusion, silt, sediment deposits, etc. At Krsko NPP, these problems usually cumulate in the summer period from July to August, with higher Sava River (service water system) temperatures. Therefore it was necessary to continuously evaluate the CC Heat Exchanger operation and confirm that the system would perform its intended function in accordance with the plant's design basis, given as a minimum heat transfer rate in the heat exchanger design specification sheet. The Essential Service Water system at Krsko NPP is an open cycle cooling system which transfers heat from safety and non-safety-related systems and components to the ultimate heat sink the Sava River. The system is continuously in operation in all modes of plant operation, including plant shutdown and refueling. However, due to the Sava River impurities and our limited abilities of the water treatment, the system is subject to fouling, sedimentation buildup, corrosion and scale formation, which could negatively impact its performance being unable to satisfy its safety related post accident heat removal function. Low temperature difference and high fluid flows make it difficult to evaluate the CC Heat Exchanger due to its specific design. The important effects noted are measurement uncertainties, nonspecific construction, high heat transfer capacity, and operational specifics (e

  14. Geothermal heat-pump systems of heat supply

    Vasil'ev, G.P.


    The data on the multilayer operation of the objects, located in the climatic conditions of the central area of Russia and equipped with the geothermal heat-pumping systems of the heat supply are presented. The results of the analytical studies on evaluating the geothermal heat-pumping systems of the heat supply integration efficiency into the structure of the energy supply system, prevailing in the country, are presented [ru

  15. Specific heat, polarization and heat conduction in microwave heating systems: A nonequilibrium thermodynamic point of view

    Bergese, Paolo


    A microwave (MW) field can induce in a dielectric material an oscillatory polarization. By this mechanism part of the energy carried by the waves is converted into chaotic agitation, and the material heats up. MW heating is a nonequilibrium phenomenon, while conventional heating can generally be considered as quasi-static. Excess (or nonthermal) effects of MWs with respect to conventional heating lie in this difference. Macroscopically, MW heating can be described in the framework of linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics (NET). This approach indicates that in a dielectric material under MW heating the specific heat has a dynamic component linked to the variation of polarization with temperature, and that polarization and heat conduction are intertwined. In particular, linear NET provides a new phenomenological equation for heat conduction that is composed of the classic Fourier's law and an additional term due to polarization relaxation. This term quantitatively describes the excess effect of MWs on thermal conduction

  16. High temperature heat exchange: nuclear process heat applications

    Vrable, D.L.


    The unique element of the HTGR system is the high-temperature operation and the need for heat exchanger equipment to transfer nuclear heat from the reactor to the process application. This paper discusses the potential applications of the HTGR in both synthetic fuel production and nuclear steel making and presents the design considerations for the high-temperature heat exchanger equipment

  17. Heat transfer analysis of short helical borehole heat exchangers

    Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele


    Highlights: ► Vertical ground heat exchanger with a helical shaped pipe is analyzed. ► The model considers the interaction between the ground and the environment. ► The results of the model are in good agreement with the experimental values. ► The weather conditions considerably affect the fluid heat carrier temperature. ► The pitch between the turns does not affect the behaviour of the heat exchanger. -- Abstract: In this paper a numerical model to analyze the thermal behaviour of vertical ground heat exchangers with a helical shaped pipe is presented. This type of configuration can be a suitable alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers, especially when the heating and cooling loads of the building are very low. The model describes the heat transfer problem by means of a network of interconnected thermal resistances and capacitances. Moreover, as the investigated ground heat exchanger is usually installed in shallow depth, the model takes into account the interaction between the ground and the ambient environment which affects the fluid heat carrier temperature into the heat exchanger and, as a consequence, the energy efficiency of the heat pump. After a sensitivity analysis on the mesh parameters, the presented model is compared with experimental data and the simulation results show good agreement with the measurements. Finally, analyses to investigate the influence of the weather conditions, of the axial heat transfer and of the pitch between the turns of the helical pipe for two types of ground are carried out.

  18. Industrial Heat Pump for a High Temperature District Heating Application

    Poulsen, Claus Nørgaard

    by excess thermal energy from thermal solar panels. An industrial heat pump system using the natural refrigerant ammonia, is extracting the thermal energy from the storage when needed, and produce hot water at 85°C, for the district heating grid. The heat pump also acts as contributor to electricity grid...

  19. Ion and electron heating in ICRF heating experiments on LHD

    Saito, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)] [and others


    This paper reports on the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating conducted in 1999 in the 3rd experimental campaign on the Large Helical Device (LHD) with an emphasis on the optimization of the heating regime. Specifically, an exhaustive study of seven different heating regimes was carried out by changing the RF frequency relative to the magnetic field intensity, and the dependence of the heating efficiency on H-minority concentration was investigated. It was found in the experiment that both ion and electron heating are attainable with the same experimental setup by properly choosing the frequency relative to the magnetic field intensity. In the cases of both electron heating and ion heating, the power absorption efficiency depends on the minority ion concentration. An optimum minority concentration exists in the ion heating case while, in the electron heating case, the efficiency increases with concentration monotonically. A simple model calculation is introduced to provide a heuristic understanding of these experimental results. Among the heating regimes examined in this experiment, one of the ion heating regimes was finally chosen as the optimized heating regime and various high performance discharges were realized with it. (author)

  20. Droplet heat transfer and chemical reactions during direct containment heating

    Baker, L. Jr.


    A simplified model of heat transfer and chemical reaction has been adapted to evaluate the expected behavior of droplets containing unreacted Zircaloy and stainless steel moving through the containment atmosphere during postulated accidents involving direct containment heating. The model includes internal and external diffusive resistances to reaction. The results indicate that reactions will be incomplete for many conditions characteristic of direct containment heating sequences

  1. Heat transfer probe

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff


    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  2. Heat-resistant materials


    This handbook covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials selection guidelines for industrial applications, and life-assessment methods. Also included is information on comparative properties that allows the ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion-resistant coatings for superalloys, and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation. Contents: General introduction (high-temperature materials characteristics, and mechanical and corrosion properties, and industrial applications); Properties of Ferrous Heat-Resistant Alloys (carbon, alloy, and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; and high alloy cast steels); Properties of superalloys (metallurgy and processing, mechanical and corrosion properties, degradation, and protective coa...

  3. Urban heat island 1

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr


    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  4. Tubular heat exchanger

    Hayden, Owen; Willby, C.R.


    The invention concerns a heat exchanger of which the tubes, placed in a long casing, cross the casing cover in a sealed manner. These tubes are fixed to the tube plate forming this cover or to the branch tubes it comprises by means of compression joints. These joints make it possible to do away with welds that are sources of defects and to improve the operational safety of the apparatus. An advantageous form of the heat exchanger under the invention includes a manifold for each thermal exchange fluid, and one end of each tube is connected to this manifold by a pipe that is itself connected to the tube by a threaded connection. The latter provides for easy disconnection of the pipe in order to introduce a probe for inspecting the state of the tubes [fr

  5. Manufacture of heat exchangers

    Burton, J.E.; Tombs, R.W.T.


    A tube bundle for use in a heat exchanger has a series of spaced parallel tubes supported by tube plates and is manufactured by depositing welding material around the end of each tube, machining the deposited material to form an annular flange around the end of the tube and welding the flange into apertures in the tube plate. Preferably the tubes have a length which is slightly less than the distance between the outer surfaces of the tube plates and the deposited material is deposited so that it overlaps and protects the end surfaces of the tubes. A plug may be inserted in the bore of the tubes during the welding material deposition which, as described, is effected by manual metal arc welding. One use of heat exchangers incorporating a tube bundle manufactured as above is in apparatus for reducing the volume of, and recovering nitric acid from, radioactive effluents from a nuclear reprocessing plant. (author)

  6. The projective heat map

    Schwartz, Richard Evan


    This book introduces a simple dynamical model for a planar heat map that is invariant under projective transformations. The map is defined by iterating a polygon map, where one starts with a finite planar N-gon and produces a new N-gon by a prescribed geometric construction. One of the appeals of the topic of this book is the simplicity of the construction that yet leads to deep and far reaching mathematics. To construct the projective heat map, the author modifies the classical affine invariant midpoint map, which takes a polygon to a new polygon whose vertices are the midpoints of the original. The author provides useful background which makes this book accessible to a beginning graduate student or advanced undergraduate as well as researchers approaching this subject from other fields of specialty. The book includes many illustrations, and there is also a companion computer program.

  7. Making Heat Visible

    Goodhew, Julie; Pahl, Sabine; Auburn, Tim; Goodhew, Steve


    Householders play a role in energy conservation through the decisions they make about purchases and installations such as insulation, and through their habitual behavior. The present U.K. study investigated the effect of thermal imaging technology on energy conservation, by measuring the behavioral effect after householders viewed images of heat escaping from or cold air entering their homes. In Study 1 (n = 43), householders who received a thermal image reduced their energy use at a 1-year follow-up, whereas householders who received a carbon footprint audit and a non-intervention control demonstrated no change. In Study 2 (n = 87), householders were nearly 5 times more likely to install draught proofing measures after seeing a thermal image. The effect was especially pronounced for actions that addressed an issue visible in the images. Findings indicate that using thermal imaging to make heat loss visible can promote energy conservation. PMID:26635418

  8. Impedance and component heating

    Métral, E; Mounet, N; Pieloni, T; Salvant, B


    The impedance is a complex function of frequency, which represents, for the plane under consideration (longitudinal, horizontal or vertical), the force integrated over the length of an element, from a “source” to a “test” wave, normalized by their charges. In general, the impedance in a given plane is a nonlinear function of the test and source transverse coordinates, but it is most of the time sufficient to consider only the first few linear terms. Impedances can influence the motion of trailing particles, in the longitudinal and in one or both transverse directions, leading to energy loss, beam instabilities, or producing undesirable secondary effects such as excessive heating of sensitive components at or near the chamber wall, called beam-induced RF heating. The LHC performance limitations linked to impedances encountered during the 2010-2012 run are reviewed and the currently expected situation during the HL-LHC era is discussed.

  9. Heat Pumps in Subarctic Areas

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Unnthorsson, Runar


    Geothermal heat pumps use the temperature difference between inside and outside areas to modify a refrigerant, either for heating or cooling. Doing so can lower the need for external heating energy for a household to some extent. The eventual impact depends on various factors, such as the external...... source for heating or cooling and the temperature difference. The use of geothermal heat pumps, and eventual benefits has not been studied in the context of frigid areas, such as in Iceland. In Iceland, only remote areas do not have access to district heating from geothermal energy where households may...... therefor benefit from using geothermal heat pumps. It is the intent of this study to explore the observed benefits of using geothermal heat pumps in Iceland, both financially and energetically. This study further elaborates on incentives provided by the Icelandic government. Real data was gathered from...

  10. Cyro Power and Heat Transfer

    Chow, L


    .... The heat generated from a 9x9-heater array was removed by liquid nitrogen pool boiling. The orientation and space limitation of the array were varied to explore their effects on the critical heat flux (CHF) value...

  11. Arc Heated Scramjet Test Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Arc Heated Scramjet Test Facility is an arc heated facility which simulates the true enthalpy of flight over the Mach number range of about 4.7 to 8 for free-jet...

  12. Heat pipe applications workshop report

    Ranken, W.A.


    The proceedings of the Heat Pipe Applications Workshop, held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory October 20-21, 1977, are reported. This workshop, which brought together representatives of the Department of Energy and of a dozen industrial organizations actively engaged in the development and marketing of heat pipe equipment, was convened for the purpose of defining ways of accelerating the development and application of heat pipe technology. Recommendations from the three study groups formed by the participants are presented. These deal with such subjects as: (1) the problem encountered in obtaining support for the development of broadly applicable technologies, (2) the need for applications studies, (3) the establishment of a heat pipe technology center of excellence, (4) the role the Department of Energy might take with regard to heat pipe development and application, and (5) coordination of heat pipe industry efforts to raise the general level of understanding and acceptance of heat pipe solutions to heat control and transfer problems

  13. Heat Transfer Analogies

    Bhattacharyya, A


    This report contains descriptions of various analogues utilised to study different steady-state and unsteady-state heat transfer problems. The analogues covered are as follows: 1 . Hydraulic: a) water flow b) air flow 2. Membrane 3. Geometric Electrical: a) Electrolytic-tank b) Conducting sheet 4. Network; a) Resistance b) R-C A comparison of the different analogues is presented in the form of a table.

  14. Heat Transfer Analogies

    Bhattacharyya, A.


    This report contains descriptions of various analogues utilised to study different steady-state and unsteady-state heat transfer problems. The analogues covered are as follows: 1 . Hydraulic: a) water flow b) air flow 2. Membrane 3. Geometric Electrical: a) Electrolytic-tank b) Conducting sheet 4. Network; a) Resistance b) R-C A comparison of the different analogues is presented in the form of a table

  15. Induced current heating probe

    Thatcher, G.; Ferguson, B.G.; Winstanley, J.P.


    An induced current heating probe is of thimble form and has an outer conducting sheath and a water flooded flux-generating unit formed from a stack of ferrite rings coaxially disposed in the sheath. The energising coil is made of solid wire which connects at one end with a coaxial water current tube and at the other end with the sheath. The stack of ferrite rings may include non-magnetic insulating rings which help to shape the flux. (author)

  16. Heat Transfer in Metal Foam Heat Exchangers at High Temperature

    Hafeez, Pakeeza

    Heat transfer though open-cell metal foam is experimentally studied for heat exchanger and heat shield applications at high temperatures (˜750°C). Nickel foam sheets with pore densities of 10 and 40 pores per linear inch (PPI), have been used to make the heat exchangers and heat shields by using thermal spray coating to deposit an Inconel skin on a foam core. Heat transfer measurements were performed on a test rig capable of generating hot gas up to 1000°C. The heat exchangers were tested by exposing their outer surface to combustion gases at a temperature of 550°C and 750°C while being cooled by air flowing through them at room temperature at velocities up to 5 m/s. The temperature rise of the air, the surface temperature of the heat exchangers and the air temperature inside the heat exchanger were measured. The volumetric heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number were calculated for different velocities. The heat transfer performance of the 40PPI sample brazed with the foil is found to be the most efficient. Pressure drop measurements were also performed for 10 and 40PPI metal foam. Thermographic measurements were done on 40PPI foam heat exchangers using a high temperature infrared camera. A high power electric heater was used to produce hot air at 300°C that passed over the foam heat exchanger while the cooling air was blown through it. Heat shields were made by depositing porous skins on metal foam and it was observed that a small amount of coolant leaking through the pores notably reduces the heat transfer from the hot gases. An analytical model was developed based assuming local thermal non-equilibrium that accounts for the temperature difference between solid and fluid phase. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the predicted values of the model.

  17. Phase change heat transfer device for process heat applications

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Patterson, Mike; Utgikar, Vivek; Gunnerson, Fred


    The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to ∼1300 K) and industrial scale power transport (≥50 MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+ m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a thermal device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via 'pumping a fluid', a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization/condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e., without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) of vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  18. Performance of heat engines with non-zero heat capacity

    Odes, Ron; Kribus, Abraham


    Highlights: ► Finite heat capacity is a second irreversibility mechanism in addition to thermal resistance. ► Heat capacity introduces thermal transients and reverse heat flow. ► Engine maximum power and efficiency are lower for finite heat capacity. ► Implementing the optimal engine cycle requires active control. - Abstract: The performance of a heat engine is analyzed subject to two types of irreversibility: a non-zero heat capacity, together with the more common finite heat transfer rate between the engine and the external heat reservoirs. The heat capacity represents an engine body that undergoes significant temperature variations during the engine cycle. An option to cut off the heat exchange between the engine and the external surrounding for part of the engine cycle is also explored. A variational approach was taken to find the engine’s internal temperature profile (which defines the internal thermodynamic cycle) that would produce maximum power. The maximum power is shown to be lower than the case of zero heat capacity, due to a loss of heat that is stored in the engine body and then lost, bypassing the thermodynamic cycle. The maximum efficiency and the efficiency at maximum power are also lower than the zero heat capacity case. Similar to the Curzon–Ahlborn analysis, power can be traded for increased efficiency, but for high heat capacity, the range of efficiency that is available for such a trade is diminished. Isolating the engine during part of the cycle reduces maximum power, but the efficiency at maximum power and the maximum efficiency are improved, due to better exploitation of heat stored in the engine body. This might be useful for real engines that are limited by the internal energy change during a single engine cycle or by the operating frequency, leading to a broader power–efficiency curve.

  19. Heat exchanger tube tool

    Gugel, G.


