WorldWideScience

Sample records for heat treatment processing

  1. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  2. Process for forming thin film, heat treatment process of thin film sheet, and heat treatment apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a process for forming a magnetic thin film on a base film, a heat treatment process of a thin film sheet consisting of the base film and the magnetic thin film, and an apparatus for performing heat treatment of the thin film sheet. Tension applied to the thin film sheet is substantially equal to that applied to the base film when the magnetic thin film is formed thereon. Then, the thin film sheet is treated with heat. The thin film sheet is heated with a given temperature gradient to a reactive temperature at which heat shrinkage occurs, while the tension is being applied thereto. Thereafter, the thin film sheet to which the tension is still applied is cooled with substantially the same temperature gradient as applied in heating. The heat treatment apparatus has a film driving unit including a supply reel, a take-up reel, a drive source and guide rollers; a heating unit including heating plates, heater blocks and a temperature controller for heating the sheet to the reactive temperature; and a heat insulating unit including a thermostat and another temperature controller for maintaining the sheet at the nonreactive temperature which is slightly lower than the reactive temperature

  3. Improved process for the treatment of bituminous materials. [two heat treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1947-04-30

    A continuous process for recovering valuable hydrocarbon oils from solid minerals adapted to produce such oils upon application of heat, consists of reducing the raw minerals to a powder, suspending the powdered minerals in a gaseous medium and subjecting the suspension thus formed to heat treatment in a primary reaction zone, followed by heat treatment in a secondary reaction zone separate from the primary reaction zone. The temperature during the second of said treatments being substantially higher than that of the first.

  4. Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Myron Ira; Vinegar; Harold J.; Baker, Ralph Sterman; Heron, Goren

    2010-11-30

    Methods of treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Methods for treating a subsurface treatment area in a formation may include introducing a fluid into the formation from a plurality of wells offset from a treatment area of an in situ heat treatment process to inhibit outward migration of formation fluid from the in situ heat treatment process.

  5. Nuclear safety inspection in treatment process for SG heat exchange tubes deficiency of unit 1, TNPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunming; Song Chenxiu; Zhao Pengyu; Hou Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes treatment process for SG heat exchange tubes deficiency of Unit 1, TNPS, nuclear safety inspection of Northern Regional Office during treatment process for deficiency and further inspection after deficiency had been treated. (authors)

  6. Manufacturing of tailored tubes with a process integrated heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordych, Illia; Boiarkin, Viacheslav; Rodman, Dmytro; Nürnberger, Florian

    2017-10-01

    The usage of work-pieces with tailored properties allows for reducing costs and materials. One example are tailored tubes that can be used as end parts e.g. in the automotive industry or in domestic applications as well as semi-finished products for subsequent controlled deformation processes. An innovative technology to manufacture tubes is roll forming with a subsequent inductive heating and adapted quenching to obtain tailored properties in the longitudinal direction. This processing offers a great potential for the production of tubes with a wide range of properties, although this novel approach still requires a suited process design. Based on experimental data, a process simulation is being developed. The simulation shall be suitable for a virtual design of the tubes and allows for gaining a deeper understanding of the required processing. The model proposed shall predict microstructural and mechanical tube properties by considering process parameters, different geometries, batch-related influences etc. A validation is carried out using experimental data of tubes manufactured from various steel grades.

  7. Prediction of heat treatment in food processing machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Torben; Friis, Alan; Szabo, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The velocity and temperature fields of a shear thinning fluid in a co-rotating disc scraped surface heat exchanger (CDHE) are calculated using the finite element method. By tracking and timingparticles through the heat exchanger residence time and thermal time distributions are computed. The resi...

  8. Development of shelf stable, processed, low acid food products using heat-irradiation combination treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnaar, A.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of ionizing irradiation needed to sterilize low acid vegetable and starch products (with and without sauces) commercially impairs their sensorial and nutritive qualities, and use of thermal processes for the same purpose may also have an adverse effect on the product quality. A systematic approach to the establishment of optimized combination parameters was developed for heat-irradiation processing to produce high quality, shelf stable, low acid food products. The effects of selected heat, heat-irradiation combination and irradiation treatments on the quality of shelf stable mushrooms in brine and rice, stored at ambient temperature, were studied. From a quality viewpoint, use of heat-irradiation combination treatments favouring low irradiation dose levels offered a feasible alternative to thermally processed or radappertized mushrooms in brine. However, shelf stable rice produced by heat-irradiation combination treatments offered a feasible alternative only to radappertized rice from the standpoint of quality. The technical requirements for the heat and irradiation processing of a long grain rice cultivar from the United States of America oppose each other directly, thereby reducing the feasibility of using heat-irradiation combination processing to produce shelf stable rice. The stability of starch thickened white sauces was found to be affected severely during high dose irradiation and subsequent storage at ambient temperature. However, use of pea protein isolate as a thickener in white sauces was found to have the potential to maintain the viscosity of sauces for irradiated meat and sauce products throughout processing and storage. (author)

  9. Modeling heat and mass transfer in the heat treatment step of yerba maté processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Peralta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to estimate the leaf and twig temperature and moisture content of yerba maté branches (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire during heat treatment, carried out in a rotary kiln dryer. These variables had to be estimated (modeling the heat and mass transfer due to the difficulty of experimental measurement in the dryer. For modeling, the equipment was divided into two zones: the flame or heat treatment zone and the drying zone. The model developed fit well with the experimental data when water loss took place only in leaves. In the first zone, leaf temperature increased until it reached 135°C and then it slowly decreased to 88°C at the exit, despite the gas temperature, which varied in this zone from 460°C to 120°C. Twig temperature increased in the two zones from its inlet temperature (25°C up to 75°C. A model error of about 3% was estimated based on theoretical and experimental data on leaf moisture content.

  10. Effects of Mead Wort Heat Treatment on the Mead Fermentation Process and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabaj, Sławomir; Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Kliks, Jarosław

    2017-05-14

    The effects of mead wort heat treatment on the mead fermentation process and antioxidant activity were tested. The experiment was conducted with the use of two different honeys (multiflorous and honeydew) collected from the Lower Silesia region (Poland). Heat treatment was performed with the use of a traditional technique (gently boiling), the more commonly used pasteurization, and without heat treatment (control). During the experiment fermentation dynamics were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-RID). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were estimated for worts and meads using UV/Vis spectrophotometric analysis. The formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was monitored by HPLC analyses. Heat treatment had a great impact on the final antioxidant capacity of meads.

  11. PECULIARITIES OF GENERALIZATION OF SIMILAR PHENOMENA IN THE PROCESS OF FISH HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Pokhol’chenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical presuppositions for the possibility of generalizing and similarity founding in dehydration and wet materials heating processes are studieded in this article. It is offered to carry out the given processes generalization by using dimensionless numbers of similarity. At the detailed analyzing of regularities of heat treatment processes of fish in different modes a significant amount of experienced material was successfully generalized on the basis of dimensionless simplex (similarity numbers. Using the dimensionless simplex allowed to detect a number of simple mathematical models for the studied phenomena. The generalized kinetic models of fish dehydration, the generalized dynamic models (changing moisture diffusion coefficients, the generalized kinetic models of fish heating (the temperature field changing in the products thickness, average volume and center were founded. These generalized mathematical models showed also relationship of dehydration and heating at the processes of fish semi-hot, hot smoking (drying and frying. The relationship of the results from the physical nature of the dehydration process, including a change in the binding energy of the moisture with the material to the extent of the process and the shrinkage impact on the rate of the product moisture removal is given in the article. The factors influencing the internal structure and properties of the raw material changing and retarding the dehydration processes are described there. There was a heating rate dependence of fish products on the chemical composition the geometric dimensions of the object of heating and on the coolant regime parameters. A unique opportunity is opened by using the generalized models, combined with empirically derived equations and the technique of engineering calculation of these processes, to design a rational modes of heat treatment of raw materials and to optimize the performance of thermal equipment.

  12. T5 heat treatment of semi-solid metal processed aluminium alloy F357

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The T5 heat treatment of semi-solid metal (SSM) processed alloy F357 was investigated by considering the effects of cooling rate and natural aging after casting, as well as artificial aging parameters on tensile properties. In addition, the tensile...

  13. The Effects of pH and Heat Treatment Processing on the Stability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of pH and heat treatment processing on stability and natural food colours used in dairy products. A repeated laboratory experiment was conducted in which loss of colour intensity or change in shade of natural food colours used in acid and nearly neutral dairy products at ...

  14. Investigation of heat treatment conditions of structural material for blanket fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Takanori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Sawai, Tomotsugu; Jitsukawa, Shiro

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents recent results of thermal hysteresis effects on ceramic breeder blanket structural material. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF) steel is the leading candidates for the first wall structural materials of breeding blankets. RAF steel demonstrates superior resistance to high dose neutron irradiation, because the steel has tempered martensite structure which contains the number of sink site for radiation defects. This microstructure obtained by two-step heat treatment, first is normalizing at temperature above 1200 K and the second is tempering at temperature below 1100 K. Recent study revealed the thermal hysteresis has significant impacts on the post-irradiation mechanical properties. The breeding blanket has complicated structure, which consists of tungsten armor and thin first wall with cooling pipe. The blanket fabrication requires some high temperature joining processes. Especially hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is examined as a near-net-shape fabrication process for this structure. The process consists of heating above 1300 K and isostatic pressing at the pressure above 150 MPa followed by tempering. Moreover ceramics pebbles are packed into blanket module and the module is to be seamed by welding followed by post weld heat treatment in the final assemble process. Therefore the final microstructural features of RAFs strongly depend on the blanket fabrication process. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of thermal hysteresis corresponding to blanket fabrication process on RAFs microstructure in order to establish appropriate blanket fabrication process. Japanese RAFs F82H (Fe-0.1C-8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.05Ta) was investigated by metallurgical method after isochronal heat treatment up to 1473 K simulating high temperature bonding process. Although F82H showed significant grain growth after conventional solid HIP conditions (1313 K x 2 hr.), this coarse grained microstructure was refined by the post HIP normalizing at

  15. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  16. Heat treatment of processing sludge of ornamental rocks: application as pozzolan in cement matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Uliana

    Full Text Available The sector of ornamental rocks produces significant volume of waste during the sawing of the blocks and demand to find ways to recycle, given its environmental impact. Considering the possibilities of use of industrial by-products as mineral admixtures, aiming at sustainable development in the construction industry, this paper aims to study the performance of the processing sludge of ornamental rocks and grinding after heat treatment, based on their potential application as partial substitute for cement. The residue was characterized, cast and milled to produce glassy material. Was analyzed the mechanical performance and pozzolanic activity with partial replacement of cement by waste in natural condition and after heat treatment in mortars for comparison. The results were promising, so it was possible to verify that after heat treatment, the treated waste is presented as a material with pozzolanic characteristics.

  17. Computerized property prediction and process planning in heat treatment of steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gergely, M. (Steel Advisory Centre for Industrial Technologies (SACIT), Budapest (Hungary)); Somogyi, S. (Steel Advisory Centre for Industrial Technologies (SACIT), Budapest (Hungary)); Kohlheb, R. (Steel Advisory Centre for Industrial Technologies (SACIT), Budapest (Hungary))

    1994-01-01

    Recent years have seen widespread interest in the establishment of prediction methods, based on phenomenological description and computer simulation of transformation processes during heat treatment, and in the introduction of software for technological planning. The steady development of this approach is aimed at meeting the requirement of metallurgists, design engineers dealing with material selection and dimensioning, and technologists planning heat treatment processes. Research in this field of computer simulation has been concentrated so far on two main areas of interest: . Modelling of transformation processes and the prediction of microstructures and/or properties, . Developing program packages to help solve concrete tasks such as material selection, on-line process control and monitoring, and the design of heat-treating operations. During the last two decades in the field of heat treatment, various mathematical models with different accuracy and complexity have been developed. In this paper, an attempt is made to outline some important results in computer simulation and computerized property prediction without aiming at completeness. The topic is restricted to quenched and tempered, and case-hardened steels. (orig.)

  18. New method of processing heat treatment experiments with numerical simulation support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, T.; Moravec, J.; Novakova, I.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, benefits of combining modern software for numerical simulations of welding processes with laboratory research was described. Proposed new method of processing heat treatment experiments leading to obtaining relevant input data for numerical simulations of heat treatment of large parts was presented. It is now possible, by using experiments on small tested samples, to simulate cooling conditions comparable with cooling of bigger parts. Results from this method of testing makes current boundary conditions during real cooling process more accurate, but also can be used for improvement of software databases and optimization of a computational models. The point is to precise the computation of temperature fields for large scale hardening parts based on new method of temperature dependence determination of the heat transfer coefficient into hardening media for the particular material, defined maximal thickness of processed part and cooling conditions. In the paper we will also present an example of the comparison standard and modified (according to newly suggested methodology) heat transfer coefficient data’s and theirs influence on the simulation results. It shows how even the small changes influence mainly on distribution of temperature, metallurgical phases, hardness and stresses distribution. By this experiment it is also possible to obtain not only input data and data enabling optimization of computational model but at the same time also verification data. The greatest advantage of described method is independence of used cooling media type.

  19. Processes subject to integrated pollution control. Combustion processes: reheat and heat treatment furnaces 50 MW(th) and over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document, part of a series offering guidance on pollution control regulations issued by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, focuses on combustion processes involved with reheat and heat treatment furnaces of 50 MW (th) and over. Techniques for controlling releases into air, water and to land are detailed as are the various pollution monitoring strategies. (UK)

  20. 3D numerical modeling of coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment with malice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwong Peeteenut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a multi-method Malice package for three dimension coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment by an algorithm weakly coupled with the Migen package integral method defining the electromagnetic model and the Flux-Expert package finite element method defining the thermal model. The integral method is well suited to inductive systems undergoing sinusoidal excitation at midrange or high frequency. The unknowns of both models are current density, scalar potential and temperature. Joule power in the electromagnetic model is generated by Eddy currents. It becomes the heat source in the thermal model.

  1. Influence of prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment on biologically-active human milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jih-Chin; Chen, Chao-Huei; Fang, Li-Jung; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Wang, Teh-Ming

    2013-12-01

    The bioactive proteins in human milk may be influenced by prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of these procedures. Three forms of human milk - freshly expressed, frozen at -20°C for a prolonged duration, and pasteurized milk - were collected from 14 healthy lactating mothers and a milk bank. The concentrations of major bioactive proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and leptin) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Changes in these proteins by heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C for 30 minutes were further evaluated. The mean concentrations of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A were significantly reduced by 66% and 25.9%, respectively, in pasteurized milk compared with those in freshly-expressed milk. Heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C did not cause significant changes in lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A, but there was an apparent increase in lysozyme (p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in leptin level among these three forms of milk prior to (p = 0.153) or after heat treatment (p = 0.053). Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Sensitivity of Austempering Heat Treatment of Ductile Irons to Changes in Process Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardo, A. D.; Dardati, P. M.; Godoy, L. A.; Celentano, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is frequently obtained by means of a three-step austempering heat treatment. The parameters of this process play a crucial role on the microstructure of the final product. This paper considers the influence of some process parameters (i.e., the initial microstructure of ductile iron and the thermal cycle) on key features of the heat treatment (such as minimum required time for austenitization and austempering and microstructure of the final product). A computational simulation of the austempering heat treatment is reported in this work, which accounts for a coupled thermo-metallurgical behavior in terms of the evolution of temperature at the scale of the part being investigated (the macroscale) and the evolution of phases at the scale of microconstituents (the microscale). The paper focuses on the sensitivity of the process by looking at a sensitivity index and scatter plots. The sensitivity indices are determined by using a technique based on the variance of the output. The results of this study indicate that both the initial microstructure and the thermal cycle parameters play a key role in the production of ADI. This work also provides a guideline to help selecting values of the appropriate process parameters to obtain parts with a required microstructural characteristic.

  3. Sensitivity of Austempering Heat Treatment of Ductile Irons to Changes in Process Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardo, A. D.; Dardati, P. M.; Godoy, L. A.; Celentano, D. J.

    2018-06-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is frequently obtained by means of a three-step austempering heat treatment. The parameters of this process play a crucial role on the microstructure of the final product. This paper considers the influence of some process parameters ( i.e., the initial microstructure of ductile iron and the thermal cycle) on key features of the heat treatment (such as minimum required time for austenitization and austempering and microstructure of the final product). A computational simulation of the austempering heat treatment is reported in this work, which accounts for a coupled thermo-metallurgical behavior in terms of the evolution of temperature at the scale of the part being investigated (the macroscale) and the evolution of phases at the scale of microconstituents (the microscale). The paper focuses on the sensitivity of the process by looking at a sensitivity index and scatter plots. The sensitivity indices are determined by using a technique based on the variance of the output. The results of this study indicate that both the initial microstructure and the thermal cycle parameters play a key role in the production of ADI. This work also provides a guideline to help selecting values of the appropriate process parameters to obtain parts with a required microstructural characteristic.

  4. Quality of mango nectar processed by high-pressure homogenization with optimized heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Franchi, Mark Alexandrow; de Massaguer, Pilar Rodriguez; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2011-03-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) with heat shock on Aspergillus niger, vitamin C, and color of mango nectar. The nectar was processed at 200 MPa followed by heat shock, which was optimized by response surface methodology by using mango nectar ratio (45 to 70), heat time (10 to 20), and temperature (60 to 85 °C) as variables. The color of mango nectar and vitamin C retention were evaluated at the optimized treatments, that is, 200 MPa + 61.5 °C/20 min or 73.5 °C/10 min. The mathematical model indicates that heat shock time and temperature showed a positive effect in the mould inactivation, whereas increasing ratio resulted in a protective effect on A. niger. The optimized treatments did not increase the retention of vitamin C, but had positive effect for the nectar color, in particular for samples treated at 200 MPa + 61.5 °C/20 min. The results obtained in this study show that the conidia can be inactivated by applying HPH with heat shock, particularly to apply HPH as an option to pasteurize fruit nectar for industries.

  5. Effect of Various Heat Treatment Processes on Fatigue Behavior of Tool Steel for Cold Forging Die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. U.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, Y. S.; Kwon, Y. N.; Lee, J. H.

    Effects of various heat treatment processes, including "Q/T (quenching and tempering)", "Q/CT/T (Quenching, cryogenic treatment and tempering)", "Q/T (quenching and tempering) + Ti-nitriding" and "Q/CT/T (Cryogenic treatment and tempering) + Ti-nitriding", on S-N fatigue behavior of AISI D2 tool steel were investigated. The optical micrographs and Vicker's hardness values at near surface and core area were examined for each specimen. Uniaxial fatigue tests were performed by using an electro-magnetic resonance fatigue testing machine at a frequency of 80 Hz and an R ratio of -1. The overall resistance to fatigue tends to decrease significantly with Ti-nitriding treatment compared to those for the general Q/T and Q/CT/T specimens. The reduced resistance to fatigue with Ti-nitriding is discussed based on the microstructural and fractographic analyses.

