WorldWideScience

Sample records for heat utilizing hermetic

  1. 9 CFR 355.25 - Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat processing; incubation. 355.25 Section 355.25... IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Inspection Procedure § 355.25 Canning with heat...

  2. Waste heat utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Proceedings contain 17 papers presented at meetings of the Working Group for Waste Heat Utilization of the Committee of the European Society of Nuclear Methods in Agriculture of which 7 fall under the INIS scope. The working group met in May 1980 in Brno, Czechoslovakia, in October 1981 in Aberdeen, Scotland and in September 1982 in Brno. (Z.M.)

  3. Hermetically Sealed Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hermetically sealed pump compresses fluid to pressure up to 4,000 atm (400 MPa). Pump employs linear electric motor instead of rotary motor to avoid need for leakage-prone rotary seals. In addition, linear-motor-powered pump would not require packings to seal its piston. Concept thus eliminates major cause of friction and wear. Pump is double-ended diaphragm-type compressor. All moving parts sealed within compressor housing.

  4. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  5. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  6. Industrial waste heat utilization for low temperature district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hao; Xia, Jianjun; Zhu, Kan; Su, Yingbo; Jiang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Large quantities of low grade waste heat are discharged into the environment, mostly via water evaporation, during industrial processes. Putting this industrial waste heat to productive use can reduce fossil fuel usage as well as CO 2 emissions and water dissipation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a holistic approach to the integrated and efficient utilization of low-grade industrial waste heat. Recovering industrial waste heat for use in district heating (DH) can increase the efficiency of the industrial sector and the DH system, in a cost-efficient way defined by the index of investment vs. carbon reduction (ICR). Furthermore, low temperature DH network greatly benefits the recovery rate of industrial waste heat. Based on data analysis and in-situ investigations, this paper discusses the potential for the implementation of such an approach in northern China, where conventional heat sources for DH are insufficient. The universal design approach to industrial-waste-heat based DH is proposed. Through a demonstration project, this approach is introduced in detail. This study finds three advantages to this approach: (1) improvement of the thermal energy efficiency of industrial factories; (2) more cost-efficient than the traditional heating mode; and (3) CO 2 and pollutant emission reduction as well as water conservation. -- Highlights: •We review situation of industrial waste heat recovery with a global perspective. •We present a way to analyze the potential to utilize industrial waste heat for DH. •Northern China has huge potential for using low-grade industrial waste heat for DH. •A demonstration project is introduced using the universal approach we propose. •It proves huge benefits for factories, heat-supply companies and the society

  7. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a hermetic seal leak detection apparatus, which can be used to test for hermetic seal leaks in instruments and containers. A vacuum tight chamber is created around the unit being tested to minimize gas space outside of the hermetic seal. A vacuum inducing device is then used to increase the gas chamber volume inside the device, so that a slight vacuum is pulled on the unit being tested. The pressure in the unit being tested will stabilize. If the stabilized pressure reads close to a known good seal calibration, there is not a leak in the seal. If the stabilized pressure reads closer to a known bad seal calibration value, there is a leak in the seal. The speed of the plunger can be varied and by evaluating the resulting pressure change rates and final values, the leak rate/size can be accurately calculated.

  8. Fuel cell heat utilization system; Nenryo denchi netsuriyo sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, T. [Tokyo (Japan); Omura, T. [Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-04

    In the conventional fuel cell heat utilization system, the waste heat is recovered to be utilized by either the waste heat recovery heat exchanger or the waste heat recovery steam. In the employment of the waste heat recovery heat exchanger system, however, the utility value is decreased when the temperature of the waste heat is lowered. Contrarily, in the employment of the waste heat recovery steam system, the supplementary water requirement is increased corresponding to the amount of waste heat recovery steam, resulting in the cost increase for water treatment. This invention solves the problem. In the invented fuel cell heat utilization system, a pressurized water from the steam separator is introduced into the second circuit to utilize directly the heat in the heat utilization system without employing the heat exchanger. If a blowdown valve is installed between the second circuit heat utilization system and the steam separator, the heat loss due to the blowdown can be reduced, since the low temperature water is blown down after being utilized in the heat utilization system. 4 figs.

  9. Development of a hot heat exchanger and a cleaning system for a 35 kW hermetic four cylinder Stirling engine for solid biomass fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Marinitsch, Gerald; Schöch, Martin

    2005-01-01

    been operated for more than 9,000 hours. Operating experiences gained from these plants formed the basis for the further development of this technology. The experiences showed that the efficiency of the Stirling hot gas heat exchanger and of the hot gas heat exchanger cleaning system have to be further...... optimised. Within the scope of a RD&D project, a new hot gas heat exchanger and a new cleaning system have been developed and optimised in cooperation of the AUSTRIAN BIOENERGY CENTRE GmbH, the Technical University of Denmark, MAWERA Holzfeuerungsanlagen GmbH, Austria, and BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME Gmb......H, Austria. The new design of the Stirling hot gas heat exchanger has been developed in order to optimise the performance of the engine and simplify the geometry. In this respect, an equal distribution of the heat transfer across each tube in the hot gas heat exchanger, the reduction of the internal Helium...

  10. Method for hermetic electrical connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Saundra L [Tijeras, NM; Glass, S Jill [Albuquerque, NM; Stone, Ronnie G [Albuquerque, NM; Bond, Jamey T [Albuquerque, NM; Susan, Donald F [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-12-27

    A method of providing a hermetic, electrical connection between two electrical components by mating at least one metal pin in a glass-ceramic to metal seal connector to two electrical components, wherein the glass-ceramic to metal seal connector incorporates at least one metal pin encased (sealed) in a glass-ceramic material inside of a metal housing, with the glass-ceramic material made from 65-80% SiO.sub.2, 8-16% Li.sub.2O, 2-8% Al.sub.2O.sub.3, 1-5% P.sub.2O.sub.5, 1-8% K.sub.2O, 0.5-7% B.sub.2O.sub.3, and 0-5% ZnO. The connector retains hermeticity at temperatures as high as 700.degree. C. and pressures as high as 500 psi.

  11. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Evan O.

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  12. Hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Robert C.; McConnell, Benjamin W.; Phillips, Benjamin A.

    1996-01-01

    A hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor includes a rotor separated from a stator by either a radial gap, an axial gap, or a combined axial and radial gap. Dual conically shaped stators are used in one embodiment to levitate a disc-shaped rotor made of superconducting material within a conduit for moving cryogenic fluid. As the rotor is caused to rotate when the field stator is energized, the fluid is pumped through the conduit.

  13. Comprehensive model of a hermetic reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Ziviani, D.; Groll, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive simulation model is presented to predict the performance of a hermetic reciprocating compressor and to reveal the underlying mechanisms when the compressor is running. The presented model is composed of sub-models simulating the in-cylinder compression process, piston ring/journal bearing frictional power loss, single phase induction motor and the overall compressor energy balance among different compressor components. The valve model, leakage through piston ring model and in-cylinder heat transfer model are also incorporated into the in-cylinder compression process model. A numerical algorithm solving the model is introduced. The predicted results of the compressor mass flow rate and input power consumption are compared to the published compressor map values. Future work will focus on detailed experimental validation of the model and parametric studies investigating the effects of structural parameters, including the stroke-to-bore ratio, on the compressor performance.

  14. Heat utilization for light industries through ISER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kingo

    1987-01-01

    The inherently safe feature of ISER seems to make it easier to get public assimilation for urban siting or siting adjacent to industrial complexes. In this sense, energies from ISER should not be limited only to electric power generation. The present report reviews the current status of energy demand in industries and discusses the possibility of multi-purpose use of ISER. It is very important to consider the nuclear energy as a substitution for the primary energy (oil, coal, etc.). In multiple application of a nuclear power plant, high pressure and high temperature stram can be used for plants, and low pressure and low temperature steam can be used for district heating-cooling and so on. Bleeding steam (at low pressure) from the turbine can be supplied to desalination plants. For agriculture, waste heat from steam can be effectively used. Multi-purpose nuclear power utilization projects are currently under way or planned in various countries in the world, including Sweden, the Soviet Union and France. There are a lot of difficult problems, however, for the economical multi-purpose use of nuclear power. There are too many variety of industries in limited districts, and it is very difficult to cope with various kinds of energy demand. Energy demand of each plant is relatively small. Reliable supply is indispensable. Energy cost should be cheaper than or at least the same as that for existing fossile fuel plants. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Evaluation of Excess Heat Utilization in District Heating Systems by Implementing Levelized Cost of Excess Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna Doračić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available District heating plays a key role in achieving high primary energy savings and the reduction of the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This was recently recognized by the European Commission, which emphasizes the importance of these systems, especially when integrated with renewable energy sources, like solar, biomass, geothermal, etc. On the other hand, high amounts of heat are currently being wasted in the industry sector, which causes low energy efficiency of these processes. This excess heat can be utilized and transported to the final customer by a distribution network. The main goal of this research was to calculate the potential for excess heat utilization in district heating systems by implementing the levelized cost of excess heat method. Additionally, this paper proves the economic and environmental benefits of switching from individual heating solutions to a district heating system. This was done by using the QGIS software. The variation of different relevant parameters was taken into account in the sensitivity analysis. Therefore, the final result was the determination of the maximum potential distance of the excess heat source from the demand, for different available heat supplies, costs of pipes, and excess heat prices.

  16. Calculating the marginal costs of a district-heating utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, Joergen; Henning, Dag

    2004-01-01

    District heating plays an important role in the Swedish heat-market. At the same time, the price of district heating varies considerably among different district-heating utilities. A case study is performed here in which a Swedish utility is analysed using three different methods for calculating the marginal costs of heat supply: a manual spreadsheet method, an optimising linear-programming model, and a least-cost dispatch simulation model. Calculated marginal-costs, obtained with the three methods, turn out to be similar. The calculated marginal-costs are also compared to the actual heat tariff in use by the utility. Using prices based on marginal costs should be able to bring about an efficient resource-allocation. It is found that the fixed rate the utility uses today should be replaced by a time-of-use rate, which would give a more accurate signal for customers to change their heat consumptions. (Author)

  17. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  18. Operation strategy analysis of a geothermal step utilization heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Guozhong; Li, Feng; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng; Li, Qianru; Zhu, Han

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal energy has been successfully applied in many district heating systems. In order to promote better use of geothermal energy, it is important to analyze the operation strategy of geothermal heating system. This study proposes a comprehensive and systematic operation strategy for a geothermal step utilization heating system (GSUHS). Calculation models of radiator heating system (RHS), radiant floor heating system (RFHS), heat pump (HP), gas boiler (GB), plate heat exchanger (PHE) and pump are first established. Then the operation strategy of the GSUHS is analyzed with the aim to substantially reduce the conventional energy consumption of the whole system. Finally, the energy efficiency and geothermal tail water temperature are analyzed. With the operation strategy in this study, the geothermal energy provides the main heating amount for the system. The heating seasonal performance factor is 15.93. Compared with coal-fired heating, 75.1% of the standard coal equivalent can be saved. The results provide scientific guidance for the application of an operation strategy for a geothermal step utilization heating system. -- Highlights: ► We establish calculation models for the geothermal step utilization heating system. ► We adopt minimal conventional energy consumption to determine the operation strategy. ► The geothermal energy dominates the heating quantity of the whole system. ► The utilization efficiency of the geothermal energy is high. ► The results provide guidance to conduct operation strategy for scientific operation.

  19. Determination of the oil distribution in a hermetic compressor using numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, S.; Hopfgartner, J.; Berger, E.; Zuber, B.; Almbauer, R.; Schöllauf, P.

    2017-08-01

    In addition to the reduction of friction the oil in a hermetic compressor is very important for the transfer of heat from hot parts to the compressor shell. The simulation of the oil distribution in a hermetic reciprocating compressor for refrigeration application is shown in the present work. Using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS Fluent, the oil flow inside the compressor shell from the oil pump outlet to the oil sump is calculated. A comprehensive overview of the used models and the boundary conditions is given. After reaching steady-state conditions the oil covered surfaces are analysed concerning heat transfer coefficients. The gained heat transfer coefficients are used as input parameters for a thermal model of a hermetic compressor. An increase in accuracy of the thermal model with the simulated heat transfer coefficients compared to values from literature is shown by model validation with experimental data.

  20. Reactor waste heat utilization and district heating reactors. Nuclear district heating in Sweden - Regional reject heat utilization schemes and small heat-only reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, K.; Larsson, Y.; Margen, P.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review is given of the current status of district heating in Sweden. In future, district heating schemes will become increasingly interesting as a means of utilizing heat from nuclear reactors. Present recommendations in Sweden are that large reactors should not be located closer than about 20 km from large population centres. Reject heat from such reactors is cheap at source. To minimize the cost of long distance hot water transmission large heat rates must be transmitted. Only areas with large populations can meet this requirement. The three areas of main interest are Malmoe/Lund/Helsingborg housing close to 0.5 million; Greater Stockholm housing 1 to 1.5 million and Greater Gothenburg housing about 0.5 million people. There is an active proposal that the Malmoe/Lund/Helsingborg region would be served by a third nuclear unit at Barsebaeck, located about 20 km from Malmoe/Lund and supplying 950 MW of base load heat. Preliminary proposals for Stockholm involve a 2000 MW heat supply; proposals for Gothenburg are more tentative. The paper describes progress on these proposals and their technology. It also outlines technology under development to increase the economic range of large scale heat transport and to make distribution economic even for low heat-density family housing estates. Regions apart from the few major urban areas mentioned above require the adoption of a different approach. To this end the development of a small, simple low-temperature reactor for heat-only production suitable for urban location has been started in Sweden in close contact with Finland. Some results of the work in progress are presented, with emphasis on the safety requirements. An outline is given in the paper as to how problems of regional heat planning and institutional and legislative issues are being approached

  1. Nonlinear Aspects of Heat Pump Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Najman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work attempts to answer the question: How much can we believe that the coefficient of performance provided by the manufacturer is correct, when a heat pump is required to face the real load coming from changes of temperature? The paper summarizes some basics of heat pump theory and describes the results of numerical models.

  2. Utilization of heat of finely divided solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-11-05

    A method pr preconditioning subdivided solids subjected to a high-temperature treatment in a high-temperature treating zone, comprises transferring a portion of the sensible heat of hot, subdivided, treated solids withdrawn from said treating zone, at a relatively high temperature level to said subdivided solids to be preconditioned, transferring another portion of said sensible heat at a relatively low temperature level to a material vaporizable at said low temperature level to generate a fluidizing medium and fluidizing said subdivided withdrawn solids by means of said fluidizing medium to improve the heat-transfer characteristics of said withdrawn solids.

  3. Hermetic compartments leak-tightness enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murani, J.

    2000-01-01

    In connection with the enhancement of the nuclear safety of the Jaslovske Bohunice V-1 NPP actions for the increase of the leak tightness are performed. The reconstruction has been done in the following directions: hermetic compartments leak tightness enhancement; air lock installation; installation of air lock in SP 4 vent system; integrated leakage rate test to hermetic compartments with leak detection. After 'major' leaks on the hermetic boundary components had been eliminated, since 1994 works on a higher qualitative level began. The essence of the works consists in the detection and identification of leaks in the structural component of the hermetic boundary during the planned refueling outages. The results of the Small Reconstruction and gradual enhancement of leak tightness are presented

  4. Utilization of low-temperature heat sources for heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature heat sources are available in many applications, ranging from waste heat from marine diesel engines, industries and refrigeration plants to biomass, geothermal and solar heat sources. There is a great potential for enhancing the utilization of these heat sources by novel...

  5. Compressed air production with waste heat utilization in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, E.

    1984-06-01

    The centralized power-heat coupling (PHC) technique using block heating power stations, is presented. Compressed air production in PHC technique with internal combustion engine drive achieves a high degree of primary energy utilization. Cost savings of 50% are reached compared to conventional production. The simultaneous utilization of compressed air and heat is especially interesting. A speed regulated drive via an internal combustion motor gives a further saving of 10% to 20% compared to intermittent operation. The high fuel utilization efficiency ( 80%) leads to a pay off after two years for operation times of 3000 hr.

  6. Nuclear power plant waste heat utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; Huke, R.E.; Archer, J.C.; Price, D.R.; Jewell, W.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Witherby, H.R.

    1977-09-01

    The possibility of using Vermont Yankee condenser effluent for commercial food growth enhancement was examined. It was concluded that for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station, commercial success, both for horticulture and aquaculture endeavors, could not be assured without additional research in both areas. This is due primarily to two problems. First, the particularly low heat quality of our condenser discharge, being nominally 72 +- 2/sup 0/F; and second, to the capital intensive support systems. The capital needed for the support systems include costs of pumps, piping and controls to move the heated water to growing facilities and the costs of large, efficient heat exchangers that may be necessary to avoid regulatory difficulties due to the 1958 Delaney Amendment to the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. Recommendations for further work include construction of a permanent aquaculture research laboratory and a test greenhouse complex based on a greenhouse wherein a variety of heating configurations would be installed and tested. One greenhouse would be heated with biogas from an adjacent anaerobic digester thermally boosted during winter months by Vermont Yankee condenser effluent. The aquaculture laboratory would initially be dedicated to the Atlantic salmon restoration program. It appears possible to raise fingerling salmon to smolt size within 7 months using water warmed to about 60/sup 0/F. The growth rate by this technique is increased by a factor of 2 to 3. A system concept has been developed which includes an aqua-laboratory, producing 25,000 salmon smolt annually, a 4-unit greenhouse test horticulture complex and an 18,000 square foot commercial fish-rearing facility producing 100,000 pounds of wet fish (brook trout) per year. The aqualab and horticulture test complex would form the initial phase of construction. The trout-rearing facility would be delayed pending results of laboratory studies confirming its commercial viability.

  7. Nuclear power plant waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryther, J.H.; Huke, R.E.; Archer, J.C.; Price, D.R.; Jewell, W.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Witherby, H.R.

    1977-09-01

    The possibility of using Vermont Yankee condenser effluent for commercial food growth enhancement was examined. It was concluded that for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station, commercial success, both for horticulture and aquaculture endeavors, could not be assured without additional research in both areas. This is due primarily to two problems. First, the particularly low heat quality of our condenser discharge, being nominally 72 +- 2 0 F; and second, to the capital intensive support systems. The capital needed for the support systems include costs of pumps, piping and controls to move the heated water to growing facilities and the costs of large, efficient heat exchangers that may be necessary to avoid regulatory difficulties due to the 1958 Delaney Amendment to the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. Recommendations for further work include construction of a permanent aquaculture research laboratory and a test greenhouse complex based on a greenhouse wherein a variety of heating configurations would be installed and tested. One greenhouse would be heated with biogas from an adjacent anaerobic digester thermally boosted during winter months by Vermont Yankee condenser effluent. The aquaculture laboratory would initially be dedicated to the Atlantic salmon restoration program. It appears possible to raise fingerling salmon to smolt size within 7 months using water warmed to about 60 0 F. The growth rate by this technique is increased by a factor of 2 to 3. A system concept has been developed which includes an aqua-laboratory, producing 25,000 salmon smolt annually, a 4-unit greenhouse test horticulture complex and an 18,000 square foot commercial fish-rearing facility producing 100,000 pounds of wet fish (brook trout) per year. The aqualab and horticulture test complex would form the initial phase of construction. The trout-rearing facility would be delayed pending results of laboratory studies confirming its commercial viability

  8. Utilization of waste heat from nuclear power plants in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1981-01-01

    The development of nuclear power will result in the relative and absolute increase in the amount of waste heat which can be used in agriculture for heating greenhouses, open spaces, for fish breeding in heated water, for growing edible mushrooms, growing algae, for frost protection of orchards, air conditioning of buildings for breeding livestock and poultry, and for other purposes. In addition of the positive effect of waste heat, the danger increases of disease, weeds and pests. Pilot plant installations should be build in Czechoslovakia for testing the development of waste heat utilization. (Ha)

  9. Direct Heat Utilization of Geothermal Resources Worldwide 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Direct utilization of geothermal energy consists of various forms for heating and cooling instead of converting the energy for electric power generation. The geothermal resources that can be utilized are in the lower temperature range that are more wide-spread than the higher temperature resources used for electricity generation. The major areas of direct utilization are: heating of swimming pools and for balneology; space heating and cooling including district heating; agriculture applications (greenhouse heating and crop drying); aquaculture applications; industrial processing; and geothermal heat pumps. Direct utilization projects are reported in 72 countries with an installed capacity of 28,268 MWt and annual energy use of 273,372 TJ (75,943 GWh) reported in 2005. The equivalent annual savings in fuel oil amounts to 170 million barrels (25.4 million tonnes) and 24 million tonnes in carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Recent trends are to combined geothermal heat and power projects in order to maximize the use of the resource and improve the economics of the project. With the recent increases in fossil fuel prices, it is estimated that direct utilizations will more than double in the next 10 years.

  10. Process heat utilization from HTGR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Work performed by the Special Research Unit 163 to supplement industrial development projects in the subject field was devoted to specific problems. The major goal was to analyse available industrial developments for potential improvements in terms of process design and engineering in line with the latest know-how, in order to enhance the economic efficiency of available techniques and methods. So research into coal gasification by nuclear processes concentrated on the potentials of a method allowing significantly higher gasification temperatures due to the use of a so-called high-temperature heat pump operating on the basis of the gas turbine principle. Exergetic analyses were made for the processes using nuclear heat in order to optimise their energy consumption. Major steps in these processes are gas purification and gas separation. Especially for the latter step, novel techniques were studied and tested on lab scale, results being used for development towards technical scale application. One novel technique is a method for separating hydrogen from methane and carbon monoxide by means of a gas turbine process step, another research task resulted in a novel absorption technique in the liquid phase. Further, alternative solutions were studied which, other than the conventional gasification processes, comprise electrochemical and other chemical process steps. The important research topic concerned with the kinetics of coal gasification was made part of a special research program on the level of fundamental research. (orig./GL) [de

  11. Fluidized bed heat exchanger utilizing angularly extending heat exchange tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmud, Fred M.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan-Antonio

    1980-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.

  12. Optimization criteria for low temperature waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranebitter, F.

    1977-01-01

    A special case in this field is the utilization of very low temperature waste heat. The temperature level under consideration in this paper is in the range between the body temperature of human beings and their environment. The waste heat from power generation and industrial processes is also considered. Thermal energy conversion will be mainly accomplished by heat cycles where discharged waste heat is reverse proportional to the upper cycle temperature. Limiting this upper cycle temperature by technological reasons the optimization of the heat cycle will depend on the nature of the cycle itself and specially on the temperature selected for the heat discharge. The waste heat discharge is typical for the different kinds of heat cycles and the paper presents the four most important of them. Feasible heat transfer methods and their economic evaluations are discussed and the distillation processes will be the basis for further considerations. The waste heat utilization for distillation purposes could be realized by three different cycles, the open cycle, the closed cycle and the multy cycle. Resulting problems as deaeration of large water streams and removal of the dissolved gases and their solutions are also discussed. (M.S.)

  13. Utilizing waste heat. Energy recovery options for trade and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, W

    1988-08-01

    The article shows options for efficient and low-cost thermal energy recovery. Heat recovery involves a number of problems, e.g. the type of waste heat, the uses of the energy recovered, and the best way of utilizing it. There is no generally applicable way of solving these problems. Some practical examples are presented. Economically efficient solutions require detailed technical knowledge as well as a good portion of creativity and imagination. (BR).

  14. Method for utilizing decay heat from radioactive nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busey, H.M.

    1974-01-01

    Management of radioactive heat-producing waste material while safely utilizing the heat thereof is accomplished by encapsulating the wastes after a cooling period, transporting the capsules to a facility including a plurality of vertically disposed storage tubes, lowering the capsules as they arrive at the facility into the storage tubes, cooling the storage tubes by circulating a gas thereover, employing the so heated gas to obtain an economically beneficial result, and continually adding waste capsules to the facility as they arrive thereat over a substantial period of time

  15. Device for district heating with utilization of waste heat from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korek, J.

    1976-01-01

    In order to utilize the waste heat developing in power plants - especially in nuclear power plants - the author suggests to lead the waste heat of the coolers for oil (which the bearings are lubricated with), hydrogen (which serves for the stator rotor-cooling), and the stator cooling water to the circulating district heating water and to arrange these heat exchangers one behind another or parallel to each other in the water circuit of the district heating system. The oil cooler of the engine transformer is also connected with the circulation of the district heating water. The runback water of the district heating network could thus be heated from approx. 40 0 C up to 65 0 C. (UA) [de

  16. Utilization of waste heat from aluminium electrolytic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Radovan; Gavlas, Stanislav; Lenhard, Richard; Malcho, Milan; Sedlak, Veroslav; Teie, Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    During the aluminium production, 50% of the supplied energy is consumed by the chemical process, and 50% of the supplied energy is lost in form of heat. Heat losses are necessary to maintain a frozen side ledge to protect the side walls, so extra heat has to be wasted. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the process, it is necessary to significantly lower the heat losses dissipated by the furnace's external surface. Goodtech Recovery Technology (GRT) has developed a technology based on the use of heat pipes for utilization energy from the waste heat produced in the electrolytic process. Construction of condenser plays important role for efficient operation of energy systems. The condensation part of the heat pipe is situated on top of the heating zone. The thermal oil is used as cooling medium in the condenser. This paper analyses the effect of different operation condition of thermal oil to thermal performance. From the collected results it is obvious that the larger mass flow and higher temperature cause better thermal performance and lower pressure drop.

  17. Performance enhancement of hermetic compressor using phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, I. M.; Rady, M. A.; Huzayyin, A. S.

    2015-08-01

    The present study is motivated by the need for the research of simple measures for increasing energy efficiency of hermetic compressor. The measure is the application of phase change materials for performance enhancement. The first experimental study should be guide for choice of PCM. It has been performed to investigate the effects of thermostat setting temperature on the performance of hermetic compressor. The effects of thermostat setting temperature with and without load on power consumption have been analyzed. Performance enhancement using phase change materials (PCMs) has been studied by employing a phase change material Rubitherm-42 (RT-42) on the top surface of compressor. Choice of PCM material is based on basic compressor performance measured in the first part of the present study. Experiments have been carried out for different load values and different quantities of PCM. The quantity and phase change characteristic of PCM are essential parameters that determine the percentage of performance enhancement in term of energy consumption. Reduction of energy consumption of about 10% has been achieved in the present study by using PCM. The present study shows that how to reduce the electrical power consumption to enhance compressor heat dissipation method to improve efficiency.

  18. Optimizing Waste Heat Utilization in Vehicle Bio-Methane Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Current vehicle bio-methane plants have drawbacks associated with high energy consumption and low recovery levels of waste heat produced during the gasification process. In this paper, we have optimized the performance of heat exchange networks using pinch analysis and through the introduction of heat pump integration technology. Optimal results for the heat exchange network of a bio-gas system producing 10,000 cubic meters have been calculated using a pinch point temperature of 50 °C, a minimum heating utility load of 234.02 kW and a minimum cooling utility load of 201.25 kW. These optimal parameters are predicted to result in energy savings of 116.08 kW (19.75%, whilst the introduction of new heat pump integration technology would afford further energy savings of 95.55 kW (16.25%. The combined energy saving value of 211.63 kW corresponds to a total energy saving of 36%, with economic analysis revealing that these reforms would give annual savings of 103,300 USD. The installation costs required to introduce these process modifications are predicted to require an initial investment of 423,200 USD, which would take 4.1 years to reach payout time based on predicted annual energy savings.

  19. National need for utilizing nuclear energy for process heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are potential sources for generating process heat, and their applications for such use economically competitive. They help satisfy national needs by helping conserve and extend oil and natural gas resources, thus reducing energy imports and easing future international energy concerns. Several reactor types can be utilized for generating nuclear process heat; those considered here are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), gas-cooled reactors (GCRs), and liquid metal reactors (LMRs). LWRs and HWRs can generate process heat up to 280 0 C, LMRs up to 540 0 C, and GCRs up to 950 0 C. Based on the studies considered here, the estimated process heat markets and the associated energy markets which would be supplied by the various reactor types are summarized

  20. Optimal assignment of multiple utilities in heat exchange networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, A.I.A.

    2009-01-01

    Existing numerical geometry-based techniques, developed by [A.I.A. Salama, Numerical techniques for determining heat energy targets in pinch analysis, Computers and Chemical Engineering 29 (2005) 1861-1866; A.I.A. Salama, Determination of the optimal heat energy targets in heat pinch analysis using a geometry-based approach, Computers and Chemical Engineering 30 (2006) 758-764], have been extended to optimally assign multiple utilities in heat exchange network (HEN). These techniques utilize the horizontal shift between the cold composite curve (CC) and the stationary hot CC to determine the HEN optimal energy targets, grand composite curve (GCC), and the complement grand composite curve (CGCC). The proposed numerical technique developed in this paper is direct and simultaneously determines the optimal heat-energy targets and optimally assigns multiple utilities as compared with an existing technique based on sequential assignment of multiple utilities. The technique starts by arranging in an ascending order the HEN stream and target temperatures, and the resulting set is labelled T. Furthermore, the temperature sets where multiple utilities are introduced are arranged in an ascending order and are labelled T ic and T ih for the cold and hot sides, respectively. The graphical presentation of the results is facilitated by the insertion at each multiple-utility temperature a perturbed temperature equals the insertion temperature minus a small perturbation. Furthermore, using the heat exchanger network (HEN) minimum temperature-differential approach (ΔT min ) and stream heat-capacity flow rates, the presentation is facilitated by using the conventional temperature shift of the HEN CCs. The set of temperature-shifted stream and target temperatures and perturbed temperatures in the overlap range between the CCs is labelled T ol . Using T ol , a simple formula employing enthalpy-flow differences between the hot composite curve CC h and the cold composite curve CC c is

  1. Glass-ceramic composition for hermetic seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, C.P. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to a glass-ceramic composition having a high fracture strength adaptable for hermetically sealing to chromium bearing iron or nickel base alloys at temperatures of between about 950 0 C to about 1100 0 C to form a hermetically sealed insulator body, comprising from about 55 to about 65 weight percent SiO 2 , from about 0 to about 5 weight percent Al 2 O 3 , from about 6 to about 11 weight % Li 2 O, from about 25 to about 32 weight percent BaO, from about 0.5 to about 1.0 weight percent CoO and from about 1.5 to about 3.5 weight percent P 2 O 5

  2. Glass-ceramic composition for hermetic seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jr., Clifford P.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to a glass-ceramic composition having a high fracture strength adaptable for hermetically sealing to chromium bearing iron or nickel base alloys at temperatures of between about 950.degree. C to about 1100.degree. C to form a hermetically sealed insulator body, comprising from about 55 to about 65 weight percent SiO.sub.2, from about 0 to about 5 weight percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, from about 6 to about 11 weight % Li.sub.2 O, from about 25 to about 32 weight percent BaO, from about 0.5 to about 1.0 weight percent CoO and from about 1.5 to about 3.5 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5.

  3. Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

  4. Utilization of low temperature heat for environmentally friendly electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Elmegaard, Brian; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    the benefits of using mixtures compared to pure fluids as working fluids in organic Rankine cycles. In order to do so, thermodynamic and economic analyses are carried out, first on an overall cycle level, and next on component level including detailed modelling of heat exchangers, pumps and expanders involving...... project collaborators with expertise in these areas. In addition to this, novel innovative cycle layouts are developed with the aim of increasing the economic feasibility of utilizing low temperature heat. As an example, this can be achieved by implementing separators in the power cycle to create optimal...

  5. Evaluation of Polymer Hermetically Sealed Tantalum Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer cathode tantalum capacitors have lower ESR (equivalent series resistance) compared to other types of tantalum capacitors and for this reason have gained popularity in the electronics design community. Their use allows improved performance of power supply systems along with substantial reduction of size and weight of the components used. However, these parts have poor thermal stability and can degrade in humid environments. Polymer hermetically sealed (PHS) capacitors avoid problems related to environmental degradation of molded case parts and can potentially replace current wet and solid hermetically sealed capacitors. In this work, PHS capacitors manufactured per DLA LAM DWG#13030 are evaluated for space applications. Several lots of capacitors manufactured over period from 2010 to 2014 were tested for the consistency of performance, electrical and thermal characteristics, highly accelerated life testing, and robustness under reverse bias and random vibration conditions. Special attention was given to analysis of leakage currents and the effect of long-term high temperature storage on capacitors in as is condition and after hermeticity loss. The results show that PHS capacitors might be especially effective for low-temperature applications or for system requiring a cold start-up. Additional screening and qualification testing have been recommended to assure the necessary quality of capacitors for space projects.

  6. LAr calorimeter for SCC with a common vacuum bulkhead---a concept to improve hermeticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, W.L.; Watt, R.D.

    1989-11-01

    A new concept for a Barrel/Endcap LAr Calorimeter (LAC) is described in which the Barrel and Endcaps are in separate vacuum enclosures but share a common vacuum bulkhead (CVB). We explore 2 possible bulkhead construction types; welded plate sandwich panels, and brazed sandwich panels in which the core is an isotropic cellular solid--foamed aluminum. Gas lines and electric cables from he innermost Drift Chamber pass through radial holes in the core of the sandwich bulkhead. The CVB concept offers the potential to obtain a more hermetic calorimeter with significantly reduced dead material and/or space in the interface region common to conventional design LAr detectors for the SSC with Endcap features. To utilize a common additional steps to remove the Drift Chamber, a large increase in Endcap standby heat leak, and perhaps, new cryogenic safety issues. We find that significant amount of dead mass can be removed from critical regions of the vacuum shells when compared to a promising SSC LAC reference design. It is also shown that the increased standby heat leak of this concept can be easily removed by existing cooling capacity in another large LAr calorimeter. It is further shown that shut-downs need not be appreciably longer. Finally, it is argued that cryogen spill hazards can be avoided if the Endcap's LAr is removed during Drift chamber maintenance shutdowns, and that cryogenic safety is not compromised

  7. Heat Exchangers for Utilization of the Heat of High-Temperature Geothermal Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    The basic component of two-circuit geothermal systems is the heat exchanger. When used in geothermal power systems, conventional shell-and-tube and plate heat exchangers cause problems related to the cleaning of the latter from salt-deposition and corrosion products. Their lifetime does not exceed, as a rule, 1 year. To utilize the heat of high-temperature geothermal brines, a heat exchanger of the "tube-in-tube" type is proposed. A heat exchanger of this design has been operated for several years in Ternair geothermal steam field; in this heat exchanger, the thermal potential of the saline thermal water is transferred to the fresh water of the secondary circuit of the heating system for apartment houses. The reduction in the weight and size characteristics of the heat exchangers is a topical problem that can be solved with the help of heat transfer enhancers. To enhance the heat transfer process in the heat exchanger, longitudinal ribbing of the heat exchange surface is proposed. The increase in the heat exchange surface from the heat carrier side by ribbing results in an increase in the amount of the heat transferred from the heating agent. The heat exchanger is easy to manufacture and is assembled out of components comprised of two concentrically positioned tubes of a definite length, 3-6 m, serially connected with each other. The method for calculation of the impact of the number and the size of the longitudinal ribs on the heat transfer in the well heat exchanger is presented and a criterion for the selection of the optimal number and design parameters of the ribs is formulated. To prevent the corrosion and salt deposition in the heat exchanger, the use of an effective OEDFK (oxyethylidenediphosphonic acid) agent is proposed. This agent has a long-lasting corrosion-inhibiting and antiscaling effect, which is explained by the formation of a strongly adhesive chelate layer difficult to wash off the surface. The passivating OEDFK layer is restored by periodical

  8. Sea water desalination utilizing waste heat by low temperature evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, A.; Srivastava, A.; Rao, I.S.; Majumdar, M.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Economics of a process is controlled by management of energy and resources. Fresh water has become most valued resource in industries. Desalination is a process by which fresh water resource is generated from sea water or brackish water, but it is an energy intensive process. The energy cost contributes around 25-40% to the total cost of the desalted water. Utilization of waste heat from industrial streams is one of the ecofriendly ways to produce low cost desalted water. Keeping this in mind Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination technology utilizing low quality waste heat in the form of hot water (as low as 50 deg C) or low pressure steam (0.13 bar) has been developed for offshore and land based applications to produce high purity water (conductivity < 2μS/cm) from sea water. The probability of the scale formation is practically eliminated by operating it at low temperature and controlling the brine concentration. It also does not require elaborate chemical pretreatment of sea water except chlorination, so it has no environmental impact. LTE technology has found major applications in nuclear reactors where large quantity of low quality waste heat is available to produce high quality desalted water for make up water requirement replacing conventional ion exchange process. Successful continuous operation of 30 Te/day LTE desalination plant utilizing waste heat from nuclear research reactor has demonstrated the safety, reliability, extreme plant availability and economics of nuclear desalination by LTE technology. It is also proposed to utilize waste heat from Main Heat Transport (MHT) purification circuit of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) to produce about 250 Te/ day high quality desalinated water by Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) process for the reactor make up and plant utilization. Recently we have commissioned a 50 Te/day 2-effect low temperature desalination plant with cooling tower where the specific energy and cooling water requirement are

  9. Radon in houses utilizing stone magazines for heat accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of 222 Rn and its daughters in three solar energy houses utilizing stone magazines for heat accumulation are reported. Theoretical calculations of the radon contribution from the stone magazines seem to be in good agreement with the measured values. The survey indicated that this method for heat accumulation could give a significant increase in the indoor radon concentration if the radium concentration of the stone material is high. The theoretical considerations suggest that a radium concentration of 1 pCi/g of the stone material could give an increment of the radon concentration in the indoor air of about 1 pCi/l. during the heating season in a house with air volume of 250 m 3 and a 10 5 -kg stone magazine. (author)

  10. Business Opportunity Prospectus for Utilities in Solar Water Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Alliance Group

    1999-06-30

    Faced with deregulation and increasingly aggressive competition, utilities are looking for new products and services to increase revenues, improve customer loyalty and retention, and establish barriers to market erosion. With open access now a reality, and retail wheeling just around the corner, business expansion via new products and services is now the central goal for most utilities in the United States. It may seem surprising that solar thermal energy as applied to heating domestic hot water - an idea that has been around for a long time - offers what utilities and their residential customers want most in a new product/service. This document not only explains how and why, it shows how to get into the business and succeed on a commercial scale.

  11. Performance and availability of seawater distiller with heat pipe utilizing low grade waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Dae; Chung, Kyung Yul [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tanaka, Hiroshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Exhaust gas from a small portable electric generator is simply exhausted to the surroundings because the capacity and quality of the waste heat of this gas is generally not sufficient to recover and utilize. We have proposed a seawater distiller utilizing the thermal energy of waste gas from an electric generator. The distiller recovers heat from the waste gas by means of a heat pipe and uses it effectively through a multiple effect diffusion type structure. We constructed an experimental apparatus with a vertical single effect still having a 4 stroke 50cc generator engine and found that the experimental results for distillate productivity show good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The results show that the distiller can recover 52W of waste heat from the gas at 171.deg.C, and {approx}85%, of the recovered heat can be utilized for distillation to produce 70g/h of fresh water. This is equivalent to a productivity of 500g/h in the case of a 10 effect still. Therefore, the proposed distiller should be useful in remote areas where electricity and water grids are inadequate.

  12. Hermeticity testing of MEMS and microelectronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Costello, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Packaging of microelectronics has been developing since the invention of the transistor in 1947. With the increasing complexity and decreasing size of the die, packaging requirements have continued to change. A step change in package requirements came with the introduction of the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) whereby interactions with the external environment are, in some cases, required.This resource is a rapid, definitive reference on hermetic packaging for the MEMS and microelectronics industry, giving practical guidance on traditional and newly developed test methods. This book in

  13. Efficiency of utilization of heat of moisture from exhaust gases of heat HRSG of CCGT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galashov Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the technology of utilizing the heat of exhaust gas moisture from heat recovery steam gases (HRSG of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT. Particular attention focused on the influence of the excess air factor on the trapping of the moisture of the exhaust gases, as in the HRSG of the CCGT its value varies over a wider range than in the steam boilers of the TPP. For the research, has been developed a mathematical model that allows to determine the volumes of combustion products and the amount of water vapor produced according to a given composition of the burned gas and determine the amount of moisture that will be obtained as a result of condensation at a given temperature of the flue gases at the outlet of the condensation heat exchanger (CHE. To calculate the efficiency of the HRSG taking into account the heat of condensation of moisture in the CHE an equation is derived.

  14. The relationship among CPU utilization, temperature, and thermal power for waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, Anna M.; Sherbeck, Jon; Phelan, Patrick; Varsamopoulos, Georgios; Gupta, Sandeep K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work graphs a triad relationship among CPU utilization, temperature and power. • Using a custom-built cold plate, we were able capture CPU-generated high quality heat. • The work undertakes a radical approach using mineral oil to directly cool CPUs. • We found that it is possible to use CPU waste energy to power an absorption chiller. - Abstract: This work addresses significant datacenter issues of growth in numbers of computer servers and subsequent electricity expenditure by proposing, analyzing and testing a unique idea of recycling the highest quality waste heat generated by datacenter servers. The aim was to provide a renewable and sustainable energy source for use in cooling the datacenter. The work incorporates novel approaches in waste heat usage, graphing CPU temperature, power and utilization simultaneously, and a mineral oil experimental design and implementation. The work presented investigates and illustrates the quantity and quality of heat that can be captured from a variably tasked liquid-cooled microprocessor on a datacenter server blade. It undertakes a radical approach using mineral oil. The trials examine the feasibility of using the thermal energy from a CPU to drive a cooling process. Results indicate that 123 servers encapsulated in mineral oil can power a 10-ton chiller with a design point of 50.2 kW th . Compared with water-cooling experiments, the mineral oil experiment mitigated the temperature drop between the heat source and discharge line by up to 81%. In addition, due to this reduction in temperature drop, the heat quality in the oil discharge line was up to 12.3 °C higher on average than for water-cooled experiments. Furthermore, mineral oil cooling holds the potential to eliminate the 50% cooling expenditure which initially motivated this project

  15. Overview of HTGR heat utilization system development at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Shiozawa, S.; Ogawa, M.; Akino, N.; Shimizu, S.; Hada, K.; Inagaki, Y.; Onuki, K.; Takeda, T.; Nishihara, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has conducted research and development of nuclear heat utilization systems of a High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), which are capable to meet a large amount of energy demand without significant CO 2 emission to relax the global warming issue. The High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) with thermal output of 30 MW and outlet coolant temperature of 950 deg C, the first HTGR in Japan, is under construction on the JAERI site, and its first criticality is scheduled for mid-1998. After the reactor performance and safety demonstration tests for several years, a hydrogen production system will be connected to the HTTR. A demonstration program on hydrogen production started in January 1997, in JAERI, as a study consigned by the Science and Technology Agency. A hydrogen production system connected to the HTTR is designed to be able to produce hydrogen by steam reforming of natural gas, using nuclear heat of 10 MW from the HTTR. The safety principle and standard are investigated for the HTTR hydrogen production system. In order to confirm safety, controllability and performance of key components in the HTTR hydrogen production system, an out-of-pile test facility on the scale of approximately 1/30 of the HTTR hydrogen production system is installed. It is equipped with an electric heater as a heat source instead of the HTTR. The out-of-pile test will be performed for four years after 2001. The HTTR hydrogen production system will be demonstratively operated after 2005 at its earliest plan. Other basic studies on the hydrogen production system using thermochemical water splitting, an iodine sulphur (IS) process, and technology of distant heat transport with microencapsulated phase change material have been carried out for more effective and various uses of nuclear heat. (author)

  16. Estimation of low-potential heat recuperation efficiency of smoke fumes in a condensation heat utilizer under various operation conditions of a boiler and a heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Luning, B.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    For enhancement of the natural gas utilization efficiency in boilers, condensation heat utilizers of low-potential heat, which are constructed based on a contact heat exchanger, can be applied. A schematic of the contact heat exchanger with a humidifier for preheating and humidifying of air supplied in the boiler for combustion is given. Additional low-potential heat in this scheme is utilized for heating of the return delivery water supplied from a heating system. Preheating and humidifying of air supplied for combustion make it possible to use the condensation utilizer for heating of a heat-transfer agent to temperature exceeding the dewpoint temperature of water vapors contained in combustion products. The decision to mount the condensation heat utilizer on the boiler was taken based on the preliminary estimation of the additionally obtained heat. The operation efficiency of the condensation heat utilizer is determined by its structure and operation conditions of the boiler and the heating system. The software was developed for the thermal design of the condensation heat utilizer equipped by the humidifier. Computation investigations of its operation are carried out as a function of various operation parameters of the boiler and the heating system (temperature of the return delivery water and smoke fumes, air excess, air temperature at the inlet and outlet of the condensation heat utilizer, heating and humidifying of air in the humidifier, and portion of the circulating water). The heat recuperation efficiency is estimated for various operation conditions of the boiler and the condensation heat utilizer. Recommendations on the most effective application of the condensation heat utilizer are developed.

  17. 7 CFR 201.36c - Hermetically-sealed containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hermetically-sealed containers. 201.36c Section 201... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Advertising § 201.36c Hermetically-sealed containers. The 5-month... been met: (a) The seed was packaged within 9 months after harvest; (b) The container used does not...

  18. HTTR demonstration test plan for industrial utilization of nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, Xing L.; Kubo, Shinji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Tachibana, Yukio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2014-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting research and development with a central focus on the utilization of High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), the first High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan, towards the realization of industrial use of nuclear heat. Several studies have made on the integration of the HTTR with thermochemical iodine-sulfur process and steam methane reforming hydrogen production plant (H 2 plant) as well as helium gas turbine power conversion system. In addition, safety standards for coupling a H 2 plant to a nuclear facility has been investigated. Based on the past design information, the present study identified test items to be validated in the HTTR demonstration test to accomplish a formulation of safety requirement and design consideration for coupling a H 2 plant to a nuclear facility as well as confirmation of overall performance of helium gas turbine system. In addition, plant concepts for the heat utilization system to be connected with the HTTR are investigated. (author)

  19. Efficiency of utilization of heat of moisture from exhaust gases of heat HRSG of CCGT

    OpenAIRE

    Galashov Nikolay; Tsibulskiy Svyatoslav; Mel’nikov Denis; Kiselev Alexandr; Gabdullina Al’bina

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the technology of utilizing the heat of exhaust gas moisture from heat recovery steam gases (HRSG) of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT). Particular attention focused on the influence of the excess air factor on the trapping of the moisture of the exhaust gases, as in the HRSG of the CCGT its value varies over a wider range than in the steam boilers of the TPP. For the research, has been developed a mathematical model that allows to determine the volumes of combustion produ...

  20. Optimization of heat transfer utilizing graph based evolutionary algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryden, Kenneth M.; Ashlock, Daniel A.; McCorkle, Douglas S.; Urban, Gregory L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the use of graph based evolutionary algorithms (GBEAs) for optimization of heat transfer in a complex system. The specific case examined in this paper is the optimization of heat transfer in a biomass cookstove utilizing three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics to generate the fitness function. In this stove hot combustion gases are used to heat a cooking surface. The goal is to provide an even spatial temperature distribution on the cooking surface by redirecting the flow of combustion gases with baffles. The variables in the optimization are the position and size of the baffles, which are described by integer values. GBEAs are a novel type of EA in which a topology or geography is imposed on an evolving population of solutions. The choice of graph controls the rate at which solutions can spread within the population, impacting the diversity of solutions and convergence rate of the EAs. In this study, the choice of graph in the GBEAs changes the number of mating events required for convergence by a factor of approximately 2.25 and the diversity of the population by a factor of 2. These results confirm that by tuning the graph and parameters in GBEAs, computational time can be significantly reduced

  1. Savannah River Plant Low-Level Waste Heat Utilization Project preliminary analysis. Volume II. Options for capturing the waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Options for utilizing the heated SRP effluent are investigated. The temperature and availability characteristics of the heated effluent are analyzed. Technical options for energy recovery are discussed. A number of thermodynamic cycles that could generate electrical power using the energy in the heated SRP effluent are described. Conceptual designs for SRP application of two attractive options are presented. Other direct uses for the heated effluent, as heat sources for agriculture and aquaculture options are discussed

  2. Mortality of insects and quality of maize grains in hermetic and non-hermetic storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila C. Viebrantz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Due to the need to improve the quality and safety of foods, chemical methods used to control grain pests have been replaced by alternative methods. For example, modified atmosphere within the storage units has been used. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate maize grain quality and mortality of insects of the species Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum in hermetic and non-hermetic environments for 50 days of storage. The hermetic units consisted of polyethylene "bags" with capacity for 60 kg. A cage with 20 adults of each species and 200 g of maize was placed inside each unit. The oxygen level was quantified every five days. Evaluations of insect mortality and survival occurred at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days of storage. At 0, 30 and 50 days, density, moisture and fungal incidence analyses were conducted. The airtight system is efficient in the control of insects, with satisfactory mortality values for both species. Insects favor the development of fungi during the storage, regardless of the storage system.

  3. Glass-ceramic hermetic seals to high thermal expansion metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1987-04-28

    A process for forming glass-ceramic materials from an alkaline silica-lithia glass composition comprising 60-72 mole-% SiO/sub 2/, 18-27 mole-% Li/sub 2/O, 0-5 mole-% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0-6 mole-% K/sub 2/O, 0-3 mole-% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and 0.5-2.5 mole-% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, which comprises heating said glass composition at a first temperature within the 950-1050/degree/C range for 5-60 minutes, and then at a devitrification temperature within the 700-900/degree/C range for about 5-300 minutes to obtain a glass-ceramic having a thermal expansion coefficient of up to 210 x 10/sup /minus/7///degree/C. These ceramics form strong, hermetic seals with high expansion metals such as stainless steel alloys. An intermediate nucleation heating step conducted at a temperature within the range of 675-750/degree/C for 10-120 minutes may be employed between the first stage and the devitrification stage. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  5. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus with Variable Size Test Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is a versatile hermetic seal leak detection apparatus for testing hermetically sealed containers and devices for leaks without the need to create a custom or specially manufactured testing chamber conforming to the dimensions of the specific object under test. The size of the testing chamber may be mechanically adjusted by the novel use of bellows to reduce and optimize the amount of gas space in a test chamber which surrounds the hermetically sealed object under test. The present invention allows the size of the test chamber to be selectively adjusted during testing to provide an optimum test chamber gas space. The present invention may be further adapted to isolate and test specific portions of the hermetically sealed object under test for leaks.

