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Sample records for heat-resistant alloy hastelloy

  1. Corrosion resistance of alloys of Hastelloy in chloroaluminate melts

    OpenAIRE

    Karpov, V. V.; Bazhenov, A. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion of Hastelloy S, Hastelloy X, Haynes 230, Hastelloy N, Hastelloy G35 and Hastelloy C2000 alloys was studied in KCl-AlCl3 melts at 550°С. The rates and the mechanisms of corrosion of the studied materials were determined. The processes taking place during the interaction between alloys and chloroaluminate melts were investigated.

  2. Machining of high alloy steels and heat resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peculiarities of machining high alloy steels and heat resistant alloys on the base of nickel by cutting are described. The factors worsening the machining of heat resistant materials, namely, the low heat conductivity, strong reverting and high wearing capability, are pointed out. The resign and materials of cutting instruments, providing for high quality machining of heat resistant steels and alloys, are considered. The necessity of regulating thermal processes during cutting with cutting fluids and other coolants (e.g. air with a negative temperature) is noted. The recommended modes of cutting are presented. The efficiency of the conveyer-type method for sawing products and forged intermediate articles is demonstrated by the example of 5KhNM steel

  3. Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 nickel-based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Han, Jiesheng; Lu, Jinjun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Jianmin, E-mail: chenjm@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 was studied by ultrasonic apparatus. • The cavitation-induced precipitates formed in the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. • The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. - Abstract: The cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 alloy was investigated using an ultrasonic vibratory apparatus and compared with that of 316L stainless steel. The mean depth of erosion (MDE) and erosion rate (ER) curves vs. test time were attained for Hastelloy C-276 alloy. Morphology and microstructure evolution of the eroded surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the predominant erosion mechanism was also discussed. The results show that the MDE is about 1/6 times lower than that of the stainless steel after 9 h of testing. The incubation period of Hastelloy C-276 alloy is about 3 times longer than that of 316L stainless steel. The cavitation-induced nanometer-scaled precipitates were found in the local zones of the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. The formation of nanometer-scaled precipitates in the eroded surface may play a significant role in the cavitation erosion resistance of Hastelloy C-276.

  4. Metal Dusting of Heat-Resistant Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Meshari, Abdulaziz I.

    2008-01-01

    Metal dusting leads to disintegration of such alloys as iron and nickel-based into a ?dust? of particulate metal, metal carbide, carbon, and/or oxide. It occurs in strongly carburising environments at 400-900?C. Literature survey has shown that alloys behave differently in metal dusting conditions based on their composition and the environment. Metal dusting mechanisms for iron and nickel-based alloys have been proposed but, nevertheless, have not been agreed upon and numerous modifications t...

  5. Heat resistance of multicomponent coatings on the niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increase in heat resistance of niobium and its alloys by means of diffusion saturation with aluminium together with the elements reducing its mobility, i.e. chromium and silicon is studied. It is shown that the Cr-Al coating can be used for protection of niobium alloys at the temperatures below 1000 deg C or as a sublayer for silicide coatings. Simultaneous saturation with chromium, aluminium and silicon results in formation of a coating consisting of three layers, heat resistance of which increases considerably as compared to the one observed in the case of two-component saturation with chromium and aluminium. The study of the samples with the Cr-Al-Si coating has also shown that oxidation of alloys in this case proceeds less intensely. Possibility of the coating application for practical purposes for niobium alloys protection from oxidation in the air at high temperatures is shown

  6. Heat-Resistance of the Powder Cobalt Alloys Reinforced by Niobium or Titanium Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherepova, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of heat-resistance of powder cobalt alloys at 1100 °C were investigated. These alloys were developed for the protection of workers banding shelves GTE blades from wear. The alloys were prepared by hot pressing powders of cobalt, chromium, aluminum, iron and niobium or titanium carbides. The values of heat resistance alloys containing carbides between 30 and 70% (vol. depend on the type made of carbide alloys: alloys with titanium carbide superior in heat-resistant alloy of niobium carbide. The most significant factor affecting on the heat-resistant alloys, is porosity: with its increase the parameters decline regardless of the type and content of carbide. The optimum composition of powder heat resisting alloys of titanium carbide with a melting point above 1300 °C were determined for use in the aircraft engine.

  7. Improvement of niobium alloy heat resistance by diffusion coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the 5VTTs, 5VMTs and 5VMTs4 niobium alloys taking place while interacting with oxidizing medium, were studied along with the possibility to improve heat resistance of the alloys by diffusion coatings laid out from liquid-metal solution. Single-component coatings of Zr, Re, Be, Ni, Y and two-layer ones of Zr-Rd, Re-Rd, Re-Be, Rd-Be were laid. The Zr, Re, Zr-Rd and Re-Rd coatings are shown to provide for the protection of the 5 VTTs alloy from oxidation in vacuum at 1050 deg C. The most effective protection of the 5 VMTs alloy is provided in air by single-layer coatings of Be, Ni, Y, and two-layer ones of Rd-Be and Re-Be. It is noted that Re-containing coatings improve the strength but reduce the plasticity of niobium alloy as a result of alloying due to a significant diffusion mobility of rhenium in niobium

  8. Experimental Study on Machining Shape Hole of Ni-based Super-heat-resistant Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Inconel 718 and Waspaloy, Nickel-based super-heat-resistant alloy, are high-strength, thermal-resistant and corrosion-resistant alloy that are widely used in parts of gas turbines and airplane engines. Due to their extremely tough and thermal-resistant nature, they are well known as materials that are difficult to cut. Shape holes on a disc of an aircraft engine, made of Ni-based super-heat-resistant alloy, are required with good surface integrity and geometric accuracy. This kind of shape hole is produced ...

  9. Corrosion behavior of Hastelloy-N alloys in molten salt fluoride in Ar gas or in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of air on the corrosion of Hastelloy-N alloys in molten salt coolant containing fission product elements were investigated to determine the safety of structural materials in high-temperature reactors cooled with fluoride salt. Corrosion tests of Hastelloy-N in the molten fluoride salt FLiNaK in an alumina crucible and a graphite crucible under argon gas or air were performed at 773–923 K for 100 h. The depth of corrosive attack, as well as the extent of chromium and molybdenum depletion, increased with increasing temperature. The extent of Hastelloy-N corrosion in molten salt under air was significantly greater than under argon gas. The effect of adding the impurity cesium iodide to molten salt containing nuclear waste fuel on the corrosion behavior was negligible. (author)

  10. Microstructure and properties of 2618-Ti heat resistant aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建华; 易丹青; 王斌

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical properties of alloy 2618 with 0.5%(mass fraction) titanium and its microstructures in different states such as as-cast and quenching-aging were investigated. Titanium was added into the alloy with Al-5%Ti master alloy that was extruded severely. Al3Ti particles in the microstructure of cast alloy 2618-Ti are very small because those of master alloy are also small. When titanium is used as an alloying element, it does not affect the morphology of Al9FeNi phase in cast alloy, but decreases the grain size of as-cast alloy remarkably. The grain size of quenching-aging alloy 2618 decreases apparently due to the existence of a great deal of dispersive Al3Ti particles. Adding 0.5%Ti has no effect on the room temperature tensile properties of alloy 2618, but apparently increases the elevated temperature instantaneous tensile properties and that of the alloy which is exposed at 250 ℃ for 100 h.

  11. Relationship between carburization and zero-applied-stress creep dilation in Alloy 800H and Hastelloy X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical HTGR candidate alloys can carburize when exposed to simulated service environments. The carbon concentration gradients so formed give rise to internal stresses which could cause dilation. Studies performed with Hastelloy X and Alloy 800H showed that dilations of up to almost 1% can occur at 10000C when carbon pickup is high. Dilation was normally observed only when the carbon increase was >1000 μg/cm2 and ceased when diffusing carbon reached the center of the specimen. (Auth.)

  12. Oxidation of Hastelloy-XR Alloy for Corrosion-Resistant Glass-Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of Hastelloy-XR alloy was investigated to obtain the optimum surface condition for corrosion-resistant glass-coatings. The surface morphology of oxide scales changed significantly with variation of temperatureand oxygen partial pressure (Po2). The oxidation kinetics was mainly parabolic independent of oxidation conditions.The oxide scales were consisted of inner Cr2O3 and outer spinel layers. The phase component of spinel layers wereMn1.5Cr1.5O4 and (Mn,Ni)(Cr,Fe)2O4 for the oxygen partial pressures Po2 <10 kPa and Po2>10 kPa, respectively.The optimum oxidation condition to obtain an oxide scale for well-adhered glass-coating to the substrate was 1248 Kand Po2 =0.01 kPa for the oxidation time of 43 ks.

  13. Evolution Law of Helium Bubbles in Hastelloy N Alloy on Post-Irradiation Annealing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on the evolution law of helium bubbles in Hastelloy N alloy on post-irradiation annealing conditions. After helium ion irradiation at room temperature and subsequent annealing at 600 °C (1 h, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM micrograph indicates the presence of helium bubbles with size of 2 nm in the depth range of 0–300 nm. As for the sample further annealed at 850 °C (5 h, on one hand, a “Denuded Zone” (0–38 nm with rare helium bubbles forms due to the decreased helium concentration. On the other hand, the “Ripening Zone” (38–108 nm and “Coalescence Zone” (108–350 nm with huge differences in size and separation of helium bubbles, caused by different coarsening rates, are observed. The mechanisms of “Ostwald ripening” and “migration and coalescence”, experimentally proved in this work, may explain these observations.

  14. Heat-resisting alloys for hard surfacing and sealing pad welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.O. Wielgosz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with heat-resisting alloys used to harden surfaces of elements operating in increased temperatures. It also deals with alloysused to seal cooperating surfaces of elements operating in the conditions of increased temperatures and aggressive utilities. Application methods and properties of thus obtained layers have been presented and adhesion of layers with matrix material has been assessed.

  15. Research on Hot Deformation Behavior of Hastelloy G-3 Alloy%Hastelloy G-3合金热变形特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗坤杰; 张麦仓; 王宝顺; 董建新

    2011-01-01

    利用变形温度为1050~1200℃、应变速率为0.1~10 s-1的恒温热压缩试验系统分析了Hastelloy G-3合金的高温变形特性及变形后的组织特征.对高应变速率下的流动应力进行变形热效应修正,建立了G-3合金热变形过程中峰值应力与变形温度、应变速率关系的本构模型.结果表明:所建立的本构模型在预测G-3合金热变形峰值应力时具有良好的精确度,能够满足工程应用的要求.G-3合金热加工过程的软化机制为动态再结晶,根据热变形后的组织特征确定G-3合金合理的热变形温度为1180~1200℃,应变速率为5~10 s-1.%The hot deformation behavior and the subsequent microstructure characteristics of Hastelloy G-3 alloy were studied by isothermal compression tests at the strain rates of 0.1-10 s-1 and the temperatures of 1050-1200 ℃. The flow-stress at high strain rates were corrected considering the effect of deformation heating, and a new constitutive relationship between peak stress and deformation temperature as well as strain rate for G-3 alloy at high temperature was established. The results show that the built material model has good fitting accuracy to satisfy the engineering need. The softening mechanism of G-3 alloy is dynamic recrystalization during hot working process. According to the microstructures after deformation, for G-3 alloy the proper deformation temperature is 1180-1200 ℃ and the proper strain rate is 5-10 s-1.

  16. Laser texturing of Hastelloy C276 alloy surface for improved hydrophobicity and friction coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.

    2016-03-01

    Laser treatment of Hastelloy C276 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas environment. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined using the analytical tools including, scanning electron and atomic force microscopes, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Microhardness is measured and the residual stress formed in the laser treated surface is determined from the X-ray data. The hydrophibicity of the laser treated surface is assessed using the sessile drop method. Friction coefficient of the laser treated layer is obtained incorporating the micro-tribometer. It is found that closely spaced laser canning tracks create a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer and lowers the thermal stress levels through modifying the cooling rates at the surface. A dense structure, consisting of fine size grains, enhances the microhardness of the surface. The residual stress formed at the surface is compressive and it is in the order of -800 MPa. Laser treatment improves the surface hydrophobicity significantly because of the formation of surface texture composing of micro/nano-pillars.

  17. Corrosion Behavior of Au, Hastelloy C-276 Alloy and Monel 400 Alloy in Molten Lithium Fluoride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Chang-shui; GUO; Jun-kang

    2013-01-01

    For searching better corrosion-resistant material in high temperature,we investigated the corrosion behavior of Au,Haynes C-276 alloy and Monel 400 alloy in molten lithium fluoride at 950℃.The corrosion products and fine structures of the corroded specimens were characterized by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),scanning electron microscope(SEM),energy dispersive

  18. Effects of product form and boron addition on the creep damage in the modified Hastelloy X alloys in a simulated HTGR helium gas environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper investigates early-stage-creep damage of Hastelloy XR and XR-II alloys, modified versions of Hastelloy X alloy, which have been developed in Japan as most promising candidate structural alloys for Japanese high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Creep tests were made on Hastelloy XR forging, tube and XR-II tube at 1,123 to 1,273 K in a simulated HTGR helium gas environment. The tests were interrupted at different strain levels of up to 5 % in order to evaluate creep damage via intergranular voids. The void sizes along grain boundaries and the A-parameter, the ratio of the number of damaged grain boundaries, on which one or more voids are found, to that of the total grain boundaries observed are used in order to evaluate creep damage. Statistical analysis of the A-parameter as well as the void sizes reveals that the values of the parameter show wide variations and follow the Weibull distribution, reflecting spatial randomness of the voids. The void sizes along grain boundaries, on the other hand, follow the log-normal distribution. The maximum void size dmax and the mean value of the A-parameter Am are calculated and plotted against interruption creep strain εint. The resultant dmax vs. εint and Am vs. εint diagrams show that Hastelloy XR forging had suffered more damage than Hastelloy XR tube; nevertheless, the forging has longer interruption life, or the time to reach a given interruption creep strain. The result indicates that grains may have been deformed more easily in Hastelloy XR in the form of tube than in the form of forging. The diagrams also imply that the addition of boron has suppressed the nucleation as well as the growth of voids and thus has brought about longer interruption life of Hastelloy XR-II. (author)

  19. Thermal stability of multi-spray deposition heat resistant Al-Fe-V-Si alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢斌; 易丹青; 黎文献; 余志明; 周琳

    2002-01-01

    Rapidly solidified Al-8.4Fe-1.3V-1.7Si heat resistant alloy was made by using multi-layer spray deposition technique.Its thermal stability of mechanical properties was investigated by the means of tensile and hardness tests,thermal stability of microstructure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD).The results show that after heat exposure (HE) at 753 K for 500 h the tensile strength and hardness of Al-Fe-V-Si alloy at 623 K maintains the same values as those at room-temperature.HE dose not obviously affect the thermal stabilities of Al12(Fe,V)3Si phase but the lattice constant of Al12(Fe,V)3Si phase decrease.

  20. Etude expérimentale du soudage par laser YAG de l'alliage base nickel Hastelloy X Experimental study of YAG laser welding of nickel base alloy Hastelloy X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graneix Jérémie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le procédé de soudage laser YAG est envisagé pour remplacer le procédé de soudage TIG manuel pour la réalisation de pièces de turboréacteur en alliage nickel-chrome-molybdène Hastelloy X. Cette étude expérimentale a permis de définir un domaine de soudabilité de cet alliage répondant aux critères spécifiques du secteur aéronautique. The YAG laser welding process is contemplated to replace the manual TIG welding process for the production of parts of turbojet in Hastelloy X. This experimental study has identified the field of weldability of this alloy to meet the specific requirements of the aerospace industry.

  1. Creep behavior for Hastelloy-XR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creep-rupture tests for Hastelloy-XR, a Ni-base heat resistent alloy, were conducted in air at the temperature of 650 to 900 deg C. Times to rupture ranged from 1000 to 16000 h. As results of tests, creep curves were observed to vary depending on both temperature and stress, particularly on temperature. Namely, they showed typical classical shapes consisting of primary, secondary and tertiary creep at 650 to 700 deg C. The regions of primary and secondary creep decreased gradually as the temperature became higher and in one case of 900 deg C and high stress, only tertiary creep was observed. Metallurgical observation by optical microscope showed the similar inclination. Some differences were found concerning rupture morphology and void shape between temperatures below 750 deg C and above 850 deg C. (author)

  2. SEM, EDS, EPMA-WDS and EBSD characterization of carbides in HP type heat resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure of centrifugally cast heat resistant alloys of the HP-series (Fe-35Ni-25Cr-0.4C, wt.%) contains several minor phases, like carbides (M7C3, M23C6 and MC). Several alloys are characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered electron imaging and energy dispersive spectroscopy, of electron probe micro-analysis by X-ray wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, and of electron back-scattered diffraction. On the one hand, scanning electron microscopy imaging in the back-scattered mode, associated with energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis and electron back-scattered diffraction, can lead to the identification of all phases, but with a lack of accuracy in certain cases. On the other hand, electron probe micro-analysis by X-ray wavelength dispersive spectroscopy alone can always provide a strict identification of all phases, with additional precise information on phase composition, including for light elements, which is important in the case of carbides

  3. Aging of a cast 35Cr–45Ni heat resistant alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The as-cast microstructure is made of an austenitic matrix and primary carbides. ► The carbides are of two different types: Cr- and Nb-rich. ► The microstructure changes during aging. ► These microstructural changes result in the degradation of mechanical properties. - Abstract: The microstructural evolution during aging and its effect on the mechanical properties of a centrifugally cast 35Cr–45Ni heat resistant alloy was studied by means of optical and electron microscopy, and by mechanical testing in samples aged in air at 750 °C for a period of time of up to 1000 h. The as-cast microstructure consisted of an austenitic matrix and a network of two types of primary carbides that were identified as NbC and M7C3 by their light and dark tones when viewed in backscattered electron mode in a scanning electron microscope. Aging promoted the occurrence of different phenomena such as the transformation of primary M7C3 to M23C6 carbides, precipitation of secondary M23C6 carbides and the transformation of NbC to Nb3Ni2Si. It was found that aging promoted an increase in Vickers microhardness of more than 50%, the increment in tensile strength of around 20% and the reduction in ductility of close to 70%.

  4. Heat treating of a lamellar eutectic alloy (gamma/gamma prime + delta). [heat resistant alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, S. N.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Eutectic superalloys are being developed at several laboratories for application as aircraft gas turbine airfoils. One such alloy was subjected to several heat treatments to determine if its mechanical properties could be improved. It was found that by partially dissolving the alloy at 1210 C and then aging at 900 C the tensile strength can be increased about 12 percent at temperatures up to 900 C. At 1040 C no change in tensile strength was observed. Times to rupture were measured between 760 and 1040 C and were essentially the same or greater than for as-grown material. Tensile and rupture ductility of the alloy are reduced by heat treatment. Photographs of the microstructure are shown.

  5. Aging of a cast 35Cr-45Ni heat resistant alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sustaita-Torres, Ireri A., E-mail: ireri.sustaita@gmail.com [Unidad Academica de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza (Mexico); Haro-Rodriguez, Sergio, E-mail: haros907@hotmail.com [Unidad Academica de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Guerrero-Mata, Martha P., E-mail: martha.guerreromt@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza (Mexico); Garza, Maribel de la, E-mail: maribeldelagarza@yahoo.com.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza (Mexico); Valdes, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.valdes.57@gmail.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Saltillo, 25280 Saltillo (Mexico); Deschaux-Beaume, Frederic, E-mail: deschaux@iut-nimes.fr [Mechanical and Civil Engineering Laboratories, Universite de Montpellier 2, IUT Nimes, 30907 Nimes (France); and others

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-cast microstructure is made of an austenitic matrix and primary carbides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbides are of two different types: Cr- and Nb-rich. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure changes during aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These microstructural changes result in the degradation of mechanical properties. - Abstract: The microstructural evolution during aging and its effect on the mechanical properties of a centrifugally cast 35Cr-45Ni heat resistant alloy was studied by means of optical and electron microscopy, and by mechanical testing in samples aged in air at 750 Degree-Sign C for a period of time of up to 1000 h. The as-cast microstructure consisted of an austenitic matrix and a network of two types of primary carbides that were identified as NbC and M{sub 7}C{sub 3} by their light and dark tones when viewed in backscattered electron mode in a scanning electron microscope. Aging promoted the occurrence of different phenomena such as the transformation of primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3} to M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, precipitation of secondary M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides and the transformation of NbC to Nb{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si. It was found that aging promoted an increase in Vickers microhardness of more than 50%, the increment in tensile strength of around 20% and the reduction in ductility of close to 70%.

  6. Increase of heat resistance of niobium and its alloys using alumotitanizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of codeposition of titanium and aluminium on niobium in molten salt media and heat resistance properties of the coatings obtained are studied. It is shown that aluminium-titanium coatings on niobium are suitable only as a substrate for other coatings. As an independent heat resistant coating the aluminium-titanium layers TiAl3 and TiAl containing surface phases can be used

  7. Development of heat resistant Pb-free joints by TLPS process of Ag and Sn-Bi-Ag alloy powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnuma I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TLPS (Transient Liquid Phase Sintering process is a candidate method of heat-resistant bonding, which makes use of the reaction between low-melting temperature powder of Sn-Bi base alloys and reactive powder of Ag. During heat treatment above the melting temperature of a Sn-Bi base alloy, the molten Sn-Bi reacts rapidly with solid Ag particles, which results in the formation of heat-resistant intermetallic compound (IMC. In this study, the TLPS properties between Sn-17Bi-1Ag (at.% powder with its liquidus temperature of 200°C and pure Ag powder were investigated. During differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurement, an exothermic reaction and an endothermic reaction occurred, which correspond to the formation of the e-Ag3Sn IMC phase and the melting of the Sn-17Bi-1Ag alloy, respectively. After the overall measurement, the obtained reactant consists of the Ag3Sn-IMC and Bi-rich phases, both of which start melting above 250°C, with a small amount of the residual Sn-Bi eutectic phase. These results suggest that the TLPS process can be applied for Pb-free heatresistant bonding.

  8. Evaluation on materials performance of Hastelloy Alloy XR for HTTR uses-6. Tensile and creep properties of heat exchanger tube base materials and its welded-joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tensile and creep properties of heat exchanger tube base materials and its welded-joints were investigated as a series of evaluation tests on Hastelloy Alloy XR heat exchanger tube and filler metal for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) components. As for tensile properties after thermal aging of base materials and welded joints, ductility was remarkably reduced at room temperature while it was raised at 950degC. On creep properties, the difference between base materials and welded joints in creep rupture strength was relatively small. Creep rupture elongation tended to decrease with increasing rupture time, and rupture elongation of welded joint had a tendency to be lower than that of base material. On the other hand, a comparison of plate with tube on high temperature tensile ductility after thermal aging was found to be higher in tube than in plate while its difference was slight at room temperature. As for creep properties, base materials and welded joints of tube had a tendency to be slightly shorter in rupture time at lower stress and long terms than those of plate. However, it is concluded that this is not problematic in practical uses from the fact that the rupture time in tube is comparable or greater than that of Hastelloy Alloy XR master curve and that it is much longer than that of design creep rupture strength =SR=. (author)

  9. Heat-resistant materials

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    This handbook covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials selection guidelines for industrial applications, and life-assessment methods. Also included is information on comparative properties that allows the ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion-resistant coatings for superalloys, and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation. Contents: General introduction (high-temperature materials characteristics, and mechanical and corrosion properties, and industrial applications); Properties of Ferrous Heat-Resistant Alloys (carbon, alloy, and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; and high alloy cast steels); Properties of superalloys (metallurgy and processing, mechanical and corrosion properties, degradation, and protective coa...

  10. 9%Cr heat resistant steels: Alloy design, microstructure evolution and creep response at 650 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → 9Cr alloys with varying Ti and C contents were designed, produced and crept at 650 deg. C. → Sub-grain and precipitate distribution and evolution investigated by STEM-HAADF. → Correlations between microstructure evolution and mechanical properties were studied. → Coarsening of sub-grain size was larger for Ti-containing 9Cr alloys. → 9Cr alloy with low C and no Ti showed the highest creep strength of all studied alloys. - Abstract: In this work 9%Cr alloys were designed supported by computational thermodynamic methods. Two sets of alloys were produced: 9%Cr alloys with 0.1%C and 0.05%C and 9%Cr alloys containing ∼0.03% Ti with 0.1%C and 0.05%C (always wt%). Microstructure investigations showed good agreement with the predicted phases of the thermodynamic modeling. The volume fraction of precipitated M23C6 carbides is directly related to the carbon content of the alloys. For Ti-containing alloys the precipitation of nano-sized Ti-rich MX carbonitrides was observed. The microstructure evolution (sub-grain and particle size) during creep at 650 deg. C/100 MPa was investigated by STEM-HAADF. The sub-grain size evolution and the coarsening of precipitates (MX carbonitrides, M23C6 and Laves phase) were more pronounced for Ti-containing alloys. 9Cr alloys without Ti and with low carbon content presented the highest creep strength of all investigated alloys.

  11. 9-12% Cr heat resistant steels. Alloy design, TEM characterisation of microstructure evolution and creep response at 650 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas Jara, David

    2011-03-21

    This work was carried out aiming to design and characterise 9-12% Cr steels with tailormade microstructures for applications in fossil fuel fired power plants. The investigations concentrated in the design and characterisation of heat resistant steels for applications in high oxidising atmospheres (12% Cr) and 9% Cr alloys for components such as rotors (P91). ThermoCalc calculations showed to be a reliable tool for alloy development. The modeling also provided valuable information for the adjustment of the processing parameters (austenisation and tempering temperatures). Two 12% Cr heat resistant steels with a fine dispersion of nano precipitates were designed and produced supported by thermodynamic modeling (ThermoCalc). A detailed characterisation of the microstructure evolution at different creep times (100 MPa / 650 C / 8000 h) was carried out by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The results of the microstructure analysis were correlated with the mechanical properties in order to investigate the influence of different precipitates (especially M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides) on the creep strength of the alloys. Precipitation of Laves phase and Z-phase was observed after several hundred hours creep time. Very few Z-phase of the type Cr(V,Ta)N nucleating from existing (V,Ta)(C,N) was observed. Both alloys show growth and coarsening of Laves phase, meanwhile the MX carbonitrides present a very slow growth and coarsening rate. Alloys containing Laves phase, MX and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates show best creep properties. The influence of hot-deformation and tempering temperature on the microstructure evolution on one of the designed 12% Cr alloys was studied during short-term creep at 80-250 MPa and 650 C. Quantitative determination of dislocation density and sub-grain size in the initial microstructure and after creep was investigated by STEM combined with the high-angle annular dark-field detector (HAADF). A correlation between microstructure

  12. Obtaining of plasma sprayed heat resistant coatings for niobium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is concerned with a possibility to obtain a hot-resistant molybdenum disilicide base coating by the plasma method. It is shown that preliminary boriding of sprayed molybdenum disilicide powders permits oxygen penetration to the substrate to be removed due to formation of fluid oxide SiO2-B2O3 film in oxidative media. It is determined that plasma-sprayed coatings produced from such powders are characterized by low temperature of vitrification (700-1000 deg C), porosity absence, strong cohesion of particles, high heat-resistance

  13. Production of heat resisting silicon-titanium coatings on 5VMTs niobium alloy in fusible metal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation of diffusion Si-Ti coatings on 5VMTs niobium alloy during aging in the air at 1300 deg C was investigated. Diffusion saturation was conducted in Na-Si-Ti environment at 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C. Two oxidation stages were established. Initially the surface layer composed of higher silicides is oxidized with formation of SiO2, Nb2O5, TiO2 oxides and the lower Vb5Si3 silicide. After that the inner layer composed of lower silicides interacts with oxygen with Nb2O5 formation. It is shown that Si-Ti coatings produced at 1200 deg C possess the highest heat resistance

  14. Corrosion performance of heat resistant alloys in Na2SO4-V2O5 molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion resistant of three heat resistant alloys in molten vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and 80(mol%) V2O5-20Na2SO4 has been evaluated using the weight loss technique. Materials included Fe-25Cr-35Ni-0.45C, Fe-35Cr-45Ni with 0.12 and 0.45C alloys. Temperatures included 600, 700 and 800 deg. C for V2O5 and the 80V2O5-20Na2SO4 mixture, and 800, 900 and 1000 deg. C for Na2SO4. The tests were supplemented by detailed electronic microscopy and microanalysis studies. In all cases, the least resistant alloy was the Fe-25Cr-35Ni-0.45C one whereas the most resistant was the Fe-35Cr-45Ni-0.12C one. The results are discussed in terms of the acidic dissolution of the external protective Cr2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2 layers, by the salts and internal sulfidation

  15. Enhanced Heat Resistance of Al-Cu-Mg Alloy by a Combination of Pre-stretching and Underaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohu; Liu, Zhiyi; Bai, Song; Lin, Lianghua; Ye, Chengwu; Wang, Heng

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced heat resistance of Al-Cu-Mg alloy by employing a combined effect of pre-stretching and underaging has been characterized by thermal exposure, tensile testing, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination, and quantitative analysis. Tensile testing results showed that the samples subjected to both pre-stretching and underaging processing, presented a high tensile strength up to 440 MPa after thermal exposure at 200 °C for 500 h. This suggests that the long-time application temperature of Al-Cu-Mg alloys, which were normally applied at elevated temperature below 150 °C or even below 100 °C, can be raised to 200 °C by employing a combined effect of pre-stretching and underaging. TEM results showed that a fine and a narrow size distribution range of S' phase was formed by the combined processing of pre-stretching and underaging, as compared to that without pre-stretching. Quantitative analysis results indicated that this narrow range of size distribution greatly reduced the growth rate of S' phase during thermal exposure. It is suggested that this effect was ascribed to the Ostwald ripening mechanism.

  16. Enhanced Heat Resistance of Al-Cu-Mg Alloy by a Combination of Pre-stretching and Underaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohu; Liu, Zhiyi; Bai, Song; Lin, Lianghua; Ye, Chengwu; Wang, Heng

    2016-09-01

    Enhanced heat resistance of Al-Cu-Mg alloy by employing a combined effect of pre-stretching and underaging has been characterized by thermal exposure, tensile testing, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination, and quantitative analysis. Tensile testing results showed that the samples subjected to both pre-stretching and underaging processing, presented a high tensile strength up to 440 MPa after thermal exposure at 200 °C for 500 h. This suggests that the long-time application temperature of Al-Cu-Mg alloys, which were normally applied at elevated temperature below 150 °C or even below 100 °C, can be raised to 200 °C by employing a combined effect of pre-stretching and underaging. TEM results showed that a fine and a narrow size distribution range of S' phase was formed by the combined processing of pre-stretching and underaging, as compared to that without pre-stretching. Quantitative analysis results indicated that this narrow range of size distribution greatly reduced the growth rate of S' phase during thermal exposure. It is suggested that this effect was ascribed to the Ostwald ripening mechanism.

  17. Peculiarities of structure transformations of heat resistant nickel alloy during high temperature heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of direct experiments (using microroentgenospectral analysis, electron microscopy, high-temperature metallography) it is shown that large formations of the exceeding phase in complexly alloyed nickel alloys present eutectic colonies (γ'+γ). Carbide of the N3W3C type is crystallized from the liquid in interaxial spaces close to the eutectics (γ'+γ) as a result of the substitution of the elements forming γ'-phase: Ti, Nb and Hf for tungsten. Using the method of electric resistance temperature range of dissolving of highly disperse γ'-phase of the given alloy in the Ni-Cr-Co-W-Al-Ti-Nb-Hf system is established. A polythermal cross section of a part of pseudodouble diagram (γ-γ') of the alloy studied is plotted on the basis of microroentgenospectral, phase and resistometric analyses. It is shown that solubility curve on the diagram has a point of bending near solidus temperature. At that, the temperature of complete dissolving of the disperse γ'-phase in γ-solid solution is 30 deg lower than Tsub(s)

  18. Effect of the Fine-Grained Structure on the Fatigue Properties of the Heat-Resistant Nickel-Iron Alloy Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtarov, Sh. Kh.; Shakhov, R. V.

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that ultrafine-grained nickel alloys with average grain sizes d = 0.1-1 μm possess improved hot workability and can be used for superplastic forming or rolling. However, microstructure refinement can worsen some performance characteristics of the alloy, for example, heat-resistant or fatigue properties. In the present work, fatigue characteristics of the fine-grained alloy Inconel 718 are investigated. Ultrafine-grained alloys with average grain sizes d = 0.1-1 μm were manufactured by multiple forging with stage-by-stage deformation temperature decrease. During standard heat treatment of the alloy performed to obtain the desired properties, the γ-grain size was controlled by precipitations of δ-phase particles along the boundaries. Results of low-cycle fatigue tests of the fine-grained alloy at room and elevated temperatures are compared with the properties of the coarse-grained alloy.

  19. Erosion resistance in a stationary arc of powder materials on the base of heat resisting alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minakova, R.V.; Kostenetskaya, L.I.; Krusanova, A.P.; Kukhtikov, V.A.; Smirnov, A.V.; Lugovskaya, E.S. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Materialovedeniya)

    1983-08-01

    Comparison investigations of some properties of the Mo-Cu, Mo-Ni(Co)-Cu materials and the W-Cu, W-Ni-Cu compositions used at the present time as well as contact pairs prepared from them is conducted. It is shown that electroerosion wear of the contacts is connected not only with the material properties but also with features of structural changes in the working layer under effect of arc discharge. It is shown also that directed alloying with respect to the origin of phase transition in the electrode material and the medium effect during current commutation promotes electroerosion resistance.

  20. Effects of composite scale on high temperature oxidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni heat resistant alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haitao; Wang Yuqing; Yu Huashun; Min Guanghui; Wang Zhifu

    2009-01-01

    Fe-Cr-Ni heat resistant alloys with aluminum and silicon addition, alone and in combination, were melted using an intermediate frequency induction furnace with a non-oxidation method. By the oxidation weight gain method, the oxidation resistances of the test alloys were determined at 1,200 ℃ for 500 hours. According to the oxidation weight gains, the oxidation kinetic curves were plotted and the functions were regressed by the least squares method. The results show that the oxidation kinetic curves follow the power function of y = axb (a0,0

  1. Etude expérimentale du soudage par laser YAG de l'alliage base nickel Hastelloy X Experimental study of YAG laser welding of nickel base alloy Hastelloy X

    OpenAIRE

    Graneix Jérémie; Beguin Jean-Denis; Pardeilhan François; Masri Talal; Alexis Joël

    2013-01-01

    Le procédé de soudage laser YAG est envisagé pour remplacer le procédé de soudage TIG manuel pour la réalisation de pièces de turboréacteur en alliage nickel-chrome-molybdène Hastelloy X. Cette étude expérimentale a permis de définir un domaine de soudabilité de cet alliage répondant aux critères spécifiques du secteur aéronautique. The YAG laser welding process is contemplated to replace the manual TIG welding process for the production of parts of turbojet in Hastelloy X. This experimental...

  2. Application of Hastelloy X in Gas-Cooled Reactor Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkman, C. R.; Rittenhouse, P. L.; Corwin, W.R.;

    1976-01-01

    Hastelloy X, an Ni--Cr--Fe--Mo alloy, may be an important structural alloy for components of gas-cooled reactor systems. Expected applications of this alloy in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) are discussed, and the development of interim mechanical properties and supporting data...

  3. Development of Simultaneous Corrosion Barrier and Optimized Microstructure in FeCrAl Heat-Resistant Alloy for Energy Applications. Part 1: The Protective Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, G.; Aranda, M. M.; Chao, J.; González-Carrasco, J. L.; Capdevila, C.

    2015-09-01

    Coarse-grained Fe-based oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels are a class of advanced materials for combined cycle gas turbine systems to deal with operating temperatures and pressures of around 1100°C and 15-30 bar in aggressive environments, which would increase biomass energy conversion efficiencies up to 45% and above. This two-part paper reports the possibility of the development of simultaneous corrosion barrier and optimized microstructure in a FeCrAl heat-resistant alloy for energy applications. The first part reports the mechanism of generating a dense, self-healing α-alumina layer by thermal oxidation, during a heat treatment that leads to a coarse-grained microstructure with a potential value for high-temperature creep resistance in a FeCrAl ODS ferritic alloy, which will be described in more detail in the second part.

  4. 共混型高耐热ABS合金的研制%THE RESEARCH OF HIGH HEAT-RESISTANT ABS BLEND ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田明; 李齐方; 张立群; 刘力; 乔利燕; 吕昆; 沙中瑛

    2001-01-01

    以ABS树脂为基体,加入短玻璃纤维提高了材料的耐热性,但冲击强度下降,进一步引入与ABS相容性很好的苯乙烯-马来酸酐共聚物(SMA),发现ABS与玻璃纤维间产生了强有力的界面粘合,在SMA含量7%时,显著地提高了ABS/玻纤体系的耐热性、冲击强度和拉伸强度。再进一步引入适量的刚性丙烯酸酯类聚合物,使ABS/玻纤/SMA体系的耐热性又有所提高。令人惊奇的是,在丙烯酸酯类聚合物含量为30%时,体系的冲击性能也明显增加,这归功于刚性有机填料对体系的冷拉增韧效果。最终成功研制出一种高耐热、综合性能优良的ABS/改性剂/玻纤共混合金。%The addition of short glass fiber into ABS resin can improve its heat resistance but decrease its impact strength. It is discovered that strong interphase adhesion between ABS and glass fiber can be gotten by the introduction of styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer(SMA) which is completely compatible with ABS, and heat resistance, impact strength and tensile strength of ABS/glass fiber alloy can be improved remarkably when the content of SMA is 7%. Subsequently, the introduction of 30% rigid acrylic ester polymer into above system can further improve heat resistance of ABS/glass fiber/SMA. Surprisingly, its impact strength is also enhanced, which is attributed to the hard-drawn mechanism of rigid organic filler (ROF). At last, a kind of ABS blend alloys with high heat resistance and good mechanical properties are successfully made.

  5. Influence of the brazing parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of brazed joints of Hastelloy B2 nickel base alloy; Influencia de los parametros de soldeo fuerte en la microestructura y propiedades mecanicas de la union de la aleacion base niquel Hastelloy B2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo, J. C.; Gonzalez, M.; Porto, E.

    2014-07-01

    A study of the high vacuum brazing process of solid solution strengthened Hastelloy B2 nickel alloy has been done. A first stage of research has focused on the selection of the most appropriate brazing filler metal to the base material and vacuum furnace brazing process. The influence of welding parameters on joint microstructure constituents, relating the microstructure of the joint to its mechanical properties, has been evaluated. Two gaps of 50 and 200 micrometers, and two dwell times at brazing temperature of 10 and 90 minutes were studied. The braze joint mainly consists of the nickel rich matrix, nickel silicide and ternary compounds. Finally, the results of this study have shown the high bond strength for small gaps and increased dwell times of 90 minutes. (Author)

  6. Study on microstructure evolution of deformed Mg-Gd-Y-Nd-Zr heat-resistant magnesium alloys after solid solution and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure evolution of Mg-Gd-Y-Nd-Zr heat-resistant magnesium alloy after deformation and T5 or T6 treatment were studied. In thermoplastic deformation, dynamic recrystallization and dynamic precipitation has been taken place at the same time. The dynamic precipitation reduces the recrystallization nucleation driving force in the grain; it will prevent to occur dynamic recrystallization partially. Solid solution temperature was 530oC and hold 4h. Age hardening treatments were performed at 225oC and hold 16h. The alloy showed the comprehensive properties are obviously improved from T6 to T5 heat treatment. After T5 heat treatment the tensile strength of alloy increased to 359.3 MPa, increased by around 48.5%; Elongation is increasing from 5.17% to 6.5%. After peak ageing treatment, the main precipitation is β' phase, the precipitation phase have obvious pinning effect to grain boundary of the alloy, it will prevent the grain growth ageing for a long-time. At the same time, strengthening role of precipitate phase make its strength increased significantly.

  7. Intergranular Cracking Susceptibility of 2.25Cr Heat-Resistant Steels Depending on Alloying Elements and Impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyun Je; Heo, Nam Hoe; Kim, Sung-Joon

    2016-05-01

    The intergranular cracking susceptibility of 2.25Cr heat-resistant steels increases with increasing bulk phosphorus content. This is due to the increase in phosphorus segregation concentration of prior austenite grain boundaries (PAGBs) and the prior austenite grain boundary/carbide interfaces (GCIs) with increasing bulk phosphorus content. Moreover, the susceptibility is higher in tungsten-added steels than the molybdenum-added steel. This is attributed to the higher driving force for carbide formation of tungsten which causes more active carbide formation in the tungsten-added steel, the consequent absence of the repulsive segregation between carbon and phosphorus, and the final higher phosphorus segregation concentration at the PAGBs and the GCIs. Additionally, the absence of sulfur segregation at the PAGBs and the GCIs of the molybdenum-added steel, which arises from the repulsive segregation between carbon and sulfur, acts as an additional factor which lowers the intergranular cracking susceptibility.

  8. 微量 Zr、Er对导线用耐热铝合金性能的影响%Effects of trace elements Zr and Er on heat-resistance of aluminum alloy wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩钰; 夏延秋; 刘东雨; 祝志祥; 陈保安

    2015-01-01

    耐热铝合金导线是解决大容量输电的重要手段。研究了Zr和Er对耐热铝合金导电性、抗拉强度及耐热性的影响。结果表明,Zr含量在0.04%~0.1%范围变化时,耐热铝合金单丝的导电率逐渐降低,抗拉强度与耐热性均先升高后降低,Zr为0.08%时达到峰值;随着Er在0.03%~0.1%范围变化时,合金的抗拉强度和耐热性提高,而导电率先升高后降低,在Er为0.08%时达到峰值。%Heat-resistant aluminium alloys is an important measure to solve the problem of large capacity transmission .The effects of Zr and Er on conductivity , tensile strength , heat resistance of heat-resistance aluminum alloy were studied .The results show that the conductivity of heat resistant aluminium alloy drops down gradually ,and the tensile strength and heat resistance increase firstly and then decrease while Zr contents increased in the range of 0.04%-0.1%.The tensile strength and heat resistance reach the peak value at Zr content of 0.08%.The tensile strength and heat resistance of the alloy increase and the conductivity increases firstly and then decreases while Er contents increased in the range of 0.03%-0.1%.The conductivity reaches the peak when the content of Er content is 0.08%.

  9. A study on the creep properties more over 700 C of advanced heat resistant carbon, nitrogen and cobalt free alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muneki, Seiichi; Okubo, Hiroshi; Abe, Fujio [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    A new attempt has been demonstrated using carbon, nitrogen and cobalt free Fe-12Ni-5Cr-Mo alloys strengthened by Laves phase such as Fe{sub 2}Mo to achieve creep deformation at high temperatures and high stress levels. Creep resistance of Fe-12Ni-5Cr-5Mo-0.005B alloys remarkably increased at elevated temperatures over 700 C. As the transformation temperatures of A{sub c1} and A{sub c3} of these alloys indicated remarkably low, the microstructure of these alloys was reverted austenite during the creep test over 700 C. Creep properties were extremely improved more over 700 C by the addition of boron, which depends on the effect of retardation of the recovery process and that the suppression of recrystallization of these alloys. Creep life of the Fe-12Ni-5Cr-10Mo-0.2Ti-0.1Al-0.005B alloy was drastically extended from 13h at 700 C and 300MPa to 2,100h at 700 C and 200MPa. Creep resistance in the Fe-12Ni alloys depends on the unrecrystallized austenite structure and a fine and uniform distribution of precipitates during creep tests. And that long term stability of microstructure works on the DSS operation effectively in the USC power plant. (orig.)

  10. Effects of oxidation on the impact energy of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 Charpy V-notch specimens heated in air at 6000 to 8000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 90SrF2 heat source being developed at PNL utilizes a Hastelloy S or Hastelloy C-4 outer capsule having a 0.5-in.-thick wall to contain the Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule. The primary objective of the study was to demonstrate that the air oxidation of the outer capsule that could occur during heat-source service would not degrade the ductility and Charpy impact strength of the capsule below the licensing requirements given in Section 1.1. The 90SrF2 heat source under development is intended for general-purpose use. Compatibility considerations limit the interface temperature between the 90SrF2 and Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule to a maximum of 8000C. The outer capsule surface temperature will be somewhat less than 8000C, and depending on the service, may be substantially lower. The oxidation tests were therefore carried out at 6000 to 8000C for exposures up to 10,000h to cover the range of temperature the outer capsule might expect to encounter in service. The results showed that the oxidation of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 in air at 6000 to 8000C is very slow, and both alloys form adherent oxide layers that serve to protect the underlying metal. Subsurface attack of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 due to oxidation was greater than expected, considering the slow oxidation rates of the two alloys at 6000 to 8000C. Estimates of subsurface attack, determined from micrographs of the oxidized specimens, showed erratic results and it was impossible to assign any type of rate equation to the subsurface attack. A conservative estimate of long-term effects can be made using a linear extrapolation of the test results. There were no significant differences between the room-temperature Charpy impact energy of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 specimens oxidized in air at 6000 to 8000C and control specimens heated in vacuum

  11. 高硅合金耐热铸铁生产球墨铸铁模具的研制%Research on producing ductile iron mould with high silicon alloy heat resistant cast iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁冰利; 王宏亮; 韩黎

    2012-01-01

    对铸铁模具使用工况进行了分析,采用了高硅合金耐热铸铁为生产球墨铸铁模具的材质,并介绍了高硅合金耐热球墨铸铁模具的消失模铸造工艺、冶炼工艺、热处理工艺以及该材质模具的实际使用效果.实际生产表明:高硅合金耐热球墨铸铁具有优越的综合耐热疲劳性能,大大提高了模具寿命.%The actual operating conditions of cast iron mould were analyzed. The silicon alloy heat resistant cast iron was adopted to produce ductile iron mould, and the lost foam casting process, smelting process, heat treatment process of the high silicon alloy heat resistant ductile iron mould as well as the actual use effect of the mould with this material were introduced. The practical production shows that the high silicon alloy heat resistant cast iron has superior heat-resistant and fatigue properties, which improves the mould life.

  12. 脉冲激光焊接Hastelloy C-276合金的熔池流动传热特性分析%Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in weld pool during pulsed laser welding Hastelloy C-276 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东江; 王占宏; 马广义; 杨义彬; 郭玉泉; 郭东明

    2012-01-01

    基于流体动力学方程和传热方程建立了三维瞬态模型,用于研究脉冲激光焊接0.5 mm厚Hastelloy薄板时熔池的流动行为及传热特性.应用Fluent软件,采用有限容积法(FVM)求解控制方程,用SIMPLE算法处理速度与压力的耦合.引入Pe来衡量焊接熔池中对流传热与传导传热的相对强弱,并以此分析焊接熔池的传热特性.结果表明:沿焊接方向,焊接熔池的流动速度随着离熔池中心距离的增加先增加后减小;在给定试验条件下,熔池流动速度在离熔池中心0.2 mm左右时出现最大值,且沿焊接方向前方稍大于后方,而后迅速减小为零;焊接熔池中对流的存在使得焊接熔池熔深较小而熔宽较大;最终的焊接形貌由对流传热与传导传热相互作用而成.对焊缝形貌的数值模拟结果与实验结果进行了比较,计算结果与实验结果吻合较好.此模型可为脉冲激光焊接Hastelloy C-276薄板时熔池流体流动行为的分析提供理论依据.%A 3D transient model was established based on the theories of fluid dynamics and heat transfer to analyze the fluid flow and the heat transfer characteristics in the liquid pool when a pulse laser was used to weld the Hastelloy C-276 alloy. On the basis of software Fluent, the Finite Volume Method (FVM) was employed to solve the control equations and the algorithm of SIMPLE was adopted to deal with the coupling of velocity and pressure. The Pe number was induced to evaluate the relative importance of convection and conduction then to analyze the heat transfer characteristics of welding pool. The research indicates that fluid flow velocities along the welding direction in the liquid pool increase with the increasing of the distance from the melting pool center, and then decrease. Under the given conditions, the maximum flow velocity is firstly found at the 0. 2 mm from the melting pool center, then it reduces to zero rapidly and velocities in front of the

  13. Effect of rare earth alloying on creep rupture of economical 21Cr-11Ni-N heat-resistant austenitic steel at 650 °C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雷; 龙红军; 刘鑫刚; 金淼; 马筱聪

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rare earth (RE) on creep rupture of economical 21Cr-11Ni-N heat-resistant austenitic steel was investigated at 650 °C under different stress levels. It was found that RE could increase the time to creep rupture, especially at long-term creep dura-tion. The logarithm of the time to creep rupture (lgtr) was a linear function of the applied stress (σ). RE addition was favorable to gen-erating a high fraction of low-coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries which was a possible cause for improving the creep rupture resistance. The fracture surface of RE-added steel exhibited less intergranular cracks suggesting the alteration on the nature of grain boundaries due to the presence of RE. RE addition changed the morphology of the intergranular chromium carbides from continuous network shape to fragmentary distribution which was another cause for longer creep duration. These results strongly suggested that the effect of RE alloying played a crucial role in improving the creep rupture resistance.

  14. Investigation of residual stresses in welded joints of heat-resistant magnesium alloy ML10 after electrodynamic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Lobanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In repair of aircraft structures of magnesium alloy ML10, the argon arc non-consumable electrode welding is used. In this case, the residual welding stresses occur in repair welds, being one of the causes for reducing the service characteristics of the restored products. Residual stresses arise as a result of welding. Post-weld heat treatment is used to reduce the residual stresses. The heat treatment, which occurs after welding, increases the cost of repair. This leads to the search for alternative methods to control the stressed state of welded joints, one of which is electrodynamic treatment, which reduces the level of residual stresses in repair welds, and as a consequence, the cost of the welding repair in restoring aircraft structures. It was found from the results of experiments carried out, that the electrodynamic treatment allows reduces the initial level of stresses in welded joints, reaching 120 MPa, to 30 MPa, and at definite geometric characteristics of the specimens forming the field of compressive stresses, the values of which are equal to –50 MPa. It is shown that the optimum distance between the zones of treatment, being 5 mm, provides the guaranteed covering the zones of electrodynamic effect and, as a consequence, the maximum efficiency of the electric dynamic treatment.

  15. Production of diffusion heat-resistant coatings on niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of producing diffusion heat-resistant coatings on the 5VMTs niobium alloy has been investigated. Coating heat-resistance was investigated in the air at 800-1100 deg C. Given are brief characteristics of diffusion coatings produced. It is shown, that the Re and V coatings have satisfactory protective properties

  16. Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of CrN and CrN/TiN Coated Heat-Resistant Steels in Molten Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinCS; PengH

    2001-01-01

    The components of the equipment for processing the Al melts into the molded parts can be markedly corroded by the molten Al. In this study, a 4 μm CrN coating or CrN/TiN multilayer coating for providing the physical and chemical barriers between the molten reactive Al and the steel substrate were deposited by Cathodic Arc Evaporation onto 10 mm-thick heat-resistant steel plates. The dipping tests were conducted in a 700℃ A356 melt for 1 to 21 h at intervals of 3 h. The damage of the coated steel was eva...

  17. A Study on the High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Hastelloy X and Inconel 713C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to preserve surface stability and mechanical properties of the substrate materials, coatings are applied to the alloy surfaces for the high temperature applications. Even with the application of coating, the substrate materials must also have its own resistance to the high temperature oxidation because the substrate may be catastrophically degraded when coatings are failed. In this research, Ni-base superalloys, IN 713C and Hastelloy X for the substrate materials of coatings, were examined by the isothermal and cyclic oxidation experiments. In the isothermal oxidation experiments, the dominant protective oxide scale of Hastelloy X was Cr2O3 and that of IN 713C was the Al-rich oxide scale. Both alloys formed protective oxide scales, and showed good isothermal oxidation resistance but IN 713C showed better oxidation resistance than Hastelloy X owing to the formation of Al-rich oxide scales. Also for cyclic oxidation experiments, due to the favorable adhesion between the substrate and oxide scales, IN 713C having thin Al-rich oxide scales showed better oxidation resistance than Hastelloy X throughout the temperature ranges tested. Comparing these two alloys IN 713C had better oxidation resistance but both alloys showed good oxidation resistance up to 1000 .deg. C

  18. Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

    CERN Document Server

    SAE Aerospace Standards. London

    2012-01-01

    Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

  19. Development and application of heat resistance stainless steel micro alloying with rare earth elements%稀土元素微合金化耐热不锈钢的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙长庆

    2016-01-01

    Austenitic heat resisting stainless steels were alloyed by optimizing chemical composition and adding small amount of rare earths,N and Si.The effect of these elements on the typical grade Therma 253MA was studied by means of high temperature tensile and oxidation tests.The results show that the strength at ambient temperature and the creep strength are increased largely and oxidation resistance in dry air is improved.These properties of Therma 253MA are superior to those of commonly used austenitic heat resisting stainless steels 310S and 309S.In many cases,Therma 253MA steel can replace 310S and 309S,providing prolonged life time of equipment and reducing amount of material used with a obvious benefit for the future.%对奥氏体耐热不锈钢进行合理合金化,在化学成分方面进行了优化,加入了微量的稀土元素,适量的氮和硅元素.以典型钢种Therma 253MA为例,通过高温力学性能和氧化试验,对这些元素的作用进行了研究.结果表明,合金化后Therma 253MA的室温强度和高温蠕变强度都有较大的提高,干燥空气中的抗氧化性能也大大改善,性能均优越于目前常用奥氏体耐热不锈钢309S和310S等钢种.在许多情况下,Therma 253MA 可以完全取代310S和309S,延长设备的使用寿命、减少材料用量,经济效益明显.

  20. Phase precipitation and time-temperature-transformation diagram of Hastelloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to study the phase precipitation in Hastelloy X heat-treated at 750, 850, and 900 C for 26 and 100 h. Phase identification was made by electron micro-diffraction and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) X-ray micro-chemical analysis. In addition to the fcc matrix, four different precipitation phases were observed: M6C, M23C6, σ, and μ. The current observations were combined with literature results to build a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for this alloy. This TTT diagram depicted time-temperature regimes where various phases were formed; thus, it provided information about the general precipitation kinetics for the alloy. (orig.)