  6. Endotoxin inactivation via steam-heat treatment in dilute simethicone emulsions used in biopharmaceutical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Keith A; Galvin, Jeffrey; Gammell, Patrick; Nti-Gyabaah, Joseph; Boras, George; Kolwyck, David; Ramirez, José G; Presente, Esther; Naugle, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Simethicone emulsion is used to regulate foaming in cell culture operations in biopharmaceutical processes. It is also a potential source of endotoxin contamination. The inactivation of endotoxins in dilute simethicone emulsions was assessed as a function of time at different steam temperatures using a Limulus amebocyte lysate kinetic chromogenic technique. Endotoxin inactivation from steam-heat treatment was fit to a four-parameter double exponential decay model, which indicated that endotoxin inactivation was biphasic, consisting of fast and slow regimes. In the fast regime, temperature-related effects were dominant. Transitioning into the slow regime, the observed temperature dependence diminished, and concentration-related effects became increasingly significant. The change in the Gibbs free energy moving through the transition state indicated that a large energy barrier must be overcome for endotoxin inactivation to occur. The corresponding Arrhenius pre-exponential factor was >10(12) s(-1) suggesting that endotoxins in aqueous solution exist as aggregates. The disorder associated with the endotoxin inactivation reaction pathway was assessed via the change in entropy moving through the transition state. This quantity was positive indicating that endotoxin inactivation may result from hydrolysis of individual endotoxin molecules, which perturbs the conformation of endotoxin aggregates, thereby modulating the biological activity observed. Steam-heat treatment decreased endotoxin levels by 1-2 logarithm (log) reduction (LRV), which may be practically relevant depending on incoming raw material endotoxin levels. Antifoam efficiency and cell culture performance were negligibly impacted following steam-heat treatment. The results from this study show that steam-heat treatment is a viable endotoxin control strategy that can be implemented to support large-scale biopharmaceutical manufacturing. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Evaluation of a recycling process for printed circuit board by physical separation and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Toyohisa; Ono, Hiroyuki; Dodbiba, Gjergj; Yamaguchi, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The parts mounted on printed circuit board (PCB) were liberated by underwater explosion and mechanical crushing. • The crushed PCB without surface-mounted parts was carbonized under inert atmosphere at 873 K to recover copper. • The multi-layered ceramic capacitors including nickel was carbonized at 873 K to recover nickel by the magnetic separation. • The tantalum powders were recovered from the molded resins by heat treatment at 723 and 823 K in air atmosphere and screening. • Energy and treatment cost of new process increased, however, the environmental burden decreased comparing conventional one. - Abstract: Printed circuit boards (PCBs) from discarded personal computer (PC) and hard disk drive were crushed by explosion in water or mechanical comminution in order to disintegrate the attached parts. More parts were stripped from PCB of PC, composed of epoxy resin; than from PCB of household appliance, composed of phenol resin. In an attempt to raise the copper grade of PCB by removing other components, a carbonization treatment was investigated. The crushed PCB without surface-mounted parts was carbonized under a nitrogen atmosphere at 873–1073 K. After screening, the char was classified by size into oversized pieces, undersized pieces and powder. The copper foil and glass fiber pieces were liberated and collected in undersized fraction. The copper foil was liberated easily from glass fiber by stamping treatment. As one of the mounted parts, the multi-layered ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), which contain nickel, were carbonized at 873 K. The magnetic separation is carried out at a lower magnetic field strength of 0.1 T and then at 0.8 T. In the +0.5 mm size fraction the nickel grade in magnetic product was increased from 0.16% to 6.7% and the nickel recovery is 74%. The other useful mounted parts are tantalum capacitors. The tantalum capacitors were collected from mounted parts. The tantalum-sintered bodies were separated from molded resins

  8. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie [Houston, TX; Mandema, Remco Hugo [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  9. Mathematical modeling of heat treatment processes conserving biological activity of plant bioresources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N. S.; Popov, E. S.; Pozhidaeva, E. A.; Pynzar, S. S.; Ryaskina, L. O.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical model of the heat exchange process of LT-processing to estimate the dynamics of temperature field changes and optimize the regime parameters, due to the non-stationarity process, the physicochemical and thermophysical properties of food systems. The application of LT-processing, based on the use of low-temperature modes in thermal culinary processing of raw materials with preliminary vacuum packaging in a polymer heat- resistant film is a promising trend in the development of technics and technology in the catering field. LT-processing application of food raw materials guarantees the preservation of biologically active substances in food environments, which are characterized by a certain thermolability, as well as extend the shelf life and high consumer characteristics of food systems that are capillary-porous bodies. When performing the mathematical modeling of the LT-processing process, the packet of symbolic mathematics “Maple” was used, as well as the mathematical packet flexPDE that uses the finite element method for modeling objects with distributed parameters. The processing of experimental results was evaluated with the help of the developed software in the programming language Python 3.4. To calculate and optimize the parameters of the LT processing process of polycomponent food systems, the differential equation of non-stationary thermal conductivity was used, the solution of which makes it possible to identify the temperature change at any point of the solid at different moments. The present study specifies data on the thermophysical characteristics of the polycomponent food system based on plant raw materials, with the help of which the physico-mathematical model of the LT- processing process has been developed. The obtained mathematical model allows defining of the dynamics of the temperature field in different sections of the LT-processed polycomponent food systems on the basis of calculating the

  10. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stanecki, John

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  11. Combining the pressure effect with local heat treatment for improving the sheet metal forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, G.; Piccininni, A.; Guglielmi, P.; Sorgente, D.; Tricarico, L.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with the advantages in the Hydromechanical Deep Drawing (HDD) when AA5754 Tailored Heat Treated Blanks (THTBs) are adopted. It is well known that the creation of a suitable distribution of material properties increases the process performance. When non heat-treatable alloys are considered, the THTB approach can be successfully applied to increase the Limit Drawing Ratio (LDR) by changing the peripheral zone into the annealed state starting from a cold-worked blank. If this approach is combined with the advantages of a counterpressure, even more remarkable improvements can be achieved. Due to the large number of involved parameters, the optimized design of both the local treatment and the pressure profile were investigated coupling an axial symmetric Finite Element model with the integration platform modeFRONTIER. Results confirmed the possibility of increasing the LDR from 2.0 (Deep Drawing using a blank in the annealed state) up to about 3.0 if combining the adoption of a THTB with the optimal pressure profile.

  12. Effect of heat treatment on the characteristics of tool steel deposited by the directed energy deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Seok; Lee, Min-Gyu; Cho, Yong-Jae; Sung, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Myeong-Sik; Lee, Sang-Kon; Choi, Yong-Jin; Kim, Da Hye

    2016-01-01

    The directed energy deposition process has been mainly applied to re-work and the restoration of damaged steel. Differences in material properties between the base and the newly deposited materials are unavoidable, which may affect the mechanical properties and durability of the part. We investigated the effect of heat treatment on the characteristics of tool steel deposited by the DED process. We prepared general tool steel materials of H13 and D2 that were deposited onto heat-treated substrates of H13 and D2, respectively, using a direct metal tooling process. The hardness and microstructure of the deposited steel before and after heat treatment were investigated. The hardness of the deposited H13 steel was higher than that of wrought H13 steel substrate, while that of the deposited D2 was lower than that of wrought D2. The evolution of the microstructures by deposition and heat treatment varied depending on the materials. In particular, the microstructure of the deposited D2 steel after heat treatment consisted of fine carbides in tempered martensite and it is expected that the deposited D2 steel will have isotropic properties and high hardness after heat treatment.

  13. Retained Austenite in SAE 52100 Steel Post Magnetic Processing and Heat Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, Nathaniel R [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Cavin, Odis Burl [ORNL; Jaramillo, Roger A [ORNL; Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that contains up to 2% carbon by weight. Understanding which phases of iron and carbon form as a function of temperature and percent carbon is important in order to process/manufacture steel with desired properties. Austenite is the face center cubic (fcc) phase of iron that exists between 912 and 1394 C. When hot steel is rapidly quenched in a medium (typically oil or water), austenite transforms into martensite. The goal of the study is to determine the effect of applying a magnetic field on the amount of retained austenite present at room temperature after quenching. Samples of SAE 52100 steel were heat treated then subjected to a magnetic field of varying strength and time, while samples of SAE 1045 steel were heat treated then subjected to a magnetic field of varying strength for a fixed time while being tempered. X-ray diffraction was used to collect quantitative data corresponding to the amount of each phase present post processing. The percentage of retained austenite was then calculated using the American Society of Testing and Materials standard for determining the amount of retained austenite for randomly oriented samples and was plotted as a function of magnetic field intensity, magnetic field apply time, and magnetic field wait time after quenching to determine what relationships exist with the amount of retained austenite present. In the SAE 52100 steel samples, stronger field strengths resulted in lower percentages of retained austenite for fixed apply times. The results were inconclusive when applying a fixed magnetic field strength for varying amounts of time. When applying a magnetic field after waiting a specific amount of time after quenching, the analyses indicate that shorter wait times result in less retained austenite. The SAE 1045 results were inconclusive. The samples showed no retained austenite regardless of magnetic field strength, indicating that tempering removed the retained austenite. It is apparent

  14. Nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Hohn, H.; Schad, M.; Schwarz, D.; Singh, J.

    1993-01-01

    In a system for the application of high temperature heat from the HTR one must distinguish between the current generation and the use of process heat. In this respect it is important that the current can be generated by dual purpose power plants. The process heat is used as sensible heat, vaporisation heat and as chemical energy at the chemical conversion for the conversion of raw materials, the refinement of fossil primary energy carriers and finally circuit processes for the fission of water. These processes supply the market for heat, fuels, motor fuels and basic materials. Fifteen examples of HTR heat processes from various projects and programmes are presented in form of energy balances, however in a rather short way. (orig./DG) [de

  15. A Method to Make Classification of the Heat Treatment Processes Performed on Bronze Using Incomplete Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluska-Nawarecka S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problem of selection of heat treatment parameters to obtain the required mechanical properties in heat- treated bronzes. A methodology for the construction of a classification model based on rough set theory is presented. A model of this type allows the construction of inference rules also in the case when our knowledge of the existing phenomena is incomplete, and this is situation commonly encountered when new materials enter the market. In the case of new test materials, such as the grade of bronze described in this article, we still lack full knowledge and the choice of heat treatment parameters is based on a fragmentary knowledge resulting from experimental studies. The measurement results can be useful in building of a model, this model, however, cannot be deterministic, but can only approximate the stochastic nature of phenomena. The use of rough set theory allows for efficient inference also in areas that are not yet fully explored.

  16. Processing and refinement of steel microstructure images for assisting in computerized heat treatment of plain carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shubhank; Panda, Aditi; Naskar, Ruchira; Mishra, Dinesh Kumar; Pal, Snehanshu

    2017-11-01

    Steels are alloys of iron and carbon, widely used in construction and other applications. The evolution of steel microstructure through various heat treatment processes is an important factor in controlling properties and performance of steel. Extensive experimentations have been performed to enhance the properties of steel by customizing heat treatment processes. However, experimental analyses are always associated with high resource requirements in terms of cost and time. As an alternative solution, we propose an image processing-based technique for refinement of raw plain carbon steel microstructure images, into a digital form, usable in experiments related to heat treatment processes of steel in diverse applications. The proposed work follows the conventional steps practiced by materials engineers in manual refinement of steel images; and it appropriately utilizes basic image processing techniques (including filtering, segmentation, opening, and clustering) to automate the whole process. The proposed refinement of steel microstructure images is aimed to enable computer-aided simulations of heat treatment of plain carbon steel, in a timely and cost-efficient manner; hence it is beneficial for the materials and metallurgy industry. Our experimental results prove the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  17. Microwave processing heats up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwaves are a common appliance in many households. In the United States microwave heating is the third most popular domestic heating method food foods. Microwave heating is also a commercial food processing technology that has been applied for cooking, drying, and tempering foods. It's use in ...

  18. Effect of Heat Treatment Process on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of a 9% Ni Steel for Large LNG Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. M.; Li, H.; Yang, F.; Chi, Q.; Ji, L. K.; Feng, Y. R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, two different heat treatment processes of a 9% Ni steel for large liquefied natural gas storage tanks were performed in an industrial heating furnace. The former was a special heat treatment process consisting of quenching and intercritical quenching and tempering (Q-IQ-T). The latter was a heat treatment process only consisting of quenching and tempering. Mechanical properties were measured by tensile testing and charpy impact testing, and the microstructure was analyzed by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The results showed that outstanding mechanical properties were obtained from the Q-IQ-T process in comparison with the Q-T process, and a cryogenic toughness with charpy impact energy value of 201 J was achieved at 77 K. Microstructure analysis revealed that samples of the Q-IQ-T process had about 9.8% of austenite in needle-like martensite, while samples of the Q-T process only had about 0.9% of austenite retained in tempered martensite.

  19. In situ post-weld heat treatment on martensitic stainless steel turbine runners using a robotic induction heating process to control temperature distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault, E.; Hazel, B.; Côté, J.; Godin, S.

    2014-03-01

    A new robotic heat treatment process is developed. Using this solution it is now possible to perform local heat treatment on large steel components. Crack, cavitation and erosion repairs on turbine blades and Pelton buckets are among the applications of this technique. The proof of concept is made on a 13Cr-4Ni stainless steel designated "CA6NM". This alloy is widely used in the power industry for modern system components. Given the very tight temperature tolerance (600 to 630 °C) for post-weld heat treatment on this alloy, 13Cr-4Ni stainless steel is very well suited for demonstrating the possibilities of this process. To achieve heat treatment requirements, an induction heating system is mounted on a compact manipulator named "Scompi". This robot moves a pancake coil in order to control the temperature distribution. A simulator using thermal finite element analysis is first used for path planning. A feedback loop adjusts parameters in function of environmental conditions.

  20. In situ post-weld heat treatment on martensitic stainless steel turbine runners using a robotic induction heating process to control temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreault, E; Hazel, B; Côté, J; Godin, S

    2014-01-01

    A new robotic heat treatment process is developed. Using this solution it is now possible to perform local heat treatment on large steel components. Crack, cavitation and erosion repairs on turbine blades and Pelton buckets are among the applications of this technique. The proof of concept is made on a 13Cr-4Ni stainless steel designated C A6NM . This alloy is widely used in the power industry for modern system components. Given the very tight temperature tolerance (600 to 630 °C) for post-weld heat treatment on this alloy, 13Cr-4Ni stainless steel is very well suited for demonstrating the possibilities of this process. To achieve heat treatment requirements, an induction heating system is mounted on a compact manipulator named S compi . This robot moves a pancake coil in order to control the temperature distribution. A simulator using thermal finite element analysis is first used for path planning. A feedback loop adjusts parameters in function of environmental conditions

  1. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Prolonged Storage Process, Pasteurization, and Heat Treatment on Biologically-active Human Milk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Chin Chang

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status.

  3. Application of heat treatment and hot extrusion processes to improve mechanical properties of the AZ91 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Reguła

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of hot working (extrusion and hest treatment on room temperature mechanical properties of magnesium-based AZ91 alloy. The results were compared with as-cast condition. The examined material had been obtained by gravity casting to permanent moulds and subsequently subjected to heat treatment and/or processed by extrusion at 648 K. Microstructural and mechanical properties of properly prepared specimens were studied. Rm, Rp02 and A5 were determined from tensile tests. Brinell hardness tests were also conducted. The research has shown that hot working of AZ91 alloy provides high mechanical properties unattainable by cast material subjected to heat-treatment. The investigated alloy subjected to hot working and subsequently heat-treated has doubled its strength and considerably improved the elongation - compared with the as-cast material.

  4. Effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields processing and conventional heat treatment on orange-carrot juice carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Francisco; Cortés, Clara; Esteve, María J; Frígola, Ana

    2005-11-30

    Liquid chromatography (LC) was the method of choice for quantification of carotenoids (including geometrical isomers) to evaluate the effects of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF), a nonthermal preservation method, with different parameters (electric field intensities and treatment times), on an orange-carrot juice mixture (80:20, v/v). In parallel, a conventional heat treatment (98 degrees C, 21 s) was applied to the juice. HIPEF processing generally caused a significant increase in the concentrations of the carotenoids identified as treatment time increased. HIPEF treatment at 25 and 30 kV/cm provided a vitamin A concentration higher than that found in the pasteurized juice.

  5. Fabrication and heat treatment of high strength Al-Cu-Mg alloy processed using selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hu; Zhu, Haihong; Nie, Xiaojia; Qi, Ting; Hu, Zhiheng; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2016-04-01

    The proposed paper illustrates the fabrication and heat treatment of high strength Al-Cu-Mg alloy produced by selective laser melting (SLM) process. Al-Cu-Mg alloy is one of the heat treatable aluminum alloys regarded as difficult to fusion weld. SLM is an additive manufacturing technique through which components are built by selectively melting powder layers with a focused laser beam. The process is characterized by short laser-powder interaction times and localized high heat input, which leads to steep thermal gradients, rapid solidification and fast cooling. In this research, 3D Al-Cu-Mg parts with relative high density of 99.8% are produced by SLM from gas atomized powders. Room temperature tensile tests reveal a remarkable mechanical behavior: the samples show yield and tensile strengths of about 276 MPa and 402 MPa, respectively, along with fracture strain of 6%. The effect of solution treatment on microstructure and related tensile properties is examined and the results demonstrate that the mechanical behavior of the SLMed Al-Cu-Mg samples can be greatly enhanced through proper heat treatment. After T4 solution treatment at 540°C, under the effect of precipitation strengthening, the tensile strength and the yield strength increase to 532 MPa and 338 MPa, respectively, and the elongation increases to 13%.

  6. Optimizing Heat Treatment Process of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni Martensitic Stainless of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M. S.; Prifiharni, S.; Mabruri, E.

    2017-05-01

    The Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels are modified into martensitic stainless steels for steam turbine blades application. The working temperature of steam turbine was around 600 - 700 °C. The improvement properties of turbine blade material is necessary to maintain steam turbine work. The previous research revealed that it has corrosion resistance of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni which is better than 13Cr stainless steels in the chloride environment. In this work, the effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels has been studied. The steel was prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging. The steels were austenitized at 1000, 1050, and 1100 °C for 1 hour and were tempered at 600, 650, and 700 °C for 1 hour. The steels were then subjected to metallographic observation and hardness test of Rockwell C. The optimal heat treatment of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni was carried out austenitized in 1050 °C and tempered in 600 - 700 °C.

  7. Perspectives of using Q&P-heat treatment process for improving complex of mechanical properties of steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василь Георгійович Єфременко

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of foreign publications on the influence of modes Q&P (quenching and partitioning heat treatment on mechanical and operational properties of structural steels with different carbon content. The mechanism of structure formation in Q&P-treated steels is analyzed, it is shown that Q&P-treatment results in formation of a microstructure containing tempered martensite, lower bainite (polygonal ferrite with an increased amount of residual austenite which provides TRIP-effect when loaded. The values of strength and plastic properties, achieved in the low-carbon, medium-and high-carbon steel as a result of Q&P-processing are presented. The effect of alloying elements (Mn, Si, Al, Cr, Mo, Nb etc. on the properties of the Q&P-steels is described. It is shown the crucial role of silicon and aluminum in formation of residual austenite and carbides-free bainite. The parameters of Q&P-processing, determining the amount of residual austenite and its ability to deformation martensite transformation during deformation are analyzed. The classification of types Q&P-treatment, depending on the additional operations of heat treatment such as preliminary hardening, heating in the intercritical temperature range, tempering for dispersed carbides precipitation, is given. The prospects of Q&P-processing to produce relatively inexpensive high strength steels are described

  8. Heat treatment furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  9. Process heat. Triggering the processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2012-07-01

    If solar process heat is to find a market, then the decision makers in industrial companies need to be aware that it actually exists. This was one of the main goals of the So-Pro project, which officially drew to a close in April 2012. (orig.)

  10. The effect of postproduction heat treatment on γ-TiAl alloys produced by the GTAW-based additive manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yan; Cuiuri, Dominic; Li, Huijun; Pan, Zengxi, E-mail: zengxi@uow.edu.au; Shen, Chen

    2016-03-07

    Postproduction heat treatments were carried out on additively manufactured γ-TiAl alloys that were produced by using the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. The microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of both as-fabricated and heat-treated specimens were investigated to assess the effect of different heat treatment conditions, by using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Neutron Diffraction and tensile tests. The results indicated that heat treatment promotes the formation of the γ phase in the majority region after heat treatment at 1200 °C for 24 h, while a fully lamellar structure was formed in the near-substrate zone. The response to heat treatment at 1060 °C/24 h was markedly different, producing a fine lamellar structure with differing sizes in the majority region and near-substrate zone. These various microstructural characteristics determined the mechanical properties of the heat-treated samples. The heat-treated samples at 1200 °C/24 h exhibited lower UTS and microhardness values but higher ductility than the as-fabricated samples without heat treatment, while the 1060 °C/24 h heat treatment resulted in higher UTS and microhardness values but lower ductility. Due to the homogenous microstructure in the majority region after each postproduction heat treatment, the tensile properties were similar for both the build direction (Z) and travel direction (Y), thereby minimising the anisotropy that is exhibited by the as-fabricated alloy prior to heat treatment.