  6. Small variable speed hermetic reciprocating compressors for domestic refrigerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains both a theoretical and experimental investigation of some of the fundamental characteristics of a smal variable speed hermetic reciprocating compressor intended for application in domestic refrigeration. The results of a previously published simulation model for variable speed...

  7. Combustion and heat transfer monitoring in large utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, L.I.; Cortes, C.; Arauzo, I.; Valero, A. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain). Center of Power Plant Efficiency Research

    2001-05-01

    The optimization and control of complex energy systems can presently take advantage of highly sophisticated engineering techniques, such as CFD calculations and correlation algorithms based on artificial intelligence concepts. However, the most advanced numerical prediction still relies on strong simplifications of the exact transport equations. Likewise, the output of a neural network is actually based on a long record of observed past responses. Therefore, the implementation of modern diagnosis tools generally requires a great amount of experimental data, in order to achieve an adequate validation of the method. Consequently, a sort of paradox results, since the validation data cannot be less accurate or complete than the predictions sought. To remedy this situation, there are several alternatives. In contrast to laboratory work or well-instrumented pilot plants, the information obtained in the full scale installation offers the advantages of realism and low cost. This paper presents the case-study of a large, pulverized-coal fired utility boiler, discussing both the evaluation of customary measurements and the adoption of supplementary instruments. The generic outcome is that it is possible to significantly improve the knowledge on combustion and heat transfer performance within a reasonable cost. Based on the experience and results, a general methodology is outlined to cope with this kind of analysis.

  8. Combustion and heat transfer monitoring in large utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignacio Diez, L.; Cortes, C.; Arauzo, I.; Valero, A. [Zaragoza Univ., Centro de Investigacion del rendimiento de Centrales Electricas (CIRCE) (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    As a result of the quick and vast development of instrumentation and software capabilities, the optimization and control of complex energy systems can presently take advantage of highly sophisticated engineering techniques, such as CFD calculations and correlation algorithms based on artificial intelligence concepts. However, the most advanced numerical prediction still relies on strong simplifications of the exact transport equations. Likewise, the output of a neural network, or any other refined data-processing device, is actually based in a long record of observed past responses. Therefore, the implementation of modern diagnosis tools generally requires a great amount of experimental data, in order to achieve an adequate validation of the method. Consequently, a sort of paradox results, since the validation data cannot be less accurate or complete than the predictions sought. To remedy this situation, there are several alternatives. In opposition to laboratory work or well-instrumented pilot plants, the information obtained in the full scale installation offers the advantages of realism and low cost. This paper presents the case-study of a large, pulverized-coal fired utility boiler, discussing both the evaluation of customary measurements and the adoption of supplementary instruments. The generic outcome is that it is possible to significantly improve the knowledge on combustion and heat transfer performance within a reasonable cost. Based on the experience and results, a general methodology is outlined to cope with this kind of analysis. (author)

  9. Advanced ceramics for nuclear heat utilization and energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Deep; Purohit, R.D.; Sinha, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years concerns related to global warming and green house gas emissions have focused the attention towards lowering the carbon foot print of energy generation. In this scenario, nuclear energy is considered as one of the strongest options to take on the challenges. Further, the nuclear heat, originated from the fission of nuclear fuels may be utilized not only by conversion to electricity using conventional techniques, but also may be used for production of hydrogen by splitting water. In the endeavor of realizing sustainable energy generation technologies, ceramic materials find key role as critical components. This paper covers an overview of various ceramic materials which are potential candidates for energy and hydrogen generation devices. These include solid oxide fuel cells, thermoelectric oxides and sodium conducting beta-alumina for alkali metal thermoelectric converters (AMTEC). The materials, which are generally complex oxides often need to be synthesized using chemical methods for purity and compositional control. Further, ceramic materials offer advantages in terms of doping different cations to engineer defects and maneuver properties. Nonetheless, shaping of ceramics to complex components is a challenging task, due to which various techniques such as isopressing, tape-casting, extrusion, slurry coating, spray deposition etc. are employed. The paper also provides a highlight of fabrication techniques and demonstration of miniature devices which are at various stages of development. (author)

  10. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Johansson, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technologies for recovery and use of industrial excess heat were investigated. • Heat harvesting, heat storage, heat utilization, and heat conversion technologies. • Heat recovery potential for Gävleborg County in Sweden was calculated. • Effects on global CO 2 emissions were calculated for future energy market scenarios. - Abstract: Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, which would create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the use of primary energy and to contribute to global CO 2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present different measures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the development of the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the most to global CO 2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of the excess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden. Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system and heat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO 2 emissions, six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrial excess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recovery measures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be supplied from this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO 2 emissions in all of the analyzed scenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production from biomass would result in increased global CO 2 emissions when the CO 2 emission charge is low

  11. A thermoacoustic engine capable of utilizing multi-temperature heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Limin; Wang Bo; Sun Daming; Liu Yu; Steiner, Ted

    2009-01-01

    Low-grade energy is widespread. However, it cannot be utilized with high thermal efficiency directly. Following the principle of thermal energy cascade utilization, a thermoacoustic engine (TE) with a new regenerator that can be driven by multiple heat sources at different temperature levels is proposed. Taking a regenerator that utilizes heat sources at two temperatures as an example, theoretical research has been conducted on a traveling-wave TE with the new regenerator to predict its performance. Experimental verification is also done to demonstrate the benefits of the new regenerator. Results indicate that a TE with the new regenerator utilizing additional heat at a lower temperature experiences an increase in pressure ratio, acoustic power, efficiency, and exergy efficiency with proper heat input at an appropriate temperature at the mid-heater. A regenerator that uses multi-temperature heat sources can provide a means of recovering lower grade heat.

  12. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers : A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371572037; Boxem, T.; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Bruhn, David; Manzella, Adelle; Calcagno, Philippe; Beekman, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123556856; Cloetingh, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069161836; van Wees, J.-D.

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  13. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers: A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.; Boxem, T.; Pluymaekers, M.; Bruhn, D.; Manzella, A.; Calcagno, P.; Beekman, F.; Cloetingh, S.; Wees, J.D. van

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  14. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers : A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, Jon; Boxem, Thijs; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Bruhn, D.F.; Manzella, Adele; Calcagno, Philippe; Beekman, Fred; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; van Wees, Jan Diederik

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  15. Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-09-12

    A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

  16. In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chester Ledlie [Palo Alto, CA; Fowler, Thomas David [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Schoeber, Willen Jan Antoon Henri

    2009-08-18

    An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.

  17. Utilization of straw in district heating and CHP plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaisen, L.

    1993-01-01

    In Denmark 64 straw-fired district heating plants and 6 decentral CHP plants have been built since 1980 which are completely or partly straw-fired. The annual straw consumption in the district heating plants is 275,000 tons and in the decentral plants about 200,000 tons. The size of the district heating plants amounts to 0.5 MW - 10 MW and that of the CHP plants to 7 MW - 67 MW heat flow rate. Either whole bales or cut/scarified straw is used for firing. Hesston bales of about 450 kg control the market. The Centre of Biomass Technology is an activity supported 100 % by the Danish Energy Agency with the purpose of increasing the use of straw and wood in the energy supply (orig.)

  18. Absorption technology for solar and waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, G.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption heat pumps, first developed in the 19th century, have received renewed and growing attention in the past two decades. With the increasing cost of oil and electricity, the particular features of this heat-powered cycle have made it attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered air conditioning, gas-fired domestic cooling and waste-heat-powered temperature boosters are some of the applications on which intensive research and development has been conducted. This paper describes the operation of absorption systems and discusses several practical applications. It surveys recent advances in absorption technology, including the selection of working fluids, cycle improvements and multi-staging, and fundamentals of the combined heat and mass transfer in absorption processes. (author)

  19. The Hermetic Synchronous Engines for Pumping the Aggressive Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Ambros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers brief information about asynchronous and synchronous engines used for driving centrifugal pumps. It is argued the fact that asynchronous engines do not, actually, satisfy the requirements for hermetic engines designed for pumping radioactive and chemical liquids, because they possess low technical and economic indexes. Modification of rotor construction of these engines gives the possibility to increase these indexes. The shortcut rotor was replaced with a ferromagnetic rotor in hermetic asynchronous engine serially produced and permanent magnets had been inserted into its body. Different synchronous engine constructions with permanent magnets had been analyzed and developed, which operating characteristics had been compared with those of the asynchronous one.

  20. Utilization of Aluminum Waste with Hydrogen and Heat Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryakovskaya, O. A.; Meshkov, E. A.; Vlaskin, M. S.; Shkolnokov, E. I.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2017-10-01

    A concept of energy generation via hydrogen and heat production from aluminum containing wastes is proposed. The hydrogen obtained by oxidation reaction between aluminum waste and aqueous solutions can be supplied to fuel cells and/or infrared heaters for electricity or heat generation in the region of waste recycling. The heat released during the reaction also can be effectively used. The proposed method of aluminum waste recycling may represent a promising and cost-effective solution in cases when waste transportation to recycling plants involves significant financial losses (e.g. remote areas). Experiments with mechanically dispersed aluminum cans demonstrated that the reaction rate in alkaline solution is high enough for practical use of the oxidation process. In theexperiments aluminum oxidation proceeds without any additional aluminum activation.

  1. Improving the performance of district heating systems by utilization of local heat boosters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falcone, A.; Dominkovic, D. F.; Pedersen, A. S.

    was to evaluate the possibilities to lower the forward temperature of the heat supply in order to reduce the heat losses of the system. Booster heat pumps are introduced to increase the water temperature close to the final users. A Matlab model was developed to simulate the state of the case study DH network...... was set to minimize the system heat losses. * Corresponding author 0303-1 1 This goal was achieved by lowering the forward temperature to 40°C and relying on the installed heat pumps to boost the water temperature to the admissible value needed for the domestic hot water preparation. Depending......District Heating (DH) plays an important role into the Danish energy green transition towards the future sustainable energy systems. The new, 4 th generation district heating network, the so called Low Temperature District Heating (LTDH), tends to lower the supply temperature of the heat down to 40...

  2. The Characteristic of Molten Heat Salt Storage System Utilizing Solar Energy Combined with Valley Electric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI .Jiu-ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the environmental pollution and energy consumption clue to the large difference between peak and valley of power grid,the molten salt heat storage system(MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric is presented for good energy saving and low emissions. The costs of MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric are greatly reduced. The law of heat transfer in molten salt heat storage technology is studied with the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show the effect of elbow sizes on surface convective heat transfer coefficient with different flow velocities.

  3. Potential for increased wind-generated electricity utilization using heat pumps in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, Michael; Modi, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Large-scale wind power and increased electric heat pumps were evaluated. • A deterministic model of wind power and electricity demand was developed. • Sub-models for space heating and domestic hot water demand were developed. • Increased use of heat pumps can improve the viability of large-scale wind power. • Larger wind power capacity can meet a target utilization rate with more heat pumps. - Abstract: The U.S. has substantial wind power potential, but given wind’s intermittent availability and misalignment with electricity demand profiles, large-scale deployment of wind turbines could result in high electricity costs due to energy storage requirements or low utilization rates. While fuel switching and heat pumps have been proposed as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reduction strategies at the building scale, this paper shows that heat pump adoption could have additional system-wide benefits by increasing the utilization of wind-generated electricity. A model was developed to evaluate the effects of coupling large-scale wind power installations in New York State with increased use of electric heat pumps to meet a portion of space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands in New York City. The analysis showed significant increases in wind-generated electricity utilization with increased use of heat pumps, allowing for higher installed capacity of wind power. One scenario indicates that 78.5% annual wind-generated electricity utilization can be achieved with 3 GW of installed wind power capacity generated electricity equal to 20% of existing NYC annual electricity demand; if 20% of space heating and DHW demands are provided by heat pumps, the 78.5% utilization rate can be achieved with an increase of total wind power capacity to 5 GW. Therefore, this integrated supply–demand approach could provide additional system-wide emissions reductions

  4. Variable speed hermetic reciprocating compressors for domestic refrigerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the results of a both theoretical and experimental investigation of the performance of variable speed hermetic reciprocating compressors for domestic refrigerators. The investigation was performed as a part of a larger research project with the objective of reducing...

  5. Heat pumps and heat exchangers in cow and pig houses in the Nordic countries. Utilization potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, S [Statens Jordbrugstekniske Forsoeg, Horsens, Denmark

    1985-01-01

    An assessment is made of how many heat pumps it may be possible to establish in animal buildings in the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, and Icelandic agriculture. This assessment is based on the present livestock structure. Furthermore information is given of the yearly oil conservation that theoretically can be obtained, provided heat pumps and heat exchangers are installed every where with a sufficient livestock basis. The largest energy conservation can be obtained by heat recovery in cow- and pig houses and by heat exchangers in production of piglets.

  6. Geothermal Direct-Heat Utilization Assistance - Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. W. Lund

    1999-01-01

    The Geo-Heat Center provided (1) direct-use technical assistance, (2) research, and (3) information dissemination on geothermal energy over an 8 1/2 year period. The center published a quarterly bulletin, developed a web site and maintained a technical library. Staff members made 145 oral presentations, published 170 technical papers, completed 28 applied research projects, and gave 108 tours of local geothermal installations to 500 persons

  7. Geothermal Direct-Heat Utilization Assistance - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. W. Lund

    1999-07-14

    The Geo-Heat Center provided (1) direct-use technical assistance, (2) research, and (3) information dissemination on geothermal energy over an 8 1/2 year period. The center published a quarterly bulletin, developed a web site and maintained a technical library. Staff members made 145 oral presentations, published 170 technical papers, completed 28 applied research projects, and gave 108 tours of local geothermal installations to 500 persons.

  8. Experimental investigations on cylindrical latent heat storage units with sodium acetate trihydrate composites utilizing supercooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Kong, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Latent heat storage units utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) composites were tested in a laboratory. The stainless steel units were 1.5 m high cylinders with internal heat exchangers of tubes with fins. One unit was tested with 116 kg SAT with 6% extra water. Another...... in the thickened phase change material after melting. The heat content in the fully charged state and the heat released after solidification of the supercooled SAT mixtures at ambient temperature was higher for the unit with the thickened SAT mixture. The heat discharged after solidification of the supercooled SAT...

  9. Performance of ultra low temperature district heating systems with utility plant and booster heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    The optimal integration of booster heat pumps in ultra low temperature district heating (ULTDH) was investigated and compared to the performance of low temperature district heating. Two possible heat production technologies for the DH networks were analysed, namely extraction combined heat...... temperature and the heat consumption profile. For reference conditions, the optimal return of ULTDH varies between 21 °C and 27 °C. When using a central HP to supply the DH system, the resulting coefficient of system performance (COSP) was in the range of 3.9 (-) to 4.7 (-) for equipment with realistic...... component efficiencies and effectiveness, when including the relevant parameters such as DH system pressure and heat losses. By using ULTDH with booster HPs, performance improvements of 12% for the reference calculations case were found, if the system was supplied by central HPs. Opposite results were found...

  10. Safety study on nuclear heat utilization system - accident delineation and assessment on nuclear steelmaking pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Mizuno, M.; Tsuruoka, K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents accident delineation and assessment on a nuclear steelmaking pilot plant as an example of nuclear heat utilization systems. The reactor thermal energy from VHTR is transported to externally located chemical process plant employing helium-heated steam reformer by an intermediate heat transport loop. This paper on the nuclear steelmaking pilot plant will describe (1) system transients under accident conditions, (2) impact of explosion and fire on the nuclear reactor and the public and (3) radiation exposure on the public. The results presented in this paper will contribute considerably to understanding safety features of nuclear heat utilization system that employs the intermediate heat transport loop and the helium-heated steam reformer

  11. Development of a selective thin film and of a hermetically sealed flat plate solar collector with gas filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernial, W.

    1982-12-01

    The industrial productibility of a selective absorbing thin film was investigated on the basis of reactive cathodic sputtering of Ni. On substrates of 1.8 sq m of Al, Cu, steel and stainless steel, solar absorption values up to 97% were achieved at emissivities of 5 to 10%. A prototype flat plate collector for high temperatures with two covers and hermetical sealing was developed. The technical data of the collector were measured, dependent on the selectivity of the absorber, gas fillings of dry air, argon or SF6 and the geometry and were compared with those of an evacuated flat plate collector. A hermetical sealed double flat plate collector for low temperatures was developed which has the advantage of lower no load temperatures and higher energy gain for heating swimming pool water compared with a conventional flat plate collector. The insolation values on collectors were measured and were used for a calculation of the energy gains of different collector types.

  12. Utilization of Additive Manufacturing for Aerospace Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    7. A notional part that was designed and built in an aluminum-silicon- magnesium alloy using the powder bed fusion process was able to achieve fine...source=bl&ots=YxEzhfglaB&sig=Wk4sfyR94gelw51 chj5Mb mOavus&hl=en&sa=X& ei =m HSxU4ucLZfMsQTivYCgAg&ved=OCEcQ6AEwCDgK#v=o nepage&q=making%20of%20a%20heat

  13. Cascaded organic rankine cycles for waste heat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Thomas D [Vernon, CT; Biederman, Bruce P [West Hartford, CT; Brasz, Joost J [Fayetteville, NY

    2011-05-17

    A pair of organic Rankine cycle systems (20, 25) are combined and their respective organic working fluids are chosen such that the organic working fluid of the first organic Rankine cycle is condensed at a condensation temperature that is well above the boiling point of the organic working fluid of the second organic Rankine style system, and a single common heat exchanger (23) is used for both the condenser of the first organic Rankine cycle system and the evaporator of the second organic Rankine cycle system. A preferred organic working fluid of the first system is toluene and that of the second organic working fluid is R245fa.

  14. Hermetic conditions for the gas-in-oil analysis. Testing of transformer oil; Hermetische Bedingungen fuer die Gas-in-Oel-Analyse. Pruefung von Transformatorenoel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braesel, Eckhard; Braesel, Olaf [Gatron GmbH, Greifswald (Germany); Sasum, Ute [Forschungszentrum Sensorik Greifswald e.V., Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-06-25

    The protection of hermetic conditions for the gas-in-oil analysis is performed as an innovative method of sampling with integrated gas extraction. It also is controllable with a criterion derived from online monitoring. The importance is in the utilization of all individual gases in the diagnosis and in the determination of the accuracy of DGA results as well as the laboratory control.

  15. Increased system benefit from cogeneration due to cooperation between district heating utility and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danestig, M.; Henning, D. [Division of Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkoping Institute of Technology, Linkoping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    District heating and steam supply in the town Oernskoeldsvik in northern Sweden is in focus for this study. Low temperature waste heat from pulp manufacturing in the Donisjoe mill is now utilised for district heating production in heat pumps, which dominate district heating supply. Based on this traditional cooperation between the local district heating utility and the pulp industry, the parties discuss a partial outsourcing of the industrial steam supply to the utility, which may enable beneficial system solutions for both actors. The local utility must find a new location for a heating plant because a railway line is being built at the heat pump site. Planning for a new combined heat and power production (CHP) plant has started but its location is uncertain. If the plant can be situated close to the mill it can, besides district heating, produce steam, which can be supplied to adjacent industries. The municipality and its local utility are also considering investing in a waste incineration plant. But is waste incineration suitable for Ornskoeldsvik and how would it interact with cogeneration. Alternative cases have been evaluated with the MODEST energy system optimisation model, which minimises the cost for satisfying district heating and steam demand. The most profitable solution is to invest in a CHP plant and a waste incineration plant. Considering carbon dioxide emissions, the results from applying a local or a global perspective are remarkably different. In the latter case, generated electricity is assumed to replace power from coal condensing plants elsewhere in the North-European power grid. Therefore, minimum global CO{sub 2} emissions are achieved through maximal electricity production in a CHP plant. From this viewpoint, waste incineration should not be introduced because it would obstruct cogeneration. The study is carried out within the program Sustainable municipality run by the Swedish Energy Agency. (orig.)

  16. Some considerations on the utilization of thermal drainage for greenhouse heating by means of indirect heat exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yujiro; Aoki, Kiyoshi; Okano, Toshiaki

    1976-01-01

    The cost of maintaining the desirable temperature in winter is the principal element in the production of vegetables by greenhouse culture. Therefore very low heating cost and profitable operation are possible if the warm water from a condenser in a power plant is available as the heat source for greenhouse heating. In order to investigate the possibility of utilizing warm water discharge as the heat source for greenhouse heating, experiment was carried out with a miniature greenhouse equipped with the indirect heat exchanger with PVC pipes. The results obtained are summarized as follows. Under the conditions of the warm water discharge of 25 deg C and outside air temperature of -5 deg C, the average temperature and relative humidity in the greenhouse were about 10 deg C and 80%, respectively. From the experimentally obtained relationship between the heat transfer coefficient on the PVC pipe surfaces and the velocity of air passing through the pipes, the heat transfer coefficient at 8 m/sec air velocity was three times as much as that at 2 m/sec. From the theoretically obtained formula for calculating the number of pipes required for a greenhouse, it was determined that 72 PVC pipes of 10 cm diameter and 23 m long were required for a 23 x 25 m greenhouse to maintain 12 deg C inside under the before-described conditions. (Kako, I.)

  17. Study on Heat Utilization in an Attached Sunspace in a House with a Central Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerical simulations, the heating load reduction effect of an attached sunspace in winter was determined, and the effective heat utilization method and sunspace design were explored. In this paper, we studied the heating load reduction effect using heat from the sunspace and temperature fluctuation of each room at the time of heat use from the sunspace (sending air from the sunspace to the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC machine room and taking the air to the adjacent rooms. In the case of the all-day HVAC system, it was confirmed that a larger capacity of sunspace and not sending air from the sunspace to the adjacent room demonstrated a better heating-load reduction effect. Compared with Model Iw (a house with a window on the exterior of the sunspace opened to external air, Model I (a house with an attached sunspace on the second floor could save approximately 41% of the total energy. Model II (a house with the attached sunspace both on the first and second floors could save approximately 84% of the total energy. Sending heat from the sunspace to the adjacent room led to temperature increases in the adjacent rooms. However, if the construction plan is to have the sunspace only on the second floor, the house should be carefully designed, for example, by placing a living room on the second floor.

  18. Automotive absorption air conditioner utilizing solar and motor waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In combination with the ground vehicles powered by a waste heat generating electric motor, a cooling system including a generator for driving off refrigerant vapor from a strong refrigerant absorbant solution is described. A solar collector, an air-cooled condenser connected with the generator for converting the refrigerant vapor to its liquid state, an air cooled evaporator connected with the condenser for returning the liquid refrigerant to its vapor state, and an absorber is connected to the generator and to the evaporator for dissolving the refrigerant vapor in the weak refrigerant absorbant solution, for providing a strong refrigerant solution. A pump is used to establish a pressurized flow of strong refrigerant absorbant solution from the absorber through the electric motor, and to the collector.

  19. Utilization of waste heat from electricity generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1977-06-01

    Historically the nuclear power station has been designed solely as an electricity producer. But in Canada today only 15 percent of our energy consumption is as electricity. The non-electrical needs today are supplied almost entirely by natural gas and oil. There is an incentive to see whether a nuclear station could supply energy for some of these non-electrical needs, thus freeing gas and oil for uses for which they may be more valuable and suitable, especially in transportation. A group located at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment undertook a series of studies to examine this problem. These studies were done in sufficient depth to provide technological and economic answers, and as a result several reports have been published on various topics. In this report, the findings from these studies are drawn together in an assessment of the potential in Canada for using waste heat. (author)

  20. Low temperature industrial waste heat utilization in the area 'Speyer-Ludwigshafen-Frankenthal-Worms'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunold, K.; Krebs, A.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the study is the elaboration of reliable facts whether and under which conditions low temperature industrial waste heat systems can be economically utilized for heating purposes. The source of the waste heat are power- and industrial plants. In order to obtain reliable results, investigations have been carried out in the area Speyer-Ludwigshafen-Frankenthal and Worms. These investigations showed a number of application possibilities for heat pumps and it became moreover evident that there is a high variaiton of the heat requirement due to social components and the different type of building structures of the consumers. The economic results showed that the application of this heating system can under certain conditions supplement resp. replace other heating systems. (orig.) [de

  1. Application of fuel cells with heat recovery for integrated utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, V.; King, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of fuel cell powerplants with heat recovery for use in an integrated utility system. Such a design provides for a low pollution, noise-free, highly efficient integrated utility. Use of the waste heat from the fuel cell powerplant in an integrated utility system for the village center complex of a new community results in a reduction in resource consumption of 42 percent compared to conventional methods. In addition, the system has the potential of operating on fuels produced from waste materials (pyrolysis and digester gases); this would provide further reduction in energy consumption.

  2. Cost estimation of hydrogen and DME produced by nuclear heat utilization system. Joint research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2003-09-01

    Research of hydrogen energy has been performed in order to spread use of the hydrogen energy in 2020 or 2030. It will take, however, many years for the hydrogen energy to be used very easily like gasoline, diesel oil and city gas in all of countries. During the periods, low CO 2 release liquid fuels would be used together with hydrogen. Recently, di-methyl-either (DME) has been noticed as one of the substitute liquid fuels of petroleum. Such liquid fuels can be produced from the mixed gas such as hydrogen and carbon oxide which are produced by steam reforming hydrogen generation system by the use of nuclear heat. Therefore, the system would be one of the candidates of future system of nuclear heat utilization. In the present study, we focused on the production of hydrogen and DME. Economic evaluation was estimated for hydrogen and DME production in commercial and nuclear heat utilization plant. At first, heat and mass balance of each process in commercial plant of hydrogen production was estimated and commercial prices of each process were derived. Then, price was estimated when nuclear heat was used instead of required heat of commercial plant. Results showed that the production prices produced by nuclear heat were cheaper by 10% for hydrogen and 3% for DME. With the consideration of reduction effect of CO 2 release, utilization of nuclear heat would be more effective. (author)

  3. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-97. It describes 174 contracts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  4. Operational Performance Characterization of a Heat Pump System Utilizing Recycled Water as Heat Sink and Heat Source in a Cool and Dry Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piljae Im

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater leaving from homes and businesses contains abundant low-grade energy, which can be utilized through heat pump technology to heat and cool buildings. Although the energy in the wastewater has been successfully utilized to condition buildings in other countries, it is barely utilized in the United States, until recently. In 2013, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science at Denver, the United States implemented a unique heat pump system that utilizes recycled wastewater from a municipal water system to cool and heat its 13,000 m2 new addition. This recycled water heat pump (RWHP system uses seven 105 kW (cooling capacity modular water-to-water heat pumps (WWHPs. Each WWHP uses R-410A refrigerant, has two compressors, and can independently provide either 52 °C hot water (HW or 7 °C chilled water (CHW to the building. This paper presents performance characterization results of this RWHP system based on the measured data from December 2014 through August 2015. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was also calculated and compared with that of a baseline Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC system which meets the minimum energy efficiencies that are allowed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013. The performance analysis results indicate that recycled water temperatures were favorable for effective operation of heat pumps. As a result, on an annual basis, the RWHP system avoided 50% of source energy consumption (resulting from reduction in natural gas consumption although electricity consumption was increased slightly, reduced CO2 emissions by 41%, and saved 34% in energy costs as compared with the baseline system.

  5. Life expectancy impacts due to heating energy utilization in China: Distribution, relations, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli

    2018-01-01

    The relation between life expectancy and energy utilization is of particular concern. Different viewpoints concerned the health impacts of heating policy in China. However, it is still obscure that what kind of heating energy or what pattern of heating methods is the most related with the difference of life expectancies in China. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively investigate the spatial relations between life expectancy at birth (LEB) and different heating energy utilization in China by using spatial autocorrelation models including global spatial autocorrelation, local spatial autocorrelation and hot spot analysis. The results showed that: (1) Most of heating energy exhibit a distinct north-south difference, such as central heating supply, stalks and domestic coal. Whereas spatial distribution of domestic natural gas and electricity exhibited west-east differences. (2) Consumption of central heating, stalks and domestic coal show obvious spatial dependence. Whereas firewood, natural gas and electricity did not show significant spatial autocorrelation. It exhibited an extinct south-north difference of heat supply, stalks and domestic coal which were identified to show significant positive spatial autocorrelation. (3) Central heating, residential boilers and natural gas did not show any significant correlations with LEB. While, the utilization of domestic coal and biomass showed significant negative correlations with LEB, and household electricity shows positive correlations. The utilization of domestic coal in China showed a negative effect on LEB, rather than central heating. To improve the solid fuel stoves and control consumption of domestic coal consumption and other low quality solid fuel is imperative to improve the public health level in China in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat Transmission Coefficient Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a Heat Loss Measuring Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2013-01-01

    Global energy efficiency can be obtained in two ordinary ways. One way is to improve the energy production and supply side, and the other way is, in general, to reduce the consumption of energy in society. This paper has focus on the latter and especially the consumption of energy for heating...... and cooling our houses. There is a huge energy-saving potential in this area for reducing both the global climate problems as well as economy challenges. Heating of buildings in Denmark accounts for approximately 40% of the entire national energy consumption. For this reason, a reduction of heat losses from...... building envelopes are of great importance in order to reach the Bologna CO2 emission reduction targets. Upgrading of the energy performance of buildings is a topic of huge global interest these years. Not only heating in the temperate and arctic regions are important, but also air conditioning...

  7. Method and equipment to utilize solar heat. [paraffin used as heat storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellein, H

    1976-09-16

    In this process, solar radiation is converted into heat by means of absorbers. The heat transferred to a liquid is led in forced circulation, first into a heat storage device and then into a water heater. The cooled-down liquid is rercirculated. The storage material used here is paraffin. A measuring and control device is provided to switch from periods with solar radiation to periods where only stored energy is consumed. This device consists of a photocell measuring the incoming sunlight and a temperarure sensor. The control system is put into operation by a combination of the two measured values. The heat accumulator consists of several elements connected in parallel. A control device makes sure that only one accumulator element at a time is part of the circuit. The absorbers, as usual, consists of the absorber plate proper and a cover plate.

  8. Integrated design and optimization of technologies for utilizing low grade heat in process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Dong-Hun; Binns, Michael; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Implementation of a modeling and design framework for the utilization of low grade heat. • Application of process simulator and optimization techniques for the design of technologies for heat recovery. • Systematic and holistic exploitation for the recovery of industrial low grade heat. • Demonstration of the applicability and benefit of integrated design and optimization framework through a case study. - Abstract: The utilization of low grade heat in process industries has significant potential for improving site-wide energy efficiency. This paper focuses on the techno-economic analysis of key technologies for energy recovery and re-use, namely: Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC), boiler feed water heating, heat pumping and absorption refrigeration in the context of process integration. Process modeling and optimization in a holistic manner identifies the optimal integrated configuration of these technologies, with rigorous assessment of costs and technical feasibility of these technologies. For the systematic screening and evaluation of design options, detailed process simulator models are evaluated and optimization proceeds subject to design constraints for the particular economic scenarios where technology using low grade heat is introduced into the process site. Case studies are presented to illustrate how the proposed modeling and optimization framework can be useful and effective in practice, in terms of providing design guidelines and conceptual insights for the application of technologies using low grade heat. From the case study, the best options during winter are the ORC giving a 6.4% cost reduction for the ideal case with low grade heat available at a fixed temperature and boiler feed water heating giving a 2.5% cost reduction for the realistic case with low grade heat available at a range of temperatures. Similarly during summer boiler feed water heating was found to be the best option giving a 3.1% reduction of costs considering a

  9. New hermetic sealing material for vacuum brazing of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, S; Wiehl, G; Silze, F

    2016-01-01

    For vacuum brazing applications such as in vacuum interrupter industry Hermetic Sealing Materials (HSM) with low partial pressure are widely used. AgCu28 dominates the hermetic sealing market, as it has a very good wetting behavior on copper and metallized ceramics. Within recent decades wetting on stainless steel has become more and more important. However, today the silver content of HSMs is more in focus than in the past decades, because it has the biggest impact on the material prices. Umicore Technical Materials has developed a new copper based HSM, CuAg40Ga10. The wettability on stainless steel is significantly improved compared to AgCu28 and the total silver content is reduced by almost 44%. In this article the physical properties of the alloy and its brazed joints will be presented compared to AgCu28. (paper)

  10. Design and production of a hermetic bayonet isolation valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerst, J.

    1993-05-01

    Fermilab is upgrading the Tevatron for lower temperature/higher beam energy operation. Portions of the satellite refrigeration system will operate below atmospheric pressure after the upgrade is complete. Contamination must be prevented by hermetically sealing the subatmospheric helium to air interfaces. Bayonet connections in the low pressure flow path require a reliable, leak tight isolation valve instead of the standard quarter turn ball valve. Design, development, and production of a new valve are described

  11. Device with Complex System for Heat Utilization and Reduction of Hazardous Air Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kascheeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations concern heat utilization and reduction of hazardous emissions occurring in residential buildings and accompanying operation of a great number of industrial enterprises in particular heat and power objects, and firstly, heat-generating units of small power located in densely populated residential areas without centralized heat supply.The investigation target is to reduce cost of heat produced by independent system of building heat supply, reduction of air pollution  due to hazardous gas emissions and reduction of heat pollution of the environment as a result of building ventilation system operation, ventilation of their internal and external sewerage network and higher reliability of their operation.The target is achieved because the device with complex system for heat utilization and reduction of hazardous air emissions has additionally an assembly tank for mixing flue gases, ventilation emissions and atmospheric air, heat pump. Evaporation zone of the pump is a condensator of the gas mixture and its condensate zone contains a heat supply line for a heat consumer. The line is equipped with assembling  and distributing collectors, pipeline connecting the heat supply line with the system of direct and return delivery water from a boiler house, a separator for division of liquid and gaseous mixture phases, neutralizing devices for separate reduction of concentrations of hazardous and odorous substances being released in gaseous and liquid portions of the mixture, a pipeline for periodic supply of air with higher concentration of hazardous and odorous substances in the boiler furnace. The supplied air is obtained as a result of its passing through gas filters at their regeneration when their exchange capacity is exhausted.

  12. Ways to achieve optimum utilization of waste gas heat in cement kiln plants with cyclone preheaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbiss, E

    1986-02-01

    Kiln exit gases and the exhaust gases from clinker coolers often cannot be fully utilized in drying plants. In such cases a part of the heat content of the gases should be utilized for water heating. In addition, it is possible to utilize the waste gas heat in conventional steam boilers, with which, depending on design, it is possible to generate electricity at a rate of between 10-30 kWh/t (net output). A new and promising method of utilization of waste gas heat is provided by precalcining systems with bypass, in which up to 100% of the kiln exit gases can be economically bypassed and be utilized in a steam boiler, without requiring any cooling. A development project, already started, gives information on the operational behaviour of such a plant and on the maximum energy recoverable. Alternatively, the bypass gases may, after partial cooling with air or preheater exit gas, be dedusted and then utilized in a grinding/drying plant. Furthermore, they can be used in the cement grinding process for the drying of wet granulated blastfurnace slag or other materials. For this it is not necessary to dedust the bypass gases.

  13. Utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization affected by highly transient flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zachara, John M.; Tonkin, Matthew

    2012-08-01

    A tracer test using both bromide and heat tracers conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Hanford 300 Area (300A), Washington, provided an instrument for evaluating the utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization. The bromide tracer data were critical to improving the calibration of the flow model complicated by the highly dynamic nature of the flow field. However, most bromide concentrations were obtained from fully screened observation wells, lacking depth-specific resolution for vertical characterization. On the other hand, depth-specific temperature data were relatively simple and inexpensive to acquire. However, temperature-driven fluid density effects influenced heat plume movement. Moreover, the temperature data contained "noise" caused by heating during fluid injection and sampling events. Using the hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from the calibration of the bromide transport model, the temperature depth profiles and arrival times of temperature peaks simulated by the heat transport model were in reasonable agreement with observations. This suggested that heat can be used as a cost-effective proxy for solute tracers for calibration of the hydraulic conductivity distribution, especially in the vertical direction. However, a heat tracer test must be carefully designed and executed to minimize fluid density effects and sources of noise in temperature data. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that heat transport was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and porosity, less sensitive to thermal distribution factor, and least sensitive to thermal dispersion and heat conduction. This indicated that the hydraulic conductivity remains the primary calibration parameter for heat transport.

  14. Efficiency of Passive Utilization of Ground “Cold” in Adaptive Geothermal Heat Pump Heating and Cooling Systems (AGHCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with estimating a potential and efficiency of utilization of passive ground “cold” for cooling buildings in climatic conditions of Moscow (Russia. The article presents results of numerical analysis to assess the efficiency of reducing peak cooling loads of the building equipped with AGHCS, through the utilization of natural cold of wells for passive cooling and cold storage in summer at night (off-peak time with its subsequent consumption in the day time, both in passive mode, and with heat pumps. The conclusions of the article set out the basic principles of passive cooling in the design of AGHCS.

  15. Design and evaluation of heat utilization systems for the HTTR through international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewkowicz, I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory function to `foster the exchange of scientific and technical information`, and `encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world`. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs) are effective vehicles for implementing the above. The CRP on Design and Evaluation of Heat Utilization Systems for HTTR has started in September 1994 and is aimed at promoting international co-operation to identify the most promising heat utilization system(s) to be demonstrated at the HTTR, for the benefit of current operators and future designers and constructors of HTGRs. Participating Member States are collaborating by exchanging existing technical information on the technology of heat utilization systems, by developing design concepts and by performing evaluations of candidate systems for potential demonstration with the HTTR. In this report, the systems are reviewed. (J.P.N.)

  16. Design and evaluation of heat utilization systems for the HTTR through international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewkowicz, I.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory function to 'foster the exchange of scientific and technical information', and 'encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world'. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs) are effective vehicles for implementing the above. The CRP on Design and Evaluation of Heat Utilization Systems for HTTR has started in September 1994 and is aimed at promoting international co-operation to identify the most promising heat utilization system(s) to be demonstrated at the HTTR, for the benefit of current operators and future designers and constructors of HTGRs. Participating Member States are collaborating by exchanging existing technical information on the technology of heat utilization systems, by developing design concepts and by performing evaluations of candidate systems for potential demonstration with the HTTR. In this report, the systems are reviewed. (J.P.N.)

  17. Analyzing variables for district heating collaborations between energy utilities and industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, P.; Svensson, I.L.; Trygg, L.

    2010-01-01

    One vital means of raising energy efficiency is to introduce district heating in industry. The aim of this paper is to study factors which promote and inhibit district heating collaborations between industries and utilities. The human factors involved showed to affect district heating collaborations more than anything else does. Particularly risk, imperfect and asymmetric information, credibility and trust, inertia and values are adequate variables when explaining the establishment or failure of industry-energy utility collaborations, while heterogeneity, access to capital and hidden costs appear to be of lower importance. A key conclusion from this study is that in an industry-energy utility collaboration, it is essential to nurture the business relationship. In summary, successful collaboration depends more on the individuals and organizations involved in the relationship between the two parties than on the technology used in the collaboration.

  18. Solar heating and cooling system for an office building at Reedy Creek Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in a two story office building at a utilities company, which provides utility service to Walt Disney World, is described. The solar energy system application is 100 percent heating, 80 percent cooling, and 100 percent hot water. The storage medium is water with a capacity of 10,000 gallons hot and 10,000 gallons chilled water. Performance to date has equaled or exceeded design criteria.

  19. Cost estimation of hydrogen and DME produced by nuclear heat utilization system II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2004-09-01

    Utilization and production of hydrogen has been studied in order to spread utilization of the hydrogen energy in 2020 or 2030. It will take, however, many years for the hydrogen energy to be used very easily like gasoline, diesel oil and city gas in the world. During the periods, low CO 2 release liquid fuels would be used together with hydrogen. Recently, di-methyl-ether (DME). has been noticed as one of the substitute liquid fuels of petroleum. Such liquid fuels can be produced from the mixed gas such as hydrogen and carbon oxide which are produced from natural gas by steam reforming. Therefore, the system would become one of the candidates of future system of nuclear heat utilization. Following the study in 2002, we performed economic evaluation of the hydrogen and DME production by nuclear heat utilization plant where heat generated by HTGR is completely consumed for the production. The results show that hydrogen price produced by nuclear was about 17% cheaper than the commercial price by increase in recovery rate of high purity hydrogen with increased in PSA process. Price of DME in indirect method produced by nuclear heat was also about 17% cheaper than the commercial price by producing high purity hydrogen in the DME producing process. As for the DME, since price of DME produced near oil land in petroleum exporting countries is cheaper than production in Japan, production of DME by nuclear heat in Japan has disadvantage economically in this time. Trial study to estimate DME price produced by direct method was performed. From the present estimation, utilization of nuclear heat for the production of hydrogen would be more effective with coupled consideration of reduction effect of CO 2 release. (author)

  20. Progress and safety aspects in process heat utilization from nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1995-01-01

    Report about the Status and the Progress in the Various Programs and Projects in the Federal Republic of Germany in Process Heat Utilization from the High Temperature Reactor and on Recent Changes of the Atomic Law in the Federal Republic of Germany with Big Influence on the Safety of Nuclear Energy Technology. (author)

  1. City/industry/utility partnership leads to innovative combined heat and power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, J. [Savage and Associates, Quesnel, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed a combined heat and power (CHP) project that was launched in Quesnel, British Columbia. The CHP is being developed in phases in which new components will enter the system, providing added benefits. Hot oil from a sawmill bioenergy system will be used to heat lumber kilns, generate electricity at an Organic Rankine Cycle co-generation plant, and heat water for a District Energy Loop (DEL) to heat up to 22 existing buildings in the city as well as sawmill and planer buildings. The DEL piping would comprise a 5 kilometre loop. The energy would come from recovered sawmill space heating, recovered stack energy, and additional biomass energy. All of the district heating and 41 per cent of the power would be from heat recovered from the existing industrial operation. This bio-economy vision ultimately involves incorporating a biogas digester into the system to process food, regional organic waste, and pulp mill residuals, relying on bio-solids and heat from the mill. The fertilizer from the digester would then be used in a biomass plantation, which would provide materials to industry for many products, including bio-refining. This project evolved in response to concerns about the ecological effects and long-term economics of aggressive utilization of forest biomass. 15 figs.

  2. On the development of an innovative gas-fired heating appliance based on a zeolite-water adsorption heat pump; system description and seasonal gas utilization efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawoud, Belal

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to introduce an innovative hybrid heating appliance incorporating a gas condensing boiler and a zeolite-water adsorption heat pump. The condensing boiler is applied to drive the zeolite-water heat pump for the heating base-load and to assist the heat pump in the so called “mixed operation” mode, in which both the heat pump and the condensing boiler are working in series to cover medium heating demands. Peak heating demands are covered by the condensing boiler in the so called “direct heating” mode. The three operation modes of the hybrid heating appliance have been technically described. In addition, the laboratory test conditions for estimating the seasonal heating performance according to the German Guideline VDI 4650-2 have been introduced. For both heating systems 35/28 °C and 55/45 °C, which represent the typical operating conditions of floor and high temperature radiating heating systems in Europe, seasonal heating gas utilization efficiencies of 1.34 and 1.26 have been measured, respectively with a ground heat source. In two field test installations in one-family houses in Germany, the introduced heating appliance showed 27% more seasonal gas utilization efficiency for heating and domestic hot water production, which is equivalent to a CO 2 -emission reduction of 20% compared to the gas condensing boiler technology

  3. Initiative for local district heating. New chances for municipal utilities. Boundary conditions for the heat market; Initiative Nahwaerme. Neue Chancen fuer Stadtwerke. Rahmenbedingungen fuer den Waermemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Michael [K.Group GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Nachhaltige Energieversorgung und Stadtentwicklung

    2009-06-15

    In the regulated market, municipal utilities are forced to find new fields of activity. The heat market offers good chances. For example, local district heating grids can be established, independent power generation can be encouraged, and new services can be offered which may increase customer loyalty. The district heating initiative of the Baden-Wuerttemberg Minister of the Environment was launched early in 2009 with the intention to offer valuable assistance to the municipal utilities. (orig.)

  4. The manufacturing engineering of a hermetic cast fiber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coan, T.; Higby, D.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W.; Winn, D.; Ayer, F.; Elder, C.; Sullivan, D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have made the first pass at designing and engineering a cast lead calorimeter with a rapidity coverage to η = 5.5. The design preserves detector hermeticity. Plastic scintillating fibers provide a fast, hadronically compensated, high-resolution device. A lead-eutectic, which melts below the softening point of the plastic, provides an easily manufactured high Z absorber. This calorimeter, designed with the TEXAS SSC detector as a baseline, is easily scaled in size and in segmentation without major design changes

  5. Preheating of manure utilizing heat exchanger and flue gas. Forvarmning af gylle ved varmeveksling med roeggas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.

    1987-07-15

    It has been shown that preheating of manures in biomass conversion plants to a temperature of 50-60 deg. C, before the anaerobic digestion takes place at a temperature of 35-45 deg. C, results in an increase of methane production. But the method normally involves an increase in energy consumption. The aim of the project was to develope methods of utilizing heat from flue gas emitted from the boiler connected to the plant, with the help of a heat exchanger. The heat thus recovered would be used to preheat the manure. The chosen method was to inject the flue gas directly into the manure mass, following this up with heat exchanging and condensing. In order to mix the flue gas thoroughly into the manure an ejector was used, this was driven by the manure flow. Results were satisfactory. (AB).

  6. Soil warming for utilization and dissipation of waste heat from power generation in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWalle, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Penn State research project, which studies the soil warming by circulation of heated power plant discharge water through a buried pipe network. Waste heat can be utilized by soil warming for increased crop growth in open fields with proper selection of crops and cropping systems. Dissipation of waste heat from a buried pipe network can be predicted using either of two steady-state conduction equations tested. Accurate predictions are dependent upon estimates of the pipe outer-surface temperatures, soil surface temperatures in heated soil and soil thermal conductivity. The effect of economic optimization on soil-warming land area requirements for a 1500 MWe power plant in Pennsylvania is presented. (M.S.)

  7. Characteristics of Vacuum Freeze Drying with Utilization of Internal Cooling and Condenser Waste Heat for Sublimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum freeze drying is an excellent drying method, but it is very energy-intensive because a relatively long drying time is required. This research investigates the utilization of condenser waste heat for sublimation as a way of accelerating the drying rate. In addition, it also investigates the effect of internal cooling combined with vacuum cooling in the pressure reduction process. Jelly fish tentacles were used as the specimen, with different configurations for condenser heat waste and internal cooling valve opening. The results show that heating with condenser heat waste can accelerate the drying rate up to 0.0035 kg/m2.s. In addition, pre-freezing by internal cooling prevents evaporation until the mass of the specimen is 0.47 g and promotes transition of the specimen into the solid phase.

  8. The thermoelectric generators use for waste heat utilization from cement plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztekler Karol

    2017-01-01

    Production often entails the formation of by-product which is waste heat. One of the equipment processing heat into electricity is a thermoelectric generator. Its operation is based on the principle of thermoelectric phenomenon, which is known as a Seebeck phenomenon. The simplicity of thermoelectric phenomena allows its use in various industries, in which the main waste product is in the form of heat with the temperature of several hundred degrees. The study analyses the possibility of the thermoelectric systems use for the waste heat utilization resulting in the cement production at the cement plant. The location and design of the thermoelectric system that could be implemented in cement plant is chosen. The analysis has been prepared in the IPSEpro software.

  9. Encouragement of Enzyme Reaction Utilizing Heat Generation from Ferromagnetic Particles Subjected to an AC Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masashi; Aki, Atsushi; Mizuki, Toru; Maekawa, Toru; Usami, Ron; Morimoto, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method of activating an enzyme utilizing heat generation from ferromagnetic particles under an ac magnetic field. We immobilize α-amylase on the surface of ferromagnetic particles and analyze its activity. We find that when α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids, that is, ferromagnetic particles, on which α-amylase molecules are immobilized, are subjected to an ac magnetic field, the particles generate heat and as a result, α-amylase on the particles is heated up and activated. We next prepare a solution, in which α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids and free, nonimmobilized chitinase are dispersed, and analyze their activities. We find that when the solution is subjected to an ac magnetic field, the activity of α-amylase immobilized on the particles increases, whereas that of free chitinase hardly changes; in other words, only α-amylase immobilized on the particles is selectively activated due to heat generation from the particles.

  10. Encouragement of Enzyme Reaction Utilizing Heat Generation from Ferromagnetic Particles Subjected to an AC Magnetic Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Suzuki

    Full Text Available We propose a method of activating an enzyme utilizing heat generation from ferromagnetic particles under an ac magnetic field. We immobilize α-amylase on the surface of ferromagnetic particles and analyze its activity. We find that when α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids, that is, ferromagnetic particles, on which α-amylase molecules are immobilized, are subjected to an ac magnetic field, the particles generate heat and as a result, α-amylase on the particles is heated up and activated. We next prepare a solution, in which α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids and free, nonimmobilized chitinase are dispersed, and analyze their activities. We find that when the solution is subjected to an ac magnetic field, the activity of α-amylase immobilized on the particles increases, whereas that of free chitinase hardly changes; in other words, only α-amylase immobilized on the particles is selectively activated due to heat generation from the particles.

  11. Optimization of a dual-fuel heating system utilizing an EMS a maintain persistence of measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpert, J.S.; Wolpert, S.B.; Martin, G.