  1. Air oxidation and seawater corrosion of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is currently under way at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop the data and technology needed to permit the licensing of 90SrF2 as a radioisotope heat source fuel for terrestrial applications. The WESF 90SrF2 storage capsule consists of a Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule (2 in. I.D. x 19 in. long) and a 316L stainless steel outer capsule (2-3/8 in. I.D. x 20 in. long). Preliminary experimental tests and theoretical calculations show that the WESF storage capsule is incapable of meeting current licensing requirements for heat sources that are to be used for terrestrial applications. Therefore, the DOE decision was to develop a new heat source design that would retain the existing WESF Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule and replace the current WESF outer capsule with a new outer capsule capable of meeting current licensing requirements. Based on a number of factors, Hastelloy S was selected as the outer capsule material. Hastelloy C-4 was selected as a backup material in case the Hastelloy S had to be rejected for any reason. This report summarizes the results of studies carried out to determine the effects of both air oxidation at heat source operating temperatures and seawater corrosion on the tensile properties of the outer capsule materials

  2. Larson-Miller Constant of Heat-Resistant Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Manabu; Abe, Fujio; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2013-06-01

    Long-term rupture data for 79 types of heat-resistant steels including carbon steel, low-alloy steel, high-alloy steel, austenitic stainless steel, and superalloy were analyzed, and a constant for the Larson-Miller (LM) parameter was obtained in the current study for each material. The calculated LM constant, C, is approximately 20 for heat-resistant steels and alloys except for high-alloy martensitic steels with high creep resistance, for which C ≈ 30 . The apparent activation energy was also calculated, and the LM constant was found to be proportional to the apparent activation energy with a high correlation coefficient, which suggests that the LM constant is a material constant possessing intrinsic physical meaning. The contribution of the entropy change to the LM constant is not small, especially for several martensitic steels with large values of C. Deformation of such martensitic steels should accompany a large entropy change of 10 times the gas constant at least, besides the entropy change due to self-diffusion.

  3. Developing and Studying the Methods of Hard-Facing with Heat-Resisting High-Hardness Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malushin, N. N.; Kovalev, A. P.; Valuev, D. V.; Shats, E. A.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-08-01

    The authors develop the methods of hard-facing of mining-metallurgic equipment parts with heat-resisting high-hardness steels on the base of plasma-jet hard-facing in the shielding-alloying nitrogen atmosphere.

  4. Creep properties and simulation of weld repaired low alloy heat resistant CrMo and Mo steels at 540 deg C. Sub project 1 - Ex-serviced parent metal and virgin weld metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui Wu; Storesund, Jan; Borggreen, Kjeld; Weilin Zang

    2006-10-15

    Many existing power generating and process plants, where low alloy heat resistant CrMo(V) steels are extensively used for critical components, have exceeded their design lifetime of usually 100,000 hours. Assessment of residual lifetime and extension of economic life by weld repair have become increasingly important and attractive. This project aims at i) performing weld repair and determining the degree of mismatching, ii) evaluating the creep properties of weld repairs, iii) analysing creep behaviour of weld repair and providing necessary data for further reliable simulations of weld repair creep behaviour in long term service, and iv), simulating and assessing lifetime and creep damage evolution of weld repair. Weld repair using 10 CrMo 9 10, 13 CrMo 4 4 and 15 Mo 3 consumables has been carried out in a service-exposed 10 CrMo 9 10 pipe. Creep specimens have been extracted from the service-exposed 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal (PM), from the virgin 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal (WM), from the virgin 13 CrMo 4 4 WM as well as from the virgin 15 Mo 3 WM. Iso-thermal uniaxial creep tests have been performed at 540 deg C in air. Pre- and post-metallography are carried out on the selected samples. FEM simulations using obtained creep data are executed. Pre-test metallography shows normal and acceptable weld repairs at given welding conditions. Creep tests demonstrate that the virgin 10 CrMo 9 10, 13 CrMo 4 4 and 15 Mo 3 WMs have apparently longer creep lifetime than the service-exposed CrMo 9 10 PM at higher stresses than 110 MPa. Among the weld metals, the longest creep lifetime is found in 10 CrMo 9 10. Higher creep strength and lower creep strain rate in the weld metals indicate an overmatch weld. At 95 MPa, however, lifetime of 13 CrMo 4 4 WM is surprisingly short (factors which may shorten lifetime are discussed and one more test will start to verify creep strength at low stress) and tests are still running for other two weld metals. More results regarding low stress

  5. Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys and Coatings for Die inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Edward Courtright; Harold Adkins

    2005-01-30

    This project had two main objectives: (1) To design, fabricate and run a full size test for evaluating soldering and washout in die insert materials. This test utilizes the unique capabilities of the 350 Ton Squeeze Casting machine available in the Case Meal Casting Laboratory. Apply the test to evaluate resistance of die materials and coating, including heat resistant alloys to soldering and washout damage. (2) To evaluate materials and coatings, including heat resistant superalloys, for use as inserts in die casting of aluminum alloys.

  6. Hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N with different surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Andrew J.; Walton, Kyle L.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Viswanath, Dabir S.; Tompson, Robert V.

    2012-07-01

    The hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N (a candidate structural material for Next Generation Nuclear Plants (NGNPs), particularly for the molten fluoride cooled reactors) was measured using an experimental set-up that was constructed in accordance with the standard ASTM C835-06. The material surface conditions included: (i) 'as received' (original) sample from the supplier; (ii) samples with increased surface roughness through sand blasting; (iii) oxidized surface, and (iv) samples coated with graphite powder. The emissivity of the as received samples varied from around 0.22 to 0.28 in the temperature range of 473 K to 1498 K. The emissivity increased when the roughness of the surface increased compared to an as received sample. When Hastelloy N was oxidized in air at 1153 K or coated with graphite powder, its emissivity increased substantially. The sample sand blasted with 60 grit beads and sprinkled with graphite powder showed an increase of emissivity from 0.2 to 0.60 at 473 K and from 0.25 to 0.67 at 1473 K. The oxidized surface showed a similar behavior: an increase in emissivity compared to an unoxidized sample. This increase in emissivity has strong favorable safety implications in terms of decay heat removal in post-accident environments. The data were compared with another Hastelloy family member, Hastelloy X.

  7. Hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N with different surface conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N (a candidate structural material for Next Generation Nuclear Plants (NGNPs), particularly for the molten fluoride cooled reactors) was measured using an experimental set-up that was constructed in accordance with the standard ASTM C835-06. The material surface conditions included: (i) ‘as received’ (original) sample from the supplier; (ii) samples with increased surface roughness through sand blasting; (iii) oxidized surface, and (iv) samples coated with graphite powder. The emissivity of the as received samples varied from around 0.22 to 0.28 in the temperature range of 473 K to 1498 K. The emissivity increased when the roughness of the surface increased compared to an as received sample. When Hastelloy N was oxidized in air at 1153 K or coated with graphite powder, its emissivity increased substantially. The sample sand blasted with 60 grit beads and sprinkled with graphite powder showed an increase of emissivity from 0.2 to 0.60 at 473 K and from 0.25 to 0.67 at 1473 K. The oxidized surface showed a similar behavior: an increase in emissivity compared to an unoxidized sample. This increase in emissivity has strong favorable safety implications in terms of decay heat removal in post-accident environments. The data were compared with another Hastelloy family member, Hastelloy X.

  8. Hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N with different surface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Andrew J.; Walton, Kyle L. [Particulate Systems Research Center, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ghosh, Tushar K., E-mail: ghoshT@missouri.edu [Particulate Systems Research Center, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Viswanath, Dabir S.; Tompson, Robert V. [Particulate Systems Research Center, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N (a candidate structural material for Next Generation Nuclear Plants (NGNPs), particularly for the molten fluoride cooled reactors) was measured using an experimental set-up that was constructed in accordance with the standard ASTM C835-06. The material surface conditions included: (i) 'as received' (original) sample from the supplier; (ii) samples with increased surface roughness through sand blasting; (iii) oxidized surface, and (iv) samples coated with graphite powder. The emissivity of the as received samples varied from around 0.22 to 0.28 in the temperature range of 473 K to 1498 K. The emissivity increased when the roughness of the surface increased compared to an as received sample. When Hastelloy N was oxidized in air at 1153 K or coated with graphite powder, its emissivity increased substantially. The sample sand blasted with 60 grit beads and sprinkled with graphite powder showed an increase of emissivity from 0.2 to 0.60 at 473 K and from 0.25 to 0.67 at 1473 K. The oxidized surface showed a similar behavior: an increase in emissivity compared to an unoxidized sample. This increase in emissivity has strong favorable safety implications in terms of decay heat removal in post-accident environments. The data were compared with another Hastelloy family member, Hastelloy X.

  9. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan eMercer; Jinshui eZheng; Rigoberto eGarcia-Hernandez; Lifang eRuan; Michael eGänzle; Lynn eMcMullen

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 mi...

  10. Isolation, Identification of Heat Resistant Moulds in Margarine and Determination of Their Heat Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Demirci

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moulds that cause problems in a margarine production plant which is located in Trakyaregion have been isolated and identified. In addition to, their heat resistance and lipolytic activity werestudied. For this purpose, margarine samples from various production lots and process water samples fromproduction plant were taken aseptically, transported immediately to the laboratory and analyzed. In thisresearch, two different heat resistant mould strains have been isolated from margarines and process water.After identification of this moulds, their heat resistances at different temperatures have been investigated.Mould isolates were identified as heat resistant Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii based onmacroscopic and microscopic features. To this analyses results about thermal resistance, Aspergillusfumigatus and Paecilomyces variotii were ability to survive heat treatment at 95oC 10 minutes and 90oC 10minutes, respectively.

  11. Effect of strain rate on high-temperature low-cycle fatigue behavior of hastelloy X and hastelloy XR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of strain controlled low-cycle fatigue tests at 900 deg C in the simulated HTGR helium environment were conducted on Hastelloy X and its modified version, Hastelloy XR, and the effect of strain rate on high-temperature low-cycle fatigue behavior was investigated. The results of this study provide the following conclusions; (1) Decreasing the strain rate led to notable reductions in the fatigue life. (2) Trends of strain softening and cyclic softening were observed at lower strain rates of 1 x 10-4 s-1 and 2 x 10-5 s-1. (3) Both fracture modes of the transgranular and the intergranular were recognized on the fracture surfaces, with the former mode being predominant at a comparatively high strain rate of 1 x 10-3 s-1. The intergranular fracture mode, however, became predominant at lower strain rates, 1 x 10-4 s-1 and 2 x 10-5 s-1. (4) The cumulative damage rule predicted an excessively coservative value for creep damage. (5) The data obtained lay on the straight line plots when the frequency modified fatigue life method was applied. No significant difference in fatigue behavior was resolved between Hastelloy X and Hastelloy XR under the test conditions employed. (author)

  12. Machinability of Hastelloy C-276 Using Hot-pressed Sintered Ti(C7N3)-based Cermet Cutting Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Kaitao; ZOU Bin; HUANG Chuanzhen; YAO Yang; ZHOU Huijun; LIU Zhanqiang

    2015-01-01

    C-276 nickel-based alloy is a difficult-to-cut material. In high-speed machining of Hastelloy C-276, notching is a prominent fallure mode due to high mechanical properties of work piece, which results in the short tool life and low productivity. In this paper, a newly developed Ti(C7N3)-based cermet insert manufactured by a hot-pressing method is used to machine the C-276 nickel-based alloy, and its cutting performances are studied. Based on orthogonal experiment method, the influence of cutting parameters on tool life, material removal rates and surface roughness are investigated. Experimental research results indicate that the optimal cutting condition is a cutting speed of 50 m/min, depth of cut of 0.4 mm and feed rate of 0.15 mm/r if the tool life and material removal rates are considered comprehensively. In this case, the tool life is 32 min and material removal rates are 3000 mm3/min, which is appropriate to the rough machining. If the tool life and surface roughness are considered, the better cutting condition is a cutting speed of 75 m/min, depth of cut of 0.6 mm and feed rate of 0.1 mm/r. In this case, the surface roughness is 0.59mm. Notch wear, flank wear, chipping at the tool nose, built-up edge(BUE) and micro-cracks are found when Ti(C7N3)-based cermet insert turned Hastelloy C-276. Oxidation, adhesive, abrasive and diffusion are the wear mechanisms, which can be investigated by the observations of scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. This research will help to guide studies on the evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy C-276 machining.

  13. Creep properties of Hastelloy X in a carburizing helium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we investigate the environmental effect on the creep behavior of Hastelloy X at 9000C in helium and air. Since helium coolant in HTGR is expected to be carburizing and very weakly oxidizing for most metals, testings were focused on the effect of carburizing and slight oxidation. Carburization decreases secondary creep strain rate and delays tertiary creep initiation. On the other hand, the crack growth rate on the specimen surface is enhanced due to very weak oxidation in helium, therefore the tertiary creep strain rate becomes larger than that in air. The rupture time of Hastelloy X was shorter in helium when compared with in air. Stress versus rupture time curves for both environments do not deviate with each other during up to 5000 hours test, and a ratio of rupture stress in helium to that in air was about 0.9

  14. Effectiveness of diffusion coatings of noble metals for heat resistance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish the possibility of palladium coatings substitution for platinum ones a study was made on heat resistance of these coatings for 5VMTs niobium alloy at 1150 deg C. Coatings were applied at 950 deg C by diffusion method in lithium melt with addition of 3 mas% palladium or platinum. Heat resistance tests of samples with coatings were conducted in the air during 100 h. The efficiency of protective coatings was evaluated by gravimetric and metallographic methods. It was established that palladium coating thickness changes less intensively as compared to platinum one and is controlled by the process of formation of dense film of hard oxide preventing evaporation of metallic palladium. It was concluded that substitution of niobium alloy palladization for platinization is possible

  15. High temperature corrosion of cast heat resisting steels in CO + CO2 gas mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Nan; Monceau, Daniel; Young, David; Furtado, Jader

    2008-01-01

    Two commercial variants of the cast heat resistant grade HP40Nb (Fe–25Cr–35Ni, Nb modified) were exposed to CO/CO2 gases at 982 and 1080 C in order to simulate exposure to the carbon and oxygen potentials realised in steam reformers under normal and overheated conditions. Both alloys developed external chromium-rich oxide scales, intradendritic silica precipitates and interdendritic oxide protrusions where primary, interdendritic carbides were oxidised in situ. Surprisingly, the lower silicon...

  16. Niobium effect on structure and heat resistance of Si-Ti-Mo gaseous deposited coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine a critical niobium content in protective silicide coatings investigation into niobium effect on the structure, phase composition and heat resistance of scale-resistant alloys of silicon-rich corner of the Si-Ti-Mo system, powders of which are used for production of gaseous deposited protective coatings on niobium and its alloys is conducted. It is stated that Si-Ti-Mo alloying with up to 20 mass% niobium at quantity ratio Csub(Ti)/Csub(Mo)=1:3 and at presence of free silicon Ssub(free) >= 0% does not change phase composition of alloys and it does not practically affect their heat resistance. Niobium is dissolved complex silicide Tisub(0.4-0.95) Mosub(0.6-0.05)-Sisub(2). Rate of oxidation of the mentioned alloys slightly decreases at formation of molybdenum-rich (Ti, Mo)Si2 silicide in the initial structure. Increase of niobium content in Si-Ti-Mo-Nb alloys results in change of oxide film structure under high-temperature oxidation bringing about its active crystallization

  17. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan eMercer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR. This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli.

  18. Heat resistance of Fe-Al intermetallics in the context of selected heat-resistant and hihg-temperature creep resistant steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baranowski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Results are hereby presented of heat-resistance tests of two Fe3Al and FeAl intermetallic phase-based alloys in the context of St41k-typeboiler steel and 50H21G9N4 high-temperature creep resistant steel. It has been ascertained that heat resistance of the 50H21G9N4 steeland of the Fe3Al and FeAl intermetallic phase-based alloys significantly exceeds that of the boiler steel tested in the air atmosphere and the atmosphere of a flue gas with CO, CO2, SiO2 content alike. Improvement of these properties depends of exposure conditions. The largest differences have been observed when the tests were carried out in temperature 1023 K and in the flue gas atmosphere. The differences have been more and more noticeable as the exposition duration extended. A tendency has been also recorded of smaller mass decrements of the Fe3Al and FeAl intermetallic phase-based alloys as compared to the 50H21G9N4 steel.

  19. Fatigue crack propagation in Hastelloy X weld metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatigue crack growth rate of Hastelloy X weld metal increased with stress intensity, temperature, and inverse frequency. The results were correlated with the equation da/dN = (ΔK)/sup n/, for constant frequency or constant temperature. The values of A and n were computed with a linear regression algorithm. With decreasing frequency at constant ΔK and constant temperature (5380C) fatigue crack growth rates approach an upper limit. Fatigue crack growth rate of the weld metal was lower than that reported for base metal at 5380C and lower at 6490C for a frequency of 1 Hz

  20. Weldability of the superalloys Haynes 188 and Hastelloy X by Nd:YAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graneix Jérémie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The requirements for welded aircraft parts have become increasingly severe, especially in terms of the reproducibility of the geometry and metallurgical grade of the weld bead. Laser welding is a viable method of assembly to meet these new demands, because of automation, to replace the manual TIG welding process. The purpose of this study is to determine the weldability of Hastelloy X and Haynes 188 alloys by the butt welding process with a Nd:YAG laser. To identify the influential parameters of the welding process (laser power, feed rate, focal diameter and flow of gas while streamlining testing, an experimental design was established with the CORICO software using the graphic correlation method. The position of the focal point was fixed at 1/3 of the thickness of the sheet. The gas flow rate and the power of the beam have a major effect on the mechanical properties and geometry of the weld. The strength of the weld is comparable to that of the base metal. However, there is a significant decrease in the elongation at break of approximately 30%. The first observations of the cross section of the weld by scanning electron microscopy coupled with EBSD analysis show a molten zone presenting dendritic large grains compared to the equiaxed grains of the base metals without a heat affected zone.

  1. The strain-controlled fatigue behavior and modeling of Haynes HASTELLOY C-2000 superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniels, R.L., E-mail: rmcdanie@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, 434 Dougherty Hall, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States); Chen, L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, 434 Dougherty Hall, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110023 (China); Steward, R.; Liaw, P.K.; Buchanan, R.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, 434 Dougherty Hall, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States); White, Steve; Liaw, Kevin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, 434 Dougherty Hall, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110023 (China); Haynes International, Inc., 1020 West Park Avenue, P.O. Box 9013, Kokomo, IN 46904-9013 (United States); Klarstrom, D.L. [Haynes International, Inc., 1020 West Park Avenue, P.O. Box 9013, Kokomo, IN 46904-9013 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted at temperatures of 24 deg. C, 204 deg. C, and 427 deg. C. {yields} Metallographic and fractographic characterization was performed. {yields} Coffin-Manson and Holloman curves were generated. {yields} A strain energy theoretical life prediction model was introduced. - Abstract: The strain-controlled fatigue behavior of the new nickel-chromium-molybdenum superalloy, HASTELLOY C-2000 was investigated. Low-cycle fatigue specimens were tested in strain-controlled fatigue conditions under axial strain range control at 24 deg. C, 204 deg. C and 427 deg. C. The results indicated that at total strain ranges below 0.8%, temperature does not significantly influence fatigue life, whereas at high total strain ranges, there is a significant drop in fatigue life at 427 deg. C. At room temperature and 204 deg. C, the cyclic stress response was cyclic hardening, followed by cyclic stability, cyclic hardening, or cyclic softening, depending on the total strain range. At 427 deg. C, only cyclic hardening was observed. Fractographic and metallographic analyses were also conducted. The strain-life and Holloman relation parameters are calculated. A theoretical model that predicts the life of this alloy under the tested conditions using the plastic strain energy method is also presented. The results of the theoretical model are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  2. HEAT-RESISTANT COMPOSITES CURED BY ELECTRON BEAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-wen Bao; Yang Li; Xiang-bao Chen; Feng-mei Li

    2001-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) curing of composites has many advantages. Heat-resistant EB-curing composites could substitute polyimide composites used in aeronautical engines. In this paper, the effects of catalyst and dose on the cured resin were investigated. The heat-resistance of the resin cured by EB was evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The experimental results show that the mechanical properties of the composites cured by EB could meet the specifications of aeronautical engines at 250°C.

  3. Koch–Haaf reaction of adamantanols in an acid-tolerant hastelloy-made microreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide Fukuyama

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Koch–Haaf reaction of adamantanols was successfully carried out in a microflow system at room temperature. By combining an acid-tolerant hastelloy-made micromixer, a PTFE tube, and a hastelloy-made microextraction unit, a packaged reaction-to-workup system was developed. By means of the present system, the multigram scale synthesis of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid was achieved in ca. one hour operation.

  4. Thermal response of heat-resistant layer with pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Haiming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A model is developed for analyzing the thermal response of the heat-resistant layer composed of high silica fiber reinforced phenolic matrix composites(SiO2/P and aluminum, in which pyrolysis and phase transitions are exsited, such as melt, vaporization and sublimation. Based on this model, the thermal response of the heat-resistant layer with different SiO2/P thickness is calculated under a heat flux by using FORTRAN codes. As indicated in the results, the slope of temperature gets a sudden decline at the pyrolysis interface, which is due to the latent heat of pyrolysis; the thickness of heat-resistant layer has little influence on the heating-surface temperature, however, the back temperature may increase with the decreasing thickness; and the thermal conductivity of carbonized layer is very important to thermal response.

  5. Study on the heat-resistant EB curing composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Jianwen; Li Yang [Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing (China); Li Fengmei [Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China)

    2000-03-01

    There are many advantages in the EB-curing process of composites. Heat-resistant EB-curing composites could substitute for polyimide composites used in aeronautical engine. The effects of catalyst and dose on the cured resin were investigated. The heat-resistance of the resin cured by EB was evaluated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The experiment result shows that the mechanical property of the composites cured by EB could meet the needs of the aeronautical engine in 250degC. (author)

  6. Thermal response of heat-resistant layer with pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Haiming; Xiaoliang Xu; Huang Guo; Zhang Zimao

    2012-01-01

    A model is developed for analyzing the thermal response of the heat-resistant layer composed of high silica fiber reinforced phenolic matrix composites(SiO2/P) and aluminum, in which pyrolysis and phase transitions are exsited, such as melt, vaporization and sublimation. Based on this model, the thermal response of the heat-resistant layer with different SiO2/P thickness is calculated under a heat flux by using FORTRAN codes. As indicated in the results, the slope of temperature gets a ...

  7. High temperature protective silicide coatings for titanium-niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accomplished investigation of heat resistance of silicide coatings on titanium - (30-50)% niobium alloys has revealed that the coatings ensure reliable corrosion protection up to 1100 deg due to formation of heat resistant disilicides and a silicon dioxide layer on alloy surface. Silicide coatings possess particular ductility

  8. Diversity and biology of heat-resistant fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houbraken, J.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Samson, R.A.; Wong, Hin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Heat-resistant fungi survive high temperatures (75°C or more for at least 30 min). For food microbiology, these fungi are of interest because of spoilage of canned and pasteurized food products, and cause damage for millions of dollars in the fruit-juice and beverage branch. Many studies have been c

  9. Applying Tep Measurements to Assess the Response of Hastelloy to Long Time Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifergane, S.; Gelbstein, Y.; Dahan, I.; Pinkas, M.; Landau, A.

    2009-03-01

    Hastelloy C-276 service temperature is restricted due to precipitation of the intermetallic compound μ. Time-temperature curves indicate that the highest precipitation rate is obtained at about 870° C. Thermoelectric Power (TEP) measurements were applied to monitor the precipitation kinetics during aging at 870° C. The TEP was found to be well correlated with the amount of μ phase formed during aging and with the reduction in impact energy and ductility. It was demonstrated that TEP measurements could be used to monitor aging of Hastelloy C-276.

  10. Leather Coated with Mixtures of Humectant and Antioxidants to Improve UV and Heat Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultraviolet (UV) and heat resistance are very important qualities for leather products. We recently developed an environmentally friendly finishing process for improving the UV- and heat resistance of automobile upholstery leather. We previously reported and demonstrated some promising results fro...

  11. The synthesis of thermite heat and heat-resistant steels

    OpenAIRE

    Жигуц, Юрій Юрійович

    2013-01-01

    The present paper the basic solutions to the problem of obtaining heat-resistant steels examined the use of thermite steels, the benefits of combining thermite steels with metallotermic methods of getting is showed. The advantages of metallotermic synthesis methods include: autonomy of processes, independence of energy sources, simplicity of equipment, high-performance process and easy transition from experimental research to industrial production. The need to developed the technology of synt...

  12. Systematic Assessment of Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum Spores for Heat Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Sandra C.; Barker, Gary C.; Peck, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heat treatment is an important controlling factor that, in combination with other hurdles (e.g., pH, aw), is used to reduce numbers and prevent the growth of and associated neurotoxin formation by nonproteolytic C. botulinum in chilled foods. It is generally agreed that a heating process that reduces the spore concentration by a factor of 106 is an acceptable barrier in relation to this hazard. The purposes of the present study were to review the available data relating to heat resistance properties of nonproteolytic C. botulinum spores and to obtain an appropriate representation of parameter values suitable for use in quantitative microbial risk assessment. In total, 753 D values and 436 z values were extracted from the literature and reveal significant differences in spore heat resistance properties, particularly those corresponding to recovery in the presence or absence of lysozyme. A total of 503 D and 338 z values collected for heating temperatures at or below 83°C were used to obtain a probability distribution representing variability in spore heat resistance for strains recovered in media that did not contain lysozyme. IMPORTANCE In total, 753 D values and 436 z values extracted from literature sources reveal significant differences in spore heat resistance properties. On the basis of collected data, two z values have been identified, z = 7°C and z = 9°C, for spores recovered without and with lysozyme, respectively. The findings support the use of heat treatment at 90°C for 10 min to reduce the spore concentration by a factor of 106, providing that lysozyme is not present during recovery. This study indicates that greater heat treatment is required for food products containing lysozyme, and this might require consideration of alternative recommendation/guidance. In addition, the data set has been used to test hypotheses regarding the dependence of spore heat resistance on the toxin type and strain, on the heating technique used, and on the

  13. Studying microstructure of heat resistant steel deoxidized by barium ferrosilicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Issagulov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined the nature and distribution of non-metallic inclusions in the heat-resistant steel 12H1MF (0,12 % С, 1 % Сr, 0,5 - 0,6 Mo, 0,5 % V, ferrosilicobarim. As a reference, used by steel, deoxidized silicon. Melting was carried out in a laboratory, research-metallic inclusions, their shape and distribution, pollution index were studied according to conventional methods. Studies have shown that ferrosilicobarim deoxidation in an amount of 0,1 - 0,2 %, reduce the overall pollution index of non-metallic inclusions and change the nature of their distribution.

  14. Creep-rupture tests of internally pressurized Hastelloy-X tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumto, K. H.; Colantino, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    Seamless Hastelloy-X tubes with 0.375-in. outside diameter and 0.025-in. wall thickness were tested to failure at temperatures from 1400 to 1650 F and internal helium pressures from 800 to 1800 psi. Lifetimes ranged from 58 to 3600 hr. The creep-rupture strength of the tubes was from 20 to 40 percent lower than that of sheet specimens. Larson-Miller correlations and photomicrographs of some specimens are presented.

  15. Heat-resistant mechanism of transgenic rape by 45Ca isotope tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ca2+ uptake differences of the rape with heat-resistant gene and the general rape were investigated by 45Ca isotope tracer. The results showed that the rape with heat-resistant gene can strengthen the regulation of calcium absorption. The calcium regulation ability of the heat-resistant genes may be able to play in the rape aspect of the mechanism of resistance. (authors)

  16. Heat Resistance of TiN Coated HSS Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兰英; 周焕雷; 贾庆莲

    2003-01-01

    The cutting friction, cutting deformation, producing heat, conducting heat, temperature field of TiN coated HSS tools in the cutting process are discussed profoundly. In order to make clear the heat property of TiN coated tools, from the micromechanism angle, the relationship of the heat property and the crystal structure of TiN compound is analyzed, and the regularity of TiN compound crystal structure changing with temperature rising is sought. The difference of the wear resistance and heat resistance of TiN coated tools deposited by c1 and c2 depositing techniques is proved by tests. The conclusions will offer the theoretical basis for correct design of geometrical parameters of TiN coated tools, rational selection of cutting regimes and optimization of the depositing technique.

  17. Preselection of Ni-Cr(-Mo) alloys as potential canister materials for vitrified high active nuclear waste by electrochemical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bort, H.; Wolf, I.; Leistikow, S.

    1987-07-01

    Several Ni-Cr(-Mo) alloys (Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625, Sanicro 28, Incoloy 825, Inconel 690) were tested by electrochemical methods to characterize their corrosion behavior in chloride containing solutions at various temperatures and pH-values in respect to their application as canister materials for final radioactive waste storage. Especially, Hastelloy C4 was tested by potentiodynamic, potentiostatic and galvanostic measurements. As electrolytes H 2SO 4 solutions were used, as parameters temperature, chloride content and pH-value were varied. All tested alloys showed a clearly limited resistance against pitting corrosion phenomena; under severe conditions even crevice corrosion phenomena were observed. The best corrosion behavior, however, is shown by Hastelloy C4, which has the lowest passivation current density of all tested alloys and the largest potential region with protection against local corrosion phenomena.

  18. Preselection of Ni-Cr(-Mo) alloys as potential canister materials for vitrified high active nuclear waste by electrochemical testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bort, H.; Wolf, I.; Leistikow, S.

    1987-07-01

    Several Ni-Cr(-Mo) alloys (Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625, Sanicro 28, Incoloy 825, Inconel 690) were tested by electrochemical methods to characterize their corrosion behavior in chloride containing solutions at various temperatures and pH-values in respect to their application as canister materials for final radioactive waste storage. Especially, Hastelloy C4 was tested by potentiodynamic, potentiostatic and galvanostic measurements. As electrolytes H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions were used, as parameters temperature, chloride content and pH-value were varied. All tested alloys showed a clearly limited resistance against pitting corrosion phenomena; under severe conditions even crevice corrosion phenomena were observed. The best corrosion behavior, however, is shown by Hastelloy C4, which has the lowest passivation current density of all tested alloys and the largest potential region with protection against local corrosion phenomena.

  19. Effect of Aluminium and Silicon on High Temperature Oxidation Resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni Heat Resistant Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haitao; ZHAO Qi; YU Huashun; ZHANG Zhenya; CUI Hongwei; MIN Guanghui

    2009-01-01

    Fe-Cr-Ni heat resistant steels with different contents of Al and Si were cast in intermediate frequency induction furnace with non-oxidation method. With oxidation weight gain method, the oxidation resistance of test alloys was examined at 1 200℃ for 500 h. The effects of Al and Si on oxidation resistance were studied through analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is shown that the composition of oxide scales is a decisive factor for the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steels. The compounded scale composed of Cr2O3, ar-Al2O3, SiO2 and Fe(Ni)Cr2O4, with flat and compact structure, fine and even grains, exhibits complete oxidation resistance at 1 200℃ Its oxidation weight gain rate is only 0.081 g/(m2·h). By the criterion of standard Gibbs formation free energy, a model of nucleation and growth of the compounded scale was established. The formation of the compounded scale was the result of the competition of being oxidated and reduction among Al, Si, and the matrix metal elements of Fe, Cr and Ni. The protection of the compounded scale was analyzed from the perspectives of electrical conductivity and strength properties.

  20. Fatigue crack growth characteristic of hastelloy X in air at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatigue crack growth tests on Hastelloy X were conducted in air at 7500C and 9000C. Varied contribution of creep was given by choosing the stress ratio levels between 0 to 1. Three fracture modes were observed, i.e. transgranular fatigue mode, intergranular creep mode and transition from transgranular to intergranular mode, according to the degree of contribution of creep effect. In handling of the crack growth rate data with fracture mechanical parameter, da/dN-ΔK relation, da/dN-ΔJ relation and da/dt-j relation were found to be appropreate for the three modes respectively. (author)

  1. 2G HTS wires made on 30 μm thick Hastelloy substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, A.; Zhang, Y.; Knoll, A. R.; Abraimov, D.; Brownsey, P.; Kasahara, M.; Carota, G. M.; Nakasaki, R.; Cameron, J. B.; Schwab, G.; Hope, L. V.; Schmidt, R. M.; Kuraseko, H.; Fukushima, T.; Hazelton, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    REBCO (RE = rare earth) based high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires are now being utilized for the development of electric and electromagnetic devices for various industrial, scientific and medical applications. In the last several years, the increasing efforts in using the so-called second generation (2G) HTS wires for some of the applications require a further increase in their engineering current density (J e). The applications are those typically related to high magnetic fields where the higher J e of a REBCO wire, in addition to its higher irreversibility fields and higher mechanical strength, is already a major advantage over other superconducting wires. An effective way to increase the J e is to decrease the total thickness of a wire, for which using a thinner substrate becomes an obvious and attractive approach. By using our IBAD-MOCVD (ion beam assisted deposition-metal organic chemical vapor deposition) technology we have successfully made 2G HTS wires using a Hastelloy® C276 substrate that is only 30 μm in thickness. By using this thinner substrate instead of the typical 50 μm thick substrate and with a same critical current (I c), the J e of a wire can be increased by 30% to 45% depending on the copper stabilizer thickness. In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of the 2G HTS wires made on the 30 μm thick Hastelloy® C276 substrate. It was shown that with the optimization in the processing protocol, the surface of the thinner Hastelloy® C276 substrate can be readily electropolished to the quality needed for the deposition of the buffer stack. Same in the architecture as that on the standard 50 μm thick substrate, the buffer stack made on the 30 μm thick substrate showed an in-plane texture with a Δϕ of around 6.7° in the LaMnO3 cap layer. Low-temperature in-field transport measurement results suggest that the wires on the thinner substrate had achieved equivalent superconducting performance, most importantly the I

  2. Nd:YAG laser cladding of marine propeller with hastelloy C-22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.D.; Kang, K.H.; Kim, J.N. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Yonghyundong 253, Namku, 402-751, Incheon (Korea)

    2004-09-01

    Nd:YAG laser cladding with automatic wire feeding (Hastelloy C-22) has been done to increase the lifetime of marine propellers made of HBsC1. The effects of processing parameters on the quality of clad layer have been investigated and clad layers have analyzed by optical microscopy and Vickers hardness tester. The method to overcome the drop transfer problem during the wire feeding has been introduced. A cladding speed that is too fast or too slow influenced the shape of clad. The good clad layer without cracks and with low dilution has been obtained with the optimum processing parameters. (orig.)

  3. Corrosion tests of 316L and Hastelloy C-22 in simulated tank waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Danielson; SG Pitman

    2000-02-23

    Both the 316L stainless steel and Hastelloy{reg_sign} C-22 gave satisfactory corrosion performance in the simulated test environments. They were subjected to 100 day weight loss corrosion tests and electrochemical potentiodynamic evaluation. This activity supports confirmation of the design basis for the materials of construction of process vessels and equipment used to handle the feed to the LAW-melter evaporator. BNFL process and mechanical engineering will use the information derived from this task to select material of construction for process vessels and equipment.

  4. The Kinetics of Metadynamic Recrystallization in a Ni-Cr-Mo-Based Superalloy Hastelloy C-276

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Liwen; Shen, Wenfei; Liu, Cuiru; Xia, Yingnan

    2016-02-01

    The metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) behavior of a typical Ni-Cr-Mo-based superalloy Hastelloy C-276 was investigated using two-stage isothermal compression tests on a Gleeble thermal-mechanical simulator in the temperature range of 1050-1200 °C, the strain rate range of 0.1-5.0 s-1, the strains of 0.32, 0.45, and 0.6 at the first stage of compression, and the interval times of 0.5-30 s. The results show that the microstructure and the stress-strain relation of the studied superalloy vary during the interruption period due to the occurrence of MDRX. The MDRX softening fraction and recrystallized grain size increase rapidly with the increasing of interval time, deformation temperature, and strain rate. The effect of strain at the first stage of compression on MDRX is less pronounced. The kinetics of MDRX softening was established based on the flow stress curves, and the apparent activation energy of MDRX of Hastelloy C-276 is evaluated as 241 kJ/mol.

  5. Principles of alloying of Ni superalloys resistant to high-temperature corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of alloying elements (Cr, Ti, Al, Co, W, Nb) on resistance against high-temperature corrosion of the nickel alloys, applied in the gas turbine building, is studied. The diagram of the alloys heat resistance level dependence on the alloying elements concentration is plotted, wherein three areas are separated: 1) the area of improved heat resistance due to the solid solution and dispersion strengthening; 2) the area of decreasing heat resistance due to formation of the carbide net by the grain boundaries; 3) the area of catastrophic decrease in the heat resistance by separation of the embrittlement topologically close-packed phases. The class of the high-temperature corrosion-resistant nickel alloys with different chromium content (13-30%), the Ti/Al > 1 concentration ratio and balanced content of high-melting and rare earth elements is created

  6. Diversity Assessment of Heat Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Strains in a Continuous-Flow Heating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der S.; Wagendorp, A.; Abee, T.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that has the ability to survive relatively high temperatures compared with other nonsporulating foodborne pathogens. This study was performed to determine whether L. monocytogenes strains with relatively high heat resistances are adequately inactivated

  7. Microstructural Features and Properties of High-hardness and Heat-resistant Dispersion Strengthened Copper by Reaction Milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Peng; LIN Chenguang; CUI Shun; LU Yanjie; ZHOU Zenglin; LI Zengde

    2011-01-01

    The oxide dispersion strengthened copper alloys are attractive due to their excellent combination of thermal and electrical conductivities,high-temperature strength and microstructure stability.To date,the state-of-art to fabrication of them was the intemal oxidation (IO) process.In this paper,alumina dispersion strengthened copper (ADSC) powders of nominal composition of Cu-2.5 vo1%Al2O3 were produced by reaction milling (RM) process which was an in-situ gas-solid reaction process.The bulk ADSC alloys for electrical and mechanical properties investigation were obtained by sintering and thereafter hot extrusion.After the hot consolidation processes,the fully densified powder compacts can be obtained.The single y-Al2O3 phase and profile broaden effects are evident in accordance with the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD); the HRB hardness of the ADSC can be as high as 95; the outcomes should be attributed to the pinning effect ofnano γ-Al2O3 on dislocations and grain boundaries in the copper matrix.The electrical conductivity of the ADSC alloy is 55%IACS (International Annealing Copper Standard).The room temperature hardness of the hot consolidated material was approximately maintained after annealing for l h at 900 ℃ in hydrogen atmosphere.In terms of the above merits,the RM process to fabricating ADSC alloys is a promising method to improve heat resistance,hardness,electrical conductivity and wear resistance properties etc.

  8. Heat-resistant protein expression during germination of maize seeds under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, V M; Silva Neta, I C; Von Pinho, E V R; Naves, G M F; Guimarães, R M; Santos, H O; Von Pinho, R G

    2016-01-01

    Low water availability is one of the factors that limit agricultural crop development, and hence the development of genotypes with increased water stress tolerance is a challenge in plant breeding programs. Heat-resistant proteins have been widely studied, and are reported to participate in various developmental processes and to accumulate in response to stress. This study aimed to evaluate heat-resistant protein expression under water stress conditions during the germination of maize seed inbreed lines differing in their water stress tolerance. Maize seed lines 91 and 64 were soaked in 0, -0.3, -0.6, and -0.9 MPa water potential for 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h. Line 91 is considered more water stress-tolerant than line 64. The analysis of heat-resistant protein expression was made by gel electrophoresis and spectrophotometry. In general, higher expression of heat-resistant proteins was observed in seeds from line 64 subjected to shorter soaking periods and lower water potentials. However, in the water stress-tolerant line 91, a higher expression was observed in seeds that were subjected to -0.3 and -0.6 MPa water potentials. In the absence of water stress, heat-resistant protein expression was reduced with increasing soaking period. Thus, there was a difference in heat-resistant protein expression among the seed lines differing in water stress tolerance. Increased heat-resistant protein expression was observed in seeds from line 91 when subjected to water stress conditions for longer soaking periods. PMID:27525950

  9. A possibility of enhancing Jc in MgB2 film grown on metallic hastelloy tape with the use of SiC buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have grown MgB2 on SiC buffer layer by using metallic Hastelloy tape as the substrate. Hastelloy tape was chosen for its potential practical applications, mainly in the power cable industry. SiC buffer layers were deposited on Hastelloy tapes at 400, 500, and 600 degrees C by using a pulsed laser deposition method, and then by using a hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique, MgB2 films were grown on the three different SiC buffer layers. An enhancement of critical current density values were noticed in the MgB2 films on SiC/Hastelloy deposited at 500 and 600 degrees C. From the surface analysis, smaller and denser grains of MgB2 tapes are likely to cause this enhancement. This result infers that the addition of SiC buffer layers may contribute to the improvement of superconducting properties of MgB2 tapes.

  10. Creep Behavior at 1273 K (1000 °C) in Nb-Bearing Austenitic Heat-Resistant Cast Steels Developed for Exhaust Component Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinhui; Li, Mei; Godlewski, Larry A.; Zindel, Jacob W.; Feng, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    A series of Nb-bearing austenitic heat-resistant cast steels with variations of N/C ratios were investigated, and the morphological change of Nb(C,N) from faceted blocks, mixed flake-blocks to "Chinese-script" was observed as N/C ratios decreased. The creep behavior of these alloys was studied at 1273 K (1000 °C), and the longest creep life and lowest creep rate occurred in model alloys with script Nb(C,N). Residual δ-ferrites and (Cr,Fe)23C6 were adverse to creep properties. This work indicates that the control of N/C ratio is required for the as-cast microstructural strengthening.

  11. Cast, heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels having reduced alloying element content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Pankiw, Roman I [Greensburg, PA

    2010-07-06

    A cast, austenitic steel composed essentially of, expressed in weight percent of the total composition, about 0.4 to about 0.7 C, about 20 to about 30 Cr, about 20 to about 30 Ni, about 0.5 to about 1 Mn, about 0.6 to about 2 Si, about 0.05 to about 1 Nb, about 0.05 to about 1 W, about 0.05 to about 1.0 Mo, balance Fe, the steel being essentially free of Ti and Co, the steel characterized by at least one microstructural component selected from the group consisting of MC, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and M(C, N).

  12. Cast, heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels having reduced alloying element content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Pankiw, Roman I [Greensburg, PA

    2011-08-23

    A cast, austenitic steel composed essentially of, expressed in weight percent of the total composition, about 0.4 to about 0.7 C, about 20 to about 30 Cr, about 20 to about 30 Ni, about 0.5 to about 1 Mn, about 0.6 to about 2 Si, about 0.05 to about 1 Nb, about 0.05 to about 1 W, about 0.05 to about 1.0 Mo, balance Fe, the steel being essentially free of Ti and Co, the steel characterized by at least one microstructural component selected from the group consisting of MC, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and M(C, N).

  13. Corrosion aspects of compatible alloys in molten salt (FLiNaK) medium for Indian MSR program in the temperature range of 550-750 °C using electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion behaviours of different alloys were evaluated in fluoride eutectic FLiNaK in the temperature range of 550-750 °C under static and dynamic conditions. Electrochemical polarization and impedance techniques were used to estimate corrosion rate. The results showed that the corrosion process was controlled by activation and in some cases by formation of passive layer. In static mode, the corrosion rates followed the order : Inconel 625 > Inconel 617 > Inconel 600 > Incoloy 800 > Ni 220 > Hastelloy N > Incoloy 800HT. In dynamic mode, Hastelloy N and Incoloy 800HT showed better corrosion resistance in comparison to other alloys. (author)

  14. Measurement of Thermal Resistance of Heat-resistant Fabrics with a Guarded-hot-box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Fang-long; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2006-01-01

    A novel analytical method with the guarded-hot-box (GHB) in investigating the thermal resistance of heat-resistant fabrics is described and the analytical method is also presented in this paper. The new apparatus is capable of measure thermal resistance of the fabrics in high temperature up to an average applied temperature of 250℃.The maximum measurement error of the apparatus is 6.5%and relative error is less than 2.8% between the introduced method and standard given value. In the GHB method, air layer thickness is the most important factor that influences measurement value of thermal resistance of heat-resistant fabrics. Results show that the method is more accurate and efficient than GB11048-89 one in measuring thermal resistance of heat-resistant fabrics.

  15. Heat resistance of an outbreak strain of Listeria monocytogenes in hot dog batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, A S; Gombas, D E

    2001-03-01

    The heat resistance of a strain of Listeria monocytogenes responsible for a listeriosis outbreak in hot dogs was not higher than the heat resistance of other L. monocytogenes strains when tested in tryptic soy broth and in laboratory-prepared hot dog batter. For the thermal death time experiments, the cells were grown to stationary phase or were starved in phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7, for 6 h at 30 degrees C. Starvation increased the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes in broth but not in hot dog batter. D-values in hot dog batter were higher than in broth. For the hot dog formulation used in this study, cooking the hot dog batter for 30 s at 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F), or its equivalent using a z-value of 6 degrees C (11 degrees F), would inactivate 5 logs of L. monocytogenes.

  16. New progress in the theory and practice of heat-resisting concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main properties of heat-resistant cellular, light and heavy concretes based on high-alumina-, alumina- and Portland cements, liquid glass, alumo-phosphate binder and other binding materials containing different fine-ground additives and fillers are considered. The data of foreign and national investigations are presented concerning the effect of heating and mineral composition of cements and fine-ground mineral additions on the phase composition and structure of the cement stone and tensile properties of concretes. The foreign and national experience in the utilization of heat-resistant concretes when constructing thermal units in various branches of industry is described, as well as the economic effectiveness obtained herewith

  17. Structure optimization and damage behaviour of heat-resistant CrMoV-steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the investigations was to optimize the heat treatment conditions of steel 12 CrMoV 4 3 (around 0,12% C; 1% Cr; 0,3% Mo; 0,25% V) on the basis of known structure-property relations of heat resistant steel-CrMoV in such way that the performance of this steel relating to its long-term heat resistance is completely utilized. Further, the influence of heat treatment or of the initial structure was analyzed as well as of further factors on the evolution of damages by formation of pores due to creep. (orig.)

  18. Study of heat resistance in the materials under high-speed heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method and installation to determine heat resistance in materials at high heating rates (up to 106 K/s) according to the temperautre gradient between the surface and the core of the specimen which results in the destruction of the material tested are described. The temperature gradient occurs because of the skin effect when a high-frequency current pulse passes through the specimen. Using the method suggested investigation of molybdenum and tantalum heat resistance is carried out. It is shown that under conditions of pulse heating tantalum heat resistsance is higher

  19. Fatigue Performance of TBCs on Hastelloy X Substrate During Cyclic Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Radek; Kovarik, Ondrej; Tomek, Libor; Medricky, Jan; Pala, Zdenek; Hausild, Petr; Capek, Jiri; Kolarik, Kamil; Curry, Nicholas; Bjorklund, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Our previous experiments with low-cost steel substrates confirmed that individual steps of conventional thermal barrier coating (TBC) deposition may influence fatigue properties of the coated samples differently. In the presented study, testing was carried out for TBC samples deposited on industrially more relevant Hastelloy X substrates. Samples were tested after each step of the TBC deposition process: as-received (non-coated), grit-blasted, bond-coated (NiCoCrAlY), and bond-coated + top-coated yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) was used for deposition of bond coat and top coat. In addition, for one half of the samples, dual-layer bond coat was prepared by combination of high-velocity air-fuel (HVAF) and APS processes. Samples were tested in the as-sprayed condition and after 100 hours annealing at 980 °C, which simulated application-relevant in-service conditions. Obtained results showed that each stage of the TBC manufacturing process as well as the simulated in-service heat exposure may significantly influence the fatigue properties of the TBC coated part. HVAF grit-blasting substantially increased the fatigue performance of the uncoated substrates. This beneficial effect was suppressed by deposition of APS bond coat but not by deposition of dual-layer HVAF + APS bond coat. All heat-treated samples showed again enhanced fatigue performance.

  20. Study on microstructure of pulse laser welding on dissimilar materials hastelloy C-276 and 316L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the reliability of laser welding components of AP1000 and study the distribution of elements and microstructure of dissimilar weld of Hastelloy C-276 and 316L welded by Nd: YAG pulse laser, the microstructure, element distribution and phase of the weld were systematically analyzed by optical microscope, electron probe x ray micro-analyser and other analysis, measuring and test instruments. The results show that the gain of microstructure of weld is refined, and tiny equiaxed grains are in the center and columnar grains are near the weld edge. Heat-affected zones are very narrow on two sides of the weld joint. According to macro distribution of elements, there are three zones in the weld. Element compositions vary drastically on two sides of the weld and become uniform in the center. Micro-segregation of elements exists and Mo enriched at the grain boundary of the weld is observed. Austenite is the main microstructure of the weld and little delta ferrite is found. (authors)

  1. Influencia de los parámetros de soldeo fuerte en la microestructura y propiedades mecánicas de la unión de la aleación base níquel Hastelloy B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotelo, José Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the high vacuum brazing process of solid solution strengthened Hastelloy B2 nickel alloy has been done. A first stage of research has focused on the selection of the most appropriate brazing filler metal to the base material and vacuum furnace brazing process. The influence of welding parameters on joint microstructure constituents, relating the microstructure of the joint to its mechanical properties, has been evaluated. Two gaps of 50 and 200 micrometers, and two dwell times at brazing temperature of 10 and 90 minutes were studied. The braze joint mainly consists of the nickel rich matrix, nickel silicide and ternary compounds. Finally, the results of this study have shown the high bond strength for small gaps and increased dwell times of 90 minutes.Se realizó un estudio pormenorizado del proceso de soldeo fuerte en horno de alto vacío de la aleación base níquel Hastelloy B2 fortalecida por solución sólida. En una primera fase del trabajo se seleccionó el material de aporte acorde al material objeto de unión y a la fuente de calentamiento seleccionada. Posteriormente, se evaluó la influencia del gap (50 y 200 micrómetros y tiempo de permanencia a temperatura de soldeo (10 y 90 minutos sobre los microconstituyentes de la unión, relacionando la microestructura con las propiedades mecánicas de la junta. Los análisis metalográficos mostraron una unión constituida por una matriz rica en níquel, siliciuros de níquel y compuestos ternarios. Finalmente, los resultados de los ensayos mecánicos a esfuerzos cortantes mostraron una elevada resistencia para gaps de 50 micrómetros y tiempos de permanencia de 90 minutos.

  2. The mean condensate heat resistance of dropwise condensation with flowing inert gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geld, van der C.W.M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    1995-01-01

    The quantification of the condensate heat resistance is studied for dropwise condensation from flowing air-steam mixtures. Flows are essentially laminar and stable with gas Reynolds numbers around 900 and 2000. The condensate shaping up as hemispheres on a plastic plane wall and the presence of iner

  3. Microstructural stability of 9-12%Cr ferrite/martensite heat-resistant steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei YAN; Wei WANG; Yi-Yin SHAN; Ke YANG

    2013-01-01

    The microstructural evolutions of advanced 9-12%Cr ferrite/martensite heat-resistant steels used for power generation plants are reviewed in this article. Despite of the small differences in chemical compositions, the steels share the same microstructure of the as-tempered martensite. It is the thermal stability of the initial microstructure that matters the creep behavior of these heat-resistant steels. The microstructural evolutions involved in 9-12%Cr ferrite heat-resistant steels are elabo- rated, including (1) martensitic lath widening, (2) disappearance of prior austenite grain boundary, (3) emergence of subgrains, (4) coarsening of precipitates, and (5) formation of new precipitates, such as Laves-phase and Z-phase. The former three microstructural evolutions could be retarded by properly disposing the latter two. Namely improving the stability of precipitates and optimizing their size distribution can effectively exert the beneficial influence of precipitates on microstructures. In this sense, the microstructural stability of the tempered martensite is in fact the stability of precipitates during the creep. Many attempts have been carried out to improve the microstructural stability of 9-12%Cr steels and several promising heat-resistant steels have been developed.

  4. Diversity assessment of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes strains in a continuous-flow heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Stijn; Wagendorp, Arjen; Abee, Tjakko; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2009-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that has the ability to survive relatively high temperatures compared with other nonsporulating foodborne pathogens. This study was performed to determine whether L. monocytogenes strains with relatively high heat resistances are adequately inactivated in a high-temperature, short-time pasteurization process (72 degrees C for 15 s). To obtain heat-resistant strains, 48 strains were exposed to 55 degrees C for up to 3 h. The energy of activation constant and inactivation constant of strains that survived best (strains 1E and NV8) were subsequently determined in a continuous-flow-through system. Strain Scott A was taken along as a reference. The 3 strains were cultured in whole milk and in brain heart infusion broth at 30 and 7 degrees C. Strains 1E and NV8 were significantly more heat resistant than was strain Scott A after growth in brain heart infusion broth at 30 degrees C and after growth in milk at 7 degrees C. From the inactivation parameters, it was calculated that exposure to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization (72 degrees C for 15 s) will result in 12.1-, 14.2-, and 87.5-log reductions for the strains 1E, NV8, and Scott A, respectively. These results demonstrate that industrial pasteurization conditions suffice to inactivate the most heat-resistant L. monocytogenes strains tested in this study.

  5. Clothing evaporative heat resistance - Proposal for improved representation in standards and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Holmér, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Parsons, K.C.

    1999-01-01

    Clothing heat and vapour resistances are important inputs for standards and models dealing with thermal comfort, heat- and cold-stress. A vast database of static clothing heat resistance values is available, and this was recently expanded with correction equations to account for effects of movement

  6. Quantifying variety-specific heat resistance and the potential for adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Rife, Trevor W; Poland, Jesse A; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2016-08-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yields has become widely measured; however, the linkages for winter wheat are less studied due to dramatic weather changes during the long growing season that are difficult to model. Recent research suggests significant reductions under warming. A potential adaptation strategy involves the development of heat resistant varieties by breeders, combined with alternative variety selection by producers. However, the impact of heat on specific wheat varieties remains relatively unstudied due to limited data and the complex genetic basis of heat tolerance. Here, we provide a novel econometric approach that combines field-trial data with a genetic cluster mapping to group wheat varieties and estimate a separate extreme heat impact (temperatures over 34 °C) across 24 clusters spanning 197 varieties. We find a wide range of heterogeneous heat resistance and a trade-off between average yield and resistance. Results suggest that recently released varieties are less heat resistant than older varieties, a pattern that also holds for on-farm varieties. Currently released - but not yet adopted - varieties do not offer improved resistance relative to varieties currently grown on farm. Our findings suggest that warming impacts could be significantly reduced through advances in wheat breeding and/or adoption decisions by producers. However, current adaptation-through-adoption potential is limited under a 1 °C warming scenario as increased heat resistance cannot be achieved without a reduction in average yields. PMID:26577840

  7. 哈氏合金C4材料焊接工艺%Research on Welding Process of Hastelloy C4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞辉

    2014-01-01

    To prevent from the corrosion of the medium,hastelloy C4 material belonging nickel -based corrosion resistant alloy of Ni-Cr-Mo type with single-phase austenite was selected and adapt as the bottom of residual liquid tanks.With TIG welding method and ERNiCrMo -7 welding filler,the tech-niques were adapt such as groove design,pre-weld cleaning,temperature control between channels and lower welding heat.welding procedure qualification test has been passed and the metallographic micro-structures analysis of welded joints were conducted.The results show that the welding process can ensure the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of welded joints.%为防止介质腐蚀,残液罐产品底部选用了哈氏合金C4材料,该材料属于Ni-Cr-Mo类型镍基耐蚀合金、单相奥氏体组织,具有镍基耐蚀合金的焊接特性。采用氩弧焊方法,选用ERNiCrMo-7焊丝,通过设计坡口、焊前清理、控制道间温度、选择较小焊接热输入等工艺措施,经焊接工艺评定试验和焊接接头金相组织分析,结果表明所制定的焊接工艺可以保证焊接接头的力学性能和耐蚀性能。

  8. Microstructural Evolution of 2.25Cr-1.6W-V-Nb Heat Resistant Steel during Creep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    2.25Cr-1.6W-V-Nb developed in Japan, is a low alloy heat resistant steel with good comprehensive properties. Influence of long term creep at elevated temperature on the structure of 2.25Cr-1.6W-V-Nb steel was studied in this paper, and the micromechanism of creep strength degradation was elucidated, too. Both TEM observation and thermodynamic calculation reveal that during creep the transformation occurs from M7C3 and M23C6 to M6C,which can be cavity nucleation sites. Besides, creep at 600℃ also leads to the decrease of dislocation density, the coarsening and coalescence of M23C6, the nucleation of cavities and development of cracks. The strength decrease of 2.25Cr-1.6W-V-Nb steel after long term creep is related to the decrease of dislocation hardening, precipitation hardening, solution hardening, the nucleation of cavities and development of cracks.