  11. Recovery of palladium, cesium, and selenium from heavy metal alkali borosilicate glass by combination of heat treatment and leaching processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhanglian; Okada, Takashi, E-mail: t-okada@u-fukui.ac.jp; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • A separation technique of both noble and less noble metal from glass is studied. • Via reductive heat treatment, 80% of palladium is extracted in liquid bismuth. • Sodium–potassium-rich materials with cesium and selenium are phase separated. • From the materials, over 80% of cesium and selenium are extracted in water. - Abstract: Reductive heat-treatment and leaching process were applied to a simulated lead or bismuth soda-potash-borosilicate glass with palladium, cesium, and selenium to separate these elements. In the reductive heat treatment, palladium is extracted in liquid heavy metal phase generated by the reduction of the heavy metal oxides, whereas cesium and selenium are concentrated in phase separated Na–K-rich materials on the glass surface. From the materials, cesium and selenium can be extracted in water, and the selenium extraction was higher in the treatment of the bismuth containing glass. The chemical forms of palladium in the glass affected the extraction efficiencies of cesium and selenium. Among the examined conditions, in the bismuth glass treatment, the cesium and selenium extraction efficiencies in water were over 80%, and that of palladium in liquid bismuth was over 80%.

  12. Investigation of the oxidative processes in intermetallic Sm Co5 powder during heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talijan, Nadezda M.; Milutinovic-Nikolic, Aleksandra; Stajic-Trosic, Jasna T.; Jovanovic, Zarko D.

    1996-01-01

    Understanding of the thermal stability of intermetallic Sm Co 5 powder is essential for designing the working atmosphere in all phases of the technological procedure in the production of sintered Sm Co 5 magnets to obtain maximal magnetic properties. The thermal stability of the Sm Co 5 powder with defined chemical composition and particle size was investigated in the interval from 20 to 900 deg C. Commercial Sm Co 5 powder was used in this experiment. The powder was milled in anhydrous toluene in an agate mortar to fine powder of quality used in the production of sintered magnets. All the experiments were carried out with powder of an average particle size of 7.23μm, established by SEM. THe thermal stability of the Sm Co 5 powder in static air atmosphere was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) using a DuPont Thermal Analyzer. Investigation of the behaviour of Sm Co 5 powder during heating was carried out using new samples of Sm Co 5 powder for each of the investigated temperature cycles. It was found by TGA that up to 200 deg C, the oxidation of Sm Co 5 was negligible. X-ray diffraction of the thermogravimetric experimental residue of the Sm Co 5 powder, heated at 240 deg C, yielded only the presence of the Sm Co 5 phase. By X-ray diffraction different crystal forms were identified depending on the maximal heating temperature. The following phases were identified: Sm 2 O 3 , Co, Co O, Co 3 O 4 and Sm Co O 3 . According to TG and X-ray results, for each of the investigated temperatures, the corresponding chemical reactions were established. The experimental data from both the thermal and X-ray investigations confirm that the phases of pressing and aligning the Sm Co 5 powder, in the process of producing sintered Sm Co 5 magnets, may be performed without a protective atmosphere. (author)

  13. Interfacial reaction between SiC and aluminium due to extrusion and heat treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaidah Jai; Fauzi Ismail; Samsiah Sulaiman; Patthi Hussain, Azmi Idris; Yoichi Murakoshi

    1999-01-01

    Chemical interaction between aluminium (Al) and silicon carbide (SiC) produces aluminium carbide (Al 4 C 3 ) which presents potential problems in the production and application of Al/SiC Metal Matrix Composit (MMC). The Al 4 C 3 formed can reduce material properties such as strength in the MMC. This research work investigates the interface reaction in Al 7075/SiC MMC made through hot extrusion process. Mixed Al 7075/SiC MMC powders were pressed at 300 degree C and extruded at 500 degree C, with a reduction ratio of 20:1. The extruded MMC was then heat-treated in air at various temperatures from 560 degree C, 600 degree C, 640 degree C, 700 degree C to 800 degree C in order to observe the interface reaction of the MMC materials. The heat-treated MMCs were then analyzed under the optical microscope, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Spectroscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDAZ) attachment to observe the interface reaction within the MMCs. This investigation confirms there was interface reaction between SiC and aluminium

  14. Nuclear process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulten, R [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorentwicklung

    1976-05-01

    It is anticipated that the coupled utilization of coal and nuclear energy will achieve great importance in the future, the coal serving mainly as raw material and nuclear energy more as primary energy. Prerequisite for this development is the availability of high-temperature reactors, the state of development of which is described here. Raw materials for coupled use with nuclear process heat are petroleum, natural gas, coal, lignite, and water. Steam reformers heated by nuclear process heat, which are suitable for numerous processes, are expected to find wide application. The article describes several individual methods, all based on the transport of gas in pipelines, which could be utilized for the long distance transport of 'nuclear energy'.

  15. Improve the material absorption of light and enhance the laser tube bending process utilizing laser softening heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhan, Khalil Ibraheem; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Zakaria, Azmi; Ismail, Mohd Idris Shah B.; Alsabti, Naseer Mahdi Hadi; Ahmad, Ahmad Kamal

    2018-02-01

    Laser forming is a flexible control process that has a wide spectrum of applications; particularly, laser tube bending. It offers the perfect solution for many industrial fields, such as aerospace, engines, heat exchangers, and air conditioners. A high power pulsed Nd-YAG laser with a maximum average power of 300 W emitting at 1064 nm and fiber-coupled is used to irradiate stainless steel 304 (SS304) tubes of 12.7 mm diameter, 0.6 mm thickness and 70 mm length. Moreover, a motorized rotation stage with a computer controller is employed to hold and rotate the tube. In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried out to improve the laser tube bending process by enhancing the absorption coefficient of the material and the mechanical formability using laser softening heat treatment. The material surface is coated with an oxidization layer; hence, the material absorption of laser light is increased and the temperature rapidly rises. The processing speed is enhanced and the output bending angle is increased to 1.9° with an increment of 70% after the laser softening heat treatment.

  16. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Impact Toughness of Ti-6Al-4V Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee K.-A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study manufactured Ti-6Al-4V alloy using one of the powder bed fusion 3D-printing processes, selective laser melting, and investigated the effect of heat treatment (650°C/3hrs on microstructure and impact toughness of the material. Initial microstructural observation identified prior-β grain along the building direction before and after heat treatment. In addition, the material formed a fully martensite structure before heat treatment, and after heat treatment, α and β phase were formed simultaneously. Charpy impact tests were conducted. The average impact energy measured as 6.0 J before heat treatment, and after heat treatment, the average impact energy increased by approximately 20% to 7.3 J. Fracture surface observation after the impact test showed that both alloys had brittle characteristics on macro levels, but showed ductile fracture characteristics and dimples at micro levels.

  17. Dependence of radon emanation of red mud bauxite processing wastes on heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobbagy, V.; Somlai, J.; Kovacs, J.; Szeiler, G.; Kovacs, T.

    2009-01-01

    Natural radioactivity content, radon emanation and some other physical characteristics of red mud were investigated, so that to identify the possibilities of the safe utilization of such material as a building material additive. Based on the radionuclide concentration, red mud is not permitted to be used directly as a building material, however, mixing of a maximum 20% red mud and 80% clay meets the requirements. The main aim of this work was to determine the dependence of the emanation factor of red mud firing temperature and some other parameters. The relevant experimental procedure was carried out in two different ways: without any additional material, and by adding a known amount of sawdust (5-35 wt%) then firing the sample at a given temperature (100-1000 deg. C). The average emanation factor of the untreated dry red mud was estimated to 20%, which decreased to about 5% at a certain heat treatment. Even lower values were found using semi-reductive atmosphere. It has been concluded that all emanation measurements results correlate well to the firing temperature, the specific surface and the pore volume.

  18. Plasma assisted heat treatment: annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunatto, S F; Guimaraes, N V

    2009-01-01

    This work comprises a new dc plasma application in the metallurgical-mechanical field, called plasma assisted heat treatment, and it presents the first results for annealing. Annealing treatments were performed in 90% reduction cold-rolled niobium samples at 900 deg. C and 60 min, in two different heating ways: (a) in a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) configuration and (b) in a plasma oven configuration. The evolution of the samples' recrystallization was determined by means of the microstructure, microhardness and softening rate characterization. The results indicate that plasma species (ions and neutrals) bombardment in HCD plays an important role in the recrystallization process activation and could lead to technological and economical advantages considering the metallic materials' heat treatment application. (fast track communication)

  19. Process and equipement for zone heat treatment of zirconium alloys tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesler, A.J.; Frischmann, P.G.; Rockwood, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    Process for the thermal treatment of an area of a long zirconium alloy part in order to increase its corrosion resistance in the cooling conditions of boiling water reactor, in which the part is moved lengthwise through a succession of critical maximum temperature areas, during a critical time and is subjected to a temperature reduction at critical rate, so that each successive portion reaches a maximum temperature between 825 0 C, and directing water at a temperature around 60 to 80 0 C as jets in the cooling area [fr

  20. Effects of heat treatment and welding process on superelastic behaviour and microstructure of micro electron beam welded NiTi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balz Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical devices with small dimensions made of superelastic NiTi become more popular, but joining these parts remains challenging. Since laser welding was found to be an option, electron beam welding seems to be an interesting alternative as it provides additional advantages due to the precise beam positioning and the high vacuum. Superelasticity is influenced by microstructure and surface layer composition that are mainly affected by welding process and by heat treatment and therefore will be investigated in the present paper.

  1. Heat pump augmentation of nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutz, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    A system is described for increasing the temperature of a working fluid heated by a nuclear reactor. The system consists of: a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor having a core and a primary cooling loop through which a coolant is circulated so as to undergo an increase in temperature, a closed secondary loop having a working fluid therein, the cooling and secondary loops having cooperative association with an intermediate heat exchanger adapted to effect transfer of heat from the coolant to the working fluid as the working fluid passes through the intermediate heat exchanger, a heat pump connected in the secondary loop and including a turbine and a compressor through which the working fluid passes so that the working fluid undergoes an increase in temperature as it passes through the compressor, a process loop including a process chamber adapted to receive a process fluid therein, the process chamber being connected in circuit with the secondary loop so as to receive the working fluid from the compressor and transfer heat from the working fluid to the process fluid, a heat exchanger for heating the working fluid connected to the process loop for receiving heat therefrom and for transferring heat to the secondary loop prior to the working fluid passing through the compressor, the secondary loop being operative to pass the working fluid from the process chamber to the turbine so as to effect driving relation thereof, a steam generator operatively associated with the secondary loop so as to receive the working fluid from the turbine, and a steam loop having a feedwater supply and connected in circuit with the steam generator so that feedwater passing through the steam loop is heated by the steam generator, the steam loop being connected in circuit with the process chamber and adapted to pass steam to the process chamber with the process fluid

  2. The Through Process Simulation of Mold filling, Solidification, and Heat Treatment of the Al Alloy Bending Beam Low-pressure Casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yajun; Guo, Zhao; Wang, Huan; Liao, Dunming; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    The research on the simulation for the through process of low-pressure casting and heat treatment is conducive to combine information technology and advanced casting technology, which will help to predict the defects and mechanical properties of the castings in the through process. In this paper, we focus on the simulation for through process of low-pressure casting and heat treatment of ZL114A Bending beam. Firstly, we analyzethe distribution of the shrinkage and porosities in filling and solidification process, and simulate the distribution of stress and strain in the late solidification of casting. Then, the numerical simulation of heat treatment process for ZL114A Bending beam is realized according to the heat treatment parameters and the corresponding simulation results of temperature field, stress, strain, and aging performance are given. Finally, we verify that simulation platform for the through process of low-pressure casting and heat treatment can serve the production practice perfectly and provide technical guidance and process optimization for the through process of low-pressure casting and heat treatment. (paper)

  3. Development of microstructure and superconductivity of silver-clad Bi(2223) composite tapes in the process of heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y.C.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    1994-01-01

    A systematic study on the development of phase composition, microstructure and superconducting properties (critical temperature Tc and critical current density J c ) in silver-clad (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 composite tapes during the process of heat treatment has been conducted using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrical measurements. The correlation between the tape's high Tc phase purity, microstructure and superconducting properties at different heat treatment stages has been carefully analysed and explained. The results indicate that pure high Tc phase, high degree of grain alignment, high mass density and good connection between grains are all essential for superconducting tapes to carry a large current. With the optimized process parameters, a critical current density J c up to 32665 A cm -2 (corresponding critical current, 42.3 A) at 77 K and self-magnetic field for silver-clad (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 superconducting composite tapes has been achieved. (orig.)

  4. Additive Manufacturing of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel: Post-processing Heat Treatment to Achieve Uniform Reproducible Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvathur, Sudha; Lass, Eric A.; Campbell, Carelyn E.

    2016-03-01

    17-4 precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel is a useful material when a combination of high strength and good corrosion resistance up to about 315°C is required. In the wrought form, this steel has a fully martensitic structure that can be strengthened by precipitation of fine Cu-rich face-centered cubic phase upon aging. When fabricated via additive manufacturing (AM), specifically laser powder-bed fusion, 17-4 PH steel exhibits a dendritic structure containing a substantial fraction of nearly 50% of retained austenite along with body centered cubic/martensite and fine niobium carbides preferentially aligned along interdendritic boundaries. The effect of post-build thermal processing on the material microstructure is studied in comparison to that of conventionally produced wrought 17-4 PH with the intention of creating a more uniform, fully martensitic microstructure. The recommended stress relief heat treatment currently employed in industry for post-processing of AM 17-4 PH steel is found to have little effect on the as-built dendritic microstructure. It is found that, by implementing the recommended homogenization heat treatment regimen of Aerospace Materials Specification 5355 for CB7Cu-1, a casting alloy analog to 17-4 PH, the dendritic solidification structure is eliminated, resulting in a microstructure containing about 90% martensite with 10% retained austenite.

  5. Solar Process Heat Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process Heat Basics Solar Process Heat Basics Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be

  6. Selective Laser Melting Produced Ti-6Al-4V: Post-Process Heat Treatments to Achieve Superior Tensile Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit M. Ter Haar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current post-process heat treatments applied to selective laser melting produced Ti-6Al-4V do not achieve the same microstructure and therefore superior tensile behaviour of thermomechanical processed wrought Ti-6Al-4V. Due to the growing demand for selective laser melting produced parts in industry, research and development towards improved mechanical properties is ongoing. This study is aimed at developing post-process annealing strategies to improve tensile behaviour of selective laser melting produced Ti-6Al-4V parts. Optical and electron microscopy was used to study α grain morphology as a function of annealing temperature, hold time and cooling rate. Quasi-static uniaxial tensile tests were used to measure tensile behaviour of different annealed parts. It was found that elongated α’/α grains can be fragmented into equiaxial grains through applying a high temperature annealing strategy. It is shown that bi-modal microstructures achieve a superior tensile ductility to current heat treated selective laser melting produced Ti-6Al-4V samples.

  7. Selective Laser Melting Produced Ti-6Al-4V: Post-Process Heat Treatments to Achieve Superior Tensile Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Haar, Gerrit M; Becker, Thorsten H

    2018-01-17

    Current post-process heat treatments applied to selective laser melting produced Ti-6Al-4V do not achieve the same microstructure and therefore superior tensile behaviour of thermomechanical processed wrought Ti-6Al-4V. Due to the growing demand for selective laser melting produced parts in industry, research and development towards improved mechanical properties is ongoing. This study is aimed at developing post-process annealing strategies to improve tensile behaviour of selective laser melting produced Ti-6Al-4V parts. Optical and electron microscopy was used to study α grain morphology as a function of annealing temperature, hold time and cooling rate. Quasi-static uniaxial tensile tests were used to measure tensile behaviour of different annealed parts. It was found that elongated α'/α grains can be fragmented into equiaxial grains through applying a high temperature annealing strategy. It is shown that bi-modal microstructures achieve a superior tensile ductility to current heat treated selective laser melting produced Ti-6Al-4V samples.

  8. Effect of Post Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Microhardness of Friction Stir Processed NiAl Bronze (NAB Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Lv

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available NiAl bronze (NAB alloy is prepared by using friction stir processing (FSP technique at a tool rotation rate of 1200 rpm and a traverse speed of 150 mm/min. A post heat treatment is performed at the temperature of 675 °C. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and microhardness is studied. The results show that the microstructure of the FSP NAB alloy consists of high density dislocations, retained β phase (β′ phase and recrystallized grains. When annealed at 675 °C, discontinuous static recrystallization (DSRX takes place. The content of β′ phase gradually decreases and fine κ phase is precipitated. After annealing for 2 h, both the microhardness of the FSP sample in the stir zone (SZ and the difference in hardness between the SZ and base metal decrease due to the reduction of the dislocation density and β′ phase, accompanying recrystallized grain coarsening. With further increasing of the annealing time to 4 h, the aforementioned difference in hardness nearly disappears.

  9. Comparative study on shelf life of whole milk processed by high-intensity pulsed electric field or heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odriozola-Serrano, I; Bendicho-Porta, S; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-03-01

    The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HI-PEF) processing (35.5 kV/cm for 1,000 or 300 micros with bipolar 7-micros pulses at 111 Hz; the temperature outside the chamber was always milk were investigated and compared with traditional heat pasteurization (75 degrees C for 15 s), and to raw milk during storage at 4 degrees C. A HIPEF treatment of 1,000 micros ensured the microbiological stability of whole milk stored for 5 d under refrigeration. Initial acidity values, pH, and free fatty acid content were not affected by the treatments; and no proteolysis and lipolysis were observed during 1 wk of storage in milk treated by HIPEF for 1,000 micros. The whey proteins (serum albumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and alpha-lactalbumin) in HIPEF-treated milk were retained at 75.5, 79.9, and 60%, respectively, similar to values for milk treated by traditional heat pasteurization.

  10. Influence of Welding Process and Post Weld Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Dissimilar Aluminium Alloy Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Ramana, V. S. N.; Mohammed, Raffi; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Welding of dissimilar Aluminum alloy welds is becoming important in aerospace, shipbuilding and defence applications. In the present work, an attempt has been made to weld dissimilar aluminium alloys using conventional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and friction stir welding (FSW) processes. An attempt was also made to study the effect of post weld heat treatment (T4 condition) on microstructure and pitting corrosion behaviour of these welds. Results of the present investigation established the differences in microstructures of the base metals in T4 condition and in annealed conditions. It is evident that the thickness of the PMZ is relatively more on AA2014 side than that of AA6061 side. In FS welds, lamellar like shear bands are well noticed on the top of the stir zone. The concentration profile of dissimilar friction stir weld in T4 condition revealed that no diffusion has taken place at the interface. Poor Hardness is observed in all regions of FS welds compared to that of GTA welds. Pitting corrosion resistance of the dissimilar FS welds in all regions was improved by post weld heat treatment.

  11. The effect of processing parameters during heat treatment of bulk high-T(sub c) superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Y. S.; Dorris, S. E.; Hull, J. R.; Poeppel, R. B.

    1991-04-01

    Plastic extrusion is a promising method for producing the long lengths of high-Tc superconductor that will be necessary to meet many potential applications. A crucial phase of the extrusion method is removal of organic constituents. Incomplete removal can leave residual carbon at grain boundaries, which can adversely affect the superconducting properties, whereas excessively rapid removal of the organics can cause the extruded superconductor to disintegrate completely. In this paper, we analyze the effects of the following aspects of organics removal, as they apply to the firing of extruded YBa2Cu3O(x) coils: (1) total pressure in the furnace, (2) oxygen flow, (3) heat conduction, and (4) diffusion of volatile components during removal of organics.

  12. Comparison of heat treatment response of semisolid metal processed alloys A356 and F357

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available p phase. This phase, which dissolves in alloy A356 during solution treatment, persists in F357 and decreases the amount of magnesium in solid solution. This is the likely origin of the decrease in the aging response of the F357 alloy. The tensile...