    1993-01-01

    An older small office building was subjected to a program substituting gas for electric heat to reduce energy cost and improve comfort for approximately one year and was permanently instituted, with the installation of an energy management system (EMS) the following year. This paper will present a description of the facility, its usage patterns, and the measures taken to introduce the fuel-switching program. The impacts on energy usage and cost as well as comfort will also be reported. This program was initiated by a preliminary audit of the facility conducted by the service contractor in conjunction with the area gas wholesaler. During the audit it was observed that the heating set points for the gas-fired equipment was kept fairly low. This was the result of the desire to keep the cooling set point low and the use of auto-changeover thermostats. The result of this was that the system utilized the gas heat to come up to 68-70 degrees with the majority of the zones then relying on their electric heat to bring temperatures into the 73-75 degrees range. In addition to impacting energy costs, this approach generated numerous comfort complaints. As a further electric penalty, the low cooling set point resulted in a heavy reliance on electric heat (reheat) all summer. The basis of the proposed strategy was to reduce the heavy usage of electric heat by making the building comfortable through reliance more heavily on gas heat. This was tested by raising the heating set points for the RTUS. The success of this approach, along with the comfort considerations and the desire for further savings, led to the installation of an EMS. This allowed further refinements of the control strategy, which are briefly described. When completed, the fuel-switching led to an increase in annual gas costs of 125% with a corresponding decrease in electric cost of nearly 30% for an annual utility cost savings of over 19%

  12. Soil warming for utilization and dissipation of waste heat in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWalle, D.R.; Chapura, A.M. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using soil warming for utilization and dissipation of reject heat from power plants was demonstrated in a year-long test operation of a field prototype in Pennsylvania. A parallel network of 5-mm-diam polyethylene pipes was buried at a 0.3-m depth and with 0.6-m spacing in the soil covering a 15- x 60-m area to convey hot water simulating condenser cooling water from a power plant. Crop response to the heated soil varied: Snap beans and warm season forage crops such as sudangrass responded with increased yields, while cool season forage crops experienced decreased yields. Winter wheat yields were also increased, but winter barley was winter-killed due to delayed development of cold tolerance in the warm soil. Heat dissipation from the buried pipes was primarily by thermal conduction to the soil surface. Rates of heat loss from the buried pipes were most accurately predicted using an equation that included an explicit term for heat conduction below the pipes. Estimated soil warming land area necessary to dissipate all the reject heat from a 33% efficiency, 1500-MW electrical power plant based on minimum measured summer heat loss rates was 76 km 2 compared to the economic optimum of 18.2 km 2 determined as the least-cost system

  13. Hybrid compression/absorption type heat utilization system (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimata, T.; Susami, S.; Ogawa, Y. [Research and Development Dept., EBARA Corp., Kanagawa pref. (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    This research is intended to develop a 'hybrid compression/absorption type heat utilization system' by combining an absorption process with a compression process in one circulation cycle. This system can produce chilling heat for ice thermal storage by utilizing low-temperature waste heat (lower than 100 C) which is impossible to treat with a conventional absorption chiller. It means that this system will be able to solve the problem of a timing mismatch between waste heat and heat demand. The working fluid used in this proposed system should be suitable for producing ice, be safe, and not damage the ozone layer. In this project, new working fluids were searched as substitutes for the existing H{sub 2}O/LiBr or NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O. The interim results of this project in 1997, a testing unit using NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O was built for demonstration of the system and evaluation of its characteristics, and R134a/E181 was found to be one of the good working fluid for this system. The COP (ratio of energy of ice produced to electric power provided) of this system using R134a/E181 is expected to achieve 5.5 by computer simulation. The testing unit with this working fluid was built recently and prepared for the tests to confirm the result of the simulation. (orig.)

  14. Process of optimization of district heat production by utilizing waste energy from metallurgical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Fužir, Miran; Slatinek, Matic; Šepul, Tanja; Plesnik, Kristijan; Lečnik, Samo

    2017-07-01

    In a consortium with SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group), Metal Ravne, the local community of Ravne na Koro\\vskem and the public research Institut Jožef Stefan, with its registered office in Slovenia, Petrol Energetika, d.o.o. set up a technical and technological platform of an innovative energy case for a transition of steel industry into circular economy with a complete energy solution called »Utilization of Waste Heat from Metallurgical Processes for District Heating of Ravne na Koro\\vskem. This is the first such project designed for a useful utilization of waste heat in steel industry which uses modern technology and innovative system solutions for an integration of a smart, efficient and sustainable heating and cooling system and which shows a growth potential. This will allow the industry and cities to make energy savings, to improve the quality of air and to increase the benefits for the society we live in. On the basis of circular economy, we designed a target-oriented co-operation of economy, local community and public research institute to produce new business models where end consumers are put into the centre. This innovation opens the door for steel industry and local community to a joint aim that is a transition into efficient low-carbon energy systems which are based on involvement of natural local conditions, renewable energy sources, the use of waste heat and with respect for the principles of sustainable development.

  15. Wafer-level vacuum/hermetic packaging technologies for MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Mitchell, Jay; Welch, Warren; Lee, Sangwoo; Najafi, Khalil

    2010-02-01

    An overview of wafer-level packaging technologies developed at the University of Michigan is presented. Two sets of packaging technologies are discussed: (i) a low temperature wafer-level packaging processes for vacuum/hermeticity sealing, and (ii) an environmentally resistant packaging (ERP) technology for thermal and mechanical control as well as vacuum packaging. The low temperature wafer-level encapsulation processes are implemented using solder bond rings which are first patterned on a cap wafer and then mated with a device wafer in order to encircle and encapsulate the device at temperatures ranging from 200 to 390 °C. Vacuum levels below 10 mTorr were achieved with yields in an optimized process of better than 90%. Pressures were monitored for more than 4 years yielding important information on reliability and process control. The ERP adopts an environment isolation platform in the packaging substrate. The isolation platform is designed to provide low power oven-control, vibration isolation and shock protection. It involves batch flip-chip assembly of a MEMS device onto the isolation platform wafer. The MEMS device and isolation structure are encapsulated at the wafer-level by another substrate with vertical feedthroughs for vacuum/hermetic sealing and electrical signal connections. This technology was developed for high performance gyroscopes, but can be applied to any type of MEMS device.

  16. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effects of heat stress on dynamic absorption process, tissue distribution and utilization efficiency of vitamin C in broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guohua; Chen Guosheng; Cai Huiyi

    1998-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of heat stress on ascorbic acid nutritional physiology of broilers with radioisotope technology. 3 H-Vc was fed to broilers and then the blood, liver, kidney, breast muscle, and excreta were sampled to determine the dynamic absorption process, the tissue distribution and the utilization efficiency of vitamin C. The results indicated that the absorption, metabolism and mobilization of supplemented vitamin C in broilers with heat stress was faster than that in broilers without heat stress. However, the utilization efficiency of supplemented vitamin C in broilers with heat stress was not higher than that of broilers without heat stress

  18. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

    2009-01-11

    The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

  19. Economical utilization of hot water - an important precondition for an efficient utilization of waste heat in milk cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, E; Pflug, C

    1985-01-01

    Indispensable both in the field of hydroecological and energy policies is the economical utilization of hot water. Hydroecological process analyses in specialized dairy cattle plants have shown that the specific mean annual abstraction of hot water (50/sup 0/C) may be reduced to 14 l per cow and per day. The proportionate contribution of different operational sectors and methods to arrive at the standards are pointed out. Economizing dairy cattly plants reducing hot water consumption as indicated and reaching average milking outputs of >= 1 l per cow and per day may thus bridge the summer season by heat recovery processes producing a sufficient quantity of hot water and allowing a shutdown of all heating units. At present the majority of dairy cattle plants cannot yet dispense with supplementary water during the remaining months. The hot water consumption rate is highest at the end of shifts. In double-shifted dairy cattle plants the estimated maximum hourly consumption amounts to 12 per cent of the average daily consumption. (orig.).

  20. Multiple utilization of energy in buildings. Utilization of waste heat at the Blood Transfusion Service; Energie im Gebaeude mehrfach nutzen. Abwaermenutzung beim Blutspendedienst Nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaigalat, Jens

    2012-11-01

    For the Blood Transfusion Service North the German Red Cross (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) utilizes the waste heat from production facilities and laboratories for heating offices. By doing this, the VRV technology for the realization of this solution was used.

  1. Data gathering in support of phase O program for waste heat utilization from nuclear enrichment facilities, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The gathering of demographic, community development, and economic data for the region impacted by the Pikeville (Ohio) Nuclear Enrichment Facility is described. These data are to be used for establishing possible community uses, e.g., space heating, domestic water heating, and industrial uses, of waste heat from the facility. It was concluded that although the economic feasibility of such waste heat utilization remains to be proven, the community would cooperate in a feasibility demonstration program

  2. Utility of High Temporal Resolution Observations for Heat Health Event Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palecki, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Many heat health watch systems produce a binary on/off warning when conditions are predicted to exceed a given threshold during a day. Days with warnings and their mortality/morbidity statistics are analyzed relative to days not warned to determine the impacts of the event on human health, the effectiveness of warnings, and other statistics. The climate analyses of the heat waves or extreme temperature events are often performed with hourly or daily observations of air temperature, humidity, and other measured or derived variables, especially the maxima and minima of these data. However, since the beginning of the century, 5-minute observations are readily available for many weather and climate stations in the United States. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) has been collecting 5-minute observations from the NOAA Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) stations since 2000, and from the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) stations since 2005. This presentation will demonstrate the efficacy of utilizing 5-minute environmental observations to characterize heat waves by counting the length of time conditions exceed extreme thresholds based on individual and multiple variables and on derived variables such as the heat index. The length and depth of recovery periods between daytime heating periods will also be examined. The length of time under extreme conditions will influence health outcomes for those directly exposed. Longer periods of dangerous conditions also could increase the chances for poor health outcomes for those only exposed intermittently through cumulative impacts.

  3. Quantitative feasibility study of magnetocaloric energy conversion utilizing industrial waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuarnoz, D.; Kitanovski, A.; Gonin, C.; Borgeaud, Y.; Delessert, M.; Meinen, M.; Egolf, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model magnetic energy conversion machine for the use of industrial waste heat. ► Efficiencies and masses of the system are evaluated by a numerical model. ► Excellent potential of profitability is expected with large low-exergy heat sources. -- Abstract: The main objective of this theoretical study was to investigate under which conditions a magnetic energy conversion device (MECD) – utilizing industrial waste heat – is economically feasible. Furthermore, it was evaluated if magnetic energy conversion (MCE) has the potential of being a serious concurrent to already existing conventional energy conversion technologies. Up-today the availability of magnetocaloric materials with a high Curie temperature and a high magnetocaloric effect is rather limited. Therefore, this study was mainly focused on applications with heat sources of low to medium temperature levels. Magnetic energy conversion machines, containing permanent magnets, are numerically investigated for operation conditions with different temperature levels, defined by industrial waste heat sources and environmental heat sinks, different magnetic field intensities and different frequencies of operation (number of thermodynamic cycles per unit of time). Theoretical modeling and numerical simulations were performed in order to determine thermodynamic efficiencies and the exergy efficiencies as function of different operation conditions. From extracted data of our numerical results, approximate values of the total mass and total volume of magnetic energy conversion machines could be determined. These important results are presented dependent on the produced electric power. An economic feasibility study supplements the scientific study. It shows an excellent potential of profitability for certain machines. The most important result of this article is that the magnetic energy conversion technology can be economically and technically competitive to or even beat conventional energy

  4. Device for hermetically sealing the mouth of a well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastorguyev, M.A.; Prokopov, O.I.; Sharafutdinov, I.G.

    1982-01-01

    The device for hermetically sealing the mouth of a well, which contains a body installed between upper and lower flanges with a preventer, which includes a shut off element and hydraulic drive cylinders and a mechanism for automatic operation of the preventer. In order to ensure the reliable closure of the well with destruction of the above ground equipment, the mechanism for automatic operation of the preventer is made in the form of a branch pipe, linked withthe cavity of the upper flange, in which a spring loaded piston with a rod is installed, and a slide installed in the cylinder, whichis rigidly linked with the rod and is made with turnings. Here, the cylinder has communication with the atmosphere, while the cavity of the lower flange through the turnings of the slide is linked with the above piston and below piston spaces of the preventer's hydraulic cylinders.

  5. Numerical investigation of heat transfer characteristics in utility boilers of oxy-coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yukun; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air-coal and oxy-coal combustion in an industrial scale PF boiler were simulated in ANSYS FLUENT. • The O 2 concentration of 33 vol% in the oxy-coal combustion case matches the air-coal combustion case most closely. • The moisture in the flue gas has little impact on flame temperature, but positive impact on surface incident radiation. - Abstract: Oxy-coal combustion has different flue gas composition from the conventional air-coal combustion. The different composition further results in different properties, such as the absorption coefficient, emissivity, and density, which can directly affect the heat transfer in both radiation and convection zones of utility boilers. This paper numerically studied a utility boiler of oxy-coal combustion and compares with air-coal combustion in terms of flame profile and heat transferred through boiler side walls in order to understand the effects of different operating conditions on oxy-coal boiler retrofitting and design. Based on the results, it was found that around 33 vol% of effective O 2 concentration ([O 2 ] effective ) the highest flame temperature and total heat transferred through boiler side walls in the oxy-coal combustion case match to those in the air-coal combustion case most; therefore, the 33 vol% of [O 2 ] effective could result in the minimal change for the oxy-coal combustion retrofitting of the existing boiler. In addition, the increase of the moisture content in the flue gas has little impact on the flame temperature, but results in a higher surface incident radiation on boiler side walls. The area of heat exchangers in the boiler was also investigated regarding retrofitting. If boiler operates under a higher [O 2 ] effective , to rebalance the load of each heat exchanger in the boiler, the feed water temperature after economizer can be reduced or part of superheating surfaces can be moved into the radiation zone to replace part of the evaporators

  6. Study on Waste Heat Utilization Device of High-Temperature Freshwater in the Modern Marine Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuaijun; Liu, Chentao; Zhou, Yao

    2018-01-01

    Based on using the waste heat recycling from high temperature freshwater in marine diesel engine to heat fuel oil tank, lubrication oil tank and settling tank and so on to achieve energy saving, improve fuel efficiency as the goal, study on waste heat utilization device of high-temperature freshwater in the modern marine diesel engine to make the combustion chamber effectively cooled by high-temperature freshwater and the inner liner freshwater temperature heat is effectively utilized and so on to improve the overall efficiency of the power plant of the ship and the diesel optimum working condition.

  7. Drying of bio fuel utilizing waste heat; Torkning av biobraenslen med spillvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Inge; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    Many industries today have large sources of low grade heat (waste heat), however this energy is mainly lost with effluents to air and water. The aim of this study has been to investigate the technical and economical aspects of utilizing this low grade heat to dry biofuel. The project has been mainly focused towards the forest industry since they have both large amounts of biofuel and waste heat available. Drying of biofuel could generate added revenue (or reduced purchase costs) and through that also create larger incentives for further energy saving modifications to the main process. Due to the higher moisture content together with the risk of frozen bark in the winter time, additional fuels (such as oil) to combust bark in the existing boiler. This is mainly the case when mechanical dewatering is not available. Drying of bark results in an added energy value, which makes it possible to combust the bark without additional fuel. The primary energy demand, in the form of electricity and optional additional heating at load peaks, is low when waste heat is used for the drying process. In this way it is possible to increase the biofuel potential, since the primary energy input to the drying process is essentially lower then the increased energy value of the fuel. Drying also decreases the biological degradation of the fuel. Taking all the above into consideration, waste heat drying could result in a 25 % increase of the biofuel potential in the forest industry in Sweden, without additional cutting of wood. A survey has been done to state which commercial technologies are available for biofuel drying with waste heat. An inquiry was sent out to a number of suppliers and included a few different cases. Relations for approximating investment cost as well as electric power demand were created based on the answers from the inquiry. These relations have then been used in the economical evaluations made for a number of cases representing both sawmills and pulp and paper mills

  8. Organic Rankine Cycle Analysis: Finding the Best Way to Utilize Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim Chakroun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is a type of power cyclethat uses organic substances such as hydrocarbons orrefrigerants as the working fluid. ORC technology is usedto generate electricity in waste heat recovery applications,because the available heat is not at a high enoughtemperature to operate with other types of cycles. Theoptimum amount of working fluid required for the cycle(i.e., optimum charge level was investigated. Three chargelevels (13, 15, and 18 lbm were tested, and their effect onefficiency and performance of the system was analyzed.The heat source for the fluid was waste steam from thePurdue Power Plant, which had an average temperatureof 120oC. Regular city tap water at a temperature of 15oCwas used as the heat sink. For each charge level, multipletests were performed by measuring the temperaturesand pressures at all state points in the cycle, in order tounderstand any overarching patterns within the data.An important parameter that was analyzed is the 2nd lawefficiency. This efficiency is a measure of the effectivenessof the energy utilization compared to that of an idealcase. The peak efficiency increased from 24% to 27% asthe charge in the system decreased. Therefore, movingforward, this research suggests that a lower charge levelin the system will increase efficiency. However, testingbelow 13 lbm might cause mechanical complications inthe equipment as there may not be enough fluid to flowaround; thus, a compromise had to be made.

  9. Heat transfer augmentation of magnetohydrodynamics natural convection in L-shaped cavities utilizing nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourtiji Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of natural convection heat transfer through an alumina-water nanofluid inside L-shaped cavities in the presence of an external magnetic field is performed. The study has been carried out for a wide range of important parame­ters such as Rayleigh number, Hartmann number, aspect ratio of the cavity and solid volume fraction of the nanofluid. The influence of the nanoparticle, buoyancy force and the magnetic field on the flow and temperature fields have been plotted and discussed. The results show that after a critical Rayleigh number depending on the aspect ratio, the heat transfer in the cavity rises abruptly due to some significant changes in flow field. It is also found that the heat transfer enhances in the presence of the nanoparticles and increases with solid volume fraction of the nanofluid. In addition, the performance of the nanofluid utilization is more effective at high Ray­leigh numbers. The influence of the magnetic field has been also studied and de­duced that it has a remarkable effect on the heat transfer and flow field in the cavity that as the Hartmann number increases the overall Nusselt number is significantly decreased specially at high Rayleigh numbers.

  10. Thermal distillation system utilizing biomass energy burned in stove by means of heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermal distillation system utilizing a part of the thermal energy of biomass burned in a stove during cooking is proposed. The thermal energy is transported from the stove to the distiller by means of a heat pipe. The distiller is a vertical multiple-effect diffusion distiller, in which a number of parallel partitions in contact with saline-soaked wicks are set vertically with narrow gaps of air. A pilot experimental apparatus was constructed and tested with a single-effect and multiple-effect distillers to investigate primarily whether a heat pipe can transport thermal energy adequately from the stove to the distiller. It was found that the temperatures of the heated plate and the first partition of the distiller reached to about 100 °C and 90 °C, respectively, at steady state, showing that the heat pipe works sufficiently. The distilled water obtained was about 0.75 and 1.35 kg during the first 2 h of burning from a single-effect and multiple-effect distillers, respectively.

  11. Solar heating and cooling system for an office building at Reedy Creek Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    This final report describes in detail the solar energy system installed in a new two-story office building at the Reedy Creek Utilities Company, which provides utility service to Walt Disney World at Lake Buena Vista, Florida. The solar components were partly funded by the Department of Energy under Contract EX-76-C-01-2401, and the technical management was by NASA/George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. The solar energy system application is 100 percent heating, 80 percent cooling, and 100 percent hot water. The collector is a modular cylindrical concentrator type with an area of 3.840 square feet. The storage medium is water with a capacity of 10,000 gallons hot and 10,000 gallons chilled. Design, construction, operation, cost, maintenance, and performance are described in depth. Detailed drawings are included.

  12. Design and evaluation of heat utilization systems for the high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    The primary focus of this CRP was to perform detailed investigation of the high temperature industrial processes that are attainable through incorporation of an HTGR, and for their possible demonstration in the HTTR. The HTGR has the capability to achieve a core outlet temperature approaching 1,000 deg. C in a safe and effective manner. These attributes, coupled with the offer by JAERI to utilize the HTTR, resulted in the initiation of this CRP by the IAEA. High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) utilizes a 30 MW(th) HTGR comprised of 30 fuel columns of hexagonal pin-in-pin graphite block type fuel elements. The fuel consists of UO 2 TRISO coated particles with an enrichment of ∼ 6% wt. Relative to the demonstration of high temperature heat applications, the HTTR will be capable of producing 10 MW(th) of heat at 950 deg. C. However, the thermal power for these applications has the potential to be increased up to 30 MW(th) in the future, which may be required for demonstration of gas turbine system components. The HTTR reached initial criticality in November 1998. Initial operational plans includes a series of rise to power tests followed by tests to demonstrate the safety and operational characteristics of the HTTR. In addition to completion of the HTTR demonstration tests, it was recommended that the R and D be performed within the HTTR project. JAERI is encouraged to publicize the results of the HTTR tests and 'lessons learned' from their experiences including potential capabilities of the HTGR for heat applications. The next priority application was determined to be the generation of electricity through the use of the gas turbine. Application of the Brayton Cycle utilizing high temperature helium from a modular HTGR was chosen for development because of its projected benefits as an economic and efficient means for the production of electricity. Evaluation of the remaining high temperature heat utilization applications chosen for investigation resulted

  13. Heat transmission systems for heating and potable water. New requirements and problem solutions for hygiene, safety and improved heat utilization. Waermeuebertragungssysteme fuer Heizung und Trinkwasser. Neue Anforderungen und Problemloesungen bezueglich Hygiene, Sicherheit und besserer Waermenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, R

    1989-10-01

    In the past, additional demands were made on heat transmission systems regarding hygienic requirements in potable water heating plant for hospitals, hotels, sanatoriums and old-age homes, safety requirements to protect the potable water from the penetration of hazardous substances and requirements for improved heat utilization through return flow cooling and condensate cooling in the district heating. Where potable water heaters are concerned, safety radiators for heat transfer which comply with the requirements of DIN 1988 Part 2 and Part 4, as well as water heaters with permanent disinfection which are legionnaires' disease-proof, are now available for use in hospitals, old age homes and sanatoriums. For the district heating sector, improved range systems with low concentration in the hot water sector as well as condensate heat utilizing systems have been further developed in the steam heating sector. (orig.).

  14. Wafer-level hermetic thermo-compression bonding using electroplated gold sealing frame planarized by fly-cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisi, Muhammad Salman Al; Hirano, Hideki; Frömel, Jörg; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel wafer-level hermetic packaging technology for heterogeneous device integration is presented. Hermetic sealing is achieved by low-temperature thermo-compression bonding using electroplated Au micro-sealing frame planarized by single-point diamond fly-cutting. The proposed technology has significant advantages compared to other established processes in terms of integration of micro-structured wafer, vacuum encapsulation and electrical interconnection, which can be achieved at the same time. Furthermore, the technology is also achievable for a bonding frame width as narrow as 30 μm, giving it an advantage from a geometry perspective, and bonding temperatures as low as 300 °C, making it advantageous for temperature-sensitive devices. Outgassing in vacuum sealed cavities is studied and a cavity pressure below 500 Pa is achieved by introducing annealing steps prior to bonding. The pressure of the sealed cavity is measured by zero-balance method utilizing diaphragm-structured bonding test devices. The leak rate into the packages is determined by long-term sealed cavity pressure measurement for 1500 h to be less than 2.0× {{10}-14} Pa m3s-1. In addition, the bonding shear strength is also evaluated to be higher than 100 MPa.

  15. THE STATE AND PERSPECTIVE OF HERMETIZATION OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES WITH USE OF RUBBER SEALANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Leshchenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The works on creation of effective rubber sealants for hermetic sealing of joints of underground structures from modular ferroconcrete and pig-iron, including tunnel elements for the underground, are carried out.

  16. Comprehensive 3D-elastohydrodynamic simulation of hermetic compressor crank drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, S.; Hopfgartner, J.; Berger, E.; Zuber, B.; Almbauer, R.; Schöllauf, P.

    2017-08-01

    Mechanical, electrical and thermodynamic losses form the major loss mechanisms of hermetic compressors for refrigeration application. The present work deals with the investigation of the mechanical losses of a hermetic compressor crank drive. Focus is on 3d-elastohydrodynamic (EHD) modelling of the journal bearings, piston-liner contact and piston secondary motion in combination with multi-body and structural dynamics of the crank drive elements. A detailed description of the model development within the commercial software AVL EXCITE Power Unit is given in the work. The model is used to create a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical losses of a hermetic compressor. Further on, a parametric study concerning oil viscosity and compressor speed is carried out which shows the possibilities of the usage of the model in the development process of hermetic compressors for refrigeration application. Additionally, the usage of the results in an overall thermal network for the determination of the thermal compressor behaviour is discussed.

  17. Minimizing temperature instability of heat recovery hot water system utilizing optimized thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suamir, I. N.; Sukadana, I. B. P.; Arsana, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    One energy-saving technology that starts gaining attractive for hotel industry application in Indonesia is the utilization of waste heat of a central air conditioning system to heat water for domestic hot water supply system. Implementing the technology for such application at a hotel was found that hot water capacity generated from the heat recovery system could satisfy domestic hot water demand of the hotel. The gas boilers installed in order to back up the system have never been used. The hot water supply, however, was found to be instable with hot water supply temperature fluctuated ranging from 45 °C to 62 °C. The temperature fluctuations reaches 17 °C, which is considered instable and can reduce hot water usage comfort level. This research is aimed to optimize the thermal energy storage in order to minimize the temperature instability of heat recovery hot water supply system. The research is a case study approach based on cooling and hot water demands of a hotel in Jakarta-Indonesia that has applied water cooled chillers with heat recovery systems. The hotel operation with 329 guest rooms and 8 function rooms showed that hot water production in the heat recovery system completed with 5 m3 thermal energy storage (TES) could not hold the hot water supply temperature constantly. The variations of the cooling demand and hot water demands day by day were identified. It was found that there was significant mismatched of available time (hours) between cooling demand which is directly correlated to the hot water production from the heat recovery system and hot water usage. The available TES system could not store heat rejected from the condenser of the chiller during cooling demand peak time between 14.00 and 18.00 hours. The extra heat from the heat recovery system consequently increases the temperature of hot water up to 62 °C. It is about 12 K above 50 °C the requirement hot water temperature of the hotel. In contrast, the TES could not deliver proper

  18. Waste heat utilization in the thermal spa of Lavey-les-Bains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy looks at the possibilities for improved waste water utilization in the Lavey-les-Bains thermal spa, Switzerland. According to the regulations in force, the temperature of the waste water rejected into the Rhone river shall not exceed 30 o C, what is currently not the case. Also the operational cost shall be reduced and the waste water quality improved. The installations are presented. From the two geothermal wells, mineral water comes out at an average flow rate of 940 l/min and a temperature of 63 o C. Actual waste water data are reported. The measured thermal water consumption data, including seasonal variations, are analysed by computerized simulation and measures to reduce the consumed volume by the optimization of internal procedures are evaluated. Measures to reduce the quantity of the rejected free chlorine are discussed. Several possible adaptations of the existing space heating, domestic water heating and pools' heating are evaluated, including cost. In addition, extensions of the thermal spa center to recreational activities are discussed, as the construction of a tropical greenhouse is

  19. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance: Federal assistance program. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-96. It describes 90 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment and resources. Research activities are summarized on low-temperature resource assessment, geothermal district heating system cost evaluation and silica waste utilization project. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, development of a webpage, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  20. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July 1996--September 1996. Federal Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-96. It describes 152 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  1. Environmental flows and life cycle assessment of associated petroleum gas utilization via combined heat and power plants and heat boilers at oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajović, Vuk; Kiss, Ferenc; Maravić, Nikola; Bera, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental impact of associated petroleum gas flaring is discussed. • A modern trend of introducing cogeneration systems to the oil fields is presented. • Three alternative utilization options evaluated with life cycle assessment method. • Producing electricity and/or heat instead of flaring would reduce impacts. - Abstract: Flaring of associated petroleum gas is a major resource waste and causes considerable emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. New environmental regulations are forcing oil industry to implement innovative and sustainable technologies in order to compete in growing energy market. A modern trend of introducing energy-effective cogeneration systems to the oil fields by replacing flaring and existing heat generation technologies powered by associated petroleum gas is discussed through material flow analysis and environmental impact assessment. The environmental assessment is based on the consequential life cycle assessment method and mainly primary data compiled directly from measurements on Serbian oil-fields or company-supplied information. The obtained results confirm that the utilization of associated petroleum gas via combined heat and power plants and heat boilers can provide a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and resource depletion by displacing marginal production of heat and electricity. At the base case scenario, which assumes a 100% heat realization rate, the global warming potential of the combined heat and power plant and heat boiler scenarios were estimated at −4.94 and −0.54 kg CO_2_e_q Sm"−"3, whereas the cumulative fossil energy requirements of these scenarios were −48.7 and −2.1 MJ Sm"−"3, respectively. This is a significant reduction compared to the global warming potential (2.25 kg CO_2_e_q Sm"−"3) and cumulative fossil energy requirements (35.36 MJ Sm"−"3) of flaring. Nevertheless, sensitivity analyses have shown that life cycle assessment results are sensitive

  2. Experimental study of the combined utilization of nuclear power heating plants for big towns and industrial complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, J.; Barabas, K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a comparison of nuclear power heating plants with an output corresponding to 1000MW(e) with plants of the same output using coal or oil. The economic aspects are compared, both as regards investment and operation costs. The comparison of the environmental aspects is performed on the atmospheric pollution from exhausts and gaseous emission and on the thermal pollutions in hydrosphere and atmosphere. Basic nuclear power plant schemes with two PWRs, each of 1500MW(th), are described. The plant supplies electric power and heat for factories and municipal heating systems (apartments, shops, and other auxiliary municipal facilities). At the same time the basic heat-flow diagram of a nuclear power heating plant is given, together with the relative losses. The study emphasizes the possible utilization of waste heat for heating glasshouses of 200m 2 . The problems of utilizing waste heat, and the needs of a big town and of industrial complexes in the vicinity of the nuclear power heating plant are also considered. (author)

  3. Utilization of the PCM latent heat for energy savings in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fořt, Jan; Trník, Anton; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    Increase of the energy consumption for buildings operation creates a great challenge for sustainable development issues. Thermal energy storage systems present promising way to achieve this goal. The latent heat storage systems with high density of thermal storage via utilization of phase change materials (PCMs) enable to improve thermal comfort of buildings and reduce daily temperature fluctuations of interior climate. The presented study is focused on the evaluation of the effect of PCM admixture on thermal performance of a cement-lime plaster. On the basis of the experimentally accessed properties of newly developed plasters, computational modeling is carried out in order to rate the acquired thermal improvement. The calculated results show that incorporation of 24 mass% of paraffinic wax based PCM decreased the energy demand of approx. 14.6%.

  4. Analysis of economic and energy utilization aspects for waste heat aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.; Wilson, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    A waste heat aquaculture system using extensive culture techniques to produce fin and shellfish is currently under investigation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system uses nutrients in waste water streams to grow algae and zooplankton which are fed to fish and clams. A tilapia polyculture association and the freshwater clam Corbicula are the animals cultured in the system. The investigations were performed to determine the economic feasibility of the system and examine energy utilization in the system. A net energy analysis was performed to identify the energy saving potential for the system. This analysis includes all energy costs (both direct and indirect) associated with building and operating the system. The results of the economic study indicated that fish production costs of $0.55/kg ($0.25/lb) were possible. This cost, however, depends upon the fish production rate and food conversion efficiency and could rise to as much as $1.65/kg ($0.75/lb). Clam production costs were found to be in the neighborhood of $0.37/kg of clam meat ($1.24/bushel). The energy utilization study results indicated that, when all energy costs are included, fish from the aquaculture system may require only 35% of the net energy now required for fish products from the ocean. However, the energy requirements also depend on system parameters and could be as large as the energy required for ocean caught products. Clams can be produced in the aquaculture system using only about 25% of the net energy required by traditional means. The results of the analysis indicate that the system appears to be economically feasible. They also indicate that significant energy savings are possible if waste heat aquaculture products replace ocean caught products.

  5. Development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of combustible solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajikawa, T.; Ito, M.; Katsube, I.; Shibuya, E.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of municipal solid waste. The systematic classification and design guideline are proposed in consideration of the characteristics of solid waste processing system. The conceptual design of thermoelectric power generation system is carried out for a typical middle scale incinerator system (200 ton/day) by the local model. Totally the recovered electricity is 926.5 kWe by 445 units (569,600 couples). In order to achieve detailed design, one dimensional steady state model taking account of temperature dependency of the heat transfer performance and thermoelectric properties is developed. Moreover, small scale on-site experiment on 60 W class module installed in the real incinerator is carried out to extract various levels of technological problems. In parallel with the system development, high temperature thermoelectric elements such as Mn-Si and so on are developed aiming the optimization of ternary compound and high performance due to controlled fine-grain boundary effect. The manganese silicide made by shrinking-rate controlled sintering method performs 5 (μW/cm K2) in power factor at 800 K. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. A combined power cycle utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaojun; Che Defu

    2009-01-01

    This paper has proposed a combined power system, in which low-temperature waste heat can be efficiently recovered and cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be fully utilized as well. This system consists of an ammonia-water mixture Rankine cycle and an LNG power generation cycle, and it is modelled by considering mass, energy and species balances for every component and thermodynamic analyses are conducted. The results show that the proposed combined cycle has good performance, with net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency of 33% and 48%, respectively, for a typical operating condition. The power output is equal to 1.25 MWh per kg of ammonia-water mixture. About 0.2 MW of electrical power for operating sea water pumps can be saved. Parametric analyses are performed for the proposed combined cycle to evaluate the effects of key factors on the performance of the proposed combined cycle through simulation calculations. Results show that a maximum net electrical efficiency can be obtained as the inlet pressure of ammonia turbine increases and the peak value increases as the ammonia mass fraction increases. Exergy efficiency goes up with the increased ammonia turbine inlet pressure. With the ammonia mass fraction increases, the net electrical efficiency increases, whereas exergy efficiency decreases. For increasing LNG turbine inlet pressure or heat source temperature, there is also a peak of net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency. With the increase of LNG gas turbine outlet pressure, exergy efficiency increases while net electrical efficiency drops

  7. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    benefits. Because it produces hot water by extracting heat from the air it tends to dehumidify and cool the room in which it is placed. Moreover, it tends to spread the water heating load across utility non-peak periods. Thus, electric utilities with peak load issues could justify internal programs to promote this technology to residential and commercial customers. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to the manner in which water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. Thus, the principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the HPWH, and creating programs that embrace life-cycle cost principles. To supplement this, a product warranty with scrupulous quality control should be implemented; first-price reduction through engineering, perhaps by reducing level of energy efficiency, should be pursued; and niche markets should be courted. The first step toward market penetration is to address the HPWH's performance reliability. Next, the manufacturers could engage select utilities to aggressively market the HPWH. A good approach would be to target distinct segments of the market with the potential for the highest benefits from the technology. Communications media that address performance issues should be developed. When marketing to new home builders, the HPWH could be introduced as part of an energy-efficient package offered as a standard feature by builders of new homes within a community. Conducting focus groups across the United States to gather input on HPWH consumer values will feed useful data back to the manufacturers. ''Renaming'' and ''repackaging'' the HPWH to improve consumer perception, appliance aesthetics, and name recognition should be considered. Once an increased sales volume is achieved, the manufacturers

  8. What is the most energy efficient route for biogas utilization: Heat, electricity or transport?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakawati, Rawan; Smyth, Beatrice M.; McCullough, Geoffrey; De Rosa, Fabio; Rooney, David

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The paper developed an assessment tool for analyzing biogas utilization routes. •The LCA methodology was used to allow a uniform assessment of the biogas system. •“% energy efficiency” was used as the functional unit for assessment. •49 biogas-to-energy routes were assessed based on their final useful energy form. •The framework aids policy makers in the decision process for biogas exploitation. -- Abstract: Biogas is a renewable energy source that can be used either directly or through various pathways (e.g. upgrading to bio-methane, use in a fuel cell or conversion to liquid fuels) for heat, electricity generation or mechanical energy for transport. However, although there are various options for biogas utilization, there is limited guidance in the literature on the selection of the optimum route, and comparison between studies is difficult due to the use of different analytical frameworks. The aim of this paper was to fill that knowledge gap and to develop a consistent framework for analysing biogas-to-energy exploitation routes. The paper evaluated 49 biogas-to-energy routes using a consistent life cycle analysis method focusing on energy efficiency as the chosen crtierion. Energy efficiencies varied between 8% and 54% for electricity generation; 16% and 83% for heat; 18% and 90% for electricity and heat; and 4% and 18% for transport. Direct use of biogas has the highest efficiencies, but the use of this fuel is typically limited to sites co-located with the anaerobic digestion facility, limiting available markets and applications. Liquid fuels have the advantage of versatility, but the results show consistently low efficiencies across all routes and applications. The energy efficiency of bio-methane routes competes well with biogas and comes with the advantage that it is more easily transported and used in a wide variety of applications. The results were also compared with fossil fuels and discussed in the context of national

  9. Optimization of operating parameters of ground source heat pump system for space heating and cooling by Taguchi method and utility concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasakthivel, T.; Murugesan, K.; Thomas, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technology is suitable for both heating and cooling. • Important parameters that affect the GSHP performance has been listed. • Parameters of GSHP system has been optimized for heating and cooling mode. • Taguchi technique and utility concept are developed for GSHP optimization. - Abstract: Use of ground source energy for space heating applications through Ground Source Heat pump (GSHP) has been established as an efficient thermodynamic process. The electricity input to the GSHP can be reduced by increasing the COP of the system. However, the COP of a GSHP system will be different for heating and cooling mode operations. Hence in order to reduce the electricity input to the GSHP, an optimum value of COP has to be determined when GSHP is operated in both heating and cooling modes. In the present research, a methodology is proposed to optimize the operating parameters of a GSHP system which will operate on both heating and cooling modes. Condenser inlet temperature, condenser outlet temperature, dryness fraction at evaporator inlet and evaporator outlet temperature are considered as the influencing parameters of the heat pump. Optimization of these parameters for only heating or only cooling mode operation is achieved by employing Taguchi method for three level variations of the above parameters using an L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal array. Higher the better concept has been used to get a higher COP. A computer program in FORTAN has been developed to carry out the computations and the results have been analyzed for the optimum conditions using Signal-to-Noise (SN) ratio and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) method. Based on this analysis, the maximum COP for only heating and only cooling operation are obtained as 4.25 and 3.32 respectively. By making use of the utility concept both the higher values of COP obtained for heating and cooling modes are optimized to get a single optimum COP for heating and cooling modes. A single

  10. Design and functionality of a segmented heat-storage prototype utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate in a solar heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englmair, Gerald; Moser, Christoph; Furbo, Simon

    2018-01-01

    acetate trihydrate composites to conserve the latent heat of fusion for long-term heat storage. A control strategy directed heat from a solar collector array to either the PCM storage or a water buffer storage. Several PCM units had to be charged in parallel when the solar collector output peaked at 16 k......A solar heating system with 22.4m2 of solar collectors, a heat storage prototype consisting of four 200 kg phase-change material (PCM) storage units, and a 735 L water tank was designed to improve solar heat supply in single-family houses. The PCM storage utilized stable supercooling of sodium......W. A single unit was charged with 27.4 kWh of heat within four hours on a sunny day, and the PCM temperature increased from 20 °C to 80 °C. The sensible heat from a single PCM unit was transferred to the water tank starting with about 32 kW of thermal power after it had fully melted at 80 °C. A mechanical...

  11. Effects of the generator and evaporator temperature differences on a double absorption heat transformer—Different control strategies on utilizing heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hanzhi; Li, Huashan; Bu, Xianbiao; Wang, Lingbao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of the GETD on the DAHT system performance are analyzed. • Three different configurations are compared in detail. • Suggestions on the heat source control strategies are given. - Abstract: The combination of the absorption heat transformer with renewable energy systems, like solar thermal systems, is raising more and more concern. In those combined systems the strategies on utilizing heat sources can affect system thermodynamic performance significantly. Therefore, this study presents a detailed analysis on the effect of the heat source temperature and different heat source flow patterns on the performance of a double absorption heat transformer (DAHT). A detailed comparative study is carried out to clarify the impact of the generator and evaporator temperature differences (GETD) on the coefficient of performance (COP), exergy efficient (ECOP), exergy destruction rates in the individual components and heat transfer areas needed for each component. The results show that the generator, condenser and absorber-evaporator are responsible for most of the exergy destruction rate in the DAHT system; the parallel-flow configuration (the generator temperature is equal to the evaporator temperature) performs better under the high gross temperature lift conditions; in the case of the counter-flow configuration (the generator temperature is relatively higher), better performance can be obtained in both the COP and ECOP under the proper heat source temperature (85 and 95 °C); the fair-flow configuration (higher temperature in the evaporator) is not recommended in this paper due to no advantages found in either thermodynamic performance or system size.

  12. Utilization of process energy from supermarket refrigeration systems. Coupling of cooling and heating; Prozessenergienutzung von Supermarktkaelteanlagen. Kaelte-Waerme-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirsching, Alexander [TEKO Gesellschaft fuer Kaeltetechnik mbH, Altenstadt (Germany). Technologie und Kommunikation

    2010-03-15

    The efficiency is defined as the relation between utility and expenditure. Thus, it is obvious for the specialist of refrigeration to tackle with the expenditure (energy consumption) since the utilization conventionally is defined as the produced/need cooling performance of a refrigeration plant. If refrigeration plants are regarded according to their function (withdrawal of heat from a refrigeration chamber and delivery to the environment), the heating system is the producer of the requirement for cooling in 'the winter' (heating season). Thus, the refrigeration plant perhaps already has a marvellous efficiency, and the separate heating system too - however in interaction. The broad view moves into the focus. The possible approaches and effects are described in the contribution under consideration using the example of a Discount supermarket with a sales area of 800 square meters and a requirement of cooling of more than 30 kW.

  13. Savannah River Plant Low-Level Waste Heat Utilization Project preliminary analysis. Volume III. Preferred utilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The technical, economic, environmental, and institutional considerations that must be resolved before implementing options to recover energy from the heated SRP effluent are examined. Detailed hypothetical siting options and expected economic returns are examined for power generation, prawn production, and one industrial park scenario. The likely indirect effects on regional population, income, taxes, and infrastructure requirements if the industrial park scenario is implemented are also projected. Recommendations for follow-on studies to make possible an informed go/no-go decision for implementing attractive waste heat options using reject SRP effluent are included

  14. Demonstration of an on-site PAFC cogeneration system with waste heat utilization by a new gas absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Tatsuo [Tokyo Gas Company, LTD, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Analysis and cost reduction of fuel cells is being promoted to achieve commercial on-site phosphoric acid fuel cells (on-site FC). However, for such cells to be effectively utilized, a cogeneration system designed to use the heat generated must be developed at low cost. Room heating and hot-water supply are the most simple and efficient uses of the waste heat of fuel cells. However, due to the short room-heating period of about 4 months in most areas in Japan, the sites having demand for waste heat of fuel cells throughout the year will be limited to hotels and hospitals Tokyo Gas has therefore been developing an on-site FC and the technology to utilize tile waste heat of fuel cells for room cooling by means of an absorption refrigerator. The paper describes the results of fuel cell cogeneration tests conducted on a double effect gas absorption chiller heater with auxiliary waste heat recovery (WGAR) that Tokyo Gas developed in its Energy Technology Research Laboratory.

  15. Rational energy use and the gas utility. An economic analysis of energy efficiency strategies on the space heating market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, C.

    1994-01-01

    Apart from the political authorities, also the supply utilities may contribute to a more widespread rational energy use. This investigtion focuses on the gas utilities, which have a wide range of options for higher energy efficiency, especially on the space heating market. These options are analyzed in the framework of the process of company straategy planning. Particular interest is taken in the product-political strategy of forward integration. (orig.) [de

  16. Utilization of heat from High Temperature Reactors (HTR) for dry reforming of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrząb, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    One of the methods for utilization of waste carbon dioxide consists in reaction of methane with carbon dioxide, referred to as dry reforming of methane. It is an intensely endothermic catalytic process that takes place at the temperature above 700°C. Reaction of methane with carbon dioxide leads to formation of synthesis gas (syngas) that is a valuable chemical raw material. The energy that is necessary for the process to take place can be sourced from High Temperature Nuclear Reactors (HTR). The completed studies comprises a series of thermodynamic calculations and made it possible to establish optimum conditions for the process and demand for energy from HTR units. The dry reforming of methane needs also a catalytic agent with appropriate activity, therefore the hydrotalcite catalyser with admixture of cerium and nickel, developed at AGH University of Technology seems to be a promising solution. Thus, the researchers from the Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW) in Zabrze have developed a methodology for production of the powdery hydrotalcite catalyser and investigated catalytic properties of the granulate obtained. The completed experiments confirmed that the new catalyser demonstrated high activity and is suitable for the process of methane dry reforming. In addition, optimum parameters of the were process (800°C, CO2:CH4 = 3:1) were established as well. Implementation of the technology in question into industrial practice, combined with utilization of HTR heat can be a promising method for management of waste carbon dioxide and may eventually lead to mitigation of the greenhouse effect.

  17. An assessment of solar hot water heating in the Washington, D.C. area - Implications for local utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, M. W.

    1980-04-01

    A survey of residential solar hot water heating in the Washington, D.C. area is presented with estimates of the total solar energy contribution per year. These estimates are examined in relation to a local utility's peak-load curves to determine the impact of a substantial increase in solar domestic hot water use over the next 20 yr in the area of utility management. The results indicate that a 10% market penetration of solar water heaters would have no detrimental effect on the utility's peak-load profile and could save several million dollars in new plant construction costs.

  18. Electric motor-transformer aggregate in hermetic objects of transport vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabora, Igor

    2017-10-01

    The construction and features of operation for new electrical unit - electric motor-transformer aggregate (DTA) are considered. Induction motors are intended for operation in hermetic plants with extreme conditions surrounding gas, steam-to-gas and liquid environment at a high temperature (to several hundred of degrees). Main objective of spent researches is the substantiation of possibility reliable and effective electric power transform with electric machine means directly in hermetic objects with extreme conditions environment by means of new DTA. The principle and job analysis of new disk induction motors of block-module type are observed.

  19. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo Mission: SIG/Galileo hermetic receptable test program final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, S.

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of the receptacle test program was to test various types of hermetically sealed electrical receptacles and to select one model as the spaceflight hardware item for SIG/Galileo thermoelectric generators. The design goal of the program was to qualify a hermetic seal integrity of less than or equal to 1 x 10 -9 std cc He/sec -atm at 400 0 F (204 0 C) and verify a reliability of 0.95 at a 50% confidence level for a flight mission in excess of 7 years

  20. Preliminary design of steam reformer in out-pile demonstration test facility for HTTR heat utilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro; Inagaki, Yosiyuki; Hata, Kazuhiko; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Sudo, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Yamada, Seiya

    1996-11-01

    One of the key objectives of HTTR is to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization system. Prior to connecting a heat utilization system to HTTR, an out-pile demonstration test is indispensable for the development of experimental apparatuses, operational control and safety technology, and verification of the analysis code of safety assessment. For the first heat utilization system of HTTR, design of the hydrogen production system by steam reforming is going on. We have proposed the out-pile demonstration test plan of the heat utilization system and conducted preliminary design of the test facility. In this report, design of the steam reformer, which is the principal component of the test facility, is described. In the course of the design, two types of reformers are considered. The one reformer contains three reactor tubes and the other contains one reactor tube to reduce the construction cost of the test facility. We have selected the steam reformer operational conditions and structural specifications by analyzing the steam reforming characteristics and component structural strength for each type of reformer. (author)

  1. Energy utilization and heat production of embryos from eggs originating from young and old broiler breeder flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.; Meijerhof, R.; Ruangpanit, Y.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the interaction between breeder age and egg size on the energy utilization (experiment 1) and heat production (experiment 2) of broiler embryos. In experiment 1, a total of 4,800 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder ages (29 and 53 wk of age, or young and

  2. Study on a heat recovery system for the thermal power plant utilizing air cooling island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian; Fu, Lin; Sun, Fangtian; Zhang, Shigang

    2014-01-01

    A new heat recovery system for CHP (combined heat and power) systems named HRU (heat recovery unit) is presented, which could recover the low grade heat of exhausted steam from the turbine at the thermal power plant directly. Heat recovery of exhausted steam is often accomplished by recovering the heat of cooling water in current systems. Therefore, two processes of heat transfer is needed at least. However, exhausted steam could be condensed in the evaporator of HRU directly, which reduce one process of heat transfer. A special evaporator is designed condense the exhausted steam directly. Simulated results are compared to experiments, which could include the calculation of heat transfer coefficients of different parts of HRU. It is found that about 25Mw of exhausted steam is recovered by this system. HRU could be promising for conventional CHP systems, which could increase the total energy efficiency obviously and enlarge the heating capacity of a built CHP system. - Highlights: • A new heat recovery system for thermal power plant is presented. • A mathematical model including heat transfer coefficients calculation is given. • This heat recovery system is experimented at a thermal power plant. • Performances of this system under different working conditions are simulated

  3. STUDY ON DISCHARGE HEAT UTILIZATION OF 250 MWe PCMSR TURBINE SYSTEM FOR DESALINATION USING MODIFIED MED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andang Widiharto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor is one type of Advanced Nuclear Reactors. The PCMSR has benefit charasteristics of very efficient fuel use, high safety charecteristic as well as high thermodinamics efficiency. This is due to its breeding capability, inherently safe characteristic and totally passive safety system. The PCMSR design consists of three module, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. Analysis in performed by parametric calculation of the turbine system to calculate the turbine system efficiency and the hat available for desalination. After that the mass and energi balance of desalination process are calculated to calculate the amount of distillate produced and the amount of feed sea water needed. The turbine module is designed to be operated at maximum temperature cycle of 1373 K (1200 0C and minimum temperature cycle of 333 K (60 0K. The parametric calculation shows that the optimum turbine pressure ratio is 4.3 that gives the conversion efficiency of 56 % for 4 stages turbine and 4 stages compressor and equiped with recuperator. In this optimum condition, the 250 MWe PCMSR turbine system produces 196 MWth of waste heat with the temperature of cooling fluid in the range from 327 K (54 0C to 368 K (92 0C. This waste heat can be utilized for desalination. By using MMED desalination system, this waste heat can be used to produce fresh water (distillate from sea water feed. The amount of the destillate produced is 48663 ton per day by using 15 distillation effects. The performance ratio value is 2.8727 kg/MJ by using 15 distillation effects. Keywords: PCMSR, discharged heat, MMED desalination   PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor merupakan salah satu tipe dari Reaktor Nuklir Maju. PCMSR memiliki keuntungan berupa penggunaan bahan bakar yang sangat efisisien, sifat keselamatan tinggi dan sekaligus efisiensi termodinamika yang tinggi. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kemampuan pembiakan bahan bakar, sifat

  4. Thermocouple and controlling cables of electric penetrations for nuclear power stations. hermetization with glass-ceramic and glass-fiber materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyukov, N.S.; Golovko, T.A.; Okhotnikova, G.G.