  9. Etude expérimentale du soudage par laser YAG de l'alliage base nickel Hastelloy X

    OpenAIRE

    Graneix, Jérémie; Béguin, Jean-Denis; Pardeilhan, François; Masri, Talal; Alexis, Joël

    2013-01-01

    Le procédé de soudage laser YAG est envisagé pour remplacer le procédé de soudage TIG manuel pour la réalisation de pièces de turboréacteur en alliage nickel-chrome-molybdène Hastelloy X. Cette étude expérimentale a permis de définir un domaine de soudabilité de cet alliage répondant aux critères spécifiques du secteur aéronautique.

  10. Heat-resistance of Hamigera avellanea and Thermoascus crustaceus isolated from pasteurized acid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzza, Nicoletta; Berni, Elettra

    2014-01-01

    Products containing sugar or fruit derivatives are usually subjected to a pasteurization process that can anyway be ineffective to kill ascospores from heat-resistant molds. Although the most occurring and economically relevant heat-resistant species belong to Byssochlamys, Neosartorya, Talaromyces, and Eupenicillium genera, an increasing number of uncommon heat-resistant isolates have been recently detected as spoiling microorganisms in such products. Since Hamigera spp. and Thermoascus spp. were those more frequently isolated at SSICA, heat resistance of Hamigera avellanea and Thermoascus crustaceus strains from pasteurized acid products was studied in apple juice, in blueberry and grape juice and in a buffered glucose solution. Data obtained from thermal death curves and statistical elaboration of raw data showed that D values of H. avellanea may vary between 11.11 and 66.67 min at 87°C, between 4.67 and 13.51 at 90°C, and between 0.43 and 1.52 min at 95°C. Similarly, D values of T. crustaceus may vary between 18.52 and 90.91 min at 90°C, between 2.79 and 19.23 at 93°C, and between 1.11 and 2.53 min at 95°C. For both strains studied, the z-values calculated from the decimal reduction time curves did not prove to be significantly influenced by the heating medium, that being 4.35°C, 5.39°C or 5.27°C for H. avellanea and 4.42°C, 3.69°C or 3.37°C for T. crustaceus, respectively in apple juice, in blueberry and grape juice or in the buffered glucose solution. Considering the pasteurization treatments industrially applied to fruit-based foods, the variation of thermal parameters does not seem to be a possible way to avoid product spoilage by these two species and only good practices applied to reduce the original load of heat-resistant fungi can help producers to prevent losses in contaminated finished products, as usually happens for other heat resistant molds.

  11. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium compatibility studies: results of 10,000-hour exposure of selected alloys in simulated reactor helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechtenberg, T.A.; Stevenson, R.D.; Johnson, W.R.

    1980-05-01

    Work on the HTGR Helium Compatibility Task accomplished during the period March 31, 1977 through September 30, 1979, is documented in this report. Emphasis is on the results and analyses of creep data to 10,000 h and the detailed metallurgical evaluations performed on candidate alloy specimens tested for up to 10,000 h. Long-term creep and unstressed aging data in controlled-impurity helium and in air at 800, 900, and 1000/sup 0/C are reported for alloys included in the program in FY-76, including the wrought solid-solution-strengthened alloys, Hastelloy X, Hastelloy S, RA 333, and HD 556, and the centrifugally cast austenitic alloys, HK 40, Supertherm, Manaurite 36X, Manaurite 36XS, and Manaurite 900.

  12. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium compatibility studies: results of 10,000-hour exposure of selected alloys in simulated reactor helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on the HTGR Helium Compatibility Task accomplished during the period March 31, 1977 through September 30, 1979, is documented in this report. Emphasis is on the results and analyses of creep data to 10,000 h and the detailed metallurgical evaluations performed on candidate alloy specimens tested for up to 10,000 h. Long-term creep and unstressed aging data in controlled-impurity helium and in air at 800, 900, and 10000C are reported for alloys included in the program in FY-76, including the wrought solid-solution-strengthened alloys, Hastelloy X, Hastelloy S, RA 333, and HD 556, and the centrifugally cast austenitic alloys, HK 40, Supertherm, Manaurite 36X, Manaurite 36XS, and Manaurite 900

  13. Heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in vegetables: evaluation of blanching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, A S

    2001-03-01

    The heat resistance of a Listeria monocytogenes composite (serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b) was determined in fresh broccoli florets, sweet green peppers, onions, mushrooms, and peas using an end-point procedure in polyester pouches. The heat resistance of L. monocytogenes was higher in peas (D(60 degrees C) = 1.0 min) and mushrooms (D(60 degrees C) = 0.7 min) than in other vegetables tested (D(60 degrees C) in onions = 0.2 min) and was highest when cells were subjected to starvation before the thermal death time experiments (D(60 degrees C) of starved L. monocytogenes in mushrooms = 1.6 min). The results showed that blanching can be used as an antilisterial treatment (inactivation of 5 logs of L. monocytogenes) when the cold spot of vegetables is treated for at least 10 s at 75 degrees C or instantaneously (<1 s) at temperatures above 82 degrees C.

  14. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa

    2015-11-01

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2-12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below -10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI.

  15. Durability of welded joints of heat resistant steels with crack-similar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of the effect of cracks and crack-similar defects on supporting power of welded joints is important for estimation of workability and substantiation of control periodicity of welded joints of responsible elements of power equipment operating under creep. High-temperature welded joints of heat resistant steels of Cr-Mo-V system are shown to be characterized by low sensitivity to stress concentration

  16. Heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in vacuum packaged pasteurized fish fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Embarek, P K; Huss, H H

    1993-11-01

    The heat resistance of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes in sous-vide cooked fillets of cod and salmon was investigated. Fish sticks of 5 g were inoculated, vacuum-packed and heated at different combinations of time and temperature (58-80 degrees C). Time-temperature combinations allowing survival and time-temperature combinations at which the bacteria were destroyed, were used to determine D- and z-values. D-values were in the range of what has been published for other food products. D60-values were between 1.95 and 4.48 min depending on the strain and the fish. Both strains were one-four-times more heat resistant in salmon than in cod, showing the importance of the heating menstruum. This difference may be due to the higher fat content in salmon as compared to cod. Z-values were calculated to be 5.65 and 6.4 degrees C, respectively, for the two strains. The suitability of methods for heat resistance experiments and the survival of L. monocytogenes in sous-vide cooked fish fillets are discussed. PMID:8268058

  17. Formation Mechanism of Type IV Failure in High Cr Ferritic Heat-Resistant Steel-Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Tsukamoto, S.; Shirane, T.; Abe, F.

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism of type IV failure has been investigated by using a conventional 9Cr ferritic heat-resistant steel Gr.92. In order to clarify the main cause of type IV failure, different heat treatments were performed on the base metal in order to change the prior austenite grain (PAG) size and precipitate distribution after applying the heat-affected zone (HAZ) simulated thermal cycle at the peak temperature of around A c3 ( A c3 HAZ thermal cycle) and postweld heat treatment (PWHT). The microstructural evolution during the A c3 HAZ thermal cycle and PWHT was investigated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that M23C6 carbides were scarcely precipitated at the newly formed fine PAG, block, and lath boundaries in A c3 HAZ-simulated Gr.92, because the carbide forming elements such as Cr and C were segregated at the former PAG and block boundaries of the base metal. On the other hand, if all the boundaries were covered by sufficient M23C6 carbides by homogenization of the alloying elements prior to applying the HAZ thermal cycle, the creep strength was much improved even if the fine PAG was formed. From these results, it is concluded that fine-grained microstructure cannot account for the occurrence of type IV failure, and it only has a small effect during long-term creep. The most important factor is the precipitate formation behavior at various boundaries. Without sufficient boundary strengthening by precipitates, the microstructure of A c3 HAZ undergoes severe changes even during PWHT and causes premature failure during creep.

  18. Development of Semi-Stochastic Algorithm for Optimizing Alloy Composition of High-Temperature Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) for Desired Mechanical and Corrosion Properties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulikravich, George S.; Sikka, Vinod K.; Muralidharan, G.

    2006-06-01

    The goal of this project was to adapt and use an advanced semi-stochastic algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization and combine it with experimental testing and verification to determine optimum concentrations of alloying elements in heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant H-series stainless steel alloys that will simultaneously maximize a number of alloy's mechanical and corrosion properties.

  19. Heat resistance of gametes of marine invertebrates in relation to temperature conditions under which the species exist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikov, V.B.

    1975-04-30

    The possible role of the heat resistance level of mature gametes and embryos of poikilotherms in the adaptation of a species to environmental temperature conditions was investigated. Within a species, heat resistance of gametes does not undergo any recognizable change even in the presence of significant fluctuations in temperature. Evidence in support of this statement was obtained on gametes of invertebrates belonging to different populations of the same species collected in different seasons, and on invertebrates maintained under different temperatures. The heat resistance of gametes is correlated with the degree of thermophily of the species concerned. Species living under similar temperature conditions exhibit minimal, if any, differences in heat resistance. Hence, the heat resistance level of their gametes is a function of temperature conditions of formation and existence of the species as a whole. During the ontogenesis of poikilotherms, eggs, zygotes and early stages of embryonic development are most susceptible to heat injury. The upper thermal limit for the normal development of eggs and embryos is only 1 to 3/sup 0/C higher than the temperatures encountered under natural conditions. It is concluded that the heat resistance level of gametes and embryos represents an adjustment to temperatures at which spawning, fertilization and earlier embryonal development occur. Temperatures which, throughout the year, exceed the upper thermal limit or remain below the lower thermal limit for the development of embryos, act as limiting factors for the species' distribution.

  20. VARIATION OF SUBSTRUCTURES OF PEARLITIC HEAT RESISTANT STEEL AFTER HIGH TEMPERATURE AGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.C.Yang; K.Chen; H.X.Feng; H.Wang

    2004-01-01

    The observations of dislocations, substructures and other microstructural details were conducted mainly by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for 12Cr1Mo V pearlitic heat-resistant steel. It is shown that during the high temperature long-term aging, the disordered and jumbled phasetransformed dislocations caused by normalized cooling are recovered and rearranged into cell substructures, and then the dislocation density is reduced gradually. Finally a low density linear dislocation configuration and a stabler dislocation network are formed and ferritic grains grow considerably.

  1. Production of Heat Resistant Composite based on Siloxane Elastomer and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonov, I. V.; Karelina, N. V.; Kopitsyna, M. N.; Morozov, A. S.; Reznik, S. V.; Skidchenko, V. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Development of a new generation of composite with unique thermal properties is an important task in the fields of science and technology where material is operated at high temperatures and exposure to a short-wave radiation. Recent studies show that carbon nanomaterials (fullerenes and carbon nanotubes) could improve the thermal, radiation and thermal-oxidative stability of the polymer matrix. In this article the development of a new heat resistant composite based on elastomer and carbon nanotubes (CNT) was performed and physicochemical properties of final product were evaluated.

  2. Precipitation behavior in a nitride-strengthened martensitic heat resistant steel during hot deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The stress relaxation curves for three different hot deformation processes in the temperature range of 750–1000 °C were studied to develop an understanding of the precipitation behavior in a nitride-strengthened martensitic heat resistant steel (Zhang et al., Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2015 [1]. This data article provides supporting data and detailed information on how to accurately analysis the stress relaxation data. The statistical analysis of the stress peak curves, including the number of peaks, the intensity of the peaks and the integral value of the pumps, was carried out. Meanwhile, the XRD energy spectrum data was also calculated in terms of lattice distortion.

  3. Collect Available Creep-Fatigue Data and Study Existing Creep-Fatigue Evaluation Procedures for Grade 91 and Hastelloy XR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai Asayama; Yukio Tachibana

    2007-09-30

    This report describes the results of investigation on Task 5 of DOE/ASME Materials Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 5 is to collect available creep-fatigue data and study existing creep-fatigue evaluation procedures for Grade 91 steel and Hastelloy XR. Part I of this report is devoted to Grade 91 steel. Existing creep-fatigue data were collected (Appendix A) and analyzed from the viewpoints of establishing a creep-fatigue procedure for VHTR design. A fair amount of creep-fatigue data has been obtained and creep-fatigue phenomena have been clarified to develop design standards mainly for fast breeder reactors. Following this, existing creep-fatigue procedures were studied and it was clarified that the creep-fatigue evaluation procedure of the ASME-NH has a lot of conservatisms and they were analyzed in detail from the viewpoints of the evaluation of creep damage of material. Based on the above studies, suggestions to improve the ASME-NH procedure along with necessary research and development items were presented. Part II of this report is devoted to Hastelloy XR. Existing creep-fatigue data used for development of the high temperature structural design guideline for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) were collected. Creep-fatigue evaluation procedure in the design guideline and its application to design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was described. Finally, some necessary research and development items in relation to creep-fatigue evaluation for Gen IV and VHTR reactors were presented.

  4. Investigation of the isothermal precipitation behaviour of nickel-base alloys using electrochemical phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical phase extraction methods have been developed empirically for the selective separation of the precipitates in metallic materials. A detailed description of the process has been undertaken to allow optimization for various nickel-base alloys. For this part of the investigation, 16 model alloys were prepared as test electrodes and the electrolyte composition was varied over a wide range. The results enabled a series of effects to be explained on the basis of electrochemical data. The large number of test parameters limited the scope of the preliminary experiments and the range of model alloys used. In the nickel-base alloys, titanium carbo-nitride and primary M6C precipitates were identified. During isothermal ageing, M23C6 (except in Alloy KSN), Ni3Al (in INCONEL 617), Laves phases (in Hastelloy X and INCONEL 617), M12C (in HASTELLOY X and INCONEL 617) and α-tungsten (in the tungsten-containing alloys) were precipitated. The precipitation behaviour changed in the alloys investigated from intracrystalline to intercrystalline with increasing ageing temperature. The intracrystalline secondary precipitations affect the microhardness, structure and the solid-solution lattice. (orig.)

  5. Effect of Nisin and Thermal Treatments on the Heat Resistance of Clostridium sporogenes Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Chumillas, Maria; Esteban, Maria-Dolores; Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Palop, Alfredo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (isothermal or nonisothermal) combined with nisin, a natural antimicrobial, on the survival and recovery of Clostridium sporogenes spores. The addition of nisin to the heating medium at concentrations up to 0.1 mg liter(-1) did not reduce the heat resistance of C. sporogenes. Without a thermal treatment, nisin added at concentrations up to 0.1 mg liter(-1) did not reduce the viable counts of C. sporogenes when added to the recovery medium, but inactivation of more than 4 log cycles was achieved after only 3 s at 100°C. At 100°C, the time needed to reduce viable counts by more than 3 log cycles was nine times shorter when 0.01 mg liter(-1) nisin was added to the recovery medium than without it. The heat resistance values calculated under isothermal conditions were used to predict the survival in the nonisothermal experiments, and the predicted values accurately fit the experimental data. The combination of nisin with a thermal treatment can help control C. sporogenes.

  6. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-28

    Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS's performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria's thermo-tolerances.

  7. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu, E-mail: wanghongyu07010310@163.com; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa

    2015-11-01

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2–12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below −10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI. - Highlights: • The Co-coated carbonyl iron Co(CI) particles were prepared by electroless plating. • The electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of Co(CI) particles were studied. • The heat treatment on the absorbing property of Co(CI) particles was studied. • The Co(CI) particles have good absorbing property when compared with CI.

  8. Heat-resistant organic molecular layer as a joint interface for metal reduction on plastics surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jing; Aisawa, Sumio; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Kudo, Takahiro; Mori, Kunio

    2016-04-01

    Heat-resistant organic molecular layers have been fabricated by triazine-based silane coupling agent for metal reduction on plastic surfaces using adsorption method. These molecular layers were used as an interfacial layer between polyamide (PA6) and metal solution to reduce Ag+ ion to Ag0. The interfacial behaviors of triazine molecular layer at the interfaces between PA6 and Ag solution were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The kinetics of molecular adsorption on PA6 was investigated by using triazine-based silane coupling agent solutions at different pH and concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM), and local nano thermal analysis were employed to characterize the surfaces and interfaces. The nano thermal analysis results show that molecular layers of triazine-based silane coupling agent greatly improved heat resistance of PA6 resin from 170 °C up to 230 °C. This research developed an in-depth insight for molecular behaviors of triazine-based silane coupling agent at the PA6 and Ag solution interfaces and should be of significant value for interfacial research between plastics and metal solution in plating industry.

  9. Prediction of long-term precipitate evolution in austenitic heat-resistant steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Jae-Hyeok; Jung, Woo-Sang; Cho, Young Whan [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Materials/Devices Div.; Kozeschnik, Ernst [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Materials Science and Technology

    2010-07-01

    Numerical prediction of the long-term precipitate evolution in five different austenitic heat-resistant stainless steels, NF709, Super304H, Sanicro25, CF8C-PLUS and HTUPS has been carried out. MX and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} are predicted to remain as major precipitates during long-term aging in these steels. The addition of 3 wt% Cu produces very fine Cu-rich precipitates during aging in Super304H and Sanicro25. It is found that the amount of Z phase start to increase remarkably between 1,000 and 10,000 hours of aging at the expense of MX precipitates in the steels containing a high nitrogen content. However, the growth rate of Z phase is relatively slow and its average size reaches at most a few tens of nanometers after 100,000 hours of aging at 700 C, compared with 9-12% Cr ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant steels. The predicted precipitation sequence and precipitate size during aging are in general agreement with experimental observations. (orig.)

  10. Study on Curing Kinetics of Heat-resistant Flexible Polyamide Modified Epoxy Resin Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of numerous variables affecting the reaction rate of heat-resistant flexible modified epoxy resin adhesive, the curing kinetics of polyamide modified epoxy resin was studied. The heat-resistant flexible modified epoxy resin adhesive cured at room-temperature was prepared with epoxy resin, polysulfide rubber and organosilicone as adhesive component, polyamide as main curing agent and addition of different modified filler and the curing agent containing benzene ring structure. The curing kinetics of polyamide modified epoxy resin was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC at different heating speeds and the characteristic temperatures of the curing process were analyzed and confirmed. the kinetics parameters of activation energy was calculated using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa equation and Kissinger equation, respectively, then the kinetic model of curing reaction was built as d&alpha/dt = 4.38×107 exp (-57740/RT (1-&alpha0.93, the results show that the two-parameter model is adequate to represent the curing reaction process, the model can well describe the curing reaction process of the studied resin. The DSC curves obtained using the experimental data show a good agreement with that theoretically calculated. The research results will provide theoretical basis for the choice of manufacturing process and the optimization of processing window.

  11. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS's performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria's thermo-tolerances. PMID:27465120

  12. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of bacteria’s heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria’s heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample’s thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS’s performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria’s thermo-tolerances.

  13. Scorpion venom heat-resistant protein decreases immunoreactivity of OX-42-positive microglia cells in MPTP-treated mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengming Yin; Deqin Yu; Xi Gao; Yan Peng; Yanhui Feng; Jie Zhao; Yiyuan Tang; Wanqin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microglia function as the immune surveyors of the brain under normal physiological conditions. However, microglia become activated in response to brain injuries and immunological stimulation. OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of scorpion venom (SV) heat-resistant protein on frontal cortex and hippocampal microglia cells in a mice model of Parkinson's disease. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, cellular immunity study. The experiment was performed at the Physiology Department Laboratory in Dalian Medical University between June 2005 and July 2008. MATERIALS: Ninety-six healthy, C57BI/6 mice; 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) from Sigma, USA; SV heat-resistant protein (Experimental Base Institute in Dalian Medical University). The mice were randomly divided into tour groups (n = 24): normal control, negative control, model, and SV heat-resistant protein. METHODS: Mice in the model and SV heat-resistant protein groups were subcutaneously injected with MPTP (20 mg/kg) to model Parkinson's disease, while the normal control and negative control groups were injected with physiological saline in the neck for 8 successive days. In addition, mice in the model and normal control groups were intraperitoneally injected with physiological saline 2 hours following administration, while SV heat-resistant protein and negative control groups were injected SV heat-resistant protein (0.01 mg/kg). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunoreactivity of microglia cells in MPTP-treated mice. RESULTS: Compared with normal control mice, MPTP-treated mice displayed increased OX-42 expression in the brain. However, in the SV heat-resistant protein-treated mice, OX-42 expression was decreased, compared to the model group. In the model mouse group, the number of OX-42-positive microglia was increased in the frontal cortex, caudatum, and hippocampal hilus, compared to the normal control mice (P < 0.01). However, in the SV heat-resistant protein-treated mice

  14. Research of structural concept to heat-resistant airframe of HOPE. HOPE tainetsu kozo gainen no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, M.; Matsushita, T.; Atsumi, M. (National Space Development Agency, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-05

    This paper states the concept of a heat-resistant structure of the HOPE airframe having a 10 ton weight when lifting off and also the research situation of heat-resistant structural materials. To study the structure, established are design conditions for lift-off, reentry to the atmosphere and landing. As to the load condition, the load at the time of lift-off is most critical. Relating to the temperature environment condition, thermal analysis is made of the time when a HOPE is on the orbit (low-temperature range) and reenters the atmosphere (high-temperature range), when the temperature environment is critical. The analysis shows that the temrerature environment is in a {minus}80-1700{degree}C (range). The heat-resistant structural materials are developed so as to meet these conditions. The paper describes distribution of the airframe surface temperature by aerodynamic heating at the reentry, conceptual figures of the airframe structure and structural materials. Results of the study of heat-resistant structural materials indicate an outlook for fabrication technique of a small-size component. Using thermal/temperature environment conditions, strucutre patterns and characteristics values of applied materials, a structure conceptual design model (a finite element model) is made, the analyses of the structure and heat resistance are conducted and a possibility of formation of the model is obtained. 4 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Physical Simulation of Friction Stir Welding and Processing of Nickel-Base Alloys Using Hot Torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, James R.; Lippold, John C.

    2013-08-01

    The Gleeble hot torsion test was utilized in an attempt to simulate the friction stir-processed microstructure of three Ni-base alloys: Hastelloy X, Alloy 625, and Alloy 718. The simulation temperatures were based on actual thermal cycles measured by embedded thermocouples during friction stir processing of these alloys. Peak process temperatures were determined to be approximately 1423 K (1150 °C) for Hastelloy X and Alloy 625 K and 1373 K (352 °C and 1100 °C) for Alloy 718. The peak temperature and cooling rates were programed into the Gleeble™ 3800 thermo-mechanical simulator to reproduce the stir zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) microstructures. The TMAZ was successfully simulated using this technique, but the stir zone microstructure could not be accurately reproduced, with hot torsion samples exhibiting larger grain size than actual friction stir processing trials. Shear stress and strain rates as a function of temperature were determined for each material using hot torsion simulation.

  16. Poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) separator for improving the heat resistance and power density of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yin; Xu, Tiange; John, Angelin Ebanezar; Li, Yang; Li, Weishan; Zhu, Baoku

    2016-10-01

    A microporous poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) (PMIA) separator with high safety (high-heat resistance and self extinguishing), high porosity and excellent liquid electrolyte wettability was prepared by the traditional nonsolvent introduced phase separation process. Due to the high-heat resistance of PMIA material, the as-prepared separator exhibited a negligible thermal shrank ratio at 160 °C for 1 h. Meanwhile, benefiting from its high porosity and excellent wettability in liquid electrolyte, the liquid electrolyte uptake and the ionic conductivity of the separator were higher than that of the commercial PP-based separators. Furthermore, the cell assembled with this separator showed better cycling performance and superior rate capacity compared to those with PP-based separators. These results suggested that the PMIA separator is very attractive for high-heat resistance and high-power density lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Molybdenum-boron-silicon coating on VN-3 niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat resistance of the complex molybdenum-boron-silicon coating on VN-3 niobium alloy is studied. The coating phase composition in the initial state and after heating in air at 1200 deg C during 100-1300 h is determined using X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction and X-ray spectrum analyses. It is shown that high heat resistance of the coating is ensured due to formation of an external film of silicon oxide and a boride sublayer between the metal and coating

  18. Multiplexed Optical Transmission System For Automobiles Using Polymer Fiber With High Heat Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Takao; Asano, Hideki; Taketani, Noriaki

    1989-02-01

    A multiplexed optical transmission system for automobiles utilizing newly developed polymer fiber has been proposed. The system is composed with a star-shaped optical network, in which the ootical signals can be transmitted bi-directionally through polymer optical fiber and optical branches with the central and local controllers. The polymer fiber has been developed for this purpose in order to overcome the conventional problems which prevented its wide use for a long time. The new polymer fiber is fabricated with a thereto-setting resin for core which is pushed out from heating furnace after the process of polymerization. The fiber shows the desirable characteristics for this application, that is, the heat resistance is as high as 200°C, and the transmission loss is as low as 0.5003/m at 660 nm wavelength.

  19. Scorpion Venom Heat-Resistant Peptide Protects Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans from β-Amyloid Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Xi; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Li, Shao; Zhao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Our previous studies found SVHRP could enhance neurogenesis and inhibit microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in vivo. Here, we use the transgenic CL4176, CL2006, and CL2355 strains of Caenorhabditis elegans which express the human Aβ1-42 to investigate the effects and the possible mechanisms of SVHRP mediated protection against Aβ toxicity in vivo. The results showed that SVHRP-fed worms displayed remarkably decreased paralysis, less abundant toxic Aβ oligomers, reduced Aβ plaque deposition with respect to untreated animals. SVHRP also suppressed neuronal Aβ expression-induced defects in chemotaxis behavior and attenuated levels of ROS in the transgenic C. elegans. Taken together, these results suggest SVHRP could protect against Aβ-induced toxicity in C. elegans. Further studies need to be conducted in murine models and humans to analyze the effectiveness of the peptide. PMID:27507947

  20. Estimating the Condition of the Heat Resistant Lining in an Electrical Reduction Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan G. Waalmann

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for estimating the condition of the heat resistant lining in an electrical reduction furnace for ferrosilicon. The system uses temperature measured with thermocouples placed on the outside of the furnace-pot. These measurements are used together with a mathematical model of the temperature distribution in the lining in a recursive least squares algorithm to estimate the position of 'the transformation front'. The system is part of a monitoring system which is being developed in the AIP-project: 'Condition monitoring of strongly exposed process equipment in thc ferroalloy industry'. The estimator runs on-line, and results arc presented in colour-graphics on a display unit. The goal is to locate the transformation front with an accuracy of +- 5cm.

  1. Improving deformability of stainless and heat resisting two-phase steels in cold or hot rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect is studied of the polymorphous α→γ - transformation occurring in the deformation zone under the action of deformation itself, in martensitic-ferritic steels, on the position of the critical brittleness temperature (Tsub(c)). As this transformation develops, the level of Tsub(c) in these steels shifts to the lower-temperature region. The formation of the optimal phase composition in the process of hot plastic deformation itself may be one of the possible ways for enhancing the deformability of two-phase martensitic ferritic steels during the subsequent cold rolling, as well as of austenitic-ferritic steels during hot deformation. Optimal conditions for the proposed technology of high-temperature mechanical treatment as applied to two-phase corrosion and heat-resistant steels have been developed

  2. Heat resistance and phase composition of Ti-Si coatings on niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific features of formation of Ti-Si diffusion coatings on refractory metal substrates were investigated with the aim of enhancement of their heat resistance in the air. For niobium coating the mixtures of titanium with titanium silicides and fluoride activators served as diffusion sources. Diffusion saturation was carried out int he range of 1000-1200 deg C. It is shown that when using diffusion sources with high Si activity the diffusion layer on niobium fits the composition of (Nb, Ti)Si2 and can be both single phase and heterophase depending on activity ratio of components. The maximal operating temperature of Ti-Si system coatings in the air reaches 2000 deg C. 3 refs.; 2 figs

  3. Structure and heat-resisting properties of slurry-diffusion coating on niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fe-Ti-Si coatings of niobium obtained by slurry-diffusion method are studied for their phase composition and heat- resistance in the air up to 1300 deg C. A multilayer structure of the coating consists of a zone of niobium silicides Nb5Si3 and NbSi2; separated by a layer of binary silicide Nb7Fe3Si6, as well as of the zone of titanium and iron silicides. It is established that the coatings are high-resistant due to a specific structure of films formed under their oxidation. The films consist of the SiO2 matrix and fillers, simple and binary Ti, Nb and Fe oxides. The loss of protecting properties by coatings is connected with the consumption of the titanium and iron silicides external layer

  4. Constitutive Equation Models of Hot-Compressed T122 Heat Resistant Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CA0Jin-rong; LIUZheng—dong; CHENGShi—chang; YANGGang; XIEJian-xin

    2012-01-01

    Based on dislocation reaction theory and Avrami equation, a constitutive equation model was developed to describe dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization during hot deformation of T122 heat resistant steel, which have taken the effect of dynamic strain aging into account. Uniaxial hot compression test had been carried out over a wide range of strain rate (0.01 to 10 s-1 ) and temperature (900 to 1 200 ~C) with the help of Gleeble 3500. Obtained experimental data was applied to determine the material parameters in proposed constitutive equations of T122 steel, by using the non-linear least square regress optimization method. The calculated constitutive equations are quantita- tively in good agreement with experimentally measured curves and microstructure observation. It shows that propose constitutive equation T122 steel is able to be used to predict flow stress of T122 steel during hot deformation in aus- tenite temperature scope.

  5. Microstructure Evolution of a 1OCr Heat-Resistant Steel during High Temperature Creep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Hu; Wei Yan; Wei Sha; Wei Wang; Yiyin Shan; Ke Yang

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of a 10Cr ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant steel during creep at 600℃ was investigated in this work. Creep tests demonstrated that the 10Cr steel had higher creep strength than conventional ASME-P92 steel at 600℃. The microstructure after creep was studied by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. It was revealed that the martensitic laths were coarsened with time and eventually developed into subgrains after 8354 h. Laves phase was observed to grow and cluster along the prior austenite grain boundaries during creep and caused the fluctuation of solution and precipitation strengthening effects, which was responsible for the two slope changes on the creep rupture strength vs rupture time curve. It was also revealed that the microstructure evolution could be accelerated by stress, which resulted in the lower hardness in the deformed part of the creep specimen,compared with the aging part.

  6. HEAT-RESISTANT PYRIDINE-BASED POLY(ETHER-ESTER)S: SYNTHESIS,CHARACTERIZATION AND PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahram Mehdipour-Ataei; Ali Mahmoodi

    2013-01-01

    A pyridine-based diacid was synthesized via nucleophilic substitution reaction of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid with 2,6-dichloropyridine in the presence of potassium carbonate.The diacid was characterized using FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopic methods and also with elemental analysis.Polycondensation reaction of the diacid with different diols including 1,4-dihydroxy benzene,1,5-dihydroxy naphthalene,bis-phenol A and bis-phenol-P resulted in preparation of pyridine-based poly(ether-ester)s.The polymers were characterized and their physical and thermal properties including inherent viscosity,molecular weight,solubility,thermal stability,thermal behavior and crystallinity were studied.They revealed high heat-resistance and improved solubility in polar solvents.Structure-property relations for the prepared polyester were also studied.

  7. Data on post irradiation experiments of heat resistant ceramic composite materials. PIE for 97M-13A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research on the radiation damage mechanism of heat resistant ceramic composite materials is one of the research subjects of the innovative basic research in the field of high temperature engineering, using the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Three series of irradiation tests on the heat resistant ceramic composite materials, first to third irradiation test program, were carried out using the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR). This is a summary report on the first irradiation test program; irradiation induced dimensional change, thermal expansion coefficient, X-ray diffraction and γ-ray spectrum are reported. (author)

  8. Data on post irradiation experiments of heat resistant ceramic composite materials. PIE for 97M-13A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Shin-ichi; Ishihara, Masahiro; Souzawa, Shizuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Sekino, Hajime [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The research on the radiation damage mechanism of heat resistant ceramic composite materials is one of the research subjects of the innovative basic research in the field of high temperature engineering, using the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Three series of irradiation tests on the heat resistant ceramic composite materials, first to third irradiation test program, were carried out using the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR). This is a summary report on the first irradiation test program; irradiation induced dimensional change, thermal expansion coefficient, X-ray diffraction and {gamma}-ray spectrum are reported. (author)

  9. Fractal analysis and atomic force microscopy measurements of surface roughness for Hastelloy C276 substrates and amorphous alumina buffer layers in coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, F.; Shi, K.; Xiao, S.-Z.; Zhang, Y.-Y. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhao, Z.-J. [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Z., E-mail: wangzhi@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wei, J.-J.; Han, Z. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-02-01

    In coated conductors, surface roughness of metallic substrates and buffer layers could significantly affect the texture of subsequently deposited buffer layers and the critical current density of superconductor layer. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is usually utilized to measure surface roughness. However, the roughness values are actually relevant to scan scale. Fractal geometry could be exerted to analyze the scaling performance of surface roughness. In this study, four samples were prepared, which were electro polished Hastelloy C276 substrate, mechanically polished Hastelloy C276 substrate and the amorphous alumina buffer layers deposited on both the substrates by ion beam deposition. The surface roughness, described by root mean squared (RMS) and arithmetic average (R{sub a}) values, was analyzed considering the scan scale of AFM measurements. The surfaces of amorphous alumina layers were found to be fractal in nature because of the scaling performance of roughness, while the surfaces of Hastelloy substrates were not. The flatten modification of AFM images was discussed. And the calculation of surface roughness in smaller parts divided from the whole AFM images was studied, compared with the results of actual AFM measurements of the same scan scales.

  10. Corrosion behavior of nickel-containing alloys in artificial sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randin, J P

    1988-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of various nickel-containing alloys was measured in artificial sweat (perspiration) using the Tafel extrapolation method. It was found that Ni, CuNi 25 (coin alloy), NiAl (colored intermetallic compounds), WC + Ni (hard metal), white gold (jewelry alloy), FN42 and Nilo Alby K (controlled expansion alloys), and NiP (electroless nickel coating) are in an active state and dissolve readily in oxygenated artificial sweat. By contrast, austenitic stainless steels, TiC + Mo2C + Ni (hard metal), NiTi (shape-memory alloy), Hastelloy X (superalloy), Phydur (precipitation hardening alloy), PdNi and SnNi (nickel-containing coatings) are in a passive state but may pit under certain conditions. Cobalt, Cr, Ti, and some of their alloys were also investigated for the purpose of comparison. Cobalt and its alloys have poor corrosion resistance except for Stellite 20. Chromium and high-chromium ferritic stainless steels have a high pitting potential but the latter are susceptible to crevice corrosion. Ti has a pitting potential greater than 3 V. Comparison between the in vitro measurements of the corrosion rate of nickel-based alloys and the clinical observation of the occurrence of contact dermatitis is discussed.

  11. Sporulation environment of emetic toxin-producing Bacillus cereus strains determines spore size, heat resistance and germination capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.; Abee, T.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Heat resistance, germination and outgrowth capacity of Bacillus cereus spores in processed foods are major factors in causing the emetic type of gastrointestinal disease. In this study, we aim to identify the impact of different sporulation conditions on spore properties of emetic toxin-producin

  12. Physiological quality and gene expression related to heat-resistant proteins at different stages of development of maize seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, T; Von Pinho, E V R; Von Pinho, R G; Oliveira, G E; Andrade, V; Fernandes, J S

    2013-01-01

    We quantified and characterized the expression of heat-resistant proteins during seed development of maize lines with distinct levels of tolerance to high drying temperature. A corn field was planted for multiplication of seeds of different lines, two tolerant and two non-tolerant to high drying temperatures. Harvest of the seeds was carried out at various stages of development and they were then subjected to tests of moisture content, germination, first count of germination, accelerated aging, and cold test. The seeds were stored in a freezer for later analysis of expression of heat-resistant proteins by means of real-time PCR, electrophoresis, and spectrophotometry. We observed that heat-resistant proteins are expressed in a differential manner in seeds from different lines and at different stages of development. The expression of heat-resistant proteins was earlier in lines tolerant to high drying temperatures. Greater germination and vigor values was found for seeds collected at the last stage of development. PMID:24085427

  13. Microstructural evolution in austenitic heat-resistant cast steel 35Cr25Ni12NNbRE during long-term service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructural evolution of austenitic heat-resistant cast steel 35Cr25Ni12NNbRE during aging and long-term service was investigated using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The microstructure of the as cast steel consists of the dendritic austenite, the block-like eutectic carbide M7C3 spreaded among austenitic dendrite, and a small quantity of M23C6 carbide. The microstructure of the steel aged at 600 deg. C consists of eutectic carbide M23C6 transformed from eutectic carbide M7C3 and dendritic austenite in which fine secondary carbide particles M23C6 precipitated. The precipitated carbide M23C6 kept a cubic-cubic orientation relationship (OR) with austenite matrix. There existed a carbide precipitation free zone (PFZ) around the eutectic carbide. For the long-term serviced samples, the secondary carbide precipitated in the austenite strikingly increased and the PFZ disappeared. Part of the M23C6 transformed into M6C, which always kept a twin OR, [114]M6C//[110]A//[110]M23C6, with the austenite and the M23C6 secondary carbide. In addition, a small quantity of σ phase FeCr and ε-Cr2N were also identified. The effects of alloy composition and service condition on the microstructural evolution of the steel were discussed.

  14. Evaluation of Ni-Cr-base alloys for SOFC interconnect applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guan-Guang; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    To further understand the suitability of Ni-Cr-base alloys for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect applications, three commercial Ni-Cr-base alloys, Haynes 230, Hastelloy S and Haynes 242 were selected and evaluated for oxidation behavior under different exposure conditions, scale conductivity and thermal expansion. Haynes 230 and Hastelloy S, which have a relatively high Cr content, formed a thin scale mainly comprised of Cr 2O 3 and (Mn,Cr,Ni) 3O 4 spinels under SOFC operating conditions, demonstrating excellent oxidation resistance and a high scale electrical conductivity. In contrast, a thick double-layer scale with a NiO outer layer above a chromia-rich substrate was grown on Haynes 242 in moist air or at the air side of dual exposure samples, indicating limited oxidation resistance for the interconnect application. With a face-centered-cubic (FCC) substrate, all three alloys possess a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) that is higher than that of candidate ferritic stainless steels, e.g. Crofer22 APU. Among the three alloys, Haynes 242, which is heavily alloyed with W and Mo and contains a low Cr content, demonstrated the lowest average CTE at 13.1 × 10 -6 K -1 from room temperature to 800 °C, but it was also observed that the CTE behavior of Haynes 242 was very non-linear.

  15. Development of high-chromium ferritic clad heat exchanger tubing. [Sanicro 28, Carpenter 20 Mo-76, Al-6XN, Monit, SEA-CURE, Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy G-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, T.B.; Sponseller, D.L.

    1986-05-01

    High chromium, corrosion resistant alloys are required to withstand the high temperatures and corrosive environment of coal gasification plants such as the Cool Water facility. The production of tubing for heat exchangers from high alloy materials is a priority goal of the EPRI gasification materials program. Because many high chromium alloys are very expensive and have little elevated temperature strength, it would be advantageous to clad the outside surface of low alloy, elevated temperature steel tubes with the corrosion resistant alloy and rely on the low alloy steel for structural strength. Evaluation of commercial alloys for possible use as monolithic or coextruded tubes identified four compositions suitable for evaporator tube applications and four compositions for superheater applications. In addition, a series of alloys containing 30% chromium were evaluated for their ability to be coextruded with 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel, undergo welding and resist gasification corrosion. An alloy, nominally 30Cr-2Ni-2Mo, was successfully coextruded to various tubing sizes and provided to EPRI for testing in the Cool Water gasification plant. 18 refs., 28 figs., 28 tabs.

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF TYPE IV CRACKING RESISTANCE OF 9Cr HEAT RESISTING STEEL WELDMENT BY BORON ADDITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Tabuchi; M.Kondo; T.Watanabe; H.Hongo; F.Yin; F.Abe

    2004-01-01

    Creep lives of high Cr ferritic heat resisting steel weldments decrease due to Type IV fracture, which occurs as a result of formation and growth of creep voids and cracks on grain boundaries in fine-grained heat affected zone (HAZ). Because boron is considered to suppress the coarsening of grain boundary precipitates and growth of creep voids, we have investigated the effect of boron addition on the creep properties of 9Cr steel weldments. Four kinds of 9Cr3W3CoVNb steels with boron content varying from 4.7×10-5 to 1.8×10-4 and with nitrogen as low as 2.0×10-5 were prepared.The steel plates were welded by gas tungsten arc welding and crept at 923K. It was found that the microstructures of HAZ were quite different from those of conventional high Cr steels such as P91 and P92, namely the fine-grained HAZ did not exist in the present steel weldments. Boron addition also has the effect to suppress coarsening of grain boundary carbides in HAZ during creep. As a result of these phenomena,the welded joints of present steels showed no Type IV fractures and much better creep lives than those of conventional steels.

  17. Characterization and radiation response of a heat-resistant variant of V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermoresistant variant of the established cell line V79-S171-W1 was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and repeated heat treatments at 42.6 to 43 degrees C, and showed an enhanced ability to survive at 42.6, 43.5, and 44.5 degrees C. The rates of inactivation of the normal and heat-resistant lines differed by approximately a factor of 2 over this temperature range. This level of thermoresistance was stable for the first 80 doublings, but was lost by 120 doublings. This may have been due to a reversion to the normal V79 line since there was no continuous selection pressure and the thermoresistant variant, which was designated at HR7, had a longer average doubling time. Transient thermotolerance was induced in both the V79 and HR7 cells by a 10-min exposure to 44.5 degrees C. After 3 hr incubation at 37 degrees C, both cell lines had an identical sensitivity to further exposure to 44.5 degrees C. Thus the long-term thermoresistance of the HR7 cells may be due to a permanent induction of a low level of thermotolerance. The (ionizing) radiation survival curves and the ability to repair sublethal radiation damage were identical for the thermoresistant variant and the parent cell line

  18. Characterization and radiation response of a heat-resistant variant of V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermoresistant variant of the established cell line V79-S171-W1 was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and repeated heat treatments at 42.6 to 430C, and showed an enhanced ability to survive at 42.6, 43.5, and44.50C. The rates of inactivation of the normal and heat-resistant lines differed by approximately a factor of 2 over this temperature range. This level of thermoresistance was stable for the first 80 doublings, but was lost by 120 doublings. This may have been due to a reversion to the normal V79 line since there was no continuous selection pressure and the thermoresistant variant, which was designated at HR7, had a longer average doubling time. Transient thermotolerance was induced in both the V79 and HR7 cells by a 10-min expsure to 44.50C. After 3 hr incubation at 370C, both cell lines had an identical sensitivity to further exposure to 44.50C. Thus the long-term thermoresistance of the HR7 cells may be due to a permanent induction of a low level of thermotolerance. The (ionizing) radiation survival curves and the ability to repair sublethal radiation damage were identical for the thermoresistance variant and the parent cell line

  19. Oxidation protection for niobium and its alloys at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems, related to increasing heat resistance of niobium and niobium-base alloys, are considered. It is mentioned, that when developing coatings to protect niobium and niobium alloy products against oxidation, one should preliminarily create a butter layer, preventing matrix interaction with the coating components, at metallic base - protective coating boundary. Depending on the temperature regime and the product application conditions, the coating can be formed on the basis of molybdenum disilicide or high-melting alloyed silicides. Besides, a composition, containing a low-melting component and high-melting filler, can be used for its creation

  20. Heat-resistant, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in endoscope-mediated outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, S.B.; Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Boll, E.J.;

    2016-01-01

    Background We describe an outbreak with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain in an intensive care unit in a secondary care hospital in Norway. The outbreak source was a fibreoptic intubation endoscope in which the outbreak strain survived despite chemothermal...... disinfection in a decontaminator designated for such use. The genetic marker clpK, which increases microbial heat resistance, has previously been described in K. pneumoniae outbreak strains. Aim To investigate the role of clpK in biofilm formation and heat-shock stability in the outbreak strain. Methods...... construction and heat-shock assays. Findings Five patients and one intubation endoscope contained K. pneumoniae with the same amplified fragment length polymorphism pattern. The outbreak strain contained the clpK genetic marker, which rendered the strain its increased heat resistance. The survival rate...

  1. Study on functional heat-resistant ceramics SiC using small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical properties of functional heat-resistant silicon carbide SiC ceramics are significantly influenced by the concentration and dimensions of pores. 3 SiC samples with different densities were sintered with different kind and amount of additives (such as Al2O3, B4C and C) using different sintering conditions of the Department of Material Science and Engineering at the University of Science and Technology in Beijing. Small angle neutron scattering measurements for 3 SiC samples were carried out at C1-2 SANS instrument of the University of Tokyo in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The neutron data with 8 and 16 in of secondary flight path and 10 and 7 A of neutron wave length respectively have been obtained. After deduction of background measurement and transmission correction, both neutron data were linked up with each other. The cubic patterns of 3 neutron data with Q range from 0.0028 - 0.05 A-1 are almost with axial symmetry. It shows that the shape of pores, whose dimensions are relative to the Q range, is almost spherical. For spherical particles (or pores) we can obtain an expression of size distribution directly, using Mellin Transform (J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1974, 46.). According to our calculating program for the expression, the size distribution of pores for 3 samples were obtained. The average size (∼ 190 A) of pores for hot-pressed SiC sample with more density is smaller than others (∼ 210 A). It seems to be the reason why the density of hot-pressed SiC sample is higher than no-hot-pressed sample. (author)

  2. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in pasteurized exotic Brazilian fruit juices: isolation, genotypic characterization and heat resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, I C; Eiroa, M N U; Sant'Ana, A S; Massaguer, P R

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the population of Alicyclobacillus spp. was estimated in pasteurized exotic Brazilian fruit juices using the most probable number (MPN) technique followed by biochemical tests. Pasteurized passion fruit (n = 57) and pineapple (n = 50) juices were taken directly from Brazilian manufacturers. While Alicyclobacillus spp. was isolated from passion fruit juice, the microorganism was not found in any pineapple juice samples. A higher incidence of Alicyclobacillus was observed in samples taken in June and July (dry months in Brazil) in comparison to the other months (March, April, May and August), and the highest Alicyclobacillus counts were recovered from these samples(>23 MNP/100 mL). Sixteen (n = 16) Alicyclobacillus strains were typed using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method (RAPD-PCR). RAPD-PCR revealed great genetic similarity between the passion fruit juice strains and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 2498. The heat resistance of three isolates was determined, and the mean D(95°) (1.7 min) and z (7.6 °C) values in the passion fruit juice were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from those obtained for the DSM 2498 strain (D(95°) = 1.5 min and z = 7.1 °C). This is the first report on the isolation of A. acidoterrestris from exotic fruit juices such as passion fruit juice. It is worth pointing out the importance of applying good agricultural practices in the field and applying controls for the fruit selection and washing steps, as well as controlling the time/temperature conditions for pasteurization so as to reduce the incidence and chances of A. acidoterrestris spoilage in these juices.

  3. Corrosion studies and recommendation of alloys for an incinerator of glove-boxes wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the development of an incineration process for high chlorinated wastes, commercial alloys have been investigated by means of parametric laboratory tests in HCl containing gas mixtures and also in field tests. Recommendations may be formulated for the three main components i.e. pyrolyser, calciner and cooler. In very low oxygen-potential atmospheres, the alloys Hastelloy C276 and Inconel 625 present the best behaviours. For the calciner, alloy Inconel 601 is more satisfactory than AISI 310 steel. As for the cooler, only the alloy Haynes 214 appears acceptable at 1100 deg C. Because of the very low stress level affecting the components, thermomechanical properties do not modify these recommendations based on corrosion behaviour

  4. Sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Zhang; Liping Yue; Qingshan Kong; Zhihong Liu; Xinhong Zhou; Chuanjian Zhang; Quan Xu; Bo Zhang; Guoliang Ding; Bingsheng Qin; Yulong Duan; Qingfu Wang; Jianhua Yao; Guanglei Cui; Liquan Chen

    2014-01-01

    A sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite nonwoven has been successfully fabricated and explored its potential application for promising separator of high-performance lithium ion battery. It was demonstrated that this flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator possessed good flame retardancy, superior heat tolerance and proper mechanical strength. As compared to the commercialized polypropylene (PP) separator, such composite separator presented impro...

  5. Induction of Heat Resistance in Wheat Coleoptiles by 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid: Connection with the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yastreb T.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA on resistance of coleoptiles of 4-day-old etiolated seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Elegiya to damaging heating (10 min at 43°C and possible dependence of this effect on changes in the activities of enzymes producing and scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS were investigated. Treatment of coleoptiles with 10 μM 4-HBA resulted in enhancing of superoxide anion-radical generation and maintaining of hydrogen peroxide content there in. Increasing of the rate of ROS production was significantly suppressed by inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (α-naphthol and peroxidase (salicylhydroxamic acid. Under the influence of 4-HBA the activities of superoxide dismutase and apoplastic forms of peroxidase were increased. The activity of oxalate oxidase and catalase has not changed. Exogenous 4-HBA improved coleoptiles heat resistance and its effects were comparable with the influence of salicylic acid. Antioxidant agent BHT (butylhydroxytoluene, inhibitors of NADPH oxidase and peroxidase significantly reduced the increasing of wheat coleoptiles heat resistance, caused by 4-HBA action. It was concluded that 4-HBA influence on coleoptiles heat resistance is realized with the ROS mediation.

  6. Environmental temperature and physiological polymorphism of populations. II. The relation of changes in the organismal heat resistance to its initial level during heat acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushakov, B.P.; Amosova, I.S.; Chernokozheva, I.S.; Dregolskaya, I.N.; Pashkova, I.M.; Skholl, E.D.

    1977-01-01

    Study was made of the changes in the organismal heat resistance level and average values were obtained for clones and siblings of Hydra oligactis, Asellus acquaticus, Drosophila melanogaster, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (embryos) and Rana temporaria (tadpoles) during short-term heat acclimation (sibacclimation method). In all the species studied a negative correlation was observed between the initial heat resistance level of clones and siblings and its increase during heat acclimation. Reaction norm during temperature resistance acclimation of poikilotherms depends on the initial organismal heat resistance inherent in each genotype.

  7. Thermogravimetric Study of Oxidation-Resistant Alloys for High-Temperature Solar Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Rene I.; Stein, Wes; Marvig, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Three special alloys likely to be suitable for high-temperature solar receivers were studied for their resistance to oxidation up to a temperature of 1050°C in dry atmospheres of CO2 and air. The alloys were Haynes HR160, Hastelloy X, and Haynes 230, all nickel-based alloys with greater than 20% chromium content. The oxidation rate of specimens cut from sample master alloys was followed by thermogravimetry by continuously monitoring the weight change with a microbalance for a test duration of 10 h. The corrosion resistance was deduced from the total weight increase of the specimens and the morphology of the oxide scale. The surface oxide layer formed (scale) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and in all cases was found to be chromia. Oxidation was analyzed by means of parabolic rate law, albeit in some instances linear breakaway corrosion was also observed. For the temperature range investigated, all alloys corroded more in CO2 than in air due to the formation of a stronger and more protective oxide scale in the presence of air. At 1000°C, the most resistant alloy to corrosion in CO2 was Haynes 230. Alloy Haynes HR160 was the most oxidized alloy at 1000°C in both CO2 and air. Hastelloy X oxidized to a similar extent in CO2 at both 900°C and 1000°C, but in air, it resisted oxidation better at 1000°C than either at 900°C or 1000°C.

  8. Modifications in membrane fatty acid composition of Salmonella typhimurium in response to growth conditions and their effect on heat resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; López, Mercedes; Arenas, Ricardo; Bernardo, Ana

    2008-04-30

    The effects of growth temperature (in the range 10-45 degrees C) and acidification up to pH 4.5 of the culture medium (Brain Heart Infusion, BHI) with different organic acids (acetic, citric and lactic) and hydrochloric acid on membrane fatty acid composition and heat resistance of Salmonella typhimurium CECT 443 were studied. The heat resistance was maximal in cells grown at 45 degrees C (cells grown in non-acidified BHI showed a D58-value of 0.90 min) and decreased with decreasing growth temperature up to 10 degrees C (D58-value of 0.09 min). The growth of cells in acidified media caused an increase in their heat resistance. In general, acid adapted cells showed D-values of between 1.5 and 2 times higher than the corresponding for non-acid adapted control cells. This cross-protection response, which has important implications in food processing, was not dependent on the pH value and the acid used to acidify the growth medium. A membrane adaptation corresponding to an increase in the unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (UFA/SFA) and membrane fluidity was observed at low growth temperature. Moreover, the acidification of the growth medium caused a decrease in UFA/SFA ratio and in the C18:1 relative concentration, and an increase in cyclopropane fatty acids (CFA) content mainly due to the increase in cyc19 relative concentration. Thus, acid adapted cells showed CFA levels 1.5 times higher than non-acid adapted control cells. A significant proportion of unsaturated fatty acids were converted to their cyclopropane derivatives during acid adaptation. These changes in membrane fatty acid composition result in cells with decreased membrane fluidity. A clear relation between membrane fatty acid composition and heat resistance was observed. In general, D-values were maximum for cells with low UFA/SFA ratio, and, consequently, with low membrane fluidity. Moreover, CFA formation played a major role in protecting acid adapted cells from heat inactivation. However

  9. Kinetics of chromium evaporation from heat-resisting steel under reduced pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kolmasiak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a kinetic analysis of the process of chromium evaporation from ferrous alloys smelted under reduced pressure. The study discussed comprised determination of the liquid phase mass transfer coefficient as well as the value of the constant evaporation rate. By applying these values as well as the values of the overall mass transfer coefficient estimated based on the relevant experimental data, the fractions of resistance of the individual process stages were established.