  13. Selection of process conditions by risk assessment for apple juice pasteurization by UV-heat treatments at moderate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayán, E; Torres, J A; Alvarez, I; Condón, S

    2014-02-01

    The effect of bactericidal UV-C treatments (254 nm) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 suspended in apple juice increased synergistically with temperature up to a threshold value. The optimum UV-C treatment temperature was 55 °C, yielding a 58.9% synergistic lethal effect. Under these treatment conditions, the UV-heat (UV-H55 °C) lethal variability achieving 5-log reductions had a logistic distribution (α = 37.92, β = 1.10). Using this distribution, UV-H55 °C doses to achieve the required juice safety goal with 95, 99, and 99.9% confidence were 41.17, 42.97, and 46.00 J/ml, respectively, i.e., doses higher than the 37.58 J/ml estimated by a deterministic procedure. The public health impact of these results is that the larger UV-H55 °C dose required for achieving 5-log reductions with 95, 99, and 99.9% confidence would reduce the probability of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children by 76.3, 88.6, and 96.9%, respectively. This study illustrates the importance of including the effect of data variability when selecting operational parameters for novel and conventional preservation processes to achieve high food safety standards with the desired confidence level.

  14. Diffusion welding. [heat treatment of nickel alloys following single step vacuum welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, K. H. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Dispersion-strengthened nickel alloys are sanded on one side and chemically polished. This is followed by a single-step welding process wherein the polished surfaces are forced into intimate contact at 1,400 F for one hour in a vacuum. Diffusion, recrystallization, and grain growth across the original weld interface are obtained during postheating at 2,150 F for two hours in hydrogen.

  15. Designing heat exchangers for process heat reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    A brief account is given of the IAEA specialist meeting on process heat applications technology held in Julich, November 1979. The main emphasis was on high temperature heat exchange. Papers were presented covering design requirements, design construction and prefabrication testing, and selected problems. Primary discussion centered around mechanical design, materials requirements, and structural analysis methods and limits. It appears that high temperature heat exchanges design to nuclear standards, is under extensive development but will require a lengthy concerted effort before becoming a commercial reality. (author)

  16. Advances in the heat treatment of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Kim, J.I.; Syn, C.K.

    1978-06-01

    A number of important recent advances in the processing of steels have resulted from the sophisticated uses of heat treatment to tailor the microstructure of the steels so that desirable properties are established. These new heat treatments often involve the tempering or annealing of the steel to accompish a partial or complete reversion from martensite to austenite. The influence of these reversion heat treatments on the product microstructure and its properties may be systematically discussed in terms of the heat treating temperature in relation to the phase diagram. From this perspective, four characteristic heat treatments are defined: (1) normal tempering, (2) inter-critical tempering, (3) intercritical annealing, and (4) austenite reversion. The reactions occurring during each of these treatments are described and the nature and properties of typical product microstructures discussed, with specific reference to new commercial or laboratory steels having useful and exceptional properties

  17. Effect of post-weld heat treatment and electrolytic plasma processing on tungsten inert gas welded AISI 4140 alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewan, Mohammad W.; Liang, Jiandong; Wahab, M.A.; Okeil, Ayman M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of PWHT and EPP were explored on TIG welded AISI4140 alloy steel. • All welded samples were checked with PAUT and ensured defect-free before testing. • Residual stresses, hardness, and tensile properties were measured experimentally. • PWHT resulted higher ductility but lower tensile strength for grain refinement. • EPP-treated samples showed higher tensile strength but lower ductility. - Abstract: Post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) is commonly adopted on welded joints and structures to relieve post-weld residual stresses; and restore the mechanical properties and structural integrity. An electrolytic plasma process (EPP) has been developed to improve corrosion behavior and wear resistance of structural materials; and can be employed in other applications and surface modifications aspects. In this study the effects of PWHT and EPP on the residual stresses, micro-hardness, microstructures, and uniaxial tensile properties are explored on tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded AISI-4140 alloys steel with SAE-4130 chromium–molybdenum alloy welding filler rod. For rational comparison all of the welded samples are checked with nondestructive Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) and to ensure defect-free samples before testing. Residual stresses are assessed with ultrasonic testing at different distances from weld center line. PWHT resulted in relief of tensile residual stress due to grain refinement. As a consequence higher ductility but lower strength existed in PWHT samples. In comparison, EPP-treated samples revealed lower residual stresses, but no significant variation on the grain refinement. Consequently, EPP-treated specimens exhibited higher tensile strength but lower ductility and toughness for the martensitic formation due to the rapid heating and quenching effects. EPP was also applied on PWHT samples, but which did not reveal any substantial effect on the tensile properties after PWHT at 650 °C. Finally the microstructures and

  18. Occurrence of volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines in processed meat products and the role of heat treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2015-01-01

    -nitrosoproline (NPRO), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosomethylaniline (NMA) depending on the type of product and/or the heat treatment. The levels of the NVNA, NTCA and N-nitroso-2-methyl-thiazolidine 4-carboxylic acid (NMTCA) decreased after frying...

  19. Novel immobilization process of a thermophilic catalase: efficient purification by heat treatment and subsequent immobilization at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Luo, Hui; López, Claudia; Xiao, Jing; Chang, Yanhong

    2015-10-01

    The main goal of the present work is to investigate a novel process of purification and immobilization of a thermophilic catalase at high temperatures. The catalase, originated from Bacillus sp., was overexpressed in a recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pET28-CATHis and efficiently purified by heat treatment, achieving a threefold purification. The purified catalase was then immobilized onto an epoxy support at different temperatures (25, 40, and 55 °C). The immobilizate obtained at higher temperatures reached its maximum activity in a shorter time than that obtained at lower temperatures. Furthermore, immobilization at higher temperatures required a lower ionic strength than immobilization at lower temperatures. The characteristics of immobilized enzymes prepared at different temperatures were investigated. The high-temperature immobilizate (55 °C) showed the highest thermal stability, followed by the 40 °C immobilizate. And the high-temperature immobilizate (55 °C) had slightly higher operational stability than the 25 °C immobilizate. All of the immobilized catalase preparations showed higher stability than the free enzyme at alkaline pH 10.0, while the alkali resistance of the 25 °C immobilizate was slightly better than that of the 40 and 55 °C immobilizates.

  20. Heat Treatment of Tools in Light Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, V. A.

    2005-09-01

    Heat treatment processes for some tools (knitting needles, travelers for thimbles of spinning and doubling frames, thread-forming spinnerets) used for the production of cloths, hosiery, and other articles) in the knitting and textile industries are considered. Problems of the choice of steel and the kind and parameters of heat treatment are discussed in connection with the special features of tool design and operating conditions.

  1. Influence of Heat Treatment on Ordering Process in Fe72Al28 Alloy Studied by Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansy, J.; Hanc, A.; Giebel, D.

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses a theoretical model that associates the shape of Moessbauer spectrum with the configuration of atoms in local surroundings of the Moessbauer nuclide. The model has been implemented to a computer program which was used to analyse the Moessbauer spectra of Fe 72 Al 28 alloys after various heat treatments. Basing on the determined configuration of atoms, the long range ordering parameter was estimated. (authors)

  2. Effects of Heat Treatment on the Microstructures and High Temperature Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic Al-14Si-Cu-Mg Alloy Manufactured by Liquid Phase Sintering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Joon-Young; Gwon, Jin-Han; Park, Jong-Kwan; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2018-05-01

    Hypereutectic Al-Si alloy is an aluminum alloy containing at least 12.6 wt.% Si. It is necessary to evenly control the primary Si particle size and distribution in hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. In order to achieve this, there have been attempts to manufacture hypereutectic Al-Si alloy through a liquid phase sintering. This study investigated the microstructures and high temperature mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al-14Si-Cu-Mg alloy manufactured by liquid phase sintering process and changes in them after T6 heat treatment. Microstructural observation identified large amounts of small primary Si particles evenly distributed in the matrix, and small amounts of various precipitation phases were found in grain interiors and grain boundaries. After T6 heat treatment, the primary Si particle size and shape did not change significantly, but the size and distribution of CuAl2 ( θ) and AlCuMgSi ( Q) changed. Hardness tests measured 97.36 HV after sintering and 142.5 HV after heat treatment. Compression tests were performed from room temperature to 300 °C. The results represented that yield strength was greater after heat treatment (RT 300 °C: 351 93 MPa) than after sintering (RT 300 °C: 210 89 MPa). Fracture surface analysis identified cracks developing mostly along the interface between the primary Si particles and the matrix with some differences among temperature conditions. In addition, brittle fracture mode was found after T6 heat treatment.

  3. Effect of heat treatment and number of passes on the microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir processed AZ91C magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashpour, M.; Yeşildal, R. [University of Ataturk, Erzurum (Turkmenistan); Mostafapour, A.; Rezazade, V. [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, the effect of heat treatment and number of passes on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir processed AZ91C magnesium alloy samples were investigated. From six samples of as-cast AZ91C magnesium alloy, three plates were pre-heated at temperature of 375°C for 3 hours, and then were treated at temperature of 415°C for 18 hours and finally were cooled down in air. Three plates were relinquished without heat treatment. 8 mm thick as-cast AZ91C magnesium alloy plates were friction stir processed at constant traverse speed of 40 mm/min and tool rotation speed of 1250 rpm. After process, microstructural characterization of samples was analyzed using optical microscopy and tensile and Vickers hardness tests were performed. It was found that heat treated samples had finer grains, higher hardness, improved tensile strength and elongation relative to non-heat treated ones. As the number of passes increased, higher UTS and TE were achieved due to finer grains and more dissolution of β phase (Mg17Al12). The micro-hardness characteristics and tensile improvement of the friction stir processed samples depend significantly on grain size, removal of voids and porosities and dissolution of β phase in the stir zone.

  4. Heat treatment of nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.F. Jr.; Clatworthy, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    A heat treating process is described that can be used to produce desired combinations of strength, ductility, and fabricability characteristics in heat resistant age-hardenable alloys having precipitation-hardening amounts of niobium, titanium, and/or tantalum in a nickel-containing matrix. (U.S.)

  5. Investigation of the T4 and T6 heat treatment cycles of semi-solid processed aluminium alloy A356

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available of the solution treatment time at 540 C from 6 hours to 1 hour does not alter the T4 or T6 tensile properties of the SSM processed A356 alloy. Slightly better impact properties are obtained with the shorter solution treatment. This could lead to time and energy...

  6. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF HEATING RATE PRODUCT AT HIGH HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Akhmedova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of computing and mathematical modeling are all widely used in the study of various heat exchange processes that provide the ability to study the dynamics of the processes, as well as to conduct a reasonable search for the optimal technological parameters of heat treatment.This work is devoted to the identification of correlations among the factors that have the greatest effect on the rate of heating of the product at hightemperature heat sterilization in a stream of hot air, which are chosen as the temperature difference (between the most and least warming up points and speed cans during heat sterilization.As a result of the experimental data warming of the central and peripheral layers compote of apples in a 3 liter pot at high-temperature heat treatment in a stream of hot air obtained by the regression equation in the form of a seconddegree polynomial, taking into account the effects of pair interaction of these parameters. 

  7. Microwave heating processes involving carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, J.A.; Arenillas, A.; Fidalgo, B.; Fernandez, Y.; Zubizarreta, L.; Calvo, E.G.; Bermudez, J.M. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Carbon materials are, in general, very good absorbents of microwaves, i.e., they are easily heated by microwave radiation. This characteristic allows them to be transformed by microwave heating, giving rise to new carbons with tailored properties, to be used as microwave receptors, in order to heat other materials indirectly, or to act as a catalyst and microwave receptor in different heterogeneous reactions. In recent years, the number of processes that combine the use of carbons and microwave heating instead of other methods based on conventional heating has increased. In this paper some of the microwave-assisted processes in which carbon materials are produced, transformed or used in thermal treatments (generally, as microwave absorbers and catalysts) are reviewed and the main achievements of this technique are compared with those obtained by means of conventional (non microwave-assisted) methods in similar conditions. (author)

  8. The Thermos process heat reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, Bernard

    1979-01-01

    The THERMOS process heat reactor was born from the following idea: the hot water energy vector is widely used for heating purposes in cities, so why not save on traditional fossil fuels by simply substituting a nuclear boiler of comparable power for the classical boiler installed in the same place. The French Atomic Energy Commission has techniques for heating in the big French cities which provide better guarantees for national independence and for the environment. This THERMOS technique would result in a saving of 40,000 to 80,000 tons of oil per year [fr

  9. Relaxation processes during amorphous metal alloys heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinochka, E.Ya.; Durachenko, A.M.; Borisov, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    Behaviour of Te+15 at.%Ge and Fe+13 at.%P+7 at.%C amorphous metal alloys during heating has been studied using the method of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the most convenient one for determination of the value of heat effects, activation energies, temperature ranges of relaxation processes. Thermal effects corresponding to high-temperature relaxation processes taking place during amorphous metal alloys (AMA) heating are detected. The change of ratio of relaxation peaks values on DSC curves as a result of AMA heat treatment can be explained by the presence of a number of levels of inner energy in amorphous system, separated with potential barriers, the heights of which correspond to certain activation energies of relaxation processes

  10. Heat treatment effect on the strain dependence of the critical current for an internal-tin processed Nb3Sn strand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sangjun; Park, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Chulhee; Choi, Heekyung; Kim, Keeman

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study on the effects of heat treatment, especially, the duration of the A15 reaction temperature plateau on the strain dependence of the critical current for an internal-tin processed Nb 3 Sn strand has been carried out. The strain dependence of the critical current is measured by a variable temperature Walter spiral probe that we have developed. It was shown that prolonged heat treatment can be a very effective way to improve the strain dependency. For a quantitative analysis, the measured data were analyzed with various proposed scaling laws: the scaling law based on strong-coupling theory, the modified deviatoric strain scaling law, and the interpolative scaling law. We found that there is a slight increase in the critical temperature and a substantial improvement in the maximum pinning force. The origin of improved strain dependency is further discussed.

  11. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Anupam; Khanal, Dipendra; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Corredig, Milena; Duizer, Lisa; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2014-04-23

    Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF) was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF). HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk ( p ≥ 0.05) but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing ( p ≥ 0.05), but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds ( p < 0.05). The findings indicate that for the particular thermal and non-thermal treatments selected for this study, better retention of skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments.

  12. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Chugh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF, are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF. HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk (p ≥ 0.05 but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing (p ≥ 0.05, but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds (p < 0.05. The findings indicate that for the particular thermal and non-thermal treatments selected for this study, better retention of skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments.

  13. Lowcost automated control for steel heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambaldi, Edimilson; Magalhães, Ricardo R.; Barbosa, Bruno H.G.; Silva, Sandro P. da; Ferreira, Danton D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Control the furnace temperature measured by thermocouple and adjusts it. • Activating the furnace resistors through Pulse Width Modulation. • Appling heat treatments to steels by a low-cost controller. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to propose a low cost, automated furnace control system for the heat treatment of steel. We used an open source electronic prototyping platform to control the furnace temperature, thus reducing human interaction during the heat process. The platform can be adapted to non-controlled commercial furnaces, which are often used by small businesses. A Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller was implemented to regulate the furnace temperature based on a defined heat treatment cycle. The embedded system activates the furnace resistors through Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), allowing for control of electrical power supplied to the furnace. Hardening and tempering were performed on standard steel samples using a traditional method (visual inspection without temperature control) as well the embedded system with PID feedback control. The results show that the proposed system can reproduce an arbitrary heat treatment curve with accuracy and provide the desired final hardness as inferred through metallographic analysis. In addition, we observed a 6% saving in energy consumption using the proposed control system. Furthermore, the estimated cost to implement the system is 42% lower than a commercial controller model implemented in commercial furnaces.

  14. Nuclear energy and process heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozier, K.S

    1999-10-01

    Nuclear energy generated in fission reactors is a versatile commodity that can, in principle, satisfy any and all of mankind's energy needs through direct or indirect means. In addition to its dominant current use for electricity generation and, to a lesser degree, marine propulsion, nuclear energy can and has been used for process heat applications, such as space heating, industrial process heating and seawater desalination. Moreover, a wide variety of reactor designs has been employed to this end in a range of countries. From this spectrum of experience, two design approaches emerge for nuclear process heating (NPH): extracting a portion of the thermal energy from a nuclear power plant (NPP) (i.e., creating a combined heat and power, or CHP, plant) and transporting it to the user, or deploying dedicated nuclear heating plants (NHPs) in generally closer proximity to the thermal load. While the former approach is the basis for much of the current NPH experience, considerable recent interest exists for the latter, typically involving small, innovative reactor plants with enhanced and passive safety features. The high emphasis on inherent nuclear safety characteristics in these reactor designs reflects the need to avoid any requirement for evacuation of the public in the event of an accident, and the desire for sustained operation and investment protection at minimum cost. Since roughly 67% of mankind's primary energy usage is not in the form of electricity, a vast potential market for NPH systems exists, particularly at the low-to-moderate end-use temperatures required for residential space heating and several industrial applications. Although only About 0.5% of global nuclear energy production is presently used for NPH applications, an expanded role in the 21st century seems inevitable, in part, as a measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. While the technical aspects of many NPH applications are considered to be well proven, a

  15. Nuclear energy and process heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozier, K.S.

    1999-10-01

    Nuclear energy generated in fission reactors is a versatile commodity that can, in principle, satisfy any and all of mankind's energy needs through direct or indirect means. In addition to its dominant current use for electricity generation and, to a lesser degree, marine propulsion, nuclear energy can and has been used for process heat applications, such as space heating, industrial process heating and seawater desalination. Moreover, a wide variety of reactor designs has been employed to this end in a range of countries. From this spectrum of experience, two design approaches emerge for nuclear process heating (NPH): extracting a portion of the thermal energy from a nuclear power plant (NPP) (i.e., creating a combined heat and power, or CHP, plant) and transporting it to the user, or deploying dedicated nuclear heating plants (NHPs) in generally closer proximity to the thermal load. While the former approach is the basis for much of the current NPH experience, considerable recent interest exists for the latter, typically involving small, innovative reactor plants with enhanced and passive safety features. The high emphasis on inherent nuclear safety characteristics in these reactor designs reflects the need to avoid any requirement for evacuation of the public in the event of an accident, and the desire for sustained operation and investment protection at minimum cost. Since roughly 67% of mankind's primary energy usage is not in the form of electricity, a vast potential market for NPH systems exists, particularly at the low-to-moderate end-use temperatures required for residential space heating and several industrial applications. Although only About 0.5% of global nuclear energy production is presently used for NPH applications, an expanded role in the 21st century seems inevitable, in part, as a measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. While the technical aspects of many NPH applications are considered to be well proven, a determined

  16. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in...

  17. 29 CFR 1919.36 - Heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.36 Section 1919.36 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.36 Heat treatment. (a) The annealing of wrought iron gear required by this part shall be...