    1996-01-01

    New perspective technology for hermetization of cable ends for fabrication of hermetical inlets for NPPs with inorganic materials is developed. On the basis of the studies dielectric inorganic materials, resistive to γ-radiation and fire, are selected for creation of hermetically sealed inlets. Principally new methods for fabrication of hermoinlets is developed on the basis of metallic modules with fibre circuitously and ceramic hermetization units

  5. Solution of operational problems utilization of an EX-IRT-2000 heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razak, Abdu

    1986-01-01

    The Bandung TRIGA Mark II Reactor has been successfully operated for 21 years, especially in low power operation or as neutron sources for various experiments. Most of the operating time, approximately 80% of routine operation, was dedicated for radio-isotope production. During routine operation for radio-isotope production, the reactor could not be operated at full power. The reactor was operated at 60% of the maximum power (1 MWth) due to the inability of the original heat exchanger to operate properly. The reason is that slack deposition was built-up on the secondary side of the heat exchanger. Therefore, it reduced the coefficient of heat transfer considerably. To solve the problems, a set of heat exchanger including the pump was installed In parallel with the original unit. The heat exchanger was an IRT-2000 Reactor Heat exchanger which was collected from the abandoned IRT-2000 Project. The heat exchanger has capacity of 1.25 MW. The new heat exchanger could reduced the outlet temperature of the primary coolant Into 42 deg. C. While the original-heat exchanger at the worst condition and at 600 kW of power reach outlet temperature 49 deg. C. The IRT Heat Exchanger is a counter flow heat exchanger. (author)

  6. Solution of operational problems utilization of an EX-IRT-2000 heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razak, Abdu [Research Centre for Nuclear Techniques, National Atomic Energy Agency (Indonesia)

    1986-07-01

    The Bandung TRIGA Mark II Reactor has been successfully operated for 21 years, especially in low power operation or as neutron sources for various experiments. Most of the operating time, approximately 80% of routine operation, was dedicated for radio-isotope production. During routine operation for radio-isotope production, the reactor could not be operated at full power. The reactor was operated at 60% of the maximum power (1 MWth) due to the inability of the original heat exchanger to operate properly. The reason is that slack deposition was built-up on the secondary side of the heat exchanger. Therefore, it reduced the coefficient of heat transfer considerably. To solve the problems, a set of heat exchanger including the pump was installed In parallel with the original unit. The heat exchanger was an IRT-2000 Reactor Heat exchanger which was collected from the abandoned IRT-2000 Project. The heat exchanger has capacity of 1.25 MW. The new heat exchanger could reduced the outlet temperature of the primary coolant Into 42 deg. C. While the original-heat exchanger at the worst condition and at 600 kW of power reach outlet temperature 49 deg. C. The IRT Heat Exchanger is a counter flow heat exchanger. (author)

  7. Dynamics of nutrient utilization, heat production, and body composition in broiler breeder hens during egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Justina V; Hilton, Katie; Boonsinchai, Nirun; England, Judith A; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Coon, Craig N

    2018-04-24

    Changes in heat production (HP) and body composition (BC) in modern broiler breeders can provide means to understand nutrient utilization. Twelve Cobb 500 breeders were evaluated 10 times from 26 to 59 wk of age. The same wired caged breeders were moved to respiratory chambers connected to an indirect calorimetry to obtain oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2), HP, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). The same hens were evaluated for BC using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Data were analyzed during light (16 h) and dark (8 h) period using a mixed model to evaluate calorimetry parameters, a factorial design 2 × 10 for normalized calorimetry parameters, and Complete Randomized Design (CRD)-one way ANOVA for BC. Means were separated by Tukey-Honest Significant difference (HSD). HP increased with age (d) in 0.152 kcal/d, VO2 and VCO2 were 0.031 and 0.024 L/d per each increase in age (d), respectively. In the light period, hens consumed +17.4 L/d VO2 and produced +18.9 L/d VCO2 (P production. Lean body mass ranged from 642 to 783 g/kg during the whole study reaching the lowest at 37 and 50 wk and the highest at 26 to 33 wk (P production is reduced, and HP increased at 54 and 59 wk (P lean mass structure. Broiler breeders change nutrient fuel use during egg production. Indirect calorimetry and DEXA can be used to pursue further feed strategies to maximize egg production and maintain a healthy breeder.

  8. Wasted Heat Engine Utilization in Central AC Condenser Type Water Chiller for Economical Energy Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Rasta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Central AC type water chiller is a refrigeration machine that release heat to environment. Heat energy that released to environment comes from room heat load that absorbed by machine and heat from compressor. The best form in using this loss energy is heat recovery water heater technology, where this machine will take heat from condenser by a heat exchanger to heating water. Refrigerant will flow in the heat exchanger before entering condenser, after that refrigerant flow to other components such as, expansion valve, evaporator, compressor and than return again to condenser, this process will be cycling regularly (closed cycle. Based on experimental and analysis result especially for AC with capacity 2 Pk, and tank capacity 75 liter, with water heater recovery device obtained that: (1 Compressor power consumption decrease from 1.66 kW to 1.59kW. (2 Heat rejected from condenser and used by water heater has ratio 4.683 kJ/s and 1.59 kJ/s, with water heater efficiency is 32.2%. (3 Maximum water temperature can be reached are in range 34oC – 47.5oC in 10-150 minutes and flow rate is 0.5 – 2.5 liter /min

  9. 76 FR 81363 - Temperature-Indicating Devices; Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... amended FDA's regulations for thermally processed low-acid foods packaged in hermetically sealed... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 113 [Docket No. FDA-2007-N-0265] (formerly 2007N-0026) Temperature-Indicating Devices; Thermally Processed Low-Acid...

  10. Built-in unit with short-circuit insulation for hermetic cable ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschacher, B.; Gurr, W.; Kusserow, J.; Katzmarek, W.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns a built-in unit with short-circuit insulation for hermetic cable ducts, especially for containments of nuclear power reactors. The short-circuit insulation is achieved by an insulation plate made from radiation-resistant insulating materials of high mechanical strength

  11. Survival and vigour of ultra-dry seeds after ten years of hermetic storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, T.D.; Ellis, R.H.; Astley, D.; Pinnegar, A.E.; Groot, S.P.C.; Kraak, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    Seeds of carrot, groundnut, lettuce, oilseed rape and onion were stored hermetically in laminated aluminium foil packets in four environments (dry or ultra-dry moisture contents combined factorially with temperatures of 20 degrees C or -20 degrees C), replicated at several sites. After ten years'

  12. HIGH-DENSITY, BIO-COMPATIBLE, AND HERMETIC ELECTRICAL FEEDTHROUGHS USING EXTRUDED METAL VIAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, K G; Delima, T; Felix, S; Sheth, H; Tolosa, V; Tooker, A; Pannu, S S

    2012-03-28

    Implanted medical devices such as pacemakers and neural prosthetics require that the electronic components that power these devices are protected from the harsh chemical and biological environment of the body. Typically, the electronics are hermetically sealed inside a bio-compatible package containing feedthroughs that transmit electrical signals, while being impermeable to particles or moisture. We present a novel approach for fabricating one of the highest densities of biocompatible hermetic feedthroughs in alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Alumina substrates with laser machined vias of 200 {micro}m pitch were conformally metallized and lithographically patterned. Hermetic electrical feedthroughs were formed by extruding metal stud-bumps partially through the vias. Hermeticity testing showed leak rates better than 9 x 10{sup -10} torr-l/s. Based on our preliminary results and process optimization, this extruded metal via approach is a high-density, low temperature, cost-effective, and robust method of miniaturizing electrical feedthroughs for a wide range of implantable bio-medical device applications.

  13. HIGH-DENSITY, BIO-COMPATIBLE, AND HERMETIC ELECTRICAL FEEDTHROUGHS USING EXTRUDED METAL VIAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooker, A; Shah, K; Tolosa, V; Sheth, H; Felix, S; Delima, T; Pannu, S

    2012-03-29

    Implanted medical devices such as pacemakers and neural prosthetics require that the electronic components that power these devices are protected from the harsh chemical and biological environment of the body. Typically, the electronics are hermetically sealed inside a bio-compatible package containing feedthroughs that transmit electrical signals, while being impermeable to particles or moisture. We present a novel approach for fabricating one of the highest densities of biocompatible hermetic feedthroughs in alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Alumina substrates with laser machined vias of 200 {mu}m pitch were conformally metallized and lithographically patterned. Hermetic electrical feedthroughs were formed by extruding metal studbumps partially through the vias. Hermeticity testing showed leak rates better than 9x10{sup -10} torr-l/s. Based on our preliminary results and process optimization, this extruded metal via approach is a high-density, low temperature, cost-effective, and robust method of miniaturizing electrical feedthroughs for a wide range of implantable bio-medical device applications.

  14. Heating device for thermal treatment of curred small diameter tubes and utilization of this device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, P.

    1988-01-01

    The heating device is made by a helical winding constituted from a resistance heating wire. The heating wire constituted the central core of a coaxial cable comprising an outer tubular metal envelope and an insulating layer interpolated between the central core and the outer envelope. The coaxial cable is wound in order to form a helical winding that forms the flexible element for introduction to the tube to be treated [fr

  15. Optimization of waste heat utilization in cold end system of thermal power station based on neural network algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zenghui

    2018-04-01

    At present, the flue gas waste heat utilization projects of coal-fired boilers are often limited by low temperature corrosion problems and conventional PID control. The flue gas temperature cannot be reduced to the best efficiency temperature of wet desulphurization, resulting in the failure of heat recovery to be the maximum. Therefore, this paper analyzes, researches and solves the remaining problems of the cold end system of thermal power station, so as to provide solutions and theoretical support for energy saving and emission reduction and upgrading and the improvement of the comprehensive efficiency of the units.

  16. Techno-economic analysis and optimization of the heat recovery of utility boiler flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Gang; Huang, Shengwei; Yang, Yongping; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Four typical flue gas heat recovery schemes are quantitatively analyzed. • The analysis considers thermodynamic, heat transfer and hydrodynamics factors. • Techno-economic analysis and optimization design are carried out. • High-stage steam substitute scheme obtains better energy-saving effect. • Large heat transfer area and high flue gas resistances weaken overall performance. - Abstract: Coal-fired power plants in China consume nearly half of available coals, and the resulting CO 2 emissions cover over 40% of total national emissions. Therefore, reducing the energy expenditure of coal-fired power plants is of great significance to China’s energy security and greenhouse gas reduction programs. For coal-fired power plants, the temperature of a boiler’s exhaust gas reaches 120–150 °C or even higher. The thermal energy of boiler’s exhaust accounts for approximately 3–8% of the total energy of fuel input. Given these factors, we conducted a techno-economic analysis and optimization design of the heat recovery system using boiler exhaust gas. This research is conformed to the principles of thermodynamic, heat transfer, and hydrodynamics. Based on the data from an existing 1000 MW typical power generation unit in China, four typical flue gas heat recovery schemes are quantitatively analyzed from the thermodynamics perspective. The impacts of flue gas heat recovery on net work output and standard coal consumption rate of various schemes are performed. Furthermore, the transfer area of heat recovery exchanger and the draft fan work increment due to the flue gas pressure drop are analyzed. Finally, a techno-economic analysis of the heat recovery schemes is conducted, and some recommendations on optimization design parameters are proposed, with full consideration of various factors such as the decrease on fuel cost due to energy conservation as well as the investment cost of heat recovery retrofitting. The results revealed that, high

  17. Sales promotion and utilization of fuel. Engineering service of the heat industry for industrial companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen, E. (Ruhrgas A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.). Abt. E-F)

    1978-01-01

    The contribution illustrates, from the industrial viewpoint, how one may produce process heat rationally and make optimum use of it using natural gas and how competing fuels can be supplanted. The heat economy engineering activities of a modern gas supply undertaking and a few practical examples to improve the industrial produce structure are shown.

  18. Heat Loss Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a U-value Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    Heating of buildings in Denmark accounts for approximately 40% of the entire national energy consumption. For this reason, a reduction of heat losses from building envelopes are of great importance in order to reach the Bologna CO2 emission reduction targets. Upgrading of the energy performance...... of buildings is a topic of huge global interest these years. Not only heating in the temperate and arctic regions are important, but also air conditioning and mechanical ventilation in the tropical countries contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish...... the best basis for upgrading the energy performance, it is important to measure the heat losses at different locations on a building facade, in order to optimize the energy performance. The author has invented a U-value meter, enabling measurements of heat transfer coefficients. The meter has been used...

  19. Low-potencial Earth thermalEnergy Utilization in Heat Pump Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sidorová

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground in the first approx. 100 m is well suited for supply and storage of thermal energy. The climatic temperature change over the seasons is reduced to a steady temperature at 10-20 m. With further depth, the temperatures increase according to the geothermal gradient (average 3 °C for each 100 m of depth.Ground-source or geothermal heat pumps are a highly efficient, renewable energy technology for the space heating and cooling. This technology relies on the fact that, at a depth, the Earth has a relatively constant temperature, higher than that of air in winter and cooler than the air in summer. A geothermal heat pump (GHP can transfer heat stored in the Earth into a building during the winter, and transfer heat out of the building during the summer. Special geologic conditions, such as hot springs, are not needed for a successful application of GHP.

  20. Evaluation of Technical and Utility Programmatic Challenges With Residential Forced-Air Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, Tim [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Vadnal, Hillary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, Shawn [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kalensky, Dave [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented ETPs.

  1. Utilization of ruthenium volatilization at heating of residue containing phosphates and nitrates for ruthenium separation and for its qualitative proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgye, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The volatility of ruthenium during the heating of a residue after evaporation of a solution containing ruthenium, phosphates and nitrates may be utilized for the separation of ruthenium from various substances. Sup(103,106) Ru may be rapidly, selectively, and quantitatively separated from fission products mixture. Ruthenium may be also separated in this way from various inorganic salts or from biological material. The volatility of ruthenium may be used also for its qualitative proof. (author)

  2. Simulation of the impact of financial incentives on solar energy utilization for space conditioning and water heating: 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H C

    1979-01-01

    Financial incentives designed to accelerate the use of solar energy for heating, cooling, and water heating of buildings have been proposed by both state and federal legislative bodies in the U.S.A. Among the most frequently mentioned incentives are sales and property tax exemptions, tax deductions and credits, rapid amortization provisions, and interest rate subsidies. At the present time there is little available information regarding the ability of such incentives to advance the rate of solar energy utilization. This paper describes the derivation and use of a computer simulation model designed to estimate solar energy use for space conditioning and water heating for given economic, climatic, and technological conditions. When applied to data from the Denver, Colorado metropolitan area, the simulation model predicts that sales tax exemptions would have little impact over the next decade, interest rate subsidies could more than double solar energy use, and the other proposed incentives would have an intermediate impact.

  3. Design of helium-gas supplying facility of out-of-pile demonstration test for HTTR heat utilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Fujisaki, Katsuo; Kobayashi, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    1996-09-01

    One of the objectives of the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature heat utilization. Prior to connect a heat utilization system to the HTTR, a series of out-of-pile demonstration test is indispensable to improve components` performance, to demonstrate operation, control and safety technologies and to verify analysis codes for design and safety evaluation. After critical review and discussion on the out-of-pile demonstration test, a test facility have been designed. In this report, a helium-gas supplying facility simulated the HTTR system was described in detail, which supplies High-temperature helium-gas of 900degC to a steam reforming facility mocking-up the HTTR heat utilization system. Components of the Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL) were selected to reuse in the helium-gas supplying facility in order to decrease construction cost. Structures and specifications of new components such as a high-temperature heater and a preheater were decided after evaluation of thermal and hydraulic performance and strength. (author)

  4. Energy substrate utilization with and without exogenous carbohydrate intake in boys and men exercising in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leites, Gabriela T; Cunha, Giovani S; Chu, Lisa; Meyer, Flavia; Timmons, Brian W

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about energy yield during exercise in the heat in boys compared with men. To investigate substrate utilization with and without exogenous carbohydrate (CHO exo ) intake, seven boys [11.2 ± 0.2 (SE) yr] and nine men (24.0 ± 1.1 yr) cycled (4 × 20-min bouts) at a fixed metabolic heat production (Ḣ p ) per unit body mass (6 W/kg) in a climate chamber (38°C and 50% relative humidity), on two occasions. Participants consumed a 13 C-enriched 8% CHO beverage (CARB) or placebo beverage (CONT) in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Substrate utilization was calculated for the last 60 min of exercise. CHO exo oxidation rate (2.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 mg·kg fat-free mass -1 ·min -1 , P = 0.02) and CHO exo oxidation efficiency (12.8 ± 0.6 vs. 16.0 ± 0.9%, P = 0.01) were lower in boys compared with men exercising in the heat. Total carbohydrate (CHO total ), endogenous CHO (CHO endo ), and total fat (Fat total ) remained stable in boys and men (P > 0.05) during CARB, whereas CHO total oxidation rate decreased (P exercise in the heat may be as beneficial for boys as men to spare endogenous substrate. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. A Multi-Approach Evaluation System (MA-ES) of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) used in waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Yu, Guopeng; Tian, Hua; Wei, Haiqiao; Liang, Xingyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The MA-ES provides comprehensive valuations on ORC used for waste heat utilization. • The MA-ES covers energetic, exergetic and economic evaluations of typical ORCs. • The MA-ES is a general assessing method without restriction to specific ORC condition. • Two ORC cases of ICE waste-heat-recovery are exemplified applying the MA-ES. - Abstract: A Multi-Approach Evaluation System (MA-ES) is established in this paper providing comprehensive evaluations on Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) used for waste heat utilization. The MA-ES covers three main aspects of typical ORC performance: basic evaluations of energy distribution and system efficiency based on the 1st law of thermodynamics; evaluations of exergy distribution and exergy efficiency based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics; economic evaluations based on calculations of equipment capacity, investment and cost recovery. The MA-ES is reasonably organized aiming at providing a general method of ORC performance assessment, without restrictions to system configurations, operation modes, applications, working fluid types, equipment conditions, process parameters and so on. Two ORC cases of internal combustion engines’ (ICEs) waste-heat-recovery are exemplified to illustrate the applications of the evaluation system. The results clearly revealed the performance comparisons among ORC configurations and working fluids referred. The comparisons will provide credible guidance for ORC design, equipment selection and system construction

  6. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Progress is reported on the following R&D activities: evaluation of lineshaft turbine pump problems, geothermal district heating marketing strategy, and greenhouse peaking analysis. Other activities are reported on technical assistance, technology transfer, and the geothermal progress monitor.

  7. Energy reduction in buildings in temperate and tropic regions utilizing a heat loss measuring device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2012-01-01

    There exist two ordinary ways to obtain global energy efficiency. One way is to make improvements on the energy production and supply side, and the other way is, in general, to reduce the consume of energy in the society. This paper has focus on the latter and especially the consume of energy...... for heating up, and cooling down our houses. There is a huge energy saving potential on this area reducing both the World climate problems and economy challenges as well. Heating of buildings in Denmark counts for approximately 40% of the entire national energy consume. Of this reason a reduction of heat...... losses from building envelopes are of great impor­tance in order to reach the Bologna CO2-emission reduction goals. Energy renovation of buildings is a topic of huge focus around the world these years. Not only expenses for heating in the tempered and arctic regions are of importance, but also expenses...

  8. Utilization of process heat from the HTR in the chemical and related industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, M.; Didas, U.; Ebeling, F.; Kreutzkamp, G.; Renner, H.

    1988-12-01

    The wide introduction of the HTRI as heat and energy sources would be beneficial when the HTRI operating parameters were more suitable for flexible adaptation to the wide possible field of applications and requirements of the potential customer. Here of importance are: Guaranteed reliable, easily adaptable as well as effective process heat provision; a small HTRI size, under 100 MW if possible, for economic process plant operation never negatively influenced by the operational behaviour of the individual HTRI; avoidance of a secondary heat transfer circulation system for economic reasons by an extremely clean primary helium at all times and under all circumstances; greater flexibility in the HTRI helium inlet and outlet temperatures. Initially at least a helium inlet temperature of 300deg C or better 350deg C. At 250deg C too much heat is often offered in the low-temperature range which can in the main be used for domestic heating and power export only. The processes technically and economically interesting which could be provided with heat from the HTRI cover the field of mineral oil technology. Their process temperatures are below 600deg C, a temperature range demanding conventional technology. Thus, for this purpose it is only necessary to: Test the heat exchangers to be designed new; find the most effective combined plant concept in each case; carry out the necessary safety examinations into the combined operation of the two plant sections - HTRI and process plant. In addition, the market for the process heat supply in mineral oil technology has a considerable potential. (orig./GL)

  9. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-98 (October--December 1997). It describes 216 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include requests for general information including maps and material for high school debates, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, space heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, electric power and snow melting. Research activities include work on model construction specifications of lineshaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, a comprehensive aquaculture developer package and revisions to the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 18, No. 4) which was devoted entirely to geothermal activities in South Dakota, dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisition and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Concrete Runway Snow Melting Utilizing Heat Pipe Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengchen; Su, Xin; Ye, Qing; Fu, Jianfeng

    2018-01-01

    A full scale snow melting system with heat pipe technology is built in this work, which avoids the negative effects on concrete structure and environment caused by traditional deicing chemicals. The snow melting, ice-freezing performance and temperature distribution characteristics of heat pipe concrete runway were discussed by the outdoor experiments. The results show that the temperature of the concrete pavement is greatly improved with the heat pipe system. The environment temperature and embedded depth of heat pipe play a dominant role among the decision variables of the snow melting system. Heat pipe snow melting pavement melts the snow completely and avoids freezing at any time when the environment temperature is below freezing point, which is secure enough for planes take-off and landing. Besides, the exportation and recovery of geothermal energy indicate that this system can run for a long time. This paper will be useful for the design and application of the heat pipe used in the runway snow melting.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Concrete Runway Snow Melting Utilizing Heat Pipe Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchen Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A full scale snow melting system with heat pipe technology is built in this work, which avoids the negative effects on concrete structure and environment caused by traditional deicing chemicals. The snow melting, ice-freezing performance and temperature distribution characteristics of heat pipe concrete runway were discussed by the outdoor experiments. The results show that the temperature of the concrete pavement is greatly improved with the heat pipe system. The environment temperature and embedded depth of heat pipe play a dominant role among the decision variables of the snow melting system. Heat pipe snow melting pavement melts the snow completely and avoids freezing at any time when the environment temperature is below freezing point, which is secure enough for planes take-off and landing. Besides, the exportation and recovery of geothermal energy indicate that this system can run for a long time. This paper will be useful for the design and application of the heat pipe used in the runway snow melting.

  12. Cost-effectiveness performance analysis of organic Rankine cycle for low grade heat utilization coupling with operation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongxiang; Ling, Xiang; Peng, Hao

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed the influence of working fluids selection and operation conditions on the cost-effectiveness performance and net power output of an ORC for low grade heat utilization. A net power output model has been proposed theoretically and compared with the theoretical data calculated from thermodynamic analysis, exhibiting excellent agreements with the theoretical data. The proposed net power output model theoretically indicates that Jacob number and the ratio of evaporating temperature and heat rejected temperature play essential roles in discriminating the net power output among various working fluids at the same operation condition. For a given condensing and evaporating temperature, it can be concluded theoretically that fluid with low Jacob number will show attractive performance in an ORC. The maximum net power output is determined by the heat source rather than working fluids with a low inlet temperature of heat source. Cost-effectiveness performance analysis reveals that the maximum net power output and the best CEP cannot be achieved at the same time and compromise must be made when choosing the most suitable organic working fluids in different ORC designs. -- Highlights: • A net power output model is proposed and compared with theoretical data. • For fixed operation condition, low Ja fluid shows attractive performance in ORC. • The heat source rather than working fluid determines ORC performance at low T hs,in • The peak W net and best CEP cannot be achieved at the same time, compromise must be made

  13. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  14. Production of synthesis gas and methane via coal gasification utilizing nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Heek, K.H.; Juentgen, H.

    1982-01-01

    The steam gasificaton of coal requires a large amount of energy for endothermic gasification, as well as for production and heating of the steam and for electricity generation. In hydrogasification processes, heat is required primarily for the production of hydrogen and for preheating the reactants. Current developments in nuclear energy enable a gas cooled high temperature nuclear reactor (HTR) to be the energy source, the heat produced being withdrawn from the system by means of a helium loop. There is a prospect of converting coal, in optimal yield, into a commercial gas by employing the process heat from a gas-cooled HTR. The advantages of this process are: (1) conservation of coal reserves via more efficient gas production; (2) because of this coal conservation, there are lower emissions, especially of CO 2 , but also of dust, SO 2 , NO/sub x/, and other harmful substances; (3) process engineering advantages, such as omission of an oxygen plant and reduction in the number of gas scrubbers; (4) lower gas manufacturing costs compared to conventional processes. The main problems involved in using nuclear energy for the industrial gasification of coal are: (1) development of HTRs with helium outlet temperatures of at least 950 0 C; (2) heat transfer from the core of the reactor to the gas generator, methane reforming oven, or heater for the hydrogenation gas; (3) development of a suitable allothermal gas generator for the steam gasification; and (4) development of a helium-heated methane reforming oven and adaption of the hydrogasification process for operation in combination with the reactor. In summary, processes for gasifying coal that employ heat from an HTR have good economic and technical prospects of being realized in the future. However, time will be required for research and development before industrial application can take place. 23 figures, 4 tables. (DP)

  15. Savannah River Plant Low-Level Waste Heat Utilization Project preliminary analysis. Volume I. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of capturing energy ejected in hot water at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is presented. The cooling water, drawn from the river or a pond at the rate of 500,000 gallons per minute, is typically heated 80 0 F to about 150 0 F and is then allowed to cool in the atmosphere. The energy added to the water is equivalent to 20 million barrels of oil a year. This study reports that the reject heat can be used directly in an organic Rankine cycle system to evaporate fluids which drive electric generators. The output of one reactor can produce 45,000 kilowatts of electricity. Since the fuel is waste heat, an estimated 45% savings over conventional electric costs is possible over a thirty year period

  16. Selenide isotope generators for the Galileo Mission: SIG hermetic bimetal weld transition joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, W.J.

    1979-08-01

    The successful development of the commercial 6061-T651/Silver/304L explosive clad plate material as a bimetal weld transition joint material, as described herein, satisfies all SIG Galileo design requirements for hermetic weld attachment of stainless steel subassemblies to aluminum alloy generator housing or end cover structures. The application of this type weld transition joint to the hermetic attachment of stainless steel shell connectors is well-developed and tested. Based on on-going life tests of stainless steel receptacle/bimetal ring attachment assemblies and metallurgical characterization studies of this transition joint material, it appears evident that this transition joint material has more than adequate capability to meet the 250 to 300 0 F and 50,000 hr. design life of the SIG/Galileo mission. Its extended life temperture capability may well approach 350 to 400 0 F

  17. Increasing of leak-tightness of hermetic zone and other important components in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murani, J.

    2001-01-01

    The performed by VUEZ resealing works in the hermetic compartments/containment of WWER 440 and WWER 1000 NPPs in Slovakia (Jaslovske Bohunice V-1 NPP, Jaslovske Bohunice V-2 NPP, Mochovce NPP), the Czech Republic (Dukovany NPP, Temelin NPP) and Hungary (Pask NPP) are presented. The leakage rate from hermetic compartments at individual NPP reactor units are shown.The VUEZ activities in field of resealing of weld joints in pools and tanks in the Jaslovske Bohunice V-1 NPP and innovation of the seal of reactor pit protective hood (kolpak) are described. The principle of operation and practical experience of the SMU-V system implemented in the Jaslovske Bohunice V-1 NPP (WWER 440 - V 230) for NPP primary circuit leakage monitoring are also given

  18. Screw engine used as an expander in ORC for low-potential heat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Lukáš

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with a screw motor that is used as an expander in an ORC (Organic Rankin Cycle) system, whose organic working substance allows the transformation of low-potential heat (waste heat, solar and geothermal energy) into electrical energy. The article describes the specific properties of an organic substance and a screw motor that must be considered when designing and assembling a complete power unit. Screw machines are not commonly used as expansion devices, so it is necessary to perform an analysis that makes it possible to adapt the screw machine to the expansion process in terms of profiling and design.

  19. An Efficient Heat Exchanger for In Situ Resource Utilization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is essential for several of NASA's future flagship missions. Currently envisioned ISRU plants include production of oxygen from...

  20. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Kalina Cycle for the Utilization of Waste Heat in Brine Water for Indonesian Geothermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasruddin Nasruddin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste heat in a power plant system—which would otherwise be released back to the environment—in order to produce additional power increases the efficiency of the system itself. The purpose of this study is to present an energy and exergy analysis of Kalina Cycle System (KCS 11, which is proposed to be utilized to generate additional electric power from the waste heat contained in geothermal brine water available in the Lahendong Geothermal power plant site in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. A modeling application on energy and exergy system is used to study the design of thermal system which uses KCS 11. To obtain the maximum power output and maximum efficiency, the system is optimized based on the mass fraction of working fluid (ammonia-water, as well as based on the turbine exhaust pressure. The result of the simulation is the optimum theoretical performance of KCS 11, which has the highest possible power output and efficiency. The energy flow diagram and exergy diagram (Grassman diagram was also presented for KCS 11 optimum system to give quantitative information regarding energy flow from the heat source to system components and the proportion of the exergy input dissipated in the various system components.

  1. Study of waste-heat recovery and utilization at the Farmington Municipal Power Plant. Final report, December 1, 1980-June 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, G.G.; Edgel, W.R.; Feldman, K.T. Jr.; Moss, E.J.

    1982-03-01

    An examination was made of the technical and economc feasibility of utilizing waste heat from the Farmington Municipal Power Plant. First, the production cycles of the natural-gas-fired plant were assessed to determine the quantity and quality of recoverable waste heat created by the plant during its operation. Possibilities for utilizing waste heat from the exhaust gases and the cooling water were then reviewed. Hot water systems that can be used to retrieve heat from hot flue gases were investigated; the heated water can then be used for space heating of nearby buildings. The potential use of waste heat to operate a refrigeration plant was also analyzed. The use of discharged cooling water for hydroelectric generation was studied, as well as its application for commercial agricultural and aquaculture enterprises.

  2. Impact of storage environment on the efficacy of hermetic storage bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Brett; Woloshuk, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Small hermetic bags (50 and 100 kg capacities) used by smallholder farmers in several African countries have proven to be a low-cost solution for preventing storage losses due to insects. The complexity of postharvest practices and the need for ideal drying conditions, especially in the Sub-Sahara, has led to questions about the efficacy of the hermetic bags for controlling spoilage by fungi and the potential for mycotoxin accumulation. This study compared the effects of environmental temperature and relative humidity at two locations (Indiana and Arkansas) on dry maize (14% moisture content) in woven polypropylene bags and Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) hermetic bags. Temperature and relative humidity data loggers placed in the middle of each bag provided profiles of environmental influences on stored grain at the two locations. The results indicated that the PICS bags prevented moisture penetration over the three-month storage period. In contrast, maize in the woven bags increased in moisture content. For both bag types, no evidence was obtained indicating the spread of Aspergillus flavus from colonized maize to adjacent non-colonized maize. However, other storage fungi did increase during storage. The number of infected kernels did not increase in the PICS bags, but the numbers in the woven bags increased significantly. The warmer environment in Arkansas resulted in significantly higher insect populations in the woven bags than in Indiana. Insects in the PICS bags remained low at both locations. This study demonstrates that the PICS hermetic bags are effective at blocking the effects of external humidity fluctuations as well as the spread of fungi to non-infected kernels.

  3. Hermetic electronic packaging of an implantable brain-machine-interface with transcutaneous optical data communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuettler, Martin; Kohler, Fabian; Ordonez, Juan S; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Future brain-computer-interfaces (BCIs) for severely impaired patients are implanted to electrically contact the brain tissue. Avoiding percutaneous cables requires amplifier and telemetry electronics to be implanted too. We developed a hermetic package that protects the electronic circuitry of a BCI from body moisture while permitting infrared communication through the package wall made from alumina ceramic. The ceramic package is casted in medical grade silicone adhesive, for which we identified MED2-4013 as a promising candidate.

  4. Ceramic/metal seals. [refractory materials for hermetic seals for lighium-metal sulfide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredbenner, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Design criteria are discussed for a hermetic seal capable of withstanding the 450 C operating temperature of a lithium-metal sulfide battery system. A mechanical seal consisting of two high strength alloy metal sleeves welded or brazed to a conductor assembly and pressed onto a ceramic is described. The conductor center passes through the ceramic but is not sealed to it. The seal is effected on the outside of the taper where the tubular part is pressed down over and makes contact.

  5. Hermetic diamond capsules for biomedical implants enabled by gold active braze alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Samantha G; Escudié, Mathilde C; Stacey, Alastair D; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Fox, Kate; Ahnood, Arman; Apollo, Nicholas V; Kua, Dunstan C; Lee, Aaron Z; McGowan, Ceara; Saunders, Alexia L; Burns, Owen; Nayagam, David A X; Williams, Richard A; Garrett, David J; Meffin, Hamish; Prawer, Steven

    2015-01-01

    As the field of biomedical implants matures the functionality of implants is rapidly increasing. In the field of neural prostheses this is particularly apparent as researchers strive to build devices that interact with highly complex neural systems such as vision, hearing, touch and movement. A retinal implant, for example, is a highly complex device and the surgery, training and rehabilitation requirements involved in deploying such devices are extensive. Ideally, such devices will be implanted only once and will continue to function effectively for the lifetime of the patient. The first and most pivotal factor that determines device longevity is the encapsulation that separates the sensitive electronics of the device from the biological environment. This paper describes the realisation of a free standing device encapsulation made from diamond, the most impervious, long lasting and biochemically inert material known. A process of laser micro-machining and brazing is described detailing the fabrication of hermetic electrical feedthroughs and laser weldable seams using a 96.4% gold active braze alloy, another material renowned for biochemical longevity. Accelerated ageing of the braze alloy, feedthroughs and hermetic capsules yielded no evidence of corrosion and no loss of hermeticity. Samples of the gold braze implanted for 15 weeks, in vivo, caused minimal histopathological reaction and results were comparable to those obtained from medical grade silicone controls. The work described represents a first account of a free standing, fully functional hermetic diamond encapsulation for biomedical implants, enabled by gold active alloy brazing and laser micro-machining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plant concept of heat utilization of high temperature gas-cooled reactors. Co-generation and coal-gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonogouchi, M.; Maeda, S.; Ide, A.

    1996-01-01

    In Japan, JAERI is now constructing the High temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) and the new era is coming for the development and utilization of HTR. Recognizing that the heat utilization of HTR would mitigate problems of environment and resources and contribute the effective use and steady supply of the energy, FAPIG organized a working group named 'HTR-HUC' to study the heat utilization of HTR in the field other than electric power generation. We chose three kinds of plants to study, 1) a co-generation plant in which the existing power units supplying steam and electricity can be replaced by a nuclear plant, 2) Coal gasification plant which can accelerate the clean use of coal and contribute stable supply of the energy and preservation of the environment in the world and 3) Hydrogen production plant which can help to break off the use of the new energy carrier HYDROGEN and will release people from the dependence of fossil energy. In this paper the former two plants, Co-generation chemical plant and Coal-gasification plant are focussed on. The main features, process flow and safety assessment of these plants are discussed. (J.P.N.)

  7. Considerations about the utilization of electrically heated rods used for simulation of nuclear fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R. de C.F. de; Carajilescov, P.

    1987-01-01

    The dinamic behavior of electrically heated rods used for simulation of nuclear fuel pins in nuclear power transients, is analysed by the application of the lumped parameter and the finite difference methods. Deviations of the rods surface conditions, for extreme accidental transient conditions are presented and discussed. (author) [pt

  8. Heat pump applications in utility centres for large industrial areas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.B. de

    1999-01-01

    A grand design for industrial waste heat utilisation has been composed in Rijnmond Industrial Area, the largest (petrochemical) industrial area in The Netherlands. In combination with local CHP plants, an HP, MP and LP steam exchange system has been developed. The primary energy savings of this

  9. Heat stress and diet utilization in male turkeys : the role of dietary energy and amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: turkeys, heat stress, energy, amino acids.

    The commercial turkey industry has changed during the last two or three decades from one that marketed predominantly fresh whole dressed turkeys to one that now markets a large variety of mostly further processed

  10. Experimental investigations on cylindrical latent heat storage units with sodium acetate trihydrate composites utilizing supercooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Kong, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    unit was tested with 116.3 kg SAT with 0.5% Xanthan rubber as a thickening agent and 4.4% graphite powder. The heat exchange capacity rate during charge was significantly lower for the unit with SAT and Xanthan rubber compared to the unit with SAT and extra water. This was due to less convection...

  11. Experimental investigations on prototype heat storage units utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Dragsted, Janne; Fan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory tests of two heat storage units based on the principle of stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) mixtures were carried out. One unit was filled with 199.5 kg of SAT with 9% extra water to avoid phase separation of the incongruently melting salt hydrate. The other unit...

  12. The economics of heat utilization for controlled environment production of agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.W.; Teeter, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    As interest and experimental work on the use of ''low grade heat'' increases, an evaluation of the factors and problems involved becomes necessary. This paper describes some of the major features of the industry, illustrates a number of problems confronting the industry, reviews related research and comments upon the direction of future research. (author)

  13. A Steam Utility Network Model for the Evaluation of Heat Integration Retrofits – A Case Study of an Oil Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Marton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real industrial example in which the steam utility network of a refinery is modelled in order to evaluate potential Heat Integration retrofits proposed for the site. A refinery, typically, has flexibility to optimize the operating strategy for the steam system depending on the operation of the main processes. This paper presents a few examples of Heat Integration retrofit measures from a case study of a large oil refinery. In order to evaluate expected changes in fuel and electricity imports to the refinery after implementation of the proposed retrofits, a steam system model has been developed. The steam system model has been tested and validated with steady state data from three different operating scenarios and can be used to evaluate how changes to steam balances at different pressure levels would affect overall steam balances, generation of shaft power in turbines, and the consumption of fuel gas.

  14. Thermoelectric Power Generation Utilizing the Waste Heat from a Biomass Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazdil, Marian; Pospisil, Jiri

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the presented work is to test the possibility of using thermoelectric power to convert flue gas waste heat from a small-scale domestic pellet boiler, and to assess the influence of a thermoelectric generator on its function. A prototype of the generator, able to be connected to an existing device, was designed, constructed, and tested. The performance of the generator as well as the impact of the generator on the operation of the boiler was investigated under various operating conditions. The boiler gained auxiliary power and could become a combined heat and power unit allowing self-sufficient operation. The created unit represents an independent source of electricity with effective use of fuel.

  15. Utilization of process heat from the HTRM in the chemical and related industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, M.; Barnert, H.; Candeli, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lurgi investigated the feasibility of supplying industrial processes with heat and energy from a Module High Temperature Reactor in an extensive study. This study shows that there are several processes suitable for coupling with the HTRM almost immediately and only require that the layouts are tested. The most interesting process in this respect with high market potential are aluminium oxide production and crude oil refining. (author)

  16. Geothermal waste heat utilization from in situ thermal bitumen recovery operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakevska, Nevenka; Schincariol, Robert A; Dehkordi, S Emad; Cheadle, Burns A

    2015-01-01

    In situ thermal methods for bitumen extraction introduce a tremendous amount of energy into the reservoirs raising ambient temperatures of 13 °C to as high as 200 °C at the steam chamber edge and 50 °C along the reservoir edge. In essence these operations have unintentionally acted as underground thermal energy storage systems which can be recovered after completion of bitumen extraction activities. Groundwater flow and heat transport models of the Cold Lake, Alberta, reservoir, coupled with a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) model, allowed for investigating the use of closed-loop geothermal systems for energy recovery. Three types of BHEs (single U-tube, double U-tube, coaxial) were tested and analyzed by comparing outlet temperatures and corresponding heat extraction rates. Initial one year continuous operation simulations show that the double U-tube configuration had the best performance producing an average temperature difference of 5.7 °C, and an average heat extraction of 41 W/m. Given the top of the reservoir is at a depth of 400 m, polyethylene piping provided for larger extraction gains over more thermally conductive steel piping. Thirty year operation simulations illustrate that allowing 6 month cyclic recovery periods only increases the loop temperature gain by a factor of 1.2 over continuous operation. Due to the wide spacing of existing boreholes and reservoir depth, only a small fraction of the energy is efficiently recovered. Drilling additional boreholes between existing wells would increase energy extraction. In areas with shallower bitumen deposits such as the Athabasca region, i.e. 65 to 115 m deep, BHE efficiencies should be larger. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  17. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1993-06-01

    Technical assistance was provided to 60 requests from 19 states. R&D progress is reported on: evaluation of lineshaft turbine pump problems, geothermal district heating marketing strategy, and greenhouse peaking analysis. Two presentations and one tour were conducted, and three technical papers were prepared. The Geothermal Progress Monitor reported: USGS Forum on Mineral Resources, Renewable Energy Tax Credits Not Working as Congress Intended, Geothermal Industry Tells House Panel, Newberry Pilot Project, and Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources in Nevada.

  18. The study on the role of very high temperature reactor and nuclear process heat utilization in future energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Sigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Sato, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ueno, Seiichi

    1986-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results being made in the study on the role of Very High Temperature Reactor and nuclear process heat utilization in future energy system, which is aimed at zero emission. In the former part of the report, the modeling of the reference energy system, main characteristics of energy technologies, and scenario indicators as well as system behavioral objectives for optimization are explained. In the latter part, analytical results such as the time-period variation of overall energy utilization efficiency, energy supply/demand structure in long-terms, energy contribution and economic competition of new energy technologies, environmental effluents released through verious energy activities, impacts to and from national economy, and some sensitivity analyses, are reviewed. (author)

  19. a Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Urban Heat Island in Basin City Utilizing Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Tung

    2016-06-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city's UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST) at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls "sinking heat island". From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.

  20. A TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND IN BASIN CITY UTILIZING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-T. Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban Heat Island (UHI has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city’s UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls “sinking heat island”. From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.

  1. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for space and water heating at Marlin, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, M.F.; Green, T.F.; Keeney, R.C.; Ellis, P.F. II; Davis, R.J.; Wallace, R.C.; Blood, F.B.

    1983-05-01

    The Torbett-Hutchings-Smith Memorial Hospital geothermal heating project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE, is documented. The five-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessments; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analyses; public awareness programs; materials testing; and environmental monitoring. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 155/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private-sector economic incentives currently exist, especially for profit-making organizations, to develop and use this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, poultry dressing, natural cheese making, fruit and vegetable dehydrating, soft-drink bottling, synthetic-rubber manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluid's scaling and corrosion tendencies can be avoided through proper analysis and design; (5) a production system which uses a variable-frequency drive system to control production rate is an attractive means of conserving parasitic pumping power, controlling production rate to match heating demand, conserving the geothermal resource, and minimizing environmental impacts.

  2. Operating Experiences with a Small-scale CHP Pilot Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biedermann, F.; Carlsen, Henrik; Schoech, M.

    2003-01-01

    Within the scope of the RD&D project presented a small-scale CHP plant with a hermetic four cylinder Stirling engine for biomass fuels was developed and optimised in cooperation with the Technical University of Denmark, MAWERA Holzfeuerungsanlagen GesmbH, an Austrian biomass furnace and boiler...... exchanger of the Stirling engine, of the air preheater and of the entire combustion system. Furthermore, the optimisation of the pneumatic cleaning system to reduce ash deposition in the hot heat exchanger is of great relevance....... manufacturer, and BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, an Austrian development and engineering company. Based on the technology developed, a pilot plant was designed and erected in Austria. The nominal electric power output of the plant is 35 kWel and the nominal thermal output amounts to approx. 220 kWth. The plant...

  3. Utilization of an arc-heated jet for production of supersonic seeded beams of atomic nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Newton, K.R.; Herrmann, J.M.; Bernstein, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    Intense supersonic beams of atomic nitrogen (>10 17 atoms sr -1 sec -1 ) have been produced from the dissociation of N 2 in an Ar arc (at temperatures in excess of 6000 K) using the arc-heated nozzle beam source of Young, Rodgers, and Knuth. Experiments characterizing the N 2 dissociation and the translational energies of the N, N 2 , and Ar components in the beams are described. Evidence is presented for the formation of atomic C as well as C 2 and CH from the pyrolysis of CH 4 and C 2 H 4 in the Ar arc

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

    2011-07-14

    Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

  5. Utilization of the heat of mixing in open-circuit throttle refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhakharov, N.D.; Anikeev, G.N.; Grezin, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Open-circuit throttle refrigerators based on gas mixtures operate, as a rule, according to a single-stream scheme. The refrigerating effect is determined by the isothermal throttling effect of the mixture in the cylinder under the conditions at the inlet to the cryogenic unit. The authors use the heat of mixing of the cryogenic mixtures to increase the available refrigerating effect. Data are presented on mixtures of nitrogen and Freon-13; the thermodynamic properties of these compounds have been investigated experimentally over a wide range of parameters. It was found that in the case of correct selection of the scheme and complex optimization of the parameters, two-stream throttle refrigerators exceed the single-stream throttle refrigerators by at least a factor of 1.5 with respect to relative useful energy. With account taken of the design, technological, and operational parameters, that which is most promising is the scheme with mixing of the components in reverse flow

  6. Electrically heated ex-reactor pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) simulations utilizing irradiated Zircaloy cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barner, J.O.; Fitzsimmons, D.E.

    1985-02-01

    In a program sponsored by the Fuel Systems Research Branch of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a series of six electrically heated fuel rod simulation tests were conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The primary objective of these tests was to determine the susceptibility of irradiated pressurized-water reactor (PWR) Zircaloy-4 cladding to failures caused by pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI). A secondary objective was to acquire kinetic data (e.g., ridge growth or relaxation rates) that might be helpful in the interpretation of in-reactor performance results and/or the modeling of PCMI. No cladding failures attributable to PCMI occurred during the six tests. This report describes the testing methods, testing apparatus, fuel rod diametral strain-measuring device, and test matrix. Test results are presented and discussed

  7. Status report on direct heat and low temperature utilization of geothermal energy in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumb, J.T.; Clelland, L.

    1990-01-01

    The Tasman Pulp and Paper Company's mill at Kawerau continues to be the dominant direct user of geothermal energy in New Zealand. Recent plant changes have increased the effectiveness of the company's use of the resource. Other uses are relatively small in scale and include air and water heating for homes, motels and other commercial and industrial premises. Commercial swimming-pool complexes and pools at hotels, motels and private homes are the other major direct users. This paper reports that overall direct use of the resource has shown a slow increase during the last five years except at Rotorua where the enforced closure of bores has led to more than 70% reduction in use

  8. COHO - Utilizing Waste Heat and Carbon Dioxide at Power Plants for Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Sumanjeet [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Wilson, Aaron [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Wendt, Daniel [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Mendelssohn, Jeffrey [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Bakajin, Olgica [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Desormeaux, Erik [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Klare, Jennifer [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States)

    2017-07-25

    The COHO is a breakthrough water purification system that can concentrate challenging feed waters using carbon dioxide and low-grade heat. For this project, we studied feeds in a lab-scale system to simulate COHO’s potential to operate at coal- powered power plants. COHO proved successful at concentrating the highly scaling and challenging wastewaters derived from a power plant’s cooling towers and flue gas desulfurization units. We also found that COHO was successful at scrubbing carbon dioxide from flue gas mixtures. Thermal regeneration of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis draw solution ended up requiring higher temperatures than initially anticipated, but we also found that the draw solution could be polished via reverse osmosis. A techno-economic analysis indicates that installation of a COHO at a power plant for wastewater treatment would result in significant savings.

  9. Wafer-level hermetic vacuum packaging by bonding with a copper-tin thin film sealing ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Teruhisa; Funabashi, Hirofumi; Takagi, Hideki; Omura, Yoshiteru; Hata, Yoshiyuki

    2018-04-01

    A wafer-level hermetic vacuum packaging technology intended for use with MEMS devices was developed based on a copper-tin (CuSn) thin film sealing ring. To allow hermetic packaging, the shear strength of the CuSn thin film bond was improved by optimizing the pretreatment conditions. As a result, an average shear strength of 72.3 MPa was obtained and a cavity that had been hermetically sealed using wafer-level packaging (WLP) maintained its vacuum for 1.84 years. The total pressures in the cavities and the partial pressures of residual gases were directly determined with an ultra-low outgassing residual gas analyzer (RGA) system. Hermeticity was evaluated based on helium leak rates, which were calculated from helium pressures determined with the RGA system. The resulting data showed that a vacuum cavity following 1.84 years storage had a total pressure of 83.1 Pa, contained argon as the main residual gas and exhibited a helium leak rate as low as 1.67  ×  10-17 Pa · m3 s-1, corresponding to an air leak rate of 6.19  ×  10-18 Pa · m3 s-1. The RGA data demonstrate that WLP using a CuSn thin film sealing ring permits ultra-high hermeticity in conjunction with long-term vacuum packaging that is applicable to MEMS devices.