    Certain types of heat-exchangers have tubes opening through a tube sheet to a manifold having an access opening offset from alignment with the tube ends. A tool for inserting a device, such as for inspection or repair, is provided for use in such instances. The tool is formed by a flexible guide tube insertable through the access opening and having an inner end provided with a connector for connection with the opening of the tube in which the device is to be inserted, and an outer end which remains outside of the chamber, the guide tube having adequate length for this arrangement. A flexible transport hose for internally transporting the device slides inside of the guide tube. This hose is long enough to slide through the guide tube, into the heat-exchanger tube, and through the latter to the extent required for the use of the device. The guide tube must be bent to reach the end of the heat-exchanger tube and the latter may be constructed with a bend, the hose carrying anit-friction elements at interspaced locations along its length to make it possible for the hose to negotiate such bends while sliding to the location where the use of the device is required

  20. Heat driven pulse pump

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)


    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  1. Solar heating systems


    This report is based on a previous, related, one which was quantitative in character and relied on 500 telephone interviews with house-owners. The aim of this, following, report was to carry out a more deep-going, qualitative analysis focussed on persons who already own a solar heating system (purchased during 1992) or were/are considering having one installed. Aspects studied were the attitudes, behaviour and plans of these two groups with regard to solar heating systems. Some of the key questions asked concerned general attitudes to energy supply, advantages and disadvantages of using solar heating systems, related decision-making factors, installation problems, positive and negative expectations, evaluation of the information situation, suggestions related to information systems regarding themes etc., dissemination of information, sources of advice and information, economical considerations, satisfaction with the currently-owned system which would lead to the installation of another one in connection with the purchase of a new house. The results of this investigation directed at Danish house-owners are presented and discussed, and proposals for following activities within the marketing situation are given. It is concluded that the basic attitude in both groups strongly supports environmental protection, renewable energy sources and is influenced by considerations of prestige and independence. Constraint factors are confusion about environmental factors, insecurity in relation to the effect of established supplementary energy supply and suspicion with regard to the integrity of information received. (AB)

  2. Critical heat flux evaluation

    Banner, D.


    Critical heat flux (CHF) is of importance for nuclear safety and represents the major limiting factors for reactor cores. Critical heat flux is caused by a sharp reduction in the heat transfer coefficient located at the outer surface of fuel rods. Safety requires that this phenomenon also called the boiling crisis should be precluded under nominal or incidental conditions (Class I and II events). CHF evaluation in reactor cores is basically a two-step approach. Fuel assemblies are first tested in experimental loops in order to determine CHF limits under various flow conditions. Then, core thermal-hydraulic calculations are performed for safety evaluation. The paper will go into more details about the boiling crisis in order to pinpoint complexity and lack of fundamental understanding in many areas. Experimental test sections needed to collect data over wide thermal-hydraulic and geometric ranges are described CHF safety margin evaluation in reactors cores is discussed by presenting how uncertainties are mentioned. From basic considerations to current concerns, the following topics are discussed; knowledge of the boiling crisis, CHF predictors, and advances thermal-hydraulic codes. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs

  3. Nucleate boiling heat transfer

    Saiz Jabardo, J.M. [Universidade da Coruna (Spain). Escola Politecnica Superior], e-mail:


    Nucleate boiling heat transfer has been intensely studied during the last 70 years. However boiling remains a science to be understood and equated. In other words, using the definition given by Boulding, it is an 'insecure science'. It would be pretentious of the part of the author to explore all the nuances that the title of the paper suggests in a single conference paper. Instead the paper will focus on one interesting aspect such as the effect of the surface microstructure on nucleate boiling heat transfer. A summary of a chronological literature survey is done followed by an analysis of the results of an experimental investigation of boiling on tubes of different materials and surface roughness. The effect of the surface roughness is performed through data from the boiling of refrigerants R-134a and R-123, medium and low pressure refrigerants, respectively. In order to investigate the extent to which the surface roughness affects boiling heat transfer, very rough surfaces (4.6 {mu}m and 10.5 {mu}m ) have been tested. Though most of the data confirm previous literature trends, the very rough surfaces present a peculiar behaviour with respect to that of the smoother surfaces (Ra<3.0 {mu}m). (author)

  4. Nucleate boiling heat transfer

    Saiz Jabardo, J.M.


    Nucleate boiling heat transfer has been intensely studied during the last 70 years. However boiling remains a science to be understood and equated. In other words, using the definition given by Boulding, it is an 'insecure science'. It would be pretentious of the part of the author to explore all the nuances that the title of the paper suggests in a single conference paper. Instead the paper will focus on one interesting aspect such as the effect of the surface microstructure on nucleate boiling heat transfer. A summary of a chronological literature survey is done followed by an analysis of the results of an experimental investigation of boiling on tubes of different materials and surface roughness. The effect of the surface roughness is performed through data from the boiling of refrigerants R-134a and R-123, medium and low pressure refrigerants, respectively. In order to investigate the extent to which the surface roughness affects boiling heat transfer, very rough surfaces (4.6 μm and 10.5 μm ) have been tested. Though most of the data confirm previous literature trends, the very rough surfaces present a peculiar behaviour with respect to that of the smoother surfaces (Ra<3.0 μm). (author)

  5. Underground storage of heat

    Despois, J.; Nougarede, F.


    The interest laying in heat storage is envisaged taking account of the new energy context, with a view to optimizing the use of production means of heat sources hardly modulated according to the demand. In such a way, a natural medium, without any constructions cost but only an access cost is to be used. So, porous and permeable rocky strata allowing the use of a pressurized water flow as a transfer fluid are well convenient. With such a choice high temperatures (200 deg C) may be obtained, that are suitable for long transmissions. A mathematical model intended for solving the conservation equations in the case of heat storage inside a confined water layer is discussed. An approach of the operating conditions of storage may involve either a line-up arrangement (with the hot drilling at the center, the cold drillings being aligned on both sides) or a radial arrangement (with cold drillings at the peripheral edge encircling the hot drilling at the center of the layer). The three principal problems encountered are: starting drilling, and the circuit insulation and control [fr

  6. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.


    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  7. High-performance heat pipes for heat recovery applications

    Saaski, E. W.; Hartl, J. H.


    Methods to improve the performance of reflux heat pipes for heat recovery applications were examined both analytically and experimentally. Various models for the estimation of reflux heat pipe transport capacity were surveyed in the literature and compared with experimental data. A high transport capacity reflux heat pipe was developed that provides up to a factor of 10 capacity improvement over conventional open tube designs; analytical models were developed for this device and incorporated into a computer program HPIPE. Good agreement of the model predictions with data for R-11 and benzene reflux heat pipes was obtained.

  8. Selection of Rational Heat Transfer Intensifiers in the Heat Exchanger

    S. A. Burtsev


    Full Text Available The paper considers the applicability of different types of heat transfer intensifiers in the heat exchange equipment. A review of the experimental and numerical works devoted to the intensification of the dimpled surface, surfaces with pins and internally ribbed surface were presented and data on the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of these surfaces were given. We obtained variation of thermal-hydraulic efficiency criteria for 4 different objective functions and 15 options for the intensification of heat transfer. This makes it possible to evaluate the advantages of the various heat transfer intensifiers. These equations show influence of thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the heat transfer intensifiers (the values of the relative heat transfer and drag coefficients on the basic parameters of the shell-and-tube heat exchanger: the number and length of the tubes, the volume of the heat exchanger matrix, the coolant velocity in the heat exchanger matrix, coolant flow rate, power to pump coolant (or pressure drop, the amount of heat transferred, as well as the average logarithmic temperature difference. The paper gives an example to compare two promising heat transfer intensifiers in the tubes and shows that choosing the required efficiency criterion to search for optimal heat exchanger geometry is of importance. Analysis is performed to show that a dimpled surface will improve the effectiveness of the heat exchanger despite the relatively small value of the heat transfer intensification, while a significant increase in drag of other heat transfer enhancers negatively affects their thermalhydraulic efficiency. For example, when comparing the target functions of reducing the heat exchanger volume, the data suggest that application of dimpled surfaces in various fields of technology is possible. But there are also certain surfaces that can reduce the parameters of a heat exchanger. It is shown that further work development should be aimed at

  9. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a spiral flow in an asymmetrical heated tube

    Boscary, J.; Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance


    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author)

  10. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a asymmetrically heated tube helicoidal flow

    Boscary, J.


    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author). 198 refs., 126 figs., 21 tabs

  11. Heat pipes as perspective base elements of heat recovery in heat supply and ventilating systems

    Matveev Andrey


    Full Text Available Thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes are considered as high-efficient heat-transfer devices, which can provide energy-saving technologies for heat supply and ventilating systems and for different branches of industry. Thermotechnical and working (”performance capability” characteristics of heat pipes are investigated. By ”performance capability” of heat pipes and heat-transfer devices on heat pipes we mean the system state, where it can perform set functions and keep parameter values (thermal power, conductivity, thermal resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc. within the regulations of standardized specifications. The article presents theoretical and experimental methods of «gaslock» length determination on noncondensable gases during long-lasting tests of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum shape АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (alloy АD – 31. The paper gives results of research of thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes in horizontal and vertical states (separate and as a set part while using different systems of thermal insulation. The obtained results of thermotechnical and resource tests show the advantages of ammonia heat pipes as basic elements for heat exchanger design in heating and ventilation systems.

  12. Heat transfer and fire spread

    Hal E. Anderson


    Experimental testing of a mathematical model showed that radiant heat transfer accounted for no more than 40% of total heat flux required to maintain rate of spread. A reasonable prediction of spread was possible by assuming a horizontal convective heat transfer coefficient when certain fuel and flame characteristics were known. Fuel particle size had a linear relation...

  13. Magnetic heating in the sun

    Chiuderi, C.


    The observational evidence for magnetic heating in the solar corona is presented. The possible ways of investigating theoretically the nature of the heating processes are critically discussed. Merits and disadvantages of the basic mechanisms so far proposed are reviewed. Finally, a preliminary application of the magnetic heating concept to stellar coronae is presented. (orig.)

  14. Milk fouling in heat exchangers

    Jeurnink, T.J.M.


    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the

  15. Heat pumps are a dream


    The fact that heat pumps do not achieve what their manufacturers promise in costs efficiency has been realized by the market. In 1981 the sales of heat pumps decreased by 50% of the 1980 market. Public utilities give the reason as economic, since fuel oil is too cheap. The author refutes this argument and presents arguments against heat pumps.

  16. Deep freezers with heat recovery

    Kistler, J.


    Together with space and water heating systems, deep freezers are the biggest energy consumers in households. The article investigates the possibility of using the waste heat for water heating. The design principle of such a system is presented in a wiring diagram.

  17. Heating being put into service


    The SMB-SE group would like to inform you that, the central heating will start this year, on Monday 3 October 2016, and will be progressively and depending on the weather forecast put into service throughout. All buildings will have heating within the following few days. Thank you for your understanding. The CERN heating team SMB-SE

  18. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)


    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  19. Residential solar-heating system


    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  20. Heat tracer methods

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.


    The flow of heat in the subsurface is closely linked to the movement of water (Ingebritsen et al., 2006). As such, heat has been used as a tracer in groundwater studies for more than 100 years (Anderson, 2005). As with chemical and isotopic tracers (Chapter 7), spatial or temporal trends in surface and subsurface temperatures can be used to infer rates of water movement. Temperature can be measured accurately, economically, at high frequencies, and without the need to obtain water samples, facts that make heat an attractive tracer. Temperature measurements made over space and time can be used to infer rates of recharge from a stream or other surface water body (Lapham, 1989; Stonestrom and Constantz, 2003); measurements can also be used to estimate rates of steady drainage through depth intervals within thick unsaturated zones (Constantz et al., 2003; Shan and Bodvarsson, 2004). Several thorough reviews of heat as a tracer in hydrologic studies have recently been published (Constantz et al., 2003; Stonestrom and Constantz, 2003; Anderson, 2005; Blasch et al., 2007; Constantz et al., 2008). This chapter summarizes heat-tracer approaches that have been used to estimate recharge.Some clarification in terminology is presented here to avoid confusion in descriptions of the various approaches that follow. Diffuse recharge is that which occurs more or less uniformly across large areas in response to precipitation, infiltration, and drainage through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of diffuse recharge determined using measured temperatures in the unsaturated zone are referred to as potential recharge because it is possible that not all of the water moving through the unsaturated zone will recharge the aquifer; some may be lost to the atmosphere by evaporation or plant transpiration. Estimated fluxes across confining units in the saturated zone are referred to as interaquifer flow (Chapter 1). Focused recharge is that which occurs directly from a point or line source, such

  1. Heat exchanger network retrofit optimization involving heat transfer enhancement

    Wang Yufei; Smith, Robin; Kim, Jin-Kuk


    Heat exchanger network retrofit plays an important role in energy saving in process industry. Many design methods for the retrofit of heat exchanger networks have been proposed during the last three decades. Conventional retrofit methods rely heavily on topology modifications which often result in a long retrofit duration and high initial costs. Moreover, the addition of extra surface area to the heat exchanger can prove difficult due to topology, safety and downtime constraints. Both of these problems can be avoided through the use of heat transfer enhancement in heat exchanger network retrofit. This paper presents a novel design approach to solve heat exchanger network retrofit problems based on heat transfer enhancement. An optimisation method based on simulated annealing has been developed to find the appropriate heat exchangers to be enhanced and to calculate the level of enhancement required. The physical insight of enhanced exchangers is also analysed. The new methodology allows several possible retrofit strategies using different retrofit methods be determined. Comparison of these retrofit strategies demonstrates that retrofit modification duration and payback time are reduced when heat transfer enhancement is utilised. Heat transfer enhancement can be also used as a substitute for increased heat exchanger network surface area to reduce retrofit investment costs.

  2. Heat pumps in combined heat and power systems

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian


    Heat pumps have previously been proposed as a way to integrate higher amounts of renewable energy in DH (district heating) networks by integrating, e.g., wind power. The paper identifies and compares five generic configurations of heat pumps in DH systems. The operational performance...... of the considered cases. When considering a case where the heat pump is located at a CHP (combined heat and power) plant, a configuration that increases the DH return temperature proposes the lowest operation cost, as low as 12 EUR MWh-1 for a 90 °C e 40 °C DH network. Considering the volumetric heating capacity......, a third configuration is superior in all cases. Finally, the three most promising heat pump configurations are integrated in a modified PQ-diagram of the CHP plant. Each show individual advantages, and for two, also disadvantages in order to achieve flexible operation....


    Denysova Alla


    Full Text Available One of the basic directions of perfection of heat supply systems is the tendency of transition to the low-temperature heating systems based on application of heat pump installations. We consider heat supply system with heat pump installations using subsoil waters. Numerical simulation of thermal processes in the elements of a single-stage and double-stage heat pump systems has been worked out. Values of depths of wells and their quantity, necessary for effective operation of the offered installations, and values of capacity of electric water pumps for subsoil waters unit are calculated. Capacity of compressor electric drive and coefficient of performance of heat pump for the conditions of the city of Odessa are presented.

  4. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    Rousseau, J.


    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  5. Compact seasonal PCM heat storage for solar heating systems

    Dannemand, Mark

    Space heating of buildings and preparation of domestic hot water accounts for a large part of the society’s energy consumption. Solar radiation is an abundant and renewable energy source which can be harvested by solar collectors and used to cover heating demands in the built environment....... The seasonal availability of solar energy does however not match with the heating demands in buildings which typically are large in winter periods when limited solar energy is available. Heat can be stored over a few days in water stores but continuous heat losses limits the storage periods. The possibility...... of storing heat from summer where solar energy is widely available to winter periods where the heating demands are large, allows for implementing more renewable energy in our energy system. The phase change material (PCM) sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) melts at 58 °C. The melting process requires...

  6. High temperature absorption compression heat pump for industrial waste heat

    Reinholdt, Lars; Horntvedt, B.; Nordtvedt, S. R.


    Heat pumps are currently receiving extensive interest because they may be able to support the integration of large shares of fluctuating electricity production based on renewable sources, and they have the potential for the utilization of low temperature waste heat from industry. In most industries......, the needed temperature levels often range from 100°C and up, but until now, it has been quite difficult to find heat pump technologies that reach this level, and thereby opening up the large-scale heat recovery in the industry. Absorption compression heat pumps can reach temperatures above 100°C......, and they have proved themselves a very efficient and reliable technology for applications that have large temperature changes on the heat sink and/or heat source. The concept of Carnot and Lorenz efficiency and its use in the analysis of system integration is shown. A 1.25 MW system having a Carnot efficiency...

  7. Heat transfer from internally-heated molten UO2 pools

    Stein, R.P.; Baker, L. Jr.; Gunther, W.H.; Cook, C.


    Experimental measurements of heat transfer from internally heated pools of molten UO 2 have been obtained for two cell sizes: 10 cm x 10 cm and 20 cm x 20 cm. The experiments with the large cell have supported a previous conclusion from early small data that the measured downward heat fluxes are higher than would be expected on the basis of considerations of thermal convection. A convective model underpredicts the downward heat fluxes by a factor of 2.5 to 4.5 for all but one early experiment. Arbitrary assumptions of increased thermal conductivity do not account for the discrepancy. A single model based on internal thermal radiation heat transfer is able to account for the high values. The model uses the optically thick Rosseland approximation. Because of this, it is tentatively concluded that thermal radiation plays a dominant role in controlling the heat transfer from internally heated molted fuel

  8. District heating grid of the Daqing Nuclear Heating Plant

    Changwen, Ma [Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology, Tsingua Univ., Beijing (China)


    The Daqing Nuclear Heating Plant is the first commercial heating plant to be built in China. The plant is planned to be used as the main heat resource of one residential quarter of Daqing city. The main parameters of the heating plant are summarized in the paper. The load curve shows that the capacity of the NHP is about 69% of total capacity of the grid. The 12 existing boilers can be used as reserve and peak load heat resources. Two patterns of load following have have been considered and tested on the 5MW Test Heating Reactor. Experiment shows load of heat grid is changed slowly, so automatic load following is not necessary. (author). 9 figs, 1 tab.