  18. Plasma treatment of heat-resistant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, V A; Kosmachev, P V; Skripnikova, N K; Bezukhov, K A

    2015-01-01

    Refractory lining of thermal generating units is exposed to chemical, thermal, and mechanical attacks. The degree of fracture of heat-resistant materials depends on the chemical medium composition, the process temperature and the material porosity. As is known, a shortterm exposure of the surface to low-temperature plasma (LTP) makes possible to create specific coatings that can improve the properties of workpieces. The aim of this work is to produce the protective coating on heat-resistant chamotte products using the LTP technique. Experiments have shown that plasma treatment of chamotte products modifies the surface, and a glass-ceramic coating enriched in mullite is formed providing the improvement of heat resistance. For increasing heat resistance of chamotte refractories, pastes comprising mixtures of Bacor, alumina oxide, and chamot were applied to their surfaces in different ratios. It is proved that the appropriate coating cannot be created if only one of heat-resistant components is used. The required coatings that can be used and recommended for practical applications are obtained only with the introduction of powder chamot. The paste composition of 50% chamot, 25% Bacor, and 25% alumina oxide exposed to plasma treatment, has demonstrated the most uniform surface fusion. (paper)

  19. Comminution by hydriding-dehydriding process of the U-Zr-Nb alloys stabilized at different phases by aging heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantagalli, Natalia Mattar; Pais, Rafael Witter Dias; Braga, Daniel Martins; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa, E-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Powders of the U-Zr-Nb alloys are raw materials for obtaining plate-type dispersion fuel of high density and medium enrichment for research and test reactors as well as small power reactors. U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb and U-3Zr-9Nb (wt%) alloys, initially homogenized at high temperatures, were transformed at different phases by means aging heat treatments, and then comminuted by hydriding-dehydriding process to powder production. The phases transformations were obtained by the homogenization of the U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb and U-3Zr-9Nb alloys at high temperatures (1000 deg C for 1 and 16 h), followed by aging heat treatment at 600 deg C, in times of 0.5 h, 3.0 h and 24h, and subsequently quenched in water to stabilize the desired phase. The comminution process was performed at 200 deg C for different times ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours. The powders were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and determination of particle size distribution by means of laser equipment CILAS. One of the main objectives of this study was to verify the influence of the different phases in the characteristics of the obtained powders. It was found that alloys stabilized in gamma phase produced powders with smaller particles sizes than those with cellular structure of the {alpha} and {gamma} phases. Regardless of retained phases, the produced powders consist of agglomerates with irregular morphology. (author)

  20. Comminution by hydriding-dehydriding process of the U-Zr-Nb alloys stabilized at different phases by aging heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantagalli, Natalia Mattar; Pais, Rafael Witter Dias; Braga, Daniel Martins; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Powders of the U-Zr-Nb alloys are raw materials for obtaining plate-type dispersion fuel of high density and medium enrichment for research and test reactors as well as small power reactors. U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb and U-3Zr-9Nb (wt%) alloys, initially homogenized at high temperatures, were transformed at different phases by means aging heat treatments, and then comminuted by hydriding-dehydriding process to powder production. The phases transformations were obtained by the homogenization of the U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb and U-3Zr-9Nb alloys at high temperatures (1000 deg C for 1 and 16 h), followed by aging heat treatment at 600 deg C, in times of 0.5 h, 3.0 h and 24h, and subsequently quenched in water to stabilize the desired phase. The comminution process was performed at 200 deg C for different times ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours. The powders were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and determination of particle size distribution by means of laser equipment CILAS. One of the main objectives of this study was to verify the influence of the different phases in the characteristics of the obtained powders. It was found that alloys stabilized in gamma phase produced powders with smaller particles sizes than those with cellular structure of the α and γ phases. Regardless of retained phases, the produced powders consist of agglomerates with irregular morphology. (author)

  1. Stability of Retained Austenite in High-Al, Low-Si TRIP-Assisted Steels Processed via Continuous Galvanizing Heat Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, J. R.; Zurob, H. S.; Bian, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Two galvanizable high-Al, low-Si transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-assisted steels were subjected to isothermal bainitic transformation (IBT) temperatures compatible with the continuous galvanizing (CGL) process and the kinetics of the retained austenite (RA) to martensite transformation during room temperature deformation studied as a function of heat treatment parameters. It was determined that there was a direct relationship between the rate of strain-induced transformation and optimal mechanical properties, with more gradual transformation rates being favored. The RA to martensite transformation kinetics were successfully modeled using two methodologies: (1) the strain-based model of Olsen and Cohen and (2) a simple relationship with the normalized flow stress, ( {{{σ_{{flow}} - σ_{YS} }/{σ_{YS }}}} ) . For the strain-based model, it was determined that the model parameters were a strong function of strain and alloy thermal processing history and a weak function of alloy chemistry. It was verified that the strain-based model in the present work agrees well with those derived by previous workers using TRIP-assisted steels of similar composition. It was further determined that the RA to martensite transformation kinetics for all alloys and heat treatments could be described using a simple model vs the normalized flow stress, indicating that the RA to martensite transformation is stress-induced rather than strain-induced for temperatures above the Ms^{σ }.

  2. Industrial process heat market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve

  3. Industrial process heat market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve.

  4. The influence of welding and post heat treatment parameters on the diffusion and precipitation processes in dissimilar metal joints of a 1% and a 12% Cr-steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullik, M.; Katerbau, K.H.

    1989-05-01

    The influences of different weld metals, welding processes and post weld heat treatments (PWHT) on mechanical properties, carbon diffusion and precipitation processes were investigated by studying dissimilar metal welds between the cast steel GS-17 CrMoV 5 11 (1% Cr) and the steel X 20 CrMoV 12 1 (12% Cr). By means of tensile and impact tests, metallographic investigation, hardness measurements, electron beam X-ray microanalysis and transmission electron microscope examination changes in the welded joints were shown after different PWHT's as well as after creep tests. It was found that the joint with a 5% CrMoV-weld metal shows higher yield and rupture strength than the joint with a 12% CrMoV-weld metal. With increasing heat input during PWHT the strength decreases for both welds, but always remains higher than the values of the base materials. During PWTH as well as during service at elevated temperatures carbon diffuses from the lower chromium material to the higher chromium material. Width and carbon concentration of the carburized and decarburized zones depend on the heat input. A simple diffusion model was developed to describe the carbon profile for any annealing time and temperature. The consequence of the decarburization is a microstructural change in the heat effected zone of the cast steel. During longer annealing the fine M 2 C-carbides dissolve and coarse M 6 C-crbides form, resulting in a lower creep ductility of this zone. (orig.) With 19 refs., 15 tabs., 104 figs [de

  5. New Nomenclatures for Heat Treatments of Additively Manufactured Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andrew H.; Collins, Peter C.; Williams, James C.

    2017-07-01

    The heat-treatment designations and microstructure nomenclatures for many structural metallic alloys were established for traditional metals processing, such as casting, hot rolling or forging. These terms do not necessarily apply for additively manufactured (i.e., three-dimensionally printed or "3D printed") metallic structures. The heat-treatment terminology for titanium alloys generally implies the heat-treatment temperatures and their sequence relative to a thermomechanical processing step (e.g., forging, rolling). These designations include: β-processing, α + β-processing, β-annealing, duplex annealing and mill annealing. Owing to the absence of a thermomechanical processing step, these traditional designations can pose a problem when titanium alloys are first produced via additive manufacturing, and then heat-treated. This communication proposes new nomenclatures for heat treatments of additively manufactured titanium alloys, and uses the distinct microstructural features to provide a correlation between traditional nomenclature and the proposed nomenclature.

  6. High temperature heat exchange: nuclear process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrable, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    The unique element of the HTGR system is the high-temperature operation and the need for heat exchanger equipment to transfer nuclear heat from the reactor to the process application. This paper discusses the potential applications of the HTGR in both synthetic fuel production and nuclear steel making and presents the design considerations for the high-temperature heat exchanger equipment

  7. Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

  8. Surface engineering and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of a Conference organised jointly by The Institute of Metals and The Centre for Exploitation of Science and Technology (CEST). It sets out to review this role and point the way to the future by collecting together a series of invited papers written by noted authorities in their fields. The opening review by CEST highlights the economic and industrial importance of Surface Engineering and is followed by a group of four articles devoted to specific branches of industry. Several technical papers then describe various aspects of the development of heat treatment over the last twenty-five years. These are followed by papers describing advances made possible by new technologies such as plasma, laser and ion beam. A separate abstract has been prepared for a paper on materials aspects of ion beam technology. (author)

  9. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  10. Heat Transfer in a Thermoacoustic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beke, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Thermoacoustic instability is defined as the excitation of acoustic modes in chambers with heat sources due to the coupling between acoustic perturbations and unsteady heat addition. The major objective of this paper is to achieve accurate theoretical results in a thermoacoustic heat transfer process. We carry out a detailed heat transfer analysis…

  11. Effect of heat treatment on structure and magnetic properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fe46Co35Ni19/CNTs nanocomposites have been prepared by an easy two-step route including adsorption and heat treatment processes. We investigated the effect of heat treatment conditions on structure, morphology, nanoparticle sizes and magnetic properties of the Fe46Co35Ni19 alloy nanoparticles attached on the ...

  12. Modeling of Heating During Food Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, Ivanka; Kamburova, Veselka

    Heat transfer processes are important for almost all aspects of food preparation and play a key role in determining food safety. Whether it is cooking, baking, boiling, frying, grilling, blanching, drying, sterilizing, or freezing, heat transfer is part of the processing of almost every food. Heat transfer is a dynamic process in which thermal energy is transferred from one body with higher temperature to another body with lower temperature. Temperature difference between the source of heat and the receiver of heat is the driving force in heat transfer.

  13. Fabrication techniques to eliminate postweld heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochhead, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Postweld heat treatments to reduce residual stresses (stress relief operations) have been a common practice in the pressure vessel industry for a large number of years. A suitable heat treatment operation can, in particular for low alloy steels, have additional beneficial effects, i.e. a reduction in peak hardness values in the heat-affected zone, an improvement in weld metal properties, and a lowering of the adverse effects of the welding process on the mechanical properties of the parent material adjacent to the weld metal. However, continuing studies in the field of brittle fracture, improved parent materials, and more sophisticated nondestructive testing techniques have led to the elimination of such a practice in ever-increasing thickness ranges and types of material. For instance, the recently issued BS 5500 compared with BS 1113 (1969) lifts the thickness limit requiring stress relief in certain circumstances from 19 to 35mm for C steels. With respect to materials the CEGB has stated that as a result of successful operational experience it will no longer be necessary to postweld heat treat butt welds in 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo tubes of certain dimensions. Despite this trend, over a period of years a number of instances have arisen where, because of some factor, postweld heat treatment, although perhaps desirable, is not possible. This Paper describes several such examples. It must be noted that the examples quoted consist of relatively important and major items. It has been necessary within the confines of this Paper to condense the reports. It is hoped that no significant factors have been omitted. (author)

  14. Phase change heat transfer device for process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Patterson, Mike; Utgikar, Vivek; Gunnerson, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to ∼1300 K) and industrial scale power transport (≥50 MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+ m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a thermal device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via 'pumping a fluid', a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization/condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e., without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) of vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  15. Energy saving by enhanced temperature measurement of stock materials of heat- and heat treatment process. Final report; Energieeinsparung durch verbesserte Nutzguttemperaturbestimmung bei Waerm- und Waermebehandlungsprozessen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, I.; Klima, R.

    1999-06-01

    The essential source of errors for stock temperature measurement in industrial furnaces is the not well enough known emissivity and the reflected radiation. The examined pyrometers turned out to be not precise enough especially in case of reflected radiation. Measures trying to compensate the reflected radiation by measuring it separately or shielding the pyrometer from reflected radiation did not show satisfactory results. The most important result of the project was the development and operational test of a thermoelectric measurement by a so-called thermocouple probe. This probe measures by a thermocouple which is positioned to have a very intensive radiation exchange with the surface of the stock. Thus it can measure the surface temperature almost independently from emissivity. The advantages of the thermocouple probe where shown by installations at a heat treating and a reheating furnace. Because of the continuous measurement the furnaces could be optimised for energy saving or better product quality. The thermocouple probe enables strict optimisation of model aided furnace control and leads to improved quality and energy savings. (orig.) [German] Die wesentlichen Fehlerquellen bei der Messung der Nutzgutoberflaechentemperatur sind der haeufig nicht genau genug bekannte Nutzgut-Emissionsgrad und die an der Nutzgutoberflaeche reflektierte Fremdstrahlung. Die untersuchten auf dem Markt befindlichen Pyrometer erwiesen sich bei vorhandener Fremdstrahlung in Oefen als nicht genau und verlaesslich genug. Sowohl Versuche zur Abschirmung der Fremdstrahlung wie auch zur separaten Messung und Beruecksichtigung der Fremdstrahlung liefern bei wechselnden Prozesszustaenden jedoch keine befriedigenden Ergebnisse. In dieser Arbeit wurde als wichtigstes Ergebnis ein thermoelektrisches Temperaturmessverfahren mittels einer sogenannten Thermoelementsonde entwickelt und betrieblich erprobt. Mit der Thermoelementsonde wird die Nutzgutoberflaechentemperatur mittels eines

  16. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization

    OpenAIRE

    Chugh, Anupam; Khanal, Dipendra; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Corredig, Milena; Duizer, Lisa; Griffiths, Mansel

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF) was c...

  17. Process heat supply requirements on HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    Since it has been claimed that the MHTGR is competitive with coal in producing electricity, the MHTGR must be competitive in producing process heat. There is a huge process heat market and there are quite a number of processes where the industrial MHTGR = HTRI could supply the necessary process heat and energy. However, to enhance its introduction on the market and to conquer a reasonable share of the market, the HTRI should fulfill the following major requirements: Unlimited constant and flexible heat supply, no secondary heat transport system at higher temperatures and low radioactive contamination level of the primary helium. Unlimited constant and flexible heat supply could be achieved with smaller HTRIs having heat generation capacities below 100 MW-th. The process heat generated by smaller HTRIs need not be more expensive since the installed necessary heat supply redundancy is smaller and the excess power density lower. The process heat at elevated temperatures generated by a HTRI with a secondary heat transfer system is much more expensive due to the additional investment and operating cost as well as the reduced helium temperature span available. For some processes, the HTRI is not able to cover the total process heat requirement while other processes can consume only part of the heat offered. These limitations could be reduced by using higher core outlet and inlet temperatures or both. Due to the considerably lower heat transfer rates and the resulting larger heat transfer areas in process plants, the diffusion of nuclear activity at elevated temperatures may increase so that a more efficient helium cleaning system may be required. (author). 5 figs, 3 tabs

  18. A fast and efficient adaptive parallel ray tracing based model for thermally coupled surface radiation in casting and heat treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, J; Schaefer, W

    2015-01-01

    A new algorithm for heat exchange between thermally coupled diffusely radiating interfaces is presented, which can be applied for closed and half open transparent radiating cavities. Interfaces between opaque and transparent materials are automatically detected and subdivided into elementary radiation surfaces named tiles. Contrary to the classical view factor method, the fixed unit sphere area subdivision oriented along the normal tile direction is projected onto the surrounding radiation mesh and not vice versa. Then, the total incident radiating flux of the receiver is approximated as a direct sum of radiation intensities of representative “senders” with the same weight factor. A hierarchical scheme for the space angle subdivision is selected in order to minimize the total memory and the computational demands during thermal calculations. Direct visibility is tested by means of a voxel-based ray tracing method accelerated by means of the anisotropic Chebyshev distance method, which reuses the computational grid as a Chebyshev one. The ray tracing algorithm is fully parallelized using MPI and takes advantage of the balanced distribution of all available tiles among all CPU's. This approach allows tracing of each particular ray without any communication. The algorithm has been implemented in a commercial casting process simulation software. The accuracy and computational performance of the new radiation model for heat treatment, investment and ingot casting applications is illustrated using industrial examples. (paper)

  19. Effect of heat treatment and hot isostatic pressing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 625 alloy processed by laser powder bed fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitcberg, Alena, E-mail: alena.kreitcberg.1@ens.etsmtl.ca [École de technologie supérieure, 110 Notre-Dame Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3C 1K3 Canada (Canada); Brailovski, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.brailovski@etsmtl.ca [École de technologie supérieure, 110 Notre-Dame Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3C 1K3 Canada (Canada); Turenne, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain.turenne@polymtl.ca [École Polytechnique de Montréal, 2900 boul. Édouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 Canada (Canada)

    2017-03-24

    The effect of different heat treatments and hot isostatic pressing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of laser powder bed fusion IN625 alloy was studied. The heat treatments were: stress relief annealing, recrystallization annealing and low-temperature solution treatment. The resulting microstructure and crystallographic textures were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the as-built and post-treated IN625 alloy were obtained after tensile testing at room temperature and at 760 °C (1400 °F), and compared to those of an annealed wrought alloy of the same composition.

  20. Process heat recovery: hot prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    By updating established technologies to recover heat at higher temperatures and under more corrosive conditions, British industry could recover six to eight million tons of coal equivalent that it currently wastes. Organic liquids in organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines and simpler designs than steam turbines can increase efficiency. They also eliminate the need for vacuum pumps and permit the use of air cooling. Cooperative government-private industry research programs are exploring the use of ORC engines. Other heat-recovery projects include a Scottish paper mill, a metal decorating and printing plant, a falling-cloud heat exchanger, and heat-pipe development. 4 figures, 1 table. (DCK)

  1. Heating and cooling processes in disks*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woitke Peter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter summarises current theoretical concepts and methods to determine the gas temperature structure in protoplanetary disks by balancing all relevant heating and cooling rates. The processes considered are non-LTE line heating/cooling based on the escape probability method, photo-ionisation heating and recombination cooling, free-free heating/cooling, dust thermal accommodation and high-energy heating processes such as X-ray and cosmic ray heating, dust photoelectric and PAH heating, a number of particular follow-up heating processes starting with the UV excitation of H2, and the release of binding energy in exothermal reactions. The resulting thermal structure of protoplanetary disks is described and discussed.

  2. The reduction of optimal heat treatment temperature and critical current density enhancement of ex situ processed MgB2 tapes using ball milled filling powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwanade, Akio; Kawada, Satoshi; Kitaguchi, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    The optimal heat treatment temperature (Topt) at which best performance in the critical current density (Jc) property at 4.2 K is obtained is influenced by the quality or reactivity of the filling powder in ex situ processed MgB2 tapes. Using a controlled fabrication process, the Topt decreases to 705-735 °C, which is lower than previously reported by more than 50 °C. The Topt decrease is effective to suppress both the decomposition of MgB2 and hence the formation of impurities such as MgB4, and the growth of crystallite size which decreases upper critical filed (Hc2). These bring about the Jc improvement and the Jc value at 4.2 K and 10 T reaches 250 A/mm2. The milling process also decreases the critical temperature (Tc) below 30 K. The milled powder is easily contaminated in air and thus, the Jc property of the contaminated tapes degrades severely. The contamination can raise the Topt by more than 50 °C, which is probably due to the increased sintering temperature required against contaminated surface layer around the grains acting as a barrier.

  3. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains (other...

  4. Optimisation of the solution heat treatment of Rheo-processed Al-Cu-Mg-(Ag) Alloys A206 and A201

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masuku, EP

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional solution treatment cycles that are currently applied to rheo-processed A201 are mostly those that are used for conventional castings. These solution treatments are not necessarily the optimum solution treatments for rheo...

  5. In situ X-ray diffraction study of crystallization process of GeSbTe thin films during heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Naohiko [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)]. E-mail: e0957@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Konomi, Ichiro [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Seno, Yoshiki [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    The crystallization processes of the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin film used for PD and DVD-RAM were studied in its realistic optical disk film configurations for the first time by X-ray diffraction using an intense X-ray beam of a synchrotron orbital radiation facility (SPring-8) and in situ quick detection with a Position-Sensitive-Proportional-Counter. The dependence of the amorphous-to-fcc phase-change temperature T{sub 1} on the rate of temperature elevation R{sub et} gave an activation energy E{sub a}: 0.93 eV much less than previously reported 2.2 eV obtained from a model sample 25-45 times thicker than in the real optical disks. The similar measurement on the Ge{sub 4}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 5} film whose large reflectance change attains the readability by CD-ROM drives gave E{sub a}: 1.13 eV with larger T{sub 1} than Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films at any R{sub et} implying a lower sensitivity in erasing as well as a better data stability of the phase-change disk.

  6. In situ X-ray diffraction study of crystallization process of GeSbTe thin films during heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Naohiko; Konomi, Ichiro; Seno, Yoshiki; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization processes of the Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 thin film used for PD and DVD-RAM were studied in its realistic optical disk film configurations for the first time by X-ray diffraction using an intense X-ray beam of a synchrotron orbital radiation facility (SPring-8) and in situ quick detection with a Position-Sensitive-Proportional-Counter. The dependence of the amorphous-to-fcc phase-change temperature T 1 on the rate of temperature elevation R et gave an activation energy E a : 0.93 eV much less than previously reported 2.2 eV obtained from a model sample 25-45 times thicker than in the real optical disks. The similar measurement on the Ge 4 Sb 1 Te 5 film whose large reflectance change attains the readability by CD-ROM drives gave E a : 1.13 eV with larger T 1 than Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 thin films at any R et implying a lower sensitivity in erasing as well as a better data stability of the phase-change disk

  7. Viscose liquid heat treatment using plate scraper heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Rashkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work analyzes the use of different types of heat exchangers, depending on the technology of production. It is taken the detail analysis of the ways of applicability of various types of heat exchangers, depending on the viscosity of the processed product. It is posed the problem of the analytical determination of the required area of heat exchange with the use of differential equations of heat transfer in a moving liquid media, written in cylindrical coordinates, for symmetrical temperature distribution, without taking in account the energy dissipation.