  10. Reliable, Low-Cost, Low-Weight, Non-Hermetic Coating for MCM Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Eric W.; Licari, James J.

    2000-01-01

    Through an Air Force Research Laboratory sponsored STM program, reliable, low-cost, low-weight, non-hermetic coatings for multi-chip-module(MCK applications were developed. Using the combination of Sandia Laboratory ATC-01 test chips, AvanTeco's moisture sensor chips(MSC's), and silicon slices, we have shown that organic and organic/inorganic overcoatings are reliable and practical non-hermetic moisture and oxidation barriers. The use of the MSC and unpassivated ATC-01 test chips provided rapid test results and comparison of moisture barrier quality of the overcoatings. The organic coatings studied were Parylene and Cyclotene. The inorganic coatings were Al2O3 and SiO2. The choice of coating(s) is dependent on the environment that the device(s) will be exposed to. We have defined four(4) classes of environments: Class I(moderate temperature/moderate humidity). Class H(high temperature/moderate humidity). Class III(moderate temperature/high humidity). Class IV(high temperature/high humidity). By subjecting the components to adhesion, FTIR, temperature-humidity(TH), pressure cooker(PCT), and electrical tests, we have determined that it is possible to reduce failures 50-70% for organic/inorganic coated components compared to organic coated components. All materials and equipment used are readily available commercially or are standard in most semiconductor fabrication lines. It is estimated that production cost for the developed technology would range from $1-10/module, compared to $20-200 for hermetically sealed packages.

  11. Multidimensional inverse heat conduction problem: optimization of sensor locations and utilization of thermal-strain measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Gilles

    1996-01-01

    This work is devoted to the solution of the inverse multidimensional heat conduction problem. The first part is the determination of a methodology for determining the minimum number of sensors and the best sensor locations. The method is applied to a 20 problem but the extension to 30 problems is quite obvious. This methodology is based on the study of the rate of representation. This new concept allows to determine the quantity and the quality of the information obtain from the various sensors. The rate of representation is a useful tool for experimental design. lt can be determined very quickly by the transposed matrix method. This approach was validated with an experimental set-up. The second part is the development of a method that uses thermal strain measurement instead of temperature measurements to estimate the unknown thermal boundary conditions. We showed that this new sensor has two advantages in comparison with the classical temperature measurements: higher frequency can be estimated and smaller number of sensors can be used for 20 problems. The main weakness is, presently, the fact that the method can only be applied to beams. The results obtained from the numerical simulations were validated by the analysis of experimental data obtained on an experimental set-up especially designed and built for this study. (author) [fr

  12. Extending life of reversible heat exchangers; Prologando a vida util de trocadores de calor reversiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Ronaldo [White Martins de Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Usina de Liquidos; Cabral, Antonio Tarciso S. [White Martins de Volta Redonda (Brazil). Usina de Liquidos

    2010-07-01

    Praxair is one of the three largest industrial gases companies worldwide, with operations in over 40 countries. In Brazil, Praxair is the owner of White Martins, the largest industrial gases company in South America, present in nine countries on the continent and throughout the Brazilian steel industry, operating and supplying products from plants for separation of air gases or other products and services for all steelmaking processes. In addition to technologies of production of atmospheric gases, White Martins includes the production of carbon dioxide, acetylene, hydrogen, specialty and health and care gases, mixtures for welding, gas seamless steel cylinders, storage and gases transportation, equipment for measurement and control of gas injection, following the strictest standards of safety and quality. This paper describe the improvements, availability and reliability gains achieved through implementation of operational control systems of RHX, equipment commonly found in air separation plants, which allowed better monitoring and increasing the useful life of these heat exchangers and to keep the purity of the products supplied for the manufacture of high quality steels. (author)

  13. The application of hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures in a hermetic reciprocating compressor for high back pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.M.; Pak, H.Y. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The application of hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures in a hermetic reciprocating compressor for dehumidifier is investigated. The selected refrigerants are R12, R134a, HC-Blend(R290/R600a), CX(R152a/R600a) and OS-12a. Both theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed for the selected refrigerants. The test results of hydrocarbon refrigerants have been compared to traditional refrigerant(R12) and R134a. The results show that hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures(HC-Blend, CX and OS-12a) are very good alternatives in the refrigeration system for R12 and R134a. 11 refs., 3 fig., 12 tabs.

  14. Public utility Rosenheim enlarge the capacity of district heating by means of return temperatures. District heating transmission stations with cascade; Stadtwerke Rosenheim erweitern FW-Kapazitaet durch niedrigere Ruecklauftemperaturen. Fernwaermeuebergabestation mit Kaskade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruehl, Goetz; Bielmeier, Reinhard; Neugebauer, Horst [Stadtwerke Rosenheim (Germany); Weinmann, Edwin [Planungsbuero Weinmann, Muenchen (Germany); Planungsbuero Weinmann, Wielenbach (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    In most cases heating systems, drinking water heaters and circulation heaters are connected in parallel. This arrangement often results in too high return temperatures. In order to keep down the return temperature all the year, the public utility Rosenheim developed a cascaded high-efficiency district heating transmission station in cooperation with two partners. Due to the series connection of the heat exchangers for the hot water circulation, the heating system and the drinking water heaters in continuous flow, not only permanently lower return temperatures are achieved, but also the consumption of the power of pumps is lowered as well as the hygiene requirements to drinking water is improved.

  15. Effect of heat stress on protein utilization and nutrient transporters in meat-type chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashy, Walid S.; Milfort, Marie C.; Fuller, Alberta L.; Attia, Youssef A.; Rekaya, Romdhane; Aggrey, Samuel E.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat stress (HS) on digestibility of protein and fat and the expression of nutrient transporters in broilers. Forty-eight male Cobb500 chicks were used in this study. At day 14, birds were randomly divided into two groups and kept under either constant normal temperature (25 °C) or high temperature (35 °C) in individual cages. Five birds per treatment at 1 and 12 days post-treatment were euthanized, and Pectoralis major ( P. major) and ileum were sampled for gene expression analysis. At day 33, ileal contents were collected and used for digestibility analysis. The total consumption and retention of protein and fat were significantly lower in the HS group compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the retention of crude protein per BWG was significantly higher in the HS group compared to the control group. In P. major and ileum tissues at day 1, transporters FATP1 and SGLT1 were down-regulated in the HS group. Meanwhile, FABP1 and PepT1 were down-regulated only in the ileum of the HS group. The converse was shown in P. major. The nutrient transporter FABP1 at day 12 post-HS was down-regulated in the P. major and ileum, but GLUT1 and PepT2 were down-regulated only in the ileum, and PepT1 was down-regulated only in the P. major compared with the control group. These changes in nutrient transporters suggest that high ambient temperature might change the ileum and P. major lipids, glucose, and oligopeptide transporters.

  16. Utilization of waste heat from GT-MHR for power generation in organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, Mortaza; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) is currently being developed by an international consortium. In this power plant, circulating helium that has to be compressed in a single or two successive stages cools the reactor core. For thermodynamic reasons, these compression stages require pre-cooling of the helium to about 26 deg. C through the use of intercooler and pre-cooler in which water is used to cool the helium. Considerable thermal energy (∼300 MWth) is thus dissipated in these components. This thermal energy is then rejected to a heat sink. For different designs, the temperature ranges of the helium in the intercooler and pre-cooler could be about 100 and 150 deg. C, respectively. These are ideal energy sources to be used in an organic Rankine cycles for power generation. This study examines the performance of a gas-cooled nuclear power plant with closed Brayton cycle (CBC) combined with two organic Rankine cycles (ORC). More attention was paid to the irreversibilities generated in the combined cycle. Individual models are developed for each component through applications of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The effects of the turbine inlet temperature, compressor pressure ratio, evaporator temperature and temperature difference in the evaporator on the first- and second-law efficiencies and on the exergy destruction rate of the combined cycle were studied. Finally the combined cycle was optimized thermodynamically using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. Based on identical operating conditions, a comparison between the GT-MHR/ORC and a simple GT-MHR cycle is also made. It was found that both the first- and second-law efficiencies of GT-MHR/ORC cycle are about 3%-points higher than that of the simple GT-MHR cycle. Also, the exergy destruction rate for GT-MHR/ORC cycle is about 5% lower than that of the GT-MHR cycle.

  17. Effects of atmospheric variability on energy utilization and conservation. [Space heating energy demand modeling; Program HEATLOAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.; Johnson, G.R.; Somervell, W.L. Jr.; Sparling, E.W.; Dreiseitly, E.; Macdonald, B.C.; McGuirk, J.P.; Starr, A.M.

    1976-11-01

    Research conducted between 1 July 1975 and 31 October 1976 is reported. A ''physical-adaptive'' model of the space-conditioning demand for energy and its response to changes in weather regimes was developed. This model includes parameters pertaining to engineering factors of building construction, to weather-related factors, and to socio-economic factors. Preliminary testing of several components of the model on the city of Greeley, Colorado, yielded most encouraging results. Other components, especially those pertaining to socio-economic factors, are still under development. Expansion of model applications to different types of structures and larger regions is presently underway. A CRT-display model for energy demand within the conterminous United States also has passed preliminary tests. A major effort was expended to obtain disaggregated data on energy use from utility companies throughout the United States. The study of atmospheric variability revealed that the 22- to 26-day vacillation in the potential and kinetic energy modes of the Northern Hemisphere is related to the behavior of the planetary long-waves, and that the midwinter dip in zonal available potential energy is reflected in the development of blocking highs. Attempts to classify weather patterns over the eastern and central United States have proceeded satisfactorily to the point where testing of our method for longer time periods appears desirable.

  18. Study of a high temperature gas cooled reactor heat utilization plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, A.; Hayakawa, H.; Yasuno, T.

    1997-01-01

    A number of nuclear power plants have been successfully constructed and operating in Japan. The nuclear-generated electricity is expected to be increasing constantly and to account for 42% of total electricity supply in FY 2010, which is now about 30%. Since about 40% of the primary energy supply is consumed for the electricity production in Japan, the nuclear energy would account for only 20% of the primary energy supply even if the nuclear-generated electricity could account for 50% of the total electricity supply. In order to preserve the global environment and to secure the stable energy supply, it is most effective to increase the use of the nuclear energy. However, considering the situation described above, if the nuclear energy is applied only to electricity generation, the effect is limited. Therefore, it is necessary to utilize the nuclear energy to wide filed other than the electric power generation. This is very important especially in Japan where most of the energy supply depends on imported fossil fuels and in the developing countries where the energy demand is increasing rapidly. (author)

  19. Aspen Plus® and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Nicole L; Boateng, Akwasi A; Mullen, Charles A; Wheeler, M Clayton

    2013-10-15

    Aspen Plus(®) based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all the available waste from the site's 41 horses requires a 6 oven dry metric ton per day (ODMTPD) pyrolysis system but it will require a 15 ODMTPD system for waste generated by an additional 150 horses at the expanded area including the College and its vicinity. For this a dual fluidized bed combustion reduction integrated pyrolysis system (CRIPS) developed at USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) was identified as the technology of choice for pyrolysis oil production. The Aspen Plus(®) model was further used to consider the combustion of the produced pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in the existing boilers that generate hot water for space heating at the Equine Center. The model results show the potential for both the equine facility and the College to displace diesel fuel (fossil) with renewable pyrolysis oil and alleviate a costly waste disposal problem. We predict that all the heat required to operate the pyrolyzer could be supplied by non-condensable gas and about 40% of the biochar co-produced with bio-oil. Techno-economic Analysis shows neither design is economical at current market conditions; however the 15 ODMTPD CRIPS design would break even when diesel prices reach $11.40/gal. This can be further improved to $7.50/gal if the design capacity is maintained at 6 ODMTPD but operated at 4950 h per annum. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Utilization of waste heat from a HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine in a tri-generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarabchi, N.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The waste heat from exhaust gases and cooling water of Homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) are utilized to drive an ammonia-water cogeneration cycle (AWCC) and some heating processes, respectively. The AWCC is a combination of the Rankine cycle and an absorption refrigeration cycle. Considering the chemical kinetic calculations, a single zone combustion model is developed to simulate the natural gas fueled HCCI engine. Also, the performance of AWCC is simulated using the Engineering Equation Solver software (EES). Through combining these two codes, a detailed thermodynamic analysis is performed for the proposed tri-generation system and the effects of some main parameters on the performances of both the AWCC and the tri-generation system are investigated in detail. The cycle performance is then optimized for the fuel energy saving ratio (FESR). The enhancement in the FESR could be up to 28.56%. Under optimized condition, the second law efficiency of proposed system is 5.19% higher than that of the HCCI engine while the reduction in CO 2 emission is 4.067% as compared with the conventional separate thermodynamic systems. Moreover, the results indicate that the engine, in the tri-generation system and the absorber, in the bottoming cycle has the most contribution in exergy destruction. - Highlights: • A new thermodynamic tri-generation system is proposed for waste heat recovery of HCCI engine. • A single zone combustion model is developed to simulate the natural gas fueled HCCI engine. • The proposed tri-generation cycle is analyzed from the view points of both first and second laws of thermodynamics. • In the considered cycle, enhancements of 28.56% in fuel energy saving ratio and 5.19% in exergy efficiency are achieved

  1. Energy utilization and heat production of embryos from eggs originating from young and old broiler breeder flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangsuay, A; Meijerhof, R; Ruangpanit, Y; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the interaction between breeder age and egg size on the energy utilization (experiment 1) and heat production (experiment 2) of broiler embryos. In experiment 1, a total of 4,800 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder ages (29 and 53 wk of age, or young and old) and, within each age, 2 egg sizes (57 to 61 g and 66 to 70 g, or small and large) were used. In experiment 2, a total of 240 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder flocks at 29 (young) and 53 (old) wk of age, and which were selected from the same egg weight range (58 to 61 g), were tested in 2 replicate chambers. In experiment 1, it was shown that the amount of yolk relative to albumen was higher in the old flock eggs, and this effect was more pronounced in the large eggs. The old flock eggs, especially the larger egg size, contained more energy as a result of a greater yolk size. Energy utilization of the embryos was positively related to yolk size and the amount of energy transferred to yolk-free body (YFB) was largely determined by the available egg energy. The efficiency of converting egg energy into chick body energy (E(YFB)) was equal for both egg sizes and both breeder age groups. Chick YFB weight of young and old flock eggs was equal. However, dry YFB weight of chicks from old flock eggs was higher than in chicks from young flock eggs, which was associated with more protein and fat content and thus more energy accumulated into YFB. As a consequence, embryos derived from old flock eggs produced more heat from d 16 of incubation onward than those of the young flock eggs. In conclusion, the higher energy deposition into chick YFB of old flock eggs, leading to higher embryonic heat production, is the result of a higher amount of available energy in the egg and is not due to changes in E(YFB).

  2. Oxygen Consumption and Acoustic Activity of Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) during Hermetic Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Anastasia W; Mankin, Richard W; Smith, Bradley W; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2018-04-20

    Acoustic monitoring was applied to consider hermetic exposure durations and oxygen levels required to stop adult Callosobruchus maculatus activity and economic damage on cowpea. A 15-d study was conducted with six treatments of 25, 50, and 100 C. maculatus adults in 500 and 1000 mL jars using acoustic probes inserted through stoppers sealing the jars. Acoustic activity as a result of locomotion, mating, and egg-laying was measured by identifying sound impulses with frequency spectra representative of known insect sounds, and counting trains (bursts) of impulses separated by intervals of <200 ms, that typically are produced only by insects. By the end of the first week of storage in all treatments, oxygen levels declined to levels below 4%, which has been demonstrated to cause mortality in previous studies. Concomitantly, insect sound burst rates dropped below an acoustic detection threshold of 0.02 bursts s −1 , indicating that the insects had ceased feeding. Statistically significant relationships were obtained between two different measures of the acoustic activity and the residual oxygen level. Based on the experimental results, a simple equation can be used to estimate the time needed for oxygen to decline to levels that limit insect feeding damage and thus grain losses in hermetic storage containers of different insect population levels and various volumes.

  3. Micro packaging of hermetic seal mini dual in line laser diode module for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Chan, Eric; Koshinz, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    Normally, reliable, reproducible, high-yield packaging technologies are essential for meeting the cost, performance, and service objectives for the harsh environment of space applications. This paper describes a new improved micro packaging method of hermetic seal mini-DIL (dual in line) laser diode module. The problem of using a softer solder resulted in failure mechanisms observed in the mini-DIL laser diode module based laser firing unit (LFU) for ordinance ignition of a missile system. These failures included: (1) failure in light output pulse power, (2) fiber pigtail damage inside the package snout which caused low LFU production yield. Our distinctive challenge for this project is the micro packaging of mini-DIL. For this package a new technique for the hermetic sealing using a micro-soldering process was developed. The process is able to confine the solder seal to a small region inside the snout near the fiber feed-through hole on the wall of the mini-DIL package. After completing the development, which included temperature and thermal cycling, X-rays analysis showed the new method had no fiber damage after the microsoldering seal. The new process resulted in 100% success in the packaging design and was granted a patent for the innovative development.

  4. Blowfly puparia in a hermetic container: survival under decreasing oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądra-Bielewicz, Anna; Frątczak-Łagiewska, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2017-09-01

    Despite widely accepted standards for sampling and preservation of insect evidence, unrepresentative samples or improperly preserved evidence are encountered frequently in forensic investigations. Here, we report the results of laboratory studies on the survival of Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) intra-puparial forms in hermetic containers, which were stimulated by a recent case. It is demonstrated that the survival of blowfly intra-puparial forms inside airtight containers is dependent on container volume, number of puparia inside, and their age. The survival in both species was found to increase with an increase in the volume of air per 1 mg of puparium per day of development in a hermetic container. Below 0.05 ml of air, no insect survived, and above 0.2 ml of air per 1 mg of puparium per day, survival reached its maximum. These results suggest that blowflies reveal a single, general pattern of survival under decreasing oxygen conditions and that this pattern is a product of number of developing insects, their age and the initial amount of available air. Implications for forensic entomology are discussed.

  5. Coupled simulation of a system for the utilization of exhaust heat and cooling of the interior of commercial vehicles; Gekoppelte Simulation eines Abgaswaermenutzungs- und Fahrzeugkuehlsystems im Nutzfahrzeug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambros, Peter; Fezer, Axel; Kapitel, Julian [TheSys GmbH, Kirchentellinsfurt (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Based on a simulation software called GT-Suite by Gamma Technology, a one-dimensional model of a waste-heat recovery system with utility vehicle boundary conditions was developed. Using this model, it is possible to simulate stationary operating points of this type WHR. A Clausius-Rankine cycle is used in the power-heat cogeneration. The Clausius-Rankine cycle is linked to the exhaust system by two boilers. The first boiler is installed in the main exhaust steam, the second boiler is implemented in the exhaust gas recirculation. Besides the waste-heat recovery system, the integrated cooling system of the vehicle is also modeled. (orig.)

  6. Report on feasibility study of district energy-saving and waste heat utilization for City of Iwai; Iwai-shi chiiki sho energy hainetsu riyo kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As part of the (district energy-saving visions for City of Iwai), the feasibility study is implemented for citizen community facilities which utilize waste heat discharged from factories in the city. More concretely, those items studied include a heated pool, other community facilities and botanical garden of tropical plants which utilize waste heat of exhaust gas cooling water heated to around 70 degrees C by a desulfurization unit at a pulp factory. Case 1 includes the citizen community facilities (e.g., heated pool and bath facilities), and Case 2 includes a green house botanical garden, involving studies on facility scales, requirements of heat and recycling water, hot water supply, air conditioning, bath systems, and heating systems for green houses. It is estimated that the citizen community facilities have an energy saving effect of 640kL/y as fuel oil, which corresponds to saving of around 29 million yen/y, and CO2 abatement effect of 471t/y as carbon, and that the green house botanical garden has an energy saving effect of 669kL/y as fuel oil, which corresponds to saving of around 30 million yen/y, and CO2 abatement effect of 492t/y as carbon. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1986 report on research and development of super heat pump energy accumulation system. R and D of total systems (Surveys on heat sources and heat-utilization systems); 1986 nendo super heat pump energy shuseki system kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Total system no kenkyu (netsugen netsu riyokei no chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    The heat source systems and heat utilization systems are surveyed and studied for the super heat pump energy accumulation systems, in order to clarify effective application and application types of these systems in the domestic and industrial energy areas. These works include surveys on literature, both domestic and foreign, surveys on actual situations of the related facilities and plants and on-the-spot hearing, and numerical simulation to establish the basic data for some items. The FY 1986 program includes the literature surveys on heat source and heat utilization systems and on-the-spot hearing for the domestic energy areas, reviews of heat demand variation patterns, and studies on methodology for applying the data to the areas not investigated so far. For the industrial areas to which super heat pumps are potentially applicable, the chemical, refining, food manufacturing and plastic manufacturing/processing industries are selected, to study problems related to system structures and conditions of the heat pump systems in these areas. (NEDO)

  8. Thermodynamic optimization opportunities for the recovery and utilization of residual energy and heat in China's iron and steel industry: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lingen; Yang, Bo; Shen, Xun; Xie, Zhihui; Sun, Fengrui

    2015-01-01

    Analyses and optimizations of material flows and energy flows in iron and steel industry in the world are introduced in this paper. It is found that the recovery and utilization of residual energy and heat (RUREH) plays an important role for energy saving and CO 2 emission reduction no matter what method is used. Although the energy cascade utilization principle is carried out, the efficiency of RUREH in China's iron and steel industry (CISI) is only about 30%–50%, while the international advanced level is higher than 90%, such as USA, Japan, Sweden, etc. An important reason for the low efficiency of RUREH in CISI is that someone ignores the thermodynamic optimization opportunities for the energy recovery or utilization equipment, such as electricity production via waste heat boiler, sintering ore sensible heat recovery, heat transfer through heat exchangers, etc. A case study of hot blast stove flue gas sensible heat recovery and utilization is presented to illustrate the viewpoint above. The results show that before the heat conductance distribution optimization, the system can realize energy saving 76.2 kgce/h, profit 68.9 yuan/h, and CO 2 emission reduction 187.2 kg/h. While after the heat conductance distribution optimization, the system can realize energy saving 88.8 kgce/h, profit 92.5 yuan/h, and CO 2 emission reduction 218.2 kg/h, which are, respectively, improved by 16.5%, 34.2% and 16.5% than those before optimization. Thermodynamic optimization from the single equipment to the whole system of RUREH is a vital part in the future energy conservation work in CISI. - Highlights: • Material flows and energy flows in iron and steel industry are introduced. • Recovery and utilization of residual energy and heat plays an important role. • A case study of hot blast stove flue gas sensible heat recovery is presented. • Thermodynamic optimization for the system is performed. • Energy saving, profit, and CO 2 emission reduction improvements

  9. Hermeticity control system for the BMS/BMF-MDT chambers of the muon spectrometer of ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashkov, A.V.; Glonti, G.L.; Gongadze, A.L.; Dedovich, D.V.; Demichev, M.A.; Zhemchugov, A.S.; Il'yushenko, E.N.; Korolevich, Ya.V.; Kruchonok, V.G.; Lomidze, D.D.; Nikolaev, K.V.; Kharchenko, D.V.; Tskhadadze, Eh.G.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Shelkov, G.A.; Shcherbakov, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Description of hermeticity certification of the JINR made muon chambers for the ATLAS experiment is presented. A high precision stand was installed in the production area of the DLNP, JINR. The description of the stand and results of the measurements and the description and results of the second testing of the drift chambers carried out after transportation to CERN are presented

  10. Utilization of Field Enhancement in Plasmonic Waveguides for Subwavelength Light-Guiding, Polarization Handling, Heating, and Optical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-09

    Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted intensive attention for many applications in recent years because of the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface. First, this strong field enhancement makes it possible to break the diffraction limit and enable subwavelength optical waveguiding, which is desired for nanophotonic integrated circuits with ultra-high integration density. Second, the field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures occurs only for the polarization mode whose electric field is perpendicular to the metal/dielectric interface, and thus the strong birefringence is beneficial for realizing ultra-small polarization-sensitive/selective devices, including polarization beam splitters, and polarizers. Third, plasmonic nanostructures provide an excellent platform of merging electronics and photonics for some applications, e.g., thermal tuning, photo-thermal detection, etc. Finally, the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface helps a lot to realize optical sensors with high sensitivity when introducing plasmonic nanostrutures. In this paper, we give a review for recent progresses on the utilization of field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures for these applications, e.g., waveguiding, polarization handling, heating, as well as optical sensing.

  11. Utilization of Field Enhancement in Plasmonic Waveguides for Subwavelength Light-Guiding, Polarization Handling, Heating, and Optical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoxin Dai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted intensive attention for many applications in recent years because of the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface. First, this strong field enhancement makes it possible to break the diffraction limit and enable subwavelength optical waveguiding, which is desired for nanophotonic integrated circuits with ultra-high integration density. Second, the field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures occurs only for the polarization mode whose electric field is perpendicular to the metal/dielectric interface, and thus the strong birefringence is beneficial for realizing ultra-small polarization-sensitive/selective devices, including polarization beam splitters, and polarizers. Third, plasmonic nanostructures provide an excellent platform of merging electronics and photonics for some applications, e.g., thermal tuning, photo-thermal detection, etc. Finally, the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface helps a lot to realize optical sensors with high sensitivity when introducing plasmonic nanostrutures. In this paper, we give a review for recent progresses on the utilization of field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures for these applications, e.g., waveguiding, polarization handling, heating, as well as optical sensing.

  12. A novel method of utilization of hot dip galvanizing slag using the heat waste from itself for protection from radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mengge; Xue, Xiangxin; Kumar, Ashok; Yang, He; Sayyed, M I; Liu, Shan; Bu, Erjun

    2018-02-15

    A novel, unconventional, low cost, eco-friendly and effective shielding materials have been made utilizing the hot dip galvanizing slag using the heat waste from itself, thereby saving the natural resources and preventing the environmental pollution. SEM-EDS of shielding materials indicates that the other elements are distributed in Zn element. The mass attenuation properties of shielding materials were measured using a narrow beam geometrical setup at 0.662MeV, 1.17MeV and 1.33MeV. The half value thickness layer, effective atomic number, and electron density were used to analyze the shielding performance of the materials. The EBFs and EABFs for the prepared shielding materials were also studied with incident photon energy for penetration depths upto 40mfp. The shielding effectiveness has been compared with lead, iron, zinc, some standard shielding concretes, different glasses and some alloys. The shielding effectiveness of the prepared samples is almost found comparable to iron, zinc, selected alloys and glasses while better than some standard shielding concretes. In addition, it is also found that the bending strength of all shielding materials is more than 110MPa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of processes for the utilization of Brazilian coal using nuclear process heat and/or nuclear process steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamert, H.; Niessen, H.F.; Walbeck, M.; Wasrzik, U.; Mueller, R.; Schiffers, U.; Strauss, W.

    1980-01-01

    Status of the project: End of the project definition phase and preparation of the planned conceptual phase. Objective of the project: Development of processes for the utilization of nuclear process heat and/or nuclear process steam for the gasification of coal with high ash content, in particular coal from Brazil. Results: With the data of Brazilian coal of high ash content (mine Leao/ 43% ash in the mine-mouth quality, 20% ash after preparation) there have been worked out proposals for the mine planning and for a number of processes. On the basis of these proposals and under consideration of the main data specified by the Brazilian working group there have been choosen two processes and worked out in a conceptual design: 1) pressurized water reactor + LURGI-pressure gasifier/hydrogasification for the production of SNG and 2) high temperature reactor steam gasification for the production of town gas. The economic evaluation showed that the two processes are not substantially different in their cost efficiency and they are economical on a long-term basis. For more specific design work there has been planned the implementation of an experimental programme using the semi-technical plants 'hydrogasification' in Wesseling and 'steam gasification' in Essen as the conceptual phase. (orig.) [de

  14. Application of Quasi-Heat-Pulse Solutions for Luikov’s Equations of Heat and Moisture Transfer for Calibrating and Utilizing Thermal Properties Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago the Laplace transform solutions of Luikov’s differential equations were presented for one-dimensional heat and moisture transfer in porous hydroscopic orthotropic materials for the boundary condition of a gradual heat pulse applied to both surfaces of a flat slab. This paper presents calibration methods and data for the K-tester 637 (Lasercomp),...

  15. Introducing a novel method to estimate the total heat transfer coefficient inside irregular-shape cavities utilizing thermoelectric modules; Special application in solar engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Rahbar, Nader; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza

    The main objective of the present study is to introduce a novel method to measure the total heat transfer coefficient inside irregular-shape cavities, used in solar applications, utilizing thermoelectric modules. Applying mathematical and thermodynamics modeling, the governing equations related...... to the total heat transfer coefficient between thermoelectric and glass cover as a function of ambient temperature, glass temperature, and output voltage has been derived. Investigating the accuracy of the proposed equation, an experimental case study has been performed. The experimental setup consists...... of three parts; a heat sink, a thermoelectric module, and a glass cover. All the experiments have been performed on the typical winter day and under the real climatic conditions of Semnan (35° 33′ N, 53° 23′ E), Iran. The results showed that the proposed method has the ability to measure the total heat...

  16. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (solar heat power generation); 1976 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyonetsu hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Research was made on solar heat power generation following last fiscal year, as a part of solar energy utilization technologies. In this fiscal year, in particular, research was made on the following: selection of suitable sites for solar heat power plants in Japan, estimation of expected power supply, positioning of a solar heat power system among future power systems, operation policy of solar heat power systems, survey on suitable sites for the 1,000kW pilot power plant, operation characteristics of the small test plant, design of the 1,000kW pilot power plant, test methods and facilities for every element equipment of solar heat power systems, an environmental test method for mostly solar collectors, and the profitability of solar heat power systems. Optimum operation temperature levels were nearly 350 degrees C for distributed systems and nearly 400 degrees C for centralized ones. The distributed system is profitable in a unit capacity range less than 5-10MWe, while the centralized system is profitable in a range over 10MWe. Under some assumptions, the power cost of solar heat power systems was estimated to be 20-30yen/kWH. (NEDO)

  17. Utilizing remote sensing data for modeling water and heat regimes of the Black Earth Region territory of the European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Uspensky, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    At present physical-mathematical modeling processes of water and heat exchange between vegetation covered land surfaces and atmosphere is the most appropriate method to describe peculiarities of water and heat regime formation for large territories. The developed model of such processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) is intended for calculation evaporation, transpiration by vegetation, soil water content and other water and heat regime characteristics, as well as distributions of the soil temperature and humidity in depth utilizing remote sensing data from satellites on land surface and meteorological conditions. The model parameters and input variables are the soil and vegetation characteristics and the meteorological characteristics, correspondingly. Their values have been determined from ground-based observations or satellite-based measurements by radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/Meteosat-9, -10. The case study has been carried out for the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth region with coordinates 49.5 deg. - 54 deg. N, 31 deg. - 43 deg. E and a total area of 227,300 km2 located in the steppe-forest zone of the European Russia for years 2009-2012 vegetation seasons. From AVHRR data there have been derived the estimates of three types of land surface temperature (LST): land surface skin temperature Tsg, air-foliage temperature Ta and efficient radiation temperature Ts.eff, emissivity E, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, leaf area index LAI, cloudiness and precipitation. From MODIS data the estimates of LST Tls, E, NDVI and LAI have been obtained. The SEVIRI data have been used to build the estimates of Tls, Ta, E, LAI and precipitation. Previously developed method and technology of above AVHRR-derived estimates have been improved and adapted to the study area. To check the reliability of the Ts.eff and Ta estimations for named seasons the error statistics of their definitions has been analyzed through

  18. Design and engineering of a gas-engine driven heat pump heating station including heat distribution system and utilization of waste heat from an ice rink for the residential area Dorsten - Maria Lindenhof. Planung eines Gasmotor-Waermepumpenheizwerkes mit angeschlossenem Waermeverteilungsnetz und Abwaermenutzung einer Eisenbahn fuer das zentralstaedtische Gebiet 'Maria-Lindenhof' in Dorsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huelsemann, R.

    1984-05-01

    A gas-engine driven heat pump heating station including the required heat destribution system and utilization of waste heat from an ice rink to be realized in the residential area Dorsten - Maria Lindenhof. The total heat capacity was to be reached in two stages, corresponding to the progress of the building and housing structure in this specific area: First stage of construction 5,6 MW, final stage of construction 7,6 MW. With regard to the final stage of construction only a relatively small part of the buildings is provided with heating systems designed for supply and return temperatures of 90/70/sup 0/C respectively. The old people's home built in 1980 was already equipped with low temperature heating systems and all buildings still to be built shall be provided with low-temperature systems. As far as old heating systems are concerned, the required measures must be taken to reduce the temperature in the return lines.

  19. Titanium based flat heat pipes for computer chip cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Gaurav; Ding, Changsong; Sigurdson, Marin; Bozorgi, Payam; Piorek, Brian; MacDonald, Noel; Meinhart, Carl

    2008-11-01

    We are developing a highly conductive flat heat pipe (called Thermal Ground Plane or TGP) for cooling computer chips. Conventional heat pipes have circular cross sections and thus can't make good contact with chip surface. The flatness of our TGP will enable conformal contact with the chip surface and thus enhance cooling efficiency. Another limiting factor in conventional heat pipes is the capillary flow of the working fluid through a wick structure. In order to overcome this limitation we have created a highly porous wick structure on a flat titanium substrate by using micro fabrication technology. We first etch titanium to create very tall micro pillars with a diameter of 5 μm, a height of 40 μm and a pitch of 10 μm. We then grow a very fine nano structured titania (NST) hairs on all surfaces of the pillars by oxidation in H202. In this way we achieve a wick structure which utilizes multiple length scales to yield high performance wicking of water. It's capable of wicking water at an average velocity of 1 cm/s over a distance of several cm. A titanium cavity is laser-welded onto the wicking substrate and a small quantity of water is hermetically sealed inside the cavity to achieve a TGP. The thermal conductivity of our preliminary TGP was measured to be 350 W/m-K, but has the potential to be several orders of magnitude higher.

  20. Thermodynamic effects when utilizing waste heat from condensation in cases of a reduced vacuum in steam turbine plants of thermal power stations, to provide heat at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiljevic, N.; Savic, B.; Stojakovic, M.

    1986-01-01

    There is an interesting variant of cogeneration in the steam turbine system of a thermal power plant, i.e. the utilisation of the waste heat of condensation with a reduced vacuum without reconstruction of the thermal power plant. The thermodynamic effect in cogeneration was calculated in consideration of the dynamics of heat consumption. This cogeneration process has the advantage of saving primary energy without reconstruction of the thermal power plant.

  1. Development of ZL400 Mine Cooling Unit Using Semi-Hermetic Screw Compressor and Its Application on Local Air Conditioning in Underground Long-Wall Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhaoxiang; Ji, Jianhu; Zhang, Xijun; Yan, Hongyuan; Dong, Haomin; Liu, Junjie

    2016-12-01

    Aiming at heat injuries occurring in the process of deep coal mining in China, a ZL400 mine-cooling unit employing semi-hermetic screw compressor with a cooling capacity of 400 kW is developed. This paper introduced its operating principle, structural characteristics and technical indexes. By using the self-built testing platform, some parameters for indication of its operation conditions were tested on the ground. The results show that the aforementioned cooling unit is stable in operation: cooling capacity of the unit was 420 kW underground-test conditions, while its COP (coefficient of performance) reached 3.4. To address the issue of heat injuries existing in No. 16305 U-shaped long-wall ventilation face of Jining No. 3 coal mine, a local air conditioning system was developed with ZL400 cooling unit as the system's core. The paper presented an analysis of characteristics of the air current flowing in the air-mixing and cooling mode of ZL400 cooling unit used in air intake way. Through i-d patterns we described the process of the airflow treatment, such as cooling, mixing and heating, etc. The cooling system decreased dry bulb temperature on working face by 3°C on average and 3.8°C at most, while lowered the web bulb temperature by 3.6°C on average and 4.8°C at most. At the same time, it reduced relative humidity by 5% on average and 8.6% at most. The field application of the ZL400 cooling unit had gain certain effects in air conditioning and provided support for the solution of mine heat injuries in China in terms of technology and equipment.

  2. EXPERIENCE OF UTILIZATION OF CAPACITY BANKS AND SCHEMES OF FREQUENCY REGULATION IN MUNICIPAL CENTRALIZED HEATING SYSTEM OF CHISINAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHERNEI M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper provides a brief summary of the district heating system of the municipality Chisinau, including heat power sources, heat distribution network, production and consumption development over the past two decades and other data. Also, the priority investment projects realized by JSC "Termocom" are being presented. The company had implemented an automated monitoring system for the heat power production, transportation and distribution. For many years, the company used bellows pipes with polyurethane insulation, ball valves and plate heat exchangers. 14 out of 21 district heating boiler stations were upgraded 10 were completely automated having as a result no further need in full-time duty personnel there. The experience gained in the implementation of capacity banks and frequency inverters, summarizing the benefits and achieved results, is also presented in the current paper. It is to be underlined that in 2011 the company achieved decrease in electricity consumption by about 30% in comparison with 2005.

  3. Diagnostic of structures in heat and power generating industries with utilization of 3D digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesa, M.; Kujawińska, M.; Malowany, K.; Siwek, B.

    2013-04-01

    In the paper we present implementation of 3D DIC method for in-situ diagnostic measurements of expansion bellows in heating chambers. The simultaneous measurements of a supply and a return pipeline were carried out in a heating chamber in Warsaw at the peak of the heating season in cooperation with Dalkia Warszawa. Results of the measurements enabled assessment of the risk of failure of expansion bellows. In-situ measurements were preceded by feasibility tests carried out in the Institute of Heat Engineering of Warsaw University of Technology. Potential implementations and a direction of future works are discussed in conclusions.

  4. Utilizing thermal building mass for storage in district heating systems: Combined building level simulations and system level optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, D. F.; Gianniou, P.; Münster, M.

    2018-01-01

    on the energy supply of district heating. Results showed that longer preheating time increased the possible duration of cut-off events. System optimization showed that the thermal mass for storage was used as intra-day storage. Flexible load accounted for 5.5%–7.7% of the total district heating demand...

  5. High efficiency, quasi-instantaneous steam expansion device utilizing fossil or nuclear fuel as the heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudio Filippone

    1999-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency

  6. Measurement system for the integrated tightness tests of the hermetically sealed rooms at the Paks nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubner, R.; Techy, Zs.; Voeroes, L. (Villamosenergiaipari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1982-01-01

    One condition for granting start-up permission is the performance of integrated tightness. The testing method agrees with that developed by the Soviet partner in 1979. The measuring principle is based on the temporal change in the quantity of a medium contained in a hermetically sealed space determined from the value of the absolute pressure. In this study the preliminary investigations on the installation of the testing system and the measurement program are presented.

  7. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Federal Assistance Program quarterly project progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the third quarter of FY98 (April--June, 1998). It describes 231 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with included requests for general information including material for high school and university students, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, spacing heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, snow melting and electric power. Research activities include work on model construction specifications for line shaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, and a comprehensive aquaculture developers package. A brochure on Geothermal Energy in Klamath County was developed for state and local tourism use. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 19, No. 2) with articles on research at the Geo-Heat Center, sustainability of geothermal resources, injection well drilling in Boise, ID and a greenhouse project in the Azores. Other outreach activities include dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisitions and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  8. Feasibility analysis of the utilization of moderator heat for agricultural and aquacultural purposes, Bruce nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    A study is presented of the feasibility of using moderator reject heat from the Bruce nuclear power development either to heat greenhouses or to aid in a warm water hatchery or aquaculture operation. The study examines heat extraction and delivery plans, reliability of supply, pricing schedules, the Ontario greenhouse industry, site selection criteria, water transmission and distribution, costs, approvals required, and a construction timetable. Total system analysis shows that a greenhouse facility would be viable but the aquaculture/hatchery scheme is more cost-effective. (E.C.B.)

  9. Continuously Operating Biosensor and Its Integration into a Hermetically Sealed Medical Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Birkholz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An integration concept for an implantable biosensor for the continuous monitoring of blood sugar levels is presented. The system architecture is based on technical modules used in cardiovascular implants in order to minimize legal certification efforts for its perspective usage in medical applications. The sensor chip operates via the principle of affinity viscometry, which is realized by a fully embedded biomedical microelectromechanical systems (BioMEMS prepared in 0.25-µm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS/BiCMOS technology. Communication with a base station is established in the 402–405 MHz band used for medical implant communication services (MICS. The implant shall operate within the interstitial tissue, and the hermetical sealing of the electronic system against interaction with the body fluid is established using titanium housing. Only the sensor chip and the antenna are encapsulated in an epoxy header closely connected to the metallic housing. The study demonstrates that biosensor implants for the sensing of low-molecular-weight metabolites in the interstitial may successfully rely on components already established in cardiovascular implantology.

  10. Reduction of the suction losses through reed valves in hermetic reciprocating compressors using a magnet coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfgartner, J.; Posch, S.; Zuber, B.; Almbauer, R.; Krischan, K.; Stangl, S.

    2017-08-01

    Reed valves are widely used in hermetic reciprocating compressors and are responsible for a large part of the thermodynamic losses. Especially, the suction valve, which is opened nearly during the whole suction stroke, has a big potential for improvement. Usually, suction valves are opened only by vacuum created by the moving piston and should be closed before the compression stroke starts to avoid a reversed mass-flow through the valve. Therefore, the valves are prestressed, which results on the other hand in a higher flow resistance. In this work, a suction valve is investigated, which is not closed by the preload of the valve but by an electromagnetic coil located in the suction muffler neck. Shortly before the piston reaches its bottom dead centre, voltage is applied to the coil and a magnetic force is generated which pulls the valve shut. Thereby, the flow resistance through the valve can be reduced by changing the preload on the reed valve because it is no longer needed to close the valve. The investigation of this adapted valve and the electromagnetic coil is firstly done by numerical simulations including fluid structure interactions of the reed valves of a reciprocating compressor and secondly by experiments made on a calorimeter test bench.

  11. Gastight Hydrodynamic Electrochemistry: Design for a Hermetically Sealed Rotating Disk Electrode Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suho; Kortlever, Ruud; Jones, Ryan J R; Lichterman, Michael F; Agapie, Theodor; McCrory, Charles C L; Peters, Jonas C

    2017-01-03

    Rotating disk electrodes (RDEs) are widely used in electrochemical characterization to analyze the mechanisms of various electrocatalytic reactions. RDE experiments often make use of or require collection and quantification of gaseous products. The combination of rotating parts and gaseous analytes makes the design of RDE cells that allow for headspace analysis challenging due to gas leaks at the interface of the cell body and the rotator. In this manuscript we describe a new, hermetically sealed electrochemical cell that allows for electrode rotation while simultaneously providing a gastight environment. Electrode rotation in this new cell design is controlled by magnetically coupling the working electrode to a rotating magnetic driver. Calibration of the RDE using a tachometer shows that the rotation speed of the electrode is the same as that of the magnetic driver. To validate the performance of this cell for hydrodynamic measurements, limiting currents from the reduction of a potassium ferrocyanide (K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ]·3H 2 O) were measured and shown to compare favorably with calculated values from the Levich equation and with data obtained using more typical, nongastight RDE cells. Faradaic efficiencies of ∼95% were measured in the gas phase for oxygen evolution in alkaline media at an Inconel 625 alloy electrocatalyst during rotation at 1600 rpm. These data verify that a gastight environment is maintained even during rotation.

  12. Deposition and Characterization of Hermetic, Biocompatible Thin Film Coatings for Implantable, Electrically Active Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Robyn K.

    Retinal prostheses may be used to support patients suffering from Age-related macular degeneration or retinitis pigmentosa. A hermetic encapsulation of the poly(imide )-based prosthesis is important in order to prevent the leakage of water and ions into the electric circuitry embedded in the poly(imide) matrix. The deposition of amorphous aluminum oxide (by sputtering) and diamond like carbon (by pulsed laser ablation and vacuum arc vapor deposition) were studied for the application in retinal prostheses. The resulting thin films were characterized for composition, thickness, adhesion and smoothness by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, profilometry and light microscopy. Electrical stability was evaluated and found to be good. The as-deposited films prevented incursion of salinated fluids into the implant over two (2) three month trials soaking in normal saline at body temperature, Biocompatibility was tested in vivo by implanting coated specimen subretinally in the eye of Yucatan pigs. While amorphous aluminum oxide is more readily deposited with sufficient adhesion quality, biocompatibility studies showed a superior behavior of diamond-like carbon. Amorphous aluminum oxide had more adverse effects and caused more severe damage to the retinal tissue.

  13. Development concept concerning the utilization of district heating for cooling of buildings; Udviklingskoncept vedroerende anvendelse af fjernvarme til koeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, L.; Minds, G.; Hansen, K.E.; Hammer, F.

    1998-03-01

    The main purpose of the project was to develop a concept for cooling of buildings by means of district heating based on Danish conditions. Heat operated cooling plants placed at the individual consumers or in local cooling stations, from where cold water is distributed in small networks to a limited number of consumers, are the main elements of the concept. Basically it should be possible to use the technology in connection with the district heating systems spread all over the country, systems which are characterised by rather low temperatures - typically between 70 deg. and 90 deg. C in the supply pipes and about 40-50 deg. C in the return pipes. In transmission networks the level is often 10-20 deg. C higher. The cooling is mainly to be used for air-conditioning of shopping centres, office buildings, computer plants, hospitals, nursing homes etc. The project is based on the conditions in Hoeje Taastrup, which is a relatively new and open city area with a rather big concentration of buildings which already need cooling. At the moment this demand is covered by individual electrically operated compressors. Models of heat based cooling plants are set up and compared to the present compressor based systems with respect to technology, energy, economy and environmental conditions. The results are generalised, thus they will be relevant to other Danish towns supplied by district heating. However, the possibilities of cooling based on natural gas from small scale combined heat and power have not been discussed at all. (EG)

  14. Ideal Point Design and Operation of CO2-Based Transcritical Rankine Cycle (CTRC System Based on High Utilization of Engine’s Waste Heats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research conducted a study specially to systematically analyze combined recovery of exhaust gas and engine coolant and related influence mechanism, including a detailed theoretical study and an assistant experimental study. In this research, CO2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC was used for fully combining the wastes heats. The main objective of theoretical research was to search an ‘ideal point’ of the recovery system and related influence mechanism, which was defined as operating condition of complete recovery of two waste heats. The theoretical methodology of this study could also provide a design reference for effective combined recovery of two or multiple waste heats in other fields. Based on a kW-class preheated CTRC prototype that was designed by the ‘ideal point’ method, an experimental study was conducted to verify combined utilization degree of two engine waste heats by the CTRC system. The operating results showed that the prototype can gain 44.4–49.8 kW and 22.7–26.7 kW heat absorption from exhaust gas and engine coolant, respectively. To direct practical operation, an experimental optimization work on the operating process was conducted for complete recovery of engine coolant exactly, which avoided deficient or excessive recovery.

  15. Study of gas generation in drum L/ILW packages using hermetic containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, M.; Palcsu, L.; Svingor, E.; Futo, I.; Major, Z.; Veres, M.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. During the storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (L/ILW) significant quantities of gas may be produced. It is likely that a small proportion of the generated gas will be radioactive as a result of the incorporation of the isotopes 3 H and 14 C that are present within the waste. To obtain reliable estimates of the quantities and rates of the gas production in L/ILWa series of measurements was carried out of waste packages produced and temporarily stored at the site of Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Ten drums filled with selected original L/ILW were placed into hermetic containers equipped with sampling valves for repeated sampling. These hermetic containers were stored at the same site where the L/ILW is stored primarily in the Paks NPP. The pressure and the temperature of the headspace gas in the containers were monitored continuously. Qualitative gas component analyses of headspace gases of drums and their containers were executed by quadrupole mass spectrometer. The gas generation rate in the stored L/ILW was calculated by the measured state parameters and the composition variation of the gas in the closed containers. Stable isotope measurements were executed from the CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 fractions by stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Helium measurements were done by noble gas mass spectrometer. The tritium content of the vapour, H 2 and CH 4 fractions was measured by a low background liquid scintillation counter. 14 C content of the CO 2 and CH 4 fractions was measured by a low background gas proportional counter system (ATOMKI). Our results showed that the main generated gases in L/ILW are carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen and nitrogen. The typical rates were 0.05-0.2 normal litre gas/day for CO 2 and CH 4 generation, and less than 0.02 normal litre gas/day for H 2 . Because of the typical vanishing of the O 2 from the headspace gases no explosive gas mixture was indicated in the L/ILW drums during

  16. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Performance of a swimming pool heating system by utilizing waste energy rejected from an ice rink with an energy storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyumcu, Muhammed Enes; Tutumlu, Hakan; Yumrutaş, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An analytical model of the system, and a computational program were developed. • Transient behavior of the water in the buried energy storage tank was simulated. • Effects of various system parameters on the system performance were investigated. • Long period performance of the system was analyzed and obtained periodic condition. • Optimum ice rink size is determined for a semi-Olympic size swimming pool heating. - Abstract: This study deals with determining the long period performance of a swimming pool heating system by utilizing waste heat energy that is rejected from a chiller unit of ice rink and subsequently stored in an underground thermal energy storage (TES) tank. The system consists of an ice rink, a swimming pool, a spherical underground TES tank, a chiller and a heat pump. The ice rink and the swimming pool are both enclosed and located in Gaziantep, Turkey. An analytical model was developed to obtain the performance of the system using Duhamel’s superposition and similarity transformation techniques. A computational model written in MATLAB program based on the transient heat transfer is used to obtain the annual variation of the ice rink and the swimming pool energy requirements, the water temperature in the TES tank, COP, and optimum ice rink size depending on the different ground, TES tank, chiller, and heat pump characteristics. The results obtained from the analysis indicate that 6–7 years’ operational time span is necessary to obtain the annual periodic operation condition. In addition, an ice rink with a size of 475 m"2 gives the optimum performance of the system with a semi-Olympic size swimming pool (625 m"2).

  18. Exploring the Utility of Model-based Meteorology Data for Heat-Related Health Research and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, A.; Yip, F.