  10. Corrosion Behavior of Alloys in Molten Fluoride Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guiqiu

    The molten fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature nuclear reactor (FHR) has been proposed as a candidate Generation IV nuclear reactor. This reactor combines the latest nuclear technology with the use of molten fluoride salt as coolant to significantly enhance safety and efficiency. However, an important challenge in FHR development is the corrosion of structural materials in high-temperature molten fluoride salt. The structural alloys' degradation, particularly in terms of chromium depletion, and the molten salt chemistry are key factors that impact the lifetime of nuclear reactors and the development of future FHR designs. In support of materials development for the FHR, the nickel base alloy of Hastelloy N and iron-chromium base alloy 316 stainless steel are being actively considered as critical structural alloys. Enriched 27LiF-BeF2 (named as FLiBe) is a promising coolant for the FHR because of its neutronic properties and heat transfer characteristics while operating at atmospheric pressure. In this study, the corrosion behavior of Ni-5Cr and Ni-20Cr binary model alloys, and Hastelloy N and 316 stainless steel in molten FLiBe with and without graphite were investigated through various microstructural analyses. Based on the understanding of the corrosion behavior and data of above four alloys in molten FLiBe, a long-term corrosion prediction model has been developed that is applicable specifically for these four materials in FLiBe at 700ºC. The model uses Cr concentration profile C(x, t) as a function of corrosion distance in the materials and duration fundamentally derived from the Fick's diffusion laws. This model was validated with reasonable accuracy for the four alloys by fitting the calculated profiles with experimental data and can be applied to evaluate corrosion attack depth over the long-term. The critical constant of the overall diffusion coefficient (Deff) in this model can be quickly calculated from the experimental measurement of alloys' weight

  11. Wrought stainless steel compositions having engineered microstructures for improved heat resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Swindeman, Robert W [Oak Ridge, TN; Pint, Bruce A [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; More, Karren L [Knoxville, TN

    2007-08-21

    A wrought stainless steel alloy composition includes 12% to 25% Cr, 8% to 25% Ni, 0.05% to 1% Nb, 0.05% to 10% Mn, 0.02% to 0.15% C, 0.02% to 0.5% N, with the balance iron, the composition having the capability of developing an engineered microstructure at a temperature above 550.degree. C. The engineered microstructure includes an austenite matrix having therein a dispersion of intragranular NbC precipitates in a concentration in the range of 10.sup.10 to 10.sup.17 precipitates per cm.sup.3.

  12. Fiber reinforced superalloys, ceramics, and refractory metals, and directionally solidified eutectics (heat-resistant composites)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-temperature composites have been shown to have excellent elevated-temperature tensile and stress-rupture strengths and specific strengths. Tungsten alloy fiber reinforced superalloys have been demonstrated to have stress rupture strengths at 20000F superior to superalloys and sufficient impact resistance for gas turbines. Recently developed tungsten alloy fibers should permit production of composites with use-temperatures (gas turbine blades, vanes) as high as 24000F. Their main problem is associated with the direction and perfection of growth of strong whiskers or lamina in irregularly shaped components. Artificially made whisker composites are believed to warrant serious consideration. Use-temperatures of refractory metal matrix composites can be as much as 25000F for Nb matrix composites and over 30000F for W matrix composites. Ceramic matrix composites with use-temperatures ranging from 18000F to over 30000F are possibilities. Stationary, large, turbines for power generation may make use of refractory fiber/superalloy matrix, ceramic matrix, and coated refractory matrix composites. Such an application may capitalize on the high-temperature strength and high use-temperatures of the composites, which, in turn, will enhance engine performance. (127 references, 62 fig, 22 tables) (U.S.)

  13. Plastic Behavior of a Nickel-Based Alloy under Monotonic-Tension and Low-Cycle-Fatigue Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, E-Wen [ORNL; Barabash, Rozaliya [ORNL; Wang, Yandong [ORNL; Clausen, Bjorn [ORNL; Li, Li [ORNL; Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ice, Gene E [ORNL; Yang, Dr Ren [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Choo, Hahn [ORNL; Pike, Lee M [ORNL; Klarstrom, Dwaine L [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The plasticity behavior of the annealed HASTELLOY C-22HSTM alloy, a face-centered cubic (FCC), nickel-based superalloy, was examined by the in-situ neutron-diffraction experiments at room temperature. Monotonic-tension and low-cycle-fatigue experiments were conducted to observe the plastic behavior of the alloy. The tension straining and cyclic-loading deformation were studied as a function of the stress. The plastic behaviors during the deformation are discussed in the light of the relationship between the stress and dislocation-density evolutions. The calculated dislocation-density evolutions within the alloys reflect the strain hardening and cyclic hardening/softening. Experimental lattice strains are compared to verify the hardening mechanism at the selected stress levels for tension and cyclic loadings. Combining with the calculations of the dislocation densities, the neutron-diffraction experiments give an evidence of the strain and cyclic hardening of the alloy.

  14. Tensile properties of a nickel-base alloy subjected to surface severe plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, J.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Dai, K. [Quality Engineering and Software Technology, East Hartford, CT 06108 (United States); Villegas, J.C. [Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ (United States); Shaw, L. [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)], E-mail: leon.shaw@uconn.edu; Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Klarstrom, D.L. [Haynes International, Inc., Kokomo, IN (United States); Ortiz, A.L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de los Materiales, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    A surface severe plastic deformation (S{sup 2}PD) method has been applied to bulk specimens of HASTELLOY C-2000 alloy, a nickel-base alloy. The mechanical properties of the processed C-2000 alloy were determined via tensile tests and Vickers hardness measurements, whereas the microstructure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. The improved tensile strength was related to the nanostructure at the surface region, the residual compressive stresses, and the work-hardened surface layer, all of which resulted from the S{sup 2}PD process. To understand the contributions of these three factors, finite element modeling was performed. It was found that the improved tensile strength could be interpreted based on the contributions of nano-grains, residual stresses, and work hardening.

  15. Rolling contact fatigue behaviour of heat resistant bearing steels at high operational temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach was made to estimate the endurance limit in rolling contact fatigue in dependence of the operational conditions for the bearing steels M50 (AMS 6491), M50 NiL (AMS 6278) and the nitrogen-alloyed Cronidur 30 (AMS 5898) by investigating the changes in the residual stress profiles after 5 million cycles of over-rolling. Real main shaft bearings with a pitch diameter of 168 mm have been tested. To simulate the heat generated in the turbine engines even under boundary operational conditions oil inlet temperatures between 80 and 210 C have been applied, the rotational speed has been varied between 2500 and 14000 r/min and the interference fit has been changed to produce different hoop stress levels. (orig.)

  16. Substructure of hot deformed molybdenum and its influence on the heat resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigated was substructural strengthening of the Mo-0.6% V-0.03%C and Mo-1.2% V-0.03%C alloy, obtained in the result of preliminary deformation: pressing at 1100 deg C and compression in a wide range of temperatures and rates of deformation. Specimens with different subgrain sizes were tested on creep and short-term strength with determination of yield limit σsub(0.2). Substructural strengthening effect depends on relationship of the reduced rates of preliminary deformation to deformation at mechanical tests. Temperature dependence of the petch equation coefficients within 0.4-0.65 Tsub(m) temperature interval was determined. Investigation results were presented in the form of a generalized diagram of substructural strengthening, plotted in T-lgsub(epsilon) coordinates

  17. Static recrystallization behavior of a martensitic heat-resistant stainless steel 403Nb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhouyu ZENG; Liqing CHEN; Fuxian ZHU; Xianghua LIU

    2011-01-01

    A static recrystallization behavior between the rolling passes of a martensitic heatresistant stainless steel 403Nb has been studied by OM,TEM and double-hit thermomechanical simulator to explore the effects of deformation temperature,strain rate,strain and the prior austenite grain size.The results show that increases of deformation temperature and strain rate and strain can promote the static recrystallization of 403Nb steel.Static recrystallization also proceeds faster when the prior austenite grain size is smaller.Microstructural observation indicates that the volume fraction of static recrystallization increases with prolonged interval of the rolling passes.Straininduced precipitation can lead to an appearance of a platform in the kinetic curve of static recrystallization.Different from the conventional micro-alloying steel,the strain-induced precipitates in 403Nb steel during hot rolling are carbides containing Nb and Cr.

  18. Material and technique of Si-Mo heat-resistant vermicular iron exhaust manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yong-xi

    2006-01-01

    Si-Mo vermicular iron is an ideal material for exhaust manifold that works in high temperature and thermal cycle conditions because its properties of thermal fatigue resistance and thermal distortion resistance are significantly better than that of gray cast iron and nodular iron.This paper explains that the vermicularity of Si-Mo vermicular iron is better to be controlled approximately to 50% for the applications of exhaust manifold castings, and generalizes the successful experience of vermicularizing technique that uses sandwich (pour over) process combining with cored-wire injection in trough process together, and uses rare earths-magnesium-silicon as vermicularizing alloy in Disa high speed molding line and automatic plug rod air pressure pouring furnace. In addition, this paper also describes the method to solve the shrinkage hole and porosity defects in the exhaust manifold production.

  19. RTM工艺用耐高温树脂研制%Heat-Resistant Resin for RTM Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭世峰

    2001-01-01

    Heat-resistant resin for RTM process is prepared,which could be used for missile radomes.Viscosity of the resin is only obout 200 mPa· s after 8 h at 100℃,which is very suitable for RTM process.The cured resin has good heat resistance with Ts of 269℃ and weight loss of 10% at 430℃.Flexual strength of 139 MPa and modulus of 9.5 GPa at 300℃ is obtained for quartz fiber/resin composite,which could be used for a short term at this temperature.%以某飞行器透波结构件对材料的要求为背景,研制了可用于RTM成形工艺的耐高温树脂SH。SH树脂l00℃下8 h后粘度仅200 mpa·s,适于RTM工艺成形;该树脂耐热性良好,玻璃化转变温度Tg为269℃,430℃热失重仅为10%;石英纤维/SH树脂复合材料300℃时的弯曲强度σb=139 MPa,弯曲模量Eb=9.5 GPa,可在300℃以上短时使用。

  20. Effect of NaCl on Heat Resistance, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Caco-2 Cell Invasion of Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoo Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of NaCl on heat resistance, antibiotic susceptibility, and Caco-2 cell invasion of Salmonella. Salmonella typhimurium NCCP10812 and Salmonella enteritidis NCCP12243 were exposed to 0, 2, and 4% NaCl and to sequential increase of NaCl concentrations from 0 to 4% NaCl for 24 h at 35°C. The strains were then investigated for heat resistance (60°C, antibiotic susceptibility to eight antibiotics, and Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency. S. typhimurium NCCP10812 showed increased thermal resistance (P<0.05 after exposure to single NaCl concentrations. A sequential increase of NaCl concentration decreased (P<0.05 the antibiotic sensitivities of S. typhimurium NCCP10812 to chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and oxytetracycline. NaCl exposure also increased (P<0.05 Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency of S. enteritidis NCCP12243. These results indicate that NaCl in food may cause increased thermal resistance, cell invasion efficiency, and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella.

  1. Microstructural analysis as the indicator for suitability of weld repairing of the heat resistant Cr - Ni steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallurgical evaluation was performed on a fractured column tube of the reformer furnace in an ammonia plant. The tubes were manufactured from centrifugally cast heat resistant steel HK 40. Optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for microstructural and fracture analysis. For composition determination of the micro constituents energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used. To evaluate mechanical properties, hardness and microhardness measurements were performed. Investigations based on the microstructural features with the idea to indicate suitability of weld repair of the column were performed in this study. It was observed that the crack initiation, caused by oxidation/corrosion and thermal stresses induced by temperature gradient, appeared in the inner side of the tube wall and propagation occurred along grain boundaries. The results clearly showed the presence of an irregular microstructure which contributed to crack propagation through the tube wall. An occurrence of precipitated needle-shaped carbides/carbonitrides and brittle s phase was also identified in the microstructure. Results of the microstructural and fracture analysis clearly indicate that reformer furnace columns made of heat resistant steel HK 40 were unsuitable for weld repair. (Author)

  2. Heat resistance of Salmonella enterica is increased by pre-adaptation to peanut oil or sub-lethal heat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-09-01

    Cross-protection represents a considerable challenge in the food industry where hurdled interventions are often employed to reduce Salmonella contamination. The heat resistance of Salmonella strains from five serotypes (i.e., Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Tennessee, Thompson and Hartford) at 70 °C was determined by measurement of viable cell populations before and after adaptation to two common stresses employed in low-water activity food processing, desiccation and sub-lethal heat treatment. Survival of Salmonella at 70 °C significantly increased (p aw 0.52 ± 0.00) and/or the exposure to a sub-lethal heat treatment at 45 °C for 3 min. Quantitative PCR revealed upregulation of two desiccation stress-related genes, fadA and otsB, following the peanut oil incubation, whereas heat treatment induced upregulation of a heat-resistance gene, dnaK. Invasion gene invA and alternative sigma factor rpoE were downregulated following either of the treatments. Interestingly, different Salmonella strains yielded different transcriptional profiles. The strain-specific resistance phenotypes and transcriptional profiles provided further insights into the mechanisms employed to tolerate desiccation and heat stresses in the food industry. PMID:27217370

  3. Pasteurization of milk and the heat resistance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a critical review of the data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Barbara M; Gould, Grahame W; Rampling, Anita M

    2002-07-25

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne's disease in ruminants (including cattle, sheep and goats) and other animals, and may contribute to Crohn's disease in humans. This possibility, and the fact that M. paratuberculosis may be present in raw milk, make it important to ensure that the heat treatment specified for pasteurization of milk will give acceptable inactivation of this bacterium, with an adequate margin of safety. Published studies of the heat resistance of this bacterium in milk have given widely differing results. Possible reasons for these differences, and the technical problems involved in the work, are reviewed. It is concluded that there is a need (i) for the adoption of an agreed Performance Criterion for pasteurization of milk in relation to this bacterium, (ii) a need for definitive laboratory experiments to understand and determine the heat resistance of M. paratuberculosis, and (iii) a need for an assessment of whether the minimum heat treatments specified at present for pasteurization of milk (Process Criteria) will meet the Performance Criterion for M. paratuberculosis. Measures are also required to ensure that commercial processes deliver continually the specified heat treatment, and to ensure that post-pasteurization contamination is avoided.

  4. Microstructure and Fracture Morphology in the Welding Zone of T91 Heat-resisting Steel Used in Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Microstructure performance in the welding zone of T91 heat-resistant steel under the condition of TIG welding wasresearched by means of metallography, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Experimentalresults indicated that microstructure of T91 weld metal was austenite + a little amount of δ ferrite when using TGS-9cb filler wire. Substructure inside the austenite grain was crypto-crystal lath martensite, on which some Cr23C6blocky carbides were distributed. The maximum hardness (HRC44) in the welding zone is near the fusion zone. Thereexisted no obvious softening zone in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). For T91 steel tube of φ63 mmx5 mm, whenincreasing welding heat input (E) from 4.8 kJ/cm to 12.5 kJ/cm, fracture morphology in the fusion zone and theHAZ changed from dimple fracture into quasi-cleavage fracture (QC). Controlling the welding heat input of about9.8 kJ/cm is suitable in the welding of T91 heat-resistant steel.

  5. Коррозионная стойкость сплавов семейства «Xастеллой» в хлоралюминатных расплавах

    OpenAIRE

    Karpov, V. V.; Bazhenov, A. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.; В.В. Карпов; БАЖЕНОВ А.В.; А. В. Абрамов; Половов, И. Б.; Ребрин, О. И.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion of Hastelloy S, Hastelloy X, Haynes 230, Hastelloy N, Hastelloy G35 and Hastelloy C2000 alloys was studied in KCl–AlCl3 melts at 550 °С. The rates and the mechanisms of corrosion of the studied materials were determined. The processes taking place during the interaction between alloys and chloroaluminate melts were investigated.

  6. 哈氏合金C-22的焊接工艺开发与研究%Welding Technology Development and Research of C-22 Hastelloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆钟涛; 马焕新

    2015-01-01

    For refining joint machine, in order to ensure corrosion resistance of the tank, the tank materials mainly adopt 904L, 254SMO and other stainless steel materials, but with the development of viscose staple fiber production process, there are higher requirements for the corrosion performance of the tank, In order to meet the requirements of new products design & development and manufacturing, this paper explored the processing performance especially welding properties of C-22 Hastelloy, and the welding process was developed. In this paper,the welding performance and characteristics of C-22 materials were summarized,and the technical support for the new product manufacturing was provided based on the Hastelloy C-22welding test.%精炼联合机为保证槽体耐蚀性能,槽体材料主要采用的是904L、254SMO等不锈钢材料,但随着粘胶短纤生产工艺的发展,对槽体耐蚀性能提出了更高的要求,为了满足新产品的设计开发和制造要求,本文对C-22哈氏合金加工性能特别是焊接性能进行了摸索,并进行焊接工艺开发。文章主要针对哈氏合金C-22焊接试验,总结出C-22材料的焊接性能和特点,为新产品制造提供技术支持。

  7. Study on high temperature design methodology of heat-resistant materials for GEN-IV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the existing high temperature design and assessment codes such as US(ASME-NH,Draft Code Case for Alloy 617), France(RCC-MR), UK(R5), Japan(BDS/DDS/FDS) for Gen IV reactor structure has been carried out. In addition the scope and fields for research and development is needed in the future have been defined. For assessing the high temperature creep cracks, time dependent fracture mechanics (TDFM) parameters of the C and Ct were analyzed. The creep propagation data were obtained from the creep crack growth tests for type 316LN stainless steels, and creep crack growth testing machine for Gen-IV system up to 950 .deg. C was set up. Damage mechanism and causes for creep-fatigue were investigated. The difference between prediction creep-fatigue life and experimental life were investigated. Material properties for analysis creep-fatigue damage were recommended. The assessment procedure (Draft) on creep-fatigue crack initiation has been developed based on the technical appendix A16 of French RCC-MR code. Ultrasonic wave signal against creep ruptured specimens of type 316LN stainless steel was obtained. It was identified that creep damage can be evaluated by ultrasonic method. The NDT techniques evaluated include Barkhausen noise, magnetic hysteresis parameters, positron annihilation, X-ray diffraction and small angle neutron scattering. Experimental procedure and evaluation method of material integrity were developed through the fracture toughness test of Cr-Mo steel

  8. Study on high temperature design methodology of heat-resistant materials for GEN-IV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. W.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, J. H.; Park, D. G.; Yoon, J. H.; Lee, H. Y.; Hing, J. H

    2005-08-15

    Analysis of the existing high temperature design and assessment codes such as US(ASME-NH,Draft Code Case for Alloy 617), France(RCC-MR), UK(R5), Japan(BDS/DDS/FDS) for Gen IV reactor structure has been carried out. In addition the scope and fields for research and development is needed in the future have been defined. For assessing the high temperature creep cracks, time dependent fracture mechanics (TDFM) parameters of the C and Ct were analyzed. The creep propagation data were obtained from the creep crack growth tests for type 316LN stainless steels, and creep crack growth testing machine for Gen-IV system up to 950 .deg. C was set up. Damage mechanism and causes for creep-fatigue were investigated. The difference between prediction creep-fatigue life and experimental life were investigated. Material properties for analysis creep-fatigue damage were recommended. The assessment procedure (Draft) on creep-fatigue crack initiation has been developed based on the technical appendix A16 of French RCC-MR code. Ultrasonic wave signal against creep ruptured specimens of type 316LN stainless steel was obtained. It was identified that creep damage can be evaluated by ultrasonic method. The NDT techniques evaluated include Barkhausen noise, magnetic hysteresis parameters, positron annihilation, X-ray diffraction and small angle neutron scattering. Experimental procedure and evaluation method of material integrity were developed through the fracture toughness test of Cr-Mo steel.

  9. Ocorrência de fungos filamentosos termo-resistentes em polpa de tomate envasada assepticamente Occurrence of heat resistant molds in tomato pulp packed aseptically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio BAGLIONI

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal determinar a ocorrência de fungos filamentosos termo-resistentes durante o processamento asséptico de polpa de tomate (8° BRIX. Durante o período de safra de tomate foram feitas amostragens em 9 lotes (3 no início, 3 no pico e 3 em fim de safra e no período de entresafra em 5 lotes. Foi feita a enumeração de fungos termo-resistentes nas amostras coletadas durante as diferentes etapas do processo asséptico de cada lote. Foram obtidas contagens médias relativamente baixas, variando entre This work aimed at determining the occurrence of heat resistant molds during the aseptic processing of tomato pulp (8° BRIX. During tomato harvest, 9 lots were sampled (3 at the beginning, 3 at the apex and 3 at the end of harvest and other 5 lots were sampled between harvest. For each lot, the enumeration of heat resistant molds was carried out in samples collected during the aseptic process. The mean count of heat resistant molds was relatively low, ranging from <1 to 8CFU/100mL of sample. The higher counts were observed in the raw material and the pre-wash and transportation water. Fifty strains of heat resistant molds detected in the enumeration procedure were isolated, codified and stocked. One-month-old spores of each isolate were submitted to different heat shocks to select the most heat resistant mold. The most heat resistant isolated strain (survived 100° C/25 minutes was identified as Neosartorya fischeri.

  10. A novel electroless silver depositing method for magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui; CUI Jian-zhong

    2006-01-01

    Depositing silver on magnesium alloy by both electroless plating and organic coatings was studied. The organic coating was made by immersing samples in organosilicon heat-resisting varnish. In this method the organic coating acts as interlayer between the substrate and silver film. When the reaction starts, silver deposits directly on the interlayer. X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis were used to determine the composition and morphology of the interlayer and silver film. The potentiodynamic polarization curves for corrosion studies of coated magnesium alloys were performed in a corrosive environment of 3.5% NaCl(mass fraction) at neutral pH (6.9). The results indicate that compared with the substrate, the corrosion resistance of coated magnesium alloys increases greatly. Moreover, the method proposed in this work is environmentally friendly, non-toxic chemicals were used. In addition, it provides a new concept for the corrosion inhibition of magnesium alloys.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of heat-resistant 12% Cr ferritic-martensitic steel EK-181 after thermomechanical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polekhina, N. A.; Litovchenko, I. Yu.; Tyumentsev, A. N.; Astafurova, E. G.; Chernov, V. M.; Leontyeva-Smirnova, M. V.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of high-temperature thermomechanical treatment (TMT) with the deformation in the austenitic region on the features of microstructure, phase transformations and mechanical properties of low-activation 12% Cr ferritic-martensitic steel EK-181 is investigated. It is established, that directly after thermomechanical treatment (without tempering) the sizes and density of V(CN) particles are comparable with those after a traditional heat treatment (air quenching and tempering at 720°C, 3 h), where these particles are formed only during tempering. It causes the increasing of the yield strength of the steel up to ≈1450 MPa at room temperature and up to ≈430 MPa at the test temperature T = 650°C. The potential of microstructure modification by this treatment aimed at improving heat resistance of steel is discussed.

  12. First Results of Saturation Curve Measurements of Heat-Resistant Steel Using GEANT4 and MCNP5 Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Duc-Tam; Tran, Thien-Thanh; Le, Bao-Tran; Tran, Kim-Tuyet; Huynh, Dinh-Chuong; Vo, Hoang-Nguyen; Chau, Van-Tao

    A gamma backscattering technique is applied to calculate the saturation curve and the effective mass attenuation coefficient of material. A NaI(Tl) detector collimated by collimator of large diameter is modeled by Monte Carlo technique using both MCNP5 and GEANT4 codes. The result shows a good agreement in response function of the scattering spectra for the two codes. Based on such spectra, the saturation curve of heat-resistant steel is determined. The results represent a strong confirmation that it is appropriate to use the detector collimator of large diameter to obtain the scattering spectra and this work is also the basis of experimental set-up for determining the thickness of material.

  13. Solute Transport Proteins and the Outer Membrane Protein NmpC Contribute to Heat Resistance of Escherichia coli AW1.7▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Lifang; Pleitner, Aaron; Gänzle, Michael G.; McMullen, Lynn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli by comparing the composition of membrane lipids, as well as gene expression, in heat-resistant E. coli AW1.7 and heat-sensitive E. coli GGG10 with or without heat shock. The survival of E. coli AW1.7 at late exponential phase was 100-fold higher than that of E. coli GGG10 after incubation at 60°C for 15 min. The cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli AW1.7 contained a higher proportion of saturated and cyclopropane fat...

  14. 加热炉耐热垫块脱落事故分析及预防%Accident Analysis and Prevention of Furnace Heat Resisting Pad Fall Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永生

    2012-01-01

    The causes of the heat resisting pad fall off in walking beam reheating furnace were analyzed. The remedial measures after the heat resisting pad fall off were put forward,and the preventive measures were formulated.%分析造成步进梁式加热炉耐热垫块脱落的原因和对生产的影响,提出耐热垫块脱落后的补救措施,并制定防止耐热垫块脱落的预防措施.

  15. New Weldoble and Heat Resistant Shop Primer%耐高温可焊车间底漆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张双喜

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving, cost reduction, environmental protection and safety are the important problems for shipbuilding and paint industry. A new weldable and heat resistant shop primer was developed. Through the comparison with conventional shop primer, test this new shop primer showed an excellent heat resistance (up to 1 200 ℃) , less burnt extention and u-nique welding performance which could reduce the re - rust - removing workload and the manufacture. This new shop primer was comparatively simple and convenient to apply and environmentally friendly, as well as harmless to the operator. It will bring a prospective market and vast economic and social efficiency.%节能降本、绿色环保和健康安全是造船业、涂料业面临的大问题.本研究阐述了新一代耐高温可焊性车间底漆的制备过程,并且与传统型、第一代车间底漆之间进行了系统的比较,发现其耐高温,烧延面积小,焊接性能好,大大减少了二次除锈重涂的工作量,在很大程度上降低了制造成本;新一代耐高温车间底漆施工操作简单、方便、环保,并且采用醇类溶剂作为稀释剂,对操作工人身体无毒害,具有广阔的市场前景和很高的经济效益及社会效益.

  16. Development of powder metallurgy Al alloys for high temperature aircraft structural applications, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellman, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    In this continuing study, the development of mechanically alloyed heat resistant aluminum alloys for aircraft were studied to develop higher strength targets and higher service temperatures. The use of higher alloy additions to MA Al-Fe-Co alloys, employment of prealloyed starting materials, and higher extrusion temperatures were investigated. While the MA Al-Fe-Co alloys exhibited good retention of strength and ductility properties at elevated temperatures and excellent stability of properties after 1000 hour exposure at elevated temperatures, a sensitivity of this system to low extrusion strain rates adversely affected the level of strength achieved. MA alloys in the Al-Li family showed excellent notched toughness and property stability after long time exposures at elevated temperatures. A loss of Li during processing and the higher extrusion temperature 482 K (900 F) resulted in low mechanical strengths. Subsequent hot and cold working of the MA Al-Li had only a mild influence on properties.

  17. Aging phenomena of rapidly solidified Al-4mass%Cu-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Al-4mass%Cu-(0--4.5)mass%Cr alloys were prepared by chill-casting, and their heat-resisting properties were examined. The amount of solute Cr quenched in Al-4%Cu alloy was about 1.5% at maximum. Resistance to over-aging was markedly increased with increasing amount of solute Cr, when the alloys were subjected to usual heat-treatments: that is, homogenization at 793K after chill-casting, water-quenching, aging at 473K and subsequent over-aging at 623K. This phenomenon would mainly be attributed to the fact that theta' formed during pre-aging became very stable both in the amount and the size, as the amount of solute Cr increased. The chill-cast Al-4%Cu-2%Cr alloy was thought to be superior to commercial heat-resisting 2219 alloy. The over-aged structures of Cr contained alloys were in detail discussed, in comparison with those of Mn contained alloys. (author)

  18. A low dose pre-irradiation induces radio- and heat-resistance via HDM2 and NO radicals, and is associated with p53 functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify the effect of low dose pre-irradiation on radio- and heat-sensitivity. Wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53 cells derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line were used. The parental H1299 cell line is p53-null. Cellular sensitivities were determined with a colony-forming assay. When wtp53 cells were exposed to a low dose X-irradiation, induction of radio- and heat-resistance was observed only in the absence of RITA (an inhibitor of p53-HDM2 interactions), aminoguanidine (an iNOS inhibitor) and c-PTIO (an NO radical scavenger). In contrast, the induced radio- and heat-resistance was not observed under similar conditions in mp53 cells. Moreover, heat-resistance as well as radio-resistance developed when wtp53 cells were treated with ISDN (an NO generating agent) alone. These findings suggest that NO radicals are an initiator of radio- and heat-resistance, and function through the activation of HDM2 and the depression of p53 accumulation.

  19. Thermodiffusion Mo-B-Si coating on VN-3 niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protective properties of complex Mo-B-Si-coating on niobium alloy VN-3 (4.7 mass.% Mo, 1.1 mass.% Zr, 0.1 mass.% C) have been studied. It is established, that the complex Mo-B-Si-coating ensures protection from oxidation of niobium alloys in the temperature range of 800-1200 degC for 1000-1500 hr, at 1600 degC - for 10 hr. High heat resistance of Mo-B-Si - coating at 800-1200 degC is determined by the presence of amorphous film of SiOΛ2 over the layer MoSiΛ2 and barrier boride layer on the boundary with the metal protected; decrease in the coating heat resistance at 1600 degC is related to the destruction of boride layer, decomposition of MoSiΛ2 for lower cilicides and loosening of SiOΛ2 film

  20. Bacillus thermoamylovorans spores with very-high-level heat resistance germinate poorly in rich medium despite the presence of ger clusters but efficiently upon exposure to calcium-dipicolinic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Krawczyk, Antonina O; Klaus, Verena; de Jong, Anne; Boekhorst, Jos; Eijlander, Robyn T; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-01-01

    High-level heat resistance of spores of Bacillus thermoamylovorans poses challenges to the food industry, as industrial sterilization processes may not inactivate such spores, resulting in food spoilage upon germination and outgrowth. In this study, the germination and heat resistance properties of

  1. Effects of room-temperature tensile fatigue on critical current and n-value of IBAD-MOCVD YBa2Cu3O7-x /Hastelloy coated conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Samuel; Kan Chan, Wan; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-08-01

    REBa2Cu3O7-x (REBCO) coated conductors potentially enable a multitude of superconducting applications, over a wide range of operating temperatures and magnetic fields, including high-field magnets, energy storage devices, motors, generators, and power transmission systems (Zhang et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700704). Many of these are AC applications and thus the fatigue properties may be limiting (Vincent et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700805). Previous electromechanical studies have determined the performance of REBCO conductors under single cycle loads (Barth et al 2015 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28 045011), but an understanding of the fatigue properties is lacking. Here the fatigue behavior of commercial ion beam assisted deposition-metal organic chemical vapor deposition REBCO conductors on Hastelloy substrates is reported for axial tensile strains up to 0.5% and up to 100 000 cycles. Failure mechanisms are investigated via microstructural studies. Results show that REBCO conductors retained I c(ɛ)/I c0 = 0.9 for 10 000 cycles at ɛ = 0.35% and ɛ = 0.45% strain, and ɛ = 0.5% for 100 cycles. The main cause of fatigue degradation in REBCO conductors is crack propagation that initiates at the slitting defects that result from the manufacturing process.

  2. Research Progress on a New Class of High-Temperature Oxidation-Resistant Austenitic Heat-Resistant Steels%新一代新型抗高温氧化奥氏体耐热钢的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐向棋; 吕昭平

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new class of high-temperature oxidation-resistant austenitic heat-resistant steels which offer a continuous, stable, spontaneous dense layer of alumina with superior high-temperature oxidation resistance and creep resistance to conventional chromia( Cr2O3 )-forming stainless steels. Detailed analyses of the oxidation mechanisms and alloying effects on the oxidation behavior of these newly developed alumina-forming steels at high temperatures in air with 10% water vapor were presented. It was also found that the creep resistance and high-temperature mechanical properties for these heat-resistant austenitic steels were improved due to precipitations of stable nanosized NbC , Fe2Nb and NiAl precipitates at elevated temperatures. The perspective of utilizing these novel alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels as engineering components is analyzed and discussed.%新一代奥氏体耐热钢在氧化过程中自发形成连续、稳定、致密的氧化铝层,与传统的在金属表面形成Cr2O3保护层的不锈钢相比,具有更优异的高温抗氧化性能和良好的抗蠕变能力。详细地分析了新型抗高温氧化奥氏体耐热钢的抗氧化机理,并且探讨了一些合金元素对新型奥氏体耐热钢在高温含10%水蒸气的气氛中抗氧化性能的影响。指出新一代奥氏体耐热钢在氧化过程中形成稳定的纳米级沉淀相NbC,以及在高温时形成的稳定Fe2Nh和NiAl沉淀相,有力地改善了其抗蠕变性能和高温力学性能。最后展望了这类以Al2O3为抗氧化层的新型奥氏体耐热钢的应用前景。

  3. Influence of salicylic and succinic acids on antioxidant enzymes activity, heat resistance and productivity of Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnichenko N.N.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of treatment of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. seeds with the solutions of salicylic and succinic acids on the heat resistance of plantlets and activity of antioxidant enzymes – superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase – in them have been investigated. In the micro-field experiment the influence of these acids on the millet yield was estimated. The action of salicylic (10 μM and succinic (1 mM acids caused the increase of plantlets resistance to the damaging heating that expressed in the rise of relative quantity of survived plantlets in 5 days after heating at the temperature of 47°С and in the reduced content of lipid peroxidation product malonic dialdehyde during the poststress period. The increase of activity of SOD, catalase and peroxidase took place in millet plantlets under the influence of salicylic and succinic acids. The increase of productivity of millet grain under the action of salicylic and succinic acids on 13,3-52,0 and 6,4-38,8% respectively depending on weather conditions in the field experiments was noted.

  4. MODIFICATION OF CeO2 AND ITS EFFECT ON THE HEAT-RESISTANCE OF SILICONE RUBBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng-fei Gan; Bao-qing Shentu; Zhi-xue Weng

    2008-01-01

    By means of the wet chemical surface modification, the surface of CeO2 was modified by vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS). Infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the structure of the modified CeO2 and the result showed that VTMS has been attached onto the surface of CeO2. Effect of VTMS concentration on the active index of the modified CeO2 was also studied, and the result indicated that the active index of the modified CeO2 increases with the increase of VTMS concentration and the optimal concentration of VTMS is 10 wt%. The effect of the modified CeO2 on the tear strength of silicone rubber before and after aging was studied and it was found that in comparison with the unmodified CeO2 the addition of the modified CeO2 results in the significant increase of the tear strength before ageing due to the increase of the crosslinking density of silicone rubber under the experimental conditions. The tear strength of silicone rubber filled with the modified CeO2 after ageing is higher than that with the unmodified CeO2, indicating that the modification of CeO2 can improve the heat-resistance of silicone rubber.

  5. Effect of tempering temperature on the toughness of 9Cr–3W–3Co martensitic heat resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Toughness of 9Cr–3W–3Co steel increases with increasing tempering temperature. • Toughness is influenced by hardness of base metal and length of crack propagation path. • Hardness of base metal is influenced by dislocation density and degree of supersaturation of the interstitial atoms. • Length of crack propagation path is influenced by length of the large angle boundaries. - Abstract: Effect of tempering temperature on the toughness of 9Cr–3W–3Co martensitic heat resistant steel was studied on the basis of the microstructures after normalized at 1100 °C for 1 h and then tempered at 740–780 °C for 3 h. With increasing tempering temperature from 740 °C to 780 °C, the absorbed energy of the 9Cr–3W–3Co steel increased greatly from 26 J to 115 J. The change of the toughness with increasing tempering temperature was attributed to the softening of the base metal and the increase of the crack propagation path. The softening of the base metal was caused by the decrease of the dislocation density and the supersaturation of the interstitial atoms. The reason for the increase of the crack propagation path was that the length of the large angle boundaries increased and then the propagation direction of the cleavage crack was deflected more frequently

  6. Scorpion Venom Heat-Resistant Peptide Attenuates Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Expression via c-Jun/AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhen; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Zhang, Rui; Li, Na; Yang, Jin-Yi; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Zhao, Jie; Li, Shao

    2015-11-01

    Scorpion venom has been used in the Orient to treat central nervous system diseases for many years, and the protein/peptide toxins in Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK) venom are believed to be the effective components. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is an active component of the scorpion venom extracted from BmK. In a previous study, we found that SVHRP could inhibit the formation of a glial scar, which is characterized by enhanced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, in the epileptic hippocampus. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain to be clarified. The results of the present study indicate that endogenous GFAP expression in primary rat astrocytes was attenuated by SVHRP. We further demonstrate that the suppression of GFAP was primarily mediated by inhibiting both c-Jun expression and its binding with AP-1 DNA binding site and other factors at the GFAP promoter. These results support that SVHRP contributes to reducing GFAP at least in part by decreasing the activity of the transcription factor AP-1. In conclusion, the effects of SVHRP on astrocytes with respect to the c-Jun/AP-1 signaling pathway in vitro provide a practical basis for studying astrocyte activation and inhibition and a scientific basis for further studies of traditional medicine.

  7. Precipitation behavior and martensite lath coarsening during tempering of T/P92 ferritic heat-resistant steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin-qing; Zhang, Dan-tian; Liu, Yong-chang; Ning, Bao-qun; Qiao, Zhi-xia; Yan, Ze-sheng; Li, Hui-jun

    2014-05-01

    Tempering is an important process for T/P92 ferritic heat-resistant steel from the viewpoint of microstructure control, as it facilitates the formation of final tempered martensite under serving conditions. In this study, we have gained deeper insights on the mechanism underlying the microstructural evolution during tempering treatment, including the precipitation of carbides and the coarsening of martensite laths, as systematically analyzed by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The chemical composition of the precipitates was analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results indicate the formation of M3C (cementite) precipitates under normalized conditions. However, they tend to dissolve within a short time of tempering, owing to their low thermal stability. This phenomenon was substantiated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Besides, we could observe the precipitation of fine carbonitrides (MX) along the dislocations. The mechanism of carbon diffusion controlled growth of M23C6 can be expressed by the Zener's equation. The movement of Y-junctions was determined to be the fundamental mechanism underlying the martensite lath coarsening process. Vickers hardness was estimated to determine their mechanical properties. Based on the comprehensive analysis of both the micro-structural evolution and hardness variation, the process of tempering can be separated into three steps.

  8. Precipitation behavior and martensite lath coarsening during tempering of T/P92 ferritic heat-resistant steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-qing Xu; Dan-tian Zhang; Yong-chang Liu; Bao-qun Ning; Zhi-xia Qiao; Ze-sheng Yan; Hui-jun Li

    2014-01-01

    Tempering is an important process for T/P92 ferritic heat-resistant steel from the viewpoint of microstructure control, as it facili-tates the formation of final tempered martensite under serving conditions. In this study, we have gained deeper insights on the mechanism underlying the microstructural evolution during tempering treatment, including the precipitation of carbides and the coarsening of martensite laths, as systematically analyzed by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron mi-croscopy. The chemical composition of the precipitates was analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results indicate the for-mation of M3C (cementite) precipitates under normalized conditions. However, they tend to dissolve within a short time of tempering, owing to their low thermal stability. This phenomenon was substantiated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Besides, we could observe the precipitation of fine carbonitrides (MX) along the dislocations. The mechanism of carbon diffusion controlled growth of M23C6 can be expressed by the Zener’s equation. The movement of Y-junctions was determined to be the fundamental mechanism underlying the martensite lath coarsening process. Vickers hardness was estimated to determine their mechanical properties. Based on the comprehensive analysis of both the micro-structural evolution and hardness variation, the process of tempering can be separated into three steps.

  9. Effects of laser heat treatment on salt spray corrosion of 1Cr5Mo heat resistant steel welding joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德军; 郭卫

    2015-01-01

    The surface of 1Cr5Mo heat-resistant steel welding joint was processed with CO2 laser, and the corrosion behaviors before and after laser heat treatment (LHT) were investigated in the salt spray corrosion environments. The microstructures, phases, residual stresses and retained austenite content of 1Cr5Mo steel welding joint before and after LHT were analyzed with optical microscope and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The cracking morphologies and chemical compositions of corrosion products after salt spray corrosion were analyzed with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), respectively, the polarization curves were measured on a PS-268A type electrochemical workstation, and the mechanism of corrosion resistance by LHT was investigated as well. The results show that the passive film of original sample is destroyed owing to the corrosive media penetrating into the subsurface, resulting in the redox reaction. The content of residual austenite in the surface and the self-corrosion potential are increased by LHT, which is contributed to improving the capability of salt spray corrosion resistance.

  10. Effect of impurities on the proneness to temper embrittlement of heat resistant Cr-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated the effect of most alloying elements which are traditionaly regarded as dangerous in low-alloy structural steels--sulfur, phosphorus, copper, arsenic, antimony, tin--on the proneness to temper embrittlement of steel 25Kh1M1F which is used for making large all-forged rotors of fixed and transport medium-pressure steam turbines. On the basis of the obtained results it may be concluded that from among the investigated alloying elements only phosphorus and antimony have a statistically significant effect on the proneness of fine-grained steel 25Kh1M1F to temper embrittlement, and the embrittling effect of phosphorus is much stronger than the embrittling effect of antimony

  11. Study of superficial films and of electrochemical behaviour of some nickel base alloys and titanium base alloys in solution representation of granitic, argillaceous and salted ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behaviour of the stainless steels 304, 316 Ti, 25Cr-20Ni-Mo-Ti, nickel base alloys Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625, Incoloy 800, Ti and Ti-0.2% Pd alloy has been studied in the aerated or deaerated solutions at 200C and 900C whose compositions are representative of interstitial ground waters: granitic or clay waters or salt brine. The electrochemical techniques used are voltametry, polarization resistance and complexe impedance measurements. Electrochemical data show the respective influence of the parameters such as temperature, solution composition and dissolved oxygen, addition of soluble species chloride, fluoride, sulfide and carbonates, on which depend the corrosion current density, the passivation and the pitting potential. The inhibition efficiency of carbonate and bicarbonate activities against pitting corrosion is determined. In clay water at 900C, Ti and Ti-Pd show very high passivation aptitude and a broad passive potential range. Alloying Pd increases cathodic overpotential and also transpassive potential. It makes the alloy less sensitive to the temperature effect. Optical Glow Discharge Spectra show three parts in the composition depth profiles of surface films on alloys. XPS and SIMS spectrometry analyses are also carried out. Electron microscopy observation shows that passive films formed on Ti and Ti-Pd alloy have amorphous structure. Analysis of the alloy constituents dissolved in solutions, by radioactivation in neutrons, gives the order of magnitude of the Ni base alloy corrosion rates in various media. It also points out the preferential dissolution of alloying iron and in certain cases of chromium

  12. Neutron Diffraction Study on Plastic behavior of a Nickel-Based Alloy Under the Monotonic-Tension and the Low-Cyclic-Fatigue Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, E.-W.; Barabash, R.; Clausen, B.; Wang, Y.; Yang, R.; Li, L.; Choo, H.; Liaw, P.K. (ORNL)

    2007-11-02

    The plastic behavior of an annealed HASTELLOY C-22HS alloy, a face-centered cubic (FCC), nickel-based superalloy, was examined by in-situ neutron-diffraction measurements at room temperature. Both monotonic-tension and low-cycle-fatigue experiments were conducted. Monotonic-tension straining and cyclic-loading deformation were studied as a function of stress. The plastic behavior during deformation is discussed in light of the relationship between the stress and dislocation-density evolution. The calculated dislocation-density evolution within the alloy reflects the strain hardening and cyclic hardening/softening. Experimentally determined lattice strains are compared to verify the hardening mechanism at selected stress levels for tension and cyclic loadings. Combined with calculations of the dislocation densities, the neutron-diffraction experiments provide direct information about the strain and cyclic hardening of the alloy.

  13. NEUTRON-DIFFRACTION STUDY ON PLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF A NICKEL-BASED ALLOY UNDER THE MONOTONIC-TENSION AND THE LOW-CYCLE-FATIGUE EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, E-Wen [ORNL; Barabash, Rozaliya [ORNL; Clausen, Bjorn [ORNL; Wang, Yandong [ORNL; Yang, Dr Ren [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Li, Li [ORNL; Choo, Hahn [ORNL; Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2007-01-01

    The plastic behavior of an annealed HASTELLOY C-22HS alloy, a face-centered cubic (FCC), nickel-based superalloy, was examined by in-situ neutron-diffraction measurements at room temperature. Both monotonic-tension and low-cycle-fatigue experiments were conducted. Monotonic-tension straining and cyclic-loading deformation were studied as a function of stress. The plastic behavior during deformation is discussed in light of the relationship between the stress and dislocation-density evolution. The calculated dislocation-density evolution within the alloy reflects the strain hardening and cyclic hardening/softening. Experimentally determined lattice strains are compared to verify the hardening mechanism at selected stress levels for tension and cyclic loadings. Combined with calculations of the dislocation densities, the neutron-diffraction experiments provide direct information about the strain and cyclic hardening of the alloy.

  14. Modifying effect of extremal temperature depending on the organism adaptation to this factor on the effect of radiation. 2. Analysis of the potential damages using heat resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown, that the effect of high temperature within the range of 33, 35, 37 and 38 deg C after irradiation (X-rays 3000r) increases the radiation effect, manifesting itself in the loss of X-chromosome of Kanton-C line flies, not adapted to high temperature. It takes place at the expense of reparation process depression and the increase of probability of potential damage realization. The effect on the flies of T-32 line, adapted to high temperature (32 deg C) turned non-effective at the temperature of 33 and 35 deg C. Heat-resistance of reparation ferments in this line is supposed to be higher. The temperature of 37 and 38 deg C has been effective for heat-resistant lines as well as for other lines

  15. Low temperature oxidation of niobium alloy with silicon-aluminium coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the gravimetry methods heat resistance of niobium-titanium-aluminium alloy in the air and at 700 deg C in the initial state and when it is protected by silicide-aluminium coatings (with variable content of aluminium) is investigated. Using X-ray diffraction and micro X-ray diffraction analyses, mechanisms of the alloy oxidation and the coating protective effect are studied. The role of aluminium in the formation of coatings is analyzed and according to bend tests the plasticity of the coatings is evaluated

  16. Modeling the thermal inactivation kinetics of heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienburg in 10 percent salted liquid egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Marks, Harry M; Jones, Deana R; Bailey, Rebecca R; Bauer, Nathan E

    2011-06-01

    There is no suitable model for predicting thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. for many types of liquid egg products, including salted liquid egg yolk, for use in updating U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) pasteurization guidelines. This is because, in part, of the variations in Salmonella strains and the changes in the processing of liquid egg products over the past 40 years. The objectives of the present study were to determine the thermal inactivation kinetics and to create a general thermal inactivation kinetics model that can be used for estimating log reductions of salmonellae in 10% salted liquid egg yolk for temperatures between 62.2 and 69°C. This model can be used by processors to help ensure adequate pasteurization. This was accomplished by studying the inactivation kinetics of a three-strain composite of heat-resistant Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Oranienburg, inoculated into commercially processed 10% salted liquid egg yolk. The survival curves were convex, with asymptotic D-values. From these curves, a general model was developed to predict log reductions for given times at specified temperatures. For example, at a temperature of 67.3°C (153.1°F) for 3.5 min, our model predicts a 5-log reduction would be obtained, whereas with the current USDA minimum required pasteurization regimen (63.33°C [146°F] for 3.5 min), our model predicts that a reduction of only 2.7 log would be obtained. The results of this study provide information that can be used by processors to aid in producing safe, pasteurized egg yolk products, and for satisfying USDA pasteurization performance standards and developing industry guidance. PMID:21669063

  17. Modeling the combined effects of pH, temperature and ascorbic acid concentration on the heat resistance of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahçeci, K Savaş; Acar, Jale

    2007-12-15

    In this study, thermal inactivation parameters (D- and z-values) of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in McIlvaine buffers at different pH, apple juice and apple nectar produced with and without ascorbic acid addition were determined. The effects of pH, temperature and ascorbic acid concentration on D-values of A. acidoterrestris spores were also investigated using response surface methodology. A second order polynomial equation was used to describe the relationship between pH, temperature, ascorbic acid concentration and the D-values of A. acidoterrestris spores. Temperature was the most important factor on D-values, and its effect was three times higher than those of pH. Although the statistically significant, heat resistance of A. acidoterrestris spores was not so influenced from the ascorbic acid within the concentration studied. D-values in apple juice and apple nectars were higher than those in buffers as heating medium at similar pH. The D-values ranged from 11.1 (90 degrees C) to 0.7 min (100 degrees C) in apple juice, 14.1 (90 degrees C) to 1.0 min (100 degrees C) in apple nectar produced with ascorbic acid addition, and 14.4 (90 degrees C) to 1.2 min (100 degrees C) in apple nectar produced without ascorbic acid addition. However, no significant difference in z-values was observed among spores in the juices and buffers at different pH, and it was between 8.2 and 9.2 degrees C. The results indicated that the spores of A. acidoterrestris may survive in fruit juices and nectars after pasteurization treatment commonly applied in the food industry.

  18. Long-term investigations into the relaxation process of heat-resistant screw connections with and without operational prestressing; Langzeituntersuchungen zum Relaxationsverhalten warmfester Schraubenverbindungen mit und ohne Betriebsvorbeanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maile, K. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), Stuttgart Univ. (Germany); Haensel, G. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), Stuttgart Univ. (Germany); Purper, H. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    1995-01-01

    Relaxation tests have been carried out for up to 45000 hours of test time on screw connection models made of heat-resistant steels. For temperatures in the upper range of application, the residual stress values obtained were partly more than 20% above the values of DIN 17240. (orig.) [Deutsch] An Schraubenverbindungsmodellen aus warmfesten Staehlen wurden Relaxationsversuche bis 45000 h Versuchsdauer durchgefuehrt. Fuer Temperaturen im oberen Anwendungsbereich lagen die ermittelten Restspannungswerte teilweise mehr als 20% ueber den Werten der DIN 17240. (orig.)

  19. Effect of carbon and niobium on the microstructure and impact toughness of a high silicon 12% Cr ferritic/martensitic heat resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to guide the design of 9–12% Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) heat resistant steels appropriate for use in accelerator-driven system, the impact toughness and behavior of precipitation of a 12% Cr F/M heat resistant steel containing high C and Si concentrations have been investigated. Particular focus has been given to the interaction of carbon and carbonitride-forming element. Because of the presence of primary NbC and a large amount of M23C6, the impact toughness of the investigated steel was much lower than that of the commercial 9–12% Cr F/M heat resistant steels. The primary NbC crystallizes directly from liquid metal when the Nb concentration is higher than a critical value. The critical value of Nb decreases with increase in the carbon concentration. In addition, the higher content and faster precipitation kinetics of M23C6 in the investigated steel during the tempering heat treatment also lowers the impact toughness

  20. Effect of carbon and niobium on the microstructure and impact toughness of a high silicon 12% Cr ferritic/martensitic heat resistant steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zhongfei [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Pei, E-mail: pwang@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Dianzhong [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, Yutuo [Shenyang Ligong University, 6 Nanping Road, Shenyang 110159 (China); Li, Yiyi [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2014-10-20

    In order to guide the design of 9–12% Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) heat resistant steels appropriate for use in accelerator-driven system, the impact toughness and behavior of precipitation of a 12% Cr F/M heat resistant steel containing high C and Si concentrations have been investigated. Particular focus has been given to the interaction of carbon and carbonitride-forming element. Because of the presence of primary NbC and a large amount of M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, the impact toughness of the investigated steel was much lower than that of the commercial 9–12% Cr F/M heat resistant steels. The primary NbC crystallizes directly from liquid metal when the Nb concentration is higher than a critical value. The critical value of Nb decreases with increase in the carbon concentration. In addition, the higher content and faster precipitation kinetics of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} in the investigated steel during the tempering heat treatment also lowers the impact toughness.

  1. Effect of glass-ceramic-processing cycle on the metallurgical properties of candidate alloys for actuator housings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirick, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the results from an investigation on the effect of a glass ceramic processing cycle on the metallurgical properties of metal candidates for actuator housings. The cycle consists of a 980/sup 0/C sealing step, a 650/sup 0/C crystallization step and a 475/sup 0/C annealing step. These temperatue excursions are within the same temperature regime as annealing and heat treating processes normally employed for metals. Therefore, the effect of the processing cycle on metallurgical properties of microstructure, strength, hardness and ductility were examined. It was found that metal candidates which are single phase or solid solution alloys (such as 21-6-9, Hastelloy C-276 and Inconel 625) were not affected whereas multiphase or precipitation hardened alloys (such as Inconel 718 and Titanium ..beta..-C) were changed by the processing cycle for the glass ceramic.

  2. Carburization of austenitic alloys by gaseous impurities in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carburization behavior of Alloy 800H, Inconel Alloy 617 and Hastelloy Alloy X in helium containing various amounts of H2, CO, CH4, H2O and CO2 was studied. Corrosion tests were conducted in a temperature range from 649 to 10000C (1200 to 18320F) for exposure time up to 10,000 h. Four different helium environments, identified as A, B, C, and D, were investigated. Concentrations of gaseous impurities were 1500 μatm H2, 450 μatm CO, 50 μatm CH4 and 50 μatm H2O for Environment A; 200 μatm H2, 100 μatm CO, 20 μatm CH4, 50 μatm H2O and 5 μatm CO2 for Environment B; 500 μatm H2, 50 μatm CO, 50 μatm CH4 and 2O for Environment C; and 500 μatm H2, 50 μatm CO, 50 μatm CH4 and 1.5 μatm H2O for Environment D. Environments A and B were characteristic of high-oxygen potential, while C and D were characteristic of low-oxygen potential. The results showed that the carburization kinetics in low-oxygen potential environments (C and D) were significantly higher, approximately an order of magnitude higher at high temperatures, than those in high-oxygen potential environments (A and B) for all three alloys. Thermodynamic analyses indicated no significant differences in the thermodynamic carburization potential between low- and high-oxygen potential environments. It is thus believed that the enhanced carburization kinetics observed in the low-oxygen potential environments were related to kinetic effects. A qualitatively mechanistic model was proposed to explain the enhanced kinetics. The present results further suggest that controlling the oxygen potential of the service environment can be an effective means of reducing carburization of alloys

  3. Development of Low Alloy Heat Resisting Welding Wire%一种低合金耐热焊丝钢盘条的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭慧英; 张宇; 许红梅; 王银柏

    2014-01-01

    采用Gleeble-3800热模拟试验机研究了1.25Cr-0.5Mo气保焊丝钢的连续冷却相转变行为(CCT),并在沙钢高线车间进行了该焊丝钢盘条的工业试制。试验结果表明:试样在950和1000℃2种变形温度下均得到铁素体(F)和马氏体(M)两相组织,且随变形温度和冷速降低,马氏体含量降低且尺寸减小;现场试制时设定精轧温度为950℃,吐丝温度为870~890℃,冷却速率为0.3~0.5℃/s,则制得的盘条组织为F+M,强度低于830 MPa,其拉拔深加工时制丝顺畅,未发生断丝。%The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) kinetics in the designed thermo mechanical processing conditions was investigated for 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel employing a Gleeble-3800 thermo mechanical simulator, and plant trial of the wire rod was conducted in the high speed wire rod production line. The CCT experimental results suggest that the sample under deformation temperatures of both 950 and 1 000 ℃ both produced a microstructure of ferrite (F) and martensite (M), and the fraction and size of M decreased with the deformation temperature and cooling rate. The optimization of roll-ing schedule at industrial facilities showed that a combination of finishing rolling temperature at 950℃, the spinning tem-perature at 870-890℃and the cooling rate at 0.3-0.5℃/s produced a welding wire with a microstructure of F+M and ten-sile strength below 830 MPa. Fracture of wire doesn’t occur during the drawing process which was smooth.