  9. Heat-treatment and heat-to-heat variations in the fracture toughness of Alloy 718

    Mills, W.J.


    The effect of heat-treatment and heat-to-heat variations on the J Ic fracture toughness response of Alloy 718 was examined at room and elevated temperatures using the multiple-specimen R-curve technique. Six heats of alloy 718 were tested in the conventional and modified heat-treated conditions. The fracture toughness response for the modified superalloy was found to be superior to that exhibited by the conventional material. Heat-to-heat variations in the J Ic response of Alloy 718 were observed in both heat-treated conditions; the modified treatment exhibited much larger variability. The J Ic and corresponding K Ic fracture toughness values were analyzed statistically to establish minimum expected toughness, values for use in design and safety analyses. 26 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.


    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  11. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  12. High performance passive solar heating system with heat pipe energy transfer and latent heat storage

    Dijk, van H.A.L.; Galen, van E; Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.


    Preliminar results are reported from a current project on the development of a high performance passive solar heating system. Two special components are introduced: a. A heat pipe as a thermal diode tube for the efficient transfer of collected solar heat from the absorber plate to behind an

  13. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Stene, Joern


    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO{sub 2} heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating - o-called integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump systems. The scope of this thesis is limited to brine-to-water and water-to-water heat pumps connected to low-temperature hydronic space heating systems. The main conclusions are: (1) Under certain conditions residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating may achieve the same or higher seasonal performance factor (SPF) than the most energy efficient state-of-the-art brine-to-water heat pumps. (2) In contrary to conventional heat pump systems for combined space heating and DHW heating, the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system achieves the highest COP in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, and the lowest COP in the space heating mode. Hence, the larger the annual DHW heating demand, the higher the SPF of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system. (3) The lower the return temperature in the space heating system and the lower the DHW storage temperature, the higher the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. A low return temperature in the space heating system also results in a moderate DHW heating capacity ratio, which means that a relatively large part of the annual space heating demand can be covered by operation in the combined heating mode, where the COP is considerably higher than in the space heating mode. (4) During operation in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump is heavily influenced by

  14. Experimental device for the residential heating with heat pipe and electric heat storage blocks

    Vasiliev, L L; Boldak, I M; Domorod, L S; Rabetsky, M I; Schirokov, E I [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk (Belarus). Inst. Teplo- i Massoobmena


    Residential heating using electric heat storage blocks nowadays is an actual problem from the point of view of heat recovery and nature protection. In the Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute a new residential electrical heater capable of heating chambers by controlling air temperature and heat output using heat pipes and an electric heat storage block was developed. This heater (BETA) is fed from the source of energy and during 7 h of night time accumulates energy sufficiently to heat 10 m{sup 3} during 24 h. Heating device BETA has a ceramic thermal storage block, electric heaters and a heat pipe with evaporator inside the ceramic block and constant temperature (65{sup o}C) finned condenser outside it. The condenser temperature could be controlled easily. BETA is compact, has high thermal response, accurate air temperature control and safe operation. Such types of residential heaters are necessary for heating residential and office building in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Byelorussia which suffered after the Chernobyl catastrophe. (Author).

  15. Heating entrepreneur activity in 2003

    Nikkola, A.; Solmio, H.


    According to TTS Institute information, at the end of 2003 there were heating entrepreneurs responsible for fuel management and heat production in at least 212 heating plants in Finland. The number of operative plants increased by 36 from the previous year. At the end of 2003, the total boiler capacity for solid fuel in the plants managed by the heating entrepreneurs exceeded 100 megawatts. The average boiler capacity of the plants was 0.5 megawatts. Heating entrepreneur-ship was most common in west Finland, where 40 percent of the plants are located. There were some 94 heating plants managed by cooperatives or limited companies. Single entrepre neurs or entrepreneur networks consisting of several entrepreneurs were responsible for heat production in 117 plants. Heating entrepreneurs used approximately 290,000 loose cubic metres of forest chips, which is about seven percent of the volume used for heating and power plant energy production in 2003. In addition, the heating entrepreneurs used a total of 40,000 loose cubic metres of other wood fuel and an estimated 20,000 loose cubic metres of sod and milled peat. Municipalities are still the most important customer group for heating entrepreneurs. However, thenumber of private customers is growing. Industrial company, other private company or properly was the main customer already for every fourth plant established during 2003. (orig.)

  16. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Rafferty, Kevin D.


    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  17. Heat Roadmap Europe 3 (STRATEGO)

    Connolly, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Drysdale, David

    Heat Roadmap Europe 3 is from work package 2 of the STRATEGO project ( It quantifies the impact of implementing various energy efficiency measures in the heating and cooling sectors of five EU Member States: Czech Republic, Croatia, Italy, Romania, and the United...... of approximately €1.1 trillion in energy efficiency measures across all five of these countries, between 2010 and 2050, will save enough fuel to reduce the costs of their energy systems. After considering both the initial investment and the resulting savings, the total annual cost of the heating, cooling......, and electricity sectors is reduced by an average of ~15% in each country. These initial investments are primarily required in heat savings for the buildings, district heating in urban areas, and electric heat pumps in rural areas. In essence, energy efficiency measures in the heating sector will enable EU Member...

  18. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin


    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  19. Heat transfer from two-side heated helical channels

    Shimonis, V.; Ragaishis, V.; Poshkas, P.


    Experimental results are presented on the heat transfer from two-side heated helical channels to gas (air) flows. The study covered six configurations and wide ranges of geometrical (D/h=5.5 to 84.2) and performance (Re=10 3 to 2*10 5 ) parameters. Under the influence of Re and of the channel curvature, the heat transfer from both the convex and the concave surfaces for two-side heating (q w1 ≅ q w2 ) is augmented by 20-30% over one-side heating. Improved relations to predict the critical values of Reynolds Re cr1 and Re cr2 are suggested. They enable more exact predictions of the heat transfer from convex surface in transient flows for one-side heating. The relation for annular channels is suggested for the turbulent heat transfer from the convex and concave surfaces of two-side heated helical channels. It can be adapted by introducing earlier expresions for one-side heated helical channels. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  20. Open heat exchanger for improved heat efficiency in geothermal spas

    Nasrabady, S.J.; Palsson, H.; Saevarsdottir, G.A.


    Hot spas and Jacuzzis are popular in Iceland due to the abundance of reasonably prized geothermal heat available. However the water from the district heating system is too warm to be admitted directly into the spa. For safety reasons the water is mixed with cold water, in order to reduce temperature from about 80 deg C down to 45 deg C, which leads to wasting a large quantity of heat. Therefore a design is suggested here that enables the feeding of geothermal water directly into the spa, omitting the step of mixing it with cold water. The idea is to employ an open heat exchanger that transfers heat from the geothermal water to the bulk water in the spa, before letting it mix with the spa water. A case study was done for one particular spa. Heat load was calculated and measured when the spa was in use, and when it was unused. A design is suggested employing a circular double-plate which is to be placed at the bottom of the spa. This unit will function as an open heat exchanger feeding district heating water into the spa. Free convection takes place at the upper side of the upper plate and forced convection below the upper plate. Heat transfer coefficient for both was calculated. Using results from calculations, temperature distribution at critical parts of spa and plate was modeled. Results are reasonable and promising for a good design that may considerably reduce the energy expenses for a continuously heated geothermal spa

  1. Nuclear heat for industrial purposes and district heating


    Studies on the various possibilities for the application of heat from nuclear reactors in the form of district heat or process steam for industrial purposes had been made long before the present energy crisis. Although these studies have indicated technical feasibility and economical justification of such utilization, the availability of relatively cheap oil and difficulties in locating a nuclear heat source inside industrial areas did not stimulate much further development. Since the increase of oil prices, the interest in nuclear heat application is reawakened, and a number of new potential areas have been identified. It now seems generally recognized that the heat from nuclear reactors should play an important role in primary energy supply, not only for electricity production but also as direct heat. At present three broad areas of nuclear heat application are identified: Direct heat utilization in industrial processing requiring a temperature above 800 deg. C; Process steam utilization in various industries, requiring a temperature mainly in the range of 200-300 deg. C; Low temperature and waste heat utilization from nuclear power plants for desalination of sea water and district heating. Such classification is mainly related to the type and characteristics of the heat source or nuclear reactor which could be used for a particular application. Modified high temperature reactor types (HTR) are the candidates for direct heat application, while the LWR reactors can satisfy most of the demands for process steam. Production of waste heat is a characteristic of all thermal power plants, and its utilization is a major challenge in the field of power production

  2. Industrial waste heat utilization for low temperature district heating

    Fang, Hao; Xia, Jianjun; Zhu, Kan; Su, Yingbo; Jiang, Yi


    Large quantities of low grade waste heat are discharged into the environment, mostly via water evaporation, during industrial processes. Putting this industrial waste heat to productive use can reduce fossil fuel usage as well as CO 2 emissions and water dissipation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a holistic approach to the integrated and efficient utilization of low-grade industrial waste heat. Recovering industrial waste heat for use in district heating (DH) can increase the efficiency of the industrial sector and the DH system, in a cost-efficient way defined by the index of investment vs. carbon reduction (ICR). Furthermore, low temperature DH network greatly benefits the recovery rate of industrial waste heat. Based on data analysis and in-situ investigations, this paper discusses the potential for the implementation of such an approach in northern China, where conventional heat sources for DH are insufficient. The universal design approach to industrial-waste-heat based DH is proposed. Through a demonstration project, this approach is introduced in detail. This study finds three advantages to this approach: (1) improvement of the thermal energy efficiency of industrial factories; (2) more cost-efficient than the traditional heating mode; and (3) CO 2 and pollutant emission reduction as well as water conservation. -- Highlights: •We review situation of industrial waste heat recovery with a global perspective. •We present a way to analyze the potential to utilize industrial waste heat for DH. •Northern China has huge potential for using low-grade industrial waste heat for DH. •A demonstration project is introduced using the universal approach we propose. •It proves huge benefits for factories, heat-supply companies and the society

  3. Engineering heat transfer

    Annaratone, Donatello


    This book is a generalist textbook; it is designed for anybody interested in heat transmission, including scholars, designers and students. Two criteria constitute the foundation of Annaratone's books, including the present one. The first one consists of indispensable scientific rigor without theoretical exasperation. The inclusion in the book of some theoretical studies, even if admirable for their scientific rigor, would have strengthened the scientific foundation of this publication, yet without providing the reader with further applicable know-how. The second criterion is to deliver practi

  4. Theory of heat

    Maxwell, James Clerk


    Though James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) is best remembered for his epochal achievements in electricity and magnetism, he was wide-ranging in his scientific investigations, and he came to brilliant conclusions in virtually all of them. As James R. Newman put it, Maxwell ""combined a profound physical intuition, an exquisite feeling for the relationship of objects, with a formidable mathematical capacity to establish orderly connections among diverse phenomena. This blending of the concrete and the abstract was the chief characteristic of almost all his researches.""Maxwell's work on heat and st

  5. Heat transport system

    Pierce, B.L.


    A heat transport system of small size which can be operated in any orientation consists of a coolant loop containing a vaporizable liquid as working fluid and includes in series a vaporizer, a condenser and two one-way valves and a pressurizer connected to the loop between the two valves. The pressurizer may be divided into two chambers by a flexible diaphragm, an inert gas in one chamber acts as a pneumatic spring for the system. This system is suitable for use in a nuclear-powered artificial heart

  6. High Flux Heat Exchanger


    maximum jet velocity (6.36 m/s), and maximum number of jets (nine). Wadsworth and Mudawar [49] describe the use of a single slotted nozzle to provide...H00503 (ASME), pp. 121-128, 1989. 40 49. D. C. Wadsworth and I. Mudawar , "Cooling of a Multichip Electronic Module by Means of Confined Two-Dimensional...Jets of Dielectric Liquid," HTD-Vol. 111, Heat Transfer in Electrglif, Book No. H00503 (ASME), pp. 79-87, 1989. 50. D.C. Wadsworth and I. Mudawar

  7. Passive Solar Heating Residences.


    sunshine is the percentage of time during the average year that the sun is bright enough to cast a shadow Pcross a surface, divided by the number of hours...The Markle House in Vermont has 1,100 square feet of living area with a heat loss cf 17,500 BTU/hr. Particular attention was paid to reducing the...Determ.ine enierg;y savings of fossil fuel and electrical poweCr. 2. Determi.:ne the ftriction of the building’s hot)’ waiter , heting and/ur cooling load

  8. [Sports and heat stroke].

    Yuzawa, Itsuki; Miyake, Yasufumi; Aruga, Tohru


    We described Characteristic of the heat stroke in the sports activity in Japan. It was common in teenage men, and 15 years old had a peak with a man, the woman. Most patients did not need specific treatment. Many happened from the end of July on the outdoors around 3:00 p.m. in mid-August. There are many in order of baseball, football, tennis, and a basketball. Running and cycling had high severity of illness. Probably, grasp of an environmental condition, suitable sportswear, suitable hydration, and condition management are the best things as preventive measures.

  9. Theory and design of heat exchanger : Double pipe and heat exchanger in abnormal condition

    Min, Ui Dong


    This book introduces theory and design of heat exchanger, which includes HTRI program, multiple tube heat exchanger external heating, theory of heat transfer, basis of design of heat exchanger, two-phase flow, condensation, boiling, material of heat exchanger, double pipe heat exchanger like hand calculation, heat exchanger in abnormal condition such as Jackets Vessel, and Coiled Vessel, design and summary of steam tracing.

  10. Method and means for heating buildings in a district heating system with waste heat from a thermal power plant

    Margen, P.H.E.


    The waste heat from a thermal power plant is transported through a municipal heating network to a plurality of buildings to be heated. The quantity of heat thus supplied to the buildings is higher than that required for the heating of the buildings. The excess heat is released from the buildings to the atmosphere in the form of hot air

  11. Thermophysiological adaptations to passive mild heat acclimation

    Pallubinsky, H; Schellen, L; Kingma, B R M; Dautzenberg, B; van Baak, M A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    Passive mild heat acclimation (PMHA) reflects realistic temperature challenges encountered in everyday life. Active heat acclimation, combining heat exposure and exercise, influences several important thermophysiological parameters; for example, it decreases core temperature and enhances heat

  12. Containment heat removal system

    Wade, G.E.; Barbanti, G.; Gou, P.F.; Rao, A.S.; Hsu, L.C.


    This patent describes a nuclear system of a type including a containment having a nuclear reactor therein, the nuclear reactor including a pressure vessel and a core in the pressure vessel, the system. It comprises a gravity pool of coolant disposed at an elevation sufficient to permit a flow of coolant into the nuclear reactor pressure vessel against a predetermined pressure within the nuclear reactor pressure vessel; means for reducing a pressure of steam in the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a value less than the predetermined pressure in the event of a nuclear accident, the means including a depressurization valve connected to the pressure vessel, the means further including steam heat dissipating means such dissipating means including a suppression pool; a supply of water in the suppression pool, there being a headspace in the suppression pool above the water supply; a substantial amount of air in the head space; means for feeding pressurized steam from the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a location under a surface of the supply of water, the supply of water being effective to absorb heat sufficient to reduce steam pressure below the predetermined pressure; and a check valve for communicating the headspace with the containment, the check valve being oriented to vent air in the headspace to the containment when a pressure in the headspace exceeds a pressure in the containment by a predetermined pressure differential

  13. aerodynamics and heat transfer

    J. N. Rajadas


    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary optimization procedure, with the integration of aerodynamic and heat transfer criteria, has been developed for the design of gas turbine blades. Two different optimization formulations have been used. In the first formulation, the maximum temperature in the blade section is chosen as the objective function to be minimized. An upper bound constraint is imposed on the blade average temperature and a lower bound constraint is imposed on the blade tangential force coefficient. In the second formulation, the blade average and maximum temperatures are chosen as objective functions. In both formulations, bounds are imposed on the velocity gradients at several points along the surface of the airfoil to eliminate leading edge velocity spikes which deteriorate aerodynamic performance. Shape optimization is performed using the blade external and coolant path geometric parameters as design variables. Aerodynamic analysis is performed using a panel code. Heat transfer analysis is performed using the finite element method. A gradient based procedure in conjunction with an approximate analysis technique is used for optimization. The results obtained using both optimization techniques are compared with a reference geometry. Both techniques yield significant improvements with the multiobjective formulation resulting in slightly superior design.

  14. Thermodynamics and heat power

    Granet, Irving


    Fundamental ConceptsIntroductionThermodynamic SystemsTemperatureForce and MassElementary Kinetic Theory of GasesPressureReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsWork, Energy, and HeatIntroductionWorkEnergyInternal EnergyPotential EnergyKinetic EnergyHeatFlow WorkNonflow WorkReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsFirst Law of ThermodynamicsIntroductionFirst Law of ThermodynamicsNonflow SystemSteady-Flow SystemApplications of First Law of ThermodynamicsReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsThe Second Law of ThermodynamicsIntroductionReversibility-Second Law of ThermodynamicsThe Carnot CycleEntropyReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsProperties of Liquids and GasesIntroductionLiquids and VaporsThermodynamic Properties of SteamComputerized PropertiesThermodynamic DiagramsProcessesReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsThe Ideal GasIntroductionBasic ConsiderationsSpecific Hea...