    2017-12-01

    Context: Studies that have explored the impacts of environmental exposure on human health have mostly relied on data from weather stations, which can be limited in geographic scope. For this assessment, we: (1) evaluated the performance of the meteorological data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 (NLDAS) model with measurements from weather stations for public health and specifically for CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Program, and (2) conducted a health assessment to explore the relationship between heat exposure and mortality, and examined region-specific differences in heat-mortality (H-M) relationships when using model-based estimates in place of measurements from weather stations.Methods: Meteorological data from the NLDAS Phase 2 model was evaluated against measurements from weather stations. A time-series analysis was conducted, using both station- and model-based data, to generate H-M relationships for counties in the U.S. The county-specific risk information was pooled to characterize regional relationships for both station- and model-based data, which were then compared to identify degrees of overlap and discrepancies between results generated using the two data sources. Results: NLDAS-based heat metrics were in agreement with those generated using weather station data. In general, the H-M relationship tended to be non-linear and varied by region, particularly the heat index value at which the health risks become positively significant. However, there was a high degree of overlap between region-specific H-M relationships generated from weather stations and the NLDAS model.Interpretation: Heat metrics from NLDAS model are available for all counties in the coterminous U.S. from 1979-2015. These data can facilitate health research and surveillance activities exploring health impacts associated with long-term heat exposures at finer geographic scales.Conclusion: High spatiotemporal coverage of environmental health data

  19. Direct synthesis of Pt-free catalyst on gas diffusion layer of fuel cell and usage of high boiling point fuels for efficient utilization of waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandan, Ravi; Goswami, Gopal Krishna; Nanda, Karuna Kar

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Direct-grown boron-doped carbon nanotubes on gas-diffusion layer as efficient Pt-free cathode catalyst for alcohol fuel cells, high boiling point fuels used to obtain hot fuels for the enhancement of cell performance that paves the way for the utilization of waste heat. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •One-step direct synthesis of boron-doped carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) on gas diffusion layer (GDL). •Home built fuel-cell testing using BCNTs on GDL as Pt-free cathode catalyst. •BCNTs exhibit concentration dependent oxygen reduction reaction and the cell performance. •Effective utilization of waste heat to raise the fuel temperature. •Fuel selectivity to raise the fuel temperature and the overall performance of the fuel cells. -- Abstract: Gas diffusion layers (GDL) and electrocatalysts are integral parts of fuel cells. It is, however, a challenging task to grow Pt-free robust electrocatalyst directly on GDL for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) – a key reaction in fuel cells. Here, we demonstrate that boron-doped carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) grown directly on gas-diffusion layer (which avoid the need of ionomer solution used for catalyst loading) can be used as efficient Pt-free catalyst in alcohol fuel cells. Increase in boron concentration improves the electrochemical ORR activity in terms of onset and ORR peak positions, half-wave potentials and diffusion-limited current density that ensure the optimization of the device performance. The preferential 4e − pathway, excellent cell performance, superior tolerance to fuel crossover and long-term stability makes directly grown BCNTs as an efficient Pt-free cathode catalyst for cost-effective fuel cells. The maximum power density of the fuel cell is found to increase monotonically with boron concentration. In addition to the application of BCNTs in fuel cell, we have introduced the concept of hot fuels so that waste heat can effectively be used and external power sources can be avoided. The fuel

  20. The study on the role of very high temperature reactor and nuclear process heat utilization in future energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yasuyuki; Nagano, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ueno, Seiichi.

    1987-11-01

    The objectives of the systems analysis study on ''The Role of High Temperature Nuclear Heat in Future Energy Systems'' under the cooperative research program between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are to analyze the effect and the impact of introduction of high temperature nuclear heat in Japanese long-term energy systems aiming at zero environmental emissions from view points of energy supply/demand, economy progress, and environmental protection, and to show the potentials of involved technologies and to extract the associated problems necessary for research and developments. This report describes the results being obtained in these three years from 1985. The present status of our energy system are explained at first, then, our findings concerning on analytical approach, method for analysis, view points to the future, scenario state space, reference energy systems, evolving technologies in it, and results analyzed are described. (author)

  1. Parametric and exergetic analysis of waste heat recovery system based on thermoelectric generator and organic rankine cycle utilizing R123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Zhao, Jian; Tian, Hua; Liang, Xingyu; Wei, Haiqiao

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the combined TEG-ORC (thermoelectric generator and organic rankine cycle) used in exhaust heat recovery of ICE (internal combustion engine) theoretically. A theoretical model is proposed to calculate the optimal parameters of the bottoming cycle based on thermodynamic theory when net output power and volumetric expansion ratio are selected as objective functions, which affect system performance and size. The effects of relative TEG flow direction, TEG scale, highest temperature, condensation temperature, evaporator pressure and efficiency of IHE (internal heat exchanger) on system performance are investigated. R123 is chosen among the fluids whose decomposition temperature exceeds 600 K to avoid fluid resolving and resulting in wet stroke when expansion process ends. The thermodynamic irreversibility that occurs in evaporator, turbine, IHE, condenser, pump and TEG is revealed at target working areas. The results indicate a significant increase of system performance when TEG and IHE are combined with ORC bottoming cycle. It is also suggested that TEG-ORC system is suitable to recovering waste heat from engines, because TEG can extend the temperature range of heat source and thereby improve the security and fuel economy of engines. -- Highlights: ► Development of a TEG-ORC system using R123 as working fluid for WHR of engines. ► Performance of the developed cycle was investigated theoretically. ► Optimization of configurations and parameters can be obtained. ► Irreversibility in the evaporator, turbine, IHE, condenser, pump and TEG is revealed. ► Optimal net power and indicated efficiency is 27 kW and 45.7%, respectively.

  2. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  3. Improve the material absorption of light and enhance the laser tube bending process utilizing laser softening heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhan, Khalil Ibraheem; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Zakaria, Azmi; Ismail, Mohd Idris Shah B.; Alsabti, Naseer Mahdi Hadi; Ahmad, Ahmad Kamal

    2018-02-01

    Laser forming is a flexible control process that has a wide spectrum of applications; particularly, laser tube bending. It offers the perfect solution for many industrial fields, such as aerospace, engines, heat exchangers, and air conditioners. A high power pulsed Nd-YAG laser with a maximum average power of 300 W emitting at 1064 nm and fiber-coupled is used to irradiate stainless steel 304 (SS304) tubes of 12.7 mm diameter, 0.6 mm thickness and 70 mm length. Moreover, a motorized rotation stage with a computer controller is employed to hold and rotate the tube. In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried out to improve the laser tube bending process by enhancing the absorption coefficient of the material and the mechanical formability using laser softening heat treatment. The material surface is coated with an oxidization layer; hence, the material absorption of laser light is increased and the temperature rapidly rises. The processing speed is enhanced and the output bending angle is increased to 1.9° with an increment of 70% after the laser softening heat treatment.

  4. Power generation efficiency of an SOFC-PEFC combined system with time shift utilization of SOFC exhaust heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Shin' ya [Power Engineering Lab., Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Kouen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 0908507 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    A microgrid, with little environmental impact, is developed by introducing a combined SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) and PEFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system. Although the SOFC requires a higher operation temperature compared to the PEFC, the power generation efficiency of the SOFC is higher. However, if high temperature exhaust heat may be used effectively, a system with higher total power generation efficiency can be built. Therefore, this paper investigates the operation of a SOFC-PEFC combined system, with time shift operation of reformed gas, into a microgrid with 30 houses in Sapporo, Japan. The SOFC is designed to correspond to base load operation, and the exhaust heat of the SOFC is used for production of reformed gas. This reformed gas is used for the production of electricity for the PEFC, corresponding to fluctuation load of the next day. Accordingly, the reformed gas is used with a time shift operation. In this paper, the relation between operation method, power generation efficiency, and amount of heat storage of the SOFC-PEFC combined system to the difference in power load pattern was investigated. The average power generation efficiency of the system can be maintained at nearly 48% on a representative day in February (winter season) and August (summer season). (author)

  5. Utilization of a HTR type reactor as a heat source for the processing of pyrobituminous shale by the Petrosix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessine, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    Some thermodynamics aspects of a system resulting from the coupling of a THTR nuclear power plant type (Thorium High Temperature Reactor) and a commercial shale oil processing plant are studied. The coupling is basically characterized by the application of all available energy from the nuclear reactor to the shale oil processing. The nuclear reactor employed is a PR-3000, with 2980,8 MW sub(t), developed in the Federal Republic of Germany for process heat applications (coal and steam reforming to produce reducers and products similar to the derivates of petroleum). The commercial shale oil plant considered (U.C.X.) uses the Petrosix process developed by the Superintendencia da Industrializacao do Xisto (S.I.X.) of Petrobras. Some flow diagrams are proposed for the coupling between the basic cycle of PR-3000 reactor with hot gas cycle of U.C.X. For a pre-determined flow diagram and boundary conditions, the thermodynamic parameters that lead to a maximum efficiency of the system are established. Also the main steam cycle parameters of PR-3000 reactor are determined, including those for the main heat exchanger, whose data are similar to the corresponding steam and coal reforming system used in process heat application of the PR-3000 [pt

  6. High-speed high-efficiency 500-W cw CO2 laser hermetization of metal frames of microelectronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Andrey V.

    1996-04-01

    High-speed, efficient method of laser surface treatment has been developed using (500 W) cw CO2 laser. The principal advantages of CO2 laser surface treatment in comparison with solid state lasers are the basis of the method. It has been affirmed that high efficiency of welding was a consequence of the fundamental properties of metal-IR-radiation (10,6 mkm) interaction. CO2 laser hermetization of metal frames of microelectronic devices is described as an example of the proposed method application.

  7. Engineered Osmosis for Energy Efficient Separations: Optimizing Waste Heat Utilization FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT DOE F 241.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NATHAN HANCOCK

    2013-01-13

    The purpose of this study is to design (i) a stripper system where heat is used to strip ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from a diluted draw solution; and (ii) a condensation or absorption system where the stripped NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} are captured in condensed water to form a re-concentrated draw solution. This study supports the Industrial Technologies Program of the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and their Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge award solicitation. Results from this study show that stimulated Oasys draw solutions composed of a complex electrolyte solution associated with the dissolution of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} gas in water can successfully be stripped and fully condensed under standard atmospheric pressure. Stripper bottoms NH{sub 3} concentration can reliably be reduced to < 1 mg/L, even when starting with liquids that have an NH{sub 3} mass fraction exceeding 6% to stimulate diluted draw solution from the forward osmosis membrane component of the process. Concentrated draw solution produced by fully condensing the stripper tops was show to exceed 6 M-C with nitrogen-to-carbon (N:C) molar ratios on the order of two. Reducing the operating pressure of the stripper column serves to reduce the partial vapor pressure of both NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} in solution and enables lower temperature operation towards integration of industrial low-grade of waste heat. Effective stripping of solutes was observed with operating pressures as low as 100 mbar (3-inHg). Systems operating at reduced pressure and temperature require additional design considerations to fully condense and absorb these constituents for reuse within the Oasys EO system context. Comparing empirical data with process stimulation models confirmed that several key parameters related to vapor-liquid equilibrium and intrinsic material properties were not accurate. Additional experiments and refinement of material property databases within the

  8. Science, practice, and human errors in controlling Clostridium botulinum in heat-preserved food in hermetic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, Irving J

    2010-05-01

    The incidence of botulism in canned food in the last century is reviewed along with the background science; a few conclusions are reached based on analysis of published data. There are two primary aspects to botulism control: the design of an adequate process and the delivery of the adequate process to containers of food. The probability that the designed process will not be adequate to control Clostridium botulinum is very small, probably less than 1.0 x 10(-6), based on containers of food, whereas the failure of the operator of the processing equipment to deliver the specified process to containers of food may be of the order of 1 in 40, to 1 in 100, based on processing units (retort loads). In the commercial food canning industry, failure to deliver the process will probably be of the order of 1.0 x 10(-4) to 1.0 x 10(-6) when U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations are followed. Botulism incidents have occurred in food canning plants that have not followed the FDA regulations. It is possible but very rare to have botulism result from postprocessing contamination. It may thus be concluded that botulism incidents in canned food are primarily the result of human failure in the delivery of the designed or specified process to containers of food that, in turn, result in the survival, outgrowth, and toxin production of C. botulinum spores. Therefore, efforts in C. botulinum control should be concentrated on reducing human errors in the delivery of the specified process to containers of food.

  9. Passive heat transfer augmentation in a cylindrical annulus utilizing multiple perturbations on the inner and outer cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, S.V.; Vafai, K.

    1999-01-01

    The study of natural convection flow and heat transfer within a cylindrical annulus has received considerable attention because of its numerous applications, such as in nuclear reactor design, electronic component cooling, thermal storage systems, energy conservation, energy storage, and energy transmission. Here, the effects of multiple geometric perturbations on the inner and outer cylinders of an annulus with impermeable end walls are investigated in this work. A three-dimensional study was done using a numerical scheme based on a Galerkin method of finite element formulation. The nature of the buoyancy-induced flow field has been analyzed in detail. The flow fields for the cases considered were found to be qualitatively similar, and the introduction of each additional perturbation altered the flow field in a regular and recurring manner. The introduction of each perturbation on the outer cylinder causes clockwise and counterclock-wise rotating patterns on either side of the perturbation in the upper circumferential regions of the annulus. The motion of the fluid entrained by these circulatory patterns constitutes the key features of the flow pattern observed in the annulus. It is observed that the presence of multiple perturbations on the inner and outer cylinders substantially increases the overall heat transfer rate as compared to the regular annulus without any perturbation. Key qualitative and quantitative effects of the introduction of perturbations on both the inner and outer cylinders of the annulus are discussed

  10. Waste heat utilization in the thermal spa of Lavey-les-Bains; Etude de la valorisation des rejets thermiques des Bains de Lavey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy looks at the possibilities for improved waste water utilization in the Lavey-les-Bains thermal spa, Switzerland. According to the regulations in force, the temperature of the waste water rejected into the Rhone river shall not exceed 30 {sup o}C, what is currently not the case. Also the operational cost shall be reduced and the waste water quality improved. The installations are presented. From the two geothermal wells, mineral water comes out at an average flow rate of 940 l/min and a temperature of 63 {sup o}C. Actual waste water data are reported. The measured thermal water consumption data, including seasonal variations, are analysed by computerized simulation and measures to reduce the consumed volume by the optimization of internal procedures are evaluated. Measures to reduce the quantity of the rejected free chlorine are discussed. Several possible adaptations of the existing space heating, domestic water heating and pools' heating are evaluated, including cost. In addition, extensions of the thermal spa center to recreational activities are discussed, as the construction of a tropical greenhouse is.

  11. The utilization of excess wind-electric power from stock water pumping systems to heat a sector of the stock tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nydahl, J.E.; Carlson, B.O. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    On the high plains, a wind-electric stock water pumping system produces a significant amount of excess power over the winter months due to intense winds and the decreased water consumption by cattle. The University of Wyoming is developing a multi-tasking system to utilize this excess energy to resistively heat a small sector of the stock tank at its demonstration/experimental site. This paper outlines the detailed heat transfer analysis that predicted drinking water temperature and icing conditions. It also outlines the optimization criteria and the power produced by the Bergey 1500 wind electric system. Results show that heating a smaller insulated tank inserted into the larger tank would raise the drinking water temperature by a maximum of 6.7 {degrees}C and eliminate icing conditions. The returns associated with the additional cattle weight gain, as a result of the consumption of warmer water, showed that system modification costs would be recovered the first year. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Study on heat collector of the solar system utilizing outdoor air. Experimental results in cases of cold and warm regions; Gaiki donyushiki solar system no shunetsubu ni kansuru kenkyu. Kanreichi to ondanchi ni okeru shunetsu jikken to kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, S; Ebara, Y [OM Solar Association, Shizuoka (Japan); Wada, H [Wada Building Constructors Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    An experiment on heat collection was made in the heat collector of a solar system utilizing outdoor air in cold and warm regions. In this system, outdoor air is heated by the air circulation layer on the roof exposed to solar radiation. The heated air is supplied to the object space for heating and ventilation. In the experiment in a cold region, the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted by putting a baffle plate in the air duct according to the experiment of a glass heat collector. The heat collecting air layer on only the iron roof may leak or freeze in the region subject to coldness or heavy snowfall. Therefore, preheat forms the space of a garret, and the preheat temperature comparatively becomes low. The data in which the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted using only a glass heat collector is required corresponding to the regional situation. In the experiment in a warm region, an experiment was made inclusive of the preheat for which outdoor air is absorbed at the eaves. As a result, the heat collection characteristics of preheat were improved. Moreover, a heat collection temperature of about 60{degree}C was obtained on the heat collection surface including the preheat. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. 3 kW Stirling engine for power and heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Jan Eric; Bovin, Jonas Kabell; Carlsen, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    A new 3 kW Beta-type Stirling engine has been developed. The engine uses natural gas as fuel and is designed for use as a small combined heat and power plant for single family houses. The electrical power is supplied to the grid. The engine is made as a hermetic device, where the crank mechanism...... and the alternator are built into a pressurized crank casing. The engine produces 3 kW of shaft power corresponding to 2.4 kW of electric power. The heat input is 10 kW representing a shaft efficiency of 30% and an electric efficiency of 24%. Helium at 8 MPa mean pressure is used as the working gas. The crank...... for X-heads. A grease-lubricated needle and ball bearings are used in the kinematic crank mechanism. The burner includes an air preheater and a water jacket which makes it possible to utilize nearly all of the heat from the combustion gases. The performance of the engine has been tested as a function...

  14. Status report on an engineering design study of hermetic liquid argon calorimetry for the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.; Davis, M.; DiGiacomo, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    There is general recognition that engineering issues are critical to the viability of liquid argon calorimetry (LAC) at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). We have undertaken to quantitatively address these issues and, if possible, perform a preliminary design of a ''proof of principle'' LAC for SSC. To establish LAC as viable at SSC, we must demonstrate that the physics performance of the device is acceptable, despite the presence of dead material due to vessels and support structure. Our approach involves the construction, by a team of physicists and engineers, of one three dimensional model of the LAC system, built as a hierarchy of components and structures, from which we directly perform interferences checks, mechanical, thermal and magnetic analyses, particle tracking, hermeticity evaluation, physics simulation and assembly. This study, begun in February 1989 as part of the SSC generic detector R and D program, was immediately preceded by a workshop at which engineering details of existing and planned LAC systems were thoroughly examined. We describe below the status of our work, beginning with short descriptions of the tools used, the study requirements and LAC configuration baseline. We then detail the LAC design as it presently stands, including assembly considerations, and conclude with a quantitative assessment of the LAC hermeticity. 19 refs., 12 figs

  15. ECOLO-HOUSE in the snowy town. Study of the ventilating function what the heat collecting system of the air duct utilizing attic has; Yukiguni ECOLO-HOUSE. Kison kaoku no yaneura wo riyoshita duct shunetsu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H; Hirosawa, K [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Described in this paper is an air duct heat collecting system, forming a link in the chain of natural energy utilization, in an attic of a house actually in presence. When a sirocco fan (blowing air from an indoor induction duct into the room) at the base of the highblocked floor is turned, air is sucked through an air intake under the eaves into a heat collecting duct (constructed utilizing the tilt roof and rafter). Heat from the roof warmed by sunshine is absorbed by air in the heat collecting duct and is fed to the highblocked floor structure through a heat collecting room and the induction duct. This system functions quite effectively as a ventilating device. Dew condensation on the walls and floor and musty smell have been eliminated. This system is good enough as a heater even on chilly days in early spring when there is sunshine. In the time zone with the sun shining, the system collects 4{times}10{sup 4}kJ per day, exhibiting a heat collecting efficiency of 4%. The heat collecting duct was analyzed for thermal environment, and the heat flux of the collected heat was determined as Qk(W/m{sup 2}=0.1{times}I-1.3{Theta}d-{Theta}a). In this equation, I is the quantity of insolation (W/m{sup 2}), {Theta}d is the temperature in the heat collecting duct, and {Theta}a is the free air temperature. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  16. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  17. A study of the utility of heat collectors in reducing the response time of automatic fire sprinklers located in production modules of Building 707

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanley, J.H. Jr.; Budnick, E.K. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Several of the ten production Modules in Building 707 at the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant recently underwent an alteration which can adversely affect the performance of the installed automatic fire sprinkler systems. The Modules have an approximate floor to ceiling height of 17.5 ft. The alterations involved removing the drop ceilings in the Modules which had been at a height of 12 ft above the floor. The sprinkler systems were originally installed with the sprinkler heads located below the drop ceiling in accordance with the nationally recognized NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Automatic Sprinkler Systems. The ceiling removal affects the sprinkler's response time and also violates NFPA 13. The scope of this study included evaluation of the feasibility of utilizing heat collectors to reduce the delays in sprinkler response created by the removal of the drop ceilings. The study also includes evaluation of substituting quick response sprinklers for the standard sprinklers currently in place, in combination with a heat collector

  18. Fundamental analysis of thermally regenerative fuel cell utilizing solar heat; Taiyonetsu wo riyosuru netsu saiseigata nenryo denchi no kiso tokusei no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Y; Tanaka, T; Takashima, T; Doi, T [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Aosawa, T; Kogoshi, S [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Study was made on a thermally regenerative fuel cell using solar heat. The thermally regenerative fuel cell was devised which is composed of 2-propanol liquid-phase endothermic dehydrogenation at nearly 100degC, and acetone liquid- phase exothermic hydrogenation at nearly 30degC as reverse reaction. This low-temperature dehydrogenation can relatively easily utilize a flat solar heat concentrator. 2-propanol dehydrogenation generates acetone and hydrogen. Generated acetone generates electric power in hydrogenation, generating propanol. This propanol regenerates acetone and hydrogen in dehydrogenation. The activity of Ru and Pt composite catalyst was considerably higher than that of Ru or Pt single catalyst. The activity was also higher in carbon felt or carbon cloth carrier than carbon plate carrier. The open circuit voltage of the fuel cell was estimated to be 110-120mV, nearly consisting with theoretical values. Short circuit current was also estimated to be 9-11mA, suggesting reduction of its internal resistance as an important subject. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Implementation of a spark plasma sintering facility in a hermetic glovebox for compaction of toxic, radiotoxic, and air sensitive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrpekl, V., E-mail: vaclav.tyrpekl@ec.europa.eu, E-mail: vaclav.tyrpekl@gmail.com; Berkmann, C.; Holzhäuser, M.; Köpp, F.; Cologna, M.; Somers, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wangle, T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, Praha 1, 115 19 (Czech Republic)

    2015-02-15

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a rapidly developing method for densification of powders into compacts. It belongs to the so-called “field assisted sintering techniques” that enable rapid sintering at much lower temperatures than the classical approaches of pressureless sintering of green pellets or hot isostatic pressing. In this paper, we report the successful integration of a SPS device into a hermetic glovebox for the handling of highly radioactive material containing radioisotopes of U, Th, Pu, Np, and Am. The glovebox implantation has been facilitated by the replacement of the hydraulic system to apply pressure with a compact electromechanical unit. The facility has been successfully tested using UO{sub 2} powder. Pellets with 97% of the theoretical density were obtained at 1000 °C for 5 min, significantly lower than the ∼1600 °C for 5-10 h used in conventional pellet sintering.

  20. Technique development for modulus, microcracking, hermeticity, and coating evaluation capability characterization of SiC/SiC tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xunxiang [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ang, Caen K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Singh, Gyanender P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Driven by the need to enlarge the safety margins of nuclear fission reactors in accident scenarios, research and development of accident-tolerant fuel has become an important topic in the nuclear engineering and materials community. A continuous-fiber SiC/SiC composite is under consideration as a replacement for traditional zirconium alloy cladding owing to its high-temperature stability, chemical inertness, and exceptional irradiation resistance. An important task is the development of characterization techniques for SiC/SiC cladding, since traditional work using rectangular bars or disks cannot directly provide useful information on the properties of SiC/SiC composite tubes for fuel cladding applications. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, experimental capabilities are under development to characterize the modulus, microcracking, and hermeticity of as-fabricated, as-irradiated SiC/SiC composite tubes. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy has been validated as a promising technique to evaluate the elastic properties of SiC/SiC composite tubes and microcracking within the material. A similar technique, impulse excitation, is efficient in determining the basic mechanical properties of SiC bars prepared by chemical vapor deposition; it also has potential for application in studying the mechanical properties of SiC/SiC composite tubes. Complete evaluation of the quality of the developed coatings, a major mitigation strategy against gas permeation and hydrothermal corrosion, requires the deployment of various experimental techniques, such as scratch indentation, tensile pulling-off tests, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, a comprehensive permeation test station is being established to assess the hermeticity of SiC/SiC composite tubes and to determine the H/D/He permeability of SiC/SiC composites. This report summarizes the current status of the development of these experimental capabilities.

  1. Electricity from waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjola, Jaakko; Lindgren, Olli; Vakkilainen, Esa

    In industry and in ships, large amounts of waste heat with quite a high release temperature are produced: examples are combustion gases and the exhaust gases of ceramic kilns. Very often they cannot be used for heating purposes because of long transport distances or because there is no local district heating network. Thus, a practical solution would be to convert this waste heat into electric power. This conversion may be carried out using an ORC-plant (Organic Rankine Cycle). There are probably some twenty ORC-plants in commercial use in the world. They are, however, usually based on conventional power plant technology, and are rather expensive, complicated and may have significant maintenance expenses. In order to obviate these problems, a project was started at Lappeenranta University of Technology at the beginning of 1981 to develop a high-speed, hermetic turbogenerator as the prime mover of the ORC. With this new technology the whole ORC-plant is quite simple, with only one moving part in the power system. It is expected to require very little maintenance, and the calculations made give for it significantly lower specific price than for the conventional technology ORC-plant. Two complete prototypes of the new technology ORC-plant have been built, one to the laboratory, other to industrial use. The nominal output of both is 100 kW electricity. Calculated amortization times for the new ORC-plant range from 2.1 to 6.

  2. Collection of outlines of Sunshine Program achievement reports for fiscal 1988. Solar energy (Light utilizing technology and heat utilizing technology); 1988 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Taiyo energy (hikari riyo gijutsu / netsu riyo gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-04-01

    Collected concerning the research and development of photovoltaic power systems are the basic research on solar cells; research and development of new-type photovoltaic power systems; and research and development of amorphous solar cells. Collected concerning the development of technologies for the practical application of photovoltaic power systems are the experiment, refining, and verification of low-cost silicon; experiment, fabrication, and verification of solar panels; research on the practical application of high-efficiency crystal-based solar cells; research and development of amorphous solar cells; research and development of solar cell evaluation systems; development of peripheral technologies; research and development of photovoltaic power-aided systems; research and development of centralized photovoltaic power systems; and development of photothermal hybrid type photovoltaic power systems. Collected concerning heat-utilizing technologies are the research and development of solar thermal electric power generation systems; research and development of solar air-conditioners and hot water supply systems; and development of practical application technologies for industrial solar systems. Collected also are international cooperative projects on solar energy technologies. (NEDO)

  3. Outline of operation and control system and analytical investigation of transient behavior of an out-of-pile hydrogen production system for HTTR heat utilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hada, Kazuhiko; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro.

    1997-10-01

    The hydrogen production system by steam reforming of natural gas is to be constructed to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization systems with the HTTR. Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile test system is planned to investigate the system characteristics, to develop high-temperature components such as a reformer, a high-temperature isolation valve and so on, and to verify operation and control technologies and safety technology at accidents. This paper presents outline of operation and control systems and analytical review of transient behavior of the out-of-pile hydrogen production system. Main function of the operation and control systems is made not to give disturbance to the HTTR at transient state under start-up and stop operations. The operation modes are separated into two ones, namely normal and accident operation modes, and operation sequences are made for each operation mode. The normal operation sequence includes start-up, steady operation and stop of the out-of-pile system. The accident one deals with accident conditions at which supply of feed gas is stopped and helium gas is cooled passively by the steam generator. Transient behavior of the out-of-pile system was analyzed numerically according as the operation sequences. As the results, it was confirmed that the designed operation and control systems are adequate to the out-of-pile system. (author)

  4. Energetic-environmental-economic assessment of the biogas system with three utilization pathways: Combined heat and power, biomethane and fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Xiangping; Shang, Dawei; Bao, Di; Zhang, Suojiang; Zheng, Tao

    2016-08-01

    A typical biogas system with three utilization pathways, i.e., biogas upgrading, biogas combined heat and power (CHP), biogas solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were designed. It was assessed from the viewpoint of energy, environment and economy by using energy efficiency, green degree and net present value index respectively. The assessment considered the trade-off relationships among these indexes, which is more comprehensive than previous systematic evaluation work only included single or two of the pathway(s) by using one or two of the index(es). Assessment results indicated that biogas upgrading pathway has the highest systematic energy efficiency (46.5%) and shortest payback period (8.9year) with the green degree production is the lowest (9.29gd/day). While for biogas SOFC pathway, although the green degree production is the highest (21.77gd/day), the payback period is longer (14.5year) and the energy efficiency is 13.6% lower than the biogas upgrading pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fly ashes from Polish power plants and combined heat and power plants and conditions of their application for carbon dioxide utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uliasz-Bochenczyk, A.; Mokrzycki, E. [Polish Academy of Science, Krakow (Poland). Mineral & Energy Economic Research Institute

    2006-09-15

    Poland has large resources of hard coal and brown coal. Therefore power industry is mostly based on these two original energy carriers. The power plants producing heat and electrical energy create combustion byproducts. These products include: fly ashes, slags, carbon dioxide and other gaseous compounds. In year 2003 fly ashes emission from hard coal combustion in Poland reached 37 000 tons and over 15 000 tons from brown coal combustion. Fly ashes are widely used in the economy. They are used in building materials industry, in road building and geotechnics. CO{sub 2} emission in Poland in 2003 originating from hard coal combustion was almost 91 million tons and from brown coal combustion-almost 58 million tons. High emissions of CO{sub 2} originating from power engineering processes of coal combustion are deleterious to the natural environment, contributing to the greenhouse effect. Presently there are carried out studies aimed at limiting CO{sub 2} emission coming from industrial processes. Fly ash properties are determined by qualitative characteristics of combusted coal, its chemical composition and combustion technology. Chemical composition of Polish fly ashes is very diversified. Fly ashes with high calcium oxide content can be used for carbon dioxide fixation. Fly ash carbonation is a complicated process however safe for natural environment. Polish fly ashes coming from power engineering, conditions of their use for the carbon dioxide utilization as well as their quantitative and qualitative characteristics are the subjects of this paper.

  6. Hybrid utilization of solar energy. Part 2. Performance analyses of heating system with air hybrid collector; Taiyo energy no hybrid riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Kuki shunetsu hybrid collector wo mochiita danbo system no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, M; Okumiya, M [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the effective utilization of solar energy at houses, a heating system using an air hybrid collector (capable of simultaneously performing heat collection and photovoltaic power generation). As the specimen house, a wooden house of a total floor area of 120m{sup 2} was simulated. Collected air is fanned into a crushed stone heat accumulator (capable of storing one day`s collection) or into a living room. The output of solar cell arrays is put into a heat pump (capable of handling a maximum hourly load of 36,327kJ/h) via an inverter so as to drive the fan (corresponding to average insolation on the heat collecting plate of 10.7MJ/hm{sup 2} and heat collecting efficiency of 40%), and shortage in power if any is supplied from the system interconnection. A hybrid collector, as compared with the conventional air collector, is lower in thermal efficiency but the merit that it exhibits with respect to power generation is far greater than what is needed to counterbalance the demerit. When the hybrid system is in heating operation, there is an ideal heat cycle of collection, accumulation, and radiation when the load is light, but the balance between accumulation and radiation is disturbed when the load is heavy. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Highly-hermetic feedthrough fiber pigtailed circular TO-can electro-optic sensor for avionics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, Jocelyn; Leduc, Lorrain; Bessette, Daniel; Bélanger, Nicolas

    2012-06-01

    Electro-optic sensors made of lasers or photodetectors assemblies can be associated with a window interface. In order to use these sensors in an avionics application, this interface has to be set on the periphery of the aircraft. This creates constraints on both the position/access of the associated electronics circuit card and the aircraft fuselage. Using an optical fiber to guide the light signal to a sensor being situated inside the aircraft where electronics circuit cards are deployed is an obvious solution that can be readily available. Fiber collimators that adapt to circular TO-can type window sensors do exist. However, they are bulky, add weight to the sensor and necessitate regular maintenance of the optical interface since both the sensor window and the collimator end-face are unprotected against contamination. Such maintenance can be complex since the access to the electronics circuit card, where the sensor is sitting, is usually difficult. This interface alignment can also be affected by vibrations and mechanical shocks, thus impacting sensor performances. As a solution to this problem, we propose a highly-hermetic feedthrough fiber pigtailed circular TO-can package. The optical element to optical fiber interface being set inside the hermetic package, there is no risk of contamination and thus, such a component does not require any maintenance. The footprint of these sensors being identical to their window counterparts, they offer drop-in replacement opportunities. Moreover, we have validated such packaged electro-optic sensors can be made to operate between -55 to 115°C, sustain 250 temperature cycles, 1500G mechanical shocks, 20Grms random vibrations without any performance degradations. Their water content is much smaller than the 0.5% limit set by MIL-STD-883, Method 1018. They have also been verified to offer a fiber pigtail strain relief resistance over 400g. Depending on the electronics elements inside these sensors, they can be made to have a

  8. Experimental Investigation of the Performance of a Hermetic Screw-Expander Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wei Hsu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors experimentally investigate the performance of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC and screw expander under the influence of supply pressure and pressure ratio over the expander. Three tests were performed with expander pressure ratios of 2.4–3.5, 3.0–4.6, and 3.3–6.1, which cover the over-expansion and under-expansion operating modes. The test results show a maximum expander isentropic efficiency of 72.4% and a relative cycle efficiency of 10.5% at an evaporation temperature of 101 °C and condensation temperature of 45 °C. At a given pressure ratio over the expander, a higher supply pressure to the expander causes a higher expander isentropic efficiency and higher cycle efficiency in the over-expansion mode. However, in the under-expansion mode, the higher supply pressure results in a lower expander isentropic efficiency and adversely affects the cycle efficiency. The results also show that under the condition of operation at a given pressure ratio, a higher supply pressure yields a larger power output owing to the increased mass flow rate at the higher supply pressure. The study results demonstrate that a screw-expander ORC can be operated with a wide range of heat sources and heat sinks with satisfactory cycle efficiency.

  9. Lowering rumen-degradable and rumen-undegradable protein improved amino acid metabolism and energy utilization in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J D; Pohler, K G; Mulliniks, J T; Ríus, A G

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reducing dietary rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on protein and energy metabolism in heat-stressed dairy cows. Eighteen primiparous and 30 multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial (n = 12/treatment). Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments that included 2 levels of RDP (10 and 8%; D) and 2 levels of RUP (8 and 6%; U) of dry matter for 21 d as (1) 10D:8U, (2) 8D:8U, (3) 10D:6U, and (4) 8D:6U. Diets were isoenergetic and contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate (dry matter basis). Cows were housed in a freestall barn. Three weeks before start of treatments, all animals were fed the 10D:8U diet and received supplemental cooling to prevent heat stress. During the treatment period, cows experienced a daily increment in temperature-humidity index from 74 to 82 for 1000 to 2000 h. Blood samples were collected on d -1 and 21 of the treatment period to determine plasma concentrations of AA, glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate. For primiparous cows, reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased insulin concentrations. For multiparous cows, we found significant RDP by RUP interactions for insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, fatty acids, total essential AA, and 3-methylhistidine concentrations. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased insulin concentrations at 6% RUP, but concentrations did not change when reducing RDP at 8% RUP. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations at 8% RUP, but concentrations did not change when reducing RDP at 6% RUP. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP increased nonesterified fatty acid and total essential AA concentrations at 8% RUP, but concentrations did not change when reducing RDP at 6% RUP. Reducing from 8 to 6% RUP decreased 3-methylhistidine concentration at 8% RDP, but not at 10% RDP. Reducing from 8 to 6% RUP increased milk protein yield

  10. Open absorption heat pump for waste heat utilization in the forest industry. A study of technical and economic potential; Oeppen absorptionsvaermepump foer uppgradering av spillvaerme fraan skogsindustrin. Studie av teknisk och ekonomisk potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermark, Mats; Vidlund, Anna

    2006-02-15

    Waste heat from the forest industry is mainly humid air or humid flue gases with somewhat too low dew point for direct use as district heating or for other qualified purposes. Upgrading of the temperature by heat pumps is thus often necessary for the full use of the waste heat. This study evaluates an open absorption heat, based on hygroscopic condensation. The hygroscopic condenser has the potential to replace mechanical heat pumps or conventional absorption heat pumps (based on lithium bromide) for the upgrading of heat from humid gases. The goal for the project is to evaluate technology and potential for an open absorption heat pump for heat recovery from humid gases in the forest industry. In an open heat pump the humid gas is brought in direct contact with the hygroscopic liquid (whereas a conventional heat pump uses an intermediate circuit with evaporation of water in the evaporator). The direct contact makes it possible to recover the heat at a higher temperature than the dew point of the humid gas without the use of evaporator. The target group for the study is the forest industry and its suppliers of technology and knowledge. The study has been carried out in cooperation with representatives from the forest industry and from suppliers of equipment. The study shows that the forest industry has good potential to upgrade waste heat from humid air to district heating. The waste heat can be extracted from various humid gases such as exit air from paper machines, wood driers, green liquid quenchers and flue gases from soda boilers, mesa kilns, bark-fired boilers and gas engines. Hygroscopic condensation is considered to give economic and environmental advantages compared to conventional absorption heat pumps due to much less consumption of driving heat. An interesting special case is the regeneration of the hygroscopic medium by direct contact with hot flue gases and for this application a patent application has been filed. Upgrading of waste heat to process

  11. Triple bag hermetic technology for controlling a bruchid (Spermophagus sp.) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) in stored Hibiscus sabdariffa grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, L; Baoua, I B; Baributsa, D; Williams, S B; Murdock, L L

    2016-10-01

    We assessed the performance of hermetic triple layer Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags for protecting Hibiscus sabdariffa grain against storage insects. The major storage pest in the grain was a bruchid, Spermophagus sp.. When we stored infested H. sabdariffa grain for six months in the woven polypropylene bags typically used by farmers, the Spermophagus population increased 33-fold over that initially present. The mean number of emergence holes per 100 seeds increased from 3.3 holes to 35.4 holes during this time period, while grain held for the same length of time in PICS bags experienced no increase in the numbers of holes. Grain weight loss in the woven control bags was 8.6% while no weight loss was observed in the PICS bags. Seed germination rates of grain held in woven bags for six months dropped significantly while germination of grain held in PICS bags did not change from the initial value. PICS bags can be used to safely store Hibiscus grain after harvest to protect against a major insect pest.

  12. High Performance Microaccelerometer with Wafer-level Hermetic Packaged Sensing Element and Continuous-time BiCMOS Interface Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Hyoungho; Park, Sangjun; Paik, Seung-Joon; Choi, Byoung-doo; Park, Yonghwa; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Sungwook; Lee, Sang Chul; Lee, Ahra; Yoo, Kwangho; Lim, Jaesang; Cho, Dong-il

    2006-01-01

    A microaccelerometer with highly reliable, wafer-level packaged MEMS sensing element and fully differential, continuous time, low noise, BiCMOS interface circuit is fabricated. The MEMS sensing element is fabricated on a (111)-oriented SOI wafer by using the SBM (Sacrificial/Bulk Micromachining) process. To protect the silicon structure of the sensing element and enhance the reliability, a wafer level hermetic packaging process is performed by using a silicon-glass anodic bonding process. The interface circuit is fabricated using 0.8 μm BiCMOS process. The capacitance change of the MEMS sensing element is amplified by the continuous-time, fully-differential transconductance input amplifier. A chopper-stabilization architecture is adopted to reduce low-frequency noise including 1/f noise. The fabricated microaccelerometer has the total noise equivalent acceleration of 0.89 μg/√Hz, the bias instability of 490 μg, the input range of ±10 g, and the output nonlinearity of ±0.5 %FSO

  13. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Detect the sensitivity and response of protein molecular structure of whole canola seed (yellow and brown) to different heat processing methods and relation to protein utilization and availability using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi; Theodoridou, Katerina; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-03-15

    The objectives of this experiment were to detect the sensitivity and response of protein molecular structure of whole canola seed to different heat processing [moisture (autoclaving) vs. dry (roasting) heating] and quantify heat-induced protein molecular structure changes in relation to protein utilization and availability. In this study, whole canola seeds were autoclaved (moisture heating) and dry (roasting) heated at 120 °C for 1h, respectively. The parameters assessed included changes in (1) chemical composition profile, (2) CNCPS protein subfractions (PA, PB1, PB2, PB3, PC), (3) intestinal absorbed true protein supply, (4) energy values, and (5) protein molecular structures (amide I, amide II, ratio of amide I to II, α-helix, β-sheet, ratio of α-helix to β-sheet). The results showed that autoclave heating significantly decreased (Pseed. Future study is needed to study response and impact of heat processing to each inherent layer of canola seed from outside to inside tissues and between yellow canola and brown canola. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An utilization of liquid sublayer dryout mechanism in predicting critical heat flux under low pressure and low velocity conditions in round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Won; Baik, Se-Jin; Ro, Tae-Sun

    2000-01-01

    From a theoretical assessment of extensive critical heat flux (CHF) data under low pressure and low velocity (LPLV) conditions, it was found out that lots of CHF data would not be well predicted by a normal annular film dryout (AFD) mechanism, although their flow patterns were identified as annular-mist flow. To predict these CHF data, a liquid sublayer dryout (LSD) mechanism has been newly utilized in developing the mechanistic CHF model based on each identified CHF mechanism. This mechanism postulates that the CHF occurrence is caused by dryout of the thin liquid sublayer resulting from the annular film separation or breaking down due to nucleate boiling in annular film or hydrodynamic fluctuation. In principle, this mechanism well supports the experimental evidence of residual film flow rate at the CHF location, which can not be explained by the AFD mechanism. For a comparative assessment of each mechanism, the CHF model based on the LSD mechanism is developed together with that based on the AFD mechanism. The validation of these models is performed on the 1406 CHF data points ranging over P=0.1-2 MPa, G=4-499 kg m -2 s -1 , L/D=4-402. This model validation shows that 1055 and 231 CHF data are predicted within ±30 error bound by the LSD mechanism and the AFD mechanism, respectively. However, some CHF data whose critical qualities are <0.4 or whose tube length-to-diameter ratios are <70 are considerably overestimated by the CHF model based on the LSD mechanism. These overestimations seem to be caused by an inadequate CHF mechanism classification and an insufficient consideration of the flow instability effect on CHF. Further studies for a new classification criterion screening the CHF data affected by flow instabilities as well as a new bubble detachment model for LPLV conditions, are needed to improve the model accuracy.

  16. Thermally Stable Ni-rich Austenite Formed Utilizing Multistep Intercritical Heat Treatment in a Low-Carbon 10 Wt Pct Ni Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Divya; Isheim, Dieter; Zhang, Xian J.; Ghosh, Gautam; Seidman, David N.

    2017-08-01

    Austenite reversion and its thermal stability attained during the transformation is key to enhanced toughness and blast resistance in transformation-induced-plasticity martensitic steels. We demonstrate that the thermal stability of Ni-stabilized austenite and kinetics of the transformation can be controlled by forming Ni-rich regions in proximity of pre-existing (retained) austenite. Atom probe tomography (APT) in conjunction with thermodynamic and kinetic modeling elucidates the role of Ni-rich regions in enhancing growth kinetics of thermally stable austenite, formed utilizing a multistep intercritical ( Quench- Lamellarization- Tempering (QLT)-type) heat treatment for a low-carbon 10 wt pct Ni steel. Direct evidence of austenite formation is provided by dilatometry, and the volume fraction is quantified by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results indicate the growth of nm-thick austenite layers during the second intercritical tempering treatment (T-step) at 863 K (590 °C), with austenite retained from first intercritical treatment (L-step) at 923 K (650 °C) acting as a nucleation template. For the first time, the thermal stability of austenite is quantified with respect to its compositional evolution during the multistep intercritical treatment of these steels. Austenite compositions measured by APT are used in combination with the thermodynamic and kinetic approach formulated by Ghosh and Olson to assess thermal stability and predict the martensite-start temperature. This approach is particularly useful as empirical relations cannot be extrapolated for the highly Ni-enriched austenite investigated in the present study.

  17. Loop heat pipes - highly efficient heat-transfer devices for systems of sun heat supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maydanik, Yu. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics

    2004-07-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are hermetic heat-transfer devices operating on a closed evaporation-condensation cycle with the use of capillary pressure for pumping the working fluid [1]. In accordance with this, they possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but, as distinct from the latter, have a considerably higher heat-transfer capacity, especially when operating in the ''antigravity'' regime, when heat is transferred from above downwards. Besides, LHPs possess a higher functional versatility, are adaptable to different operating conditions and provide great scope for various design embodiments. This is achieved at the expense of both the original design of the device and the properties of the wick - a special capillary structure used for the creation of capillary pressure. The LHP schematic diagram is given in Fig. 1. The device contains an evaporator and a condenser - heat exchanger connected by means of smooth-walled pipe-lines with a relatively small diameter intended for separate motion of vapor and liquid. At present loop heat pipes are most extensively employed in thermoregulation systems of spacecrafts. Miniature LHPs are used for cooling electronics and computers. At the same time there exists a considerable potential of using these devices for the recovery of low-grade (waste) heat from different sources, and also in systems of sun heat supply. In the latter case LHPs may serve as an efficient heat-transfer link between a sun collector and a heat accumulator, which has a low thermal resistance and does not consume any additional energy for pumping the working fluid between them. (orig.)

  18. Development of a hermetically sealed brushless DC motor for a J-T cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyn, Edwin; Hochler, Irwin; Ferri, Andrew; Rott, Heinz; Soukaris, Ted

    1996-01-01

    This development was sponsored by Ball Aerospace for the Cryogenic On-Orbit LongLife Active Refrigerator (COOLLAR) program. The cryocooler is designed to cool objects to 65 K and operate in space for at least 7 years. The system also imports minimal impact to the spacecraft in terms of vibration and heat. The basic Joule-Thompson cycle involves compressing a working fluid, nitrogen in this case, at near-constant temperature from 17.2 KPa to 6.89 MPa. The nitrogen is then expanded through a Joule-Thompson valve. The pure nitrogen gas must be kept clean; therefore, any contamination from motor organic materials must be eliminated. This requirement drove the design towards sealing of the motor within a titanium housing without sacrificing motor performance. It is estimated that an unsealed motor would have contributed 1.65 g of contaminants, due to the organic insulation and potting materials, over the 7-year life. This paper describes the motor electrical and mechanical design, as well as the sealing difficulties encountered, along with their solutions.

  19. High-inertia hermetically sealed main coolant pump for next generation passive nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kujawski, Joseph M.; Nair, Bala R.; Vijuk, Ronald P.