  4. Cast heat-resistant austenitic steel with improved temperature creep properties and balanced alloying element additions and methodology for development of the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankiw, Roman I; Muralidharan, Govindrarajan; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Maziasz, Philip J

    2012-11-27

    The present invention addresses the need for new austenitic steel compositions with higher creep strength and higher upper temperatures. The new austenitic steel compositions retain desirable phases, such as austenite, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and MC in its microstructure to higher temperatures. The present invention also discloses a methodology for the development of new austenitic steel compositions with higher creep strength and higher upper temperatures.

  5. 9-12% Cr heat resistant steels : alloy design, TEM characterisation of microstructure evolution and creep response at 650oC

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Jara, David

    2011-01-01

    Diese Arbeit handelt sich um die Legierungsentwicklung von 9-12%Cr kriechbeständigen Stählen für Kraftwerkskomponente. Computerunterstützte Thermodynamik wurde für das Design der neuen Legierungen verwendet, vor allen der Einfluss verschiedener Legierungselementen auf die Gefügebildung. Insbesondere die Zusammenhänge zwischen Mikrostrukturentwicklung und Kriechverhalten bei 650oC und 100 MPa wurden untersucht. Das Gefüge (unter anderen Ausscheidungen, Versetzungsdichte, Subkörn...

  6. Study of nucleation, growth and coarsening of precipitates in a novel 9%Cr heat resistant steel: Experimental and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, O., E-mail: oprat@udec.cl [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Ingeniería de Materiales, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción (Chile); García, J. [AB Sandvik Coromant R and D, Lerkrogsvägen 19, 12680 Stockholm (Sweden); Rojas, D.; Sanhueza, J.P.; Camurri, C. [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Ingeniería de Materiales, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción (Chile)

    2014-01-15

    Nucleation, growth and coarsening of three different precipitates (NbC, M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and V(C,N)) in a novel 9%Cr heat resistant steel designed by the authors were investigated. The microstructure evolution after tempering (780 °C/2 h) and after creep (650 °C/100 MPa) was characterized using transmission electron microscopy in the scanning mode (STEM). Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling was carried out using the softwares Thermo-Calc, DICTRA and TC-PRISMA. The Thermo-Calc software predicted formation of NbC, V(C,N) and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides at the tempering temperature of 780 °C. STEM investigations revealed that M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitated on prior austenite grain boundaries and lath or block boundaries whereas NbC and V(C,N) were located within sub-grains. Simulations by TC-PRISMA showed that M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, NbC and V(C,N) particles nucleation begins as soon as the tempering treatment starts and it is completed in a very short time, reaching the equilibrium volume fraction after 40 s for M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, 100 s for NbC and 80 s for V(C,N). Best agreement between simulations and experimental investigations was found for low interfacial energy values of 0.1 J m{sup −2}. Both STEM measurements as well as DICTRA simulations indicate very low coarsening rate for both kind of precipitates. Creep tests up to 4000–5000 h suggest that this special combination of NbC, V(C,N) and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} may provide increased pinning of dislocations reducing boundary migration therefore enhancing creep strength. - Highlights: • Nucleation, growth and coarsening of NbC and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates were investigated. • The microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (STEM). • Modeling was carried out using the softwares Thermo-Calc, DICTRA and TC-PRISMA. • M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and NbC nucleation begins as soon as the solution treatmentinitiates. • Best agreement modeling/experiments was found for low interfacial energy

  7. Performance of aluminide coatings applied on alloy CF8C plus at 800 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Deepak [ORNL; Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Shyam, Amit [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The cost effective, austenitic stainless steel CF8C plus is an attractive alloy for massive cast structures such as steam turbine casings. The microstructure stability and creep strength of this alloy are better than commercial high-performance heat-resistant steels such as NF709 and Super 304H, and are comparable to the Ni-based superalloy Inconel 617. The oxidation resistance of the alloy in atmosphere rich in water vapor is however insufficient at T>800 C, and the use of diffusion aluminide coatings is considered for potential high temperature applications. The thermal stability and protectiveness of coatings applied on the CF8C plus substrate by pack cementation and slurry process were investigated in air + 10% H2O environment at 800 C. Further, the coating effect on the fatigue life of the alloy was assessed via low-cycle-fatigue experiments.

  8. Microstructure and Wear Behavior Of as Cast Al-25mg2si-2cu-2ni Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Geetanjali.S.Guggari ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable feature of the Aluminium is its low density and ability to withstand corrosion effect due to phenomenon of passivation. Structural components made from Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and are important in other areas of transportation and structural materials. The oxides and sulphate are useful compounds of Aluminium based on its weight. In this work, an attempt has been made to utilize the combined effect of high cooling rate solidification, unique micro structural evolution mechanism of T6 heat treatment the advantages of hypereutectic Al-Si system alloyed with other elements such as Cu, Fe and Mg. In the present investigation, the binary alloys in the hypereutectic range viz. Al25Mg2Si has been selected as heat resistant Al-Si alloys. A systematic approach has been carried out to explore the micro structural features, mechanical and wear properties of as cast alloys.

  9. 高耐热阻燃ABS材料制备及性能研究%Preparation and Properties of High Heat Resistant and Flame Retardant ABS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪炉林; 焦蒨; 王林; 郑一泉; 麦堪成

    2013-01-01

    With acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene(ABS) as substrate resins,by adding styrene-N-phenylmaleimide-maleic anhydride terpolymer (AS-MS-NB) as heat retardancy,high heat resistant ABS masterbatch was prepared with different content of heat retardancy at 240-270 ℃ in a twin-screw extruder. Meanwhile,by adding 1,2-bis(pentabromophenyl)ethane(DBDPE) to the masterbatch,high heat resistant and flame retardant ABS was fabricated by twin-screw extruder at 180-210 ℃. The results show that,the fabricated high heat resistant and flame retardant ABS material both features high heat resistance and flame retardancy, at the same time, the heat resistance and its content have a positive correlation by this two-step method. Meanwhile, with the DBDPE, the masterbatch heat distortion temperature does not decrease remarkably,bending strength,tensile strength and impact strength decrease slightly,but fluidity improves obviously. The fabricated high heat resistant and flame retardant ABS can be widely applied to the motor,blower,power box,microwave ovens,rice cookers,connectors and so on.%以丙烯腈-丁二烯-苯乙烯塑料(ABS)为基体,以苯乙烯-N-苯基马来酰亚胺-马来酸酐三元共聚物(AS-MS-NB)为耐热剂,在双螺杆挤出机中,于240~270℃制备出不同耐热剂含量的高耐热ABS母粒。以此母粒和十溴二苯乙烷(DBDPE)阻燃体系共混,于180~210℃通过双螺杆挤出机制备出高耐热阻燃ABS。结果表明,通过这种两步法制备的高耐热阻燃ABS材料兼具高耐热和阻燃特性,并且耐热剂含量和其制备的阻燃ABS材料的耐热性具有正相关性。同时加入DBDPE未使高耐热阻燃ABS的热变形温度明显降低,弯曲强度、拉伸强度及冲击强度稍有下降,而流动性明显改善,高耐热阻燃ABS可广泛应用于电机、吹风机、电源盒、微波炉、电饭煲、插排等领域。

  10. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers. PMID:23587714

  11. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers.

  12. The abnormal segregation behavior of solutes under tensile stress and its effect on carbide reactions in 2.25Cr–1.5W heat-resistant steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphorus segregation concentration at grain boundary/carbide interfaces of 2.25Cr–1.5W heat-resistant steels under tensile stress shows a broad convex profile in a log time versus segregation concentration plot. The decrease in phosphorus segregation concentration after the maximum in the convex profile is due to the formation of new equilibrium MC carbides on the surface of the pre-formed M23C6 carbides and its partitioning effect of the phosphorus segregated at the M23C6 carbide interface to the interface of the new MC carbides

  13. Compatibility of graphite with a martensitic-ferritic steel, an austenitic stainless steel and a Ni-base alloy up to 1250 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the chemical interactions between graphite and a martensitic-ferritic steel (1.4914), an austenitic stainless steel (1.4919; AISI 316), and a Ni-base alloy (Hastelloy X) isothermal reaction experiments were performed in the temperature range between 900 and 1250 C. At higher temperatures a rapid and complete liquefaction of the components occurred as a result of eutectic interactions. The chemical interactions are diffusion-controlled processes and can be described by parabolic rate laws. The reaction behavior of the two steels is very similar. The chemical interactions of the steels with graphite are much faster above 1100 C than those for the Ni-base alloy. Below 1000 C the effect is opposite. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of weldability and property changes of high pressure heat-resistant cast stainless steel tubes used in pyrolysis furnaces after a five-year service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → To investigate the weldability and property changes of high pressure heat-resistant cast stainless steel (HP) tubes. → Welding was done by gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. → Composition of precipitates was characterized by means of SEM and EDS analyses. → The solution treatment was used to recover the properties of tubes. → To investigate mechanical strength of specimens, tensile tests were carried out at room temperature. -- Abstract: High pressure heat-resistant cast stainless steel (HP steel) tubes produced by centrifugal casting are used in petrochemical industries for pyrolysis furnaces. They have appropriate ductility and weldability in as-cast conditions. These steels lose their ductility and weldability after being used in service and, hence, require repair. In the present study, the effect of metallurgical changes on weldability and ductility was investigated. The life span of the studied tubes was 5 years. Using electrodes with a chemical composition close to the base metal analysis, welding was done by gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Solution treatment was used to recover the properties of tubes which can be useful, depending on metallurgical changes.

  15. 大肠杆菌耐热元器件的构建及其应用%Construction of heat resistance devices for Escherichia coli and their application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙翔英; 刘月芹; 孙欢; 贾海洋; 戴大章; 李春

    2014-01-01

    以提高大肠杆菌耐热性为目的,基于腾冲嗜热菌(Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis MB4)热激蛋白基因T.te-HSP20构建了诱导型耐热元器件 T7-T.te-HSP20和组成型耐热元器件 gapA-T.te-HSP20,转入大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)获得工程菌 E. coli-TH 和 E. coli-GH。工程菌E. coli-TH在30℃和IPTG诱导下,目标蛋白呈可溶性表达,经50℃热激30 min后,存活率提高了3.2倍。高温发酵表明gapA-T.te-HSP20扩宽了工程菌E. coli-GH的最适生长温度的范围(37~43℃),较大程度提高了大肠杆菌的耐热性。抗逆性分析还发现工程菌E. coli-GH具备了耐热与耐丁醇的双重功能,并有一定的抗乙酸和乙醇能力。为工业梯度升温发酵生产生物基产品的高效制造、节省成本提供了新思路。%To improve the heat resistance of Escherichia coli, an inducible heat-resistance device T7-T.te-HSP20 and a constitutive heat-resistance device gapA-T.te-HSP20 based on T.te-HSP20 gene from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis MB4, and corresponding engineered strains E. coli-TH and E. coli-GH were constructed. The targeted protein was expressed in solubility after IPTG induction at 30℃ in E. coli-TH. Meanwhile, the survival rate of E. coli-TH was 3.2 times higher than the control at 50℃ for 30 min. The result of high-temperature fermentation showed that the optimum temperature range of E. coli-GH was broadened (37-43℃) under the regulation of heat resistance device gapA-T.te-HSP20. Stress resistance analysis showed that E. coli-GH not only possessed heat resistance and butanol resistance, but also had some resistance to acetic acid and ethanol. These results provide a new idea for modern microorganisms industry.

  16. Precipitation of Icosahedral Quasicrystalline Phase, R-phase and Laves Phase in Ferritic Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keisuke Yamamoto; Yoshisato Kimura; Yoshinao Mishima

    2004-01-01

    Ferritic heat resistant steels involving precipitation of intermetallic phases have drawn a growing interest for the enhancement of creep strength, while the brittleness of the intermetallic phases may lower the toughness of the alloy.Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the dispersion characteristics of the intermetallics phase through microstructural control to minimize the trade-off between the strength and toughness. The effects of α-Fe matrix substructures on the precipitation sequence, morphology, dispersion characteristics, and the stability of the intermetallic phases are investigated in Fe-Cr-W-Co-Si system. The precipitates of the Si-free Fe-10Cr-1.4W-4.5Co (at%) alloy aged at 873K are the R-phase but those of the Si-added Fe-10Cr-1.4W-4.5Co-0.3Si (at%) alloy are the icosahedral quasicrystalline phase. The precipitates in both the Si-free and Si-added alloys aged at 973K are the Laves phase. Matrix of the alloys is controlled by heat treatments as to provide three types of matrix substructures; ferrite, ferrite/martensite mixture and martensite. The hardening behavior of the alloys depends on the matrix substructures and is independent of the kinds of precipitates. In the alloys with ferrite matrix, the peak of hardness during aging at 873K shifts to longer aging time in comparison with that in the alloys with lath martensite matrix which contain numbers of nucleation sites.

  17. Study on the Epoxy Resin Heat Resistance Modified by Polyamide Acid%聚酰胺酸改性环氧树脂耐热性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周浩然; 孔德忠; 刘达

    2009-01-01

    The epoxy resin heat resistance was prepared with epoxy modified with PAA, and DDS as curing after the pre-reacting and curing. The effects of the amount of PAA, the amount of curing agent, curing condition, reaction time on the heat resistance of epoxy resin were studied. A better formula and appropriate conditions for curing were chosen. The heat resistance of modified epoxy resin was measured with TG in different proportions, pre-reaction time and different curing conditions. Then, the surface morphology and the fracture morphology of the curing epoxy modified were analyzed with SEM. The result has shown that better curing process conditions of modified epoxy resin are as follows: 120 ℃,1 h→150 ℃,1 h→170 ℃,2 h→200 ℃,2 h→250 ℃,2 h,the proportion is 3h. The decomposition temperature of modified epoxy resin is 411 ℃ after the pre-reacting and curing, which is increased by 80 ℃, compared with the decomposition temperature of non-modified epoxy resin. There is no distinct two-phase structure in EP/PAA/DDS system after the pre-reacting and curing, which indicates that the resin has a good compatibility.%用4, 4′-二氨基二苯基砜(DDS)做固化剂,采用聚酰胺酸(PAA)对环氧树脂(EP)进行改性,研究了PAA用量、固化剂用量和反应时间对环氧树脂耐热性的影响,采用TG测定不同配比、预反应时间及不同固化温度下改性EP的耐热性,利用SEM对最佳配比固化后样品的表面和断面形貌进行了分析.结果表明,改性树脂最佳固化工艺条件为:120 ℃,1 h→150 ℃,1 h→170 ℃,2 h→200 ℃,2 h→250 ℃,2 h;改性树脂配比为mEP∶mPAA∶mDDS=1∶0.75∶0.08;预反应时间3 h,改性EP的热分解温度为411 ℃,比未改姓EP提高了近80 ℃以上;EP/PAA/DDS固化后样品无明显的两相结构,树脂的相容性较好.

  18. 高温胁迫下11份瓠瓜材料的耐热性分析%Heat Resistance of 11 Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Stand Germplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许端祥; 高山; 林碧英; 傅睿清

    2011-01-01

    以11份瓠瓜种质为材料,通过人工气候箱模拟高温胁迫,测定并分析瓠瓜种质在高温胁迫下的热害指数、相对电导率、MDA、POD、SOD、Pro等生理生化变化,并通过6个生理生化指标的相关分析和主成分分析,进而进行系统聚类分析,对其耐热性进行研究.结果表明:在人工模拟环境下,持续7d的高温胁迫处理,能够有效区分瓠瓜种质的耐热性;通过6个生理生化指标测定结果的相关分析、主成分分析,得到能够反映瓠瓜耐热性的4个新变量,利用新变量采用最短距离法计算种质间的欧氏距离进行系统聚类分析,从而对瓠瓜种质的耐热性进行有效评价;系统聚类分析筛选出热敏感种质4份、较耐热种质6份、耐热种质1份.%Using 11 gourd germplasms, the simulated heat stress experimentation was carried out in an artificial climate chamber. Heat damage to the gourd germplasms as indicated by the heat stress index, relative conductivity, MDA, POD, SOD, Pro and other physiological and biochemical changes was evaluated. Through 6 physiological and biochemical correlation, principal component and cluster analyses, the heat resistance of these germplasms was determined. The results showed that (a) in 7 days under artificial treatment, the heat-resistance of the germplasms could be effectively differentiated; (b) it was possible to apply analyses using the 6 physiological and biochemical parameters yielded 4 variables for the Euclidean distance cluster analysis for further evaluation of the differences on gourd's heat resistance; and (c) the cluster analysis identified 4 heat-sensitive, 6 moderate heat-tolerant and one heat-tolerant germplasm.

  19. Коррозионная стойкость сплавов семейства «Hastelloy хастеллой» в хлоралюминатных расплавах

    OpenAIRE

    В.В. Карпов; БАЖЕНОВ А.В.; А. В. Абрамов; Половов, И. Б.; Ребрин, О. И.

    2015-01-01

    Изучена коррозия сплавов Hastelloy S, Hastelloy X, Haynes 230, Hastelloy N, Hastelloy G35 и Hastelloy C2000 в расплавах KCl-AlCl3 при 550 °С. Определены скорости и механизмы коррозии исследуемых материалов в данных условиях. Исследованы процессы, протекающие в ходе контакта сплавов с хлоралюминатными электролитами....

  20. Chemical analysis of nickel- and iron-base high-temperature alloys for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Committee studied problems in analysis of alloys used for High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor from September 1970 to February 1976. The alloys selected from the standpoint of analytical chemistry are Inconel 600, Incoloy 800, Inconel X750, Inco 713C and Hastelloy X. Nine standard samples (JAERI-R 1 to JAERI-R 9) of the high-temperature alloys were prepared primarily for X-ray fluorescence method. Eighteen research institutions in Japan participated in cooperative analyses of the standard samples for 19 elements (C, Si, Mn, P, S, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mo, Cu, W, V, Co, Ti, Al, B, Nb, Ta, Zr). Prior to analyses of the standard samples, 8 cooperative samples (A-H) were analyzed to develop and evaluate analytical methods. Described in this report are preparation and their characteristics of the standard samples, results of analyses, and 93 analytical methods. The results of the cooperative experiments on atomic absorption spectrophotometry and X-ray fluorescence method are also described. (auth.)

  1. 耐热钢轴承斜油孔加工方法%Processing Method for Oblique Oil Hole of Bearings Made of Heat Resistant Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张政; 姜艳红; 刘友国; 李光

    2016-01-01

    分析耐热钢轴承内圈斜油孔加工存在的难点,通过改制钻头、优化切削参数和加工工艺,解决了曲面加工直径1 mm 以下深、斜油孔时钻头容易折断的问题。%The difficulties are analyzed for processing of oblique oil hole of inner rings for bearings made of heat resist-ant steel.By remanufacturing drill and optimizing cutting parameter and processing technology,the fracture problems a-bout drill are solved during curved face machining of oblique oil hole with a diameter below 1 mm.

  2. Detection of violations in thermal cycle of electric arc welding of heat resistant steel 12Kh1MF using magnetic properties of a heat affected zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies on the magnetic characteristics of the 12Kh1M1F heat resistant steel are carried out in the zones of melting and thermal effect by different modes of the electric are welding and the new approach to calculating and forecasting the longevity of service of the steam pipe welded joints is proposed on the basis of the magnetic structuroscopy. The local step-by-step (with the 1-2 mm interval) measurement of the metal residual magnetization after magnetization through the point pole method is accomplished in the welded joint area after the removal of the weld reinforcement. The evaluating of the welding modes violations and the joint longevity forecast are given in the basis of the maximum and minimum measurement results or their distribution along the measurement line

  3. Heat resistance mediated by a new plasmid encoded Clp ATPase, ClpK, as a possible novel mechanism for nosocomial persistence of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Struve, Carsten; Ingmer, Hanne;

    2010-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. We havecharacterized a K. pneumoniae strain responsible for a series of critical infections in an intensive care unit over a two-year period. The strain was found to be remarkably...... of Clp ATPases in acquired environmental fitness and highlights the challenges of mobile genetic elements in fighting nosocomial infections...... resistant to lethal heat shock. Furthermore, one third of a collection of nosocomial K. pneumoniae isolates carry clpK and exhibit a heat resistant phenotype. The discovery of ClpK as a plasmid encoded factor and its profound impact on thermal stress survival sheds new light on the biological relevance...

  4. Heat resistance mediated by a new plasmid encoded Clp ATPase, ClpK, as a possible novel mechanism for nosocomial persistence of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Struve, Carsten; Ingmer, Hanne;

    2010-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. We have characterized a K. pneumoniae strain responsible for a series of critical infections in an intensive care unit over a two-year period. The strain was found to be remarkably...... of Clp ATPases in acquired environmental fitness and highlights the challenges of mobile genetic elements in fighting nosocomial infections....... resistant to lethal heat shock. Furthermore, one third of a collection of nosocomial K. pneumoniae isolates carry clpK and exhibit a heat resistant phenotype. The discovery of ClpK as a plasmid encoded factor and its profound impact on thermal stress survival sheds new light on the biological relevance...

  5. Heat Resistance Mediated by a New Plasmid Encoded Clp ATPase, ClpK, as a Possible Novel Mechanism for Nosocomial Persistence of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Struve, Carsten; Ingmer, Hanne;

    2010-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. We have characterized a K. pneumoniae strain responsible for a series of critical infections in an intensive care unit over a two-year period. The strain was found to be remarkably...... of Clp ATPases in acquired environmental fitness and highlights the challenges of mobile genetic elements in fighting nosocomial infections....... resistant to lethal heat shock. Furthermore, one third of a collection of nosocomial K. pneumoniae isolates carry clpK and exhibit a heat resistant phenotype. The discovery of ClpK as a plasmid encoded factor and its profound impact on thermal stress survival sheds new light on the biological relevance...

  6. DETERMINATION AND APPLICATION OF LARSON-MILLER PARAMETER FOR HEAT RESISTANT STEEL 12Cr1MoV AND 15CrMo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.C.Yang; K.Chen; H.X.Feng; H.Wang

    2004-01-01

    Based on the analysis and processing on relative empirical formula and data, C-values in Larson-Miller (P) expression, P = T(C + lg t), have determined for pearlitic heat resistant steel 12Cr1Mo V and 15CrMo(20.62 and 20. 30). The simulation experiments of high temperature aging, heated from 1.5 to 873 hours, have been designed and performed for its verification. And in combination with published information and the present nearly quantitative works, it has further been verified that both the degradations of microstructures and mechanical properties show a good accuracy and practicability using the Larson-Miller parameter with the present determined C-values. Finally, the effects of carbon content on C-value are analyzed by the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET).

  7. Heat resistance mediated by a new plasmid encoded Clp ATPase, ClpK, as a possible novel mechanism for nosocomial persistence of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Struve, Carsten; Ingmer, Hanne;

    2010-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. We havecharacterized a K. pneumoniae strain responsible for a series of critical infections in an intensive care unit over a two-year period. The strain was found to be remarkably...... Clp ATPases in acquired environmental fitness and highlights the challenges of mobile genetic elements in fighting nosocomial infections...... resistant to lethal heat shock. Furthermore, one third of a collection of nosocomial K. pneumoniae isolates carry clpK and exhibit a heat resistant phenotype. The discovery of ClpK as a plasmid encoded factor and its profound impact on thermal stress survival sheds new light on the biological relevance of...

  8. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...

  9. Siegel FIRST EXPERIMENTAL DISCOVERY of Granular-Giant-Magnetoresistance (G-GMR) DiagnosES/ED Wigner's-Disease/.../Spinodal-Decomposition in ``Super''Alloys Generic Endemic Extant in: Nuclear-Reactors/ Petrochemical-Plants/Jet/ Missile-Engines/...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ace; Wigner-Weinberg, Eugene-Alvin; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig Sidney; ORNL/Wigner/Weinberg/Siegel/Hollifeld/Yu/... Collaboration; ANL/Fermi/Wigner/Arrott/Weeks/Bader/Freeman/Sinha/Palazlotti/Nichols/Petersen/Rosner/Zimmer/... Collaboration; BNL/Chudahri/Damask/Dienes/Emery/Goldberg/Bak//Bari/Lofaro/... Collaboration; LLNL-LANL/Hecker/Tatro/Meara/Isbell/Wilkins/YFreund/Yudof/Dynes/Yang/... Collaboration; WestinKLouse/EPRI/PSEG/IAEA/ABB/Rickover/Nine/Carter/Starr/Stern/Hamilton/Richards/Lawes/OGrady/Izzo Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Siegel[APS Shock-Physics Mtg., Chicago(11)] carbides solid-state chemistry[PSS (a)11,45(72); Semis. & Insuls. 5: 39,47,62 (79)], following: Weinberg-Siegel-Loretto-Hargraves-Savage-Westwood-Seitz-Overhauser-..., FIRST EXPERIMENTAL DISCOVERY of G-GMR[JMMM 7, 312(78); Google: ``If LEAKS Could KILL Ana Mayo''] identifIED/IES GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT domination of old/new (so mis-called) ``super''alloys': nuclear-reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/jet/missile/rocket-engines in austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe/Co-based (so mis-called) ''super''alloys (182/82; Hastelloy-X,600,304/304L-Stainless-Steels,...,690!!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms!!!): THERMAL: Wigner's-disease(WD physics) [J.Appl.Phys.17,857(46)]/ Ostwald-ripening

  10. Extrusion, Properties, and Failure of Spray-Formed Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys Based on the Optimization of Fe-Bearing Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, L. G.; Yu, H.; Cui, H.; Cai, Y. H.; Zhuang, L. Z.; Zhang, J. S.

    2013-04-01

    Based on the densification of the spray-formed hypereutectic Al-Si (hyper-AS) alloys, the microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, as well as the failure are studied in this investigation. The appropriate process and parameters for the densification of the deposits are gained from the thermomechanical simulation. Besides of the spray-formed Al-25Si-5Fe-3Cu (3C) alloy, the microstructures of other spray-formed alloys with Mn/Cr addition are stable without coarsening of the refined α-Al(Fe,TM)Si (TM = Mn/Cr/(Mn+Cr)) particles, which can improve the heat resistance. Especially, a great number of the submicrosized α-Al(Fe,TM)Si phases are observed in the hot-extruded TM-containing alloys. The critical ranges of the major parameter TM/Fe mass ratios that can affect the formation of the α-Al(Fe,TM)Si phases in the cast or spray-formed hyper-AS alloys are severally determined. The structure and lattice constant of the refined α-Al(Fe,TM)Si phases also are characterized. The mechanical properties of the current extruded hyper-AS alloys at room or elevated temperatures are close to or higher than some commercial alloys or other published results. Therefore, the hyper-AS alloys can be proposed as new lightweight, heat-resistant, and high-strength alloys, which can be used in the complex working conditions, such as advanced engine systems. The main reason for the enhanced properties would be the formation of a large quantity of microsized/submicrosized α-Al(Fe,TM)Si phases and abundant dislocations, which can greatly reinforce the matrix and transform the brittle fracture of the needle-like Fe-bearing phases into ductile fracture.

  11. Development and Study of Hard-Facing Materials on the Base of Heat-Resisting High-Hardness Steels for Plasma-Jet Hard- Facing in Shielding-Doping Nitrogen Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malushin, N. N.; Kovalev, A. P.; Valuev, D. V.; Shats, E. A.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-08-01

    The authors develop hard-facing materials on the base of heat-resisting highhardness steels for plasma-jet hard-facing in nitrogen atmosphere for manufacturing parts of mining and metallurgic equipment which significantly simplify the production process and effect a saving when producing bimetallic parts and tools.

  12. Processing technology for heat resisting resin suitable for small and high performance products. ; Polysulfone capable of maintaining high toughness and high strength in wide temperature range. Kogata-koseinoka wo jitsugensuru tainetsu jushi no kako gijutsu. ; Ko ondoiki de kyojinsei-kokyodo wo ijisuru porisaruhon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, R. (Teijin Amoco Engineering Plastics Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    'Udel' polysulfone can maintain high toughness and high strength in wide temperature range, and it can be used in injection, extrusion, blowing, rotation, and coating processes. Unstrengthened grades having three kinds of melt flow values are available to satisfy the aptitude of processing. In addition to heat resistance, chemical resistance, and hydrolysis resistance, it has unrivaled features in the hot water and steam resistances. The alloy series of 'Udel' polysulfone are the products called 'Mindel' consisting of A, B, and S series which are developed to meet the market demand for varied and advanced products. Using polysulfone resin, moldings having uniform physical properties can be obtained irrespective of the flow direction because polysulfone resin is little susceptible to the rate of shear with comparatively high melting viscosity and little occurrence of molecular orientation during molding. From 350 to 370[degree]C resin temperature and from 150 to 160[degree]C die temperature are desirable as the ideal molding conditions. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Effects of Over-burn on Corrosion Resistance of Hastelloy-C-276 Heat Exchanger Tube-sheet Welding%哈氏合金热交换器管板焊接过烧对耐腐蚀性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏化中; 熊仲营; 周超

    2011-01-01

    Hastelloy-C-276 is a kind of material with good corrosion resistance, which is gradually applied to the chemical field of key equipment since 1960s.Owing to unreasonable welding process, it is easy to produce an over-burn phenomenon existing in heat exchanger's tube and tube-sheet joints of Hastelloy-C-276 material.In order to find rule of over-burn on corrosion resistance of C-276 and avoid its endangerment, the normal welded tube specimens, over-burn specimens and over-burn repair specimens near welding line have been investigated by means of metallurgical structure comparison and intergranular corrosion test.%Hastelloy-C-276具有较好的抗腐蚀性能,自20世纪60年代以来逐步应用到化工领域的关键设备中.在管板与换热管连接接头的焊接过程中,由于某些原因容易出现连接接头过烧的现象.通过Hastelloy-C-276管板焊接中的正常焊接试件、过烧试件、过烧修补试件焊缝附近的金相组织比较及晶间腐蚀试验,对过烧对哈氏合金耐腐蚀性能的影响进行了简要分析.

  14. Research on High-Altitude Airship Heat-Resistance Ability%关于高空飞艇抗热能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江京

    2012-01-01

    The average temperature of helium in the airship is obviously affected by the solar radiation and the low temperature of the stratospheric environment during the fight of day/night alternation.The change of the differential pressure between in and out of the hull of the airship will be caused by this change of average temperature of helium,and will be the basic index for the design of the hull material and structure of the airship at the stage of general design.According to HAA heat-resistance ability simulation calculation and analysis,to fundamentally increase the ability of heat-resistance of the HAA,the premise is improving the strength of the membrane material of the hull;while enlarging the volume of hull/ballonet does not obviously help the increase ofheat-resistance ability,but will result in airship weight increase.%高空飞艇在平流层高度昼夜工作过程中,作为浮升气体的艇体内氦气受太阳能辐射以及艇外低温环境的影响,其平均温度变化范围较大。艇体内氦气平均温度的变化将导致飞艇艇体内外压差的变化,而艇体内外压差的变化是高空飞艇总体设计阶段对囊体材料选取时必须考虑的重要设计依据之一。通过高空飞艇抗热能力仿真计算与分析,指出高空飞艇的抗热能力必须在提高囊体强度的前提下才可以得到根本的提升,而加大副气囊体积对抗热能力影响不大反而将导致飞艇重量的增加。

  15. Numerical Simulation on Interfacial Creep Failure of Dissimilar Metal Welded Joint between HR3C and T91 Heat-Resistant Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianqiang; TANG Yi; ZHANG Guodong; ZHAO Xuan; GUO Jialin; LUO Chuanhong

    2016-01-01

    The maximum principal stress, von Mises equivalent stress, equivalent creep strain, stress triaxiality in dissimilar metal welded joints between austenitic (HR3C) and martensitic heat-resistant steel (T91) are simulated by FEM at 873 K and under inner pressure of 42.26 MPa. The results show that the maximum principal stress and von Mises equivalent stress are quite high in the vicinity of weld/T91 interface, creep cavities are easy to form and expand in the weld/T91 interface. There are two peaks of equivalent creep strains in welded joint, and the maximum equivalent creep strain is in the place 27-32 mm away from the weld/T91 interface, and there exists creep constrain region in the vicinity of weld/T91 interface. The high stress triaxiality peak is located exactly at the weld/T91 interface. Accordingly, the weld/T91 interface is the weakest site of welded joint. Therefore, using stress triaxiality to describe creep cavity nucleation and expansion and crack development is reasonable for the dissimilar metal welded joint between austenitic and martensitic steel.

  16. Comparison of Chemical Sensitivity of Fresh and Long-Stored Heat Resistant Neosartorya fischeri Environmental Isolates Using BIOLOG Phenotype MicroArray System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Panek

    Full Text Available Spoilage of heat processed food and beverage by heat resistant fungi (HRF is a major problem for food industry in many countries. Neosartorya fischeri is the leading source of spoilage in thermally processed products. Its resistance to heat processing and toxigenicity makes studies about Neosartorya fischeri metabolism and chemical sensitivity essential. In this study chemical sensitivity of two environmental Neosartorya fischeri isolates were compared. One was isolated from canned apples in 1923 (DSM3700, the other from thermal processed strawberry product in 2012 (KC179765, used as long-stored and fresh isolate, respectively. The study was conducted using Biolog Phenotype MicroArray platforms of chemical sensitivity panel and traditional hole-plate method. The study allowed for obtaining data about Neosartorya fischeri growth inhibitors. The fresh isolate appeared to be much more resistant to chemical agents than the long-stored isolate. Based on phenotype microarray assay nitrogen compounds, toxic cations and membrane function compounds were the most effective in growth inhibition of N. fischeri isolates. According to the study zaragozic acid A, thallium(I acetate and sodium selenate were potent and promising N. fischeri oriented fungicides which was confirmed by both chemical sensitivity microplates panel and traditional hole-plate methods.

  17. Screening and Application of Pakchoi Cultivars with High Quality and Heat Resistance%优质、耐热青菜品种的筛选和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄丽娜; 蒋利春; 孙莉; 苏小俊

    2014-01-01

    选取9份青菜商品种,对其在自然高温条件下的耐热性进行比较,通过产量、亚硝酸盐含量等指标的测定及耐热性比较,综合考虑,正大青秀F1、青冠、三伏,3个品种的耐热性好,产量较高,且亚硝酸盐含量较低,是适用于夏季高温季节栽培的优质、耐热青菜品种材料。%In this paper, under high temperature stress in nature, the heat resistance of nine pakchoi cultivars were evaluated, and their yield and content of nitrite were measured as well. After comprehensive consideration of these three indexes, three pakchoi cultivars which were Zhengdaqingxiu F1, Qingguan and Sanfu, were found to have good resistance to high temperature stress, high yield and low content of nitrite, thus these three pakchoi cultivars were suitable for summer production.

  18. Properties of Carbon Nanotubes/Heat -resistant Epoxy Resin Composites%碳纳米管/环氧耐热复合材料性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷佑安

    2012-01-01

    The conductive property, aging behavior and adhesive property of carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin composite were investigated. The results suggested that the optimal CNTs fraction of 2% would produce CNTs/ER composites with an increase in shear strength of 12.33% and a decrease in resistivity of 9 -10 orders of magnitude. The aging trace of nanocomposite presented a weight loss of 10% for 200 h, indicating an excellent heat - resistant property.%研究了碳纳米管/环氧树脂复合材料电性能、热氧老化性能和粘接性能。研究结果表明:添加量为2%时,复合材料的综合性能最优,表面电阻率和体积电阻率分别下降了9—10个数量级,剪切强度提高了12.33%,当老化时间达到200h,复合材料重量保持率仍有90%。制得的复合材料能够用于耐热胶粘剂和防静电材料。

  19. An irradiation test of heat-resistant ceramic composite materials. Interim report on post-irradiation examinations of the first preliminary irradiation test: 97M-13A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Shin-ichi; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Ishihara, Masahiro; Hayashi, Kimio; Sozawa, Shizuo; Saito, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Suzuki, Yoshio [Nuclear Engineering, Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Saito, Tamotsu; Sekino, Hajime [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out the research on radiation damage mechanism of heat-resistant ceramic composite materials, as one of the subjects of the innovative basic research on high temperature engineering using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). A series of preliminary irradiation tests is being made using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The present report describes results of post-irradiation examinations (PIE) so far on specimens irradiated in the first capsule, designated 97M-13A, to fast neutron fluences of 1.2-1.8x10{sup 24} m{sup -2} (E>1 MeV) at temperatures of 573, 673 and 843 K. In the PIE, measurements were made on (1) dimensional changes, (2) thermal expansions, (3) X-ray parameters and (4) {gamma}-ray spectra. The results for the carbon/carbon and SiC/SiC composites were similar to those in existing literatures. The temperature monitor effect was observed both for SiC fiber- and particle-reinforced SiC composites as in the case of monolithic SiC. Namely, the curve of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of these specimens showed a rapid drop above a temperature around the irradiation temperature +100 K in the first ramp (ramp rate: 10 K/min), while in the second ramp the CTE curves were almost the same as those of un-irradiated SiC specimens. (author)

  20. XRD and TEM analysis of microstructure in the welding zone of 9Cr–1Mo–V–Nb heat-resisting steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Yajiang; Wang Juan; Zhou Bing; Feng Tao

    2002-06-01

    Under the condition of tungsten inert gas shielded welding (TIG) + shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) technology, the microstructure in the welding zone of 9Cr–1Mo–V–Nb (P91) heat-resisting steel is studied by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The test results indicate that when the weld heat input () of TIG is 8.5 ∼ 11.7 kJ/cm and the weld heat input of SMAW is 13.3 ∼ 21.0 kJ/cm, the microstructure in the weld metal is composed of austenite and a little amount of ferrite. The substructure of austenite is crypto–crystal martensite, which included angle. There are some spot precipitates in the martensite base. TEM analysis indicates that the fine structure in the heat-affected zone is lath martensite. There are some carbides (lattice constant, 1.064 nm) at the boundary of grain as well as inside the grain, most of which are Cr23C6 and a little amount of (Fe, Me)23C6.

  1. The evolution of precipitates of 22Cr-25Ni-Mo-Nb-N heat-resistant austenitic steel in long-term creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructural evolution of 22Cr-25Ni-Mo-Nb-N heat-resistant steel after creep under different stresses at 973 K has been systematically investigated. It is found that during short time creep MX and M23C6 predominantly precipitate in the matrix. While with the increase in creep time, Cr3Ni2SiX and σ precipitate in the matrix. MX is the main strengthen precipitate in the matrix after long time creep. Due to a fast coarsening rate, M23C6 in the matrix has a little effect on strengthening the matrix. Comparing the MX and M23C6 in the crept sample with those in the aged sample, it could be found that the creep stress can promote the coarsening rate of MX and has hardly any effect on the coarsening of M23C6. The effect of stress on the coarsening of precipitates focuses on the diffusion of solution atoms. Under the condition of stress, the diffusion of Nb is accelerated, while that of C changes little.

  2. An irradiation test of heat-resistant ceramic composite materials. Interim report on post-irradiation examinations of the first preliminary irradiation test: 97M-13A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out the research on radiation damage mechanism of heat-resistant ceramic composite materials, as one of the subjects of the innovative basic research on high temperature engineering using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). A series of preliminary irradiation tests is being made using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The present report describes results of post-irradiation examinations (PIE) so far on specimens irradiated in the first capsule, designated 97M-13A, to fast neutron fluences of 1.2-1.8x1024 m-2 (E>1 MeV) at temperatures of 573, 673 and 843 K. In the PIE, measurements were made on (1) dimensional changes, (2) thermal expansions, (3) X-ray parameters and (4) γ-ray spectra. The results for the carbon/carbon and SiC/SiC composites were similar to those in existing literatures. The temperature monitor effect was observed both for SiC fiber- and particle-reinforced SiC composites as in the case of monolithic SiC. Namely, the curve of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of these specimens showed a rapid drop above a temperature around the irradiation temperature +100 K in the first ramp (ramp rate: 10 K/min), while in the second ramp the CTE curves were almost the same as those of un-irradiated SiC specimens. (author)

  3. Effect of carbon on creep rupture strength and toughness of 9Cr-2Mo heat-resisting steels with V and Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of carbon on creep rupture properties and room-temperature toughness of (9--10)Cr-(1.8--2)Mo heat resisting steels with V and Nb was studied. The amount of carbon content was varied from 0.02% to 0.23% in order to improve toughness without decrease in creep rupture strength. The difference in creep rupture strength and Charpy absorbed energy between 10Cr-2Mo steels and 9Cr-1.8Mo steels was studied with respect to the ratio of delta-ferrite to martensite, the precipitates, and the microstructure. The results indicated that the 9Cr-1.8Mo-0.1V-0.05Nb steels with 0.05--0.14%C tempered at 8000C showed good toughness, and that 104h rupture strength of the steel was as high as that of SUS 316 at 5500C and SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel at 6000C. It was concluded that the optimum amount of delta-ferrite with respect to both creep rupture strength and Charpy absorbed energy was 10--20%. (author)

  4. Effects of carbon on creep-rupture strength and toughness of high Cr-Mo heat resisting steels containing V and Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of carbon on creep-rupture properties and room temperature toughness of high (9 ∼ 10)Cr-(1.8 ∼ 2)Mo ferritic heat resisting steels containing V and Nb were studied. The carbon content was varied from 0.02 to 0.23 % in order to improve toughness without decreasing the creep-rupture strength. Difference existing in creep-rupture strength and in Charpy absorbed energy between 10Cr-2Mo steels and 9Cr-1.8Mo steels were studied with respect to the ratio of delta ferrite to martensite, the precipitates, and the microstructure. The results indicated that the 9Cr-1.8Mo-0.1V-0.05Nb steels with 0.14 % C tempered at 800 deg C showed good toughness, and that 104 h rupture-strength of the steel was as high as that of SUS 316 austenitic stainless steel at 550 deg C and SUS 304 at 600 deg C. It was concluded that the optimum amount of delta ferrite from the point of view of creep-rupture strength and Charpy absorbed energy was 10 ∼ 20 %. (author)

  5. Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties of epitaxial BiFeO{sub 3}-BiMnO{sub 3} films on ion-beam-assisted deposited TiN buffered flexible Hastelloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, J., E-mail: jiexiong@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Division of Materials Physics and Applications, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Matias, V.; Jia, Q. X. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Division of Materials Physics and Applications, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Tao, B. W.; Li, Y. R. [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-05-07

    Growth of multifunctional thin films on flexible substrates is of great technological significance since such a platform is needed for flexible electronics. In this study, we report the growth of biaxially aligned (BiFeO{sub 3}){sub 0.5}:(BiMnO{sub 3}){sub 0.5} [BFO-BMO] films on polycrystalline Hastelloy by using a biaxially aligned TiN as a seed layer deposited by ion-beam-assisted deposited and a La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) as a buffer layer deposited by pulsed laser deposition. The LSMO is used not only as a buffer layer but also as the bottom electrode of the BFO-BMO films. X-ray diffraction showed that the BFO-BMO films are biaxially oriented along both in-plane and out-of-plane directions. The BFO-BMO films on flexible metal substrates showed a polarization of 22.9 μC/cm{sup 2}. The magnetization of the BFO-BMO/LSMO is 62 emu/cc at room temperature.

  6. Effects of room-temperature tensile fatigue on critical current and n-value of IBAD–MOCVD YBa2Cu3O7‑x /Hastelloy coated conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Samuel; Kan Chan, Wan; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-08-01

    REBa2Cu3O7‑x (REBCO) coated conductors potentially enable a multitude of superconducting applications, over a wide range of operating temperatures and magnetic fields, including high-field magnets, energy storage devices, motors, generators, and power transmission systems (Zhang et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700704). Many of these are AC applications and thus the fatigue properties may be limiting (Vincent et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700805). Previous electromechanical studies have determined the performance of REBCO conductors under single cycle loads (Barth et al 2015 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28 045011), but an understanding of the fatigue properties is lacking. Here the fatigue behavior of commercial ion beam assisted deposition–metal organic chemical vapor deposition REBCO conductors on Hastelloy substrates is reported for axial tensile strains up to 0.5% and up to 100 000 cycles. Failure mechanisms are investigated via microstructural studies. Results show that REBCO conductors retained I c(ε)/I c0 = 0.9 for 10 000 cycles at ε = 0.35% and ε = 0.45% strain, and ε = 0.5% for 100 cycles. The main cause of fatigue degradation in REBCO conductors is crack propagation that initiates at the slitting defects that result from the manufacturing process.

  7. Interaction of Cr-Ti-Si coating on VN-3 niobium alloy with air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of heat-resistance, microstructure and phase composition of Cr-Ti-Si coating on VN-3 niobium alloy with air oxidation in the temperature interval of 1200-1600 deg C is conducted. Thermogravimetry, metallography, X-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis methods are used. It is ascertained that the coating is a dense niobium disilicide layer, luriched on the surface with chromium and titanium disilicides and separated and from the protected alloy by a narrow zone of the lowest niobium silicide Nb5Si3. The coating protective junctions are provided by a selective chromium and titanium disilicides oxidation as well as niobium disilicide oxidation at the temperature of 1600 deg C, and by the rates of niobium and silicon diffusion through Nb5SI3 and NbSi2 and oxygen diffusion through the amorphous SiO2

  8. Characterization of complex carbide–silicide precipitates in a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy modified by welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, D., E-mail: dhb@ansto.gov.au; Davis, J.; Drew, M.; Harrison, R.P.; Edwards, L.

    2015-07-15

    Nickel based alloys of the type Hastelloy-N™ are ideal candidate materials for molten salt reactors, as well as for applications such as pressure vessels, due to their excellent resistance to creep, oxidation and corrosion. In this work, the authors have attempted to understand the effects of welding on the morphology, chemistry and crystal structure of the precipitates in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the weld zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy similar to Hastelloy-N™ in composition, by using characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Two plates of a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy GH-3535 were welded together using a TiG welding process without filler material to achieve a joint with a curved molten zone with dendritic structure. It is evident that the primary precipitates have melted in the HAZ and re-solidified in a eutectic-like morphology, with a chemistry and crystal structure only slightly different from the pre-existing precipitates, while the surrounding matrix grains remained unmelted, except for the zones immediately adjacent to the precipitates. In the molten zone, the primary precipitates were fully melted and dissolved in the matrix, and there was enrichment of Mo and Si in the dendrite boundaries after solidification, and re-precipitation of the complex carbides/silicides at some grain boundaries and triple points. The nature of the precipitates in the molten zone varied according to the local chemical composition. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Ni-based alloy with Cr, Mo, Si, Fe and C was welded, examined with SEM, EBSD, and TEM. • Original Ni{sub 2}(Mo,Cr){sub 4}(Si,C) carbides changed from equiaxed to lamellar shape in HAZ. • Composition and crystal structure remained almost unchanged in HAZ. • Original carbides changed to lamellar Ni{sub 3}(Mo,Cr){sub 3}(Si,C) in some cases in weld metal. • Precipitates were mostly incoherent, but semi-coherent in some cases in weld

  9. The effect of pre-oxidation and the influence of deformation on the corrosion behaviour of two heat resistant steels in a sulphur-oxygen-carbon bearing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of pre-oxidation on the corrosion resistance of the austenitic steels AC 66 (Fe-32Ni-27Cr-0.07Ce) and alloy 800H (Fe-32Ni-20Cr) was studied in a sulphur-oxygen-carbon bearing atmospheric at 700oC. For AC 66 the corrosion resistance was significantly improved by preoxidation, whereas this effect was less marked for Alloy 800H. This can be explained by a much better adherence of the preformed oxide scale for AC 66. The corrosion resistance was shown to decrease by superimposed deformation which leads to deeply penetrating intergranular corrosion paths. (Author)

  10. Strengthening effect of Cu-rich phase precipitation in 18Cr9Ni3CuNbN austenitic heat-resisting steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengyu CHI; Hongyao YU; Jianxin DONG; Xishan XIE; Zhengqiang CUI; Xiaofang CHEN; Fusheng LIN

    2011-01-01

    The Cu-containing austenitic heat-resistant steel 18Cr9Ni3CuNbN, which is being used as superheater and reheater tube material for modern ultra-super-critical (USC) power plants all over the world, has been investigated at 650 ℃ long time aging till 10 000 h. SEM, TEM and 3DAP (three dimensional atom probe) have been used to follow microstructural changes with mechanical property variations. Experimental results show that Cu-rich phase and MX precipitate in the grains as well as M23C6 precipitates at grain boundaries are the main precipitation strengthening phases in this steel. Among them Cu-rich phase is the most important strengthening phase. Homogeneous distribution of very fine nano-size Cu-rich phase has been formed at very early stage of 650℃ aging (less than 1 h). Cu atoms gradually concentrate to Cu-rich particles and the other elements (such as Fe, Cr, Ni etc) diffuse away from Curich particles to γ-matrix with the increasing of aging time at 650 ℃. The growth rate of Cu-rich phase at 650 ℃ long time aging is very slow and the average diameters of Cu-rich phase have been determined by TEM method. Cu-rich phase keeps in about 30 nm till 650℃ aging for 10 000 h. It shows that nano-size Cu-rich phase precipitation strengthening can be kept for long time aging at 650 ℃ because of its excellent stability at high temperatures. According to structure stability study and mechanical properties determination results the Cu-rich phase precipitation sequence and its strengthening mechanism model have been suggested and discussed.

  11. Inactivation of chemical and heat-resistant spores of Bacillus and Geobacillus by nitrogen cold atmospheric plasma evokes distinct changes in morphology and integrity of spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bokhorst-van de Veen, Hermien; Xie, Houyu; Esveld, Erik; Abee, Tjakko; Mastwijk, Hennie; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial spores are resistant to severe conditions and form a challenge to eradicate from food or food packaging material. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment is receiving more attention as potential sterilization method at relatively mild conditions but the exact mechanism of inactivation is still not fully understood. In this study, the biocidal effect by nitrogen CAP was determined for chemical (hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide), physical (UV) and heat-resistant spores. The three different sporeformers used are Bacillus cereus a food-borne pathogen, and Bacillus atrophaeus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus that are used as biological indicators for validation of chemical sterilization and thermal processes, respectively. The different spores showed variation in their degree of inactivation by applied heat, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and UV treatments, whereas similar inactivation results were obtained with the different spores treated with nitrogen CAP. G. stearothermophilus spores displayed high resistance to heat, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, while for UV treatment B. atrophaeus spores are most tolerant. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed distinct morphological changes for nitrogen CAP-treated B. cereus spores including etching effects and the appearance of rough spore surfaces, whereas morphology of spores treated with heat or disinfectants showed no such changes. Moreover, microscopy analysis revealed CAP-exposed B. cereus spores to turn phase grey conceivably because of water influx indicating damage of the spores, a phenomenon that was not observed for non-treated spores. In addition, data are supplied that exclude UV radiation as determinant of antimicrobial activity of nitrogen CAP. Overall, this study shows that nitrogen CAP treatment has a biocidal effect on selected Bacillus and Geobacillus spores associated with alterations in spore surface morphology and loss of spore integrity. PMID:25481059

  12. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP enhances neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth of immature neurons in adult mice by up-regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-dexoxyuridine (BrdU-positive cells, BrdU-positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ and subgranular zone (SGZ of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF but not nerve growth factor (NGF or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values

  13. Effect of molybdenum content on creep-rupture strength and toughness of 9 % chromium ferritic heat resisting steels containing V and Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of molybdenum content on creep-rupture properties and room-temperature toughness of high chromium ferritic heat resisting steels was investigated. Molybdenum content was varied from 1 to 2 wt%. In order to obtain 9Cr-Mo-V-Nb ferritic steels with both high creep-rupture strength and superior toughness, the amount of delta ferrite was controlled below 25 %, and the optimum tempering condition and mechanical properties after simulated welding have been investigated. The influence of molybdenum content on creep-rupture strength and Charpy absorbed energy was investigated with respect to the ratio of delta ferrite to tempered martensite, the precipitates, and the microstructures. Charpy absorbed energy of the 0.05C-9Cr-1Mo-0.15V-0.05Nb steel tempered at 800deg C and then heated at 600∼650deg C for 104 h was as high as 20∼30 kgf-m. By contrast, Charpy absorbed energy of 0.05C-9Cr-2Mo-0.15V-0.05Nb steel was reduced to about 4kgf-m after heating at 600∼650deg C for 104 h. It is considered that the steel of 1Mo shows superior toughness because of its low carbon content and a single phase of martensite. It was concluded that combination of superior creep-rupture strength and toughness can be obtained by optimum heat treatment for the 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb steel containing 0.05 wt%C. (author)

  14. Properties of special polyethylene for heat resistant pipes%耐热聚乙烯管材专用树脂的性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群涛; 唐岩; 郭锐; 高凌雁; 王日辉

    2012-01-01

    The authors studied basic physical properties, long-term heat stability, processability and hydrostatic strength of the special polyethylene resin (QHM22F) for heat resistant pipes. The processing and application experiments of the pipes with different diameters made of the resin were carried out in the pipe enterprises. The results indicate that the Charpy impact strength of QHM22F is higher than 70 kJ/m2, oxidation induction time at 200 ℃ is over 120 min and melting strength is above 0.24 N. QHM22F has excellent processability and meet the processing conditions for high speed pulling. The pipe made of QHM22F has the advantages of uniform thickness and smooth inner and outer surface; its properties satisfy the users'requirement.%研究了耐热聚乙烯管材专用树脂QHM22F的常规物性、长期热稳定性、加工性能、静液压强度等,并在管材生产厂家进行了不同口径的管材加工应用试验.结果表明:QHM22F的简支梁缺口冲击强度在70 k J/m2以上:200℃氧化诱导期大于120 min;熔体强度在0.24 N以上;加工性能良好,可满足高速牵引的加工需要.采用QHM221F生产的管材内外表面光滑、壁厚均匀,性能满足用户要求.

  15. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) enhances neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth of immature neurons in adult mice by up-regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Cao, Zhen; Ge, Bi-Ying; Wang, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Lin, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Li, Shao; Zhao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-dexoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells, BrdU-positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB) in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but not nerve growth factor (NGF) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values of SVHRP.