  8. Nuclear reactor plant for production process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.

    1979-01-01

    The high temperature reactor is suitable as a heat source for carrying out endothermal chemical processes. A heat exchanger is required for separating the reactor coolant gases and the process medium. The heat of the reactor is transferred at a temperature lower than the process temperature to a secondary gas and is compressed to give the required temperature. The compression energy is obtained from the same reactor. (RW) [de

  9. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure, texture and elastic anisotropy of the nickel-based superalloy CM247LC processed by selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz-Moreno, R.; Divya, V.D.; Driver, S.L.; Messé, O.M.D.M.; Illston, T.; Baker, S.; Carpenter, M.A.; Stone, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) of nickel-based superalloys is of great interest for the aerospace industry due to its capability for producing components with complex geometries. However, an improved understanding of the effect of SLM and subsequent post deposition heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties is required to ensure that components with good structural integrity are produced. In this study, the microstructure, texture and elastic anisotropy of the nickel-based superalloy, CM247LC, in the as-SLM and heat-treated states have been analysed. The as-SLM microstructure showed fine elongated cells with a preferential alignment of <001> along the build direction and a significant intercellular misorientation. Heat treatments at temperatures below 1230 °C resulted in a progressive recovery of the microstructure, whilst heat treatments above this temperature gave rise to a recrystallised microstructure. The extent to which nucleation and growth of the γ′ precipitates and secondary particles were affected by increasing the heat treatment temperature was also characterised. The bulk elastic anisotropy of all samples was measured by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) and was found to be consistent with the local textures obtained by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). It was observed that the initially strong elastic anisotropy exhibited by the as-SLM material was significantly reduced in the recrystallised samples, although some anisotropy was retained as a result of their elongated grain microstructures.

  10. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure, texture and elastic anisotropy of the nickel-based superalloy CM247LC processed by selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Moreno, R., E-mail: rociomunozmoreno@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Divya, V.D. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Driver, S.L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Messé, O.M.D.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Illston, T.; Baker, S. [Materials Solutions, Unit 8, Great Western Business Park, McKenzie Way, Worcester WR4 9GN (United Kingdom); Carpenter, M.A. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Stone, H.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-30

    Selective laser melting (SLM) of nickel-based superalloys is of great interest for the aerospace industry due to its capability for producing components with complex geometries. However, an improved understanding of the effect of SLM and subsequent post deposition heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties is required to ensure that components with good structural integrity are produced. In this study, the microstructure, texture and elastic anisotropy of the nickel-based superalloy, CM247LC, in the as-SLM and heat-treated states have been analysed. The as-SLM microstructure showed fine elongated cells with a preferential alignment of <001> along the build direction and a significant intercellular misorientation. Heat treatments at temperatures below 1230 °C resulted in a progressive recovery of the microstructure, whilst heat treatments above this temperature gave rise to a recrystallised microstructure. The extent to which nucleation and growth of the γ′ precipitates and secondary particles were affected by increasing the heat treatment temperature was also characterised. The bulk elastic anisotropy of all samples was measured by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) and was found to be consistent with the local textures obtained by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). It was observed that the initially strong elastic anisotropy exhibited by the as-SLM material was significantly reduced in the recrystallised samples, although some anisotropy was retained as a result of their elongated grain microstructures.

  11. Heat treatment of Na2O-CaO-P2O5-SiO2 bioactive glasses: densification processes and postsintering bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, A; Bellucci, D; Raucci, M G; Zeppetelli, S; Ambrosio, L; Cannillo, V

    2012-02-01

    Because of their excellent bioactivity, bioactive glasses are increasingly diffused to produce biomedical devices for bone prostheses, to face the dysfunctions that may be caused by traumatic events, diseases, or even natural aging. However, several processing routes, such as the production of scaffolds or the deposition of coatings, include a thermal treatment to apply or sinter the glass. The exposure to high temperature may induce a devetrification phenomenon, altering the properties and, in particular, the bioactivity of the glass. The present contribution offers an overview of the thermal behavior and properties of two glasses belonging to the Na2O-CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system, to be compared to the standard 45S5 Bioglass(®). The basic goal is to understand the effect of both the original composition and the thermal treatment on the performance of the sintered glasses. The new glasses, the one (BG_Na) with a high content of Na2O, the other (BG_Ca) with a high content of CaO, were fully characterized and sintering tests were performed to define the most interesting firing cycles. The sintered samples, treated at 880°C and 800°C respectively, were investigated from a microstructural point of view and their mechanical properties were compared to those of the bulk (not sintered) glass counterparts. The effect of sintering was especially striking on the BG_Ca material, whose Vickers hardness increased from 598.9 ± 46.7 HV to 1053.4 ± 35.0 HV. The in vitro tests confirmed the ability of the glasses, both in bulk and sintered form, of generating a hydroxyapatite surface layer when immersed in a simulated body fluid. More accurate biological tests performed on the sintered glasses proved the high bioactivity of the CaO-rich composition even after a heat treatment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The influence of heat treatment and process parameters optimization on hardness and corrosion properties of laser alloyed X12CrNiMo steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Popoola, API

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Martensitic stainless steels are used in the production of steam turbine blades but their application is limited due to low hardness and poor corrosion resistance. Laser surface alloying and heat treatment of X12CrNiMo Martensitic stainless steel...

  13. Effect of heat treatment on carbon steel pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Harun.

    1987-01-01

    The heat treatment to improve the altered properties of carbon steel pipe welds is described. Pipe critical components in oil, gasification and nuclear reactor plants require adequate room temperature toughness and high strength at both room and moderately elevated temperatures. Microstructure and microhardness across the welds were changed markedly by the welding process and heat treatment. The presentation of hardness fluctuation in the welds can produce premature failure. A number of heat treatments are suggested to improve the properties of the welds. (author) 8 figs., 5 refs

  14. Examination of heat treatments at preservation of grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Korzenszky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is a well-known process in food preservation. It is made to avoid and to slow down food deterioration. The process was developed by Louise Pasteur French scientist to avoid late among others wine further fermentation. The different heat treatments influence the shelf life in food production. In our article we present the process of grape must fermentation, as grape must is the base material of wine production. The treatment of harvested fresh grape juice has a big influence on end product quality. It is our experiments we examined the same grape must with four different methods in closed and in open spaces to determine CO2 concentration change. There are four different methods for treatment of grape juice: boiling, microwave treatment, treatment by water bath thermostat and a control without treatment. As a result of the comparison it can be stated that the heat treatment delays the start of fermentation, thereby increasing shelf life of grape must. However, no significant differences were found between two fermentation of heat-treated grape must by the microwave and water-bath thermostat. The different heat treatment of grape must base materials was done at the laboratory in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Szent István University. The origin of the table grapes used for the examination was Gödöllő-hillside. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE

  15. Ultrasonic evaluation of heat treatment for stress relief in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittencourt, Marcelo de S.Q.; Lamy, Carlos A.; Goncalves Filho, Orlando J.A.; Payao Filho, Joao da C.

    2000-01-01

    Residual stresses in materials arise due to the manufacturing processes. As a consequence, in the nuclear area some components must suffer a stress relief treatment according to strict criteria. Although these treatments are carefully carried on, concern with nuclear safety is constantly growing. This work proposes a nondestructive ultrasonic method to guarantee the efficiency of the heat treatment. It was used a short peened steel plate with tensile and compressive stresses which was submitted to a stress relief treatment. The results show that the proposed ultrasonic method could be used to confirm the efficiency of the stress relief heat treatment. (author)

  16. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in ...

  17. Evaluation of Workability on the Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Modified 9Cr-2W Steel for Fuel Cladding by Cold Drawing Process and Intermediate Heat Treatment Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Min Heo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the cold drawing workability of two kinds of modified 9Cr-2W steel containing different contents of boron and nitrogen depending on the temperature and time of normalizing and tempering treatments. Using ring compression tests at room temperature, the effect of intermediate heat treatment condition on workability was investigated. It was found that the prior austenite grain size can be changed by the austenite transformation and that the grain size increases with increasing temperature during normalizing heat treatment. Alloy B and Alloy N showed different patterns after normalizing heat treatment. Alloy N had higher stress than Alloy B, and the reduction in alloy N increased while the reduction in alloy B decreased. Alloy B showed a larger number of initially formed cracks and a larger average crack length than Alloy N. Crack length and number increased proportionally in Alloy B as the stress increased. Alloy B had lower crack resistance than Alloy N due to boron segregation.

  18. Heat-treatment and heat-to-heat variations in the fracture toughness of Alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    The effect of heat-treatment and heat-to-heat variations on the J Ic fracture toughness response of Alloy 718 was examined at room and elevated temperatures using the multiple-specimen R-curve technique. Six heats of alloy 718 were tested in the conventional and modified heat-treated conditions. The fracture toughness response for the modified superalloy was found to be superior to that exhibited by the conventional material. Heat-to-heat variations in the J Ic response of Alloy 718 were observed in both heat-treated conditions; the modified treatment exhibited much larger variability. The J Ic and corresponding K Ic fracture toughness values were analyzed statistically to establish minimum expected toughness, values for use in design and safety analyses. 26 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs

  19. OMR type process heat reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzetti, Franco.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of an OMR type reactor for heat generation. It includes a vessel the upper part of which is shut by a plug. The lower part of the vessel includes a core of fuel elements and is filled with an organic liquid. Over this there is a middle area filled with an inert gas. The plug includes an upper part forming a closure and resting around its edge on the vessel, and a lower part fixed under the closure and composed of a hollow cylindrical tank fitted with a bottom and filled with another organic liquid. The height of the cylindrical tank is such that, increased by the height of the first organic liquid in the lower area and above the core, it provides biological protection. The cooling system includes a heat exchanger and a pump to move the liquid from the lower part of the core and to inject some as spray into that part of the vessel filled with the inert gas. When loading and unloading, after the reactor is shut down, the clear organic liquid contained in the plug is discharged into the reactor vessel in such a way that it does not mix with the opaque organic liquid already contained in the vessel, and in that the opaque organic liquid is emptied out [fr

  20. 49 CFR 179.400-12 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.400-12 Section 179... and 107A) § 179.400-12 Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner tank is not... be attached before postweld heat treatment. Welds securing the following need not be postweld heat...

  1. Heat Transfer Analysis of Localized Heat-Treatment for Grade 91 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jacob D.

    Many of the projects utilizing Grade 91 steel are large in scale, therefore it is necessary to assemble on site. The assembly of the major pieces requires welding in the assembly; this drastically changes the superior mechanical properties of Grade 91 steel that it was specifically developed for. Therefore, because of the adverse effects of welding on the mechanical properties of Grade 91, it is necessary to do a localized post weld heat treatment. As with most metallic materials grade 91 steel requires a very specific heat treatment process. This process includes a specific temperature and duration at that temperature to achieve the heat treatment desired. Extensive research has been done to determine the proper temperatures and duration to provide the proper microstructure for the superior mechanical properties that are inherent to Grade 91 steel. The welded sections are typically large structures that require local heat treatments and cannot be placed in an oven. The locations of these structures vary from indoors in a controlled environment to outdoors with unpredictable environments. These environments can be controlled somewhat, however in large part the surrounding conditions are unchangeable. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods to accurately apply the surrounding conditions and geometries to a theoretical model in order to provide the proper requirements for the local heat treatment procedure. Within this requirement is the requirement to define unknowns used in the heat transfer equations so that accurate models can be produced and accurate results predicted. This study investigates experimentally and numerically the heat transfer and temperature fields of Grade 91 piping in a local heat treatment. The objective of this thesis research is to determine all of the needed heat transfer coefficients. The appropriate heat transfer coefficients are determined through the inverse heat conduction method utilizing a ceramic heat blanket. This will be done

  2. PWR type process heat reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, Gilles; Petit, Guy.

    1974-01-01

    The nuclear reactor described is of the pressurized water type. It includes a prestressed concrete vessel, the upper part of which is shut by a closure, and a core surrounded by a core ring. The core fuel assemblies are supported by an initial set of vertical tubes integral with the bottom of the vessel, which serve to guide the rods of the control system. Over the core there is a second set of vertical tubes, able to receive the absorbing part of a control rod when this is raised above the core. An annular pressurizer around the core ring keeps the water in a liquid state. A pump is located above the second set of tubes and is integral with the closure. It circulates the water between the core and the intake of at least one primary heat exchanger, the exchanger (s) being placed between the wall of the vessel and the core ring [fr

  3. Solar process heat is becoming sexy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhart, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    Linear concentrating solar collectors for solar medium-temperature process heat: an exotic niche market has turned into a wide range of offers for commercial and private customers - and there is no end in sight to the technical developments. (orig.)

  4. Electromagnetic heating processes: analysis and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Calay, Rajnish Kaur

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic heating (EMH) processes are being increasingly used in the industrial and domestic sectors, yet they receive relatively little attention in the thermal engineering domain. Time-temperature characteristics in EMH are qualitatively different from those in conventional heating techniques due to the additional parameters (viz dielectric properties of the material, size and shape of the product and process frequency). From a unified theory perspective, a multi-...

  5. Advances in Nuclear Power Process Heat Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    Following an IAEA coordinated research project, this publication compiles the findings of research and development activities related to practical nuclear process heat applications. An overview of current progress on high temperature gas cooled reactors coupling schemes for different process heat applications, such as hydrogen production and desalination is included. The associated safety aspects are also highlighted. The summary report documents the results and conclusions of the project.

  6. Evaluation of carbon diffusion in heat treatment of H13 tool steel under different atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Ramezani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the cost of the heat treatment process is only a minor portion of the total production cost, it is arguably the most important and crucial stage on the determination of material quality. In the study of the carbon diffusion in H13 steel during austenitization, a series of heat treatment experiments had been conducted under different atmospheric conditions and length of treatment. Four austenitization atmospheric conditions were studied, i.e., heat treatment without atmospheric control, heat treatment with stainless steel foil wrapping, pack carburization heat treatment and vacuum heat treatment. The results showed that stainless steel foil wrapping could restrict decarburization process, resulting in a constant hardness profile as vacuum heat treatment does. However, the tempering characteristic between these two heat treatment methods is different. Results from the gas nitrided samples showed that the thickness and the hardness of the nitrided layer is independent of the carbon content in H13 steel.

  7. Numerical analysis of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla heat-treatment: A dynamically detecting method of mass loss during the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zijian; Ma, Qing; Mu, Jun; Yi, Songlin; He, Zhengbin

    Eucalyptus particles, lamellas and boards were applied to explore a simply-implemented method with neglected heat and mass transfer to inspect the mass loss during the heat-treatment course. The results revealed that the mass loss of a certain period was theoretically the definite integration of loss rate to time in this period, and a monitoring model for mass loss speed was developed with the particles and validated with the lamellas and boards. The loss rate was correlated to the temperature and temperature-evolving speed in the model which was composed of three functions during different temperature-evolving period. The sample mass loss was calculated in the MATLAB for the lamellas and boards and the model was validated and adjusted based on the difference between the computed results and the practically measured loss values. The error ranges of the new models were -16.30% to 18.35% for wood lamellas and -9.86% to 6.80% for wood boards. This method made it possible to acquire the instantaneous loss value through continuously detecting the wood temperature evolution. This idea could provide a reference for the Eucalyptus heat-treatment to detect the treating course and control the final material characteristics.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis on theoretical models of cycle combined heat exchange process: The reversible heat exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chenghu; Li, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Concept of reversible heat exchange process as the theoretical model of the cycle combined heat exchanger could be useful to determine thermodynamics characteristics and the limitation values in the isolated heat exchange system. In this study, the classification of the reversible heat exchange processes is presented, and with the numerical method, medium temperature variation tendency and the useful work production and usage in the whole process are investigated by the construction and solution of the mathematical descriptions. Various values of medium inlet temperatures and heat capacity ratio are considered to analyze the effects of process parameters on the outlet temperature lift/drop. The maximum process work transferred from the Carnot cycle region to the reverse cycle region is also researched. Moreover, influence of the separating point between different sub-processes on temperature variation profile and the process work production are analyzed. In addition, the heat-exchange-enhancement-factor is defined to study the enhancement effect of the application of the idealized process in the isolated heat exchange system, and the variation degree of this factor with process parameters change is obtained. The research results of this paper can be a theoretical guidance to construct the cycle combined heat exchange process in the practical system. - Highlights: • A theoretical model of Cycle combined heat exchange process is proposed. • The classification of reversible heat exchange process are presented. • Effects of Inlet temperatures and heat capacity ratio on process are analyzed. • Process work transmission through the whole process is studied. • Heat-exchange-enhancement-factor can be a criteria to express the application effect of the idealized process.

  9. METAL CHIP HEATING PROCESS INVESTIGATION (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Dyakonov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main calculation methods for heat- and mass transfer in porous heterogeneous medium have been considered. The paper gives an evaluation of the possibility to apply them for calculation of metal chip heating process. It has been shown that a description of transfer processes in a chip has its own specific character that is attributed to difference between thermal and physical properties of chip material and lubricant-coolant components on chip surfaces. It has been determined that the known expressions for effective heat transfer coefficients can be used as basic ones while approaching mutually penetrating continuums. A mathematical description of heat- and mass transfer in chip medium can be considered as a basis of mathematical modeling, numerical solution and parameter optimization of the mentioned processes.

  10. Analytical models of Ohmic heating and conventional heating in food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serventi, A.; Bozzoli, F.; Rainieri, S.

    2017-11-01

    Ohmic heating is a food processing operation in which an electric current is passed through a food and the electrical resistance of the food causes the electric power to be transformed directly into heat. The heat is not delivered through a surface as in conventional heat exchangers but it is internally generated by Joule effect. Therefore, no temperature gradient is required and it origins quicker and more uniform heating within the food. On the other hand, it is associated with high energy costs and its use is limited to a particular range of food products with an appropriate electrical conductivity. Sterilization of foods by Ohmic heating has gained growing interest in the last few years. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits of Ohmic heating with respect to conventional heat exchangers under uniform wall temperature, a condition that is often present in industrial plants. This comparison is carried out by means of analytical models. The two different heating conditions are simulated under typical circumstances for the food industry. Particular attention is paid to the uniformity of the heat treatment and to the heating section length required in the two different conditions.

  11. Failures of tool steels after heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez-Gonzalez, G.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the work was to determine the most common defects occuring in tool steels of the AISI D-2, S-1, 0-1 and W-2 series during thermal treatment. Defects were evaluated by metallographic analyses, a method used to determine and recognize micro structural defects and their origin in order to be able to eliminate and correct some of the stages that are caused by heat treatment. Results show a large number of defects due to irregularities during thermal heating such as excess or lack of temperature, heating time, and atmosphere, rectifying and handling in service and, to a lesser extent, poor design. In conclusion, with the results obtained for each of the thermal treatments it is necessary to define, particularly the values each of these variables should have since they affect the material properties. (Author)

  12. Heat transfer in a thermoacoustic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beke, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Thermoacoustic instability is defined as the excitation of acoustic modes in chambers with heat sources due to the coupling between acoustic perturbations and unsteady heat addition. The major objective of this paper is to achieve accurate theoretical results in a thermoacoustic heat transfer process. We carry out a detailed heat transfer analysis aimed at determining the stability–instability border of the thermoacoustic system. In this paper, we present a project type of physical examination and modelling task. We employed an electrically heated Rijke tube in our thermoacoustic project work. The aim of our project is to help our students enlarge their knowledge about thermodynamics, mainly about thermoacoustics, and develop their applied information technology and mathematical skills. (paper)

  13. Improving Process Heating System Performance v3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-11

    Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry is a development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) and the Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA). The AMO and IHEA undertook this project as part of an series of sourcebook publications developed by AMO on energy-consuming industrial systems, and opportunities to improve performance. Other topics in this series include compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, steam systems, and motors and drives

  14. High temperature nuclear process heat systems for chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiacoletti, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The development planning and status of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor as a source of industrial process heat is presented. The dwindling domestic reserves of petroleum and natural gas dictate major increases in the utilization of coal and nuclear sources to meet the national energy demand. The nuclear process heat system offers a unique combination of the two that is environmentally and economically attractive and technically sound. Conceptual studies of several energy-intensive processes coupled to a nuclear heat source are presented

  15. 49 CFR 179.220-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.220-11 Section 179... Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner container is not a specification requirement. (b) Postweld heat treatment of the cylindrical portions of the outer shell to which the anchorage...