  15. Upright heat exchanger

    Martoch, J.; Kugler, V.; Krizek, V.; Strmiska, F.


    The claimed heat exchanger is characteristic by the condensate level being maintained directly in the exchanger while preserving the so-called ''dry'' tube plate. This makes it unnecessary to build another pressure vessel into the circuit. The design of the heat exchanger allows access to both tube plates, which facilitates any repair. Another advantage is the possibility of accelerating the indication of leakage from the space of the second operating medium which is given by opening the drainage pipes of the lower bundle into the collar space and from there through to the indication pipe. The exchanger is especially suitable for deployment in the circuits of nuclear power plants where the second operating medium will be hot water of considerably lower purity than is that of the condensate. A rapid display of leakage can prevent any long-term penetration of this water into the condensate, which would result in worsening water quality in the entire secondary circuit of the nuclear power plant. (J.B.). 1 fig

  16. Evaluation of Excess Heat Utilization in District Heating Systems by Implementing Levelized Cost of Excess Heat

    Borna Doračić


    Full Text Available District heating plays a key role in achieving high primary energy savings and the reduction of the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This was recently recognized by the European Commission, which emphasizes the importance of these systems, especially when integrated with renewable energy sources, like solar, biomass, geothermal, etc. On the other hand, high amounts of heat are currently being wasted in the industry sector, which causes low energy efficiency of these processes. This excess heat can be utilized and transported to the final customer by a distribution network. The main goal of this research was to calculate the potential for excess heat utilization in district heating systems by implementing the levelized cost of excess heat method. Additionally, this paper proves the economic and environmental benefits of switching from individual heating solutions to a district heating system. This was done by using the QGIS software. The variation of different relevant parameters was taken into account in the sensitivity analysis. Therefore, the final result was the determination of the maximum potential distance of the excess heat source from the demand, for different available heat supplies, costs of pipes, and excess heat prices.

  17. Simultaneousness of room heating and ventilation air heating

    Mathisen, Hans Martin


    The report is part of NTNU-SINTEF's Smart Buildings program, Smart Energy Efficient Buildings (2002-2006), subprogram 3.1 Heating, ventilation and cooling systems. An important part of this subprogram is the development and implementation of heating distribution systems with low return temperature. A comparison has been made of the simultaneousness of room heating and ventilation air heating in six buildings. Existing measuring data with hourly measurements of effect requirements for the different purposes have been employed. Based on the measuring data the relation between the requirements for room heating and ventilation is estimated. A 'fictitious' return temperature has also been estimated. The result shows a significant variation between the buildings. For all there are short periods where the efficiency need for room heating and ventilation is equal (ml)

  18. Supply of Prague with heat from a nuclear heat source

    Poul, F.


    The proposals are discussed of supplying Prague, the Czechoslovak Capital, with nuclear reactor-generated heat energy. The proposals meet the requirements of the general urban plan of development. The first nuclear heating plant is to be sited in the Kojetice locality, in the northern Prague suburb. It will be commissioned by 1984 and 1985. It is estimated that the maximum heat output in form of hot water will be 821 MW. By 1995 the construction of the second nuclear heating plant should be started southeast or east of Prague. The connection of these two nuclear plants to the hot water mains together with other conventional heating plants will secure the heat supply for Prague and its new housing estates and industrial works. (Oy)

  19. Supercritical heat transfer in an annular channel with external heating

    Remizov, O.V.; Gal'chenko, Eh.F.; Shurkin, N.G.; Sergeev, V.V.


    Results are presented of experimental studies of the burnout heat transfer in a 32x28x3000 mm annular channel with a uniform distribution of a heat flow at pressures of 6.9-19.6 MPa and mass rates of 350-1000 kg/m 2 xs. The heating is electrical, external, one-sided. It is shown that dependencies of the heat-transfer coefficient on rated parameters in the annular channel and tube are similar. An empirical equation has been obtained for the calculation of the burnout heat transfer in the annual channels with external heating in the following range: pressure, 6.9 -13.7 MPa; mass rate 350-700 kg/m 2 xs, and steam content ranging from Xsub(crit) to 1

  20. Experience and Prospects of Nuclear Heat Application

    Woite, G.; Konishi, T.; Kupitz, J.


    Relevant technical characteristics of nuclear reactors and heat application facilities for district heating, process heat and seawater desalination are presented and discussed. The necessity of matching the characteristics of reactors and heat applications has consequences for their technical and economic viability. The world-wide operating experience with nuclear district heating, process heating, process heat and seawater desalination is summarised and the prospects for these nuclear heat applications are discussed. (author)

  1. Prinsip Umum Penatalaksanaan Cedera Olahraga Heat Stroke

    Ade Tobing, Saharun Iso


    Exercises that are conducted in an extreme heat environment can cause heat injury. Heatinjury is associated with disturbance to temperature regulation and cardiovascular systems. Heatstroke is the most severe type of heat injury. Heat stroke is associated with high morbidity andmortality numbers, particularly if therapy treatment is delayed. In general, heat stroke is caused bytwo things, namely increase in heat production and decrease in heat loss.Heat stroke signs include: (1) rectal temper...

  2. High temperature thermoacoustic heat pump

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)


    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. A thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestics and offices energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6% and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  3. High Temperature Thermoacoustic Heat Pump

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)


    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. Thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestic and office energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6 % and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  4. Heat pumps in western Switzerland

    Freymond, A.


    The past ten years have seen an extraordinary expansion of heat-pump market figures in the western (French speaking) part of Switzerland. Today, more than 14,000 units are in operation. This corresponds to about 18% of all the machines installed in the whole country, compared to only 10 to 12% ten years ago. This success illustrates the considerable know-how accumulated by the leading trade and industry during these years. It is also due to the promotional program 'Energy 2000' of the Swiss Federal Department of Energy that included the heat pump as a renewable energy source. Already in 1986, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne was equipped with a huge heat pump system comprising two electrically driven heat pumps of 3.5 MW thermal power each. The heat source is water drawn from the lake of Geneva at a depth of 70 meters. An annual coefficient of performance of 4.5 has been obtained since the commissioning of the plant. However, most heat pump installations are located in single-family dwellings. The preferred heat source is geothermal heat, using borehole heat exchangers and an intermediate heat transfer fluid. The average coefficient of performance of these installations has been increased from 2.5 in 1995 to 3.1 in 2002

  5. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)


    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  6. Heat and Mass Transport in Heat Pipe Wick Structures

    Iverson, B. D.; Davis, T. W.; Garimella, S V; North, M. T.; Kang, S.


    Anovel experimental approach is developed for characterizing the performance of heat pipe wick structures. This approach simulates the actual operation of wick structures in a heat pipe. Open, partially submerged, sintered copper wicks of varying pore size are studied under the partially saturated conditions found in normal heat pipe operation. A vertical wick orientation, where the capillary lift is in opposition to gravity, is selected to test the wicks under the most demanding conditions. ...

  7. Intermediate heat exchanger for HTR process heat application

    Crambes, M.


    In the French study on the nuclear gasification of coal, the following options were recommended: Coal hydrogenation, the hydrogen being derived from CH 4 reforming under the effects of HTR heat; the use of an intermediate helium circuit between the nuclear plant and the reforming plant. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the heat exchanger designed to transfer heat from the primary to the intermediate circuit

  8. A Feasibility Study on District Heating and Cooling Business Using Urban Waste Heat

    Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Byoung Youn; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Jae Bong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jae In; Yoon, Jae Ho; Oh, Myung Do; Park, Moon Su; Kang, Han Kee; Yoo, Kyeoung Hoon; Bak, Jong Heon; Kim, Sun Chang; Park, Heong Kee; Bae, Tae Sik [Korea Academy of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Investigation of papers related to waste heat utilization using heat pump. Estimate of various kinds of urban waste heat in korea. Investigation and study on optimal control of district heating and cooling system. Prediction of energy saving and environmental benefits when the urban waste heat will be used as heat source and sink of heat pump for district heating and cooling. Estimation of economic feasibility on district heating and cooling project utilizing urban waste heat. (author). 51 refs., figs

  9. Stokes flow heat transfer in an annular, rotating heat exchanger

    Saatdjian, E.; Rodrigo, A.J.S.; Mota, J.P.B.


    The heat transfer rate into highly viscous, low thermal-conductivity fluids can be enhanced significantly by chaotic advection in three-dimensional flows dominated by viscous forces. The physical effect of chaotic advection is to render the cross-sectional temperature field uniform, thus increasing both the wall temperature gradient and the heat flux into the fluid. A method of analysis for one such flow-the flow in the eccentric, annular, rotating heat exchanger-and a procedure to determine the best heat transfer conditions, namely the optimal values of the eccentricity ratio and time-periodic rotating protocol, are discussed. It is shown that in continuous flows, such as the one under consideration, there exists an optimum frequency of the rotation protocol for which the heat transfer rate is a maximum. - Highlights: → The eccentric, annular, rotating heat exchanger is studied for periodic Stokes flow. → Counter-rotating the inner tube with a periodic velocity enhances the heat transfer. → The heat-transfer enhancement under such conditions is due to chaotic advection. → For a given axial flow rate there is a frequency that maximizes the heat transfer. → There is also an optimum value of the eccentricity ratio.

  10. Viscose liquid heat treatment using plate scraper heat exchanger

    K. A. Rashkin


    Full Text Available The current work analyzes the use of different types of heat exchangers, depending on the technology of production. It is taken the detail analysis of the ways of applicability of various types of heat exchangers, depending on the viscosity of the processed product. It is posed the problem of the analytical determination of the required area of heat exchange with the use of differential equations of heat transfer in a moving liquid media, written in cylindrical coordinates, for symmetrical temperature distribution, without taking in account the energy dissipation.

  11. Compression Pad Cavity Heating Augmentation on Orion Heat Shield

    Hollis, Brian R.


    An experimental study has been conducted to assess the effects of compression pad cavities on the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle heat shield. Testing was conducted in Mach 6 and 10 perfect-gas wind tunnels to obtain heating measurements in and around the compression pads cavities using global phosphor thermography. Data were obtained over a wide range of Reynolds numbers that produced laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow within and downstream of the cavities. The effects of cavity dimensions on boundary-layer transition and heating augmentation levels were studied. Correlations were developed for transition onset and for the average cavity-heating augmentation.

  12. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.


    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  13. Heat Rejection from a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator Panel

    Jaworske, D. A.; Gibson, M. A.; Hervol, D. S.


    A titanium-water heat pipe radiator having an innovative proprietary evaporator configuration was evaluated in a large vacuum chamber equipped with liquid nitrogen cooled cold walls. The radiator was manufactured by Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT), Lancaster, PA, and delivered as part of a Small Business Innovative Research effort. The radiator panel consisted of five titanium-water heat pipes operating as thermosyphons, sandwiched between two polymer matrix composite face sheets. The five variable conductance heat pipes were purposely charged with a small amount of non-condensable gas to control heat flow through the condenser. Heat rejection was evaluated over a wide range of inlet water temperature and flow conditions, and heat rejection was calculated in real-time utilizing a data acquisition system programmed with the Stefan-Boltzmann equation. Thermography through an infra-red transparent window identified heat flow across the panel. Under nominal operation, a maximum heat rejection value of over 2200 Watts was identified. The thermal vacuum evaluation of heat rejection provided critical information on understanding the radiator s performance, and in steady state and transient scenarios provided useful information for validating current thermal models in support of the Fission Power Systems Project.

  14. Cappuccino and Specific Heat Versus Heat of Vaporization

    Hidden, Frits; Boomsma, Jorn; Schins, Anton; van den Berg, Ed


    A cappuccino is prepared by adding about 50 mL frothing, foaming milk to a cup of espresso. Whole milk is best for foaming and the ideal milk temperature when adding it to the espresso is 65 °C. The espresso itself may be warmer than that. During the heating the milk should not burn, as that would spoil the taste. The best way is to heat the milk slowly while stirring to froth the milk and create foam. But modern cappuccino machines in restaurants do not have time for slow heating. Could we heat the milk by just adding hot water?

  15. Optimum heat storage design for heat integrated multipurpose batch plants

    Stamp, J


    Full Text Available procedure is presented tha journal homepage: www All rights reserved. ajozi T, Optimum heat storage grated multipurpose batch plants , South Africa y usage in multipurpose batch plants has been in published literature most present methods, time... � 2pL?u?kins ? 1 h3A3?u?cu?U (36) The internal area for heat loss by convection from the heat transfer medium is given by Constraint (37) and the area for convective heat transfer losses to the environment is given in Constraint (38). A1?u? ? 2...

  16. Winter-regime surface heat loss from heated streams

    Paily, P.P.; Macagno, E.O.; Kennedy, J.F.


    Evaluation of the rate of surface heat exchange between the water and air is a significant factor in any study of the thermal response of heated streams to heat inputs. Existing methods to determine the amount of heat transfer across the water surface are surveyed, and the different formulas developed for determining the heat exchange components are compiled. Heat-transfer models that have been proposed in the literature are reviewed, and a new linearized model for determining the rate of surface heat exchange is proposed. Generalized relations between the major climatological factors and the coefficients of the linearized heat-loss rate are established by multiple-regression analysis. The analysis is limited to cold-period conditions, in the sense that air temperatures below the freezing point of water only are considered in developing the regression equations. A computer program, using FORTRAN, is presented which enables the computation of the coefficients appearing in the linearized heat-loss rate for all combinations of the various climatological factors

  17. Heat transfer in an asymmetrically heated duct, 2

    Satoh, Isao; Kurosaki, Yasuo


    The objective of this article is to study theoretically and experimentally the effects of nonuniform heating on turbulent heat transfer characteristics for flow in a horizontal rectangular duct ; a vertical side wall was uniformly heated, and the other wall were insulated. In our theoretical approach, the zero-equation model for turbulent eddy viscosity was employed. The effects of mesh size of finite difference on the calculation results were examined, and some refined compensation for wall temperatures and wall shear stresses by no use of fine mesh were proposed to reduce the calculation time. The heat transfer coefficients in thermally developing region for a nonuniformly heated duct obtained from numerical solutions are larger than the one for uniformly heated case. The buoyancy effects on heat transfer were evaluated. However, it was seen that the secondary flow due to buoyancy force was hardly expected to enhance heat transfer in a turbulent duct flow. Experiments were performed to measure the velocity and temperature profiles in a turbulent duct flow with a nonuniform heated wall. The experimental results were in good agreement with the theoretical ones. (author)

  18. Magnetic Heat Pump Containing Flow Diverters

    Howard, Frank S.


    Proposed magnetic heat pump contains flow diverters for suppression of undesired flows. If left unchecked, undesired flows mix substantial amounts of partially heated and partially cooled portions of working fluid, effectively causing leakage of heat from heated side to cooled side. By reducing leakage of heat, flow diverters increase energy efficiency of magnetic heat pump, potentially offering efficiency greater than compressor-driven refrigerator.

  19. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.


    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

  20. Biofuelled heating plants

    Gulliksson, Hans; Wennerstaal, L.; Zethraeus, B.; Johansson, Bert-Aake


    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in

  1. Micro thrust and heat generator

    Garcia, E.J.


    A micro thrust and heat generator have a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA). 30 figs.

  2. Magnetic heat pump flow director

    Howard, Frank S. (Inventor)


    A fluid flow director is disclosed. The director comprises a handle body and combed-teeth extending from one side of the body. The body can be formed of a clear plastic such as acrylic. The director can be used with heat exchangers such as a magnetic heat pump and can minimize the undesired mixing of fluid flows. The types of heat exchangers can encompass both heat pumps and refrigerators. The director can adjust the fluid flow of liquid or gas along desired flow directions. A method of applying the flow director within a magnetic heat pump application is also disclosed where the comb-teeth portions of the director are inserted into the fluid flow paths of the heat pump.

  3. Heat extraction from HTGR reactor

    Balajka, J.; Princova, H.


    The analysis of an HTGR reactor energy balance showed that steam reforming of natural gas or methane is the most suitable process of utilizing the high-temperature heat. Basic mathematical relations are derived allowing to perform a general energy balance of the link between steam reforming and reactor heat output. The results of the calculation show that the efficiency of the entire reactor system increases with increasing proportion of heat output for steam reforming as against heat output for the steam generator. This proportion, however, is limited with the output helium temperature from steam reforming. It is thus always necessary to use part of the reactor heat output for the steam cycle involving electric power generation or low-potential heat generation. (Z.M.)

  4. Large-scale solar heating

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems


    Solar heating market is growing in many European countries and annually installed collector area has exceeded one million square meters. There are dozens of collector manufacturers and hundreds of firms making solar heating installations in Europe. One tendency in solar heating is towards larger systems. These can be roof integrated, consisting of some tens or hundreds of square meters of collectors, or they can be larger centralized solar district heating plants consisting of a few thousand square meters of collectors. The increase of size can reduce the specific investments of solar heating systems, because e.g. the costs of some components (controllers, pumps, and pipes), planning and installation can be smaller in larger systems. The solar heat output can also be higher in large systems, because more advanced technique is economically viable

  5. Urban Heat Wave Hazard Assessment

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jedlovec, Gary; Meyer, Paul J.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Crane, Dakota L.