  16. Microstructures and High-Temperature Mechanical Properties of a Martensitic Heat-Resistant Stainless Steel 403Nb Processed by Thermo-Mechanical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liqing; Zeng, Zhouyu; Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Fuxian; Liu, Xianghua

    2013-11-01

    Thermo-mechanical treatments (TMT) at different rolling deformation temperatures were utilized to process a martensitic heat-resistant stainless steel 403Nb containing 12 wt pct Cr and small additions of Nb and V. Microstructures and mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and hardness, tensile, and creep tests. The results showed that high-temperature mechanical behavior after TMT can be greatly improved and microstructures with refined martensitic lath and finely dispersed nanosized MX carbides could be produced. The particle sizes of M23C6 and MX carbides in 403Nb steel after conventional normalizing and tempering (NT) treatments are about 50 to 160 and 10 to 20 nm, respectively, while those after TMT at 1123 K (850 °C) and subsequent tempering at 923 K (650 °C) for 2 hours reach about 25 to 85 and 5 to 10 nm, respectively. Under the condition of 260 MPa and 873 K (600 °C), the tensile creep rupture life of 403Nb steel after TMT at 1123 K (850 °C) is 455 hours, more than 3 times that after conventional NT processes. The mechanisms for improving mechanical properties at elevated temperature were analyzed in association with the existence of finely dispersed nanosized MX particles within martensitic lath. It is the nanosized MX particles having the higher stability at elevated temperature that assist both dislocation hardening and sub-grain hardening for longer duration by pinning the movement of dislocations and sub-grain boundary migration.

  17. Milk powder in enterobacteriaceae zanretsuken came through heat resistant research%乳粉中阪崎肠杆菌耐热性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾维扬

    2011-01-01

    For a long time,in the edible food by heat treatment before has long been considered a lower risk of food pathogenic microbes in food one of the important means,but at present domestic to enterobacteriaceae proposal came through the research of this aspect is still less.This thesis mainly from came through the training of listed enterbacteriaceae and purification,heat resistance to the key research proposal came through the heat tolerance enterobacteriaceae,for in edible can effectively before heat treatment to reduce the risk of infection was laid a good foundation,and the test can bring great social and economic benefits.%长期以来,在食用食品前进行热处理一直被认为是降低食品中食源性致病菌风险的一个重要手段,但是目前国内对阪崎肠杆菌方面的研究还较少。文中主要从阪崎肠杆菌的培养、分离纯化、耐热性方面着手,重点研究阪崎肠杆菌的热耐受情况,为在食用前能有效地进行热处理以降低该菌的感染风险奠定良好的试验基础,并能够带来极大的社会与经济效益。

  18. Modifying structure and properties of nickel alloys by nanostructured composite powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanov, A. N.; Ovcharenko, V. E.; Liu, G.; Cao, L.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of powder nanomodifiers of refractory compounds on the mechanical properties, macro- and microstructure of heat-resistant alloys ZhS-6K and Inconel 718. It is shown that the introduction of nanomodifiers into the melt leads to the refinement of the alloy structure: the average grain size decreases 1.5-2 times, and their morphology becomes similar to equiaxial at significant reduction of the particle size in the carbide phase. The service life of ZhS-6K alloy under cyclic loading at 600°C increases 2.7 times, and at 975 °C by 40 %, and relative elongation increases more than twice. The mechanical properties of Inconel 718 significantly increase: long-term strength at 650 °C increases 1.5-2 times, and the number of cycles before the collapse at 482 °C grows more than three times. It has been found out that addition of nanomodifiers to the melt, in alloys, forms clusters of particles of refractory compounds at borders and joints of the formed grain structure that may help slowing down the processes of recrystallization (prevents the increase in the size of the contacting grains by their associations) and stabilizes the strength properties of the alloys at higher temperatures.

  19. Corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. Chemical composition and metallurgical condition's effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni-Cr-Mo alloys offer an outstanding corrosion resistance in a wide variety of highly-corrosive environments. This versatility is due to the excellent performance of nickel in hot alkaline solutions and the beneficial effect of chromium and molybdenum in oxidizing and reducing conditions, respectively. Alloy C-22 (22 % Cr-13 % Mo-3% W) is a well known versatile member of this family. Due to its excellent corrosion resistance in a wide variety of environments, Alloy C-22 has been selected for the fabrication of the corrosion-resistant outer shell of the high-level nuclear waste container. The increasing demand of the industry for corrosion resistant alloys with particular properties of corrosion and mechanical resistance has led to the development of new alloys. Alloy C-22HS (Ni-21 % Cr-17 % Mo) is a new high-strength corrosion resistant material recently developed and introduced into the market. This alloy provides a corrosion resistance comparable with that of other C-type alloys, and it can also be age hardened to effectively double its yield strength. HASTELLOY HYBRID-BC1 (Ni-22 % Mo-15 % Cr) is a new development intended for filling the gap between Ni-Mo and Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. This novel alloy is able to withstand HCl and H2SO4, even in the presence of dissolved oxygen and other oxidizing species. Its resistance to chloride-induced pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking is also remarkable. Thermal aging of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys leads to microstructure changes depending on the temperature range and exposure time at temperature. A Long Range Ordering (LRO) reaction can occur in the range of 350 C degrees to 600 C degrees, producing an ordered Ni2(Cr,Mo) phase. This ordering reaction does not seem to affect the corrosion resistance and produces only a slight loss in ductility. LRO transformation is homogeneous and has proven to be useful to fabricate the age-hard enable Alloy C22-HS. Tetrahedral Close Packed (TCP) phases, like μ, σ and P, may

  20. Screening Heat-resistant Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Goat Milk%发酵羊奶中乳酸菌耐热菌株的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌素; 张富新; 乔星; 苏彤

    2012-01-01

    The heat-resistance of 11 Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains and 11 Streptococcus thermophilus strains from the commercial starter cultures was studied in fermented goat milk. The results showed that Lactobacillus bulgaricus L. b-346 strain and L. b-124 strain, Streptococcus thermophilus S. t-883 strain and S. t-124 strain had better heat-resist- ance. When L. b-346 strain and S. t-124 strain were mixed in 1:2 ratio, improved heat resistance was obtained.%对从商业乳酸菌发酵剂分离纯化的11株保加利亚乳杆菌和11株嗜热链球菌在发酵羊奶中的耐热性进行了研究。结果表明,保加利亚乳杆菌Lb-346和L.b-124菌株、嗜热链球菌S.t-883菌株和Js.t-124菌株的耐热性较好;当Lb-346菌株、Lb-124菌株与S.t-883菌株、S.t-124菌株按杆菌和球菌以不同比例配合时,L.b-346菌株与S.£-124菌株以1:2比例配合,可获得较高的耐热性。

  1. 用于架空输电线的不同耐热导线的比较分析%Comparative Analysis on Different Heat-Resistant Conductors Used for Overhead Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊勇; 罗文

    2011-01-01

    简述了国内外耐热导线在架空输电工程中的应用、技术发展水平和目前国内的需求状况,介绍了耐热导线的种类、结构和性能特点,对比分析了不同耐热导线在金具使用、工程造价和线损等方面的差异,为耐热导线设计选型提供参考.%This paper overviewed the application of the heat -resistant conductor used in overhead transmission lines both at home and ahroad, the latest development of the technology, and the present domestic demand for the type of conductors. It also introduced the types, structures and performance characteristics of the conductor, compared and analyzed differences among heat -resistant conductors of different types in terms of the use of fittings, project cost, and the line loss. The paper can provide some useful references for the selection and deign of heat-resistant conductors.

  2. Metal alloy identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William D.; Brown, Jr., Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  3. Performance of Organosilicone Heat Resistant Coating and Its Influencing Factors%有机硅高温涂料耐热性及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李烨; 李静; 张家莹; 张玉忠; 张桐; 肇研

    2013-01-01

    以有机硅296和聚碳硅烷为基料,低熔点玻璃粉、BN、SiC、ZrO2和Al2O3为填料,制备了耐高温涂料.通过正交试验,考核了填料体系设计对涂层耐热性的影响规律,制备了耐温达700℃的有机硅高温涂层.结果表明,影响涂料耐热性和附着力的主要因素为低熔点玻璃粉和BN,其次为ZrO2和Al2O3.低熔点玻璃粉在高温下的“二次成膜”作用可以有效提高涂层的耐热性、改善粉化现象,但过多的用量会造成涂层开裂和脱落.BN作为导热填料,与其他填料按一定比例加入到涂料中,可以提高涂层的耐热温度到700℃.ZrO2和Al2O3较大的热膨胀系数减少了涂层和基体的热失配,利于提高其耐热性.%A organosilicone coating with high temperature resistance was prepared with organosilicone 296,polycarbosilane as binder and low melting-point glass powder,BN,SiC,ZrO2 Al2O3 as fillers.By orthogonal test,the effects of coating formulation on heat resistance were studied and organosilicone coating resistant to 700 ℃ was prepared.The results showed that the main influencing factors on the heat resistant performance of the coating were low melting-point glass powder and BN,followed by ZrO2 and Al2O3."Second film" function of low melting-point glass powder had a good effect on reducing the pulverization phenomenon and improving heat resistance of coating,but excessive usage would result in cracking and exfoliation.High thermal conductivity of BN could improve the heat resistance to 700 ℃.High thermal expansion coefficient of ZrO2 and Al2 O3 could improve the heat resistance by reducing the thermal mismatch between coating and base metal.

  4. Isolamento e seleção de fungos filamentosos termorresistentes em etapas do processo produtivo de néctar de maçã Isolation and selection of heat resistant molds in the production process of apple nectar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Cássia Martins Salomão

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Os fungos filamentosos termorresistentes são capazes de sobreviver aos processos de pasteurização aplicados aos produtos de frutas. Este estudo visou isolar e identificar fungos termorresistentes durante o processamento de néctar de maçã (pH 3,4 e 11,6 °Brix, de forma a selecionar o bolor mais termorresistente. O isolamento foi obtido após choque térmico de 70 °C/2 horas e incubação a 30 °C em PDA (3% de ágar acrescido de rosa de bengala. A identificação foi baseada na morfologia e nas estruturas micro e macroscópicas observadas após incubação das cepas em três diferentes meios (G25N, CYA e MEA e temperaturas. O fungo mais termorresistente foi selecionado pela aplicação de choques térmicos (de 80 °C/20 minutos até 97 °C/15 minutos. Foram detectadas 11 linhagens de bolores, sendo 5 termorresistentes. Dentre estas, três cepas, isoladas da matéria-prima e do concentrado de maçã, foram identificadas como Neosartorya fischeri; uma cepa isolada da matéria-prima foi identificada como Byssochlamys fulva, e uma cepa isolada do produto após a primeira pasteurização foi identificada como Eupenicillium sp. As cepas mais resistentes foram as de N. fischeri e B. fulva, que sobreviveram ao tratamento de 95 °C/20 minutos. Dentre as seis cepas restantes, uma foi identificada como Aspergillus sp., entretanto, nenhuma destas apresentou termorresistência.Heat resistant molds are able to survive the pasteurization process applied to apple products. This study aimed at detecting and identifying heat resistant molds during the processing of apple nectar (pH 3.4; 11.6 °Brix in order to select the most heat resistant mold. The isolation was carried out after heat shock at 70 °C, during 2 hours, and incubation at 30 °C, in PDA (3% agar, where rose bengal was added. The identification of macro and microscopic structures was carried out after incubation in three different media (G25N, CYA, MEA and temperatures. Different heat shocks

  5. Effects of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Co-Ni-Cr-Mo-C alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱远志; 尹志民; 曾渝; 黄继武; 李学谦

    2004-01-01

    A kind of Fe-Co-Ni-Cr-Mo-C alloy was designed for valve seat use. The effects of the quenching temperature, tempering time and tempering temperature on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the alloy were investigated. The results show that the hardness decreases, while tensile strength (σb), transverse rupture strength (σbb) and impact toughness(Kit) increase after the alloy is quenched and tempered. The best complex property (σb, 446 MPa; σbb ,793 MPa; Kic, 2.96 J/cm2 ) can be obtained when the alloy is quenched at 1 100 ℃ and tempered at 650 ℃. The results of X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) show that the major strengthening phases are carbides such as (Fe, Cr)7 C3 and Fe2 MoC. The obvious secondary hardening appears when the alloy is tempered at 550 ℃, which results from the precipitated carbides of Cr and Mo in the alloy from the matrix and the heat-resistant retained austenite .

  6. Assessment of Embrittlement of VHTR Structural Alloys in Impure Helium Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crone, Wendy; Cao, Guoping; Sridhara, Kumar

    2013-05-31

    The helium coolant in high-temperature reactors inevitably contains low levels of impurities during steady-state operation, primarily consisting of small amounts of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} from a variety of sources in the reactor circuit. These impurities are problematic because they can cause significant long-term corrosion in the structural alloys used in the heat exchangers at elevated temperatures. Currently, the primary candidate materials for intermediate heat exchangers are Alloy 617, Haynes 230, Alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X. This project will evaluate the role of impurities in helium coolant on the stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in candidate alloys at elevated temperatures. The project team will: • Evaluate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack initiation and crack growth in the temperature range of 500-850°C in a prototypical helium environment. • Evaluate the effects of oxygen partial pressure on stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in impure helium at 500°C, 700°C, and 850°C respectively. • Characterize the microstructure of candidate alloys after long-term exposure to an impure helium environment in order to understand the correlation between stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation, creep crack growth, material composition, and impurities in the helium coolant. • Evaluate grain boundary engineering as a method to mitigate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth of candidate alloys in impure helium. The maximum primary helium coolant temperature in the high-temperature reactor is expected to be 850-1,000°C.Corrosion may involve oxidation, carburization, or decarburization mechanisms depending on the temperature, oxygen partial pressure, carbon activity, and alloy composition. These corrosion reactions can substantially affect long-term mechanical properties such as crack- growth rate and fracture

  7. Alloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition and properties are listed of alloyed steel for use in the manufacture of steam generators, collectors, spacers, emergency tanks, and other components of nuclear power plants. The steel consists of 0.08 to 0.11% w.w. C, 0.6 to 1.4% w.w. Mn, 0.35 to 0.6% w.w. Mo, 0.02 to 0.07% w.w. Al, 0.17 to 0.37% w.w. Si, 1.7 to 2.7% w.w. Ni, 0.03 to 0.07% w.w. V, 0.005 to 0.012% w.w. N, and the rest is Fe. The said steel showed a sufficiently low transition temperature between brittle and tough structures, a greater depth of hardenability, and better weldability than similar steels. (B.S.)

  8. Heat-Resistant Ferritic-Martensitic Steel RUSFER-EK-181 (Fe-12Cr-2W-V-Ta-B) for Fusion Power Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    diagram) of the steel were calculated for the long-term irradiation in neutron spectrum of the fusion reactor DEMO-RF. Obtained data for functional properties of the RAFMS RUSFER-EK-181 characterize it as the nanostructured structural steel with a good heat resistant (up to 700oC), good resistance to low temperature embrittlement, sufficient radiation resistance of the chemical composition and the structure and phase state. (author)

  9. Mechanical alloying in immiscible alloy systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, mechanical alloying (MA) of immiscible alloy systems characterized by positive heat of mixing has been extensively investigated. The present article reviews the latest progress in MA of immiscible alloy systems including the mechanisms of non-equilibrium phase transformation and metastable phase formation of the MA-driven supersaturated solid solutions, amorphous phases and nanophase composites as well as their mechanical and physical properties related to those metastable phases.

  10. Effect of additional element and heat treating temperature on micro-structure and mechanical behavior of Ag alloy thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Dong-ying; ISHIGURO S; ARIZONO T; HASEGAWA K

    2006-01-01

    For Ag alloy film used for the storage media,it is required to have heat-resistance,anti-constant temperature and anti-constant humidity characteristics,corrosion resistance,while high reflectivity over Al is maintained. An Ag alloy thin film (additive element Pd,Cu,P) was created on glass substrates,and various heat treatment was conducted. Then,fine structure was observed on this thin film using AFM,and fine structure evaluation of the inside was carried out by the in-plane diffractometry and X-ray diffractometry,and in addition,residual stress analysis was carried out. These results were compared and were examined,and fine structure and physical property in a metallic thin film were evaluated,and usefulness of evaluation method was verified.

  11. Solid-liquid state pressure bonding of Si3N4 ceramics with aluminum based alloys and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Solid-liquid state pressure bonding of Si3N4 ceramics with aluminum based alloys, which contain a small amount of intermetallic compounds Al3Ti or Al3Zr, was investigated. With this new method, the heat resistant properties of the bonding zone metal are improved, and the joints' strengths at high temperature is increased. The joints' shear strength at room temperature and at 600  ℃ reach 126~133  MPa and 32~34  MPa, respectively, with suitable bonding pressure. The reaction between aluminum and Si3N4 ceramics, which produces Al-Si-N-O type compounds is the dominant interfacial reaction, while the reactions between the second active element Ti or Zr in the aluminum based alloys and Si3N4 ceramics also occur to some extend.

  12. Field screening and comprehensive evaluation of heat-resistance rose varieties in Shanghai%上海耐热月季品种的田间筛选及其综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洁; 姜灵敏; 曾艳; 陈志涛; 张冬梅; 鲁琳

    2012-01-01

    Based on the natural climate conditions of Shanghai, and taking flowering period, maximum flower opening rate, relative conductivity, proline content, and light utilization efficiency as the indices of rose heat-resistance, the heat-resistance of 13 rose varieties in the field was evaluated by the methods of subordinative function analysis, principal component analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis. Among the 13 varieties, Rosa cv. 'Abhisarika' , Rosa cv. 'Black Lady' , and Rosa cv. 'Red Hat' had most stronger heat-resistance, Rosa cv. 'Bright Smile' and Rosa cv. 'Lawinia' had stronger heat-resistance, Rosa cv. 'Golden Marie' , Rosa cv. ' Berrrcrd Buffet' , Rosa cv. ' Shocking Blue' , Rosa cv. ' My choice' , and Rosa cv. ' ANITA PEREIRE' had mid-level heat-resistance, and Rosa cv. ' Orange Wave' , Rosa cv. ' Angela' , and Rosa cv. ' MY KONOS' had low level heat-resistance. Rosa cv. ' Abhisarika' and Rosa cv. ' Bright Smile' were recommended to be popularized in the gardens and parks in Shanghai and Jiang-Huai basins.%以上海自然气候条件为背景,选取群体花期、最大开放率、相对电导率、脯氨酸含量和光能利用率等5个与月季耐热性强弱密切相关的性状为指标,应用隶属函数分析、主成分分析和聚类分析对13个月季品种进行耐热性评价.结果表明:13个月季品种中阿比沙林卡(Rosa cv.‘Abhisarika’)、矮仙女(Rosa cv.‘Black Lady’)和红帽子(Rosa cv.‘Red Hat’)属强耐热品种;欢笑(Rosa cv.‘Bright Smile’)和拉维尼亚(Rosa cv.‘Lawinia’)耐热性较强;金玛利(Rosa cv.‘Golden Marie’)、Rosa cv.‘Berrrcrd Buffet’(法)、Rosa cv.‘Shocking Blue’(德)、我的选择(Rosa ev.‘My choice’)和Rosa cv.‘ANITA PEREIRE’(法)为中等耐热品种;橘红潮(Rosa cv.‘Orange Wave’)、安吉拉(Rosa cv.‘Angela’)和Rosa cv.‘MY KONOS’(法)耐热性较弱.建议在上海地区及江淮流域选择阿比沙林卡和欢笑进行推广应用.

  13. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  14. 高耐热高耐焊性环氧胶膜的研制%Preparation of High Heat Resistance and Solder Resistance Epoxy Adhesive Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵康宸; 李会录; 韩江凌; 魏弘利; 韩萌

    2015-01-01

    以双酚A型环氧树脂EP638、EP828为基体树脂,丁腈橡胶为增韧剂,酰肼为固化剂,咪唑为固化促进剂,引入导热填料氮化硼、氧化铝,制备了高耐热高耐焊性环氧胶膜。采用单因素试验法优选出制备环氧胶膜的最佳工艺条件,对环氧胶膜的导热性能、介电性能、剪切强度、粘结强度和玻璃化转变温度(Tg)等进行测试。结果表明:制备高耐热高耐焊性环氧胶膜的最佳工艺条件是:m(EP638)∶m(EP828)=1∶1;w(丁腈橡胶)=20%,w(酰肼)=10%,w(咪唑)=5‰,w(填料)=60%,m(A12O3)∶m(BN)=1∶1;固化条件为120℃/1 h+150℃/1 h。此时环氧胶膜的介电常数为5.66,导热系数为0.581 W/(m·K),粘结强度为36.99 MPa,Tg为174.77℃,耐浸焊时间达10 min。%We prepared a high heat resistance and solder resistance epoxy adhesive film using bisphenol A type epoxy resin EP638 and EP828 as matrix resin, nitrile rubber as toughening agent, hydrazide as curing agent, imidazole as curing catalyst, and adding thermal conductive fillers boron nitride and alumi-na. The optimum process condition to prepare the epoxy adhesive film was optimized by single factor experiment method, and its thermal conductivity, dielectric property, shear strength, bonding strength and glass transition temperature(Tg) were tested. The results show that the optimum process condition is that the mass ratio between EP638 and EP828 is 1∶1, the mass fraction of nitrile rubber is 20%, the mass fraction of hydrazide is 10%, the mass fraction of imidazole is 5‰, the mass fraction of fillers is 60%, the mass ratio between A12O3 and BN is 1∶1, and the curing condition is“120 ℃/1 h+150 ℃/1 h”. While, the dielectric constant of the epoxy adhasive film is 5.66, the thermal conductivity is 0.581 W/(m· K), the bonding strength is 36.99 MPa, the Tg is 174.77℃, and the solder resistance time is 10 min.

  15. Development of constitutive models for cyclic plasticity and creep behavior of super alloys at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisler, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    An uncoupled constitutive model for predicting the transient response of thermal and rate dependent, inelastic material behavior was developed. The uncoupled model assumes that there is a temperature below which the total strain consists essentially of elastic and rate insensitive inelastic strains only. Above this temperature, the rate dependent inelastic strain (creep) dominates. The rate insensitive inelastic strain component is modelled in an incremental form with a yield function, blow rule and hardening law. Revisions to the hardening rule permit the model to predict temperature-dependent kinematic-isotropic hardening behavior, cyclic saturation, asymmetric stress-strain response upon stress reversal, and variable Bauschinger effect. The rate dependent inelastic strain component is modelled using a rate equation in terms of back stress, drag stress and exponent n as functions of temperature and strain. A sequence of hysteresis loops and relaxation tests are utilized to define the rate dependent inelastic strain rate. Evaluation of the model has been performed by comparison with experiments involving various thermal and mechanical load histories on 5086 aluminum alloy, 304 stainless steel and Hastelloy X.

  16. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  17. High strength alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  18. High strength alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  19. Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank E. Goodwin

    2002-12-31

    This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

  20. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  1. Research Progress in Modification of Heat Resistance and Toughness of Poly(vinyl chloride)%聚氯乙烯树脂耐热和增韧改性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾伟立

    2011-01-01

    Research progresses in modification of heat resistance and toughness of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) were reviewed. The heat resistance of PVC could be enhanced by adding heat stabilizers, crosslinking, blending, copolymerization, chlorination, and adding inorganic nanoparticles, etc. The toughness of PVC could be improved by blending with elastomer, nanoparticles and nanoscale micro fibers, and in-situ polymerization. The development trend of PVC modification was pointed out.%综述了聚氯乙烯(PVC)树脂耐热改性和增韧改性的研究进展。PVC耐热改性方法主要有添加热稳定剂、交联、共混、共聚、氯化及无机纳米粒子改性;增韧改性的主要方法包括弹性体、纳米粒子、聚合物/无机纳米复合材料、纳米级微纤增韧以及原位聚合的方法。最后,提出了PVC耐热和增韧改性的发展方向。

  2. Development of Radiation Crosslinked,Heat Resistant and Flame Resistant Polyolefin Heat Shrinkable Material%辐射交联150℃阻燃聚烯烃热收缩材料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张聪

    2001-01-01

    The composition,preparing technology and properties of radiation crosslinked,heat resistant and flame resistant polyolefin heat shrinkable material were studied,and the polyolefin heat shrinkable material with heat resistance up to 150℃,the OI of which was 30,was prepared.The prepared material could be used at 150℃ for a long time,and was characterized by high temperature resistance,good mechanical and elecrical properties and flame resistance,and could be widely applied to aircrafts,architecture,atuomobiles,military wehicle and cable insulation.%本文介绍了一种辐射交联150℃阻燃聚烯烃热收缩材料的配方研究,制备工艺及性能,通过确定聚烯烃热收缩材料制备工艺,挤出温度、辐照剂量等,制备出耐温达150℃,氧指数达30的热收缩材料,此材料可在150℃温度下长期使用,具有耐高温、机械、电性能优异、阻燃性能好,可广泛使用在航天、航空、汽车、军工等线缆的绝缘保护。

  3. Property and Degradation Analysis of 9Cr Heat-Resistant Steel%9Cr马氏体耐热钢的组织性能分析和失效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁超; 胡正飞; 武艳君

    2012-01-01

    9Cr martensitic heat-resistant steel, which has such excellent performances as high creep rupture strength and good corrosion resistance under 600 ℃ service condition , is the preferred steel for the equipments of fossil fired power plants. The performance and micrstructure degradation of 9Cr martensitic heat-resistant steel after long-term service have been analyzed. These summarization provide reference for the research in future.%9Cr马氏体耐热钢是目前制造热电厂关键设备的主选钢种,其最大的特点是600℃左右高温服役条件下具有良好的持久强度,较好的抗腐蚀性能.本文主要分析了9Cr马氏体耐热钢的基本结构和性能,对其性能进行了探讨,并进一步分析了长期服役后材料性能、组织退化的特点,为今后的研究提供有益的参考.

  4. High frequency fatigue test of IN 718 alloy – microstructure and fractography evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Belan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INCONEL alloy 718 is a high-strength, corrosion-resistant nickel chromium material used at -253 °C to 705 °C for production of heat resistant parts of aero jet engine mostly. The fatigue test provided on this kind materials were done via low frequency loading up to this time. Nowadays, needs of results at higher volume of loading cycles leads to high frequency loading with aim to shorten testing time. Fatigue test of experimental material was carried out at frequency 20 kHz with stress ration R = - 1 (push – pull at room temperature. It was found that this superalloy can still fracture after exceeding 108 cycles. Besides fatigue test were microstructural characterisation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM fractography evaluation done.

  5. New Methodology to Predict the Long-term Creep Strength of Alloy 617 for a Very High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy 617 is a prime candidate material for the very high temperature gas-cooed reactor(VHTR) components due to its superior creep resistance above 800 .deg. C when compared to other candidate alloys; Haynes 230, Hastelloy-X and Alloy 800. Considerable creep data for Alloy 617 is available in the literature, and a draft Alloy 617 code case and ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code-Section II have also provided allowable stress values for a 105 h design period at temperatures up to 982 .deg. C. However, the creep and oxidation behaviors for Alloy 617 are not well understood yet, and their long-term creep strength should be predicted for use in a design and analysis. So far, Larson-Miller (LM) parameter method known as a time-temperature parameter (TTP) has been the most commonly used to predict the long-term creep life from short-term creep data. TTP constant C in the LM method is unique for a given set of creep rupture data to be analyzed. Temperature dependency of a rupture life, dlogtr /d(1/T), should not change in the data set. But, this assumption is not always valid, because the C for the rupture life changes from a high value of the short term creep to a low value of the long term creep. So, Maruyama et al. have reported that the multi region analysis for Q in Orr-Sherby-Dorn (OSD) parameter could evaluate the long-term rupture of austenite stainless steels and 9-12% Cr steels accurately. However, an overestimation of the long term rupture in the LM parameter has not been reported for Alloy 617, and furthermore, to avoid it, a multi constant method for the C in the LM parameter has not been demonstrated by others. In this paper, a longer creep life for above 105h at 950 .deg. C was accurately predicted by using a new method with two C values in the LM parameter. Also, oxidation behavior was investigated by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis

  6. 高硬度镍基高温合金Incone1 718的切削加工%Cutting process of high hardness nickel-base heat resisting alloy Inconel 718

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志伟

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1 可加工性分析 Inconel 718材料属高硬度、高强度、耐腐蚀、耐高温镍基合金,主要用于制造飞机发动机涡轮盘、飞机机匣等高强度零件,此类零件在705℃以下具有耐高蠕变和抗应力断裂性能,在980℃以下具有良好的抗氧化性能(如涡轮转子、后机匣组件等).

  7. 烧结热矿破碎机齿辊耐磨层的堆焊%Bulit-Up Welding the Wear/heat Resisting Alloy on Spike Roller of Hot Crusher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 刘欣; 周海川; 豆会生

    2001-01-01

    邯钢在消化吸收引进技术的基础上,对热矿破碎机齿辊及耐热篦板的耐热耐磨层堆焊工艺进行了研究和改进,使其在齿辊无通水冷却的情况下,使用寿命可达1年以上,远高于国内同类堆焊齿辊的寿命.

  8. Superplasticity in titanium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    J. Sieniawski; Motyka, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper reports characteristic of superplasticity phenomenon in titanium alloys and possibility of its applications.Design/methodology/approach: The main objective of the paper is to show features of superplastic forming of titanium alloys and current research trends aiming at widespread application of this technology.Findings: In the paper characteristic of selected superplastic titanium alloys was presented. The effect of microstructural parameters on superplasticity was consider...

  9. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  10. Corrosion resistant amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of publication data on corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys and the methods of amorphization of surface layers of massive materials (laser treatment, iron implantation, detonation-gas spraying, cathode and ion sputtering, electrodeposition) was made. A study was made on corrosion properties of Fe66Cr11B10Si4 alloy in cast state and after laser irradiation, rendering the surface amorphous as well as the samples of Arenco iron and steel 20 with ion-plasma coatings of Fe-Cr-Ni-Ti alloy. It was established that amorphous coatings posses much higher corrosion resistance as compared to crystalline alloys on the same base

  11. Effects of heat treatment processes on microstructure and creep properties of a high nitrogen 15Cr-15Ni austenitic heat resistant stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → CTMT induced elongated clusters of fine (Nb,Cr,Fe)(C,N) particles. → Hot rolling in MTMT induced evenly distributed fine (Nb,Cr,Fe)(C,N). → Number and distribution of Cu precipitates not affected by hot rolling. → Distribution homogeneity of fine (Nb,Cr,Fe)(C,N) promotes creep strength increase. → Finer grain size structure promotes lower creep ductility. - Abstract: Conventional thermo-mechanical treatment (CTMT) and modified thermo-mechanical treatment (MTMT) process were applied for manufacturing a high nitrogen niobium-stabilized 15Cr-15Ni austenitic alloy. CTMT process consists of 5 h of solution treatment at 1270 deg. C followed by water quenching and subsequent aging at 820 deg. C for 50 h. MTMT process differs from CTMT process in hot plastic deformation performed immediately after the solution treatment at 1270 deg. C and longer aging time. Microstructure and creep properties of the steel obtained by both processing routes were investigated. Creep rupture tests at 750 deg. C showed double increase in rupture time brought about by MTMT process. Examination of crept microstructure by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the improved creep properties in MTMT process were mainly due to improved distribution uniformity of fine nano-sized carbonitride precipitates in the austenitic matrix and that MTMT process has no effects on the number density and distribution of copper precipitates present in the steel. However, the creep ductility in MTMT process drastically reduced comparing to CTMT process. The higher density of grain boundaries due to finer grain recrystallized microstructures and the formation of higher volume fraction of coarser M23C6 precipitates at the boundaries are believed to be the main reason for the lower creep ductility in MTMT process.

  12. 稀土耐热钢凝固过程中夹杂物析出的热力学分析%Thermodynamic Analysis of Inclusions Precipitation in Heat Resistant Steel with Rare Earth during Solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于哲; 李言栋; 刘承军; 姜茂发

    2014-01-01

    Based on Gibbs free energy minimization principle, the thermodynamic software FactSage was chosen to calculate and analyze the precipitation behavior of inclusions in heat resistant steel with different cerium content and cleanliness. The results show that, SiO2 and MnS inclusions are replaced by Ce2O3, Ce2O2S when cerium is added to heat resistant steel. Under the conditions of certain cleanliness of molten steel, the content of cerium when SiO2 and MnS cannot precipitate are 0.02%and 0.03%respectively; the inclusions precipitated in heat resistant steel transform from Ce2O2S, CeN, CeS to SiO2, Ce2O3 with the content of oxygen increasing. SiO2 can precipitate in steel when the content of oxygen is greater than 0.006%. The inclusions precipitated in the heat resistant steel transform from Ce 2O2S, CeN, CeS, Ce2O3 to Ce2O2S, MnS, Ce2S3 with the content of sulfur increasing. MnS can precipitate in steel when the content of sulfur is greater than 0.005%.%基于FactSage热力学软件的最小吉布斯自由能原理,系统研究了不同铈含量及钢液洁净度条件下耐热钢凝固过程中夹杂物的析出行为。结果表明:耐热钢中添加铈后,高熔点的Ce2O2S、 Ce2O3等夹杂取代了SiO2与MnS夹杂;在一定洁净度条件下, SiO2与MnS无法析出的铈含量分别为0.02%与0.03%;随着氧含量的增加,耐热钢中的夹杂物类型由Ce2O2S、 CeN、 CeS向SiO2、 Ce2O3转变,当氧含量大于0.006%时,钢中开始析出SiO2夹杂;随着硫含量的增加,耐热钢中的夹杂物类型由Ce2O2S、 CeN、 CeS、 Ce2O3向Ce2O2S、 MnS、 Ce2S3转变,当硫含量大于0.005%时, MnS夹杂开始析出。

  13. Padrão eletroforético de proteínas resistentes ao calor em sementes de milho Electrophorectic pattern of the heat resistant proteins of corn seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Carvalho Barrios Roveri José

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Na aquisição e manutenção da tolerância à dessecação de sementes, há vários mecanismos envolvidos, entre eles a indução das proteínas resistentes ao calor. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar mudanças no padrão eletroforético das proteínas resistentes ao calor de sementes de milho submetidas a alta temperatura de secagem, associando-as à sua tolerância. Foram utilizadas sementes de linhagens, híbridos simples e híbridos recíprocos colhidas com teor de água de aproximadamente 35% e secadas a 45°C. Sementes das linhagens secadas à sombra foram utilizadas como controle e sua qualidade fisiológica foi avaliada por meio do teste de germinação. As proteínas resistentes ao calor foram extraídas de eixos embrionários das sementes em tampão Tris HCl 0,05 M. Não foi possível determinar uma banda específica da fração das proteínas resistentes ao calor que possa servir como marcador da tolerância à alta temperatura de secagem. Houve estabilidade nos padrões de bandas das proteínas provenientes de sementes submetidas à secagem artificial e natural, mesmo quando foram observadas variações nos valores de germinação. Os padrões eletroforéticos das proteínas resistentes ao calor foram semelhantes entre as sementes híbridas e os respectivos recíprocos.Several mechanisms are involved in the acquisition and maintenance of desiccation tolerance by the seeds. One of these mechanisms is related to the induction of heat resitant proteins. The objective of this work was to evaluate changes in the electophorectic patterns of the heat resistant proteins of corn seeds submitted to high drying temperature associating their expression with drying tolerance. Seeds of breeding lines, simple hybrids and respective reciprocals hybrids were utilized. The seeds were harvested with approximately 35% of water content and dried at 45°C. Seeds of lines dried under shadow were used as control and the physiological quality was

  14. FRAUD/SABOTAGE Killing Nuclear-Reactors!!! ``Super"alloys GENERIC ENDEMIC Wigner's-Disease IN-stability!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphahani, Aziz; Siegel, Sidney; Siegel, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Siegel [[J.Mag.Mag.Mtls.7,312(78); PSS(a)11,45(72); Semis.& Insuls.5(79)] (at: ORNL, ANS, Westin``KL"ouse, PSEG, IAEA, ABB) warning of old/new nuclear-reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/ jet/missile/rocket-engines austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe-based (so MIS- called)``super"alloys(182/82;Hastelloy-X; 600;304/304L-SSs; 690 !!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms): Wigner's- diseas(WD)[J.Appl.Phys.17,857(46)]; Ostwald-ripening; spinodal- decomposition; overageing-embrittlement; thermomechanical- INstability: Mayo[Google: ``If Leaks Could Kill"; at flickr.com search on ``Giant-Magnotoresistance"; find: [Siegel<<<``Fert"(88) 2007-Nobel/Wolf/Japan-prizes]necessitating NRC inspections on 40+25=65 Westin``KL"ouse PWRs(12/06)]; Lai[Met.Trans.AIME,9A,827 (78)]-Sabol-Stickler[PSS(70)]; Ashpahani[Intl.Conf. H in Metals (77)]; Russell[Prog. Mtls.Sci.(83)]; Pollard[last UCS rept. (9/95)]; Lofaro[BNL/DOE/NRC Repts.]; Pringle[Nuclear-Power:From Physics to Politics(79)]; Hoffman[animatedsoftware.com],...what DOE/NRC MISlabels as ``butt-welds" ``stress-corrosion cracking" endpoint's ROOT-CAUSE ULTIMATE-ORIGIN is WD overageing-embrit- tlement caused brittle-fracture cracking from early/ongoing AEC/DOE-n``u''tional-la``v''atories sabotage!!!

  15. FRAUD/SABOTAGE Killing Nuclear-Reactors Need Modeling!!!: ``Super'' alloys GENERIC ENDEMIC Wigner's-Disease/.../IN-stability: Ethics? SHMETHICS!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Joseph; Bument, Arlden; Siegel, Edward

    2011-03-01

    Carbides solid-state chemistry domination of old/new nuclear-reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/jet/missile/rocket-engines is austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe-based (so miscalled)"super"alloys(182/82;Hastelloy-X,600,304/304L-SSs,...690!!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms): Wigner's-disease(WD) [J.Appl.Phys.17,857 (46)]/Ostwald-ripening/spinodal-decomposition/overageing-embrittlement/thermal-leading-to-mechanical(TLTM)-INstability: Mayo[Google: fLeaksCouldKill > ; - Siegel [ J . Mag . Mag . Mtls . 7 , 312 (78) = atflickr . comsearchonGiant - Magnotoresistance [Fert" [PRL(1988)]-"Gruenberg"[PRL(1989)] 2007-Nobel]necessitating NRC inspections on 40+25=65 Westin"KL"ouse PWRs(12/2006)]-Lai [Met.Trans.AIME, 9A,827(78)]-Sabol-Stickler[Phys.Stat.Sol.(70)]-Ashpahani[ Intl.Conf. Hydrogen in Metals, Paris(1977]-Russell [Prog.Mtls.Sci.(1983)]-Pollard [last UCS rept.(9/1995)]-Lofaro [BNL/DOE/NRC Repts.]-Pringle [ Nuclear-Power:From Physics to Politics(1979)]-Hoffman [animatedsoftware.com], what DOE/NRC MISlabels as "butt-welds" "stress-corrosion cracking" endpoint's ROOT-CAUSE ULTIMATE-ORIGIN is WD overageing-embrittlement caused brittle-fracture cracking from early/ongoing AEC/DOE-n"u"tional-la"v"atories sabotage!!!

  16. Copper-tantalum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1986-07-15

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  17. High temperature niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niobium alloys are currently being used in various high temperature applications such as rocket propulsion, turbine engines and lighting systems. This paper presents an overview of the various commercial niobium alloys, including basic manufacturing processes, properties and applications. Current activities for new applications include powder metallurgy, coating development and fabrication of advanced porous structures for lithium cooled heat pipes

  18. Thermofluency in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented about the theoretical and experimental results obtained at present in thermofluency under radiation in zirconium alloys. The phenomenon of thermofluency is presented in a general form, underlining the thermofluency at high temperature because this phenomenon is similar to the thermofluency under radiation, which ocurrs in zirconium alloys into the operating reactor. (author)

  19. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.; Walker, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  20. Alloys in energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of new and advanced energy systems often requires the tailoring of new alloys or alloy combinations to meet the novel and often stringent requirements of those systems. Longer life at higher temperatures and stresses in aggressive environments is the most common goal. Alloy theory helps in achieving this goal by suggesting uses of multiphase systems and intermediate phases, where solid solutions were traditionally used. However, the use of materials under non-equilibrium conditions is now quite common - as with rapidly solidified metals - and the application of alloy theory must be modified accordingly. Under certain conditions, as in a reactor core, the rate of approach to equilibrium will be modified; sometimes a quasi-equilibrium is established. Thus an alloy may exhibit enhanced general diffusion at the same time as precipitate particles are being dispersed and solute atoms are being carried to vacancy sinks. We are approaching an understanding of these processes and can begin to model these complex systems

  1. Study on the Effects of Chinese Veterinary Medicine Summer-expelling and Heat-resisting Powder on Heat Stress of Pregnant Sows%中兽药解暑抗热散抗妊娠母猪热应激效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄忠强; 赵红梅; 纪美静

    2014-01-01

    为了解中兽药解暑抗热散对妊娠母猪热应激的缓解效果,选取14头怀孕1月龄的2~3胎次的母猪,按窝体质量及胎次相近的原则随机分成2组,即解暑抗热散组(每800 kg基础日粮中添加解暑抗热散1 kg)和对照组(基础日粮),每组7头,分别测定其热应激相关指标,试验期8 d。结果显示:解暑抗热散组母猪的呼吸频率比对照组降低3.57次/min,体温比对照组降低0.99℃,2组间呼吸频率差异不显著(P>0.05),但平均体温显著低于对照组(P<0.05);母猪产健仔猪数比对照组提高10.52%,发病数比对照组降低5.49%。试验结果表明,解暑抗热散在高温条件下能够显著降低妊娠母猪体温,提高产健仔猪数,降低猪只的发病数,具有良好的抗应激作用。%In order to understand the relief effects of Chinese veterinary medicine summer-expelling and heat-resisting powder on heat stress of pregnancy sow, 14 one-month-old pregnant sows with 2nd-3rd fetal times were selected and randomly divided into control group (basic diet) and summer-expelling and heat-resisting powder group (supplementing 1 kg summer-expelling and heat-resisting powder per 800 kg feed) according to the principle of similar litter weight and fetal times. There were seven sows in each group. The related indices of heat stress were determined. And the test lasted for 8 days. The results showed that the respiratory frequency of sows in summer-expelling and heat-resisting powder group decreased 3.57 times/min than that in control group. And the body temperature in summer-expelling and heat-resisting powder group decreased 0.99 ℃than that in control group. There was no significant difference of respiratory frequency between summer-expelling and heat-resisting powder group and control group(P>0.05). The average body temperature in summer-expelling and heat-resisting powder group is significantly lower than that in control

  2. Effect of sintering parameters on the density, microstructure and mechanical properties of the niobium-modified heat-resistant stainless steel GX40CrNiSi25-20 produced by MIM technology: Vplivi parametrov sintranja na gostoto, mikrostrukturo in mehanske lastnosti z niobijem legiranga i.e. legiranega ognjevzdržnega jekla GX40CrNiSi25-20, izdelanega z MIM-tehnologijo:

    OpenAIRE

    Butković, Samir; Mehmedović, Muhamed; Oruč, Mirsada; Šarić, Emir

    2012-01-01

    Properties of heat-resistant, stainless-steel parts produced by the metal-injection-molding (MIM) process depend mostly on the sintering parameters. The effect of these sintering parameters on the densification, microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of the niobium-modified, heat-resistant stainless steel GX40CrNiSi25-20 were investigated. The prepared feedstock was injection molded to obtain tensile test specimens (ISO 2740). The debinding of the molded parts was performed using the...

  3. Application of pattern search algorithm for determining heat resistance of ground heat exchanger%模式搜索算法在地埋管换热器热阻确定中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长兴; 郭占军; 刘玉峰; 丛晓春; 彭冬根

    2013-01-01

    Ground-coupled heat pump systems (GCHPs) have been recognized as being among the most energy efficient systems for space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings. GCHPs consist of a conventional heat pump coupled with a ground heat exchanger (GHE), and the knowledge of underground thermal properties is a prerequisite for the correct design of a GHE. For a GHE, the two important parameters are ground thermal conductivity and borehole thermal resistance, which is decided by borehole diameter, pipe size and configuration, pipe material, and the filling inside the borehole, so that a larger ground thermal conductivity and a small borehole thermal resistance allow the heat to be exchanged at a larger rate for a given borehole. Because of the two important parameters, a ground thermal response test (TRT) experiment is often performed on a test borehole for larger commercial installations, and it has been required in the GCHPs project whose building area is more than 5 000 m2 according to the technical code for GCHPs in China. Based on the relative TRT experimental data, how to calculate the true value of the two important parameters is necessary for GHE design, and the mathematical algorithm becomes one of the important impact factors when the experimental data from a TRT are analyzed and applied. Combining TRT experiments, this paper presents the pattern search algorithm (PSA) for determining ground thermal conductivity and heat resistance of a GHE based on a line source model. As an undetermined parameter, the heat resistance of a GHE is calculated without considering the physical parameters of the GHE, which decreases the calculating workload. In a calculating sample, the conclusion of applying PSA shows the relative errors of ground thermal conductivity and heat resistance of the GHE are respectively 1.42%and 1.73%, and the relative differences of the two parameters calculated by PSA are less, which proves the high precision of PSA. Finally, PSA

  4. Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

  5. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  6. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  7. PhMI-St-AN耐热改性剂的合成及与PVC的共混发泡%Synthesis of PhMI-St-AN Heat-Resistant Modifier and Blending Foaming with PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉娜; 齐暑华; 程博; 何栋; 邱华; 尚磊

    2012-01-01

    采用悬浮共聚合法制备N-苯基马来酰亚胺-苯乙烯-丙烯腈( PhMI-St-AN)三元共聚物耐热改性剂,将其与聚氯乙烯(PVC)共混通过模压发泡制备了PVC/PhMI-St-AN泡沫塑料.借助傅里叶变换红外光谱、差示扫描量热分析等手段对PhMI-St-AN三元共聚物进行了表征,研究了共聚物组成对三元共聚物玻璃化转变温度(Tg)及其与PVC相容性的影响,考察了PVC/PhMI-St-AN泡沫塑料的热尺寸稳定性和吸水性.结果表明,PhMI-St-AN具有良好的耐热性能,其Tg随PhMI含量的增加而提高,PhMI-St-AN三元共聚物提高了PVC/PhMI-St-AN泡沫塑料的热尺寸稳定性,降低了吸水率.%N-phenyl maleimide-styrene-acrylonitrile ( PhMI-St-AN ) terpolymer was prepared through suspension copolymerization method, and the terpolymer as heat-resistant modifiers was blended with PVC to prepare PVC/PhMI-St-AN foam plastics by moulding and foaming. Then PhMI-St-AN terpolymer was characterized by the means of FTIR, DSC et al. Effects of the terpolymer composition on the glass transition temperature ( Tg) of PhMI-St-AN terpolymer and the compatibility between PhMI-St-AN terpolymer and PVC were studied. Meanwhile, the thermal dimensional stability and water absorption property of PVC / PhMI-St-AN foam plastics were researched. The results showed that PhMI-St-AN terpolymer had good heat resistance, and it' s Tg improved with the increase of PhMI content in the terpolymer. By adding PhMI-St-AN terpolymer, the thermal dimensional stability of PVC foam plastics was improved and the water absorption rate of foam plastics was reduced.

  8. Re-formation and re-crystallisation behaviour of γ'-free ODS nickel-based alloy PM 1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was the examination of the coarse grain recrystallisation of the γ-free ODS nickel-based alloy PM 1000 depending on the various parameters due to the processing during heat treatment. After isotropic hot compacting (HIP) of the mechanically alloyed powder, one observes a homogeneous sub-microscopic fine grain structure which can coarsen during high temperature heat treatment, due to sufficiently high driving force from the grain boundary energy via abnormal grain growth to 600 times its size. The setting of the elongated high temperature resistant recrystallisation structure is, however, not connected with this. The dependence of the sucess of re-crystallisation on the re-forming parameters (re-forming temperature and degree of re-forming) was shown by a socalled re-forming card. In order to achieve re-crystallisation to a coarse and aligned grain structure, apart from a certain absolute minimum degree of re-forming, the re-forming must occur within a defined temperature window. The factor which considerably affects the grain size of the re-crystallisation structure which is finally achievable via heat treatment, is the primary grain size of the re-forming structure. After setting a corresponding re-forming fine structure by choosing suitable re-forming parameters, the alloy PM 1000 can be successfully converted into a coarse-grained heat-resistant re-crystallisation structure via isothermal heat treatment. (MM)

  9. Research concerning textures of high melting point metals and alloys and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the utilization of high melting point metals and alloys as the heat resistant structural materials for fusion reactors and nuclear reactors is considered, it is necessary to accumulate the basic data sufficiently on the texture and recrystallizing behavior directly related to the grain boundary brittleness peculiar to Mo or W and the anisotropy of strength. This study was carried out from such viewpoint, and comprises the following three themes. 1) When sintered Mo round bars were zone-refined, rolled and recrystallized, the recrystallized texture was different corresponding to the number of pass in zone refining. The mechanism of controlling the recrystallized texture by very fine precipitates was examined. 2) From the cold-rolled texture, the recrystallized texture by rapid heating annealing and that by slow heating annealing of Mo and its alloy, the prospect of the control of texture was obtained. 3) The difference in the cold-rolled texture of BCC polyerystalline metals was studied. When the initial grain size was large, the grain boundary strength was lowered by decarbonizing treatment, and the grain boundary restriction was weakened during rolling. (Kako, I.)

  10. Titanium alloys. Advances in alloys, processes, products and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Blenkinsop, P.

    1993-01-01

    The last few years have been a period of consolidation of existing alloys and processes. While the aerospace industry remains the principal driving force for alloy development, the paper illustrates examples of new markets being established in "older" alloys, by a combination of product/process development and a re-examination of engineering design parameters. Considerable attention is still being directed towards the titanium aluminide systems, but other more conventional alloy developments ...

  11. 应用Schaal耐热试验法预测软包装风味鱼的货架期%Application of Schaal heat-resistant method in predicting the shelf life of flexible package flavor fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶晶; 周如如; 王雪锋; 韩曜平; 戴阳军

    2012-01-01

    The shelf life of flavor fish was determined with heat-resistant test method. 50℃ , 60 ℃ was selected to accelerate the experiments. Acid value, peroxide value and microorganism activities of the flavor fish were determined at the expermiental temperature. With the combination of organoleptic evaluation, the shelf life was predicted according to the relations between temperature and shelf-life coefficient of fat. The results show that the shelf life of products without preservatives was 80 days or so, the shelf life of products adding 0.0075% potassium sorbet was 160 days or so.%采用高温"Schaal耐热试验法"预测风味鱼的货架期。选取40、60℃2个温度进行加速实验,以加速贮藏过程中产品酸价、过氧化值及微生物的变化为指标,结合产品感官评定,依据温度与油脂货架寿命系数的关系,预测产品货架期。结果表明不添加防腐剂的产品货架期为80d,添加0.0075%山梨酸钾的产品货架期为160d。

  12. Heat-resistant Performance Contrast of Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber and Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber%氯磺化聚乙烯橡胶与氢化丁腈橡胶耐热性能对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩雪; 陈丽飞; 金耀程

    2016-01-01

    研究了技术要求、性能相近的两种以氯磺化聚乙烯和氢化丁腈橡胶为主胶的硫化橡胶耐热老化性能情况。通过模拟高温使用环境,对两种硫化橡胶的拉伸强度、拉断伸长率、硬度(邵氏 A)的性能变化情况进行测定,得出了两种硫化橡胶的老化曲线及耐高温使用的能力对比情况。%Heat-resistant performances of chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber and hydrogenated nitrile rubber were studied. Under simulated high temperature condition, the tensile strength, tensile elongation, hardness (Shaw A) performance of two kinds of rubber were measured, and the changes of two kinds of vulcanized rubber aging curves were drawn, and their high temperature resistant performances were compared.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  14. Structural thermodynamics of alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Manenc, Jack

    1973-01-01

    Technical progress has for a very long time been directly dependent on progress in metallurgy, which is itself connected with improvements in the technology of alloys. Metals are most frequently used in the form of alloys for several reasons: the quantity of pure metal in its native state in the earth's crust is very limited; pure metals must be extracted from ores which are themselves impure. Finally, the methods of treatment used lead more easily to alloys than to pure metals. The most typical case is that of iron, where a pure ore may be found, but which is the starting point for cast iron or steel, alloys of iron and carbon. In addition, the properties of alloys are in general superior to those of pure metals and modem metallurgy consists of controlling these properties so as to make them conform to the requirements of the design office. Whilst the engineer was formerly compelled to adapt his designs and constructions to the materials available, such as wood, stone, bronze, iron, cast iron and ordinary st...

  15. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Berat Barıs BULDUM; Aydın SIK; Iskender OZKUL

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attra...

  16. Productive Machining of Titanium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Čejka, Libor

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on a productive machining of titanium alloys. At the beginning it deals about titanium and its alloys. It describes chip generation mechanism, tool blunting and surface quality. Further it contains modern strategies of efficient titanium alloys machining. Then it analyzes contemporary manufacturing technology of hinge made of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V in Frentech Aerospace s.r.o. company, and at the end finds possibility of savings by inovation of roughing process.

  17. FRAUD/SABOTAGE Killing Nuclear-Reactors Need Modeling!!!: "Super"alloys GENERIC ENDEMIC Wigner's-Disease/.../IN-stability: Ethics? SHMETHICS!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphahani, Aziz; Siegel, Sidney; Siegel, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Carbides solid-state chemistry domination of old/new nuclear- reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/jet/missile/rocket-engines in austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe-based(so miscalled)``super"alloys(182/82; Hastelloy-X,600,304/304L-SSs,...,690!!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms): Wigner's-diseas(WD)[J.Appl.Phys.17,857 (1946)]/Ostwald-ripening/spinodal-decomposition/overageing- embrittlement/thermal-leading-to-mechanical(TLTM)-INstability: Mayo[Google:``If Leaks Could Kill"; at flickr.com search on ``Giant-Magnotoresistance"; find: Siegel[J.Mag.Mag.Mtls.7,312 (1978)]<<<``Fert"-"Gruenberg"(1988/89)2007-physics Nobel/Wolf/ Japan-prizes]necessitating NRC-inspections of 40+25 = 65 Westin- ``KLouse PWRs(12/2006)]-Lai[Met.Trans.AIME,9A,827(1978)]-Sabol- Stickler[Phys.Stat.Sol.(1970)]-Ashpahani[Intl.Conf. H in Metals, Paris(1977]-Russell[Prog.Mtls.Sci.(1983)]-Pollard[last UCS rept. (9/1995)]-Lofaro[BNL/DOE/NRC Repts.]-Pringle[Nuclear-Power:From Physics to Politics(1979)]-Hoffman[animatedsoftware.com], what DOE/NRC MISlabels as ``butt-welds" ``stress-corrosion cracking" endpoint's ROOT-CAUSE ULTIMATE-ORIGIN is WD overageing-embritt- lement caused brittle-fracture cracking from early/ongoing AEC/ DOE-n"u"tional-la"v"atories sabotage!!!