  16. 49 CFR 179.500-6 - Heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat treatment. 179.500-6 Section 179.500-6...-6 Heat treatment. (a) Each necked-down tank shall be uniformly heat treated. Heat treatment shall... treatment of alternate steels shall be approved. All scale shall be removed from outside of tank to an...

  17. Oil shales and the nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpinella, C.A.

    1974-01-01

    Two of the primary energy sources most dited as alternatives to the traditional fossil fuels are oil shales and nuclear energy. Several proposed processes for the extraction and utilization of oil and gas from shale are given. Possible efficient ways in which nuclear heat may be used in these processes are discussed [pt

  18. EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOYBEAN PROTEIN SOLUBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CĂPRIŢĂ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of soybean products in animal feeds is limited due to the presence of antinutritional factors (ANF. Proper heat processing is required to destroy ANF naturally present in raw soybeans and to remove solvent remaining from the oil extraction process. Over and under toasting of soybean causes lower nutritional value. Excessive heat treatment causes Maillard reaction which affects the availability of lysine in particular and produces changes to the chemical structure of proteins resulting in a decrease of the nutritive value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heating time on the protein solubility. The investigation of the heating time on protein solubility in soybean meal (SBM revealed a negative correlation (r = -0.9596. Since the urease index is suitable only for detecting under processed SBM, the protein solubility is an important index for monitoring SBM quality.

  19. Assembly for melting and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, M.

    1976-11-01

    Laboratory scale production of alloys having a precise alloying materials content and the exact heat treatment of metallurgical specimens are discussed. The design and assembly of two relevant instruments are described. These instruments include a laboratory vacuum induction furnace and a specially designed glass lathe, that enables even an unskilled operator to encapsulate and seal metallurgical specimens in glass capsules. (author)

  20. Effect of heat treatment temperature on microstructure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of electrochemical performance measurements for the HCSs as anode material for lithium ion batteries indicate that the discharge capacity of the HCSs is improved after heat treatment at 800°C compared with the as-prepared HCSs and have a maximum value of 357 mAh/g and still retains 303 mAh/g after 40 ...

  1. Characterization and processing of heat treated aluminium matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doifode, Yogesh; Kulkarni, S. G.

    2018-05-01

    The present study is carried out to determine density and porosity of Aluminium bagasse ash reinforced composite produced by powder metallurgy method. Bagasse ash is used as reinforcement material having high silica and alumina contents and varied from 5 weight % to 40 weight%. The manufactured composite is heat treated, the main objective of heat treatment is to prepare the material structurally and physically fit for engineering application. The results showed that the density decreases with percentage increase in reinforcement of bagasse ash from 2.6618 gm/cm3 to 1.9830 gm/cm3 with the minimum value at 40 weight% bagasse ash without heat treatment whereas after heat treatment density of composite increases due filling up of voids and porous holes. Heat treatment processing is the key to this improvement, with the T6 heat treated composite to convene the reduced porosity of composite. Consequently aluminium metal matrix composite combines the strength of the reinforcement to achieve a combination of desirable properties not available in any single material. It may observe that porosity in case of powder metallurgy samples showed more porosity portions compare to the casting samples. In order to achieve optimality in structure and properties of Bagasse ash-reinforcement heat treatment techniques have evolved. Generally, the ceramic reinforcements increase the density of the base alloy during fabrication of composites. However, the addition of lightweight reinforcements reduces the density of the hybrid composites. The results also showed that, the density varies from to with minimum value at 40 wt. % BA. The results of the statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences among the means of each property of the composites at various levels of BA replacement .It was concluded that bagasse ash can be used as reinforcement and the produced composites have low density and heat treatment reduces porosity which could be used in automobile industry for

  2. Laser heat treatment of welds for various stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontu, O.; Ganatsios, S.; Alexandrescu, N.; Predescu, C.

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the post - weld heat treatment of a duplex stainless steel. Welded joint samples were surface - treated using the same laser source adopted during welding in order to counterbalance the excess of ferrite formed in the welding process.

  3. Heat Treatment and Properties of Iron and Steel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Digges, Thomas

    1966-01-01

    .... Chemical compositions, heat treatments, and some properties and uses are presented for structural steels, tool steels, stainless and heat-resisting steels, precipitation-hardenable stainless steels...

  4. Modeling of Dielectric Heating within Lyophilization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kyncl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A process of lyophilization of paper books is modeled. The process of drying is controlled by a dielectric heating system. From the physical viewpoint, the task represents a 2D coupled problem described by two partial differential equations for the electric and temperature fields. The material parameters are supposed to be temperature-dependent functions. The continuous mathematical model is solved numerically. The methodology is illustrated with some examples whose results are discussed.

  5. Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Wright, Sarah; Wallace, Sarah; Hamilton, Tanner; Dennis, Alexander; Zuhlke, Craig; Roth, Nick; Sanders, John

    2017-01-01

    The reliance on non-permanent coatings in Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) designs is a significant technical issue to be solved before long-duration spaceflight can occur. Therefore, high reliability CHXs have been identified by the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as critical technologies needed to move beyond low earth orbit. The Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger project aims to solve these problems through the use of femtosecond laser processed surfaces, which have unique wetting properties and potentially exhibit anti-microbial growth properties. These surfaces were investigated to identify if they would be suitable candidates for a replacement CHX surface. Among the areas researched in this project include microbial growth testing, siloxane flow testing in which laser processed surfaces were exposed to siloxanes in an air stream, and manufacturability.

  6. Numerical simulation of heat transfer process in automotive brakes

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Voltas, David

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis concerns the theoretical investigations of the heat transfer process in automotive brakes. The process of heat generation and heat transfer to ambient air in automotive brake was presented. The two–dimensional, axi-symmetrical model of transient heat conduction for the brake was applied. The relevant boundary conditions, that describe the heat generated in the brake and the heat transferred to ambient air, were used. The unsteady heat conduction problem was solved by the...

  7. Impact Toughness and Heat Treatment for Cast Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for transforming a cast component made of modified aluminum alloy by increasing the impact toughness coefficient using minimal heat and energy. The aluminum alloy is modified to contain 0.55%-0.60% magnesium, 0.10%-0.15% titanium or zirconium, less than 0.07% iron, a silicon-tomagnesium product ratio of 4.0, and less than 0.15% total impurities. The shortened heat treatment requires an initial heating at 1,000deg F. for up to I hour followed by a water quench and a second heating at 350deg F. to 390deg F. for up to I hour. An optional short bake paint cycle or powder coating process further increase.

  8. HTR's role in process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, Reiner

    2008-01-01

    Advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors create a number of new opportunities for nuclear process heat applications. These opportunities are based on the high-temperature heat available, smaller reactor sizes, and enhanced safety features that allow siting close to process plants. Major sources of value include the displacement of premium fuels and the elimination of CO 2 emissions from combustion of conventional fuels and their use to produce hydrogen. High value applications include steam production and cogeneration, steam methane reforming, and water splitting. Market entry by advanced high-temperature reactor technology is challenged by the evolution of nuclear licensing requirements in countries targeted for early applications, by the development of a customer base not familiar with nuclear technology and related issues, by convergence of oil industry and nuclear industry risk management, by development of public and government policy support, by resolution of nuclear waste and proliferation concerns, and by the development of new business entities and business models to support commercialization. New HTR designs may see a larger opportunity in process heat niche applications than in power given competition from larger advanced light water reactors. Technology development is required in many areas to enable these new applications, including the commercialization of new heat exchangers capable of operating at high temperatures and pressures, convective process reactors and suitable catalysts, water splitting system and component designs, and other process-side requirements. Key forces that will shape these markets include future fuel availability and pricing, implementation and monetization of CO 2 emission limits, and the formation of international energy and environmental policy that will support initiatives to provide the nuclear licensing frameworks and risk distribution needed to support private investment. This paper was developed based on a plenary

  9. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Anupam; Khanal, Dipendra; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Corredig, Milena; Duizer, Lisa; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF) was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF). HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk (p ≥ 0.05) but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing (p ≥ 0.05), but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds (p < 0.05). The findings indicate that for the particular thermal and non-thermal treatments selected for this study, better retention of skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments. PMID:28234317

  10. Evaluation of carbon diffusion in heat treatment of H13 tool steel under different atmospheric conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani, Maziar; Pasang, Timotius; Chen, Zhan; Neitzert, Thomas; Au, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Although the cost of the heat treatment process is only a minor portion of the total production cost, it is arguably the most important and crucial stage on the determination of material quality. In the study of the carbon diffusion in H13 steel during austenitization, a series of heat treatment experiments had been conducted under different atmospheric conditions and length of treatment. Four austenitization atmospheric conditions were studied, i.e., heat treatment without atmospheric contro...

  11. Process heat utilization from HTGR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Work performed by the Special Research Unit 163 to supplement industrial development projects in the subject field was devoted to specific problems. The major goal was to analyse available industrial developments for potential improvements in terms of process design and engineering in line with the latest know-how, in order to enhance the economic efficiency of available techniques and methods. So research into coal gasification by nuclear processes concentrated on the potentials of a method allowing significantly higher gasification temperatures due to the use of a so-called high-temperature heat pump operating on the basis of the gas turbine principle. Exergetic analyses were made for the processes using nuclear heat in order to optimise their energy consumption. Major steps in these processes are gas purification and gas separation. Especially for the latter step, novel techniques were studied and tested on lab scale, results being used for development towards technical scale application. One novel technique is a method for separating hydrogen from methane and carbon monoxide by means of a gas turbine process step, another research task resulted in a novel absorption technique in the liquid phase. Further, alternative solutions were studied which, other than the conventional gasification processes, comprise electrochemical and other chemical process steps. The important research topic concerned with the kinetics of coal gasification was made part of a special research program on the level of fundamental research. (orig./GL) [de

  12. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Modeling of Postweld Heat Treatment Process in a Pressure Vessel Steel ASTM A516 Grade 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasura, Prachya

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the application of the response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) experiment in mathematical model and optimizes postweld heat treatment (PWHT). The material of study is a pressure vessel steel ASTM A516 grade 70 that is used for gas metal arc welding. PWHT parameters examined in this study included PWHT temperatures and time. The resulting materials were examined using CCD experiment and the RSM to determine the resulting material tensile strength test, observed with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that using a full quadratic model with the proposed mathematical model is YTS = -285.521 + 15.706X1 + 2.514X2 - 0.004X1(2) - 0.001X2(2) - 0.029X1X2. Tensile strength parameters of PWHT were optimized PWHT time of 5.00 hr and PWHT temperature of 645.75°C. The results show that the PWHT time is the dominant mechanism used to modify the tensile strength compared to the PWHT temperatures. This phenomenon could be explained by the fact that pearlite can contribute to higher tensile strength. Pearlite has an intensity, which results in increased material tensile strength. The research described here can be used as material data on PWHT parameters for an ASTM A516 grade 70 weld.

  13. Heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.

    1980-01-01

    A carbon dioxide laser system was constructed for the demonstration of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation. The system consisted of a frequency doubling stage, a gas reaction cell with its vacuum and high purity gas supply system, and provisions to measure the temperature changes by pressure, or alternatively, by density changes. The theoretical considerations for the choice of designs and components are dicussed.

  14. Induction heat treatment of laser welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Sørensen, Joakim Ilsing

    2003-01-01

    of an induction coil. A number of systematic laboratory tests were then performed in order to study the effects of the coil on bead-on-plate laser welded samples. In these tests, important parameters such as coil current and distance between coil and sample were varied. Temperature measurements were made...... the laser beam as close as possible. After welding, the samples were quality assessed according to ISO 13.919-1 and tested for hardness. The metallurgical phases are analysed and briefly described. A comparison between purely laser welded samples and induction heat-treated laser welded samples is made......In this paper, a new approach based on induction heat-treatment of flat laser welded sheets is presented. With this new concept, the ductility of high strength steels GA260 with a thickness of 1.8 mm and CMn with a thickness of 2.13 mm is believed to be improved by prolonging the cooling time from...

  15. Heat treatments of TiAl-Cr-V casting alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Z.J.; Ma, J.L.; Wu, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The need to investigate various kinds of fine microstructure based on casting TiAl alloy led to development of a multiple-stage heat treatment procedure. The first stage required the transformation of as-cast lamellar structure into near-gamma structure, followed by required transformation of near-gamma structure into various kinds of fine microstructure. The as-cast lamellar structure can be changed into near-gamma structure by annealing the alloy at 1,200 C for at least 50 hours. During the annealing process, two mechanisms are involved in transforming the lamellar structure into a near-gamma structure. One is the discontinuous coarsening (DC) process, and the other is the continuous coarsening (CC) process. With the near-gamma structure as an initial structure, the alloy being heat-treated in the γ + α and in the α fields can produce various kinds of microstructure with fine grain size. These microstructure significantly differ from the microstructure produced by heat-treating the deformed lamellar structure. Results of the investigation show that careful control of the time of the heat-treatment process in the single a field can produce a fine fully lamellar structure

  16. Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Thomas David [Houston, TX

    2009-11-03

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing acidic gas to a subsurface formation is described herein. The method may include providing heat from one or more heaters to a portion of a subsurface formation; producing fluids that include one or more acidic gases from the formation using a heat treatment process. At least a portion of one of the acidic gases may be introduced into the formation, or into another formation, through one or more wellbores at a pressure below a lithostatic pressure of the formation in which the acidic gas is introduced.

  17. 49 CFR 179.200-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.200-11 Section 179.200-11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Postweld heat treatment. When specified in § 179.201-1, after welding is complete, postweld heat treatment...

  18. Heat treatment control of Bi-2212 coils: I. Unravelling the complex dependence of the critical current density of Bi-2212 wires on heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tengming; Li, Pei; Ye, Liyang

    2018-01-01

    A robust and reliable heat treatment is crucial for developing superconducting magnets from several superconductors especially Bi-2212. An improper heat treatment may significantly reduce the critical current density Jc of a Bi-2212 superconducting coil, even to zero, since the Jc of Bi-2212 wires is sensitive to parameters of its heat treatment (partial melt processing). To provide an essential database for heat treating Bi-2212 coils, the dependence of Jc on heat treatment is studied systematically in 11 industrial Bi-2212 wires, revealing several common traits shared between these wires and outlier behaviors. The dependence of the Jc of Bi-2212 on heat treatment is rather complex, with many processing parameters affecting Jc, including the peak processing temperature Tp, the time at the peak temperature tp, the time in the melt tmelt, the rate at which Bi-2212 melt is initially cooled CR1, the rate at which the solidification of Bi-2212 melt occurs CR2, and the temperature Tq at which the cooling rate switches from CR1 to CR2. The role of these parameters is analyzed and clarified, in the perspective of heat treating a coil. Practical advices on heat treatment design are given. The ability of a Bi-2212 coil to follow the prescribed recipe decreases with increasing coil sizes. The size of a coil that can be properly heat treated is determined.

  19. Numerical simulation on vacuum solution heat treatment and gas quenching process of a low rhenium-containing Ni-based single crystal turbine blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-xin Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerical heat-transfer and turbulent flow model for an industrial high-pressure gas quenching vacuum furnace was established to simulate the heating, holding and gas fan quenching of a low rhenium-bearing Ni-based single crystal turbine blade. The mesh of simplified furnace model was built using finite volume method and the boundary conditions were set up according to the practical process. Simulation results show that the turbine blade geometry and the mutual shielding among blades have significant influence on the uniformity of the temperature distribution. The temperature distribution at sharp corner, thin wall and corner part is higher than that at thick wall part of blade during heating, and the isotherms show a toroidal line to the center of thick wall. The temperature of sheltered units is lower than that of the remaining part of blade. When there is no shelteration among multiple blades, the temperature distribution for all blades is almost identical. The fluid velocity field, temperature field and cooling curves of the single and multiple turbine blades during gas fan quenching were also simulated. Modeling results indicate that the loading tray, free outlet and the location of turbine blades have important influences on the flow field. The high-speed gas flows out from the nozzle is divided by loading tray, and the free outlet enhanced the two vortex flow at the end of the furnace door. The closer the blade is to the exhaust outlet and the nozzle, the greater the flow velocity is and the more adequate the flow is. The blade geometry has an effect on the cooling for single blade and multiple blades during gas fan quenching, and the effects in double layers differs from that in single layer. For single blade, the cooing rate at thin-walled part is lower than that at thick-walled part, the cooling rate at sharp corner is greater than that at tenon and blade platform, and the temperature at regions close to the internal position is

  20. Design of common heat exchanger network for batch processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Heat integration of energy streams is very important for the efficient energy recovery in production systems. Pinch technology is a very useful tool for heat integration and maximizing energy efficiency. Creating of heat exchangers network as a common solution for systems in batch mode that will be applicable in all existing time slices is very difficult. This paper suggests a new methodology for design of common heat exchanger network for batch processes. Heat exchanger network designs were created for all determined repeatable and non-repeatable time periods – time slices. They are the basis for creating the common heat exchanger network. The common heat exchanger network as solution, satisfies all heat-transfer needs for each time period and for every existing combination of selected streams in the production process. This methodology use split of some heat exchangers into two or more heat exchange units or heat exchange zones. The reason for that is the multipurpose use of heat exchangers between different pairs of streams in different time periods. Splitting of large heat exchangers would maximize the total heat transfer usage of heat exchange units. Final solution contains heat exchangers with the minimum heat load as well as the minimum need of heat transfer area. The solution is applicable for all determined time periods and all existing stream combinations. - Highlights: •Methodology for design of energy efficient systems in batch processes. •Common Heat Exchanger Network solution based on designs with Pinch technology. •Multipurpose use of heat exchangers in batch processes

  1. Intermediate heat exchanger for HTR process heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crambes, M.

    1980-01-01

    In the French study on the nuclear gasification of coal, the following options were recommended: Coal hydrogenation, the hydrogen being derived from CH 4 reforming under the effects of HTR heat; the use of an intermediate helium circuit between the nuclear plant and the reforming plant. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the heat exchanger designed to transfer heat from the primary to the intermediate circuit

  2. Treatment of fuel oil contaminated waste water from liquid fuel processing plants associated to thermal power plants or heat and power cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, S.

    1996-01-01

    According to the statistical data presented in the most important European and world meetings on environmental protection, the oil product amounts which pollute the surface water is estimated to be of about 6 mill. tones yearly out of which 35 %, 10 %, and 1 % come from oil tanks, natural sources, and offshore drilling, respectively, while 54 % reach seas and oceans trough rivers, rains a.o. Among the water consumers and users of Romania, the thermal power plants, belonging to RENEL (Romanian Electricity Authority), are the greatest. A part of the water with modified chemical-physical parameters, used for different technological processes, have to be discharged from the user precinct directly towards natural agents or indirectly through public sewage networks as domestic and industrial waste water. These waste waters need an adequate treatment before discharging as to meet the requirements imposed by the norms and regulations related to environment protection. For this purpose, before discharging, after using, the water must be circulated through the treatment plants designed and operated as to ensure the correction of the inadequate values of the residual water parameters. The paper presents the activities developed in the Institute for Power Studies and Design concerning the environmental protection against pollution produced by the entire power generation circuit, from the design phase up to product supplying. (author). 1 tab., 2 refs

  3. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D'Evoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g. Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%, while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%. Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%. The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  4. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-07-31

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids-principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (-17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (-25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (-36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  5. THE HEAT TREATMENT ANALYSIS OF E110 CASE HARDENING STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJID TOLOUEI-RAD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates mechanical and microstructural behaviour of E110 case hardening steel when subjected to different heat treatment processes including quenching, normalizing and tempering. After heat treatment samples were subjected to mechanical and metallographic analysis and the properties obtained from applying different processes were analysed. The heat treatment process had certain effects on the resultant properties and microstructures obtained for E110 steel which are described in details. Quenching produced a martensitic microstructure characterized by significant increase in material’s hardness and a significant decreased in its impact energy. Annealed specimens produced a coarse pearlitic microstructure with minimal variation in hardness and impact energy. For normalized samples, fine pearlitic microstructure was identified with a moderate increase in hardness and significant reduction in impact energy. Tempering had a significant effect on quenched specimens, with a substantial rise in material ductility and reduction of hardness with increasing tempering temperature. Furthermore, Results provide additional substantiation of temper embrittlement theory for low-carbon alloys, and indicate potential occurrence of temper embrittlement for fine pearlitic microstructures.