    Heat waves are the largest cause of environment-related deaths globally. On average, over 6,000 people in the United States alone are hospitalized each summer due to excessive heat. Key elements leading to these disasters are elevated humidity and the urban heat island effect, which act together to increase apparent temperature and amplify the effects of a heat wave. Urban demographics and socioeconomic factors also play a role in determining individual risk. Currently, advisories of impending heat waves are often too generalized, with limited or no spatial variability over urban regions. This frequently contributes to a lack of specific response on behalf of the population. A goal of this project is to develop a product that has the potential to provide more specific heat wave guidance invoking greater awareness and action.

  6. High temperature industrial heat pumps

    Berghmans, J. (Louvain Univ., Heverlee (Belgium). Inst. Mechanica)


    The present report intends to describe the state of the art of high temperature industrial heat pumps. A description is given of present systems on the market. In addition the research and development efforts on this subject are described. Compression (open as well as closed cycle) systems, as well as absorption heat pumps (including transformers), are considered. This state of the art description is based upon literature studies performed by a team of researchers from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. The research team also analysed the economics of heat pumps of different types under the present economic conditions. The heat pumps are compared with conventional heating systems. This analysis was performed in order to evaluate the present condition of the heat pump in the European industry.

  7. High heat flux facility GLADIS

    Greuner, H.; Boeswirth, B.; Boscary, J.; McNeely, P.


    The new ion beam facility GLADIS started the operation at IPP Garching. The facility is equipped with two individual 1.1 MW power ion sources for testing actively cooled plasma facing components under high heat fluxes. Each ion source generates heat loads between 3 and 55 MW/m 2 with a beam diameter of 70 mm at the target position. These parameters allow effective testing from probes to large components up to 2 m length. The high heat flux allows the target to be installed inclined to the beam and thus increases the heated surface length up to 200 mm for a heat flux of 15 MW/m 2 in the standard operating regime. Thus the facility has the potential capability for testing of full scale ITER divertor targets. Heat load tests on the WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series divertor targets have been successfully started. These tests will validate the design and manufacturing for the production of 950 elements

  8. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Jícha Miroslav


    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  9. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    Böckh, Peter


    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  10. Domestic heating - the biomass challenge

    Rakos, C.


    This article highlights currently available efficient, low emission technical concepts for the combustion of wood, log-burning boilers, woodchip boilers, and the use of wood pellets. The economics of domestic heating with wood, the higher costs incurred with modern efficient wood burners as compared with fuelwood costs, and the proposed European Commission's campaign to implement more wood heated dwellings are discussed, and the transition from traditional to modern wood heating, and options for stimulating growth in renewable energy are considered

  11. Heating by the Raman instability

    Estabrook, K.G.; Kruer, W.L.


    Computer simulations are presented of the reflection and heating due to stimulated Raman backscatter of intense laser light in large regions of underdense plasma. The heated electron distribution is found to be approximately a Maxwellian of temperature (m/sub e//2)v/sub p/ 2 , where v/sub p/ is the phase velocity of the electron plasma wave. A simple model of the reflection is presented. Raman may cause a pre-heat problem with large laser fusion reactor targets

  12. Large-scale solar heat

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics


    In this project a large domestic solar heating system was built and a solar district heating system was modelled and simulated. Objectives were to improve the performance and reduce costs of a large-scale solar heating system. As a result of the project the benefit/cost ratio can be increased by 40 % through dimensioning and optimising the system at the designing stage. (orig.)

  13. Heat and electricity generating methods

    Buter, J.


    A short synopsis on the actual methods of heating of lodgings and of industrial heat generation is given. Electricity can be generated in steam cycles heated by burning of fossil fuels or by nuclear energy. A valuable contribution to the electricity economy is produced in the hydroelectric power plants. Besides these classical methods, also the different procedures of direct electricity generation are treated: thermoelectric, thermionic, magnetohydrodynamic power sources, solar and fuel cells. (orig.) [de

  14. Apparatus for manufacturing heating gas

    Thompson, R


    Treating bituminous fuel, peat, or shale, is described for the production of a non-condensible heating gas by a three-stage but continuous process comprising: (1) a preliminary distillation operation under external heating, (2) a further distillation operation under the action of direct internal heating, (3) a combustion and gasification operation on the distilled hot fuel under the action of air or steam and air.

  15. Geothermal Direct Heat Application Potential

    Lienau, Paul J


    The geothermal direct-use industry growth trends, potential, needs, and how they can be met, are addressed. Recent investigations about the current status of the industry and the identification of institutional and technical needs provide the basis on which this paper is presented. Initial drilling risk is the major obstacle to direct-use development. The applications presented include space and district heating projects, heat pumps (heating and cooling), industrial processes, resorts and pools, aquaculture and agriculture.

  16. Heat insulating plates

    Allan, J.A.F.


    Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.

  17. Heat transfer physics

    Kaviany, Massoud


    This graduate textbook describes atomic-level kinetics (mechanisms and rates) of thermal energy storage, transport (conduction, convection, and radiation), and transformation (various energy conversions) by principal energy carriers. The approach combines the fundamentals of molecular orbitals-potentials, statistical thermodynamics, computational molecular dynamics, quantum energy states, transport theories, solid-state and fluid-state physics, and quantum optics. The textbook presents a unified theory, over fine-structure/molecular-dynamics/Boltzmann/macroscopic length and time scales, of heat transfer kinetics in terms of transition rates and relaxation times, and its modern applications, including nano- and microscale size effects. Numerous examples, illustrations, and homework problems with answers that enhance learning are included. This new edition includes applications in energy conversion (including chemical bond, nuclear, and solar), expanded examples of size effects, inclusion of junction quantum tr...

  18. Coronal heating via nanoflares

    Poletto, G.; Kopp, R.


    It has been recently proposed that the coronae of single late-type main sequence stars represent the radiative output from a large number of tiny energy release events, the so-called nanoflares. Although this suggestion is attractive and order of magnitude estimates of the physical parameters involved in the process are consistent with available data, nanoflares have not yet been observed and theoretical descriptions of these phenomena are still very crude. In this paper we examine the temporal behavior of a magnetic flux tube subject to the repeated occurrence of energy release events, randomly distributed in time, and we show that an originally empty cool loop may, in fact, reach typical coronal density and temperature values via nanoflare heating. By choosing physical parameters appropriate to solar conditions we also explore the possibilities for observationally detecting nanoflares. Although the Sun is the only star where nanoflares might be observed, present instrumentation appears to be inadequate for this purpose

  19. Solar chemical heat pipe

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.


    The performance of a solar chemical heat pipe was studied using CO 2 reforming of methane as a vehicle for storage and transport of solar energy. The endothermic reforming reaction was carried out in an Inconel reactor, packed with a Rh catalyst. The reactor was suspended in an insulated box receiver which was placed in the focal plane of the Schaeffer Solar Furnace of the Weizman Institute of Science. The exothermic methanation reaction was run in a 6-stage adiabatic reactor filled with the same Rh catalyst. Conversions of over 80% were achieved for both reactions. In the closed loop mode the products from the reformer and from the metanator were compressed into separate storage tanks. The two reactions were run either separately or 'on-line'. The complete process was repeated for over 60 cycles. The overall performance of the closed loop was quite satisfactory and scale-up work is in progress in the Solar Tower. (authors). 35 refs., 2 figs

  20. Heat flux solarimeter

    Sartarelli, A.; Vera, S.; Cyrulies, E. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Univ. Nac. de Gral. Sarmiento (IDH, UNGS), Los Polvorines (Argentina); Echarri, R. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Univ. Nac. de Gral. Sarmiento (IDH, UNGS), Los Polvorines (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Samson, I. [INTEC (Instituto Tecnologico Santo Domingo), Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)


    The solarimeter presented in this work is easy to assemble. It is calibrated and its performance is validated by means of Hottel's method. Finally, the curves obtained with this solarimeter are compared to the ones obtained with a commercial solarimeter. This device is based on the evaluation of the heat flow in a metal rod. In consequence, measurements are not affected by ambient temperature variations. On the other hand, there is a linear relationship between the temperatures measured at the rod ends and the incident radiation, as can be concluded both from the theory of its operation and the calibration lines obtained. The results obtained from the global irradiance measurements in the area of Los Polvorines (Buenos Aires Province), together with a preliminary evaluation of the solarimeter's response time, are presented in this work. (author)

  1. Heat plumes in waters

    Haeuser, J.


    With the aid of a time-dependent, two-dimensional remote-field model - remote-field meaning that region of the water where the effect of the discharge of cooling water on the flow velocity is negligible - three parameters of importance for the water quality in waters are determined. Distributions are calculated for temperature, biochemical need of oxygen and oxygen content. The influence of water depth is accounted for by integration over the vertical axis. Allowance is made for turbulence by taking the time means of the respective variables. The influence of a time-dependent heat flow through the free surface is taken into account as well as a variation in time of the flow velocity, occuring, e.g., in tidal rivers (Elbe). (orig.) [de

  2. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    Luna, J.; Frederking, T.H.K.


    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  3. Combined Heat and Power



    At their 2007 Summit in Heiligendamm, G8 leaders called on countries to 'adopt instruments and measures to significantly increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) in the generation of electricity.' As a result, energy, economic, environmental and utility regulators are looking for tools and information to understand the potential of CHP and to identify appropriate policies for their national circumstances. This report forms the first part of the response. It includes answers to policy makers' questions about the potential economic, energy and environmental benefits of an increased policy commitment to CHP. It also includes for the first time integrated IEA data on global CHP installations, and analyses the benefits of increased CHP investment in the G8+5 countries. A companion report will be produced later in 2008 to document best practice policy approaches that have been used to expand the use of CHP in a variety of countries.

  4. Waste heat recovery system

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.


    A waste heat recovery system includes a Rankine cycle (RC) circuit having a pump, a boiler, an energy converter, and a condenser fluidly coupled via conduits in that order, to provide additional work. The additional work is fed to an input of a gearbox assembly including a capacity for oil by mechanically coupling to the energy converter to a gear assembly. An interface is positioned between the RC circuit and the gearbox assembly to partially restrict movement of oil present in the gear assembly into the RC circuit and partially restrict movement of working fluid present in the RC circuit into the gear assembly. An oil return line is fluidly connected to at least one of the conduits fluidly coupling the RC components to one another and is operable to return to the gear assembly oil that has moved across the interface from the gear assembly to the RC circuit.

  5. Ceramic heat exchanger

    LaHaye, Paul G.; Rahman, Faress H.; Lebeau, Thomas P. E.; Severin, Barbara K.


    A tube containment system. The tube containment system does not significantly reduce heat transfer through the tube wall. The contained tube is internally pressurized, and is formed from a ceramic material having high strength, high thermal conductivity, and good thermal shock resistance. The tube containment system includes at least one ceramic fiber braid material disposed about the internally pressurized tube. The material is disposed about the tube in a predetermined axial spacing arrangement. The ceramic fiber braid is present in an amount sufficient to contain the tube if the tube becomes fractured. The tube containment system can also include a plurality of ceramic ring-shaped structures, in contact with the outer surface of the tube, and positioned between the tube and the ceramic fiber braid material, and/or at least one transducer positioned within tube for reducing the internal volume and, therefore, the energy of any shrapnel resulting from a tube fracture.

  6. Logistics Reduction: Heat Melt Compactor

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction (LR) project Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) technology is a waste management technology. Currently, there are...

  7. CRBRP decay heat removal systems

    Hottel, R.E.; Louison, R.; Boardman, C.E.; Kiley, M.J.


    The Decay Heat Removal Systems for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are designed to adequately remove sensible and decay heat from the reactor following normal shutdown, operational occurrences, and postulated accidents on both a short term and a long term basis. The Decay Heat Removal Systems are composed of the Main Heat Transport System, the Main Condenser and Feedwater System, the Steam Generator Auxiliary Heat Removal System (SGAHRS), and the Direct Heat Removal Service (DHRS). The overall design of the CRBRP Decay Heat Removal Systems and the operation under normal and off-normal conditions is examined. The redundancies of the system design, such as the four decay heat removal paths, the emergency diesel power supplies, and the auxiliary feedwater pumps, and the diversities of the design such as forced circulation/natural circulation and AC Power/DC Power are presented. In addition to overall design and system capabilities, the detailed designs for the Protected Air Cooled Condensers (PACC) and the Air Blast Heat Exchangers (ABHX) are presented

  8. Multifunctional Hot Structure Heat Shield

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is performing preliminary development of a Multifunctional Hot Structure (HOST) heat shield for planetary entry. Results of this development will...

  9. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  10. Users of electric heating rewarded

    Haapakoski, M. [ed.


    When the building industry plunged into the deep recession of the early 1990s this did not paralyse research and development work on electric heating. In fact, IVO and power companies launched the `Electrically Heated Homes in the New Millennium` project in 1992. Its purpose was to verify the efficiency, energy economy and residential comfort of model systems using state-of-the-art electric heating technology. The research project launched six years ago is now nearing completion. Its findings indicate that electricity brings ever more unparalleled benefits when it is used for heating. These benefits involve residential comfort, ease of use and economy

  11. Heating experiments of JT-60


    In JT-60, after the finish of the first stage Joule experiment, the heating facilities were installed, and the heating experiment was started in August, 1986. As to neutral beam injection, the beam injection experiment at the maximum rating 20 MW carried out, and also as to RF, the injection experiment up to 1.4 MW was carried out in both ion cyclotron and low band hybrid waves. The results worthy of special mention in the heating experiment were the success in the current drive up to 1.7 MA at maximum using low band hybrid waves and the improvement of plasma confinement characteristics obtained by the compound heating of NBI and RF. In this paper, the main results of these heating experiments and their significance are explained. The JT-60 is the testing facilities for attaining the critical plasma condition by additionally heating the plasma which is generated by Joule electric discharge with NBI and RF heatings. The experimental operation cycle of the JT-60 consists of the unit cycle of two weeks, and the number of days in operation is nine days. The temperature of heated plasma rose to 70 million deg C in the 20 MW NBI heating. Hereafter, the improvement of confinement time by increasing the stored energy of plasma is attempted. (Kako, I.)

  12. The theory of heat radiation

    Planck, Max


    Nobel laureate's classic exposition of the theory of radiant heat in terms of quantum action. Kirchoff's law, black radiation, Maxwell's radiation pressure, entropy, other topics. 1914 edition. Bibliography.

  13. Urban Heat Wave Hazard Assessment

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Jedlovec, G.; Crane, D. L.; Meyer, P. J.; LaFontaine, F.


    Heat waves are one of the largest causes of environmentally-related deaths globally and are likely to become more numerous as a result of climate change. The intensification of heat waves by the urban heat island effect and elevated humidity, combined with urban demographics, are key elements leading to these disasters. Better warning of the potential hazards may help lower risks associated with heat waves. Moderate resolution thermal data from NASA satellites is used to derive high spatial resolution estimates of apparent temperature (heat index) over urban regions. These data, combined with demographic data, are used to produce a daily heat hazard/risk map for selected cities. MODIS data are used to derive daily composite maximum and minimum land surface temperature (LST) fields to represent the amplitude of the diurnal temperature cycle and identify extreme heat days. Compositing routines are used to generate representative daily maximum and minimum LSTs for the urban environment. The limited effect of relative humidity on the apparent temperature (typically 10-15%) allows for the use of modeled moisture fields to convert LST to apparent temperature without loss of spatial variability. The daily max/min apparent temperature fields are used to identify abnormally extreme heat days relative to climatological values in order to produce a heat wave hazard map. Reference to climatological values normalizes the hazard for a particular region (e.g., the impact of an extreme heat day). A heat wave hazard map has been produced for several case study periods and then computed on a quasi-operational basis during the summer of 2016 for Atlanta, GA, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, and Huntsville, AL. A hazard does not become a risk until someone or something is exposed to that hazard at a level that might do harm. Demographic information is used to assess the urban risk associated with the heat wave hazard. Collectively, the heat wave hazard product can warn people in urban

  14. Process heat recovery: hot prospects


    By updating established technologies to recover heat at higher temperatures and under more corrosive conditions, British industry could recover six to eight million tons of coal equivalent that it currently wastes. Organic liquids in organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines and simpler designs than steam turbines can increase efficiency. They also eliminate the need for vacuum pumps and permit the use of air cooling. Cooperative government-private industry research programs are exploring the use of ORC engines. Other heat-recovery projects include a Scottish paper mill, a metal decorating and printing plant, a falling-cloud heat exchanger, and heat-pipe development. 4 figures, 1 table. (DCK)

  15. Transient heat transfer characteristics of liquid helium

    Tsukamoto, Osami


    The transient heat transfer characteristics of liquid helium are investigated. The critical burnout heat fluxes for pulsive heating are measured, and empirical relations between the critical burnout heat flux and the length of the heat pulse are given. The burnout is detected by observing the super-to-normal transition of the temperature sensor which is a thin lead film prepared on the heated surface by vacuum evaporation. The mechanism of boiling heat transfer for pulsive heating is discussed, and theoretical relations between the critical burnout heat flux and the length of the heat pulse are derived. The empirical data satisfy the theoretical relations fairly well. (auth.)