  18. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Peter; Koh, Shirlaine; Mani, Prasanna; Ratndeep, Srivastava

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  19. Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deexith Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs are metals that "remember" their original shapes. SMAs are useful for such things as actuators which are materials that "change shape, stiffness, position, natural frequency, and other mechanical characteristics in response to temperature or electromagnetic fields" The potential uses for SMAs especially as actuators have broadened the spectrum of many scientific fields. The study of the history and development of SMAs can provide an insight into a material involved in cutting-edge technology. The diverse applications for these metals have made them increasingly important and visible to the world. This paper presents the working of shape memory alloys , the phenomenon of super-elasticity and applications of these alloys.

  20. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGPing-ze; XUZhong; HEZhi-yong; ZHANGGao-hui

    2004-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%. Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  1. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping-ze; XU Zhong; HE Zhi-yong; ZHANG Gao-hui

    2004-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%.Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  2. Machining of Titanium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Karásek, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this work is the analysis of manufacturing costs for the component of wheel´s blower. Followed by setting up the size of specific cutting force for milling operation of the titanium alloy Ti-Al6-Mo2-Cr2-Fe-Si, the used tool was a milling cutter which is made out of sintered carbide with conical and spherical face. The final values which are at intervals of 1500 to 1800 MPa were compared with the values of the Sandvik Coromant firm kc = 1690 MPa, for titanium alloy with the st...

  3. Tungsten Alloy Outgassing Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, John P; Shaver, L

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have not seen extensive use in liquid argon calorimeters so far. Because the manufacturing process for tungsten is different from the more common metals used in liquid argon there is concern that tungsten could poison the argon thereby creating difficulties for precision calorimetry. In this paper we report measurements of outgassing from the tungsten alloy slugs proposed for use in the ATLAS FCal module and estimate limits on potential poisoning with reasonable assumptions. This estimate gives an upper limit poisoning rate of

  4. Galvanic corrosion in odontological alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvanic corrosion can occur when different alloys are placed in direct contact within the oral cavity or within tissues. Concern has been expressed associated with the coupling of selected restorative materials as well as implant material with various alloys used for restorative procedures. This could be critical if the crown or bridge had subgingival finish line with a metallic zone in contact with the tissue, and the implant was made in titanium alloy. The present work shows the results of galvanic coupling studies done on implants of titanium alloy connected to nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys. (Author)

  5. Experimental Investigation on Heat-Resistant Layer of High Silica Phenolic Composites in Ramjet Chamber%冲压发动机高硅氧/酚醛燃烧室热防护层实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志永; 郑日恒; 李立翰; 陈平; 侯昊晟

    2013-01-01

    With the advantage of simple process and low cost, high silica phenolic composite has been used as SRM thermal protection material. In order to investigate its application in ramjet thermal protection, heat-resistant layer of high silica phenolic composites in large scale ramjet chamber has been designed and experimental studied. The results show that high silica phenolic composites is adaptive to work properly up to 300 seconds in the harsh environment of ramjet chamber. Due to non-uniform temperature distribution of ramjet chamber, phenolic carbonization is non-synchronous with high silica fiber fusion, and crack and de-lamination of heat-resistant layer of high silica phenolic composites after working longer time( >300s) can occure. High silica phenolic composites form and performance changes greatly after pyrolysis and carbonization. For these problems, proposals are made and measures are suggested. This research is valuabe for sim-plifing process and reducing cost of the thermal structure in ramjet chamber.%高硅氧/酚醛树脂基复合材料具有成型工艺简单和成本低的特点,被广泛地应作固体火箭发动机的防热材料.为了探索高硅氧/酚醛树脂基复合材料应用于冲压发动机燃烧室被动热防护结构,对高硅氧/酚醛树脂基复合材料大尺度冲压发动机燃烧室热防护层进行了实验研究.研究结果表明,冲压发动机燃烧室热防护层能工作到300s,高硅氧/酚醛热防护层能够适应其恶劣的工作环境要求.同时,通过实验研究也表明,更长工作时间之后,由于冲压发动机燃烧室工作温度的不均匀,导致酚醛树脂基体的分解与增强的高硅氧纤维熔融不同步,且热解、碳化后的形态和性能都会发生较大的变化,由此会导致其尺寸收缩、力学性能降低、导热系数增加,更长时间工作容易产生裂纹、分层等问题.针对这些问题,提出了进一步研究的建议.本项研究对于发展成型工艺简

  6. Grey Decision and Cluster Analysis on Heat Resistance of Different Cabbage Genotypes%不同基因型甘蓝耐热性的灰色决策与聚类分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵贵荣; 方淑桂; 钟开勤; 黄建都; 陈文辉

    2011-01-01

    对高温胁迫下12份不同基因型结球甘蓝幼苗的7个生理生化指标和4个相关农艺性状进行灰色决策和聚类分析,结果表明,10个性状与壮苗指数的关联度值从大到小依次为:GSH含量、SOD活性、POD活性、单株重、地上干重/地下干重、MDA含量、Vc含量、相对膜透性、Pro含量和地上鲜重/地下鲜重.强夏-1-2的综合效果测度值是1.465 1,综合表现最好,其次是抗热50-1,综合效果测度值为1.436 4,77-2综合效果测度值是1.217 3,综合表现最差.系统聚类将12份甘蓝亲本材料的耐热性划分为3类:第Ⅰ类为耐热材料,包括强夏-1-2、抗热50-1、中甘17-2和118-1;第Ⅱ类为中等耐热材料,包括早恒株×秋绿、秋绿-1、97-4和早恒株×97-4;第Ⅲ类为不耐热材料,包括135-4-1、中甘16-3、106-H和77-2.%A total of 11 traits, including 4 agronomical traits and 7 physi-biochemical traits that measured in 12 cabbage genotypes under high temperature stress, were analyzed using gray decision and cluster analysis method. The results of gray correlative analysis showed that the index were ranked according to their gray correlation degree to seedling index as follows: GSH content, SOD activity, POD actitvity, plant weight, dry weight of above-ground/dry weight of under-ground, MDA content, Vc content, relative membrane permeability, Pro content and fresh weight of above-ground / fresh weight of under-ground. The comprehensive measure values of Qiangxia-1-2 was 1.465 1, has greatest integrated performance, followed by Kangre50-l. The comprehensive measure value of 77-2 was 1. 217 3, has the poorest performance. Cluster analysis showed that 12 situ accessions were classified into 3 categories. The first category was the most heat resistance situ accessions including Qiangxia-1-2, Kangre50-l , Zhongganl7-2 and 118-1, the second category was the intermediate heat resistance situ accessions including Zaohengzhu × Qiulv, Qiulv-1, 97-4 and

  7. Effect of solution treatment temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of S31042 heat resistant steel%固溶温度对S31042耐热钢微观组织和力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬忠; 刘正东; 程世长; 包汉生; 王斌

    2011-01-01

    研究了固溶温度对S31042耐热钢力学性能及微观组织的影响.结果表明,随着固溶温度升高,钢的硬度和高温强度降低,硬度在1100~1200℃出现了平台;微观组织由静态回复、部分再结晶逐渐过渡到完全静态再结晶,直至晶粒长大,位错密度逐渐降低.随着温度升高Nb的固溶度增大,含Nb析出相颗粒的尺寸减小和数量减少.固溶态钢中只含有Nb(C,N)和NbCrN相.在1180~1250℃×5 min进行固溶处理能满足工业生产要求.%Effects of solution treatment temperature on the mechanical properties and microstructure of S31042 heat resistant steel were investigated. The results show that with the solution temperature increasing the hardness and elevated temperature strength of S31042 steel decrease,a platform appear on the hardness curve in the solution temperature range from 1100 ℃ to 1200 ℃ ,the microstructure of the test steel transforms from static recovery, partial recrystallization to full recrystallization and grain growth, the dislocation density reduces gradually,the solid solubility of niobium increases with the temperature increasing,but the size of precipitation particles containing niobium and its amount are decreased. There are only two phases of Nb(C,N) and NbCrN in S31042 steel steer solution treatment. Solution treatment at 1180 - 1250 ℃ holding for 5 min can meet requirement of the tested steel.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of heat-resistant and highly adherent copolyimide%高耐热高附着力共聚型聚酰亚胺的合成与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖海星

    2011-01-01

    以自制的二胺-二(3-胺基苯)-3,5-二(三氟甲基)苯基氧化膦(mDA6FPPO),4,4’-(1,3-苯二醚)二胺( PDODA)和二酐二苯酮四酸二酐(BTDA)进行共聚制得了高耐热高附着力的难溶性聚酰亚胺.测定了其特性粘度为0.414 dL/g;在氮气氛中5%的热分解温度(Td)高达580℃,10%热分解温度(Td)达607℃;附着力实验表明氧膦的引入提高了聚酰亚胺的附着力.%Heat-resistant and highly adherent copolyimide was prepared by using bis(3-aminophenyl)-3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl phosphine oxide(mDA6FPP0) , 4,4'-(1,3-phenyle-nedioxy) dianiline(PDODA) and 3,3' , 4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA). It was found that the solubility was poor in organic solvents. The intrinsic viscosity of the polymer was tested to be 0. 414 dL/g. The thermal decomposition temperature (Td) of 5% loss in N2 was observed to be 580℃ and 10% loss to be 607℃. Adhesiveness test proved that adhesiveness was improved when phosphine oxide was introduced.

  9. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  10. The in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application in A356 alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This research has investigated the in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application to A356 alloys and wheels through the evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties, The results showed that stable titanium content can be obtained by adding a small quantity of TiO2 into electrolyte of pure aluminum. Under this approach, a greater than 95% absorptivity of titanium was achieved, and the microstructure of the specimens was changed to fine equiaxed grains from coarse columnar grains in the pure aluminum. In comparison with the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the corresponding microstructure in the testing A356 alloys and wheels was finer. Although the tensile strength was similar between the testing and the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the ductility of the former (testing) is superior to that of the later (tradition), leading to an excellent combination of strength and ductility from the testing alloys and wheels.

  11. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  12. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  13. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  14. High-temperature Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Gogia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of high-temperature titanium alloys has contributed significantly to the spectacular progress in thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero gas turbines. This paper presents anoverview on the development of high-temperature titanium alloys used in aero engines and potential futuristic materials based on titanium aluminides and composites. The role of alloychemistry, processing, and microstructure, in determining the mechanical properties of titanium alloys is discussed. While phase equilibria and microstructural stability consideration haverestricted the use of conventional titanium alloys up to about 600 "C, alloys based on TiPl (or,, E,AINb (0, TiAl (y, and titaniumltitanium aluminides-based composites offer a possibility ofquantum jump in the temperature capability of titanium alloys.

  15. Rare earth ferrosilicon alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain RE ferrosilicon alloy with good quality and competitive price, it is essential that proper choice of raw materials, processing technology and equipments should be made based on the characteristics of Bai-Yun-Ebo mineral deposits. Experimental work and actual production practice indicate that pyrometallurgical method is suitable for the extraction and isolation of the rare earths and comprehensive utilization of the metal values contained in the feed material is capable of reducing cost of production of RE ferrosilicon alloy. In the Bai-Yun-Ebo deposit, the fluorite type medium lean ore (with respect to iron content) makes a reserve of considerable size. The average content of the chief constituents are given

  16. High-temperature Titanium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Gogia

    2005-01-01

    The development of high-temperature titanium alloys has contributed significantly to the spectacular progress in thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero gas turbines. This paper presents anoverview on the development of high-temperature titanium alloys used in aero engines and potential futuristic materials based on titanium aluminides and composites. The role of alloychemistry, processing, and microstructure, in determining the mechanical properties of titanium alloys is discussed. While phase eq...

  17. Multicomponent and High Entropy Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Cantor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes some underlying principles of multicomponent and high entropy alloys, and gives some examples of these materials. Different types of multicomponent alloy and different methods of accessing multicomponent phase space are discussed. The alloys were manufactured by conventional and high speed solidification techniques, and their macroscopic, microscopic and nanoscale structures were studied by optical, X-ray and electron microscope methods. They exhibit a variety of amorphous, quasicrystalline, dendritic and eutectic structures.

  18. Pareto-optimal alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bligaard, Thomas; Johannesson, Gisli Holmar; Ruban, Andrei;

    2003-01-01

    Large databases that can be used in the search for new materials with specific properties remain an elusive goal in materials science. The problem is complicated by the fact that the optimal material for a given application is usually a compromise between a number of materials properties and the ......, the Pareto-optimal set, to determine optimal alloy solutions for the compromise between low compressibility, high stability, and cost....

  19. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...... of the novel catalyst material for synthesising hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water....

  20. 不锈钢与耐热钢焊接过渡区的碳迁移现象分析%Analysis on migration phenomena of carbon in welding transition region between stainless steel and heat-resistant steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德元; 娄建新; 王晓宇; 张晶; 谢天男

    2012-01-01

    In order to carry out the quantitative analysis on the migration process of carbon during the welding of dissimilar steels such as both stainless steel and heat-resistant steel and aiming at the carbon migration phenomena occurred in the fusion area,the actual concentration of carbon was firstly converted into the equivalent concentration according to its chemical potential gradient,and then the calculation for the diffusion process was performed with Fick's law.According to the calculated results,the theoretical formula for the diffusion of carbon was derived,and the theoretical diffusion curves were drawn.The component analysis along the direction perpendicular to the fusion line was performed with scanning electron microscope,and the actual diffusion curves of carbon were drawn.The results show that the theoretical and measured curves are basically the same.With the present method,the migration trend of carbon can be derived more accurately.It means that the proposed method can provide the theoretical basis for investigating the diffusion of carbon in dissimilar steels.%为了在理论上对不锈钢和耐热钢异种钢焊接碳迁移过程进行定量分析,针对熔合区产生的碳迁移现象,首先根据化学位梯度将碳元素的实际浓度转换为等效浓度,利用菲克定律对扩散过程进行了计算.根据计算结果推导出碳扩散理论公式并绘制理论曲线,利用电子扫描显微镜对垂直于熔合线的方向进行成分分析并绘制实际碳扩散曲线.结果表明:理论曲线与实测曲线基本相同.通过这种方法可较为准确地推导出碳迁移的趋势,为今后异种钢碳扩散计算提供了理论基础.

  1. Simulation and Experimental Study on Welding Temperature and Residual Stress Field of New Heat-resistant Steel%新型耐热钢焊接温度场与应力场仿真及试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代真; 姜运建; 章建叶; 李伟; 谢航云; 王卫峰

    2013-01-01

    利用Abaqus有限元软件,采用单元生死技术对P92钢的多道焊接过程进行模拟,获得了P92主蒸汽管道焊接温度场和焊接残余应力场的分布,采用红外热像仪和X射线测量系统对P92新型耐热钢主蒸汽管道焊接温度场和焊接残余应力场进行了试验测试.在此基础上分析了新型铁素体耐热钢Ⅳ型裂纹产生的原因.结果表明:温度场和残余应力场的模拟结果与试验结果吻合较好;建立的有限元模型能够准确、可靠地模拟焊接温度场和残余应力场;等效应力(Mises应力和最大主应力)是控制新型铁素体高温焊接构件Ⅳ型蠕变失效的主要原因之一.%Using finite element software Abaqus and the element birth and death technique, the multi-pass welding process for P92 main steam pipeline was simulated so as to obtain the welding temperature field and residual stress field, to which experimental tests were carried out with thermal infrared imager and X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, causes leading to type IV cracking of the new ferrite heat-resistant steel were subsequently analyzed. Results show that for both the welding temperature field and residual stress field, the simulated results agree well with that of the experiment, proving the newly-built finite element model to be accurate and reliable in simulation of the welding temperature field and residual stress field. The equivalent stress (Mises stress and the largest main stress) is found to be the main cause leading to the type IV creep failure of the new ferrite heat-resistnat weld joints.

  2. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueland, Stian M.; Chen, Ying; Schuh, Christopher A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-05-23

    Copper-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit excellent shape memory properties in single crystalline form. However, when they are polycrystalline, their shape memory properties are severely compromised by brittle fracture arising from transformation strain incompatibility at grain boundaries and triple junctions. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys (oSMAs) are microstructurally designed SMA structures in which the total surface area exceeds the total grain boundary area, and triple junctions can even be completely absent. Here it is shown how an oligocrystalline structure provides a means of achieving single crystal-like SMA properties without being limited by constraints of single crystal processing. Additionally, the formation of oSMAs typically involves the reduction of the size scale of specimens, and sample size effects begin to emerge. Recent findings on a size effect on the martensitic transformation in oSMAs are compared and a new regime of heat transfer associated with the transformation heat evolution in these alloys is discussed. New results on unassisted two-way shape memory and the effect of loading rate in oSMAs are also reported. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Aluminum alloy impact sparkling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudyk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cast machine parts are widely used in many branches of industry. A very important issue is gaining the appropriate knowledge relating to the application of castings in places of explosion risks including but not limited to mining, chemical industry and rescue works. A possibility of explosion risks occurrence following the impact sparkling of the cast metal parts is still not solved problem in scientific research. In relation to this issue, in this article, the results of the study are presented, and relating to the tendency to impact sparkling of the aluminium alloys used in machine building. On the grounds of the results obtained, it was demonstrated that the registered impact sparkles bunches of feathers from the analyzed alloys: AlSi7Mg, (AK7; AlSi9Mg, (AK9; AlSi6Cu4, (AK64 and AlSi11, (AK11 show significant differences between each other. The quantitative analysis of the temperature distribution and nuclei surface area performed on the example of the alloy AK9 (subjected to defined period of corrosion allows for the statement that they are dangerous in conditions of explosion risk. Following this fact, designers and users of machine parts made from these materials should not use them in conditions where the explosive mixtures occur.

  4. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  5. Microstructure and abrasion wear behavior of Ni-based laser cladding alloy layer at high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; LIU Su-qin; WANG Shun-xing

    2005-01-01

    Ni-based alloy coating on 21-4-N heat-resistant steel was prepared using CO2 laser, and the high-temperature abrasion wear was tested. The microstructure of this cladding layer and its abrasion wear behavior at high temperature by changing compositions and temperatures were investigated by means of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Among the three compositions of cladding layer, i.e. Ni21+20%WC+0.5%CeO2, Ni25+20%WC+0.5%CeO2 and Ni60+20%WC+0.5%CeO2, the experimental results show that Ni21+20%WC+0.5%CeO2 cladding layer is made up of finer grains, and presents the best abrasion wear behavior at high temperature. The wear pattern of laser cladding layer is mainly grain abrasion at lower temperature, and it would be changed to adhesive abrasion and oxide abrasion at higher temperature.

  6. Mo-Si alloy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Heatherly, L.; Wright, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this task is to develop new-generation corrosion-resistant Mo-Si intermetallic alloys as hot components in advanced fossil energy conversion and combustion systems. The initial effort is devoted to Mo{sub 5}-Si{sub 3}-base (MSB) alloys containing boron additions. Three MSB alloys based on Mo-10.5Si-1.1B (wt %), weighing 1500 g were prepared by hot pressing of elemental and alloy powders at temperatures to 1600{degrees}C in vacuum. Microporosities and glassy-phase (probably silicate phases) formations are identified as the major concerns for preparation of MSB alloys by powder metallurgy. Suggestions are made to alleviate the problems of material processing.

  7. Glass formation in eutectic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analyzed the glass forming ability around eutectic composition in terms of the competitive growth/formation of primary dendrites, eutectic and glass. It is concluded that the glass forming ability of a eutectic alloy system depends on the type of the eutectics, i.e. symmetric or asymmetric eutectic coupled zone. For the alloy systems with symmetric eutectic coupled zone, the best glass forming alloys should be at or very close to the eutectic composition. For the alloys with asymmetric eutectic coupled zone, which is associated with the irregular eutectic, the best glass forming alloys should be at off-eutectic compositions, probably towards the side of the faceted phase with a high entropy in the phase diagram. (orig.)

  8. Wedlable nickel aluminide alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-11-19

    A Ni.sub.3 Al alloy with improved weldability is described. It contains about 6-12 wt % Al, about 6-12 wt % Cr, about 0-3 wt % Mo, about 1.5-6 wt % Zr, about 0-0.02 wt % B and at least one of about 0-0.15 wt % C, about 0-0.20 wt % Si, about 0-0.01 wt % S and about 0-0.30 wt % Fe with the balance being Ni.

  9. Heating uranium alloy billets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data were obtained for the surface heat transfer coefficient of uranium and the alloys of uranium-0.75 wt percent titanium, uranium-6 wt percent niobium, and uranium-7.5 wt percent niobium-2.5 wt percent zirconium. Samples were heated to 8500C in both a molten salt bath and an argon-purged air furnace, then the samples were cooled in air. Surface heat transfer coefficients were calculated from the experimental data for both heating and cooling of the metals. 4 fig, 4 tables

  10. Stable palladium alloys for diffusion of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patapoff, M.

    1973-01-01

    Literature search on hydrogen absorption effect on palladium alloys revealed existence of alloy compositions in which alpha--beta transition does not take place. Survey conclusions: 40 percent gold alloy of palladium should be used in place of palladium; alloy must be free of interstitial impurities; and metallic surfaces of tube must be clean.

  11. Corrosion of aluminum alloys as a function of alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was initiated which included nineteen aluminum alloys. Tests were conducted in high purity water at 3600C and flow tests (approx. 20 ft/sec) in reactor process water at 1300C (TF-18 loop tests). High-silicon alloys and AlSi failed completely in the 3600C tests. However, coupling of AlSi to 8001 aluminum suppressed the failure. The alloy compositions containing iron and nickel survived tht 3600C autoclave exposures. Corrosion rates varied widely as a function of alloy composition, but in directions which were predictable from previous high-temperature autoclave experience. In the TF-18 loop flow tests, corrosion penetrations were similar on all of the alloys and on high-purity aluminum after 105 days. However, certain alloys established relatively low linear corrosion rates: Al-0.9 Ni-0.5 Fe-0.1 Zr, Al-1.0 Ni-0.15 Fe-11.5 Si-0.8 Mg, Al-1.2 Ni-1.8 Fe, and Al-7.0 Ni-4.8 Fe. Electrical polarity measurements between AlSi and 8001 alloys in reactor process water at temperatures up to 1500C indicated that AlSi was anodic to 8001 in the static autoclave system above approx. 500C

  12. BMI用量对改性苯并噁嗪树脂性能的影响%Modification Bismaleimide-benzoxazine Resin Curing and Heat Resistance of Cured Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 陈剑楠

    2011-01-01

    A blend of benzoxazine (Bz) and a bismaleimide (BMI), was thermally polymerised in varying proportions and their cure property and heat resistance of cured resin characteristics were investigated. The differential scanning calorimetric analysis, confirmed a lowering of the cure temperature of the modified benzoxazine resins. In the modified benzoxazine resins systems, the T; got reduce and the Tp was shifted to a lower temperature 232℃ in comparison to those of BMI (255°C) and Bz (262℃). It implied the processing of the modified benzoxazine resins were improved and preferred to process a thermosetting polymer at lower temperatures to avoid void formation. The thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the initialization decomposition temperature has been improvement of the cured modified benzoxazine resins compare with benzoxazine resin. The char yield of cured modified benzoxazine resins with 10% BMI content at 800℃ is higher than cured benzoxazine resin and both cured modified benzoxazine resins with 30 % BMI content and cured benzoxazine resin has the same char yield at 800°C. The char yield of cured modified benzoxazine resins excess 30% BMI content was lower cured benzoxazine resins, however the initialization decomposition temperature cured modified benzoxazine resins was higher cured benzoxazine resins.%采用BMI树脂对苯并噁嗪进行改性,采用DSC法研究了BMI树脂用量对苯并噁嗪体系反应特性的影响,制备了改性苯并噁嗪树脂固化物,对其耐热性进行了表征.结果表明,改性苯并噁嗪树脂体系,只有一个反应的放热峰,峰顶温度为232℃,且放热峰的峰顶温度与BMI的用量无关.改性苯并噁嗪体系的热稳定性与苯并噁嗪体系相比较为复杂,BMI能有效提高改性苯并噁嗪体系起始热分解温度,当BMI用量为10%时改性体系的热稳定性优于未改性的苯并噁嗪体系,当BMI用量为30%时改性体系的热稳定性与未改性的苯并噁

  13. 猪瘟耐热保护剂活疫苗(兔源)免疫效果监测%Surveillance of the Immune Effect of Live Classical Swine Fever Vaccine(Rabbit-Origin)with Heat-resistant Protectants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗新

    2014-01-01

    In order to know the compulsory immunization effects of swine fever vaccine with heat-resistant protectants in natural conditions,2140 piglet serum samples were collected from 50 intensive pig farms and 380 free-ranging pig holders after concentrated immunizations in spring and autumn for immune-surveillance. Results showed that the positive rate of classical swine fever antibody was 67.3%after spring immunization,with 79.8%in intensive farms and 56.3%in free-ranging holders;the positive rate of swine fever antibody was 69.1%after autumn immunization,with 70.1%by vaccine B(81.6%in intensive farms and 61.3%in free-ranging holders),and 65.8%by vaccine C(78.5%in inten-sive farms and 51.2%in free-ranging holders). The antibody dispersion of spring immunization was 37.5%in average, with 25.5%in intensive farms and 48.2%in free-ranging holders;the antibody dispersion of autumn immunization with vaccine B was 31.4%,with 28.4%in intensive farms and 35.6%in free-ranging holders;and the antibody dispersion of autumn immunization with vaccine C was 41.5%,with 42.1%in intensive farms and 41.2%in free-ranging holders.%为了解掌握猪瘟耐热保护剂活疫苗在自然状态下的强制免疫效果,在春秋二季集中免疫之后,跟踪监测了50个规模猪场和380个散养户仔猪血样2140份。监测结果发现:春防猪瘟样品抗体监测阳性率为67.3%,其中规模场79.8%,散户56.3%;秋防猪瘟样品抗体监测阳性率为69.1%,其中,免疫B苗的抗体阳性率为70.1%(规模场81.6%,散户61.3%),C苗的抗体阳性率为65.8%(规模场78.5%,散户51.2%)。春防抗体离散度平均37.5%,其中规模场25.5%,散户48.2%;秋防B苗接种的抗体离散度31.4%,其中规模场28.4%,散户35.6%;秋防C苗接种的抗体离散度41.5%,其中规模场42.1%,散户41.2%。

  14. Galvanic cells including cobalt-chromium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdet, N R

    1980-01-01

    Galvanic cells may be created when dentures made of cobalt-chromium alloys are placed on teeth with metallic restorations. The power of such cells was evaluated in an in vitro galvanic using amalgams, gold alloy, and nickel-chromium alloys. The amalgams and one of the nickel-chromium alloys revealed high corrosion currents when placed in contact with cobalt-chromium alloy, the conventional amalgam showing the highest values. The gold alloy and another nickel-chromium alloy exhibited low corrosion currents and they were noble with respect to cobalt-chromium.

  15. [Prosthetic dental alloys. 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Engelmbright, M A

    1990-11-01

    A wide variety of restoration materials for prosthetic odontology is now available to the dental surgeon, either of the covalent type (acrylic resins), metallic (alloys), ionic (porcelains), or a combination of them, as in the so-called composites, such as the composite resins, or as ceramics-metals mixtures. An example of the latter is a product called Miracle-Mix, a glass ionomere cement reinforced with an amalgam alloy. In those cases where the blend is done by a synterization process, the material is called Cermet. The above-listed alternatives clearly evidence day-to-day advances in odontology, with researchers and manufacturers engaged the world over in improving existing products or developing new ones to enrich the dentist's armamentarium. As a side effect of this constant renewal, those dentists who have failed to update their knowledge fall behind in their practice as they persist in using products they have known for years, and may be deceived by advertisements of too-often unreliable products. It is, therefore, important to be aware of available products and their latest improvements. PMID:2132464

  16. [Prosthetic dental alloys (2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Englembright, M A

    1990-12-01

    A wide variety of restoration materials for prosthetic odontology is now available to the dental surgeon, either of the covalent type (acrylic resins), metallic (alloys), ionic (porcelains), or a combination of them, as in the so-called composites, such as the composite resins, or as ceramics-metals mixtures. An example of the latter is a product called Miracle-Mix, a glass ionomere cement reinforced with an amalgam alloy. In those cases where the blend is done by a synterization process, the material is called Cermet. The above-listed alternatives clearly evidence day-to-day advances in odontology, with researchers and manufacturers engaged the world over in improving existing products or developing new ones to enrich the dentist's armamentarium. As a side effect of this constant renewal, those dentists who have failed to update their knowledge fall behind in their practice as they persist in using products they have known for years, and may be deceived by advertisements of too-often unreliable products. It is, therefore, important to be aware of available products and their latest improvements. PMID:2132470

  17. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  18. Mechanically Alloyed High Entropy Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, G.; Adrian, M. M.; Csaki, I.; Popescu, C. A.; Mitrică, D.; Vasile, S.; Carcea, I.

    2016-08-01

    In the last years high entropy alloys have been investigated due to their high hardness, high temperature stability and unusual properties that make these alloys to have significant interest. In comparison with traditional alloys that are based on two or three major elements, this new generation alloys consists at least of 5 principal elements, with the concentration between 5 and 35 at.%. The present paper reports synthesis of high entropy alloys (HEA) and high entropy composites (HEC) synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA). The equiatomic AlCrFeNiMn matrix was used for creating the HEA matrix, starting from elemental powders and as reinforcing material for composites was used pure graphite. The mechanical alloying process was carried out at different duration, in a high energy planetary ball mill, under argon atmosphere. The elemental powders alloying began after '5 hours of milling and was complete after 40 hours. The mechanical alloyed matrix and composite was pressed and heat treated under argon protection. The elemental powers were investigated for physical - technological properties, and by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Phase pressing operation was realized with a hydraulic press and the applied pressure was progressive. The sintering process was carried out at 850°C for 2 h. The X-ray diffraction revealed that the MA process resulted in solid solutions formation and also revealed body- centred cubic (BCC) and face-centred cubic (FCC) structures with average grain size around 40 nm. In addition, nanoscale particles were highlighted by scanning electron microscopy, as well as the homogeneity of the chemical composition of the matrix and composite that was confirmed by EDX microanalysis. It was noted that HEA matrix and HEA composites were processed with a high degree of compaction and with a quite large capacity of mixed powder densification (around 70%).

  19. Alloying and Casting Furnace for Shape Memory Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept in the proposed project is to create a melting, alloying and casting furnace for the processing titanium based SMA using cold crucible techniques. The...

  20. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida, A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable highstrength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO2 laser. This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloys, over the last years.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la aleación superficial mediante láser de aluminio con metales de transición. El cromo y el molibdeno son particularmente interesantes porque producen aleaciones de alta resistencia y por el bajo coeficiente de difusión y solución sólida en aluminio. Para producir estas aleaciones se ha seguido un procedimiento desarrollado en dos partes. En primer lugar, el material se alea usando una baja velocidad de procesado y en segundo lugar la estructura se modifica mediante un refinamiento posterior. Este procedimiento se ha empleado en la producción de aleaciones Al-Cr, Al-Mo y Al-Nb mediante aleación con láser de CO2 de polvos de Cr, Mo o Nb en aluminio y la aleación 7175. Este trabajo es una revisión del desarrollado en el Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa en los últimos años.

  1. Mechanical alloying of biocompatible Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-De Jesús, F; Bolarín-Miró, A M; Torres-Villaseñor, G; Cortés-Escobedo, C A; Betancourt-Cantera, J A

    2010-07-01

    We report on an alternative route for the synthesis of crystalline Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy, which could be used for surgical implants. Co, Cr and Mo elemental powders, mixed in an adequate weight relation according to ISO Standard 58342-4 (ISO, 1996), were used for the mechanical alloying (MA) of nano-structured Co-alloy. The process was carried out at room temperature in a shaker mixer mill using hardened steel balls and vials as milling media, with a 1:8 ball:powder weight ratio. Crystalline structure characterization of milled powders was carried out by X-ray diffraction in order to analyze the phase transformations as a function of milling time. The aim of this work was to evaluate the alloying mechanism involved in the mechanical alloying of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The evolution of the phase transformations with milling time is reported for each mixture. Results showed that the resultant alloy is a Co-alpha solid solution, successfully obtained by mechanical alloying after a total of 10 h of milling time: first Cr and Mo are mechanically prealloyed for 7 h, and then Co is mixed in for 3 h. In addition, different methods of premixing were studied. The particle size of the powders is reduced with increasing milling time, reaching about 5 mum at 10 h; a longer time promotes the formation of aggregates. The morphology and crystal structure of milled powders as a function of milling time were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and XR diffraction. PMID:20364362

  2. 高温高压用耐热钢弹性蠕变损伤本构模型研究%Research on Constitutive Model of Elastic Creep Damage of Heat Resistant Steel under the condition of High temperature and High Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兆纬

    2001-01-01

    In the light of the fact that elastic creep damage happens to heat resistant steel used as pressure elements like steam pipeline and steam pockets in heat-engine plants at high temperature and under high pressure,this article gives a complete constitutive description of the damage,building up the theory of phenomenology about creep damage.It dwells here upon the constitutive model of tlastic creep damage of heat resistant steel,establishing a corresponding variation principle and finite element discretization form,thus introducing complete numerical variational methods.%针对火电厂中蒸汽管道与汽包类承压部件用的耐热钢,在承受高温高压时发生弹性蠕变损伤问题,给出完整的损伤本构描述,建立起唯象学蠕变损伤理论。主要提出耐热钢的弹性蠕变损伤本构模型,建立起相应的数值变分原理以及有限元离散化形式,从而形成完整的数值变分方法。

  3. Dislocation Formation in Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Akihiko; Onuki, Akira

    2006-05-01

    An interaction between dislocations and phase transitions is studied by a phase field model both in two and three dimensional systems. Our theory is a simple extension of the traditional linear elastic theory, and the elastic energy is a periodic function of local strains which is reflecting the periodicity of crystals. We find that the dislocations are spontaneously formed by quenching. Dislocations are formed from the interface of binary alloys, and slips are preferentially gliding into the soft metals. In three dimensional systems, formation of dislocations under applied strain is studied in two phase state. We find that the dislocation loops are created from the surface of hard metals. We also studied the phase separation above the coexisting temperature which is called as the Cottrell atmosphere. Clouds of metals cannot catch up with the motion of dislocations at highly strained state.

  4. Lead telluride alloy thermoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. LaLonde

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity to use solid-state thermoelectrics for waste heat recovery has reinvigorated the field of thermoelectrics in tackling the challenges of energy sustainability. While thermoelectric generators have decades of proven reliability in space, from the 1960s to the present, terrestrial uses have so far been limited to niche applications on Earth because of a relatively low material efficiency. Lead telluride alloys were some of the first materials investigated and commercialized for generators but their full potential for thermoelectrics has only recently been revealed to be far greater than commonly believed. By reviewing some of the past and present successes of PbTe as a thermoelectric material we identify the issues for achieving maximum performance and successful band structure engineering strategies for further improvements that can be applied to other thermoelectric materials systems.

  5. Emissivity measurements on aeronautical alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, L. del, E-mail: leire.del-campo@cnrs-orleans.f [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Perez-Saez, R.B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.e [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Gonzalez-Fernandez, L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Esquisabel, X.; Fernandez, I. [Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Planta de Zamudio, Edificio 300, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Gonzalez-Martin, P. [Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Parque empresarial San Fernando, Avda. Castilla 2, 28830 San Fernando de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Tello, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-01-21

    The emissivity of three Ni and Co based aeronautical alloys is analyzed in this paper. These alloys are employed in high temperature environments whenever good corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance and high strength are essential. Thus, apart from the aeronautical industry, these alloys are also used in other technological applications, as for example, aerospace, nuclear reactors, and tooling. The results in this paper extend the emissivity data for these alloys available in the literature. Emissivity dependence on the radiation wavelength (2-22 {mu}m), sample temperature (200-650 {sup o}C) and emission angle (0-85{sup o}) has been investigated. In addition, the effect of surface finish and oxidation has also been taken into consideration. The data in this paper have several applications, as temperature measurement of a target by pyrometry, low observability of airplanes and thermal radiation heat transfer simulation in airplane nozzles or furnaces.

  6. Auger electron spectroscopy of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes how the surface compositions of some alloys can be determined by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The motivation for this research and the reasons for the choice of alloy systems studied are formulated. The theoretical background of AES is briefly discussed and the apparatus used and the experimental procedures applied are described. Four alloy systems have been investigated in this thesis - Ni-Cu and Pd - Ag (consisting of a component active in most cataytic reactions - Ni and Pd; and a component which is almost inactive for a number of reactions - Cu and Ag) and Pt - Pd and Pt-Ir (consisting of two active components). Knowledge of the surface composition of the various alloy systems is shown to be essential for the interpretation of catalytic results. (Auth./C.F.)

  7. Laser welding of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    This thesis treats laser welding of aluminium alloys from a practical perspective with elements of mathematical analysis. The theoretical work has in all cases been verified experimentally. The aluminium alloys studied are from the 5xxx and 6xxx groups which are common for example in the automotive industry. Aluminium has many unique physical properties. The properties which more than others have been shown to influence the welding process is its high reflection, high thermal conductivity, lo...

  8. Uranium-Based Cermet Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes certain features of dispersion-hardened uranium-based cermets. As possible hardening materials, consideration was given to UO2, UC, Al2O3, MgO and UBe13. Data were obtained on the behaviour of uranium alloys containing the above-mentioned admixtures during creep tests, short-term strength tests and cyclic thermal treatment. The corrosion resistance o f UBe13-based uranium alloys was also studied. )author)

  9. Friction surfacing of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Diogo Jorge O. A.

    2012-01-01

    Friction surfacing is a solid state joining process that has attracted much interest in the past decades. This technology allows joining dissimilar metallic materials while avoiding the brittle intermetallic formations, involving temperatures bellow melting point and producing like forged metal structures. Much research using different steels has been made but the same does not happen with aluminium alloys, specially using different aluminium alloys. Friction surface coatings using cons...

  10. TEM microstructure investigations of aluminium alloys used for laser alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Labisz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper there are presented results of Transmission Electron Microscope investigation concerning the structure of the AlSi7Cu4 cast aluminium alloy using for alloying and remelting with the high power diode laser (HPDL. There are also presented the results of the thermo-derivative analysis performed using the UMSA (Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyser device, allowing to determine the specific points of the solidifying alloy, what is helpful for phase determination occurred in this alloy. In this work especially the changes of the precipitation type, size and shape were determined.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations were performed using electron microscopy for the microstructure and phases determination. By mind of the transmission electron microscopy, especially selected area diffraction method appliance it was possible to determine the phases occurred in the alloy in the as cast state. The morphology and size of the Mg2Si was also possible to determine as well the lattice parameters for this phase.Findings: : The reason of this work was also to present the laser treatment technology, which will be used for further alloying and remelting with ceramic powders – especially carbides and oxides. Particularly the overview will be directed on the laser power to achieve good layer hardness for protection of this hot work tool steel from losing their work stability and to make the tool surface more resistant to action in external conditions. The structure of the surface laser tray changes in a way, that there are very high roughness of the surface zone and the flatness or geometry changes in an important manner, crucial for further investigation.Research limitations/implications: The aluminium samples were examined metallographically using transmission electron microscope with different image techniques.Practical implications: Developing of new technology with appliance of Al alloys, High Power Diode Laser and

  11. Microstructural studies on Alloy 693

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, R.; Dutta, R.S. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sengupta, P., E-mail: praneshsengupta@gmail.com [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Samajdar, I. [Dept. of Metall. Engg. and Mater. Sci., Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 072 (India); Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Superalloy 693, is a newly identified ‘high-temperature corrosion resistant alloy’. Present study focuses on microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy prepared by double ‘vacuum melting’ route. In general, the alloy contains ordered Ni{sub 3}Al precipitates distributed within austenitic matrix. M{sub 6}C primary carbide, M{sub 23}C{sub 6} type secondary carbide and NbC particles are also found to be present. Heat treatment of the alloy at 1373 K for 30 min followed by water quenching (WQ) brings about a microstructure that is free from secondary carbides and Ni{sub 3}Al type precipitates but contains primary carbides. Tensile property of Alloy 693 materials was measured with as received and solution annealed (1323 K, 60 min, WQ) and (1373 K, 30 min, WQ) conditions. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness of the alloy are found to drop with annealing. It is noted that in annealed condition, considerable cold working of the alloy can be performed.

  12. Mechanical characterization of superalloys for space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the selection of structural materials that can be used in the temperature range 600-9000C for a gas cooled space reactor producing electricity. Superalloys fit best the temperature range required. Five nickel base alloys are chosen for their good mechanical behaviour: HAYNES 230, HASTELLOY S, HASTELLOY X, HASTELLOY XR and PYRAD 38D. Metallography, tensile and hardness tests are realized. Sample contraction is evidenced for some creep tests, under low stress: 20MPa at 8000C, on HAYNES 230 and HASTELLOY X, probably related to the structural evolution of these materials corresponding to a decrease of the crystal parameter

  13. The comparison of corrosion resistance between Baosteel's alloy 690 tube and foreign alloy 690 tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy 690 having excellent corrosion resistance is widely used for SG tubes. The intergranular corrosion and pitting corrosion resistance of Baosteel's alloy 690 tube, Country A alloy 690 tube and Country B alloy 690 tube have been analysed by comparison. It shows that: The intergranular corrosion of Baosteel's alloy 690 tube tested complied with ASTM G28 Standard could satisfy the technical requirement. However.some of Baosteel's alloy 690 tube in intergranular corrosion resistance had less performance than Country A. In addition, pitting corrosion tested with ASTM G48 Standard shown the Baosteel's alloy 690 tube better than Country B. (authors)

  14. Laser cladding of titanium alloy coating on titanium aluminide alloy substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子文; 黄正; 阮中健

    2003-01-01

    A new diffusion bonding technique combined with laser cladding process was developed to join TiAl alloy to itself and Ti-alloys. In order to enhance the weldability of TiAl alloys, Ti-alloy coatings were fabricated by laser cladding on the TiAl alloy. Ti powder and shaped Ti-alloy were respectively used as laser cladding materials. The materials characterization was carried out by OM, SEM, EDS and XRD analysis. The results show that the laser cladding process with shaped Ti-alloy remedy the problems present in the conventional process with powder, such as impurities, cracks and pores. The diffusion bonding of TiAl alloy with Ti-alloy coating to itself and Ti-alloy was carried out with a Gleeble 1500 thermal simulator. The sound bonds of TiAl/TiAl, TiAl/Ti were obtained at a lower temperature and with shorter time.

  15. Compensative alloying of Cr-Si low-alloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of choosing alloy elements in order to suppress the embrittlement of solid solution strengthening is proposed. In the case of Cr-Si low-alloyed steels, the effects of compensative alloying are studied. The ultimate tensile strength and impact toughness of Cr-Si steels microalloyed with Mo, V, and Ti are determined to prove the aspects. The structure of these steels is studied using optical and transmission electron microscopy techniques after applying the optimum heat treatment. The kinetics of phase transformation after quenching and tempering have been examined by means of measurements of specific electrical resistance and magnetic parameters. It is shown that at the Si-content of about 1 wt% high values of tensile strength and impact toughness are simultaneously obtained. It is established by calculations that, for the indicated steel, long-range distortions of the crystal lattice become close to zero at the Si-content of about 1 wt%.

  16. Preparation of Epoxy/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Coating and Investigation on Heat Resistance and Anticorrosion Properties in Oil- Gas Environment with H2S/CO2%环氧/蒙脱土复合涂层的制备及在H2S/CO2环境中的耐热防腐性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡银春; 马丽琴; 董玉华; 王献昉; 周琼

    2011-01-01

    The title anti -corrosive and heat resistant coating, which coud be used in oil -gas environment with H2S/CO2, has been developed by optimizing the curing process, clay content and resin component to improve heat - resistance and corrosion resistance of epoxy coating. The heat - resistant and anti - corrosive properties of the coating in oil - gas environment with H2S/CO2 was investigated with autoclave test.The results showed that heat pre treatment could significantly increase the Tg of the binder, and epoxy resin could be intercalated into the organic montmorillonite layers with mechanical stirring at 80 ℃. OMMT could be well dispersed in the binder when its content was 3% (m/m), and the nanocomposite showed an intercalation/stripping hybrid characteristic, which could ensure both the thermo -mechanical and barrier properties. When the Tg of the varnish coating was 153.7 ℃, its anti - corrosive property was good in oil - gas environment with H2S/CO2 at 150. 0 ℃, which meant the Tg could be used as the upper marging temperature for anti -corrosive coating.%通过优化固化工艺、有机蒙脱土含量及树脂组分改善环氧涂层的耐热性,制备应用于高温H2S/CO2腐蚀环境中的环氧耐热防腐涂层,采用高温高压釜试验测试了涂层的耐热防腐效果.结果表明:适当的高温处理能显著提高基体树脂的玻璃化转变温度;环氧树脂在80℃机械搅拌条件下插入有机蒙脱土的层间,质量分数为3%的有机蒙脱土在基体中分散均一,为插层/剥离混合型复合结构,兼顾材料的热机械性能和阻隔性能;清漆涂层的玻璃化转变温度为153.7℃,其防腐涂层在150℃以下含H2S/CO2的油气环境中的防腐效果良好,说明玻璃化转变温度作为防腐涂层的使用上限温度是可行的.

  17. ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB耐热钢材料开发应用研究%Applied Research of ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB Heat-resistant Steel Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 范华; 龙老虎; 高振桓; 张邦强; 聂丽萍

    2016-01-01

    With steam parameters of the ultra-supercritical thermal power unit increase to 28 MPa~30 MPa/600℃/620℃, perfor⁃mance requirements of heat-resistant steel are higher. In this condition, the current heat-resistant steel casting materials can not be long-running, and a new heat-resistant steel material containing Co and B is developed. Chemical composition , organization and phas⁃es of ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB are calculated by the advanced computing software JMatPro. Test blocks are manufactured based on results of the JMatPro calculation. Conventional mechanical properties, high temperature tensile, fracture mechanics, high temperature lasting-creep properties, organizational stability, phase analysis and conventional mechanical after multiple tempering test are tested and analyzed. It's shown that ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB material is suitable for high temperature and high pressure components of 620 ℃ultra-supercritical units such as valves and cylinders.%随着火电超超临界机组蒸汽参数提高到28 MPa~30 MPa/600℃/620℃,对耐热钢的性能要求进一步提高,在目前耐热钢铸件材料无法满足该参数长期运行的条件下,开发了一种含Co和B的新型耐热钢材料。利用先进的JMatPro计算软件对ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB进行成分配比和组织及相的模拟,并按计算确定的成分进行试制,通过对进口试块的常规力学性能、高温瞬时拉伸、断裂力学、高温持久-蠕变性能、组织稳定性及相分析和多回火试验后常规力学等使用性能和工艺性能进行了测试、分析,研究表明ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB材料可适用于620℃等级超超临界机组阀门、汽缸等高温高压部件。

  18. Effect of Al added to a NiCrMo alloy on the development of the oxide layer of intermetallic coatings; Efeito do teor de Al adicionado a liga NiCrMo no desenvolvimento dos filmes de oxidos em revestimentos intermetalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Oliveira, A.S.C.M.; Cangue, F.J.R. [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEM/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Clark, E.; Levi, C. [University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Components performance in different environment is strongly dependent on oxides that develop on their surfaces. This study analyzed the oxide layer that develops on coatings processed with mixtures of an atomized Hastelloy C alloy with Al powders. Powder mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30wt%Al were deposited on AISI 1020 and AISI304 steel plates. Coatings were subsequently exposed to 850 deg C for two hours in a low PO{sub 2} environment. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the phases that developed in the coating during processing and Raman analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to characterize the oxide layers. The results showed that coatings processed with the richer Al mixtures, 30wt%Al, which developed NiAl aluminides, reduced the development of {alpha} alumina when processing was done on AISI 304. Coatings processed on AISI 1020 with the three powder mixtures tested developed the different allotropic forms of alumina, as predicted for the tested temperature. (author)

  19. Corrosion Behaviour of New Zr Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolksdorf, E.

    1974-01-01

    Corrosion studies have indicated that the most promising replacements for Zicaloy-2 are ZrCrFe, ZrVFe and probably ZrNbTa, provided they are in their optimized condition. These alloys are conventionally manufactured alloys. An internally oxidized ZrMgO alloy is even superior, from the corrosion...

  20. Corrosion evaluation of alternate nuclear steam generator tubing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several materials were evaluated for use in nuclear steam generators (NSG). These materials were exposed to corrosive conditions representative of those found in nuclear steam generators. The materials evaluated were gold, titanium, tantalum, niobium, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy G. Nickel 200, nickel-base Alloy 625, and heat-tracked nickel-base Alloy 600. The test environments simulated acid pitting attack, caustic stress corrosion cracking and reduced sulfur attack. In the pitting environment, the monolithic materials did well, however Nickel 200, nickel-base Alloy 600 and Hastelloy G3 did poorly. The remaining alloys, nickel-base Alloy 625 and Hastelloy C-276 were relatively unaffected in the pitting environment. Tantalum, titanium, niobium, nickel-base Alloy 625 performed poorly in the environment designed to evaluate resistance to caustic cracking. Nickel-base Alloy 600 (stress-relieved), Hastelloy C-276, Hasteloy G-3 and Nickel 200 compared fair to good in the caustic sodium. The gold was unaffected in the hot caustic solution. In the environment selected to represent a reduced sulfur environment, nickel-base Alloy 625 and Hastelloy C-276 exhibited considerable resistance. The nickel-base Alloy 600 was attacked within a relatively short period of time

  1. 30万吨/年合成氨气化炉耐热Cr-Mo钢焊接材料的研制%The Development of Heat-resistance Cr-Mo Steel Welding Material for the Gasifier Used for 300,000 Ton/Year Ammonia Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建俊; 郑见明; 黄有仁; 郑秀芹; 孙业宏

    2000-01-01

    This article briefly describes the development process of th e heat resistance Cr-Mo steel welding material for the gasifier used for 300,000 Ton/Year ammonia project,which includes the technical specification,the formulat ion selection and all test results.The successful development of this welding ma terial with excellent high temperature properity as well as low temperature toug hness (AKV>54J,at-20℃),not only satisfies the design and fabrication req uirements of the gasifier,but also changes the situation that the welding materi al can only depend on import in ths past,which saves the country plenty of forei gn exchanges.

  2. Moving Dislocations in Disordered Alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marian, J; Caro, A

    2006-11-18

    Using atomistic simulations of dislocation motion in Ni and Ni-Au alloys we report a detailed study of the mobility function as a function of stress, temperature and alloy composition. We analyze the results in terms of analytic models of phonon radiation and their selection rules for phonon excitation. We find a remarkable agreement between the location of the cusps in the {sigma}-v relation and the velocity of waves propagating in the direction of dislocation motion. We identify and characterize three regimes of dissipation whose boundaries are essentially determined by the direction of motion of the dislocation, rather than by its screw or edge character.

  3. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples. PMID:18669265

  4. Alloy 718 for Oilfield Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBarbadillo, John J.; Mannan, Sarwan K.

    2012-02-01

    Alloy 718 (UNS N07718) was developed for use in aircraft gas turbine engines, but its unique combination of room-temperature strength and aqueous corrosion resistance made it a candidate for oilfield fasteners, valves, drill tools, and completion equipment. As well environments became more severe, stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement failures in production equipment drove the evolution of the composition and microstructure that distinguish today's oilfield-grade 718 from aerospace grades. This paper reviews the development of the grade and its applications and describes some of its unique characteristics, testing, and manufacturing methods as well as newer alloys designed for high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) conditions.

  5. Hydrogen effects in aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability of six commercial aluminum alloys to deuterium and tritium was determined by several techniques. Surface films inhibited permeation under most conditions; however, contact with lithium deuteride during the tests minimized the surface effects. Under these conditions phi/sub D2/ = 1.9 x 10-2 exp (--22,400/RT) cc (NTP)atm/sup --1/2/ s-1cm-1. The six alloys were also tested before, during, and after exposure to high pressure hydrogen, and no hydrogen-induced effects on the tensile properties were observed

  6. Microstructure and Fracture Morphology of 12Cr1MoV Heat-resistant Steel Welded with ER55-B6 Welding Wire%ER55-B6焊丝焊接12Cr1MoV耐热钢的组织与断口形貌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗昌森; 罗宏; 徐晓东; 杨元意

    2011-01-01

    应用ER55-B6焊丝焊接12Cr1MoV耐热钢,焊后进行740℃回火热处理,并对其焊接接头进行了组织分析、强度和维氏硬度测试,以及断口形貌观察.结果表明,回火处理后的焊缝及热影响区组织为铁索体、球化珠光体及均匀分布的第二相质点,相分布合理;断口形貌显示大部分为韧窝,属韧性断裂,抗冲击性好.应用ER55-B6焊丝焊接12Cr1MoV钢,能满足耐热钢焊接性能要求.%ER55-B6 welding wire was used for welding 12CrlMoV heat-resistant steel, the steel was tempered at 740℃ after welding. The strength and hardness of the welding were measured. The morphology of weld fracture was observed by SEM. The results show that the weld seam and heat affected zone after tempering are composed of ferrite, spheroidization of pearlite and uniform distribution of second phase particles, the distribution of second phase is reasonable. The fracture surface shows that most of the dimple is ductile fracture, so with good impact resistance. Using ER55-B6 welding wire welding 12CrlMoV steel can meet the performance requirement of welding heat-resistant steel.

  7. Current research situation of titanium alloys in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys possess excellent comprehensive properties, and they are widely used in many fields. China pays great attentions to the research on new titanium alloys. This paper mainly reviews the research on new Ti alloys in China, for example, high strength and high toughness Ti alloys, burn resistant Tialloys, high temperature Ti alloys, low cost Ti alloys and so on.New basic theories on Ti alloys developed in China in recent years are also reviewed.