    2003-01-01

    The main coolant pump for the Westinghouse AP1000 advanced passive nuclear power plant represents a significant scale-up in power, flow capacity, and physical size from its predecessor designed for the smaller AP600 power plant. More importantly, the AP1000 pump incorporates several innovative features that contribute to improved efficiency, operational reliability, and plant safety. The features include an internals design which provides the highest hydraulic efficiency achieved in commercial nuclear power plant applications. Another feature is the use of a distributed inertial mass system in the rotating assembly to develop the high rotational inertia to meet the extended system flow coastdown requirement for core heat removal in the event of loss of power to the pumps. This advanced canned motor pump also incorporates the latest development in higher operating voltage, providing plant designers with the ability to eliminate plant transformers and operate directly on the site electrical bus in many cases. The salient features of the pump design and performance data are presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Development in fiscal 1998 of technology to put solar systems for industrial use into practical use. Investigative research on solar system (Development, investigation and research of solar heat utilizing system); 1998 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system no gijutsu kaihatsu chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to prepare a strategic technological development program for solar heat utilization, evaluations and discussions were given on solar heat utilization from the viewpoints of 'utilizing applications', 'demand' and 'possibility of the proliferation thereof'. In the solar heat utilization, the cost rising in approximate proportion with scale of the heat utilization must be considered as one of the predestined conditions. What can be conceived as a means to enhance the economic performance by using engineering approaches would include heat storage, elementary technologies for transportation and the standardization thereof, and the scale economy on the production side in mass production. As a required step in which the series of favorable circulation of standardization to mass production, cost reduction and large quantity proliferation can be induced, it is appropriate to assume household use with high calorie unit price as the target. The household area covers room heating and hot water supply, in which the temperature level is much lower than in industrial use. In this area, a system may be established with a conception to use solar heat as the main heat source, and calorific power by fossil fuel as the supplementary heat source. Solar heat utilization may be considered utilizable in foodstuff factories and school lunch supply centers. (NEDO)

  1. Development in fiscal 1998 of technology to put solar systems for industrial use into practical use. Investigative research on solar system (Development, investigation and research of solar heat utilizing system); 1998 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system no gijutsu kaihatsu chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to prepare a strategic technological development program for solar heat utilization, evaluations and discussions were given on solar heat utilization from the viewpoints of 'utilizing applications', 'demand' and 'possibility of the proliferation thereof'. In the solar heat utilization, the cost rising in approximate proportion with scale of the heat utilization must be considered as one of the predestined conditions. What can be conceived as a means to enhance the economic performance by using engineering approaches would include heat storage, elementary technologies for transportation and the standardization thereof, and the scale economy on the production side in mass production. As a required step in which the series of favorable circulation of standardization to mass production, cost reduction and large quantity proliferation can be induced, it is appropriate to assume household use with high calorie unit price as the target. The household area covers room heating and hot water supply, in which the temperature level is much lower than in industrial use. In this area, a system may be established with a conception to use solar heat as the main heat source, and calorific power by fossil fuel as the supplementary heat source. Solar heat utilization may be considered utilizable in foodstuff factories and school lunch supply centers. (NEDO)

  2. A Feasibility Study on District Heating and Cooling Business Using Urban Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Byoung Youn; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Jae Bong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jae In; Yoon, Jae Ho; Oh, Myung Do; Park, Moon Su; Kang, Han Kee; Yoo, Kyeoung Hoon; Bak, Jong Heon; Kim, Sun Chang; Park, Heong Kee; Bae, Tae Sik [Korea Academy of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Investigation of papers related to waste heat utilization using heat pump. Estimate of various kinds of urban waste heat in korea. Investigation and study on optimal control of district heating and cooling system. Prediction of energy saving and environmental benefits when the urban waste heat will be used as heat source and sink of heat pump for district heating and cooling. Estimation of economic feasibility on district heating and cooling project utilizing urban waste heat. (author). 51 refs., figs

  3. Technical Analysis Ballast Water Treatment By Using Economizer Utilizing Main Engines Exhaust Heat To Comply With International Ship Ballast Water Management At Mv. Leader Win

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prastowo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the International Ballast Water Management regulations (IBWM, waste water ballast itself has the attention of some researchers to reduce the amount of waste species present in the ballast water with a variety of methods, as of biological, physical, mechanical, and chemical. The decision-making tools such as ballast water heater, flow-through system and others where possible these tools can minimize waste species in ballast water at a certain temperature or pressure of the flow according to the calculations. This study was aimed to calculate and analysis the effectiveness of the system treatment between Option 1 (Economizer & Bundle and Option 2 (Economizer & Heat Excharger then it will compare. First option is using economizer and bundles to transfer a heat from a source heat of exhaust gas then medium by thermal oil circulated. The second option is using economizer and heat excharger where a same heat source , but sea water from ballast tank sirculated to heat excharger. And from economizer to heat excharger is using thermal oil as a heat medium. For all calculation and anaalysis is using softwere HTRI. First option having a duty 2.503 MegaWatts at economizer and 1.9567 MegaWatts at bundles. Over design 2.01% at Economizer and 7.1%5 at bundles. Pessure drop 63.287 kPa at thermal oil after economizer and 68.196 kPa after bundles. Treatment time to this option is 44.424 hors. Second option having a duty 3.38 MegaWatts at economizer and 3.1227 MegaWatts at heat excharger. Over design 5.85% at Economizer and 3.49%5 at heat excharger. Pessure drop 38.697 kPa at thermal oil after economizer and 28.476 kPa after heat excharger. Treatment time to second option is 42.03 hours. Option 2 (Economizer & Heat Excharger is more optimum than option in analytical techniques. By analysis of treatment system, are expected this thesis can be applied to either the MV. Leader Win Vessel to comply with the operational needs according to standard

  4. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (solar heat power generation); 1974 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyonetsu hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1974 research result on solar heat power generation. The following are promising as solar heat power plant sites in Japan: Large-scale sites such as the foot of volcanos, riverbed, railway site and road, medium-scale sites such as isolated island, saltpan site and industrial park, and small-scale sites such as factory site, factory roof floor, housing complex, warehouse and school. Based on the primary concept design of both curved reflector type and tower type 1,000kW class solar heat power plants, various requirements were clarified roughly. It was clarified that food, fiber and non-ferrous metal factories can cover 80-90% of their thermal energy requirements with high- temperature solar heat, while factories related to food and fiber can cover even nearly 100% of their electric power requirements with solar heat. Study was also made on specifications of a solar simulator as common use facility necessary for characteristic evaluation of equipment and materials for solar heat power generation systems. (NEDO)

  5. The second generation turbosteamer.Vehicle integration as a key for an effective utilization of waste heat; Der Turbosteamer der 2. Generation. Fahrzeugintegration als Schluessel zur effizienten Abwaermenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, Tilmann Abbe; Seifert, Marco; Schmidt, Christian [BMW Forschung und Technik GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Zuck, Bernhard [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany); Spliethoff, Hartmut [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiesysteme

    2012-11-01

    Waste heat recovery is a promising approach for achieving further reductions in fuel consumption and, as a result, exhaust emissions. In 2005, the potential of a system based on the Rankine cycle was demonstrated for the first time with the BMW Turbosteamer. For the second generation, the system design has been thoroughly simplified. In the current setup, heat is taken in from the exhaust gas of the engine and the heat from condensation is transferred to the existing cooling system. Steam expansion is accomplished by an impulse turbine with high power density. Integration of this system into the thermal management of the engine poses a great challenge. Interactions between the exhaust system, the cooling system and the waste heat recovery system have to be considered to enable efficient operation in a passenger car. For example, the operation range is limited by the exhaust gas backpressure that is generated in the evaporator. Another consideration is that additional heat rejection to the cooling system may not affect the thermal safety of the engine. In this paper, the second generation Turbosteamer and the latest findings regarding system design, development of the key components and vehicle integration are presented. Analysis of the interactions with the engine thermal management leads to a recommendation for the optimal operating range and strategy of the waste heat recovery system. The influence of the integration effects on the system efficiency are evaluated on this basis. (orig.)

  6. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  7. Electricity use and load management in electricity heated one-family houses from customer and utility perspective; Effekten av effekten - Elanvaendning och laststyrning i elvaermda smaahus ur kund- och foeretagsperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin

    2004-11-01

    Until recently, the increase in electricity demand and peak power demand has been met by expansion of the electricity production. Today, due to the deregulation of the electricity market, the production capacity is decreasing. Therefore, there is a national interest in finding solutions to peak problems also on the demand side. In the studies described here (Study 1 and 2) ten households in electrically heated houses were examined. In 1999 the utility equipped their customers with a remote metering system (CustCom) that has an in-built load control component. In Study 1, the load pattern of ten households was examined by using energy diaries combined with frequent meter readings (every five minutes) of the load demand for heating, hot water service and domestic electricity use. Household members kept energy diaries over a four-day period in January 2004, noting time, activities and the use of household appliances that run on electricity. The analysis showed that the use of heat-producing household appliances, e.g. sauna, washing machine and dryer, appliances used for cooking, dishwasher and extra electric heaters, contribute to the household's highest peaks. Turning on the sauna and at the same time using the shower equates to a peak load of 7-9 kW. This, in addition to the use of electricity for heating and lighting along alongside electricity use for refrigerators and freezers, results in some households reaching their main fuse level (roughly 13,8 kW for a main fuse of 20 A). This means that the domestic use of electricity makes up a considerable part of the highest peak loads in a household, but the highest peaks occur together with the use of electricity for heating and hot water. In the second study, Study 2, the households participated in a load control experiment, in which the utility was able to turn on and switch off the heating and hot water systems remotely, using the CustCom system. Heating and water heaters were switched off for periods of 1

  8. Heat recovery in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle, F; Paul, J [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-05-01

    The waste heat of industrial furnaces and other heat-consuming installations can be utilized by recuperative processes in the furnace and by energy cascades. Economy and the need for an external supply of energy are closely connected. Straight cascades can hardly be realized and if the required temperature gradient is too great such heat should be utilized repeatedly if possible by recycling through heat pumps. The possibilities depend on the relevant temperature since the technology available for this differs in its state of development. The low-temperature waste heat from the final stage can be used for space-heating and water heating by heat exchangers and heat pumps and thus be put to a useful purpose.

  9. Finned Carbon-Carbon Heat Pipe with Potassium Working Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    This elemental space radiator heat pipe is designed to operate in the 700 to 875 K temperature range. It consists of a C-C (carbon-carbon) shell made from poly-acrylonitride fibers that are woven in an angle interlock pattern and densified with pitch at high process temperature with integrally woven fins. The fins are 2.5 cm long and 1 mm thick, and provide an extended radiating surface at the colder condenser section of the heat pipe. The weave pattern features a continuous fiber bath from the inner tube surface to the outside edges of the fins to maximize the thermal conductance, and to thus minimize the temperature drop at the condenser end. The heat pipe and radiator element together are less than one-third the mass of conventional heat pipes of the same heat rejection surface area. To prevent the molten potassium working fluid from eroding the C C heat pipe wall, the shell is lined with a thin-walled, metallic tube liner (Nb-1 wt.% Zr), which is an integral part of a hermetic metal subassembly which is furnace-brazed to the inner surface of the C-C tube. The hermetic metal liner subassembly includes end caps and fill tubes fabricated from the same Nb-1Zr alloy. A combination of laser and electron beam methods is used to weld the end caps and fill tubes. A tungsten/inert gas weld seals the fill tubes after cleaning and charging the heat pipes with potassium. The external section of this liner, which was formed by a "Uniscan" rolling process, transitions to a larger wall thickness. This section, which protrudes beyond the C-C shell, constitutes the "evaporator" part of the heat pipe, while the section inside the shell constitutes the condenser of the heat pipe (see figure).

  10. Investigation of a 10 kWh sorption heat storage device for effective utilization of low-grade thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.J.; Wang, R.Z.; Li, T.X.; Nomura, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Heating and domestic hot water for family houses represents a notable share of energy consumption. However, sufficient space for the installation of thermal energy storage (TES) components may not be available in family houses or urban areas, where space may be restricted and expensive. Sorption TES devices seem to be a promising means of replacing conventional TES devices and reducing the occupied space for its high energy density. In this paper, a 10 kWh short-term sorption TES device was developed and investigated. The employed composite sorbent was formed from lithium chloride (LiCl) with the addition of expanded graphite (EG). The principle of sorption TES for the LiCl/water working pair is first illustrated. This prototype was tested under conditions representative of transition or winter seasons. Under the conditions used (charging temperature T_c_h_a at 85 °C, discharging temperature T_d_i_s at 40 °C, condensing temperature T_c at 18 °C, and evaporating temperature T_e at 30 °C), the heat storage capacity can reach 10.25 kWh, of which sorption heat accounts for approximately 60%. The heat storage density obtained was 873 Wh per kg of composite sorbent or 65.29 kWh/m"3, while the heat storage density of hot water tank was about 33.02 kWh/m"3. - Highlights: • A 10 kWh short-term sorption thermal energy device was developed. • The device was tested under conditions of transition and winter seasons. • The performance of the device was improved by recovering waste heat. • The sorption thermal energy device was compared with a 300-L hot water tank.

  11. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in Malaysia on effective utilization of waste heat from paper sludge incineration; 1999 nendo Malaysia ni okeru seishi sludge nensho hainetsu yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Efforts are under way to popularize practical energy conservation technologies through verification on real machines in target countries. Possibilities were studied that Malaysian paper making plants would adopt technologies of collecting heat from high-temperature exhaust gas from paper sludge incineration and of effectively utilizing the thus-collected heat. The Malaysian paper making industry produced 800-thousand tons or more in 1998, covering 72% of the total national demand. Heat recovery facilities may be installed in 15 plants. On-site surveys were made into their actual states, and then Genting Sanyen Industrial Paper Sdn. Bhd. was selected as the plant for the model project, and detailed model project feasibility studies were conducted. The studies covered the amount of wastes from paper making, their properties, treatment process, amounts of utilities to be used during system operation, land on which to build the facilities, and a plan for collecting invested funds. As the result, it was concluded in view of the magnitude of the expected fruit that the model project be implemented at this plant. (NEDO)

  12. Innovative utilization concept at water-water-heat pump plants in Dresden; Innovatives Nutzkonzept bei Wasser-Wasser-Waermepumpenanlagen in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschaetzsch, Barbara [ARCADIS Deutschland GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    In suitable hydro-geological conditions, the cooling of buildings using ground water is a good option. In Dresden (Federal Republic of Germany), climate wells were realized which can do more than only cooling. Except for cooling, climate wells are used for flood protection, removal of precipitation water and for heating during the winter.

  13. Investigation of the flow, combustion, heat-transfer and emissions from a 609MW utility tangentially fired pulverized-coal boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Caillat, Sébastien; Harion, Jean-Luc.

    2002-01-01

    , some different strategies with the existing researches are used. Good agreement of simulation results with global design parameters and site operation records indicates this simulation is pretty reasonable and thus the conclusions of the gas flow deviation, emissions, combustion and heat transfer...

  14. Possibilities of utilizing solar systems for heating the hot service water in Košice build-up areas KVP and Ťahanovce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horbaj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A production of „HSW“ in block of flats areas by solar collectors means a real alternative to the traditional way of heating by fossil fuels (coal, gas. With this method, it’s possible to save ca. 50 % of energy from the net of the central service of the heat, what can reduce the production of pollutants in the locality, or it can enable to increase the quantity of customers without claims for the restructuralization of the central source. Because Slovakia is the producer of quality solar collectors it’s suitable to use them just for this reason, which could be projected into the price reduction of relatively expensive present systems. On the other side, when using the flat roofs on the block of flats, other useful places are hot occupied and the heating source is nearby the place of it sconsumption. In this case, a collaboration of the solar system and the Central Service of Heat is especially suitable in time with a shortage of the solar radiation.

  15. Demonstration test on the heat pump system, thermally utilizing the domestic waste water. Result of the collecting test on an air conditioning system, Hokkaido Electric Power Gymnasium, Tomari; Seikatsu haisui netsuriyo heat pump system jissho shiken. Tomari Hokuden taiikukan reidanbo system no sainetsu shiken kekka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, T; Yamada, K; Watanabe, K [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)

    1995-06-14

    A heat pump system utilizing the domestic waste water was introduced into a gymnasium owned by Hokkaido Electric Power to elucidate the applicability of domestic waste water as a thermal source of heat pump in the cold region. The gymnasium is a two-storied concrete building with the floor space of 2292m{sup 2}. Ground water at temperatures from 10 to 20{degree}C is utilized for the water supply. Made to flow together as waste water, the dirty water and daily exhaust water are discharged at the rate of 100t/day into a river after passing through the septic tank. Higher by 5 to 15{degree}C than the atmospheric temperature, the discharging temperature is kept higher than 10{degree}C even during the very cold period. The domestic waste water is almost neutral in pH, and normal in both SS and BOD. The heat pump was utilized for two stages, i.e., thermal collection and temperature heightening. The capacity of a sewage storage tank tank was made to be 170m{sup 3} to meet the thermal load of 139000kcal/h in the gymnasium. The temperature of 15{degree}C could be kept during the air heating trial. The system is about 2 in coefficient of performance. The K-value of heat exchanger decreased by about 30% after seven months of operation. Upon its overhauling, its K-value recovered to 2.37, so that it must be overhauled once a year. 5 refs., 15 figs. 4 tabs.

  16. Thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system by utilizing waste energy rejected from a chiller unit of an ice rink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuyumcu Muhammed Enes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system in which the waste energy rejected from the chiller unit of an ice rink is used as an energy source. The system consists of a swimming pool and an ice rink coupled by a chiller unit. The swimming pool and the ice rink both indoor types and were constructed in city of Gaziantep, Turkey. The thermal energy requirement for each section is determined by thermal analysis of each component of the system. Effects of different design parameters such as ceiling insulation thickness, ceiling emissivity, Carnot efficiency factor and size of the ice rink on the thermal energy requirements and coefficient of performance of the chiller unit are investigated. As a result of analyses of the system, the minimum ice rink area is determined in order to meet annual total heat energy demand of the olympic-sized swimming pool.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Integrated Waste Heat Utilization Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants Based on In-Depth Boiler-Turbine Integration and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the system-level heat integration, three retrofit concepts of waste heat recovery via organic Rankine cycle (ORC, in-depth boiler-turbine integration, and coupling of both are proposed, analyzed and comprehensively compared in terms of thermodynamic and economic performances. For thermodynamic analysis, exergy analysis is employed with grand composite curves illustrated to identify how the systems are fundamentally and quantitatively improved, and to highlight key processes for system improvement. For economic analysis, annual revenue and investment payback period are calculated based on the estimation of capital investment of each component to identify the economic feasibility and competitiveness of each retrofit concept proposed. The results show that the in-depth boiler-turbine integration achieves a better temperature match of heat flows involved for different fluids and multi-stage air preheating, thus a significant improvement of power output (23.99 MW, which is much larger than that of the system with only ORC (6.49 MW. This is mainly due to the limitation of the ultra-low temperature (from 135 to 75 °C heat available from the flue gas for ORC. The thermodynamic improvement is mostly contributed by the reduction of exergy destruction within the boiler subsystem, which is eventually converted to mechanical power; while the exergy destruction within the turbine system is almost not changed for the three concepts. The selection of ORC working fluids is performed to maximize the power output. Due to the low-grade heat source, the cycle with R11 offers the largest additional net power generation but is not significantly better than the other preselected working fluids. Economically, the in-depth boiler-turbine integration is the most economic completive solution with a payback period of only 0.78 year. The ORC concept is less attractive for a sole application due to a long payback time (2.26 years. However, by coupling both

  18. Collection of outlines of Sunshine Program achievement reports for fiscal 1989. Solar energy (Light utilizing technology and heat utilizing technology); 1989 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Taiyo energy (hikari riyo gijutsu / netsu riyo gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-04-01

    Collected concerning the research and development of photovoltaic power systems are the basic research on solar cells; research and development of new-type photovoltaic power systems; and research and development of amorphous solar cells. Collected concerning the development of technologies for the practical application of photovoltaic power systems are the research on the practical application of new-type solar cells; research on the practical application of amorphous solar cells; research and development of solar cell evaluation systems; research and development of peripheral technologies; research and development of photovoltaic power-aided systems; research and development of centralized photovoltaic power systems; and research and development of photothermal hybrid photovoltaic power systems. Collected concerning heat application technologies are the research and development of solar thermal energy systems; development of practical application technologies for solar systems for industrial use etc.; and cooperative projects between Japan and Australia etc. on solar energy technologies. (NEDO)

  19. Thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system by utilizing waste energy rejected from a chiller unit of an ice rink

    OpenAIRE

    Kuyumcu Muhammed Enes; Yumrutaş Recep

    2017-01-01

    This study deals with the thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system in which the waste energy rejected from the chiller unit of an ice rink is used as an energy source. The system consists of a swimming pool and an ice rink coupled by a chiller unit. The swimming pool and the ice rink both indoor types and were constructed in city of Gaziantep, Turkey. The thermal energy requirement for each section is determined by thermal analysis of each component of the system. Effec...

  20. Heat pipes for ground heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L

    1988-01-01

    Different versions of heat pipe ground heating and cooling devices are considered. Solar energy, biomass, ground stored energy, recovered heat of industrial enterprises and ambient cold air are used as energy and cold sources. Heat pipe utilization of air in winter makes it possible to design accumulators of cold and ensures deep freezing of ground in order to increase its mechanical strength when building roadways through the swamps and ponds in Siberia. Long-term underground heat storage systems are considered, in which the solar and biomass energy is accumulated and then transferred to heat dwellings and greenhouses, as well as to remove snow from roadways with the help of heat pipes and solar collectors.

  1. Radiation hygienic assessment of centralized heat and hot water supply of Bilibino village from Bilibin central nuclear heating- and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremin, V.A.; Marej, A.N.; Nechiporenko, N.I.; Rasskazov, A.P.; Sayapin, N.P.; Soldatov, G.E.; Shcherbinin, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The experience in using an atomic power plant for heat and hot water supply of the village of Bilibino is outlined. Particular attention is given to the population radiation safety. It has been demonstrated that radiation safety of the system is ensured by maintaining fixed pressure levels in the heating media and by the hermetic state of heat exchanges. Water in the heat and hot water supply network meets the requirements for drinking water. Radioactive corrosion products were not detected in the test water. Gamma-radiation dose rate from the surface of heating devices and pipe-lines in the test premises did not exceed the natural background, that is, U.U1-0.025 mrad

  2. Hermetizing ability of the new obturating material for root canals «Real Seal» with «Resilon» technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makedonova Y.A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simple, reliable and predictable obturation of root canals side by side with their cleaning and forming is an essential part of the endodontic treatment. The aim of this research is investigation of obturation density of root canals. Canals filled by means of lateral condensation of the new obturative system «Real Seal/Resilon» and by means of traditional method of canals obturation with the help of gutta-percha and sealer АН-plus. The results of the research proved a ligher hermetizing ability of the new experimental material «Real Seal» in comparison with obturation by means of gutta-percha pins. The obtained data reflects an objective picture and can be applied as a unique quality monitoring obturation of root canals.

  3. New waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power based on absorption heat exchange cycle in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fangtian; Fu Lin; Zhang Shigang; Sun Jian

    2012-01-01

    A new waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power based on absorption heat exchange cycle (DHAC) was developed to increase the heating capacity of combined heat and power (CHP) through waste heat recovery, and enhance heat transmission capacity of the existing primary side district heating network through decreasing return water temperature by new type absorption heat exchanger (AHE). The DHAC system and a conventional district heating system based on CHP (CDH) were analyzed in terms of both thermodynamics and economics. Compared to CDH, the DHAC increased heating capacity by 31% and increased heat transmission capacity of the existing primary side district heating network by 75%. The results showed that the exergetic efficiency of DHAC was 10.41% higher and the product exergy monetary cost was 36.6¥/GJ less than a CHD. DHAC is an effective way to increase thermal utilization factor of CHP, and to reduce district heating cost. - Highlights: ► Absorption heat pumps are used to recover waste heat in CHP. ► Absorption heat exchanger can reduce exergy loss in the heat transfer process. ► New waste heat heating system (DHAC) can increase heating capacity of CHP by 31%. ► DHAC can enhance heat transmission capacity of the primary pipe network by 75%. ► DHAC system has the higher exergetic efficiency and the better economic benefit.

  4. Utilization of satellite remote sensing data on land surface characteristics in water and heat balance component modeling for vegetation covered territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Uspensky, Alexander; Startseva, Zoya; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    The model of vertical water and heat transfer in the "soil-vegetation-atmosphere" system (SVAT) for vegetation covered territory has been developed, allowing assimilating satellite remote sensing data on land surface condition as well as accounting for heterogeneities of vegetation and meteorological characteristics. The model provides the calculation of water and heat balance components (such as evapotranspiration Ev, soil water content W, sensible and latent heat fluxes and others ) as well as vertical soil moisture and temperature distributions, temperatures of soil surface and foliage, land surface brightness temperature for any time interval within vegetation season. To describe the landscape diversity soil constants and leaf area index LAI, vegetation cover fraction B, and other vegetation characteristics are used. All these values are considered to be the model parameters. Territory of Kursk region with square about 15 thousands km2 situated in the Black Earth zone of Central Russia was chosen for investigation. Satellite-derived estimates of land surface characteristics have been constructed under cloud-free condition basing AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and EOS Aqua, SEVIRI/Meteosat-8, -9 data. The developed technologies of AVHRR data thematic processing have been refined providing the retrieval of surface skin brightness temperature Tsg, air foliage temperature Ta, efficient surface temperature Ts.eff and emissivity E, as well as derivation of vegetation index NDVI, B, and LAI. The linear regression estimators for Tsg, Ta and LAI have been built using representative training samples for 2003-2009 vegetation seasons. The updated software package has been applied for AVHRR data thematic processing to generate named remote sensing products for various dates of the above vegetation seasons. The error statistics of Ta, Ts.eff and Тsg derivation has been investigated for various samples using comparison with in-situ measurements that has given RMS errors in the

  5. Uniform measurement standard for heat supply in housing and utility building construction. A protocol to compare alternatives for heat supply at building construction sites. Version 3.1; Uniforme Maatlat voor de warmtevoorziening in de woning- en utiliteitsbouw. Een protocol voor het vergelijken van alternatieven voor de warmtevoorziening op bouwlocaties. Versie 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuiten, P. [W/E adviseurs, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Ree, B. [Primum, Driebergen-Rijsenburg (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The uniform measurement standard is one of the methods that the National Expertise Heat Centre develops to compare the energy efficiency of different techniques (such as heat pumps, heat and cold storage, collective systems, waste heat, combustion of woody biomass, etc.). The development of the uniform standard was started for the residential and utility building construction industry. In the future, the standard calculation method will also be made available for other sectors [Dutch] De uniforme maatlat is 1 van de methoden die het Nationaal Expertisecentrum Warmte ontwikkelt om de energieprestaties van verschillende technieken (zoals warmtepompen, warmte-koudeopslag, collectieve systemen, restwarmte, verbranding van houtachtige biomassa, etc.) goed vergelijkbaar te maken. De ontwikkeling van de uniforme maatlat is gestart voor de woning- en utiliteitsbouw. In de toekomst zal de uniforme maatlat ook voor andere sectoren beschikbaar komen. In deze versie van de uniforme maatlat is aansluiting gezocht bij de kengetallen van de Energieprestatienorm voor Maatregelen op Gebiedsniveau (EMG), zodat de resultaten van de uniforme maatlat in lijn zijn met die van de EMG.

  6. Utilization of waste heat from Vienna waste incinerators for the operation of a district cooling grid. Effects on the primary energy efficiency of district heating and district cooling in Vienna; Nutzung der Abwaerme aus den Wiener Abfallverbrennungsanlagen fuer den Betrieb eines Fernkaeltenetzes. Auswirkungen auf die Primaerenergieeffizienz der Fernwaerme und Fernkaelte in Wien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindelar, F.; Wallisch, A. [Fernwaerme Wien GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The need of coldness increases and has to be covered efficiently as well as ecologically. At optimal constellation and mode of operation, the establishment of refrigeration plants from absorption refrigerators and compression refrigerators seems to be economically more competitive than decentralized plants. The optimal constellation is present, if: (a) ecologically and economically favourable waste heat are available; (b) Electricity from the domestic production with waste energy is present; (c) Resources-conserving recirculation cooling possibilities exist; (d) cooling water tanks and/or hot water tanks are available for top coverage; (e) a high grid density exists; (f) in-building station corresponds to the technical conditions. If these fundamental conditions are present, then the district coldness offers a good chance for waste incineration plants to use a safe heat consumer also in summer and to utilize optimally the existing energy.

  7. Targeting the maximum heat recovery for systems with heat losses and heat gains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Alwi, Sharifah Rafidah; Lee, Carmen Kar Mun; Lee, Kim Yau; Abd Manan, Zainuddin; Fraser, Duncan M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Illustration of heat gains and losses from process streams. - Highlights: • Maximising energy savings through heat losses or gains. • Identifying location where insulation can be avoided. • Heuristics to maximise heat losses or gains. • Targeting heat losses or gains using the extended STEP technique and HEAT diagram. - Abstract: Process Integration using the Pinch Analysis technique has been widely used as a tool for the optimal design of heat exchanger networks (HENs). The Composite Curves and the Stream Temperature versus Enthalpy Plot (STEP) are among the graphical tools used to target the maximum heat recovery for a HEN. However, these tools assume that heat losses and heat gains are negligible. This work presents an approach that considers heat losses and heat gains during the establishment of the minimum utility targets. The STEP method, which is plotted based on the individual, as opposed to the composite streams, has been extended to consider the effect of heat losses and heat gains during stream matching. Several rules to guide the proper location of pipe insulation, and the appropriate procedure for stream shifting have been introduced in order to minimise the heat losses and maximise the heat gains. Application of the method on two case studies shows that considering heat losses and heat gains yield more realistic utility targets and help reduce both the insulation capital cost and utility cost of a HEN

  8. Prospects for the utilization of small nuclear plants for civil ships, floating heat and power stations and power seawater desalination complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polunichev, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    Small power nuclear reactor plants developed by OKB Mechanical Engineering are widely used as propulsion plants in various civil ships. Russia is the sole country in the world that possesses a powerful icebreaker and transport fleet which offers effective solution for vital socio-economic tasks of Russia's northern regions by maintaining a year-round navigation along the Arctic sea route. In the future, intensification of freighting volumes is expected in Arctic seas and at estuaries of northern rivers. Therefore, further replenishment of nuclear-powered fleet is needed by new generation ice-breakers equipped with advanced reactor plants. Adopted progressive design and technology solutions, reliable equipment and safety systems being continuously perfected on the basis of multi year operation experience feedback, addressing updated safety codes and achievement of science and technology, allow the advanced propulsion reactor plants of this type to be recommended as energy sources for floating heat and power co-generation stations and power-seawater desalination complexes. (author)

  9. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  10. Development of producing equipment of mixed butane-air with low dew point. Energy saving dewatering apparatus and 6A-Gas producing apparatus utilizing vaporization latent heat of butane and potential heat of air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komine, Jin; Okada, Hiroto; Taniue, Nobuo; Tanoue, Keiju; Yamada, Tatsuhiko; Maekawa, Hisami; Murakami, Keiji

    1988-02-10

    A producing equipment of mixed butane-air with low dew point was developed. The dewatering was made during the period from the middle of May to the middle of October with high atmospheric humidity. The production capacity of the mixed gas is 3000 Nm/sup 3/ of 22% of butane and 78% of air per hour. The designed dew point is 18/sup 0/C or less under the pressure of 0.7 kg/cm/sup 2/G. The saturation temperature is 7.5/sup 0/C after the liquid butane is evacuated by a regulating valve. The air introduced into the dehumidifier through finned tubes is cooled to dewater based on those data. The partially vaporized butane is completely gasified by hot water in a vaporizer and mixed with the dewatered air by a venture mixer to produce the mixed butane-air. When the dewatering is incomplete, the spray nozzle must be just exchanged. The dew point of the produced gas was sufficiently below the designed value. The investment cost is low. The total operating cost is reduced by the remarkably decreased fuel cost though the power cost is increased. The noise level is low and the heat control is easy. (11 figs, 4 tabs, 1 photo)

  11. Clean and efficient utilization of biomass for production of electricity and heat. Phase 1 in a long-term strategic research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Jensen, P.A.; Jensen, A.; Lin, W.; Johnsson, J.E.; Nielsen, H.P.; Andersen, K.H.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    1999-03-01

    , MINGTSYS, and its database GFEDBASE are outlined: a) thermal conversion of oil-shale in a power station in Estonia, b) combustion of blends of coal and sewage sludge, and c) trace element transformations in straw-fired utility boilers. Finally, an outline of a 1st generation algorithm for residual fly ash formation, developed in order to make it possible to model both ash and deposit formation in utility boilers without having to collect ash from a plant, is provided. The model have been tested with good results of a number of fly ashes generated in Danish power stations as well as on literature data from a US lab-scale study of ash formation. (EHS)

  12. Alternatives for power supply to natural-gas export compressors combined with heat production evaluated with respect to exergy utilization and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woelneberg, Pia W.; Ertesvaag, Ivar S.

    2008-01-01

    The supply of process steam in combination with power for natural-gas export compressors was investigated using exergy analysis. The existing system with three 12.32 MW direct drive gas turbines each with a HRSG delivering 19.2 kg/s high-pressure steam was compared with an alternative where the gas turbines were replaced with new turbines. The exergy efficiencies were 46.7% and 48.6%, respectively, for the two cases. A second alternative with electric motors and a new CHP was investigated in three variants, all with some surplus electricity production. All variants gave higher exergy efficiencies than the other alternatives, from 51.5% to 53.6%. A third alternative with electric motors, stand-alone boilers and purchase of electricity was also analyzed, considering different origins of the electricity. This alternative gave the lowest exergy efficiencies, from 37.1% to 41.4% for different variants. In accordance with the exergy utilization, the CO 2 emissions per unit of exergy delivered were the lowest for the second alternative, while the total emissions were the highest for the third alternative. However, the domestic emissions, important in relation to international CO 2 agreements, were shown to be the lowest for the stand-alone boiler in combination with imported electricity. (author)

  13. Waste heat recovering device for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Masanobu; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Mizuno, Hiroyuki; Sekine, Yasuhiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable utilization of auxiliary-equipment-cooling water from a non-regenerative heat exchanger as a heat source, as well as prevent radioactive contamination. Constitution: A water warming device for recovering the heat of auxiliary equipment cooling water from a non-regenerative heat exchanger is disposed at the succeeding stage of the heat exchanger. Heat exchange is performed in the water warming device between the auxiliary equipment cooling water and a heat source water set to a higher pressure and recycled through the water warming device. The heat recovered from the auxiliary equipment cooling water is utilized in the heat source water for operating relevant equipments. (Aizawa, K.)

  14. District heating in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1998-01-01

    The legislative act establishing the electric monopoly virtually shut out the district heating associated with electricity cogeneration, while other laws, issued to counteract the effects of oil shocks, allowed municipal utilities to do so. Thus, district heating has experienced some development, though well below its possibilities. The article analyses the reasons for this lagging, reports district heating data and projects its forecasts against the Kyoto Protocol objectives [it

  15. Characterization of the Long-term Subsurface Warming Observed at the Apollo 15 and 17 Sites Utilizing the Newly Restored Heat Flow Experiment Data from 1975 to 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Kiefer, W. S.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Krell, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Apollo Heat Flow Experiment (HFE) was conducted at landing sites 15 and 17 as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) program. At each site, the astronauts drilled 2 holes, 10-m apart, and installed a probe in each. The probes monitored surface and subsurface temperatures. The Apollo 15 probes operated from July 1971 to January 1977. The Apollo 17 probes operated from December 1972 to September 1977. For both sites, only data from the beginning to December 1974 were archived previously. We have restored major portions of the 1975-1977 HFE data for both sites from two sets of sources recently recovered. One was the original ALSEP archival data tapes, from which raw HFE data were extracted and processed according to the procedure and the calibration data specified by the original investigators. The other was the ALSEP Performance Summary Reports, which included weekly logs of temperature readings from the deepest sensor of each of the probes. The original HFE investigators noted that temperature of the regolith well below the thermal skin depth ( 1 m) rose gradually through December 1974 at both sites. Possible causes of the warming have been debated since. The restored 1975-1977 HFE data allow more detailed characterization of this phenomenon, especially for the Apollo 17 site, for which the duration of data availability has more than doubled. For both sites, the subsurface warming continued till the end of observations. Simultaneously, thermal gradient decreased. Such behavior is consistent with one of the hypotheses proposed by the original investigators; temperature of the lunar surface around the probe increased by 2 to 4 K at the time of deployment. Consequently, the subsurface thermal regime gradually adjusted to the new boundary condition. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images taken over the Apollo landing sites suggest that astronaut-induced surface disturbance resulted in lower albedo, and that should have raised average

  16. Exergoeconomic analysis of utilizing the transcritical CO_2 cycle and the ORC for a recompression supercritical CO_2 cycle waste heat recovery: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xurong; Dai, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An exergoeconomic analysis is performed for sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle. • Performance of the sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle and sCO_2/ORC cycle are presented and compared. • The sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle performs better than the sCO_2/ORC cycle at lower PRc. • The sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle has comparable total product unit cost with the sCO_2/ORC cycle. - Abstract: Two combined cogeneration cycles are examined in which the waste heat from a recompression supercritical CO_2 Brayton cycle (sCO_2) is recovered by either a transcritical CO_2 cycle (tCO_2) or an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for generating electricity. An exergoeconomic analysis is performed for sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle performance and its comparison to the sCO_2/ORC cycle. The following organic fluids are considered as the working fluids in the ORC: R123, R245fa, toluene, isobutane, isopentane and cyclohexane. Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic models are developed for the cycles on the basis of mass and energy conservations, exergy balance and exergy cost equations. Parametric investigations are conducted to evaluate the influence of decision variables on the performance of sCO_2/tCO_2 and sCO_2/ORC cycles. The performance of these cycles is optimized and then compared. The results show that the sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle is preferable and performs better than the sCO_2/ORC cycle at lower PRc. When the sCO_2 cycle operates at a cycle maximum pressure of around 20 MPa (∼2.8 of PRc), the tCO_2 cycle is preferable to be integrated with the recompression sCO_2 cycle considering the off-design conditions. Moreover, contrary to the sCO_2/ORC system, a higher tCO_2 turbine inlet temperature improves exergoeconomic performance of the sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle. The thermodynamic optimization study reveals that the sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle has comparable second law efficiency with the sCO_2/ORC cycle. When the optimization is conducted based on the exergoeconomics, the total product unit cost of the sCO_2/ORC is slightly lower than that of the sCO_2/tCO_2

  17. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  18. Optimal usage of low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieper, Henrik; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study on the optimal usage of different low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps. The study is based on data for the Copenhagen region. The heat sources were prioritized based on the coefficient of performance calculated for each hour...... and the covered demand of each heat source as well as required peak unit capacity. The results showed that heat pumps using different heat sources yield better performance than a heat pump based on a single one. The performance was influenced by the composition of the different heat sources. It was found that 78......% groundwater, 22% seawater and 0% air resulted in highest COP of 3.33 for the given heat demand. Furthermore, the implementation of rule based short term storage made peak units redundant. The variation in base load capacity showed that heat pumps utilizing the analyzed heat sources could perform very...

  19. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other use. Development of system of advanced heat process type (chemical refrigeration and cold storage system using solar heat); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Advanced heat process gata system no kaihatsu (taiyonetsu reito reizo no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for chemical refrigeration and cold storage system using solar heat. The study on refrigeration materials are aimed at development of new hydrogen-occluding alloys which show good hydrogenation equilibrium characteristics and reactivity at temperature required for stand-alone refrigeration systems aided by solar heat, and still new hydrogen-occluding alloys operable at refrigeration temperature for lower-temperature systems. For the refrigeration materials capable of producing low-temperature heat of -10{degree}C at a regeneration temperature of 140{degree}C produced by solar heat, a La-Ni-Mn-Al alloy is selected for high-temperature use and a La-Y-Ni-Mn alloy for low-temperature use. The study on technology for refrigeration modules develops high-efficiency heat exchangers for refrigeration and regeneration, compatible with the hydrogen-occluding alloys. It also develops air-and water-cooling techniques for hydrogen-occluding alloys, where air is used as the heat source. The test apparatus is designed, installed and operated, to attain a low temperature of -10{degree}C or lower with a heat source of 140{degree}C and air heat source of 28{degree}C. 7 figs.

  20. Heat treatment furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  1. ECOLO-HOUSE in the heavy snow-fall region. Study of the ventilating function that the heat collecting system of the air duct utilizing attic has; Yukiguni ECOLO-HOUSE. Kison kaoku no yaneura wo riyoshita duct shunetsu system kanki kino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H; Hirosawa, K [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    This paper reports a duct heat collecting system installed in the ECOLO-HOUSE for snow countries. This system is an air heat collecting system of the outside air introducing type utilizing as a solar heat collector the single pitch roof often seen in snow countries. Outside air is introduced from below eaves into a heat collecting duct made by nailing plywoods onto rafters from the attic side to collect heat on the roof. Operating a sirocco fan connected to the induction duct located on the high-floor foundation sucks outside air from an air intake opening under the eaves into the heat collecting duct. Air which has absorbed heat on the roof and been warmed in the heat collecting duct by insolation goes into a heat collecting chamber. The air is sent into the high-floor foundation through the induction duct laid from the heat collecting chamber. Air is exchanged 8.7 times by the fan when it is operated all day continuously. Condensation in the fuel chamber floor and walls during the rainy season has disappeared, and so has odor at the same time. As a result of the humidity measurement, a location into which warm air is sent has difference in humidity as great as 15% from a location where no warm air is sent. 2 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Stirling engine or heat pump having an improved seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice A.; Riggle, Peter; Emigh, Stuart G.

    1985-01-01

    A Stirling Engine or Heat Pump having two relatively movable machine elements for power transmission purposes includes a hermetic seal bellows interposed between the elements for separating a working gas from a pressure compensating liquid that balances pressure across the bellows to reduce bellows stress and to assure long bellows life. The volume of pressure compensating liquid displaced due to relative movement between the machine elements is minimized by enclosing the compensating liquid within a region exposed to portions of both machine elements at one axial end of a slidable interface presented between them by a clearance seal having an effective diameter of the seal bellows. Pressure equalization across the bellows is achieved by a separate hermetically sealed compensator including a movable enclosed bellows. The interior of the compensator bellows is in communication with one side of the seal bellows, and its exterior is in communication with the remaining side of the seal bellows. A buffer gas or additional liquid region can be provided at the remaining axial end of the clearnace seal, along with valved arrangements for makeup of liquid leakage through the clearance seal.

  3. Heat pipe heat storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A; Pasquetti, R [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (FR). Inst. Universitaire des Systemes; Grakovich, L P; Vasiliev, L L [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst. of the BSSR, Academy of Sciences, Minsk (BY)

    1989-01-01

    Heat storage offers essential thermal energy saving for heating. A ground heat store equipped with heat pipes connecting it with a heat source and to the user is considered in this paper. It has been shown that such a heat exchanging system along with a batch energy source meets, to a considerable extent, house heating requirements. (author).

  4. Technology for industrial waste heat recovery by organic Rankine cycle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, W. G.; Drake, R. L.; Prisco, C. J.

    1984-10-01

    The recovery of industrial waste heat and the conversion thereof to useful electric power by use of Rankine cycle systems is studied. Four different aspects of ORC technology were studied: possible destructive chemical reaction between an aluminum turbine wheel and R-113 working fluid under wheel-to-rotor rub conditions; possible chemical reaction between stainless steel or carbon steel and any of five different ORC working fluids under rotor-stator rub conditions; effects on electric generator properties of extended exposure to an environment of saturated R-113 vapor/fluid; and operational proof tests under laboratory conditions of two 1070 kW, ORC, R-113 hermetic turbogenerator power module systems.

  5. Geothermal heat pump performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  6. Geothermal Heat Pump Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  7. Solar energy storage and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W.; Bloom, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A method of storing solar energy in the ground for heating residential buildings is described. The method would utilize heat exchanger pipes with a circulating fluid to transfer the energy beneath the surface as well as to extract the stored energy.

  8. Solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  9. Improved solar heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  10. Heat transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  11. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  12. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  13. Heat pumps are a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The fact that heat pumps do not achieve what their manufacturers promise in costs efficiency has been realized by the market. In 1981 the sales of heat pumps decreased by 50% of the 1980 market. Public utilities give the reason as economic, since fuel oil is too cheap. The author refutes this argument and presents arguments against heat pumps.

  14. Radiation effects on heat transfer in heat exchangers, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yasuo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taira, Tatsuji.

    1980-01-01

    In a high temperature gas-cooled reactor system, in which the working fluid exchanges heat at high temperature near 1000 deg C, the heat transfer acceleration by positively utilizing the radiation heat transfer between solid surfaces should be considered. This paper reports on the results of experiment and analysis for the effects of radiant heat on the heat transfer performance at elevated temperature by applying the heat transfer-accelerating method using radiators to the heat exchanger with tube bundle composed of two channels of heating and heated sides. As the test heat exchangers, a parallel counter flow exchanger and the cross flow exchanger simulating helical tubes were employed, and the results studied on the characteristics of each heat exchanger are described. The plates placed in parallel to flow in every space of the tube bundle arranged in a matrix were used as the heat transfer accelerator. The effects of acceleration with the plates were the increase of heat transmission from 12 to 24% and 12 to 38% in the parallel flow and cross flow heat exchangers, respectively. Also, it was clarified that the theoretical analysis, in which it was assumed that the region within pitch S and two radiator plates, with a heat-transferring tube placed at the center, is the minimum domain for calculation, and that the heat exchange by radiation occurs only between the domain and the adjacent domains, can estimate the heat transfer-accelerating effect and the temperature distribution in a heat exchanger with sufficient accuracy. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Microwave reactor for utilizing waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pigiel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a designed and manufactured, semi-industrial microwave reactor for thermal utilization of asbestos-bearing wastes. Presented are also semi-industrial tests of utilizing such wastes. It was found that microwave heating can be applied for utilizing asbestos with use of suitable wetting agents. The wetting agents should ensure continuous heating process above 600 °C, as well as uniform heat distribution in the whole volume of the utilized material. Analysis of the neutralization process indicates a possibility of presenting specific, efficient and effective process parameters of utilizing some asbestos-bearing industrial wastes.

  16. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in China on effective utilization of cement waste heat; 1999 nendo Chugoku ni okeru cement hainetsu yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Although China ranks first in the world in the manufacture of cement, yet the energy consumption rate is high and there remains room for improvement. Effective utilization of energy at cement making plants will not only profit the industry but also contribute to the stabilization of energy supply for China. The model project on power generation using cement waste heat implemented at Ningguo Cement Plant was concluded successfully. For the purpose of enabling China to domestically manufacture the equipment, the installation of such equipment at Zhujiang Cement Plant and Liuzhou Cement Plant in Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu was assumed, and their locations and plant operating conditions were studied. In addition, surveys were conducted of manufacturers of important components of the power generation equipment such as boilers, steam turbines, generators, and breaker boards. Two manufacturers were visited for each of the components, and they were checked for records of manufacturing similar equipment, quality assurance and process management capabilities, and for ability to satisfy required specifications. Among the visited manufacturers were Nanjing Turbine and Electric Machinery Co., Jinan Power Equipment Factory, and Hangzhou Boiler Works. Based on the results of the surveys, it was concluded that the model project may be implemented. (NEDO)

  17. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  18. FY 1995 report on the results of the investigational study on the technology development for the commercialization of solar systems for industrial use, etc. - Investigational study on the solar system. Investigational study on a solar heat utilization system; 1995 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This survey clarifies the present situation of the solar heat utilization technology mostly for industrial use, makes a concrete concept of solar heat utilization clear, and extracts items of the technology development and evaluates sociality, economical efficiency, etc. It aims at working out a program for the future technology development. The following proposals were made: 1) technology development program; 2) simulation soft development program; 3) experimental field of the solar heat utilization technology. In 1), concepts of technology development are 'medical use boiling pasteurization,' 'temperature increase in the metal surface treatment process,' 'water purification using photo-catalyst,' 'distributed small power system,' and 'waste water treatment using bio-technology.' In 2), cost reduction is needed for commercialization/merchandising of technology, and therefore, the development of simulation software is studied. In 3), as the experimental field from commercial/residential use system to industrial use system, an large-scale and systematical experimental field is proposed where all that can be substituted for by solar energy among the energies required for the urban function are used. By this, the solar heat utilization system gets accustomed to the people, increases the reliability, and clearly leads to the course to the next stage of the R and D. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1995 report on the results of the investigational study on the technology development for the commercialization of solar systems for industrial use, etc. - Investigational study on the solar system. Investigational study on a solar heat utilization system; 1995 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This survey clarifies the present situation of the solar heat utilization technology mostly for industrial use, makes a concrete concept of solar heat utilization clear, and extracts items of the technology development and evaluates sociality, economical efficiency, etc. It aims at working out a program for the future technology development. The following proposals were made: 1) technology development program; 2) simulation soft development program; 3) experimental field of the solar heat utilization technology. In 1), concepts of technology development are 'medical use boiling pasteurization,' 'temperature increase in the metal surface treatment process,' 'water purification using photo-catalyst,' 'distributed small power system,' and 'waste water treatment using bio-technology.' In 2), cost reduction is needed for commercialization/merchandising of technology, and therefore, the development of simulation software is studied. In 3), as the experimental field from commercial/residential use system to industrial use system, an large-scale and systematical experimental field is proposed where all that can be substituted for by solar energy among the energies required for the urban function are used. By this, the solar heat utilization system gets accustomed to the people, increases the reliability, and clearly leads to the course to the next stage of the R and D. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Survey and research on systems utilizing solar energy (Heat-storage subsystems); 1977 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu. Chikunetsu sub system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at surveys and researches on materials for heat-storage systems for solar thermal power generation systems and solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply; analysis of current status of heat-storage subsystems and extraction of problems involved therein; and sorting out the research themes. Surveyed are the tower type light-collecting systems under development for solar thermal power generation systems, heat-storage subsystems with flat- and curved-surface type light-collecting systems; heat-storage systems being developed by the Electrotechnical Laboratory; heat-storage materials for solar thermal power generation techniques; regenerative heat exchangers; thermodynamic considerations for heat storage and molten salt techniques; and relationship between heat storage material properties and containers. Problems involved in each item are also extracted. The heat-storage subsystems for solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply are now being under development, some being already commercialized, and the classification of and surveys on the related techniques are conducted. At the same time, problems involved in the heat-storage subsystems, being developed for residential buildings, condominiums and large-size buildings, are also extracted. The research themes for the heat-storage subsystems for solar air conditioning and hot water supply systems are sorted out, and case studies are conducted, based on the discussions on, e.g., thermal properties of heat-storage materials, behavior and heat transfer characteristics of latent heat type heat-storage materials, and corrosion of the heat-storage materials. (NEDO)

  1. HEAT TRANSFER METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.

    1960-08-30

    A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.

  2. Nuclear heat for industrial purposes and district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the various possibilities for the application of heat from nuclear reactors in the form of district heat or process steam for industrial purposes had been made long before the present energy crisis. Although these studies have indicated technical feasibility and economical justification of such utilization, the availability of relatively cheap oil and difficulties in locating a nuclear heat source inside industrial areas did not stimulate much further development. Since the increase of oil prices, the interest in nuclear heat application is reawakened, and a number of new potential areas have been identified. It now seems generally recognized that the heat from nuclear reactors should play an important role in primary energy supply, not only for electricity production but also as direct heat. At present three broad areas of nuclear heat application are identified: Direct heat utilization in industrial processing requiring a temperature above 800 deg. C; Process steam utilization in various industries, requiring a temperature mainly in the range of 200-300 deg. C; Low temperature and waste heat utilization from nuclear power plants for desalination of sea water and district heating. Such classification is mainly related to the type and characteristics of the heat source or nuclear reactor which could be used for a particular application. Modified high temperature reactor types (HTR) are the candidates for direct heat application, while the LWR reactors can satisfy most of the demands for process steam. Production of waste heat is a characteristic of all thermal power plants, and its utilization is a major challenge in the field of power production

  3. Investigation of molecular metabolites in expired air of healthy man in condition of long-term isolation in hermetical confined environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarkov, Dmitriy; Mardanov, Robert; Markin, Andrey; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    Investigation of intermediary metabolites, produced in cells, in expired air of healthy man is directed on determination of molecular markers which are reflecting normal physiological pro-cesses in an organism, as well as on determination and validation of biomarkers for objective screening and non-invasive prenosological diagnostics of disorders in metabolic processes caused by negative effect of live environment. Investigation of influence of long-term isolation in her-metical confined environment on composition of healthy human expired air was made during experiment with 105 days isolation in condition of controlled environment and standard food ra-tion. Expired air samples were analyzed on gas chromatograph associated with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The investigation results show that at rest hydroxy ketones, mostly 1-hydroxy-prorapanone-2 (acetol), aldehydes (decenal, benzaldehyde), acetophenone, phenol and fatty acids were determined. After physical performance (oxidative stress) the content of ke-tones (heptanone-2, heptanone-3), phenol, determined aldehydes (decenal, octadecenal) and acetol in expired air of volunteers decreased. It can be concerned with prevailing of alternative -methylglyoxalic metabolic pathway and caused by oxidative stress. Analysis of expired air samples taken on 30, 60 and 90 day of isolation showed that in conditions of long-term iso-lation concentration of heptanone-2, heptanone-3, 2,3-butadione, acetol, furanones, aldehydes (decenal, benzaldehyde) and acetophenone is increasing while concentration of phenol and fatty acids is decreasing as compared to samples taken before isolation. It was shown that dynamics of concentration of saturated hydrocarbons in expired air can be informative marker for estima-tion of organism response to oxidative stress, while the level of acetol can be used as indicator of man's training status, validity of exercise load and as a marker of hypoxic state.