  16. Numerical study of heat transfer characteristics in BOG heat exchanger

    Yan, Yan; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Miller, Franklin; Ni, Zhonghua; Zhi, Xiaoqin


    In this study, a numerical study of turbulent flow and the heat transfer process in a boil-off liquefied natural gas (BOG) heat exchanger was performed. Finite volume computational fluid dynamics and the k - ω based shear stress transport model were applied to simulate thermal flow of BOG and ethylene glycol in a full-sized 3D tubular heat exchanger. The simulation model has been validated and compared with the engineering specification data from its supplier. In order to investigate thermal characteristics of the heat exchanger, velocity, temperature, heat flux and thermal response were studied under different mass flowrates in the shell-side. The shell-side flow pattern is mostly determined by viscous forces, which lead to a small velocity and low temperature buffer area in the bottom-right corner of the heat exchanger. Changing the shell-side mass flowrate could result in different distributions of the shell-side flow. However, the distribution in the BOG will remain in a relatively stable pattern. Heat flux increases along with the shell-side mass flowrate, but the increase is not linear. The ratio of increased heat flux to the mass flow interval is superior at lower mass flow conditions, and the threshold mass flow for stable working conditions is defined as greater than 0.41 kg/s.

  17. Combined system of solar heating and cooling using heat pump

    Zakhidov, R.A.; Anarbaev, A.I.


    The heating and cooling systems of apartment buildings based on combined solar heat-pump equipment has been considered and the procedure of calculating its parameters has been worked out. A technical-economic analysis has been performed and compared with the boiler-setting version. (author)

  18. German central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage

    Bauer, D.; Marx, R.; Nussbicker-Lux, J.; Ochs, F.; Heidemann, W. [Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 6, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Mueller-Steinhagen, H. [Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 6, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Institute of Technical Thermodynamics (ITT), German Aerospace Centre (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany)


    Central solar heating plants contribute to the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and global warming. The combination of central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage enables high solar fractions of 50% and more. Several pilot central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage (CSHPSS) built in Germany since 1996 have proven the appropriate operation of these systems and confirmed the high solar fractions. Four different types of seasonal thermal energy stores have been developed, tested and monitored under realistic operation conditions: Hot-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Friedrichshafen), gravel-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Steinfurt-Borghorst), borehole thermal energy store (in Neckarsulm) and aquifer thermal energy store (in Rostock). In this paper, measured heat balances of several German CSHPSS are presented. The different types of thermal energy stores and the affiliated central solar heating plants and district heating systems are described. Their operational characteristics are compared using measured data gained from an extensive monitoring program. Thus long-term operational experiences such as the influence of net return temperatures are shown. (author)

  19. What Is Heat? Inquiry regarding the Science of Heat

    Rascoe, Barbara


    This lab activity uses inquiry to help students define heat. It is generic in that it can be used to introduce a plethora of science content across middle and high school grade levels and across science disciplines that include biology, Earth and space science, and physical science. Even though heat is a universal science phenomenon that is…

  20. Heat transfer direction dependence of heat transfer coefficients in annuli

    Prinsloo, Francois P. A.; Dirker, Jaco; Meyer, Josua P.


    In this experimental study the heat transfer phenomena in concentric annuli in tube-in-tube heat exchangers at different annular Reynolds numbers, annular diameter ratios, and inlet fluid temperatures using water were considered. Turbulent flow with Reynolds numbers ranging from 15,000 to 45,000, based on the average bulk fluid temperature was tested at annular diameter ratios of 0.327, 0.386, 0.409 and 0.483 with hydraulic diameters of 17.00, 22.98, 20.20 and 26.18 mm respectively. Both heated and cooled annuli were investigated by conducting tests at a range of inlet temperatures between 10 °C to 30 °C for heating cases, and 30 °C to 50 °C for cooling cases. Of special interest was the direct measurement of local wall temperatures on the heat transfer surface, which is often difficult to obtain and evasive in data-sets. Continuous verification and re-evaluation of temperatures measurements were performed via in-situ calibration. It is shown that inlet fluid temperature and the heat transfer direction play significant roles on the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient. A new adjusted Colburn j-factor definition is presented to describe the heating and cooling cases and is used to correlate the 894 test cases considered in this study.

  1. Heat transfer characteristics of a helical heat exchanger

    San, Jung-Yang; Hsu, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Shih-Hao


    Heat transfer performance of a helical heat exchanger was investigated. The heat exchanger is composed of a helical tube with rectangular cross section and two cover plates. The ε–Ntu relation of the heat exchanger was obtained using a numerical method. In the analysis, the flow in the tube (helical flow) was considered to be mixed and the flow outside the tube (radial flow) was unmixed. In the experiment, the Darcy friction factor (f) and convective heat transfer coefficient (h) of the radial flow were measured. The radial flow was air and the helical flow was water. Four different channel spacing (0.5, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 mm) were individually considered. The Reynolds numbers were in the range 307–2547. Two correlations, one for the Darcy friction factor and the other for the Nusselt number, were proposed. - Highlights: ► We analyze the heat transfer characteristics of a helical heat exchanger and examine the effectiveness–Ntu relation. ► Increasing number of turns of the heat exchanger would slightly increase the effectiveness. ► There is an optimum Ntu value corresponding to a maximum effectiveness. ► We measure the Darcy friction factor and Nusselt number of the radial flow and examine the correlations.

  2. Crawl space assisted heat pump. [using stored ground heat

    Ternes, M. P.


    A variety of experiments and simulations, currently being designed or underway, to determine the feasibility of conditioning the source air of an air to air heat pump using stored ground heat or cool to produce higher seasonal COP's and net energy savings are discussed. The ground would condition ambient air as it is drawn through the crawl space of a house. Tests designed to evaluate the feasibility of the concept, to determine the amount of heat or cool available from the ground, to study the effect of the system on the heating and cooling loads of the house, to study possible mechanisms which could enhance heat flow through the ground, and to determine if diurnal temperature swings are necessary to achieve successful system performance are described.

  3. Internally Heated Screw Pyrolysis Reactor (IHSPR) heat transfer performance study

    Teo, S. H.; Gan, H. L.; Alias, A.; Gan, L. M.


    1.5 billion end-of-life tyres (ELT) were discarded globally each year and pyrolysis is considered the best solution to convert the ELT into valuable high energy-density products. Among all pyrolysis technologies, screw reactor is favourable. However, conventional screw reactor risks plugging issue due to its lacklustre heat transfer performance. An internally heated screw pyrolysis reactor (IHSPR) was developed by local renewable energy industry, which serves as the research subject for heat transfer performance study of this particular paper. Zero-load heating test (ZLHT) was first carried out to obtain the operational parameters of the reactor, followed by the one dimensional steady-state heat transfer analysis carried out using SolidWorks Flow Simulation 2016. Experiments with feed rate manipulations and pyrolysis products analyses were conducted last to conclude the study.

  4. Fiscal 1993 investigational report on heat pump heat storage technology; 1993 nendo heat pump chikunetsu gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho



    This project is for an investigation into the heat pump (HP) use heat storage technology, with the aim of clarifying the present status of HP heat storage technology, the utilization status, and the developmental trend of technology and of contributing to the spread of heat energy effective use using HP heat storage technology and to the promotion of the technical development. Accordingly, the evaluation of the following was made: sensible heat (SH), latent heat (LH), chemical heat storage technology (CH), and heat storage technology (HS). Investigations were made on the sensible heat use heat storage technology of water, brine, stone, soil, etc. in terms of SH; the phase change sensible heat use heat storage technology of ice, hydrate salt, paraffins, etc. in terms of LH; hydration, hydroxide, 2-propanol pyrolysis, adsorption of silica gel, zeolite and water, and heat storage technology using metal hydride, etc. in terms of CH. In terms of HS, the following were studied and evaluated from the study results of the heat storage system in which HP is applied to the sensible heat and latent heat type heat storage technology: contribution to the power load levelling and the reduction of heat source capacity, heat recovery and the use of unused energy, improvement of the system efficiency by combining HP and heat storage technology. 24 refs., 242 figs., 56 tabs.

  5. Heat pump heating with heat pumps driven by combustion engines or turbines

    Hein, K


    The heat pump described is driven by a gas Otto cycle engine, or a gas- or light- or heavy-oil fired Diesel engine. The claim refers to the use of waste heat of the engines by feeding into the input circuit of the heat pump. In addition, a drive by an electrical motor-generator or power production can be selected at times of peak load in the electrical supply network.

  6. Overall conductance and heat transfer area minimization of refrigerators and heat pumps with finite heat reservoirs

    Sarkar, J.; Bhattacharyya, Souvik


    In the present study, the overall conductance and the overall heat transfer area per unit capacity of refrigeration and heat pump systems have been minimized analytically considering both internal and external irreversibilities with variable temperature (finite capacity) heat reservoirs. Hot and cold side refrigerant temperatures, conductance and heat transfer area ratios have been optimized to attain this goal. The results have been verified with the more elaborate numerical optimization results obtained for ammonia based vapour compression refrigeration and heat pump systems working with variable temperature reservoirs. It is observed that the analytical results for optimum refrigerant temperatures, minimum overall conductance and heat transfer area deviate marginally from the numerically optimized results (within 1%), if one assumes a constant heat rejection temperature. The deviation of minimum overall conductance and heat transfer area is more (about 20%), if one considers both the desuperheating and condensation regions separately. However, in the absence of complex and elaborate numerical models, the simple analytical results obtained here can be used as reasonably accurate preliminary guidelines for optimization of refrigeration and heat pump systems

  7. Fundamental Study of a Combined Hyperthermia System with RF Capacitive Heating and Interstitial Heating

    Saitoh, Yoshiaki; Hori, Junichi; 斉藤, 義明; 堀, 潤一


    Interstitial RF heating with an inserted electrode allows the heating position selection in a subject, but the narrow heating region is problematic. This study elucidates development of new interstitial RF heating methods, combining with external RF heating using paired electrodes, heating the subject broadly in advance in order to selectively extend the heating region. Two kinds of heating system were developed by controlling a differential mode and a common mode of RF currents. Heating expe...

  8. HEATING-7, Multidimensional Finite-Difference Heat Conduction Analysis


    1 - Description of program or function: HEATING 7.2i and 7.3 are the most recent developments in a series of heat-transfer codes and obsolete all previous versions distributed by RSICC as SCA-1/HEATING5 and PSR-199/HEATING 6. Note that Unix and PC versions of HEATING7 are available in the CCC-545/SCALE 4.4 package. HEATING can solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one-, two-, or three-dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates. A model may include multiple materials, and the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat of each material may be both time- and temperature-dependent. The thermal conductivity may also be anisotropic. Materials may undergo change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be input or may be extracted from a material properties library. Heat- generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature, and position, and boundary temperatures may be time- and position-dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface-to-environment or surface-to-surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The boundary condition parameters may be time- and/or temperature-dependent. General gray body radiation problems may be modeled with user-defined factors for radiant exchange. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING uses a run-time memory allocation scheme to avoid having to recompile to match memory requirements for each specific problem. HEATING utilizes free-form input. In June 1997 HEATING 7.3 was added to the HEATING 7.2i packages, and the Unix and PC versions of both 7.2i and 7.3 were merged into one package. HEATING 7.3 is being released as a beta-test version; therefore, it does not entirely replace HEATING 7.2i. There is no published documentation for HEATING 7.3; but a listing of input specifications, which reflects changes for 7.3, is included in the PSR-199 documentation. For 3-D

  9. Heat savings in buildings in a 100% renewable heat and power system in Denmark with different shares of district heating

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Balyk, Olexandr


    levels of heat savings, which can be implemented by reducing heat transmission losses through building elements and by installing ventilation systems with heat recovery, in different future Danish heat and power system scenarios. Today almost 50% of heat demand in Denmark is covered by district heating......The paper examines implementation of heat saving measures in buildings in 2050, under the assumption that heat and power supply comes solely from renewable resources in Denmark.Balmorel – a linear optimisation model of heat and power sectors in Denmark is used for investigating economically viable....... A further expansion of district heating network in Denmark is assessed and penetration of heat savings is analysed in this context.If all heat saving measures, included in the model, are implemented, heat demand in Danish buildings in 2050 could be reduced by around 40%. Results show that it is cost...

  10. The Heating Curve Adjustment Method

    Kornaat, W.; Peitsman, H.C.


    In apartment buildings with a collective heating system usually a weather compensator is used for controlling the heat delivery to the various apartments. With this weather compensator the supply water temperature to the apartments is regulated depending on the outside air temperature. With

  11. Heat treatment of nickel alloys

    Smith, D.F. Jr.; Clatworthy, E.F.


    A heat treating process is described that can be used to produce desired combinations of strength, ductility, and fabricability characteristics in heat resistant age-hardenable alloys having precipitation-hardening amounts of niobium, titanium, and/or tantalum in a nickel-containing matrix. (U.S.)

  12. Protect Yourself from Heat Stress


    Heat stress can be a major concern for indoor and outdoor workers, especially during the hot summer months. Learn how to identify the symptoms and protect yourself from heat stress.  Created: 7/19/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 7/19/2016.

  13. Advances in heat transfer enhancement

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar; Sundén, Bengt; Wu, Zan


    This Brief addresses the phenomena of heat transfer enhancement. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to three other monographs including “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  14. Intumescent coatings under fast heating

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere


    Intumescent coatings are widely used to delay or minimise the destructive effects of fire. They are usually tested under conditions that simulate the relatively slow build-up of heat in a normal fire. Here, the effects of damage during a fire causing sudden heating of the coating were studied....

  15. Heat recovery system series arrangements

    Kauffman, Justin P.; Welch, Andrew M.; Dawson, Gregory R.; Minor, Eric N.


    The present disclosure is directed to heat recovery systems that employ two or more organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units disposed in series. According to certain embodiments, each ORC unit includes an evaporator that heats an organic working fluid, a turbine generator set that expands the working fluid to generate electricity, a condenser that cools the working fluid, and a pump that returns the working fluid to the evaporator. The heating fluid is directed through each evaporator to heat the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit, and the cooling fluid is directed through each condenser to cool the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit. The heating fluid and the cooling fluid flow through the ORC units in series in the same or opposite directions.

  16. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dallolio, Stefano


    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years...... a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg−1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices...... based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications....

  17. Seon heats with geothermal energy

    Hawkins, A.C.


    This article describes the combined use of ground water for the supply of drinking water for the municipality of Seon, Switzerland and as the basis for a district heating system. The use of the water, pumped up from a depth of 300 meters and exhibiting a temperature of 19.5 o C, as the heat source for heat pumps is described. The history of the project is discussed and figures are given on the district heating system that provides heat for an indoor swimming pool complex, industry and living accommodation in the village. Operational strategies used to make optimum use of tariff structures are described. The role played by local initiative in this innovative project is emphasised

  18. Heat exchanger design

    Vítek, Tomáš


    Tato bakalářská práce řeší návrh výměníku tepla pro teplovodní kotel se zplyňovací komorou pro předehřev spalovacího vzduchu odpadním teplem spalin. Hodnoty pro výpočet byly experimentálně naměřeny. Práce obsahuje stručný popis trubkového výměníku tepla, stechiometrický vypočet spalování, návrh geometrických rozměrů výměníku, výpočet tlakových ztrát a výpočet výkonu. Její součástí je také výkresová dokumentace navrženého výměníku. This bachelor thesis solves design of a heat exchanger for ...

  19. Experimental study on heat pipe assisted heat exchanger used for industrial waste heat recovery

    Ma, Hongting; Yin, Lihui; Shen, Xiaopeng; Lu, Wenqian; Sun, Yuexia; Zhang, Yufeng; Deng, Na


    Highlights: • A heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE) was used to recycle the waste heat in a slag cooling process of steel industry. • An specially designed on-line cleaning device was construed and used to enhance the heat transfer of HPHE. • The performance characteristics of a HPHE has been assessed by integrating the first and second law of thermodynamics. • The optimum operation conditions was determined by integrating the first and the second law of thermodynamics. - Abstract: Steel industry plays an important role economically in China. A great amount of hot waste liquids and gases are discharged into environment during many steelmaking processes. These waste liquids and gases have crucial energy saving potential, especially for steel slag cooling process. It could be possible to provide energy saving by employing a waste heat recovery system (WHRS). The optimum operation condition was assessed by integrating the first and the second law of thermodynamics for a water–water heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE) for a slag cooling process in steel industry. The performance characteristics of a HPHE has been investigated experimentally by analyzing heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient, effectiveness, exergy efficiency and number of heat transfer units (NTU). A specially designed on-line cleaning device was used to clean the heat exchange tubes and enhance heat transfer. The results indicated that the exergy efficiency increased with the increment of waste water mass flow rate at constant fresh water mass flow rate, while the effectiveness decreased at the same operation condition. As the waste water mass flow rate varied from 0.83 m"3/h to 1.87 m"3/h, the effectiveness and exergy efficiency varied from 0.19 to 0.09 and from 34% to 41%, respectively. In the present work, the optimal flow rates of waste water and fresh water were 1.20 m"3/h and 3.00 m"3/h, respectively. The on-line cleaning device had an obvious effect on the heat transfer, by performing

  20. Loop heat pipes - highly efficient heat-transfer devices for systems of sun heat supply

    Maydanik, Yu. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics


    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are hermetic heat-transfer devices operating on a closed evaporation-condensation cycle with the use of capillary pressure for pumping the working fluid [1]. In accordance with this, they possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but, as distinct from the latter, have a considerably higher heat-transfer capacity, especially when operating in the ''antigravity'' regime, when heat is transferred from above downwards. Besides, LHPs possess a higher functional versatility, are adaptable to different operating conditions and provide great scope for various design embodiments. This is achieved at the expense of both the original design of the device and the properties of the wick - a special capillary structure used for the creation of capillary pressure. The LHP schematic diagram is given in Fig. 1. The device contains an evaporator and a condenser - heat exchanger connected by means of smooth-walled pipe-lines with a relatively small diameter intended for separate motion of vapor and liquid. At present loop heat pipes are most extensively employed in thermoregulation systems of spacecrafts. Miniature LHPs are used for cooling electronics and computers. At the same time there exists a considerable potential of using these devices for the recovery of low-grade (waste) heat from different sources, and also in systems of sun heat supply. In the latter case LHPs may serve as an efficient heat-transfer link between a sun collector and a heat accumulator, which has a low thermal resistance and does not consume any additional energy for pumping the working fluid between them. (orig.)