  8. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    Magnesium has the lowest density of all structural metals. Utilization of low density materials is advantageous from a design standpoint, because lower weight translates into improved performance of engineered products (i.e., notebook computers are more portable, vehicles achieve better gas mileage, and aircraft can carry more payload). Despite their low density and high strength to weight ratio, however, the widespread implementation of magnesium alloys is currently hindered by their relatively poor corrosion resistance. The objective of this research dissertation is to develop a scientific basis for the creation of a corrosion resistant magnesium alloy. The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is affected by several interrelated factors. Among these are alloying, microstructure, impurities, galvanic corrosion effects, and service conditions, among others. Alloying and modification of the microstructure are primary approaches to controlling corrosion. Furthermore, nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium via physical vapor deposition allows for the formation of single-phase magnesium alloys with supersaturated concentrations of passivity-enhancing elements. The microstructure and surface morphology is also modifiable during physical vapor deposition through the variation of evaporation power, pressure, temperature, ion bombardment, and the source-to-substrate distance. Aluminum, titanium, yttrium, and zirconium were initially chosen as candidates likely to impart passivity on vapor deposited magnesium alloys. Prior to this research, alloys of this type have never before been produced, much less studied. All of these metals were observed to afford some degree of corrosion resistance to magnesium. Due to the especially promising results from nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium with yttrium and titanium, the ternary magnesium-yttrium-titanium system was investigated in depth. While all of the alloys are lustrous, surface morphology is observed under the scanning

  9. Creep curve formularization by constant stress creep tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creep tests under constant stress were conducted on a nickel-base heat-resistant alloy, Hastelloy XR-II, which is one of the condidate alloys for applications in the process-heat high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In those tests relation between minimum creep strain rate, time to onset of tertiary creep, time to rupture and stress were investigated. Then, creep constitutive equation was made based on the Garofalo formula for the primary and secondary creep and the Kachanov-Rabotnov formula for the tertiary creep using these parameters. As results of the comparison between a calculated creep curve using these creep constitutive equation and an experimental creep curve, it was found that these equation could predict fairly well the creep strain behavior under the constant stress condition. Numberical analyses of relaxation behavior under tension strain hold waves in high-temperature low-cycle fatigue tests were performed using creep constitutive equation and strain hardening law. As results of comparison with numerical analyses and experimental results, it was found that the values of calculated stress were somewhat higher than those of the test results. In addition, relaxation tests were conducted on Hastelloy XR-II at 850degC under εt = 0.15 % condition and comparison between experimental results and calculated results which were performed using two types of creep constitutive equations were carried out. As these results, it was found that the values of calculated stress were somewhat higher than those of the experimental results. Therefore, it is still necessary to investigate the accuracy of creep constitutive equation. (author)

  10. An introduction to surface alloying of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmani, Santosh S; Goyal, Rajendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    An Introduction to Surface Alloying of Metals aims to serve as a primer to the basic aspects of surface alloying of metals. The book serves to elucidate fundamentals of surface modification and their engineering applications. The book starts with basics of surface alloying and goes on to cover key surface alloying methods, such as carburizing, nitriding, chromizing, duplex treatment, and the characterization of surface layers. The book will prove useful to students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, as also to researchers and practitioners looking for a quick introduction to surface alloying.

  11. Surface Tension Calculation of Undercooled Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Butler equation and extrapolated thermodynamic data of undercooled alloys from those of liquid stable alloys, a method for surface tension calculation of undercooled alloys is proposed. The surface tensions of liquid stable and undercooled Ni-Cu (xNi=0.42) and Ni-Fe (xNi=0.3 and 0.7) alloys are calculated using STCBE (Surface Tension Calculation based on Butler Equation) program. The agreement between calculated values and experimental data is good enough, and the temperature dependence of the surface tension can be reasonable down to 150-200 K under the liquid temperature of the alloys.

  12. Corrosion behavior of Alloy 690 and Alloy 693 in simulated nuclear high level waste medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samantaroy, Pradeep Kumar; Suresh, Girija; Paul, Ranita [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kamachi Mudali, U., E-mail: kamachi@igcar.gov.in [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Raj, Baldev [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Alloy 690 and Alloy 693, both possess good corrosion resistance in simulated HLW. > SEM and EDS confirms the presence of Cr rich precipitates for both the alloys. > Passive film stability of Alloy 690 was found to be higher than Alloy 693. > Both alloys possess few micro pits even at a concentration of 100 ppm Cl{sup -} ion. - Abstract: Nickel based alloys are candidate materials for the storage of high level waste (HLW) generated from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. In the present investigation Alloy 690 and Alloy 693 are assessed by potentiodynamic anodic polarization technique for their corrosion behavior in 3 M HNO{sub 3}, 3 M HNO{sub 3} containing simulated HLW and in chloride medium. Both the alloys were found to possess good corrosion resistance in both the media at ambient condition. Microstructural examination was carried out by SEM for both the alloys after electrolytic etching. Compositional analysis of the passive film formed on the alloys in 3 M HNO{sub 3} and 3 M HNO{sub 3} with HLW was carried out by XPS. The surface of Alloy 690 and Alloy 693, both consists of a thin layer of oxide of Ni, Cr, and Fe under passivation in both the media. The results of investigation are presented in the paper.

  13. High Damping Alloys and Their Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxing Yin

    2000-01-01

    Damping alloys show prospective applications in the elimination of unwanted vibrations and acoustic noise. The basic definitions and characterization methods of damping capacity are reviewed in this paper. Several physical mechanisms controlled by the alloy microstructure are responsible for the damping behavior in the damping alloys. Composite, dislocation, ferromagnetic and planar defect types are commonly classified for the alloys, which show the different damping behavior against temperature, frequency of vibration,amplitude of vibration and damping modes. Development of practically applicable damping alloys requires the higher mechanical properties and adequate workability, besides the high damping capacity. A new Mn-Cu damping alloy, named as M2052 alloy, is recently developed with possible industrial applications.

  14. Applications of shape memory alloys in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, M.; Suzuki, Y. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). R and D Labs.

    2000-07-01

    In Japan, a first application of shape memory TiNi alloy was a moving flap in an air-conditioner which was developed as sensing function of shape memory alloy at Matsushista Electric Industrial Co. Then, shape memory utilized in a coffee maker, an electric rice-cooker, a thermal mixing valve and etc. were commercialized in Japan. And brassiere wires, a guide wire for medical treatment, an antenna for portable telephone and others were commercialized utilizing superelasticity. At the same time with these commercial products, there was not only progress in fabrication technology to effect accurate transformation temperature, but also the discovery of small hysteresis alloy such as R-phase or TiNiCu alloy and low transformation temperature alloy such as TiNiFe, TiNiV and TiNiCo alloys. Therefore the shape memory alloy market has expanded widely to electric appliances, automobile, residence, medical care and otherfield today. (orig.)

  15. Gold color in dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, T

    1997-01-01

    This article will help the dental laboratory with alloy selection by exploring how the relationship among color, ductility and strength applies to gold and how color can be quantified. Because higher quality materials translate into higher profits, upselling to the dentist and patient is also discussed.

  16. Hydrostatic extrusion of magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Bohlen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the capabilities and limitations of the hydrostatic extrusion process for the manufacturing of magnesium alloy sections. Firstly, the process basics for the hydrostatic extrusion of materials in general and of magnesium in particular are introduced. Next, some recent research

  17. Introduction to hydrogen in alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substitutional alloys, both those that form hydrides and those that do not, are discussed, but with more emphasis on the former than the latter. This overview includes the following closely related subjects: (1) the significant effects of substitutional solutes on the pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) equilibria of metal-hydrogen systems, (2) the changes in thermodynamic properties resulting from differences in atom size and from modifications of electronic structure, (3) attractive and repulsive interactions between H and solute atoms and the effects of such interactions on the pressure dependent solubility for H, (4) H trapping in alloys of Group V metals and its effect on the terminal solubility for H (TSH), (5) some other mechanisms invoked to explain the enhancement (due to alloying) of the (TSH) in Group V metals, and (6) H-impurity complexes in alloys of the metals Ni, Co, and Fe. Some results showing that an enhanced TSH may ameliorate the resistance of a metal to hydrogen embrittlement are presented

  18. Fiber reinforced titanium alloy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The more important titanium matrix composites studied to date are composed of titanium alloy matrices, such as Ti 6Al--4V, reinforced with filaments of boron, silicon carbide, or sapphire, as well as with wires of beryllium or refractory metal alloys. The primary fabrication techniques for these materials involve vacuum hot pressing at 1300 to 16000F, alternate layers of titanium alloy matrix foils, and suitably aligned filament mats. The more ductile reinforcements such as beryllium, have been incorporated into titanium matrix composites by coextrusion. Fabrication of composite gas turbine engine fan blades from both boron (SiC coated) and beryllium reinforced Ti 6Al--4V alloy is described. Feasibility studies have been made in the fabrication of Boron/Ti 6Al--4V composite rings for possible gas turbine engine disc applications. Mechanical properties of various titanium matrix composite systems are presented and demonstrate the attractive elevated temperature properties of some systems to 10000F. (35 fig, 6 tables) (U.S.)

  19. Microstructure and thermal stability of mechanically alloyed Al3Ti/Al alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建国; 魏浩岩; 黄正

    2001-01-01

    The microstructure stability of Al3Ti/Al alloy prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) was investigated in the simulating environment in which they may be used. The results show that the MA alloy possesses fine microstructure (the grain size is about 0.5  μm). After cycling loaded followed by heat exposure at 350  ℃ for 24  h, no microstructure coarsening of the alloy occurred, which means that the Al3Ti/Al alloy behaves good microstructure stability at high temperature. The compression yield strength of the alloy reaches up to 247  MPa at 350  ℃.

  20. PERSPECTIVES OF MOLIBDENUM CONTAINING MATERIALS APPLICATION FOR ALLOYING OF IRONCARBON ALLOYS DURING MANUFACTURING OF CRITICAL CASTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Slutsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor is one of most important part of automobile determine its economical effectiveness of usage. On the other hand, sleeves, pistons and rings are crucible parts as they determine the service life of a motor. These parts are producing in big scale – dozens of millions pieces. Increase of cylinder sleeves physical-mechanical properties results in prolongation of motor service life and improvement of motor’s characteristics. Nowadays low alloyed cast irons with perlite structure are used to manufacture motor’s sleeves. For alloying purposes such traditional elements as Cr, Ni, Cu, and V are applied. But it is interesting to use molybdenum for cast iron alloying. It is known that alloying of alloys allows considerable increasing of consumption properties of castings. But in spite of advantages of alloys alloying the increase of molybdenum containing iron-carbon alloys production is restricted by economical reasons – high cost of alloying additions. Expenditures on alloying additions can be reduced by the application cheap secondary alloys in the charge. So, the present paper is devoted to investigation of alloying peculiarities during the treatment of ferrous alloys with molybdenum applying different initial materials.

  1. Method of producing superplastic alloys and superplastic alloys produced by the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeger, Lillianne P. (Inventor); Starke, Jr., Edgar A. (Inventor); Crooks, Roy (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for producing new superplastic alloys by inducing in an alloy the formation of precipitates having a sufficient size and homogeneous distribution that a sufficiently refined grain structure to produce superplasticity is obtained after subsequent PSN processing. An age-hardenable alloy having at least one dispersoid phase is selected for processing. The alloy is solution heat-treated and cooled to form a supersaturated solid solution. The alloy is plastically deformed sufficiently to form a high-energy defect structure useful for the subsequent heterogeneous nucleation of precipitates. The alloy is then aged, preferably by a multi-stage low and high temperature process, and precipitates are formed at the defect sites. The alloy then is subjected to a PSN process comprising plastically deforming the alloy to provide sufficient strain energy in the alloy to ensure recrystallization, and statically recrystallizing the alloy. A grain structure exhibiting new, fine, equiaxed and uniform grains is produced in the alloy. An exemplary 6xxx alloy of the type capable of being produced by the present invention, and which is useful for aerospace, automotive and other applications, is disclosed and claimed. The process is also suitable for processing any age-hardenable aluminum or other alloy.

  2. New Heat-resistant Steel T23's Performance Characteristics and Early Failure%新型耐热钢T23的特性与早期失效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧传; 凌荣华; 贾建民; 赵建仓

    2011-01-01

    T23钢是T22钢经降C和强化而开发的新型锅炉用钢,与我国开发的钢102(12Cr2MoWVTiB)有近似的合金系统和含量,其常温力学性能和高温蠕变断裂强度明显优于T22钢,冷裂纹敏感性比T22钢低,再热裂纹敏感性远高于T22钢,抗蒸汽氧化性能与T22钢相当。但T23钢在超临界锅炉应用中先后出现了过热器管内壁氧化皮剥落导致爆管事件,在超超临界锅炉中又出现了水冷壁焊缝裂纹、泄漏等早期失效问题。基于T23钢的力学性能、蒸汽氧化性能和焊接性能分析及故障件的表面剥落物、爆口或断口的金相分析,找出故障原因,提出改进建议,对未来的超(超)临界锅炉设计和焊接工艺改进均有参考价值。%The T23 steel is based on the T22 steel developed a new type of boiler steel by reducing C and strengthening, it the steel which develops with our country 102 (12Cr2MoWVTiB) has the approximate alloy system and the content, its normal temperature mechanical properties and the high temperature creep fracture intensity surpasses the T22 steel obviously, the cold crack sensitivity is lower than the T22 steel, the heat crack sensitivity is higher than the T22 steel far again, anti-steam oxidation susceptibility and T22 steel quite.But the T23 steel in the application of supercritical boiler superheater tube appears oxide spalling events led to burst pipes, in the application of ultra-supercritical boiler water cooling wall appeared the welding cracks, leaks and so on early failure problems. Based on the T23 steel's mechanical properties, the steam oxidation susceptibility and the welding performance analysis and the breakdown surface scaling, exploded mouth or the fracture metallography analysis, the cause of the malfunction was found out, the improvement suggestion was proposed that, the future ultra (ultra) supercritical boiler design and welding process improvement have reference value.

  3. Study on Degradation of T92 Heat Resistant Steel Used for Thermal Power Stations during Its Engineering Service%火电站用T92耐热钢工程服役退化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑琳; 刘江南; 高巍; 要玉宏; 王正品; 党琦丹

    2014-01-01

    为了查明超超临界火力发电机组的高温锅炉管道T92耐热钢在高温长时服役过程中的组织及性能变化情况,通过光学显微观察、扫描电镜、EDS能谱分析、透射电镜分析、显微硬度测试,常规拉伸试验和微型杯突试验,研究了原始态及服役两年和三年的T92钢管的显微组织结构和力学性能的变化规律.试验结果表明:高温服役三年后的T92钢组织上仍然保持马氏体板条形态,析出碳化物的数量和尺寸不断增加,且服役两年及三年后组织中除了原始态时的M23C6和MX相,还在原奥氏体晶界及马氏体板条界处析出大量粗化较快的Laves相.材料室温力学性能随服役时间增加整体呈下降趋势,维氏硬度在服役三年后降低了13%,而其屈服强度,抗拉强度分别下降了5.35%和4.19%.SEM断口形貌分析可知随服役年限的增加,断裂特征由韧性断裂向韧脆混合断裂方式转变.%T92 steel has become one of the main candidate alloys for ultra supercritical plants (USC) , therefore it is of great necessity to secure the safe service of generator set by exploring the rules behind the microstructure and mechanical property change under the condition of high temperature service . Metallographic microscopy , scanning electron microscopy , EDS analysis , transmission electron microscopy ,micro hardness test ,conventional tensile test and small punch test are conducted to measure the microstructure and mechanical properties of original state T 92 steel samples and the ones after two year and three year service .Results show :After three year service ,the microstructure of T92 steel still remains lath martensite ,but the number and size of the main precipitates have increased . Besides precipitates M23 C6 and MX ,which already exist in original T92 steel ,there is Laves phase particles emerging at the boundary of martensite and austenite in T 92 steel samples after two

  4. Nickel-base alloys combat corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, D.C. [VDM Technologies Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Herda, W. [Krupp-VDM GmbH, Werdohl (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    The modern chemical process industry must increase production efficiency to remain competitive. Manufacturers typically meet this challenge by utilizing higher temperatures and pressures, and more-corrosive catalysts. At the same time, the industry has to solve the technical and commercial problems resulting from rigid environmental regulations. To overcome these obstacles, new alloys having higher levels of corrosion resistance have been developed. These materials are based on increased understanding of the physical metallurgy of nickel-base alloys, especially the role of alloying elements. Results of many studies have led to innovations in nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys containing both high and low amounts of nickel. Higher molybdenum and chromium contents, together with nitrogen additions, have opened up an entirely new class of alloys having unique properties. In addition, a new chromium-base, fully wrought super stainless steel shows excellent promise in solving many corrosion problems. These newer alloys have the ability to combat uniform corrosion, localized corrosion, and stress-corrosion cracking in the harsh halogenic environment of the chemical process industry. This article briefly lists some of the major highlights and corrosion data on recent nickel-chromium-molybdenum and nickel-molybdenum alloys, and the development of a chromium-base, wrought super-austenitic alloy known as Nicrofer 3033 (Alloy 33). Some comparisons with existing alloys are presented, along with a few commercial applications.

  5. Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.; Saddock, Nicholas

    2009-04-07

    Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.

  6. Preparation of TiMn alloy by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Weidmann, A.; Nebe, B. J.; Burkel, E.

    2009-01-01

    TiMn alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying and subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique for exploration of biomedical applications. The microstructures, mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the TiMn alloys were investigated in comparison with the pure Ti and Mn metals. Ti8Mn and Ti12Mn alloys with high relative density (99%) were prepared by mechanical alloying for 60 h and SPS at 700 °C for 5 min. The doping of Mn in Ti has decreased the transformation temperature from α to β phase, increased the relative density and enhanced the hardness of the Ti metal significantly. The Ti8Mn alloys showed 86% cell viability which was comparable to that of the pure Ti (93%). The Mn can be used as a good alloying element for biomedical Ti metal, and the Ti8Mn alloy could have a potential use as bone substitutes and dental implants.

  7. Status of Testing and Characterization of CMS Alloy 617 and Alloy 230

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Battiste, Rick [ORNL; Terry, Totemeier [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Denis, Clark [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2006-08-01

    Status and progress in testing and characterizing CMS Alloy 617 and Alloy 230 tasks in FY06 at ORNL and INL are described. ORNL research has focused on CMS Alloy 617 development and creep and tensile properties of both alloys. In addition to refurbishing facilities to conduct tests, a significant amount of creep and tensile data on Alloy 230, worth several years of research funds and time, has been located and collected from private enterprise. INL research has focused on the creep-fatigue behavior of standard chemistry Alloy 617 base metal and fusion weldments. Creep-fatigue tests have been performed in air, vacuum, and purified Ar environments at 800 and 1000 C. Initial characterization and high-temperature joining work has also been performed on Alloy 230 and CCA Alloy 617 in preparation for creep-fatigue testing.

  8. New Dental Alloys with Special Consumer Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TYKOCHINSKIY D. S.; VASEKIN V. V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to create a new gold alloy of yellow for casting the frames of metal-ceramic dentures.The yellow color corresponds to the consumer and aesthetic needs of some patients,because it is a sign of the metal,which is noble and innocuous.The main alloying elements of the majority of gold alloys for metal-ceramics are platinum and palladium,which increase the strength characteristics.Copper,tin,and other precious metals and base metals are also introduced in these alloys.At the same time,it is necessary to ensure the correspondence of the properties of the alloy with those of the ceramics applied onto the metal frame.For this purpose,the thermal expansion coefficient of the alloy (TEC) should be in a range of 13.5~14.5 × 10-6 K-1 when heated from 20 to 600 ℃.The two-component alloys,alloying of gold with platinum and palladium results in a decrease in the TEC,and the introduction of copper,silver,and tin,increases it.Multidirectional influence of the alloying elements is a factor in achieving compliance of the TEC with the given values of the alloy.In multicomponent systems,however,the mutual influence of individual components on the properties of the alloy is unpredictable.This also applies to the color characteristics of the alloys,which vary in the direction of reducing the yellowness with increasing concentration of platinum and palladium,while other elements may have the opposite effect on the results.Yellowness index (YI),calculated according to the results of spectrophotometric studies,has been chosen as an objective indicator of color.In this study,the requirement for YI was given not less than 25; the color of such alloys can be called light yellow.All the alloys investigated contained 85% (by weight)of gold.Therefore,higher corrosion resistance and biological inertness of a finished dental products were ensured.Among the alloys that met the yellowness/TEC requirements,two alloys have been selected that were "most yellow

  9. First principles theory of disordered alloys and alloy phase stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocks, G.M.; Nicholson, D.M.C.; Shelton, W.A. [and others

    1993-06-05

    These lecture notes review the LDA-KKR-CPA method for treating the electronic structure and energetics of random alloys and the MF-CF and GPM theories of ordering and phase stability built on the LDA- KKR-CPA description of the disordered phase. Section 2 lays out the basic LDA-KKR-CPA theory of random alloys and some applications. Section 3 reviews the progress made in understanding specific ordering phenomena in binary solid solutions base on the MF-CF and GPM theories of ordering and phase stability. Examples are Fermi surface nesting, band filling, off diagonal randomness, charge transfer, size difference or local strain fluctuations, magnetic effects; in each case, an attempt is made to link the ordering and the underlying electronic structure of the disordered phase. Section 4 reviews calculations of electronic structure of {beta}-phase Ni{sub c}Al{sub 1-c} alloys using a version of the LDA-KKR-CPA codes generalized to complex lattices.

  10. Effects of segregation of primary alloying elements on the creep response in magnesium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Y.D.; Dieringa, H.; Hort, N.;

    2008-01-01

    The segregation of primary alloying elements deteriorates the high temperature creep resistance of magnesium alloys. Annealing at high temperatures alleviating their segregations can improve the creep resistance. Present investigation on the effect of segregation of primary alloying elements...... on the creep response may provide some useful information about how to improve the creep resistance of magnesium alloys in the future. (c) 2008 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Copper and nickel adherently electroplated on titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. E.

    1967-01-01

    Anodic treatment of titanium alloy enables electroplating of tightly adherent coatings of copper and nickel on the alloy. The alloy is treated in a solution of hydrofluoric and acetic acids, followed by the electroplating process.

  12. Constitution and magnetism of iron and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are covered: structure of iron, magnetism of iron, thermal properties (heat capacity and enthalpy), substitutional alloys of iron, interstitial Fe alloys and compounds, influence of magnetism on the physical properties of Fe alloys (WL)

  13. Bonding theory for metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Frederick E

    2005-01-01

    Bonding Theory for Metals and Alloys exhorts the potential existence of covalent bonding in metals and alloys. Through the recognition of the covalent bond in coexistence with the 'free' electron band, the book describes and demonstrates how the many experimental observations on metals and alloys can all be reconciled. Subsequently, it shows how the individual view of metals and alloys by physicists, chemists and metallurgists can be unified. The physical phenomena of metals and alloys covered in this book are: Miscibility Gap between two liquid metals; Phase Equilibrium Diagrams; Phenomenon of Melting. Superconductivity; Nitinol; A Metal-Alloy with Memory; Mechanical Properties; Liquid Metal Embrittlement; Superplasticity; Corrosion; The author introduces a new theory based on 'Covalon' conduction, which forms the basis for a new approach to the theory of superconductivity. This new approach not only explains the many observations made on the phenomenon of superconductivity but also makes predictions that ha...

  14. Theory of Random Anisotropic Magnetic Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1976-01-01

    A mean-field-crystal-field theory is developed for random, multicomponent, anisotropic magnetic alloys. It is specially applicable to rare-earth alloys. A discussion is given of multicritical points and phase transitions between various states characterized by order parameters with different...... spatial directions or different ordering wave vectors. Theoretical predictions based on known parameters for the phase diagrams and magnetic moments for the binary rare-earth alloys of Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, Tb-Tm, Nd-Pr, and pure double-hcp Nd agree qualitatively with the experimental observations....... Quantitative agreement can be obtained by increasing the interaction between different alloy elements, in particular for alloys with very different axial anisotropy, e.g., Tb-Tm. A model system consisting of a singlet-singlet and singlet-doublet alloy is discussed in detail. A simple procedure to include...

  15. A lightweight shape-memory magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi

    2016-07-01

    Shape-memory alloys (SMAs), which display shape recovery upon heating, as well as superelasticity, offer many technological advantages in various applications. Those distinctive behaviors have been observed in many polycrystalline alloy systems such as nickel titantium (TiNi)–, copper-, iron-, nickel-, cobalt-, and Ti-based alloys but not in lightweight alloys such as magnesium (Mg) and aluminum alloys. Here we present a Mg SMA showing superelasticity of 4.4% at –150°C and shape recovery upon heating. The shape-memory properties are caused by reversible martensitic transformation. This Mg alloy includes lightweight scandium, and its density is about 2 grams per cubic centimeter, which is one-third less than that of practical TiNi SMAs. This finding raises the potential for development and application of lightweight SMAs across a number of industries.

  16. A lightweight shape-memory magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi

    2016-07-22

    Shape-memory alloys (SMAs), which display shape recovery upon heating, as well as superelasticity, offer many technological advantages in various applications. Those distinctive behaviors have been observed in many polycrystalline alloy systems such as nickel titantium (TiNi)-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, cobalt-, and Ti-based alloys but not in lightweight alloys such as magnesium (Mg) and aluminum alloys. Here we present a Mg SMA showing superelasticity of 4.4% at -150°C and shape recovery upon heating. The shape-memory properties are caused by reversible martensitic transformation. This Mg alloy includes lightweight scandium, and its density is about 2 grams per cubic centimeter, which is one-third less than that of practical TiNi SMAs. This finding raises the potential for development and application of lightweight SMAs across a number of industries. PMID:27463668

  17. Biocorrosion study of titanium-nickel alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern Lin, J H; Lo, S J; Ju, C P

    1996-02-01

    The present study provides results of the corrosion behaviour in Hank's physiological solution and some other properties of three Ti-Ni alloys with 18, 25 and 28.4 wt% Ni, respectively. Results indicate that alpha-titanium and Ti2Ni were the two major phases in all three Ti-Ni alloys. The relative amount of the Ti2Ni phase increased with additional Ni content. Hardness of the Ti-Ni alloys also increased with added nickel content, ranging from 310 to 390 VHN, similar to the hardness of enamel. Melting temperatures of the Ti-Ni alloys were all lower than that of pure titanium by least 600 degrees C. The three Ti-Ni alloys behaved almost identically when potentiodynamically polarized in Hank's solution at 37 degrees C. The critical anodic current densities of the alloys were nearly 30 microA/cm2 and the breakdown potentials were all above 1100 mV (SCE).

  18. Corrosion resistance of titanium alloys for dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and its alloys belong to biomaterials which the application scope in medicine increases. Some properties of the alloys, such as high mechanical strength, low density, low Young's modulus, high corrosion resistance and good biotolerance decide about it. The main areas of the application of titanium and its alloys are: orthopedics and traumatology, cardiosurgery, faciomaxillary surgery and dentistry. The results of investigations concerning the corrosion resistance of the technical titanium and Ti6Al14V alloy and comparatively a cobalt alloy of the Vitallium type in the artificial saliva is presented in the work. Significantly better corrosion resistance of titanium and the Ti6Al14V than the Co-Cr-Mo alloy was found. (author)

  19. Creep properties and simulation of weld repaired low alloy heat resistant CrMo and Mo steels at 540 deg C. Sub-project 2 - Ex-serviced 2.25Cr1M0 weld metal and cross weld repairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui Wu; Storesund, Jan; Borggreen, Kjeld; Feilitzen, Carl von

    2007-12-15

    Weld repair has been carried out in an ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 pipe by using 10 CrMo 9 10, 13 CrMo 4 4 and 15 Mo 3 consumables. Application of current welding procedure and consumables results in an over matched weld repair. This is verified by both creep tests and the creep simulations at even lower stresses than tested. Creep specimens have been extracted from ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal (PM) and weld metal (WM), from virgin 10 CrMo 9 10 WM, from virgin 13 CrMo 4 4 WM, and from virgin 15 Mo 3 WM. In addition, cross weld specimens including weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and parent metal have been taken from the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 weld joint, and from three weld repairs. In total, there are nine test series. The sequence of creep lifetime at 540 deg C at given stresses is; virgin 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal > virgin 15 Mo 3 weld metal approx virgin 13 CrMo 4 4 weld metal approx ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal >> ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal > ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 cross weld approx 10 CrMo 9 10 cross weld repair approx 13 CrMo 4 4 cross weld repair approx and 15 Mo 3 cross weld repair. All the series show good creep ductility. The ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal shows a creep lifetime about one order of magnitude shorter than that for both the virgin parent metal and the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal, independent of stresses. Differences in creep lifetime among the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 cross weld and other cross weld repairs are negligible, simply because rupture always occurred in the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal, approximately 10 mm from HAZ, for all the cross welds. Necking is frequently observed in the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal at the opposite side of the fracture. Creep damage to a large and a small extend is found adjacent to the fracture and at the necking area, respectively. Other parts of the weld joint like weld metal and HAZ are damage-free, independent of stress, weld metal and material condition. Norton's law, Monkman-Grant relation and phi- and OMEGA-models (strain-strain rate) are valid for all the tested series. These models can be utilised for lifetime assessment. Using phi- and OMEGA-models, for instance, creep strain with respect to time can be successfully reproduced and reproduced creep curves aggress well with the experiments. Finite element simulations based on dimension of weld repaired pipe and weld repair geometry have been performed using obtained creep results and have been extrapolated down to 60 MPa. It shows that severe creep damage and rupture occur in HAZ for 13 CrMo 4 4 and 15 Mo 3 cross weld repairs. This is also true for 10 CrMo 9 10 cross weld repair with axial stress. Extra axial load reduces the creep life of 13 CrMo 4 4 and 15 Mo 3 weld repairs. However, the extra axial load prolongs somewhat the creep life for the 10 CrMo 9 10 repair, as a result of an extended area of stress enhancement and consequently a reduction of the highest stress The simulations exhibit that creep damage may initiate and develop deep inside the wall of cross weld repairs. This gives rise to a warning that application of methods for detection of surface creep damage may be insufficient in the case of repaired welds

  20. Domestic 12Cr1MoVG Pearlite Heat-resisting Alloy Steel Welded by Adopting India Welding Material%采用印度焊接材料焊接国产珠光体耐热钢12Cr1MoVG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅

    2012-01-01

    印度西孟加拉邦加尔各答Sagardighi电厂和Durgapur电厂建设工程3×300 MW机组锅炉高温过热器出口集箱,规格φ609.6 mm×110 mm,采用国产钢材12Cr1MoVG钢,现场安装焊接采用印度焊接材料.结合该集箱厚壁、大直径管焊接的工艺特点,强调了12Cr1MoVG钢采用印度焊接材料焊接时,应注意充氩气保护、预热、层间温度及焊接线能量的控制,并采用多层多道焊和焊后热处理.实践证明,根据此焊接工艺能获得良好的焊接接头.%The Φ 609.6 mmxllO mm pipe is welded by adopting China domestic 12CrlMoVG steel and India welding materials at site construction, which is used in 3 x300 MW boiler high temperature super-heater outlet header of Sagardighi and Durgapur Thermal Power Plants, Kolkata, India.In combining with the process characteristics for large diameter and heavy thickness header,it stresses some precautions,such as filling argon protection,preheating, controlling interpass temperature, while using India welding material. It also uses multi-layer and multi-pass welding.The practice proves that using this kind of welding procedure can obtain ideal welded joints.

  1. Butt-jointed Seam Saddle Welding for Clad Plate of Low Content Alloy and Heat-Resistant Steel & Major Diameter Thick-walled Tube%低合金耐热钢复合板与大直径厚壁接管马鞍形对接焊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟娟

    2009-01-01

    对13MnNiMoNbR+00Cr17Ni14Mo2复合钢板与20MnMoNbⅣ+00Cr17Ni14Mo2锻件进行了焊接性分析.针对大直径厚壁马鞍形对接焊缝结构特点,采用合理的施工工艺,并通过对焊接过程中预热温度的控制、焊后消氢及焊后热处理等工艺的合理调整,有效防止了冷裂纹的产生,保证了产品焊接质量.

  2. [Microbial corrosion of dental alloy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lele; Liu, Li

    2004-10-01

    There is a very complicated electrolytical environment in oral cavity with plenty of microorganisms existing there. Various forms of corrosion would develop when metallic prosthesis functions in mouth. One important corrosive form is microbial corrosion. The metabolic products, including organic acid and inorganic acid, will affect the pH of the surface or interface of metallic prosthesis and make a change in composition of the medium, thus influencing the electron-chemical reaction and promoting the development of corrosion. The problem of develpoment of microbial corrosion on dental alloy in the oral environment lies in the primary condition that the bacteria adhere to the surface of alloy and form a relatively independent environment that promotes corrosion. PMID:15553877

  3. Microstructure and Slip Character in Titanium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, D.; Williams, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Influence of microstructures in titanium alloys on the basic parameters of deformation behaviour such as slip character, slip length and slip intensity have been explored. Commercial titanium alloys contain the hexagonal close packed (alpha) and body centred cubic (bita) phases. Slip in these individual phases is shown to be dependent on the nature of alloying elements through their effect on phase stability as related to decomposition into ordered or w structures. When alpha and bita coexist...

  4. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  5. Dissimilar Welding of Titanium Alloys to Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yefei; TSUMURA, Takuya; NAKATA, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the dissimilar welding of titanium alloys to steels over a period of ten recent years, involving the welding processes which are used for the dissimilar welding of titanium alloys to steels, the mechanical properties of the joints and the discussion for the forming mechanism of the interface. Reducing the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) is a key requirement in the dissimilar welding of titanium alloys to steels, because the strength of the welding join...

  6. New aluminium alloys with high lithium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemme, K.; Velten, B.

    1989-06-01

    Since the early 80's there have been made great efforts to replace the high strength aluminium alloys for the aircraft and space industry by a new generation of aluminium-lithium alloys. The attractivity of this kind of alloys could be increased by a further reduction of their density, caused by an increasing lithium content (/ge/ 5 wt.% Li). Therefore binary high-lithium containing alloys with low density are produced and metallografically investigated. A survey of their strength and wear behavior is given by using tensile tests and pin abrasing tests. (orig.).

  7. Characterization of a NIMONIC TYPE super alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical properties of strength and thermofluence of a NIMONIC type super alloy under thermal treatment was determined. The relationship between microstructure, phases and precipitates was also studied. (author)

  8. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  9. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  10. Nanodispersed boriding of titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of improving the operational reliability of machines is becoming increasingly important due to the increased mechanical, thermal and other loads on the details. There are many surface hardening methods for machines parts which breakdown begins with surface corruption. The most promising methods are chemical-thermal treatment. The aim of this work is to study the impact of boriding on the structure and properties of titanium alloy. Materials and Methods: The material of this study is VT3-1 titanium alloy. The boriding were conducted using nanodispersed powder blend based on boric substances. It is established that boriding of paste compounds allows obtaining the surface hardness within 30 - 29 GPa and with declining to 27- 26 GPa in layer to the transition zone (with total thickness up to 110 μm) owing to changes of the layer phase composition where T2B, TiB, TiB2 titanium borides are formed. The increasing of chemical-thermal treatment time from 15 minutes to 2 hours leads to thickening of the borated layer (30 - 110 μm) and transition zone (30 - 190 μm). Due to usage of nanodispersed boric powder, the boriding duration is decreasing in 2 - 3 times. This allows saving time and electric energy. The developed optimal mode of boriding the VT3-1 titanium alloy allows obtaining the required operational characteristics and to combine the saturation of the surface layer with atomic boron and hardening

  11. Nanodispersed boriding of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna O. Kostyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of improving the operational reliability of machines is becoming increasingly important due to the increased mechanical, thermal and other loads on the details. There are many surface hardening methods for machines parts which breakdown begins with surface corruption. The most promising methods are chemo-thermal treatment. Aim: The aim of this work is to study the impact of boriding on the structure and properties of titanium alloy. Materials and Methods: The material of this study is VT3-1 titanium alloy. The boriding were conducted using nanodispersed powder blend based on boric substances. Results: It is established that boriding of paste compounds allows obtaining the surface hardness within 30...29 GPa and with declining to 27...26 GPa in layer to the transition zone (with total thickness up to 110 μm owing to changes of the layer phase composition where Ti2B, TiB, TiB2 titanium borides are formed. The increasing of chemical-thermal treatment time from 15 minutes to 2 hours leads to thickening of the borated layer (30...110 µm and transition zone (30...190 µm. Conclusions: Due to usage of nanodispersed boric powder, the boriding duration is decreasing in 2...3 times. This allows saving time and electric energy. The developed optimal mode of boriding the VT3-1 titanium alloy allows obtaining the required operational characteristics and to combine the saturation of the surface layer with atomic boron and hardening.

  12. Alloy NASA-HR-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Shou; Mitchell, Michael

    2005-01-01

    NASA-HR-1 is a high-strength Fe-Ni-base superalloy that resists high-pressure hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE), oxidation, and corrosion. Originally derived from JBK-75, NASA-HR-1 has exceptional HEE resistance that can be attributed to its gamma-matrix and eta-free (Ni3Ti) grain boundaries. The chemistry was formulated using a design approach capable of accounting for the simultaneous effects of several alloy additions. This approach included: (1) Systematically modifying gamma-matrix compositions based on JBK-75; (2) Increasing gamma (Ni3(Al,Ti)) volume fraction and adding gamma-matrix strengthening elements to obtain higher strength; and (3) Obtaining precipitate-free grain boundaries. The most outstanding attribute of NASA-HR-1 is its ability to resist HEE while showing much improved strength. NASA-HR-1 has approximately 25% higher yield strength than JXK-75 and exhibits tensile elongation of more than 20% with no ductility loss in a hydrogen environment at 5 ksi, an achievement unparalleled by any other commercially available alloy. Its Cr and Ni contents provide exceptional resistance to environments that promote oxidation and corrosion. Microstructural stability was maintained by improved solid solubility of the gamma-matrix, along with the addition of alloying elements to retard eta (Ni3Ti) precipitation. NASA-HR-1 represents a new system that greatly extends the compositional ranges of existing HEE-resistant Fe-Ni-base superalloys.

  13. Microbial corrosion of aluminum alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S S; Chen, C Y; Wei, C B; Lin, Y T

    1996-11-01

    Several microbes were isolated from the contaminated fuel-oil in Taiwan and the microbial corrosion of aluminum alloy A356-T6 was tested by MIL-STD-810E test method. Penicillium sp. AM-F5 and Cladosporium resinac ATCC 22712 had significant adsorption and pitting on the surface of aluminum alloy, Pseudomonas acruginosa AM-B5 had weak adsorption and some precipitation in the bottom, and Candida sp. AM-Y1 had the less adsorption and few cavities formation on the surface. pH of the aqueous phase decreased 0.3 to 0.7 unit for 4 months of incubation. The corrosion of aluminum alloy was very significant in the cultures of Penicillium sp. AM-F2, Penicillium sp. AM-F5 and C. resinac ATCC 22712. The major metabolites in the aqueous phase with the inoculation of C. resinac were citric acid and oxalic acid, while succinic acid and fumaric acid were the minors. PMID:10592801

  14. Electrodeposition of engineering alloy coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lasse

    Nickel based electrodeposited alloys were investigated with respect to their deposition process, heat treatment, hardness, corrosion resistance and combined wear-corrosion resistance. The investigated alloys were Ni-B, Ni-P and Ni-W, which are not fully developed for industrial utilisation...... at the moment. It was the intention of this study to investigate whether the mentioned alloy processes are able to substitute conventional deposition techniques for wear and corrosion resistance, namely Ni-P produced by electroless deposition and electrodeposited hard chromium. The considerations......-P and Ni-W, respectively, resulted in hardness values of approx. 1000 HV0.1 in the case of Ni-P(6), approx. 1100 HV0.1 in the case of Ni-W(40-53) and approx. 1300 HV0.1 in the case of Ni-B(5). Cracks, which emerged during electrodeposition and heat treatment, were observed on Ni-W and Ni-B.The corrosion...

  15. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  16. Activation analysis for different structural alloys considered for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation calculations have been made for the austentic steel 316SS, the ferritic alloy HT-9, the titanium alloy Ti6A14V, and the vanadium alloy V5Cr5Ti in a liquid metal (Na) design suggested recently for ITER. The calculations show that the vanadium alloy has the minimum short and long-term radioactivity and BHP. It also has the minimum decay heat at all the time. The titanium alloy has less radioactivity than the austenitic and this ferritic alloys. However, the decay heat of this alloy could exceed that of the conventional alloys

  17. Bond Strength of Gold Alloys Laser Welded to Cobalt-Chromium Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Ikuya; Wallace, Cameron

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the joint properties between cast gold alloys and Co-Cr alloy laser-welded by Nd:YAG laser. Cast plates were fabricated from three types of gold alloys (Type IV, Type II and low-gold) and a Co-Cr alloy. Each gold alloy was laser-welded to Co-Cr using a dental laser-welding machine. Homogeneously-welded and non-welded control specimens were also prepared. Tensile testing was conducted and data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. The homogeneo...

  18. Influence of alloy ingredients on mechanical properties of ternary boride hard alloy clad materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fu-tian; SONG Shi-xue; YANG Jun-ru; HUANG Wei-ling; HUANG Chuan-zhen; CHENG Xin; LI Zhao-qian

    2004-01-01

    Using Mo, B-Fe alloy and Fe powders as raw materials, and adding C, Cr and Ni ingredients, respectively, or C, Cr and Ni mixed powders, ternary boride hard alloy clad materials was prepared on Q235 steel substrate by means of in-situ reaction and vacuum liquid phase sintering technology. The influence of alloy ingredients on the mechanical properties of ternary boride hard alloy clad materials was investigated. The results indicate that a mixture of 0.8% C, 5% Cr and 2% Ni ingredients gives a ternary boride hard alloy clad material with optimal mechanical properties, such as high transverse rupture strength, high hardness and good wear resistance.

  19. Study of Alpha-Sigma Phase Transformation in Mechanically Alloyed Fe-Cr-Sn Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, B. F. O.; Caër, G. Le; Campos, N. Ayres de

    2001-01-01

    The solubility of tin is significantly extended by mechanical alloying in near equiatomic Fe-Cr alloys. The influences of Sn concentration and of grain size on the kinetics of formation of the sigma-phase have been studied using different techniques. The sigma-phase formation is much faster for as-milled alloys than it is for conventional alloys. The sigma-phase formation rate decreases with the increase of Sn concentration in alloys with nanometer-sized grains as it does in coarse-grained al...

  20. Data set for diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys from first-principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Cheng Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in Mg are critical for the development of new Mg alloys for lightweight applications. Here we present the data set of the temperature-dependent dilute tracer diffusion coefficients for 47 substitutional alloying elements in hexagonal closed packed (hcp Mg calculated from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT by combining transition state theory and an 8-frequency model. Benchmark for the DFT calculations and systematic comparison with experimental diffusion data are also presented. The data set refers to “Diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys: A comprehensive first-principles study” by Zhou et al. [1].

  1. Fatigue crack propagation of new aluminum lithium alloy bonded with titanium alloy strap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhenqi; Huang Minghui

    2013-01-01

    A new type of aluminum lithium alloy (A1-Li alloy) Al-Li-S-4 was investigated by test in this paper.Alloy plate of 400 mm × 140 mm × 6 mm with single edge notch was made into samples bonded with Ti-6Al-4V alloy (Ti alloy) strap by FM 94 film adhesive after the surface was treated.Fatigue crack growth of samples was investigated under cyclic loading with stress ratio (R) of 0.1 and load amplitude constant.The results show that Al-Li alloy plate bonded with Ti alloy strap could retard fatigue crack propagation.Retardation effect is related with width and thickness of strap.Flaws have an observable effect on crack propagation direction.

  2. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  3. Combinatorial thin film materials science: From alloy discovery and optimization to alloy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Thomas, E-mail: gebhardt@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Music, Denis; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2012-06-30

    This paper provides an overview of modern alloy development, from discovery and optimization towards alloy design, based on combinatorial thin film materials science. The combinatorial approach, combining combinatorial materials synthesis of thin film composition-spreads with high-throughput property characterization has proven to be a powerful tool to delineate composition-structure-property relationships, and hence to efficiently identify composition windows with enhanced properties. Furthermore, and most importantly for alloy design, theoretical models and hypotheses can be critically appraised. Examples for alloy discovery, optimization, and alloy design of functional as well as structural materials are presented. Using Fe-Mn based alloys as an example, we show that the combination of modern electronic-structure calculations with the highly efficient combinatorial thin film composition-spread method constitutes an effective tool for knowledge-based alloy design.

  4. Zirconium alloys produced by recycling zircaloy tunings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamba, N.S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catálisis y Petroquímica, INCAPE (FIQ, UNL–CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Carbajal-Ramos, I.A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, CNEA e Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Ulla, M.A.; Pierini, B.T. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catálisis y Petroquímica, INCAPE (FIQ, UNL–CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Gennari, F.C., E-mail: gennari@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atómico Bariloche, CNEA e Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2013-11-25

    Highlights: •Zr–Ti alloys were successfully produced by two-step procedure. •Zircaloy tunings were used as a valuable source of Zr. •Zircaloy tunings and Ti powders was milled under hydrogen to produce hydride powders. •Hydride powders were decomposed by heating at 900 °C to synthesize the Zr-based alloy. •The procedure could be extended to the production of other Zr-based alloys. -- Abstract: Zircaloy chips were recycled to successfully produce Zr–Ti alloys with bcc structure and different compositions. The procedure developed involves two steps. First, the reactive mechanical alloying (RMA) of the zircaloy tunings and Ti powders was performed to produce metal hydride powders, with a high refinement of the microstructure and a Zr–Ti homogeneous composition. Second, the metal hydride powders were thermally decomposed by heating up to 900 °C to synthesize the Zr-based alloy with a selected composition. The change in the nature of the powders from ductile to brittle during milling avoids both cold working phenomena between the metals and the use of a control agent. A minimum milling time is necessary to produce the solid solution with the selected composition. The microstructure and structure of the final alloys obtained was studied. The present procedure could be extended to the production of Zr-based alloys with the addition of other metals different from Ti.

  5. Tantalum modified ferritic iron base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldrieve, R. E.; Blankenship, C. P. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Strong ferritic alloys of the Fe-CR-Al type containing 0.4% to 2% tantalum were developed. These alloys have improved fabricability without sacrificing high temperature strength and oxidation resistance in the 800 C (1475 F) to 1040 C (1900 F) range.

  6. Methods for Electrodepositing Composition-Modulated Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisner, Peter; Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Tang, Peter Torben;

    1996-01-01

    Materials exhibiting unique mechanical, physical and chemical properties can be obtained by combining thin layers of different metals or alloys forming a multilayered structure. Two general techniques exist for electrodepositing composition-modulated alloy (CMA) materials; dual-bath and single-ba...

  7. Electroplating Zn-Al Alloy Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The method of controlling separating anode and separating power source was used to perform orthogonal optimization for the parameters in electroplating Zn-Al alloy.The electroplating Zn-Al alloy technology was decided, in which the content of Al is about 12%-15%.

  8. Solidification shrinkage of Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Feng [Materials Interfacial Physical-Chemistry Research Institute, Chongqing Institute of Technology, No. 4 Xingsheng Road, Yangjiaping, Chongqing 400050 (China); Yang Renhui [Materials Interfacial Physical-Chemistry Research Institute, Chongqing Institute of Technology, No. 4 Xingsheng Road, Yangjiaping, Chongqing 400050 (China)]. E-mail: yangrh2004@21cn.com; Fang Liang [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, No. 174 Shazhong Road, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhang Chi [Materials Interfacial Physical-Chemistry Research Institute, Chongqing Institute of Technology, No. 4 Xingsheng Road, Yangjiaping, Chongqing 400050 (China)

    2006-07-25

    Ni-Cr superalloy is widely used in casting of critical components in gas-turbine engines. Because of the significant change in density of alloy in mushy state, porosity is likely to arise in the alloy parts due to the solidification shrinkage. On the other hand, because Ni-Cr alloy is very hard and difficult to be machined, the net-shape casting of the alloy is a cheap process. Therefore, it is essential to measure the solidification shrinkage of mushy alloy for obtaining low-cost net-shape casting ingot without inner porosity. However, there have been a few reports on the solidification shrinkage of the liquid Ni-Cr alloy. In this work, the solidification shrinkage of Ni-Cr alloy was calculated by measuring its density using modified sessile drop method. It has been found that, for Ni-(0-24.53)% Cr alloys, the solidification shrinkage value fluctuates in the range of 0.91-2.02% and it tends to increase with increasing Cr concentration in 0-10% Cr. However, for Cr concentration more than 10%, the solidification shrinkage holds on a certain value of 2.00%.

  9. Materials data handbook: Aluminum alloy 2219

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraca, R. F.; Whittick, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the materials property information for aluminum 2219 alloy is presented. The scope of the information includes physical and mechanical properties at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Information on material procurement, metallurgy of the alloy, corrosion, environmental effects, fabrication, and joining techniques is developed.

  10. Preparation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon tin alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnat, M.; Marchal, G.; Piecuch, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a new method to obtain hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor alloys. The method is reactive co-evaporation. Silicon tin hydrogenated alloys are prepared under atomic hydrogen atmosphere. We discuss the influence of various parameters of preparation (hydrogen pressure, tungsten tube temperature, substrate temperature, annealing...) on electrical properties of samples.

  11. Sputtered Clusters from Niobium-Vanadium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Hofer, W. O.

    1982-01-01

    A series of Nb&z.sbnd;V alloys have been irradiated by 6 keV argon ions. Homonuclear and heteronuclear clusters emitted from these alloys have been studied by means of post-ionization and/or secondary ion mass spectrometry. The intensity of clusters of atomic masses up to approximately 300 amu wa...

  12. Theory of Rare-Earth Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    A mean-field random alloy theory combined with a simple calculation of the exchange interaction J(c,Q) is shown to quantitatively account for the phase diagrams for alloys of rare-earth metals with Y, Lu, Sc, and other rare-earth metals. A concentration-dependent J(c,Q) explains the empirical 2...

  13. Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zhi-hong; HE Di-qiu; WANG Hong

    2004-01-01

    Friction stir welding(FSW), a new solid-state welding technology invited in the early 1990s,enables us weld aluminum alloys and titanium alloys etc. The processing of FSW, the microstructure in FSW alloysand the factors influencing weld quality are introduced. The complex factors affecting the properties are researched.

  14. Trends of Chinese RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ . Status of Chinese RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys 1. R εt D of RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys in China AB5 hydrogen storage materials, taking rare earth mischmetals as raw materials, developed rapidly in China in recent years. Today, different countries attach importance to the development and application of the new environmental protection reproducible power sources.

  15. INFLUENCE OF MECHANICAL FACTOR ON LOW-DUCTILE CREEP FAILURE FOR DISSIMILAR HEAT-RESISTANT STEEL WELDED JOINTS%异种耐热钢焊接接头低塑性蠕变失效力学因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史春元; 杨德新; 陈字刚; 田锡唐

    2000-01-01

    The creep strain distribution in the low strength material adjacent to weld interface of dissimilar heat-resistant steel welded joint is investigated by finite element method,and the mathematical model between the stress triaxiality (σav/σ)and the ratio of creep strain rate(εw/εb)is established.It was shown from the analytical result that the stress triaxiality in the creep restraint zone(CRZ)of low strength material adjacent to the inter face is a major mechanical factor of low-ductile creep fracture for the welded joint.The theoreticl analysis agrees with the creep fracture test results.%用有限元法计算了异种耐热钢接头邻近焊缝界面低强度材料区的蠕变应变分布,建立了蠕变拘束区(CRZ)应力三轴度(σav/σ)与蠕变应变速率的比值(εw/εb)之间的数学关系模型,并通过蠕变断裂试验证明了数学模型的正确性。理论分析和试验结果表明,焊缝界面低强度材料蠕变拘束区的应力三轴度是接头发生低塑性蠕变失效的主要力学因素。

  16. 聚(异氰脲酸酯-噁唑烷酮)改性硬质聚氨酯泡沫的反应机理及其耐热性能研究%Mechanism of formation and heat-resistant properties of poly (isocyanurate-oxazolidone) modified rigid polyurethane foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚明; 袁洪福; 王海侨; 何立凡; 李效玉

    2012-01-01

    Isocyanurate - oxazolidone modified rigid polyurethane foams, based on polyurethane and epoxy resin, have been prepared by a simultaneous polymerization technique. The changes in the chemical structure were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and the thermal properties of the foams were evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis ( DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis ( TGA) . FT-IR spectroscopy showed that urethane and isocyanurate (IS) structures were formed initially, and were then transformed into oxazolidone ( OX) by reaction with the epoxy resin. The introduction of IS and OX raises the glass transition temperature Tg and significantly improves the heat-resistant properties of the foams.%用一步法制备出聚异氰脲酸酯-噁唑烷酮改性硬质聚氨酯泡沫(PISOX-RPUF),使用FT-IR对反应历程进行定性与半定量研究,并运用DMA、TG表征了PISOX-RPUF的耐高温性能.结果表明,在一定的条件下,体系首先生成氨基甲酸酯与异氰脲酸酯六元环(IS)结构,然后它们再分别与环氧树脂反应生成不唑烷酮(OX)结构;泡沫中IS环与OX环结构的引入,显著提高了PISOX-RPUF的玻璃化转变温度和热稳定性.

  17. Gas-turbine HTGR materials screening test program. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1976--September 30, 1976. [IN 100; IN 713; MM004; M21; IN 738; RENE 100; MoTZM; Hastelloy X; Inconel 617; MA 753; IN 519, Inconel 706; Inconel 718; A286; 316 SS; Incoloy 800

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenwasser, S.N.; Johnson, W.R.

    1976-09-30

    The duration of controlled-impurity creep-screening tests and unstressed aging tests has reached 10,000 hr. Creep and weight change data from testing up to 9,000 hr and results from post-test metallurgical evaluations of several recently returned 3,000-hr specimens, including alloys IN519 and MoTZM, are presented. Preliminary materials requirements for key GT-HTGR 850/sup 0/C (1562/sup 0/F) reactor outlet temperature reference design components are documented.

  18. Corrosion resistance improvement of titanium base alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Popa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy in comparison with ternary Ti-6Al-4V alloy in Ringer-Brown solution and artificial Carter-Brugirard saliva of different pH values was studied. In Ringer-Brown solution, the new alloy presented an improvement of all electrochemical parameters due to the alloying with Zr; also, impedance spectra revealed better protective properties of its passive layer. In Carter-Brugirard artificial saliva, an increase of the passive film thickness was proved. Fluoride ions had a slight negative influence on the corrosion and ion release rates, without to affect the very good stability of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy.

  19. New zirconium alloys for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry, mainly in fuel cladding tubes and structural components for PWR plants. The service life of these components, which operate under high temperatures conditions (∼ 300 deg C), has led to developing new alloys with the aim to improve the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and irradiation damage. The variation in the composition of the alloy produces second phase particles which alter the materials properties according to their size and distribution, is essential therefore, knowledge their characteristics. Analysis of second phase particles in zirconium alloys are carried out by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and image analysis. This study used the zircaloy-4 to illustrate the characterization of these alloys through the study of second phase particles. (author)

  20. Long - range foundry Al composite alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Mekhtiev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The technology of obtaining nanostructural composite aluminum alloys consists in the plasma injection of refractory nanometric particles with simultaneous two-plane magnetic dynamic mixing of the melt. Particularly important in obtaining composite aluminum matrix alloys is the provision of the introduced particles wettability with the matrix melt for forming stable adhesive bonds. Nanostructured powder components can be considered not only to be a starting product for producing nanostructural composite aluminum alloys but as an independent commerce product. Nanostructural composite metal matrix alloys make one of the most prospective structural materials of the future, and liquid-phase technologies of their obtaining are the most competitive in producing products of nanostructural composite aluminum alloys in the industrial scale.