  4. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  5. Graphene heat dissipating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Cody M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Wheeler, David R.; Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Railkar, Tarak A.

    2017-08-01

    Various technologies presented herein relate to forming one or more heat dissipating structures (e.g., heat spreaders and/or heat sinks) on a substrate, wherein the substrate forms part of an electronic component. The heat dissipating structures are formed from graphene, with advantage being taken of the high thermal conductivity of graphene. The graphene (e.g., in flake form) is attached to a diazonium molecule, and further, the diazonium molecule is utilized to attach the graphene to material forming the substrate. A surface of the substrate is treated to comprise oxide-containing regions and also oxide-free regions having underlying silicon exposed. The diazonium molecule attaches to the oxide-free regions, wherein the diazonium molecule bonds (e.g., covalently) to the exposed silicon. Attachment of the diazonium plus graphene molecule is optionally repeated to enable formation of a heat dissipating structure of a required height.

  6. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  7. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  8. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

    1986-10-14

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

  9. Temporary heat storage by using combined heat and power in supplementary lighted greenhouses Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Artificial Lighting in Horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.P.G.

    1997-01-01

    Because of better utilization possibilities of the produced heat, decentrally located combined heat and power installations achieve a higher energetic efficiency than producing heat and power separately. However, efficiency depends considerably on synchronism of heat and electricity demand. Using a

  10. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  11. Current status of and problems in ice heat storage systems contributing to improving load rate. Air conditioning system utilizing ice heat storage and building frame storage (Takenaka Corporation); Fukaritsu kaizen ni kokensuru kori chikunetsu system no genjo to kadai. Kori chikunetsu to kutai chikunetsu wo riyoshita kucho system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y.; Yoshitake, Y. [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Development was made on a new air conditioning system, `building frame heat storage air conditioning system`, which combines an ice heat storage system with a building frame heat storage. With the building frame heat storage system, a damper is installed on an indoor device to blow cold air from the air conditioner onto slabs on the upper floor during nighttime power generating period. Heat is stored in beams, pillars and walls, and the shell absorbs and dissipates heat during daytime. Since general office buildings consume primary energy at 22.8% for heat source and 26.9% for transportation, which is greater, a natural coolant circulation type air conditioning system was developed as an air conditioning system for the secondary side. This made the building frame heat regeneration possible for the first time. With regard to heat storage quantity and heat dissipation quantity, the quantity of heat which can be stored during nighttime (10 hours) and dissipated during air conditioning using period in daytime (10 hours) is 80% of the stored heat quantity. This system was installed in a building in Kobe City. As a result of the measurement, it was found that indoor heat load reduction rate as a result of using the building frame heat storage was 24% or more in summer and 80% or more in winter. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Fiscal 1993 investigational report on heat pump heat storage technology; 1993 nendo heat pump chikunetsu gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This project is for an investigation into the heat pump (HP) use heat storage technology, with the aim of clarifying the present status of HP heat storage technology, the utilization status, and the developmental trend of technology and of contributing to the spread of heat energy effective use using HP heat storage technology and to the promotion of the technical development. Accordingly, the evaluation of the following was made: sensible heat (SH), latent heat (LH), chemical heat storage technology (CH), and heat storage technology (HS). Investigations were made on the sensible heat use heat storage technology of water, brine, stone, soil, etc. in terms of SH; the phase change sensible heat use heat storage technology of ice, hydrate salt, paraffins, etc. in terms of LH; hydration, hydroxide, 2-propanol pyrolysis, adsorption of silica gel, zeolite and water, and heat storage technology using metal hydride, etc. in terms of CH. In terms of HS, the following were studied and evaluated from the study results of the heat storage system in which HP is applied to the sensible heat and latent heat type heat storage technology: contribution to the power load levelling and the reduction of heat source capacity, heat recovery and the use of unused energy, improvement of the system efficiency by combining HP and heat storage technology. 24 refs., 242 figs., 56 tabs.

  13. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  14. Nuclear process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulten, R [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorentwicklung

    1976-05-01

    It is anticipated that the coupled utilization of coal and nuclear energy will achieve great importance in the future, the coal serving mainly as raw material and nuclear energy more as primary energy. Prerequisite for this development is the availability of high-temperature reactors, the state of development of which is described here. Raw materials for coupled use with nuclear process heat are petroleum, natural gas, coal, lignite, and water. Steam reformers heated by nuclear process heat, which are suitable for numerous processes, are expected to find wide application. The article describes several individual methods, all based on the transport of gas in pipelines, which could be utilized for the long distance transport of 'nuclear energy'.

  15. Potential utilization of biomass in production of electricity, heat and transportation fuels including energy combines - Regional analyses and examples; Potentiell avsaettning av biomassa foer produktion av el, vaerme och drivmedel inklusive energikombinat - Regionala analyser och raekneexempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Karin; Boerjesson, Paal

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study is to analyse how the use of biomass may increase in the next 10-20 years in production of heat, electricity and transportation fuels in Sweden. In these analyses, the biomass is assumed to be used in a resource and cost efficient way. This means for example that the demand for heat determines the potential use of biomass in co-generation of heat and electricity and in energy combines, and that the markets for by-products determine the use of biomass in production of certain transportation fuels. The economic conditions are not analysed in this study. In the heat and electricity production sector, we make regional analyses of the potential use of biomass in production of small-scale heat, district heat, process heat in the forest industry and electricity produced in co-generation with heat in the district heating systems and forest industry. These analyses show that the use of biomass in heat and electricity production could increase from 87 TWh (the use in 2004/2005, excluding small-scale heat production with firewood) to between 113 TWh and 134 TWh, depending on the future expansion of the district heating systems. Geographically, the Stockholm province accounts for a large part of the potential increase owing to the great opportunities for increasing the use of biomass in production of district heat and CHP in this region. In the sector of transportation fuels we applied a partly different approach since we consider the market for biomass-based transportation fuels to be 'unconstrained' within the next 10-20 years. Factors that constrain the production of these fuels are instead the availability of biomass feedstock and the local conditions required for achieving effective production systems. Among the first generation biofuels this report focuses on RME and ethanol from cereals. We estimate that the domestic production of RME and ethanol could amount to up to 1.4 TWh/y and 0.7-3.8 TWh/y, respectively, where the higher figure

  16. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  17. A central solar-industrial waste heat heating system with large scale borehole thermal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Xu, L.; Torrens, I.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new research of seasonal thermal storage is introduced. This study aims to maximize the utilization of renewable energy source and industrial waste heat (IWH) for urban district heating systems in both heating and non-heating seasons through the use of large-scale seasonal thermal

  18. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  19. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  20. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Investigational study on the cascade utilization of thermal energy (cold heat and hot heat) (feasibility study by the off-line system); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Netsu energy (reinetsu to onnetsu) no cascade riyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (off-line hoshiki ni yoru feasibility study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper studied a system to effectively use unused and low-grade thermal energy (cold heat and hot heat) in the Tokyo-Yokohama seaside area. For transportation of thermal energy, the batch transportation, that is, off-line system was discussed which uses insulated tank loaded barges and railroad freight trains. Thermal energy supply sources are 1) 0.3 million kW class thermal power plant, and 2) LNG storage base of 3 million ton/year class. Thermal energy users are Tokyo (Haneda) Airport D.H.C. (District Heating/Cooling Co.), MM 21 D.H.C. and Shin-Kawasaki D.H.C. The cold heat energy supplied to these three is about 1.5 million Mcal/daytimes300 days/year, and the hot heat energy supplied is about 1.33 million Mcal/daytimes150 days/year. Cold heat is obtained from seawater after the LNG vaporization, and hot heat from heat extracted from thermal turbine. Subcooled ice was selected for cold heat medium, and PCM-120A for hot heat medium. For batch transportation, an STL heat storage system is used which transports plastic capsules sealed with heat medium. Oil saving of 62,000 tons/year and CO2 reduction of about 53,000 tons/year can be expected. 85 figs., 98 tabs.

  1. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Investigations on development of technology to utilize heat of deep earth pressure type hot water in Hungary; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Hungary koku shinso chiatsugata onsui no netsuriyo gijutsu kaihatsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions were given on a project to implement district heating, greenhouse heating, and binary power generation by utilizing geothermal resources in Hungary. Hungary has deep earth pressure type hot water areas distributed, that flow hot water of about 90 to 180 degrees C by the bed pressure. The areas that can utilize the hot water were extracted and investigated by using literatures and data. The project plans district heating of about 15,000 households using the geothermal water, heating of greenhouses equivalent to 100,000 m{sup 2}, gas engine power generation by using the flowing fluid pressure and combustion of the generated methane gas, and binary power generation by using the geothermal water. As a result of the discussions, it was revealed that the energy saving effect would save 5,008 Ktoe in 20 years as converted to crude oil, and the greenhouse effect gas reducing effect would reduce 14.2 million t-CO2 in 20 years. The total project cost would be about 16.62 billion yen. The internal profit rate of this project is 11.34%, largely exceeding the opportunity cost, and indicating the financial effect possibility. (NEDO)

  2. Heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously

  3. The utilization of the storage of thermal energy in buildings. Underground heat storages - thermic simulation and profitability; Termisen energian varastoinnin hyvaeksikaeyttoemahdollisuudet rakennusten laemmityksessae ja jaeaehdytyksessae. Maanalaiset varastot - laempoetekninen simulointi ja taloudellinen kannattavuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suokas, M.; Heinonen, J.; Karola, A.; Laine, T.; Siren, K.

    1998-12-31

    Interest in different sources of free energy has significantly increased due to the possibility to decrease the consumption of fossil fuels and nuclear power. This can be reached, for example, with waste heat recovery and by utilising natural heat and cool energy sources. The main problem is that the supply and use of energy do not encounter and this causes a need for thermal energy storage. The earlier heat storage systems have utilised compressor heat pumps because the temperature levels of heat storages are not high enough for the ordinary heating and cooling systems. The disadvantage is the complexity of these systems which leads to increasing building costs. Therefore, this study deals with systems of low temperature levels used mainly for cooling purposes. The aim was to find out their usability, savings and profitability. The function and energy consumption of systems were simulated with models of buildings, soil heat storage and climate. The soil model simulates heat dynamic behaviour of the masses of soil. With the climate model it was possible to simulate transient heat losses of the storage and building. It was also possible to simulate various climatic conditions by changing input data of the climate model. In the simulated systems the emphasis is on the production of cooling energy by utilising the low temperature of the ground. The systems consist of heat storage and building. The cooling energy will be charged in winter to the storage when the heat energy charged in summer will be transferred to the supply air of ventilating unit. After the energy simulations the investment and usage costs of this kind of systems were compared with costs of ordinary compressor cooling systems. The buildings studied were an imaginary LVIS 2000 office building and the Messukeskus in Helsinki which is a large hall built for exhibitions. The types of soil were wet clay and granite. The LVIS 2000 office building needs a rock heat storage with capacity of 8 000-30 000 m

  4. High temperature absorption compression heat pump for industrial waste heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Lars; Horntvedt, B.; Nordtvedt, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Heat pumps are currently receiving extensive interest because they may be able to support the integration of large shares of fluctuating electricity production based on renewable sources, and they have the potential for the utilization of low temperature waste heat from industry. In most industries......, the needed temperature levels often range from 100°C and up, but until now, it has been quite difficult to find heat pump technologies that reach this level, and thereby opening up the large-scale heat recovery in the industry. Absorption compression heat pumps can reach temperatures above 100°C......, and they have proved themselves a very efficient and reliable technology for applications that have large temperature changes on the heat sink and/or heat source. The concept of Carnot and Lorenz efficiency and its use in the analysis of system integration is shown. A 1.25 MW system having a Carnot efficiency...

  5. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  6. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  7. Optimized raw material usage and utilization degree in a polygeneration plant for heat, electricity, biofuel and market fuel; Optimal raavaruinsats och utnyttjandegrad i energikombinat foer vaerme, el, biodrivmedel och avsalubraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennie Rodin; Olle Wennberg; Mikael Berntsson; Rolf Njurell; Ola Thorson

    2012-01-15

    Energy and economic efficiency for six different types of energy combines which include heat, electricity, pellets and fuel production have been studied. The basic case is a conventional power plant, which subsequently is expanded with various additional facilities (dryer, pellets and/or fuel). Maximum exploitation of the product against inserted biofuel was obtained in case 6, pulp mills that use waste heat for district heating supply and drying of bark. Case 6 had also the lowest payoff period; two years. Of the CHP [combined heat and power] based energy combines 'the big combine' with four different products generally showed best marginal efficiency and economy. The results indicate that drying may be an economical way to extend the operating season and increase the production of electricity in a CHP based energy combine.

  8. Geothermal Heat Pump Benchmarking Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-01-17

    A benchmarking study was conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy to determine the critical factors in successful utility geothermal heat pump programs. A Successful program is one that has achieved significant market penetration. Successfully marketing geothermal heat pumps has presented some major challenges to the utility industry. However, select utilities have developed programs that generate significant GHP sales. This benchmarking study concludes that there are three factors critical to the success of utility GHP marking programs: (1) Top management marketing commitment; (2) An understanding of the fundamentals of marketing and business development; and (3) An aggressive competitive posture. To generate significant GHP sales, competitive market forces must by used. However, because utilities have functioned only in a regulated arena, these companies and their leaders are unschooled in competitive business practices. Therefore, a lack of experience coupled with an intrinsically non-competitive culture yields an industry environment that impedes the generation of significant GHP sales in many, but not all, utilities.

  9. Heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.

    1986-01-01

    A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)

  10. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  11. Heat pipes. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the design, manufacture, and applications of heat pipes. The use of heat pipes in heat exchange systems for heat storage, heat transfer, and heat utilization is discussed. Applications include semiconductor cooling, use in engine components, and building cooling and heating. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shejiao Wang; Jiahong Yan; Feng Li; Junwen Hu; Kewen Li

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has ac...

  13. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  14. Energy cascading in large district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    District heat transfer is the most economical utilization of the waste heat of power plants. Optimum utilization and heat transfer over large distances are possible because of a new energy distribution system, the ''energy cascading system,'' in which heat is transferred to several consumer regions at different temperature ranges. It is made more profitable by the use of heat pumps. The optimum flow-line temperature is 368 0 K, and the optimum return-line temperature is 288 0 K, resulting in an approximately 50% reduction of electric power loss at the power plant

  15. Thorium utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the factors that provide incentive for the utilization of thorium in specific reactor types are explored and the constraints that stand in the way are pointed out. The properties of thorium and derived fuels are discussed, and test and reactor operating experience is reviewed. In addition, symbiotic systems of breeder and converter reactor are suggested as being particularly attractive systems for energy production. Throughout the discussion, the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Molten Salt Reactor are treated in some detail because they have been developed primarily for use with thorium fuel cycles.

  16. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  17. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 7. Examination on design and control of the system partially recovering exhaust heat of heat pump; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 7. Bubuntekina hainetsu kaishu wo koryoshita baai no sekkei seigyoho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H; Okumiya, M [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The capacity and performance of the existing system that recovers the overall heating and cooling exhaust heat completely into a seasonal storage tank and the system that discharges the exhaust heat slightly to the outside and recovers it partially were compared and investigated. The system uses a central single-duct discharge system as an air-conditioning system. A heat pump and a flat-plate solar collector installed on the roof of a building are used as the heat source. The seasonal storage tank in the ground just under the building is a cylindrical water tank of 5 m deep with the concrete used as body. The upper surface of a storage tank is heat-insulated by a stylo-platform of 200 mm, and the lower side surface by a stylo-platform of 100 mm. Calculation when the difference in temperature used in a seasonal storage tank is set to 35{degree}C and 25{degree}C was performed for the system that has two control methods. The overall exhaust heat recovery system is almost the same in energy performance as the partial exhaust heat recovery system. The partial exhaust heat recovery system is more advantageous on the economic side. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute

  19. HTGR type reactors for the heat market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterwind, D.

    1981-01-01

    Information about the standard of development of the HTGR type reactor are followed by an assessment of its utilization on the heat market. The utilization of HTGR type reactors is considered suitable for the production of synthesis gas, district heat, and industrial process heat. A comparison with a pit coal power station shows the economy of the HTGR. Finally, some aspects of introducing new technologies into the market, i.e. small plants in particular are investigated. (UA) [de

  20. Análisis del comportamiento de la capacidad frigorífica en compresores herméticos en Cuba. // Behaviour of the refrigeration capacity in hermetic compressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arencibia Avila

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available El índice de roturas de los compresores herméticos en Cuba (4 % se encuentra muy por encima de los estándaresinternacionales de calidad (0, 04 %. El objetivo del trabajo que se presenta fue la determinación de la capacidad frigoríficaa tres tipos de compresores herméticos diferentes en condiciones ambientales como las existentes en el país. Las pruebasexperimentales se realizaron en laboratorios certificados por las normas ISO 9002 e ISO 14 000.El análisis muestra que se pierde más del 10 % de la capacidad frigorífica del compresor. De ello se deduce que la simpletransferencia de tecnología no puede ser una solución para las necesidades crecientes de equipos de refrigeración en el país.Los equipos y sistemas de este tipo tienen que ser diseñados especialmente para las condiciones cubanas con el objetivo delograr eficiencias aceptables, equivalentes a la media mundial y acorde a la situación energética que afronta el mundoactualmente.Palabras claves: Compresores herméticos, refrigeración.___________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The break rate of hermetic compressors in Cuba (4% is well over the international standards of quality (0. 04 %. Thepurpose of this word was to determine the refrigeration capacity to three kinds of hermetic compressors in environmentalconditions like the ones existing in the country. The experimental test were carried out in laboratories certified by ISO 9002and ISO 14 000.The analysis shows that more than 10 % of the refrigeration capacity of the compressors is lost. We can say that a simpletransference of technology cannot be a solution to the increasing needs of refrigeration equipment. The systems andequipment of this kind have to be specially designed to meet our conditions, with the aim of achieving acceptableefficiencies, similar to those of the world average, and according to the energy situation that the world is facing nowadays.Key Words: Hermetic

  1. Geothermal energy utilization and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, Mary H; Fanelli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal energy refers to the heat contained within the Earth that generates geological phenomena on a planetary scale. Today, this term is often associated with man's efforts to tap into this vast energy source. Geothermal Energy: utilization and technology is a detailed reference text, describing the various methods and technologies used to exploit the earth's heat. Beginning with an overview of geothermal energy and the state of the art, leading international experts in the field cover the main applications of geothermal energy, including: electricity generation space and district heating space cooling greenhouse heating aquaculture industrial applications The final third of the book focuses upon environmental impact and economic, financial and legal considerations, providing a comprehensive review of these topics. Each chapter is written by a different author, but to a set style, beginning with aims and objectives and ending with references, self-assessment questions and answers. Case studies are includ...

  2. Experimental investigation on an integrated thermal management system with heat pipe heat exchanger for electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Huiming; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guiying; Qin, Fei; Tian, Changqing; Yan, Yuying

    2016-01-01

    An integrated thermal management system combining a heat pipe battery cooling/preheating system with the heat pump air conditioning system is presented to fulfill the comprehensive energy utilization for electric vehicles. A test bench with battery heat pipe heat exchanger and heat pump air conditioning for a regular five-chair electric car is set up to research the performance of this integrated system under different working conditions. The investigation results show that as the system is d...

  3. Agricultural utilization of industrial thermal effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, P.; Delmas, J.; Grauby, A.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment is made of the utilization of thermal effluent for agricultural purpose (viz. early vegetables, cereals, trees). Heated waters are being used in field experiments on soil heating, improvement of agricultural procedures and crop yields. Thermal pollution cannot be removed yet it is reduced to acceptable limits. New prospects are open to traditional agriculture, leading towards a more competitive industrial model [fr

  4. Integration of space heating and hot water supply in low temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    District heating may supply many consumers efficiently, but the heat loss from the pipes to the ground is a challenge. The heat loss may be lowered by decreasing the network temperatures for which reason low temperature networks are proposed for future district heating. The heating demand...... of the consumers involves both domestic hot water and space heating. Space heating may be provided at low temperature in low energy buildings. Domestic hot water, however, needs sufficient temperatures to avoid growth of legionella. If the network temperature is below the demand temperature, supplementary heating...... is required by the consumer. We study conventional district heating at different temperatures and compare the energy and exergetic efficiency and annual heating cost to solutions that utilize electricity for supplementary heating of domestic hot water in low temperature district heating. This includes direct...

  5. Utilization of Geothermal Energy in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Wittenberger; Ján Pinka

    2005-01-01

    Owing to favourable geological conditions, Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The Slovakian government sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs the geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas), agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing) and heating of houses. The effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and the hot water supp...

  6. Financial viability study using a heat pump as an alternative to support solar collector for water heating in Southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Roberts Vinicius de Melo; Oliveira, Raphael Nunes; Machado, Luiz; Koury, Ricardo Nassau N. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mails: robertsreis@ufmg.br, luizm@demec.ufmg.br, koury@ufmg.br

    2010-07-01

    Along with related greenhouse effect environmental issues, constant problems changes in oil prices,make the use of solar energy an important renewable energy source. Brazil is a country which is privilege, considering the high rates of solar irradiation present throughout most of the entire national territory. Nevertheless, during certain times of the year, a solar energy deficit, leads solar systems to require electrical resistance support. The use of electrical resistance represents 23.5% of electric energy consumption and it presents a low residential energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is conducting a study of Brazilian States in the Southeastern region regarding the financial viability of replacing a resistive system combined with the use of solar collector and a heat pump. One such heat pump has been designed, constructed and tested experimentally. The average performance coefficient is equal to 2.10, a low value due to the use of a hermetic reciprocating compressor. Despite this low-moderate price coefficient of acquisition and installation of a heat pump, a return on investment in from 2.1 to 2.7 years can be expected. Whereas the equipment has a useful life of about 20 years, this period of return on investment is interesting. (author)

  7. Design of serially connected ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps for district heating with the utilisation of a geothermal heat source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2016-01-01

    District heating (DH) can reduce the primary energy consumption in urban areas with significant heat demands. The design of a serially connected ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump system was investigated for operation in the Greater Copenhagen DH network in Denmark, in order...... to supply 7.2 MW heat at 85 °C utilizing a geothermal heat source at 73 °C. Both the heat source and heat sink experience a large temperature change over the heat transfer process, of which a significant part may be achieved by direct heat exchange. First a generic study with a simple representation...

  8. Waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phi Wah Tooi

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Konzen in-house designed anaerobic digester system for the POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) treatment process is one of the registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Malaysia. It is an organic wastewater treatment process which achieves excellent co-benefits objectives through the prevention of water pollution and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is estimated to be 40,000 to 50,000 t-CO 2 per year. The anaerobic digester was designed in mesophile mode with temperature ranging from 37 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius. A microorganisms growth is optimum under moderately warm temperature conditions. The operating temperature of the anaerobic digester needs to be maintained constantly. There are two waste heat recovery systems designed to make the treatment process self-sustaining. The heat recovered will be utilised as a clean energy source to heat up the anaerobic digester indirectly. The first design for the waste heat recovery system utilises heat generated from the flue gas of the biogas flaring system. A stainless steel water tank with an internal water layer is installed at the top level of the flare stack. The circulating water is heated by the methane enriched biogas combustion process. The second design utilizes heat generated during the compression process for the biogas compressor operation. The compressed biogas needs to be cooled before being recycled back into the digester tank for mixing purposes. Both the waste heat recovery systems use a design which applies a common water circulation loop and hot water tank to effectively become a closed loop. The hot water tank will perform both storage and temperature buffer functions. The hot water is then used to heat up recycled sludge from 30 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius with the maximum temperature setting at 50 degree Celsius. The recycled sludge line temperature will be measured and monitored by a temperature sensor and transmitter, which will activate the

  9. Heat extraction from HTGR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajka, J.; Princova, H.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of an HTGR reactor energy balance showed that steam reforming of natural gas or methane is the most suitable process of utilizing the high-temperature heat. Basic mathematical relations are derived allowing to perform a general energy balance of the link between steam reforming and reactor heat output. The results of the calculation show that the efficiency of the entire reactor system increases with increasing proportion of heat output for steam reforming as against heat output for the steam generator. This proportion, however, is limited with the output helium temperature from steam reforming. It is thus always necessary to use part of the reactor heat output for the steam cycle involving electric power generation or low-potential heat generation. (Z.M.)

  10. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  11. Proceedings: Meeting customer needs with heat pumps, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Electric heat pumps provide a growing number of residential and commercial customers with space heating and cooling as well as humidity control and water heating. Industrial customers use heat pump technology for energy-efficient, economical process heating and cooling. Heat pumps help utilities meet environmental protection needs and satisfy their load-shape objectives. The 1991 conference was held in Dallas on October 15--18, featuring 60 speakers representing electric utilities, consulting organizations, sponsoring organizations, and heat pump manufacturers. The speakers presented the latest information about heat pump markets, technologies, applications, trade ally programs, and relevant issues. Participants engaged in detailed discussions in ''breakout'' and parallel sessions and viewed more than 30 exhibits of heat pumps, software, and other products and services supporting heat pump installations and service. Electric utilities have the greatest vested interest in the sale of electric heat pumps and thus have responsibility to ensure quality installations through well-trained technicians, authoritative and accurate technical information, and wellinformed design professionals. The electric heat pump is an excellent tool for the electric utility industry's response to environmental and efficiency challenges as well as to competition from other fuel sources. Manufacturers are continually introducing new products and making research results available to meet these challenges. Industrial process heat pumps offer customers the ability to supply heat to process at a lower cost than heat supplied by primary-fuel-fired boilers. From the utility perspective these heat pumps offer an opportunity for a new electric year-round application

  12. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  13. Direct Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  14. Plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. Heat Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Sofie Søndergaard; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Bestle, Morten Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat......Heat stroke is an acute, life-threatening emergency characterized clinically by elevated body temperature and central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and treatment including aggressive cooling and management of life-threatening systemic complications are essential to reduce morbidity...... and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were...

  16. 北方地区应用太阳能辅助土壤源热泵效能分析%Efficiency Analysis of Utilizing Solar-assisted Ground Source Heat Pump in the Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金秀

    2015-01-01

    针对北方寒冷地区气候特点,指出了太阳能辅助土壤源热泵系统相对于单独的土壤源热泵或单独的太阳能应用的技术特点。对北方寒冷地区某学校综合楼建筑进行了太阳能辅助土壤源热泵系统设计;并针对该建筑采用太阳能辅助土壤源热泵系统、采用单独的土壤源热泵系统或采用传统采暖空调系统,从三者经济效益、社会效益、环境效益等方面进行了比较,从而体现了太阳能辅助土壤源热泵系统相对于单独的土壤源热泵系统或传统采暖空调系统的高效、经济、节能、环保等优异性。%For the cold climate characteristics of the Northern China, the paper introduces the technical characteristics of solar-assisted ground source heat pump system relative to the separate ground source heat pump system or the separate solar energy application. For a complex building of a university in the cold northern area, the solar -assisted ground source heat pump system is designed, and economic benefits, social benefits, environmental benefits and other aspects about using the solar-assisted ground source heat pump system or using the ground source heat pump system alone or using the traditional air conditioning system are compared, thus reflects the excellent efficiency, cost-saving and energy -saving characteristics, and environmental protection about the solar assisted ground source heat pump system.

  17. The case for wood-fuelled heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, Ewan

    2001-01-01

    This article looks at the wood heating industry in the UK and examines the heat market and the growth potential in the domestic, public, agricultural and commercial sectors. The current status of wood-fueled heating technology is considered, along with log and chip boilers, and the use of pellet fuel. The economics of wood-fuelled heating, the higher level of utilisation of wood-fuelled heating by utilities in northern European countries compared with the UK, and the barriers to the exploitation of wood fuelled heating are examined

  18. Utility training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaros, P.E.; Luxo, Armando; Bruant, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    The study of operational training systems for electro-nuclear utilities may be conducted through two different approaches. A first analytical approach consists of determining, for each position of a given organization chart, the necessary qualifications required and the corresponding complementary training to be provided. This approach applies preferentially to existing classical systems which are converted to nuclear operation with objectives of minimum structural changes and conservation of maximum efficiency. A second synthetical approach consists of determining the specific characteristics of nuclear plant operation, then, of deducting the training contingencies and the optimized organization chart of the plant, while taking into account, at each step, the parameters linked to local conditions. This last approach is studied in some detail in the present paper, taking advantage of its better suitability to the problems raised at the first stage of an electro-nuclear program development. In this respect, the possibility offered by this apprach to coordinate the training system of a given nuclear power station personnel with the overall problem of developing a skilled industrial labor force in the country, may lead to reconsideration of some usual priorities in the economy of operation of the nuclear power plant

  19. Development of heat pump technology in eco-energy city project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omata, Tomio [New Energy Development Organization (Japan); Ogisu, Yoshihiro [Office of Eco-Energy City Project, Energy Conservation Center (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the New Sunshine Project conducted by MITI Japan, Eco-Energy City-Project covers the research area of utilization of industrial and municipal waste heat. For the further utilization of waste heat, several research programs are carried out for recovery and conversion of waste heat, transportation and storage of waste heat and final use of rather low temperature heat transported. Various types of heat driven heat pumps are developed in the Eco-Energy City Project. Concept of the Project is to utilize industrial and municipal waste heat for the city where energy demand is increasing. These heat pumps will contribute for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emission. (orig.)

  20. FY 1999 report on the results of 'the model project for effective utilization of the waste heat discharged from the combustion of paper-manufacturing sludge'; 1999 nendo seika hokoku. Seishi surajji nensho hainetsu yuko riyo moderu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the consumption of fossil fuel and reducing emissions of global warming gases in Malaysia, a model project for thermally effective use of the sludge discharged from paper-manufacturing plant was carried out. Concretely, the paper-manufacturing sludge discharged from paper-manufacturing plant is to be dewatered and improved of its lower heating value. Then, the sludge is to be burned in fluidized bed incinerator, and the steam is to be generated by recovering heat using waste heat recovering boiler. The steam obtained is to be used as process steam of the plant. In this fiscal year, the first year of the project, the attachment to the agreement was prepared in terms of the allotment of the project work between Japan and Malaysia, various kinds of gist, schedules, etc. and signed. After that, the determination of the basic specifications for facilities was made according to the attachment to the agreement. Now, the basic design of the whole plant is being made. The design of the process flow sheet, design of the layout plan for plant equipment, etc. were finished. The goods to be purchased are now being estimated and assessed. Moreover, as to the civil engineering/construction design, drawings of the basic design are now being made. (NEDO)

  1. Study of an innovative ejector heat pump-boosted district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yuanchao; Kang, Lisha; Lv, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    An Ejector heat pump-boosted District Heating (EDH) system is proposed to improve the heating capacity of existing district heating systems with Combined Heat and Power (CHP). In the EDH, two ejector heat pumps are installed: a primary heat pump (HP 1 ) at the heating station and a secondary heat pump (HP 2 ) at the heating substation. With the EDH, the low-grade waste heat from circulating cooling water in the CHP is recycled and the temperature difference between the water supply and the return of the primary heating network is increased. A thermodynamic model was provided. An experimental study was carried out for both HP 1 and HP 2 to verify the predicting performance. The results show that the COP of HP 1 can reach 1.5–1.9, and the return water temperature of the primary heating network could be decreased to 35 °C with HP 2 . A typical case study for the EDH was analyzed. -- Highlights: • An ejector heat pump-boosted district heating (EDH) is proposed. • The 1st ejector heat pump in EDH recycles heat from cooling water of the CHP. • The 2nd ejector heat pump in EDH boosts the thermal energy utilization of the primary heating network. • Modeling and experimental studies are presented

  2. A comparison of the heat and mechanical energy of a heat-pump wind turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aybek, A.; Arslan, S.; Yildiz, E.; Atik, K. [University of Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Agricultural Machinery

    2000-07-01

    While a variety of applications of wind energy have been studied in Turkey, no significant efforts have been made to utilize heat pumps for heat generation. The use of heat pumps in wind energy systems is worth considering because of the high efficiency of heat production. In this study, a directly coupled wind turbine-heat pump system was designed, constructed, and tested. Measurements determined the mechanical energy of the rotors of the wind turbine and the heat energy generated by the heat pump driven by the rotor shaft. Based on the comparisons between the power generated by the heat pump and the power of the Savonius rotors, it was found that the heat energy gained by the heat pump was four times greater than the mechanical energy obtained from the turbine. It was suggested that heat pumps could be efficiently used in wind energy systems. (Author)

  3. Quantitative determination of the specific heat and the glass transition of moist samples by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubnell, M; Schawe, J E

    2001-04-17

    In differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), remnant moisture loss in samples often overlaps and distorts other thermal events, e.g. glass transitions. To separate such overlapping processes, temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) has been widely used. In this contribution we discuss the quantitative determination of the heat capacity of a moist sample from TMDSC measurements. The sample was a spray-dried pharmaceutical compound run in different pans (hermetically-sealed pan, pierced lid pan [50 microm] and open pan). The apparent heat capacity was corrected for the remaining amount of moisture. Using this procedure we could clearly identify the glass transition of the dry and the moist sample. We found that a moisture content of about 6.2% shifts the glass transition by about 50 degrees C.

  4. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  5. Heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  6. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  7. Direct utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010) which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005). This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MW th , almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr), about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating), 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes) of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO 2 being released to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity). (author)

  8. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  9. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  10. A review of magnetic heat pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The area of technology classified as heat pumps generally refers to refrigerators, heat pumps and heat engines. This review is restricted to the literature on magnetic refrigerators and magnetic heat pumps which are referred to interchangeably. Significant progress has been made on the development of engineering prototypes of cryogenic, nonregenerative magnetic refrigerators utilizing conductive heat transfer in the 0.1 K to 20 K temperature range. Advances have also been made in analysis of regenerative magnetic refrigerators and heat pumps utilizing the active magnetic regeneration (AMR) concept. Units based on AMR are being modeled, designed and/or built to operate in various temperature ranges including 1.8-4.5 K, 4-15 K, 15-85 K, and 270-320 K. The near room temperature units have been scaled to 50 kW as both refrigerators and heat pumps. The progress of magnetic refrigeration over the last three years is summarized and discussed

  11. Heat Rejection from a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Gibson, M. A.; Hervol, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    A titanium-water heat pipe radiator having an innovative proprietary evaporator configuration was evaluated in a large vacuum chamber equipped with liquid nitrogen cooled cold walls. The radiator was manufactured by Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT), Lancaster, PA, and delivered as part of a Small Business Innovative Research effort. The radiator panel consisted of five titanium-water heat pipes operating as thermosyphons, sandwiched between two polymer matrix composite face sheets. The five variable conductance heat pipes were purposely charged with a small amount of non-condensable gas to control heat flow through the condenser. Heat rejection was evaluated over a wide range of inlet water temperature and flow conditions, and heat rejection was calculated in real-time utilizing a data acquisition system programmed with the Stefan-Boltzmann equation. Thermography through an infra-red transparent window identified heat flow across the panel. Under nominal operation, a maximum heat rejection value of over 2200 Watts was identified. The thermal vacuum evaluation of heat rejection provided critical information on understanding the radiator s performance, and in steady state and transient scenarios provided useful information for validating current thermal models in support of the Fission Power Systems Project.

  12. A Systems Biology Approach to Heat Stress, Heat Injury and Heat Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    stroke [3, 11, 12], leading to severe encephalopathy , rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury...heart, kidney, and liver failure are increased by 40% in Service members with a history of heat stroke [5, 6]. Indeed, there is an urgent need for...other organs at high risk for injury, such as liver and kidney [24, 25]. 2.1 Utility of the computational model Molecular indicators of heat

  13. Review: heat pipe heat exchangers at IROST

    OpenAIRE

    E. Azad

    2012-01-01

    The use of the heat pipe as a component in a heat recovery device has gained worldwide acceptance. Heat pipes are passive, highly reliable and offer high heat transfer rates. This study summarizes the investigation of different types of heat pipe heat recovery systems (HPHRSs). The studies are classified on the basis of the type of the HPHRS. This research is based on 30 years of experience on heat pipe and heat recovery systems that are presented in this study. Copyright , Oxford University ...

  14. Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers for heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Grakovich, L P; Kiselev, V G; Kurustalev, D K; Matveev, Yu

    1984-01-01

    Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers are of great importance in power engineering as a means of recovering waste heat of industrial enterprises, solar energy, geothermal waters and deep soil. Heat pipes are highly effective heat transfer units for transferring thermal energy over large distance (tens of meters) with low temperature drops. Their heat transfer characteristics and reliable working for more than 10-15 yr permit the design of new systems with higher heat engineering parameters.

  15. Unwanted heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka, M.

    2006-01-01

    The number of small heating plants using biomass is growing. According to TREND's information, Hrinovska energeticka, is the only one that controls the whole supplier chain in cooperation with its parent company in Bratislava. Starting with the collection and processing of wood chips by burning, heat production and heat distribution to the end user. This gives the company better control over costs and consequently its own prices. Last year, the engineering company, Hrinovske storjarne, decided to focus only on its core business and sold its heating plant, Hrinovske tepelne hospodarstvo, to Intech Slovakia and changed the company name to Hrinovska energeticka. Local companies and inhabitants were concerned that the new owner would increase prices. But the company publicly declared and kept promises that the heat price for households would remain at 500 Slovak crowns/gigajoule (13.33 EUR/gigajoule ), one of the lowest prices in Slovakia. This year the prices increased slightly to 570 Slovak crowns (15.2 EUR). 'We needed - even at the cost of lower profit - to satisfy our customers so that we would not lose them. We used this time for transition to biomass. This will allow us to freeze our prices in the coming years,' explained the statutory representative of the company, Ivan Dudak. (authors)

  16. Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  17. Optimization of heat supply systems employing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    Decision making on the further development of heat supply systems requires optimization of the parameters. In particular, meeting the demands of peak load ranges is of importance. The heat supply coefficient α and the annual utilization of peak load equipment τ FS have been chosen as the characteristic quantities to describe them. The heat price at the consumer, C V , offers as the optimization criterion. The transport distance, temperature spread of the heating water, and different curves of annual variation of heat consumption on heat supply coefficient and heat price at the consumer. A comparison between heat supply by nuclear power plants and nuclear heating stations verifies the advantage of combined heat and power generation even with longer heat transport distances as compared with local heat supply by nuclear district heating stations based on the criterion of minimum employment of peak load boilers. (author)

  18. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  19. Method for the utilization of waste heat, especially from nuclear power plants, in connection with processing sewage water and industrial waste water and in connection with the generation of motional energy whilst continuous heat recovery takes place and a device for carrying out this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borst, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A method is proposed by which the waste heat for nuclear power plants is used for distilling waste water, thus creating drinking water. A pressure vessel with appropriate pipes and control elementes, in which this process is to be carried out, is described. (UWI) [de

  20. Jet operated heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    A jet pump system is shown that utilizes waste heat to provide heating and/or cooling. Waste heat diverted through a boiler causes a refrigerant to evaporate and expand for supersonic discharge through a nozzle thereby creating a vacuum in an evaporator coil. The vacuum draws the refrigerant in a gaseous state into a condensing section of a jet pump along with refrigerant from a reservoir in a subcooled liquid form. This causes condensation of the gas in a condensation section of the jet pump, while moving at constant velocity. The change in momentum of the fluid overcomes the system high side pressure. Some of the condensate is cooled by a subcooler. Refrigerant in a subcooled liquid state from the subcooler is fed back into the evaporator and the condensing section with an adequate supply being insured by the reservoir. The motive portion of the condensate is returned to the boiler sans subcooling. By proper valving start-up is insured, as well as the ability to switch from heating to cooling

  1. Monopole heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Upper bounds on the flux of monopoles incident on the Earth with velocity -5 c(10 16 GeV m -1 ) and on the flux of monopoles incident on Jupiter with velocity -3 c(10 16 GeV m -1 ), are derived. Monopoles moving this slowly lose sufficient energy to be stopped, and then catalyse nucleon decay, releasing heat. The limits are obtained by requiring the rate of energy release from nucleon decay to be less than the measured amount of heat flowing out from the surface of the planet. (U.K.)

  2. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  3. Heat Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiji, Latif M.

    Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the follow ing ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters.

  4. Nuclear reactor auxiliary heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.E.; Pierce, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    An auxiliary heat removal system to remove residual heat from gas-cooled nuclear reactors is described. The reactor coolant is expanded through a turbine, cooled in a heat exchanger and compressed by a compressor before reentering the reactor coolant. The turbine powers both the compressor and the pump which pumps a second fluid through the heat exchanger to cool the reactor coolant. A pneumatic starter is utilized to start the turbine, thereby making the auxiliary heat removal system independent of external power sources

  5. AC induction field heating of graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Rios, Orlando; Kisner, Roger

    2017-08-22

    A magneto-energy apparatus includes an electromagnetic field source for generating a time-varying electromagnetic field. A graphite foam conductor is disposed within the electromagnetic field. The graphite foam when exposed to the time-varying electromagnetic field conducts an induced electric current, the electric current heating the graphite foam. An energy conversion device utilizes heat energy from the heated graphite foam to perform a heat energy consuming function. A device for heating a fluid and a method of converting energy are also disclosed.

  6. Waste heat recovery for offshore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Kandepu, Rambabu; Haglind, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    vary in the range 20-30%. There are several technologies available for onshore gas turbines (and low/medium heat sources) to convert the waste heat into electricity. For offshore applications it is not economical and practical to have a steam bottoming cycle to increase the efficiency of electricity...... production, due to low gas turbine outlet temperature, space and weight restrictions and the need for make-up water. A more promising option for use offshore is organic Rankine cycles (ORC). Moreover, several oil and gas platforms are equipped with waste heat recovery units to recover a part of the thermal...... energy in the gas turbine off-gas using heat exchangers, and the recovered thermal energy acts as heat source for some of the heat loads on the platform. The amount of the recovered thermal energy depends on the heat loads and thus the full potential of waste heat recovery units may not be utilized...

  7. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  8. Scale Resistant Heat Exchanger for Low Temperature Geothermal Binary Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Energent Corporation, Santa Ana, CA (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Phase 1 of the investigation of improvements to low temperature geothermal power systems was completed. The improvements considered were reduction of scaling in heat exchangers and a hermetic turbine generator (eliminating seals, seal system, gearbox, and lube oil system). A scaling test system with several experiments was designed and operated at Coso geothermal resource with brine having a high scaling potential. Several methods were investigated at the brine temperature of 235 ºF. One method, circulation of abradable balls through the brine passages, was found to substantially reduce scale deposits. The test heat exchanger was operated with brine outlet temperatures as low as 125 ºF, which enables increased heat input available to power conversion systems. For advanced low temperature cycles, such as the Variable Phase Cycle (VPC) or Kalina Cycle, the lower brine temperature will result in a 20-30% increase in power production from low temperature resources. A preliminary design of an abradable ball system (ABS) was done for the heat exchanger of the 1 megawatt VPC system at Coso resource. The ABS will be installed and demonstrated in Phase 2 of this project, increasing the power production above that possible with the present 175 ºF brine outlet limit. A hermetic turbine generator (TGH) was designed and manufacturing drawings produced. This unit will use the working fluid (R134a) to lubricate the bearings and cool the generator. The 200 kW turbine directly drives the generator, eliminating a gearbox and lube oil system. Elimination of external seals eliminates the potential of leakage of the refrigerant or hydrocarbon working fluids, resulting in environmental improvement. A similar design has been demonstrated by Energent in an ORC waste heat recovery system. The existing VPC power plant at Coso was modified to enable the “piggyback” demonstration of the TGH. The existing heat exchanger, pumps, and condenser will be operated to provide the required

  9. Manually operated elastomer heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, W. D.

    1970-01-01

    Device consisting of a rotating mechanism, a frame with multiple wide bands of rubber, and a fluid bath, demonstrates the feasibility of a human operated device capable of cooling or producing heat. This invention utilizes the basic thermodynamic properties of natural rubber.

  10. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  11. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  12. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  13. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, F; Yanagida, T; Fujie, K; Futawatari, H

    1975-04-30

    The purpose of this construction is the improvement of heat transfer in finned tube heat exchangers, and therefore the improvement of its efficiency or its output per unit volume. This is achieved by preventing the formation of flow boundary layers in gaseous fluid. This effect always occurs on flow of smooth adjacent laminae, and especially if these have pipes carrying liquid passing through them; it worsens the heat transfer of such a boundary layer considerably compared to that in the turbulent range. The fins, which have several rows of heat exchange tubes passing through them, are fixed at a small spacing on theses tubes. The fins have slots cut in them by pressing or punching, where the pressed-out material remains as a web, which runs parallel to the level of the fin and at a small distance from it. These webs and slots are arranged radially around every tube hole, e.g. 6 in number. For a suitable small tube spacing, two adjacent tubes opposite each other have one common slot. Many variants of such slot arrangements are illustrated.

  14. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  15. Standard monitoring system for domestic heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, C.P.J.M.; Oostendorp, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    In the years to come many domestic heat pump systems are to be installed in the Netherlands. The Dutch agency for energy and environment, NOVEM, and the association of energy utility companies, EnergieNed, give high priority to the monitoring of heat pump systems. The results of the projects,

  16. Case History of Assessment, Development and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J; Culver, Gene; Lund, John W

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230oF (38 to 110oC) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppm dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. The development of the city district heating system in 1981, resulted in perhaps the most extensive and, in some ways, the most complete aquifer tests ever conducted in the United States. Hundreds of private well owners using downhole heat exchangers were concerned that pumping the reservoir would impact the performance of their wells. The geological setting, historical development, and reservoir testing that led up to this major aquifer stress test in 1983 are presented. The institutional and legal problems that resulted in the establishment of a city ordinance controlling the use of the resource and a Geothermal Advisory Committee to oversee future utilization and development are also discussed.

  17. Small-scale CHP Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels- Development, Technology and Operating Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obernberger, I.; Carlsen, Henrik; Biedermann, F.

    2003-01-01

    ) process and the Stirling engine process. The ORC process represents an economically interesting technology for small-scale biomass-fired combined heat and power plants in a power range between 400 and 1,500 kWel. A newly developed ORC technology with a nominal electric capacity of 1,000 kW was implemented...... in the biomass CHP plant Lienz (A) in the framework of an EU demonstration project. This plant was put in operation in February 2002. Stirling engines are a promising solution for installations with nominal electric capacities between 10 and 150 kW. A biomass CHP pilot plant based on a 35 kWel-Stirling engine...

  18. Heat pipe heat exchangers in heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stulc, P; Vasiliev, L L; Kiseljev, V G; Matvejev, Ju N

    1985-01-01

    The results of combined research and development activities of the National Research Institute for Machine Design, Prague, C.S.S.R. and the Institute for Heat and Mass Transfer, Minsk, U.S.S.R. concerning intensification heat pipes used in heat pipe heat exchangers are presented. This sort of research has been occasioned by increased interest in heat power economy trying to utilise waste heat produced by various technological processes. The developed heat pipes are deployed in construction of air-air, gas-air or gas-gas heat recovery exchangers in the field of air-engineering and air-conditioning. (author).

  19. Development of a two-phase, two-component jet pump refrigerator for utilization of low-temperature solar heat. Final report; Entwicklung einer Zweiphasen-/Zweikomponenten-Strahlpumpenkaelteanlage zur Nutzung solarer Niedertemperaturwaerme. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostofizadeh, C.; Bohne, D.

    2001-08-01

    A solar refrigerator for air conditioning and cooling was developed. The key component is a two-phase, two-component jet pump with ammonia and water as working fluid. Both the pump flow and the suction flow can be two-phase flows. This way, the advantages of both the absorption and the compression principle will be utilized, and a compact size will be achieved. Upon termination of the calculations, the function of the pump will be investigated in a 0 W pilot plant. For this, various geometries were calculated and tested for their potential efficiencies. A prototype will be constructed on the basis of the results. [German] Das Ziel des Vorhabens besteht in der Entwicklung einer solarbetriebenen Kaelteanlage fuer Klimatisierungs- und Kuehlungszwecke. Die Hauptkomponente der Kaelteanlage ist eine Zweiphasen-/Zweikomponenten-Strahlpumpe, die mit dem Arbeitsgemisch Ammoniak/Wasser betrieben wird. Sowohl der Treib- als auch der Saugstrom koennen zweiphasig sein. Dadurch sollen einerseits die Vorteile des Absorptions- und des Kompressionsprinzips miteinander verknuepft und andererseits ein kompakter Aufbau erreicht werden. Nach Abschluss der thermodynamischen und kinetischen Berechnungen soll die Funktion der Zweiphasen-/Zweikomponenten-Strahlpumpe mit Hilfe einer Pilotanlage mit ca. 20 kW Kaelteleistung untersucht werden. Dazu werden nach Vorausberechnungen verschiedene Geometrien in Bezug auf erzielbare Wirkungsgrade getestet. Die Ergebnisse bilden die Basis fuer den Bau eines Prototyps. (orig.)

  20. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)