    Qiu, Jiong; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman MT 59717-3840 (United States)


    Flare emissions in X-ray and EUV wavelengths have previously been modeled as the plasma response to impulsive heating from magnetic reconnection. Some flares exhibit gradually evolving X-ray and EUV light curves, which are believed to result from superposition of an extended sequence of impulsive heating events occurring in different adjacent loops or even unresolved threads within each loop. In this paper, we apply this approach to a long duration two-ribbon flare SOL2011-09-13T22 observed by the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly (AIA). We find that to reconcile with observed signatures of flare emission in multiple EUV wavelengths, each thread should be heated in two phases, an intense impulsive heating followed by a gradual, low-rate heating tail that is attenuated over 20–30 minutes. Each AIA resolved single loop may be composed of several such threads. The two-phase heating scenario is supported by modeling with both a zero-dimensional and a 1D hydrodynamic code. We discuss viable physical mechanisms for the two-phase heating in a post-reconnection thread.

  2. Design heating test section HeaTiNG-02

    Riswan Djambiar; Sagino; Dedy Haryanto; Joko Prasetio Witoko


    HeaTiNG-02 is a component test loop BETA which serves as a heater in conducting experimental heat transfer processes in two-phase flow in narrow slit-shaped plate, considering this phenomenon is one of the conditions postulated accident scenarios a NPP type PWR. To produce heat for the heating component takes the AC power the source voltage can be set from 0 Volts to 220 Volts with no more than a maximum power of 25 KVA. To obtain the thermal conditions on HeaTiNG-02 heating wire dimensions need to be determined and the corresponding voltage so that it will an expected power. Determination of the dimensions of the heater wire through calculations using electricity formulations. Retrieved draft heater test BETA (UUB) HeaTiNG-02 use material super kanthal (FeCuAl) in diameter (Ø) = 2 mm and wire length 3770 mm. Voltage regulators with a maximum power of 25 kVA with a minimum voltage of 0 volts and a maximum of 220 volts. Heater is used as the base to form refractory stone trench. (author)

  3. Evaluation of heat transfer enhancement in air-heating collectors

    Mattox, D. L.


    The present research effort was initiated for the purpose of increasing the thermal efficiency of air heating solar collectors through identification and development of optimum design and operation criteria for solar absorber-to-air heat exchangers. Initially this effort took the form of a solar collector systems analysis to evaluate the impact of various techniques for enhancing the heat transfer between the absorber and air stream on overall thermal performance of the entire solar collector. This systems analysis resulted in the selection of solar collector designs providing ducted cooling air on the absorber shaded side as a base line. A transient heat transfer analysis of a complete solar air heating collector was used to demonstrate that an optimum absorber-to-air heat exchanger design could be provided with several interrupted fin configurations. Additional analyses were performed to establish that the maximum solar collector thermal performance to required pumping power was realized for a Reynolds number range of 1000 to 2000. This Reynolds number range was used to establish a theoretical design limit curve for maximum thermal performance versus required pumping power for all interrupted fin designs as published in the open literature. Heat and momentum transfer empirical relationships were defined for scaling the state-of-the-art high conductance fin designs identified from a compact configuration to the less compact designs needed for solar collectors.

  4. Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.


    Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.

  5. Heat transfer between adsorbate and laser-heated hot electrons

    Ueba, H; Persson, B N J


    Strong short laser pulses can give rise to a strong increase in the electronic temperature at metal surfaces. Energy transfer from the hot electrons to adsorbed molecules may result in adsorbate reactions, e.g. desorption or diffusion. We point out the limitations of an often used equation to describe the heat transfer process in terms of a friction coupling. We propose a simple theory for the energy transfer between the adsorbate and hot electrons using a newly introduced heat transfer coefficient, which depends on the adsorbate temperature. We calculate the transient adsorbate temperature and the reaction yield for a Morse potential as a function of the laser fluency. The results are compared to those obtained using a conventional heat transfer equation with temperature-independent friction. It is found that our equation of energy (heat) transfer gives a significantly lower adsorbate peak temperature, which results in a large modification of the reaction yield. We also consider the heat transfer between different vibrational modes excited by hot electrons. This mode coupling provides indirect heating of the vibrational temperature in addition to the direct heating by hot electrons. The formula of heat transfer through linear mode-mode coupling of two harmonic oscillators is applied to the recent time-resolved study of carbon monoxide and atomic oxygen hopping on an ultrafast laser-heated Pt(111) surface. It is found that the maximum temperature of the frustrated translation mode can reach high temperatures for hopping, even when direct friction coupling to the hot electrons is not strong enough

  6. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso


    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described. PMID:25386758

  7. A Heat Dynamic Model for Intelligent Heating of Buildings

    Thavlov, Anders; Bindner, Henrik W.


    This article presents a heat dynamic model for prediction of the indoor temperature in an office building. The model has been used in several flexible load applications, where the indoor temperature is allowed to vary around a given reference to provide power system services by shifting the heating...... of the building in time. This way the thermal mass of the building can be used to absorb energy from renewable energy source when available and postpone heating in periods with lack of renewable energy generation. The model is used in a model predictive controller to ensure the residential comfort over a given...

  8. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    Giovanni Maria Carlomagno


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.

  9. Waste heat recovering device for reactors

    Sonoda, Masanobu; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Mizuno, Hiroyuki; Sekine, Yasuhiro.


    Purpose: To enable utilization of auxiliary-equipment-cooling water from a non-regenerative heat exchanger as a heat source, as well as prevent radioactive contamination. Constitution: A water warming device for recovering the heat of auxiliary equipment cooling water from a non-regenerative heat exchanger is disposed at the succeeding stage of the heat exchanger. Heat exchange is performed in the water warming device between the auxiliary equipment cooling water and a heat source water set to a higher pressure and recycled through the water warming device. The heat recovered from the auxiliary equipment cooling water is utilized in the heat source water for operating relevant equipments. (Aizawa, K.)

  10. Resistive Heating in Saturn's Thermosphere

    Vriesema, Jess W.; Koskinen, Tommi; Yelle, Roger V.


    The thermospheres of the jovian planets are several times hotter than solar heating alone can account for. On Saturn, resistive heating appears sufficient to explain these temperatures in auroral regions, but the particular mechanism(s) responsible for heating the lower latitudes remains unclear. Smith et al. (2005) suggested that electrodynamics of the equatorial region—particularly resistive heating caused by strong electrojet currents—might explain the observed temperatures at low latitudes. Müller-Wodarg et al. (2006) found that their circulation model could reproduce low-latitude temperatures only when they included resistive heating at the poles and applied a uniform, generic heating source globally. Smith et al. (2007) concluded that heating at the poles leads to meridional circulation that cools low latitudes and argued that in-situ heating is required to explain the temperatures at low latitudes.Resistive heating at low latitudes, arising from enhanced current generation driven by thermospheric winds, is a potentially important in-situ heating mechanism. Ion drag caused by low-latitude electrodynamics can modify global circulation and meridional transport of energy. We present an axisymmetric, steady-state formulation of wind-driven electrodynamics to investigate these possibilities throughout Saturn's thermosphere. At present, we assume a dipole magnetic field and neglect any contributions from the magnetosphere. We use ion mixing ratios from the model of Kim et al. (2014) and the observed temperature-pressure profile from Koskinen et al. (2015) to calculate the generalized conductivity tensor as described by Koskinen et al. (2014). Our model solves the coupled equations for charge continuity and Ohm's law with tensor conductivity while enforcing zero current across the boundaries. The resulting partial differential equation is solved for the current density throughout the domain and used to calculate the net resistive heating rate. We demonstrate

  11. Magnetocaloric heat pump device, a heating or cooling system and a magnetocaloric heat pump assembly


    The invention provides a magnetocaloric heat pump device, comprising a magnetocaloric bed; a magnetic field source, the magnetocaloric bed and the magnetic field source being arranged to move relative to each other so as to generate a magnetocaloric refrigeration cycle within the heat pump, wherein...

  12. Disaster related heat illness

    Miyake, Yasufumi


    Explained and discussed are the outline of heat illness (HI), its raised risk and measures taken at the disaster of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (FNPPA; Mar. 2011). High temperature and humid environment induce HI through the fervescence and dehydration resulting in the intestinal ischemia/hypoxia and organ failure. Epidemiologic data of the heatstroke in Japan suggest its seemingly parallel incidence to seasonal hotness of the summer. HI is classified in either classical (non-exertional) or exertional heatstroke, both with severity of I (slight), II (slight symptom of the central nervous system (CNS); necessary for consultation) and III (most serious; having dysfunction of CNS, organ or coagulation). Therapy depends on the severity: I for the first aid on site, II necessary for carrying to hospital and III for hospitalization. Protection is possible by personal, neighbors' and managers' carefulness, and supply of sufficient water and minerals. Risk of HI was suddenly raised at taking measures to meet with the FNPPA. Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) promptly organized JAAM-FNPPA Working Group to treat the emergent multiple incidents including the radiation exposure and HI as well. Exertional HI was mainly in labors wearing rather sealed closes to protect radiation to work for steps of the Accident, and which was similar to evacuees temporarily entering the evacuation area for visit to their own vacant houses. In the summer, classical HI was also a problem mainly in elderly living in the evacuation dwellings. Document of HI incidents and patients at FNPPA should be recorded for the reference to possible disaster in future. (T.T.)

  13. Polar heating in Saturn's thermosphere

    C. G. A. Smith


    Full Text Available A 3-D numerical global circulation model of the Kronian thermosphere has been used to investigate the influence of polar heating. The distributions of temperature and winds resulting from a general heat source in the polar regions are described. We show that both the total energy input and its vertical distribution are important to the resulting thermal structure. We find that the form of the topside heating profile is particularly important in determining exospheric temperatures. We compare our results to exospheric temperatures from Voyager occultation measurements (Smith et al., 1983; Festou and Atreya, 1982 and auroral H3+ temperatures from ground-based spectroscopic observations (e.g. Miller et al., 2000. We find that a polar heat source is consistent with both the Smith et al. determination of T∞~400 K at ~30° N and auroral temperatures. The required heat source is also consistent with recent estimates of the Joule heating rate at Saturn (Cowley et al., 2004. However, our results show that a polar heat source can probably not explain the Festou and Atreya determination of T∞~800 K at ~4° N and the auroral temperatures simultaneously. Keywords. Ionosphere (Planetary ionosphere – Magnetospherica physics (Planetary magnetospheres – Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (Thermospheric dynamics

  14. High intensity heat pulse problem

    Yalamanchili, R.


    The use of finite-difference methods for the solution of partial differential equations is common in both design and research and development because of the advance of computers. The numerical methods for the unsteady heat diffusion equation received most attention not only because of heat transfer problems but also happened to be the basis for any study of parabolic partial differential equations. It is common to test the heat equation first even the methods developed for complex nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics or convective heat transfer. It is concluded that the finite-element method is conservative in both stability and monoscillation characteristics than the finite-difference method but not as conservative as the method of weighted-residuals. Since the finite-element is unique because of Gurtin's variational principle and numerous finite-differences can be constructed, it is found that some finite-difference schemes are better than the finite-element scheme in accuracy also. Therefore, further attention is focused here on finite-difference schemes only. Various physical problems are considered in the field of heat transfer. These include: numerous problems in steady and unsteady heat conduction; heat pulse problems, such as, plasma torch; problems arising from machining operations, such as, abrasive cut-off and surface grinding. (Auth.)

  15. Distributed heat generation in a district heating system

    Lennermo, Gunnar; Lauenberg, Patrick


    District heating (OH) systems need to be improved  regarding integration  of decentralised  heat generation. Micro production, prosumers and smart grids are terms becoming more and more common  in  connection  to  the  power  grid.  Concerning district  heating,  the  development  is slower, although improving. Today there are a number of such decentralised units for heat generation,  mainly  solar,  that have been partly evaluated.  Previous  studies  have shown  that there is a need to deve...

  16. A susceptor heating structure in MOVPE reactor by induction heating

    Li, Zhiming; Li, Hailing; Zhang, Jincheng; Li, Jinping; Jiang, Haiying; Fu, Xiaoqian; Han, Yanbin; Xia, Yingjie; Huang, Yimei; Yin, Jianqin; Zhang, Lejuan; Hu, Shigang


    A novel susceptor with a revolutionary V-shaped slot of solid of revolution form is proposed in the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor by induction heating. This slot changes the heat transfer rate as the generated heat is transferred from the high temperature region of the susceptor to the substrate, which improves the uniformity of the substrate temperature distribution. By using finite element method (FEM), the susceptor with this structure for heating the substrate of six inches in diameter is optimized. It is observed that this optimized susceptor with the V-shaped slot makes the uniformity of the substrate temperature distribution improve more than 80%, which can be beneficial to the film growth. - Highlights: •A novel susceptor with V-shaped slot in MOVPE reactor is proposed. •Temperature in the substrate is optimized. •Great temperature uniformity of the substrate is obtained

  17. Heat transfer enhancement in heat exchangers by longitudinal vortex generators

    Guntermann, T.; Fiebig, M.; Mitra, N.K.


    In this paper heat transfer enhancement and flow losses are computed for the interaction of a laminar channel flow with a pair of counterrotating longitudinal vortices generated by a pair of delta-winglets punched out of the channel wall. The geometry simulates an element of a fin-plate or fin-tube heat exchanger. The structure of the vortex flow and temperature distribution, the local heat transfer coefficients and the local flow losses are discussed for a sample case. For a Reynolds number of Re d = 1000 and a vortex generator angle of attack of β = 25 degrees heat transfer is enhanced locally by more than 300% and in the mean by 50%. These values increase further with Re and β

  18. Diffusion of heat from a finite, rectangular, plane heat source

    Ferreri, J.C.; Caballero, C.H.


    Non-dimensional results for the temperature field originating in a rectangular, finite, plane heat source with infinitesimal thickness are introduced. The source decays in time, zero decay being a particular case. Results are useful for obtaining an aproximation of the maximum temperature of a system holding an internal heat source. The range selected for the parameters is specially useful in the case of a nuclear waste repository. The application to the case of mass diffussion arises from analogy. (Author) [es

  19. Heat stroke in Hajj ceremonies

    Sadr Sh


    Full Text Available Three hundred and seventy seven patients with different degrees of heat stroke were treated by the haji medical team of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1371 (1992. Studies were carried out on sex of the patients, time and intensity of occurance and the vital signs after a medical examination. The most important method of treatment employed for intense heat stroke was iced bath. This procedure leads to 64.5% of patients being treated in te specific heat stroke unit and 35% were sent to a general hospital ward for furthur treatment. Morbidity and mortality were seen in less than 0.5% of the patients.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)


    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  1. Injection heating scenarios for TNS

    Rome, J.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Holmes, J.A.


    Neutral beam injection heating is a prime contender for heating TNS. However, injection into a full bore high density plasma during start-up will not give adequate beam penetration even with deuteron energies up to 300 keV and Z/sub eff/ < 1.5. But low density start-up may be feasible with deuteron energies of approximately 150 keV if advantage is taken of the α-heating and flux surface shifts which occur when β is increased

  2. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    Whitaker, Stephen


    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  3. Heat removing under hypersonic conditions

    Semenov Mikhail E.


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the heat transfer properties of the axially symmetric body with parabolic shape at hypersonic speeds (with a Mach number M > 5. We use the numerical methods based on the implicit difference scheme (Fedorenko method with direct method based on LU-decomposition and iterative method based on the Gauss-Seigel method. Our numerical results show that the heat removing process should be performed in accordance with the nonlinear law of heat distribution over the surface taking into account the hypersonic conditions of motion.

  4. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    Ku, Jentung


    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.

  5. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John


    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  6. The Thermos process heat reactor

    Lerouge, Bernard


    The THERMOS process heat reactor was born from the following idea: the hot water energy vector is widely used for heating purposes in cities, so why not save on traditional fossil fuels by simply substituting a nuclear boiler of comparable power for the classical boiler installed in the same place. The French Atomic Energy Commission has techniques for heating in the big French cities which provide better guarantees for national independence and for the environment. This THERMOS technique would result in a saving of 40,000 to 80,000 tons of oil per year [fr

  7. Heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids

    Bianco, Vincenzo; Nardini, Sergio; Vafai, Kambiz


    Properties of NanofluidSamuel Paolucci and Gianluca PolitiExact Solutions and Their Implications in Anomalous Heat TransferWenhao Li, Chen Yang and Akira NakayamaMechanisms and Models of Thermal Conductivity in NanofluidsSeung-Hyun Lee and Seok Pil JangExperimental Methods for the Characterization of Thermophysical Properties of NanofluidsSergio Bobbo and Laura FedeleNanofluid Forced ConvectionGilles RoyExperimental Study of Convective Heat Transfer in NanofluidsEhsan B. Haghighi, Adi T. Utomo, Andrzej W. Pacek and Björn E. PalmPerformance of Heat Exchangers Using NanofluidsBengt Sundén and Za

  8. Heat exchanger with oscillating flow

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)


    Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.


    M. M. Akhmedova


    Full Text Available Methods of computing and mathematical modeling are all widely used in the study of various heat exchange processes that provide the ability to study the dynamics of the processes, as well as to conduct a reasonable search for the optimal technological parameters of heat treatment.This work is devoted to the identification of correlations among the factors that have the greatest effect on the rate of heating of the product at hightemperature heat sterilization in a stream of hot air, which are chosen as the temperature difference (between the most and least warming up points and speed cans during heat sterilization.As a result of the experimental data warming of the central and peripheral layers compote of apples in a 3 liter pot at high-temperature heat treatment in a stream of hot air obtained by the regression equation in the form of a seconddegree polynomial, taking into account the effects of pair interaction of these parameters. 

  10. Heat resistant wire and cable and heat shrinkable tubes

    Ueno, Keiji [Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd. (Japan)


    Radiation processes have been used in industrial fields (e.g. wire and cable, heat shrinkable tubes) for about 30 years. In Japan, 60 electron beam accelerators were used in R and D, 54 in wire and cable, 24 in tire rubber, 16 in paint curing, 14 in PE foam and 9 accelerators were used in heat shrinkable tubes in 1993. Many properties (e.g. solder resistance, thermal deformation, and solven resistance) of wire and cable are improved by using radiation processes, and many kinds of radiation crosslinked wire and cable are used in the consumer market (TV sets, VTR`s, audio disc players, etc.), automobiles (automobile wire harnesses, fusible link wires, sensor cables etc.), and the industrial market (computer cables, cables for keyboards, coaxial cables, etc.). Another important industrial application of E{beta} radiation process is heat shrinkable tubes. Heat shinkable tubes, heated by a hot gun, shrink 1/2 {approx} 1/3 of their inner diameters. Heat shrinkable tubes are used for covers of distributing line terminals, joint covers of telecommunication lines, protection of fuel pipe lines and so on. In this seminar, actual applications and characteristic properties of radiation crosslinked materials are presented.

  11. Hybrid district heating system with heat supply from nuclear source

    Havelka, Z.; Petrovsky, I.


    Several designs are described of heat supply from large remote power sources (e.g., WWER-1000 nuclear power plants with a 1000 MW turbine) to localities where mainly steam distribution networks have been built but only some or none networks for hot water distribution. The benefits of the designs stem from the fact that they do not require the conversion of the local steam distribution system to a hot water system. They are based on heat supply from the nuclear power plant to the consumer area in hot water of a temperature of 150 degC to 200 degC. Part of the hot water heat will be used for the production of low-pressure steam which will be compressed using heat pumps (steam compressors) to achieve the desired steam distribution network specifications. Water of lower temperature can be used in the hot water network. The hot water feeder forms an automatic pressure safety barrier in heat supply of heating or technological steam from a nuclear installation. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 9 refs

  12. Heat flow and heat generation in greenstone belts

    Drury, M. J.


    Heat flow has been measured in Precambrian shields in both greenstone belts and crystalline terrains. Values are generally low, reflecting the great age and tectonic stability of the shields; they range typically between 30 and 50 mW/sq m, although extreme values of 18 and 79 mW/sq m have been reported. For large areas of the Earth's surface that are assumed to have been subjected to a common thermotectonic event, plots of heat flow against heat generation appear to be linear, although there may be considerable scatter in the data. The relationship is expressed as: Q = Q sub o + D A sub o in which Q is the observed heat flow, A sub o is the measured heat generation at the surface, Q sub o is the reduced heat flow from the lower crust and mantle, and D, which has the dimension of length, represents a scale depth for the distribution of radiogenic elements. Most authors have not used data from greenstone belts in attempting to define the relationship within shields, considering them unrepresentative and preferring to use data from relatively homogeneous crystalline rocks. A discussion follows.

  13. Heat resistant wire and cable and heat shrinkable tubes

    Keiji Ueno


    Radiation processes have been used in industrial fields (e.g. wire and cable, heat shrinkable tubes) for about 30 years. In Japan, 60 electron beam accelerators were used in R and D, 54 in wire and cable, 24 in tire rubber, 16 in paint curing, 14 in PE foam and 9 accelerators were used in heat shrinkable tubes in 1993. Many properties (e.g. solder resistance, thermal deformation, and solven resistance) of wire and cable are improved by using radiation processes, and many kinds of radiation crosslinked wire and cable are used in the consumer market (TV sets, VTR's, audio disc players, etc.), automobiles (automobile wire harnesses, fusible link wires, sensor cables etc.), and the industrial market (computer cables, cables for keyboards, coaxial cables, etc.). Another important industrial application of Eβ radiation process is heat shrinkable tubes. Heat shinkable tubes, heated by a hot gun, shrink 1/2 ∼ 1/3 of their inner diameters. Heat shrinkable tubes are used for covers of distributing line terminals, joint covers of telecommunication lines, protection of fuel pipe lines and so on. In this seminar, actual applications and characteristic properties of radiation crosslinked materials are presented

  14. Recovering heat from waste air from stables


    A milk cow gives off 35.7 kW h/d via its body, excreta and urine. 68.4% of this is body heat. Part of this waste heat escapes with the waste air from the cowsheds. The heat can be recovered from the waste air by an air/air heat exchanger. The air is collected and taken to a heat exchanger. In the heat exchanger, fresh air is heated by the waste air, and is distributed over the cowshed by a system of ducts. The heated waste air escapes through a central chimney at the end of the heat exchanger. It is sensible to fit the heat exchanger above the cowshed roof, if there is sufficient space available and the chimney should run upwards from the cowshed. A double heat exchanger makes it possible to allocate each half of the cowshed to half of the heat exchanger.

  15. Heat exchanger for solar water heaters

    Cash, M.; Krupnick, A. C.


    Proposed efficient double-walled heat exchanger prevents contamination of domestic water supply lines and indicates leakage automatically in solar as well as nonsolar heat sources using water as heat transfer medium.

  16. Nitrogen heat pipe for cryocooler thermal shunt

    Prenger F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.


    A nitrogen heat pipe was designed, built and tested for the purpose of providing a thermal shunt between the two stages of a Gifford-McMahan (GM) cryocooler during cooldown. The nitrogen heat pipe has an operating temperature range between 63 and 123 K. While the heat pipe is in this temperature range during the system cooldown, it acts as a thermal shunt between the first and second stage of the cryocooler. The heat pipe increases the heat transfer to the first stage of the cryocooler, thereby reducing the cooldown time of the system. When the heat pipe temperature drops below the triple point, the nitrogen working fluid freezes, effectively stopping the heat pipe operation. A small heat leak between cryocooler stages remains because of axial conduction along the heat pipe wall. As long as the heat pipe remains below 63 K, the heat pipe remains inactive. Heat pipe performance limits were measured and the optimum fluid charge was determined

  17. Effect of heated length on the Critical Heat Flux of subcooled flow boiling. 2. Effective heated length under axially nonuniform heating condition

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Yoshida, Takuya; Nariai, Hideki; Inasaka, Fujio


    Effect of heated length on the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of subcooled flow boiling with water was experimentally investigated by using direct current heated tube made of stainless steel a part of whose wall thickness was axially cut for realizing nonuniform heat flux condition. The higher enhancement of the CHF was derived for shorter tube length. The effective heated length was determined for the tube under axially nonuniform heat flux condition. When the lower heat flux part below the Net Vapor Generation (NVG) heat flux exists at the middle of tube length, then the effective heated length becomes the tube length downstream the lower heat flux parts. However, when the lower heat flux part is above the NVG, then the effective heated length is full tube length. (author)

  18. Use of waste heat from a dairy for heating of a community house

    Rehn, C


    In a dairy, a lot of cooling capacity is needed. This article describes how this waste heat can be used for heating a community house including a sport establishment and producing hot water for that house. Four different technical solutions are discussed; (1) floor heat, (2) heat transfer connected to the ventilation, (3) regenerative heat exchanger, and (4) use of heat pumps.

  19. District heating in sequential energy supply

    Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven


    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  20. Heat pumps at the maltings


    Heat pumps have halved the energy costs of producing finished malt at two of the country's maltsters. The fuel-fired kilning processes described are now performed by heat pumps with considerable energy and production benefits at the maltings of J.P. Simpson and Co. (Alnwick) Ltd, in Tivetshall St Margaret, Norfolk, and of Munton and Fison Plc of Stowmarket, Suffolk. The heat pump system installed at the Station Malting of J.P. Simpson was devised by the Electricity Council Research Centre at Capenhurst near Chester. Energy cost benefits of Pound 6,000 a month are being realised at Simpsons, but there is the added benefit that the system has been designed to provide conditioned air to the germination cycle to ensure that the correct temperature is maintained throughout the year. At the Cedars factory of Munton and Fison, heat pumps were used on a trial basis for plant micropropagation and for a fish farming unit.

  1. Hot Hydrogen Heat Source Development

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop a  hot hydrogen heat source that would produce  a high temperature hydrogen flow which would be comparable to that produced...

  2. Nonlocal heat transfer in nanostructures

    Kanavin, A.P.; Uryupin, S.A.


    Kinetics of electrons in a degenerate conductor heated up by absorption of a high-frequency field localized in a region of about hundred nanometers has been studied. A new law for nonlocal electron thermal flux has been predicted

  3. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  4. Heat production in granitic rocks

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Jakobsen, Kiki


    Granitic rocks play special role in the dynamics and evolution of the Earth and its thermal regime. First, their compositional variability, reflected in the distribution of concentrations of radiogenic elements, provides constraints on global differentiation processes and large scale planetary...... evolution, where emplacement of granites is considered a particularly important process for the formation of continental crust. Second, heat production by radioactive decay is among the main heat sources in the Earth. Therefore knowledge of heat production in granitic rocks is pivotal for thermal modelling...... of the continental lithosphere, given that most radiogenic elements are concentrated in granitic rocks of the upper continental crust whereas heat production in rocks of the lower crust and lithospheric mantle is negligible. We present and analyze a new global database GRANITE2017 (with about 500 entries...

  5. Geothermal heat can cool, too

    Wellstein, J.


    This article takes a look at how geothermal energy can not only be used to supply heating energy, but also be used to provide cooling too. The article reports on a conference on heating and cooling with geothermal energy that was held in Duebendorf, Switzerland, in March 2008. The influence of climate change on needs for heating and cooling and the need for additional knowledge and data on deeper rock layers is noted. The seasonal use of geothermal systems to provide heating in winter and cooling in summer is discussed. The planning of geothermal probe fields and their simulation is addressed. As an example, the geothermal installations under the recently renewed and extended 'Dolder Grand' luxury hotel in Zurich are quoted. The new SIA 384/6 norm on geothermal probes issued by the Swiss Association of Architects SIA is briefly reviewed.

  6. Heat Stress in Older Adults

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  7. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    Johnson, L. E.


    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  8. Descartes, Cardiac Heat, and Alchemy.

    Heitsch, Dorothea


    René Descartes (1596-1650) insisted on a heat and light theory to explain cardiac movement, and used concepts such as distillation of the vital spirits, fermentation in the digestive process, and fermentation in the circulation of the blood. I argue that his theory of the body as a heat-exchange system was based on alchemical and natural philosophical notions of fire and light expounded by precursors and contemporaries who included Jean D'Espagnet, Jean Fernel, Jan Baptist van Helmont, and Andreas Libavius. Descartes endeavoured to mechanise their approaches, creating a theory in which fire and heat, a legacy from thermal explanations of physiology, were transformed into alchemical fire, and then into mechanistic or physicalist heat.

  9. Toward a Heat Recovery Chimney

    Min Pan


    Full Text Available The worldwide population increase and subsequent surge in energy demand leads electricity producers to increase supply in an attempt to generate larger profit margins. However, with Global Climate Change becoming a greater focus in engineering, it is critical for energy to be converted in as environmentally benign a way as possible. There are different sustainable methods to meet the energy demand. However, the focus of this research is in the area of Waste Heat Recovery. The waste heat stored in the exiting condenser cooling water is delivered to the air flow through a water-air cross flow heat exchanger. A converging thermal chimney structure is then applied to increase the velocity of the airflow. The accelerated air can be used to turn on the turbine-generator installed on the top the thermal chimney so that electricity can be generated. This system is effective in generating electricity from otherwise wasted heat.

  10. Microplate Heat Exchanger, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling...

  11. Heat disposal in water environment

    Harleman, D.R.F.


    The need for continuing development of techniques for predicting temperature distributions due to waste heat discharges into lakes, rivers, estuaries, and the oceans is presented. Diffusion of buoyant jets is examined, including heated surface jets and multiple jets issuing from a submerged multiport diffuser. In the near-field analysis of surface jets the important problems are related to the lateral spreading caused by buoyancy. Comparison of theoretical predictions with laboratory and field observations is given. The mechanics of multiport diffusers for heated discharges in shallow receiving waters are explained in contrast to sewage diffusers. The important problem is the degree to which stratification can be maintained in order to minimize local reintrainment and reduction of dilution capacity. Criteria for stable and unstable flow regimes are provided. A mathematical model for temperature distribution, with or without waste heat addition, in unsteady flows under time-varying meteorological conditions is given. (auth)

  12. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system.

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin


    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  13. Renewables for Heating and Cooling



    This timely report examines the technologies, current markets and relative costs for heat and cold production using biomass, geothermal and solar-assisted systems. It evaluates a range of national case studies and relevant policies. Should the successful and more cost-effective policies be implemented by other countries, then the relatively untapped economic potential of renewable energy heating and cooling systems could be better realised, resulting in potential doubling of the present market within the next few years.

  14. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.


    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  15. Basic heat and mass transfer

    Mills, A F


    The Second Edition offers complete coverage of heat transfer with broad up-to-date coverage that includes an emphasis on engineering relevance and on problem solving. Integrates software to assist the reader in efficiently calculations. Carefully orders material to make book more reader-friendly and accessible. Offers an extensive introduction to heat exchange design to enhance the engineering and design content of course to satisfy ABET requirements. For professionals in engineering fields.

  16. Heat transfer bibliography: russian works

    Luikov, A V


    This bibliography of recent Russian publications in heat transfer is divided into the following categories: (1) books; (2) general; (3) experimental methods; (4) analytical calculation methods; (5) thermodynamics; (6) transfer processes involving phase conversions; ((7) transfer processes involving chemical conversions; (8) transfer processes involving very high velocities; (9) drying processes; (10) thermal properties of various materials, heat transfer agents and their determination methods; (11) high temperature physics and magneto- hydrodynamics; and (12) transfer processes in technological apparatuses. (357 refs.)

  17. Controlled fusion and plasma heating


    The contributions presented in the 17th European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Heating were focused on Tore Supra investigations. The following subjects were presented: ohmic discharges, lower hybrid experiments, runaway electrons, Thomson scattering, plasma density measurements, magnetic fluctuations, polarization scattering, plasma currents, plasma fluctuation measurements, evaporation of hydrogen pellets in presence of fast electrons, ripple induced stochastic diffusion of trapped particles, tearing mode stabilization, edge effects on turbulence behavior, electron cyclotron heating, micro-tearing modes, divertors, limiters

  18. External corners as heat bridges

    Berber, J.


    The maximum additional heat loss in vertical external corners depending on wall thickness is determined. In order to amire at a low k-value, a much smaller wall thickness is required in externally insulated walls than in monolithic constructions; the greater loss of heat bridge with external insulation stands in contrast to a higher loss in thick, monolithic walls. In relation to total losses, the additional losses through external corners are practically negligible.

  19. The "Stube" and its Heating

    Atzbach, Rainer


    This paper discusses the concept of smoke-free heated living rooms between the Alps and the Norh Sea with a special focus on the tile stove. In the circum-Alpine zone, a new heating system was invented between the 8th and 11th century. It consisted of a clay cupola oven with inserted ceramic vess...... in the area between the Upper German speaking region and Southern Scandinavia until the 16th century...

  20. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Johnson, Tim [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.