  6. Intensification of Evaporation and Condensation Processes in Heat Exchange Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Vasiliev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes proposed design solutions for an intensification of heat transfer in evaporation and condensation heat exchangers. Complex experimental research of heat and mass transfer processes in flat and round cross-section miniature heat pipes is carried out. Optimization, development, manufacturing and an experimental investigation of copper miniature heat pipes with sintered powder are executed. Investigation results of capillary-porous structure properties that are used in evaporation and condensation heat-exchange apparatus are presented.

  7. Mortality of insect life stages during simulated heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Heat treatment for insect disinfestation uses elevated air temperatures that are lethal to stored-product insects. Heat treatment has been demonstrated in our research to offer a reduced-risk alternative to fumigation or residual pesticide use in empty bins. Heat is also compatible with organic gr...

  8. Efficacy of heat treatment for disinfestation of concrete grain silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate heat treatment for disinfestations of empty concrete elevator silos. A Mobile Heat Treatment Unit was used to introduce heat into silos to attain target conditions of 50°C for at least 6 h. Ventilated plastic containers with a capacity of...

  9. Hybrid fuzzy logic control of laser surface heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Jose Antonio; Ocana, Jose Luis; Molpeceres, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced hybrid fuzzy logic control system for laser surface heat treatments, which allows to increase significantly the uniformity and final quality of the obtained product, reducing the rejection rate and increasing the productivity and efficiency of the treatment. Basically, the proposed hybrid control structure combines a fuzzy logic controller, with a pure integral action, both fully decoupled, improving the performances of the process with a reasonable design cost, since the system nonlinearities are fully compensated by the fuzzy component of the controller, while the integral action contributes to eliminate the steady-state error

  10. Methods for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2010-08-03

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  11. Grain Refinement of Low Carbon Martensitic Steel by Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kolebina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-carbon steels have good corrosion and technological properties. Hot deformation is the main operation in manufacturing the parts from these steels. So one of the important properties of the material is a property of plasticity. The grain size significantly influences on the ductility properties of steel. The grain size of steel depends on the chemical composition of the crystallization process, heat treatment, and steel machining. There are plenty methods to have grain refinement. However, taking into account the large size of the blanks for the hydro turbine parts, the thermal cycling is an advanced method of the grain refinement adaptable to streamlined production. This work experimentally studies the heat treatment influence on the microstructure of the low-carbon 01X13N04 alloy steel and proposes the optimal regime of the heat treatment to provide a significantly reduced grain size. L.M. Kleiner, N.P. Melnikov and I.N. Bogachyova’s works focused both on the microstructure of these steels and on the influence of its parameters on the mechanical properties. The paper focuses mainly on defining an optimal regime of the heat treatment for grain refinement. The phase composition of steel and temperature of phase transformation were defined by the theoretical analysis. The dilatometric experiment was done to determine the precise temperature of the phase transformations. The analysis and comparison of the experimental data with theoretical data and earlier studies have shown that the initial sample has residual stress and chemical heterogeneity. The influence of the heat treatment on the grain size was studied in detail. It is found that at temperatures above 950 ° C there is a high grain growth. It is determined that the optimal number of cycles is two. The postincreasing number of cycles does not cause further reducing grain size because of the accumulative recrystallization process. Based on the results obtained, the thermal cycling

  12. Heat source model for welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan, D.D.

    2006-10-01

    One of the major industrial stakes of the welding simulation relates to the control of mechanical effects of the process (residual stress, distortions, fatigue strength... ). These effects are directly dependent on the temperature evolutions imposed during the welding process. To model this thermal loading, an original method is proposed instead of the usual methods like equivalent heat source approach or multi-physical approach. This method is based on the estimation of the weld pool shape together with the heat flux crossing the liquid/solid interface, from experimental data measured in the solid part. Its originality consists in solving an inverse Stefan problem specific to the welding process, and it is shown how to estimate the parameters of the weld pool shape. To solve the heat transfer problem, the interface liquid/solid is modeled by a Bezier curve ( 2-D) or a Bezier surface (3-D). This approach is well adapted to a wide diversity of weld pool shapes met for the majority of the current welding processes (TIG, MlG-MAG, Laser, FE, Hybrid). The number of parameters to be estimated is weak enough, according to the cases considered from 2 to 5 in 20 and 7 to 16 in 3D. A sensitivity study leads to specify the location of the sensors, their number and the set of measurements required to a good estimate. The application of the method on test results of welding TIG on thin stainless steel sheets in emerging and not emerging configurations, shows that only one measurement point is enough to estimate the various weld pool shapes in 20, and two points in 3D, whatever the penetration is full or not. In the last part of the work, a methodology is developed for the transient analysis. It is based on the Duvaut's transformation which overpasses the discontinuity of the liquid metal interface and therefore gives a continuous variable for the all spatial domain. Moreover, it allows to work on a fixed mesh grid and the new inverse problem is equivalent to identify a source

  13. Modernization and efficiency of heat treatment and heating up plants; Modernisierung und Effizienz von Thermoprozessanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Peter [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany); Kuehn, Friedhelm [Ingenieurbuero fuer Waermebehandlung, Industrieoefen und Energieberatung, Muelheim (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    A goal of this contribution is to show, using examples of the thermal heat treatment industry and the thermal processing units used there (Beltype plants, routary hearth, walking hearth, walking beam, pusher type furnaces and gas carburizing plants as well as case hardening plants), which increases in efficiency within and outside of the actual thermal treatment process and the necessary thermal processing units for the order are available today. From the possibilities of the reduction of energy employment resulting from that, a high potential for the discharge of the environment can be derived. The economic effect concerning energy employment and saving possibilities will also be considered. Concluding, examples of case-hardening show which variants of a change of process present themselves partially in the future, in order to achieve substantial production increases and thus energy cost reductions. (orig.)

  14. Saving energy resources during heat treatment - the most important problem of the branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadernovskiy, V V; Firger, I V

    1980-01-01

    Natural gas fired thermal furnaces expend significantly less fuel than electric furnaces with an equal quality of metal heating. An important reserve in power reserve economy is the use of the forging heat in an article for heat treatment (TOB), where besides the power resources, metal is also saved as a result of the reduction in the volume of heating means and production spaces. From the experience in the progressive enterprises of the branch, in a number of cases it is possible to combine heating for plastic deformation with heating for primary or secondary heat treatment. Other measures are examined which save power resources in heat treatment: the use of thermal furnaces for aerodynamic heating, the use of local heat treatment, the reduction in the duration of the heat treatment processes, savings in the power carriers during heat treatment in furnaces with a roll out hearth. Fibrous refractory materials are being used more and more as fettling materials in the construction of thermal furnaces.

  15. Industrial process heat from CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilborn, J.S.; Seddon, W.A.; Barnstaple, A.G.

    1980-08-01

    It has been demonstrated on a large scale that CANDU reactors can produce industrial process steam as well as electricity, reliably and economically. The advantages of cogeneration have led to the concept of an Industrial Energy Park adjacent to the Bruce Nuclear Power Development in the province of Ontario. For steam demands between 300,000 and 500,00 lb/h (38-63 kg/s) and an annual load factor of 80%, the estimated cost of nuclear steam at the Bruce site boundary is $3.21/MBtu ($3.04GJ), which is at least 30% cheaper than oil-fired steam at the same site. The most promising near term application of nuclear heat is likely to be found within the energy-intensive chemical industry. Nuclear energy can substitute for imported oil and coal in the eastern provinces if the price remains competitive, but low cost coal and gas in the western provinces may induce energy-intensive industries to locate near those sources of energy. In the long term it may be feasible to use nuclear heat for the mining and extraction of oil from the Alberta tar sands. (auth)

  16. Heat pipe cooling of power processing magnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, I. G.; Chester, M.

    1979-01-01

    The constant demand for increased power and reduced mass has raised the internal temperature of conventionally cooled power magnetics toward the upper limit of acceptability. The conflicting demands of electrical isolation, mechanical integrity, and thermal conductivity preclude significant further advancements using conventional approaches. However, the size and mass of multikilowatt power processing systems may be further reduced by the incorporation of heat pipe cooling directly into the power magnetics. Additionally, by maintaining lower more constant temperatures, the life and reliability of the magnetic devices will be improved. A heat pipe cooled transformer and input filter have been developed for the 2.4 kW beam supply of a 30-cm ion thruster system. This development yielded a mass reduction of 40% (1.76 kg) and lower mean winding temperature (20 C lower). While these improvements are significant, preliminary designs predict even greater benefits to be realized at higher power. This paper presents the design details along with the results of thermal vacuum operation and the component performance in a 3 kW breadboard power processor.

  17. Induction Heating Process Design Using COMSOL Multiphysics Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Triwinarko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Induction heating is clean environmental heating process due to a non-contact heating process. There is lots of the induction heating type that be used in the home appliance but it is still new technology in Indonesia. The main interesting area of the induction heating design is the efficiency of the usage of energy and choice of the plate material. COMSOL Multiphysics Software can be used to simulate and estimate the induction heating process. Therefore, the software can be used to design the induction heating process that will have a optimum efficiency. The properties of the induction heating design were also simulated and analyzed such as effect of inductors width, inductors distance, and conductive plate material. The result was shown that the good design of induction heating must have a short width and distance inductor and used silicon carbide as material plate with high frequency controller.

  18. 49 CFR 179.100-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.100-10 Section 179...-10 Postweld heat treatment. (a) After welding is complete, steel tanks and all attachments welded... treatment is prohibited. (c) Tank and welded attachments, fabricated from ASTM A 240/A 240M (IBR, see § 171...

  19. Simulations of Precipitate Microstructure Evolution during Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaisheng; Sterner, Gustaf; Chen, Qing; Jou, Herng-Jeng; Jeppsson, Johan; Bratberg, Johan; Engström, Anders; Mason, Paul

    Precipitation, a major solid state phase transformation during heat treatment processes, has for more than one century been intensively employed to improve the strength and toughness of various high performance alloys. Recently, sophisticated precipitation reaction models, in assistance with well-developed CALPHAD databases, provide an efficient and cost-effective way to tailor precipitate microstructures that maximize the strengthening effect via the optimization of alloy chemistries and heat treatment schedules. In this presentation, we focus on simulating precipitate microstructure evolution in Nickel-base superalloys under arbitrary heat treatment conditions. The newly-developed TC-PRISMA program has been used for these simulations, with models refined especially for non-isothermal conditions. The effect of different cooling profiles on the formation of multimodal microstructures has been thoroughly examined in order to understand the underlying thermodynamics and kinetics. Meanwhile, validations against several experimental results have been carried out. Practical issues that are critical to the accuracy and applicability of the current simulations, such as modifications that overcome mean-field approximations, compatibility between CALPHAD databases, selection of key parameters (particularly interfacial energy and nucleation site densities), etc., are also addressed.

  20. Research of the heat exchanging processes running in the heating and hot water supply loops of the coil heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Геннадіївна Шитікова

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The fuel-energy complex research has made it possible to disclose a huge power-saving potential in the municipal heat-and-power engineering. Power-and-resource-saving units and systems are becoming extremely urgent because of the power engineering crisis expansion. The self-adjusting heat supply system from the individual heating points with the heat-accumulating units and coil heat exchangers for independent heating and water supply systems has been examined. Coil heat exchangers are used in municipal heating for heat transfer (e.g. geothermal waters for the independent mains of the heating and hot water supply systems. The heat engineering calculation of the heating and accumulating unit with the coil heat exchanger for independent heat supply systems from individual heater was performed and experimental data were received at the experimental industrial unit under the laboratory conditions. The peculiarities of the flows in the intertubular space, their influence on the heat exchange and temperatures of the first and intermediate mains have been shown. It is important to know the processes running inside the apparatus to be able to improve the technical characteristics of the three-loop coil heat exchanger. The task solution will make it possible to save the materials consumption for the three-loop coil heat exchangers in the future

  1. Study of heat treatment parameters for large-scale hydraulic steel gate track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-zhou Cao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance external hardness and strength, a large-scale hydraulic gate track should go through heat treatment. The current design method of hydraulic gate wheels and tracks is based on Hertz contact linear elastic theory, and does not take into account the changes in mechanical properties of materials caused by heat treatment. In this study, the heat treatment parameters were designed and analyzed according to the bearing mechanisms of the wheel and track. The quenching process of the track was simulated by the ANSYS program, and the temperature variation, residual stress, and deformation were obtained and analyzed. The metallurgical structure field after heat treatment was predicted by the method based on time-temperature-transformation (TTT curves. The results show that the analysis method and designed track heat treatment process are feasible, and can provide a reference for practical projects.

  2. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  3. Thermal control system. [removing waste heat from industrial process spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, D. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The temperature of an exothermic process plant carried aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft is regulated using a number of curved radiator panels accurately positioned in a circular arrangement to form an open receptacle. A module containing the process is insertable into the receptacle. Heat exchangers having broad exterior surfaces extending axially above the circumference of the module fit within arcuate spacings between adjacent radiator panels. Banks of variable conductance heat pipes partially embedded within and thermally coupled to the radiator panels extend across the spacings and are thermally coupled to broad exterior surfaces of the heat exchangers by flanges. Temperature sensors monitor the temperature of process fluid flowing from the module through the heat exchanges. Thermal conduction between the heat exchangers and the radiator panels is regulated by heating a control fluid within the heat pipes to vary the effective thermal length of the heat pipes in inverse proportion to changes in the temperature of the process fluid.

  4. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and properties of Ni based soft magnetic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhong; Ruan, Hui; Chen, Dengming; Li, Kejian; Guo, Donglin; Shao, Bin

    2018-04-20

    A Ni-based alloy was heat treated by changing the temperature and ambient atmosphere of the heat treatment. Morphology, crystal structure, and physical performance of the Ni-based alloy were characterized via SEM, XRD, TEM, and PPMS. Results show that due to the heat treatment process, the grain growth of the Ni-based alloy and the removal of impurities and defects are promoted. Both the orientation and stress caused by rolling are reduced. The permeability and saturation magnetization of the alloy are improved. The hysteresis loss and coercivity are decreased. Higher heat treatment temperature leads to increased improvement of permeability and saturation magnetization. Heat treatment in hydrogen is more conducive to the removal of impurities. At the same temperature, the magnetic performance of the heat-treated alloy in hydrogen is better than that of an alloy with heat treatment in vacuum. The Ni-based alloy shows an excellent magnetic performance on 1,373 K heat treatment in hydrogen atmosphere. In this process, the µ m , B s , P u , and H c of the obtained alloy are 427 mHm -1 , 509 mT, 0.866 Jm -3 , and 0.514 Am -1 , respectively. At the same time, the resistivity of alloy decreases and its thermal conductivity increases in response to heat treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Optimization of lime treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinck, J. M.; Aube, B. C.

    2000-01-01

    Lime neutralization technology used in the treatment of acid mine drainage and other acidic effluents is discussed. Theoretical studies and laboratory experiments designed to optimize the technology of lime neutralization processes and to improve the cost efficiency of the treatment process are described. Effluent quality, slaking temperature, aeration, solid-liquid separation, sludge production and geochemical stability have been studied experimentally and on site. Results show that through minor modification of the treatment process, costs, sludge volume generated, and metal released to the environment can be significantly reduced. 17 refs., 4 figs

  6. Process Heat Exchanger Options for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  7. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Kim, Eung Soo; McKellar, Michael; Anderson, Nolan

    2011-01-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  8. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-04-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  9. Dimensional Behavior of Matrix Graphite Compacts during Heat Treatments for HTGR Fuel Element Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Woo; Yeo, Seunghwan; Cho, Moon Sung

    2015-01-01

    The carbonization is a process step where the binder that is incorporated during the matrix graphite powder preparation step is evaporated and the residue of the binder is carbonized during the heat treatment at about 1073 K. This carbonization step is followed by the final high temperature heat treatment where the carbonized compacts are heat treated at 2073-2173 K in vacuum for a relatively short time (about 2 hrs). In order to develop a fuel compact fabrication technology, and for fuel matrix graphite to meet the required material properties, it is essential to investigate the relationship among the process parameters of the matrix graphite powder preparation, the fabrication parameters of fuel element green compact and the heat treatments conditions, which has a strong influence on the further steps and the material properties of fuel element. In this work, the dimensional changes of green compacts during the carbonization and final heat treatment are evaluated when compacts have different densities from different pressing conditions and different final heat treatment temperatures are employed, keeping other process parameters constant, such as the binder content, carbonization time, temperature and atmosphere (two hours ant 1073K and N2 atmosphere). In this work, the dimensional variations of green compacts during the carbonization and final heat treatment are evaluated when compacts have different densities from different pressing conditions and different final heat treatment temperatures are employed

  10. Investigation of material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) for alloy Ti6Al4 V exposed to heat treatment processing in WEDM and optimization of parameters using Grey relational analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altug, Mehmet [Inonu Univ., Malatya (Turkey). Dept. of Machine and Metal Technologies

    2016-11-01

    The study examines the changes of the microstructural, mechanical and conductivity characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti6Al4 V as a result of heat treatment using wire electrical discharge machining, and their effect on machinability. By means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), analyses have been performed to determine various characteristics and additionally, microhardness and conductivity measurements have been conducted. Material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) values have been determined by using L18 Taguchi test design. The microstructures of the samples have been changed by thermal procedures. Results have been obtained by using the Grey relational analysis (GRA) optimization technique to solve the maximum MRR and minimum WWR values. The best (highest) MRR value is obtained from sample E which was water quenched in dual phase processing. The microstructure of this sample is composed of primary α and α' phases. The best (lowest) WWR value is obtained from sample A.

  11. Investigation of material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) for alloy Ti6Al4 V exposed to heat treatment processing in WEDM and optimization of parameters using Grey relational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altug, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The study examines the changes of the microstructural, mechanical and conductivity characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti6Al4 V as a result of heat treatment using wire electrical discharge machining, and their effect on machinability. By means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), analyses have been performed to determine various characteristics and additionally, microhardness and conductivity measurements have been conducted. Material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) values have been determined by using L18 Taguchi test design. The microstructures of the samples have been changed by thermal procedures. Results have been obtained by using the Grey relational analysis (GRA) optimization technique to solve the maximum MRR and minimum WWR values. The best (highest) MRR value is obtained from sample E which was water quenched in dual phase processing. The microstructure of this sample is composed of primary α and α' phases. The best (lowest) WWR value is obtained from sample A.

  12. Effects of heat treatment on the radiosensitivity of Salmonellae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.H.; Yang, J.S.; Lee, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    When the food poisoning bacteria Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium were treated with radiation (cobalt-60 γ-rays) and heat (10 minutes at 45 0 C or 50 0 C), their sterilizing effect was revealed differently depending on the order of treatments. Post-irradiation heating showed a synergistic effect whereas pre-irradiation heating revealed the opposite effect and the effects differed slightly with heating temperature. (author)

  13. Effect of double quenching and tempering heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel 5Cr steel processed by electro-slag casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Tao; Song, Chenghao; Zhang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    The effect of double quenching and tempering (DQT) treatment as well as conventional high temperature quenching and tempering (CQT) treatment on the microstructures and mechanical properties of low carbon 5Cr martensitic as cast steel produced by electroslag casting was investigated. The microstructure changes were characterized by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characteristics of carbides precipitated during tempering were analyzed on both carbon extraction replica and thin foil samples by TEM. The mechanical performance was evaluated by Vickers hardness test, tensile test, and Charpy V-notch impact test at ambient temperature. The results of microstructure study indicated that DQT treatment led to a finer microstructure than that of CQT. The carbides of the tempered samples were identified as M 7 C 3 . The carbides along the prior austenite grain boundaries nucleated directly while those within the laths should be transformed from cementite which formed at the early tempering stage. Compared with CQT condition, yield strength slightly increased after DQT treatment, and impact toughness improved a lot. The strengthening mechanisms were analyzed and it was found that grain refining and precipitation strengthening were mainly responsible for the increase of strength. The superior toughness of DQT condition was attributed to the finer microstructure resulting in more frequent deflections of the cleavage crack and the smaller size of carbides along the prior austenite boundaries. EBSD analysis showed that both martensitic block and packet of low carbon 5Cr tempered martensitic steel could hinder crack propagation, while the latter was more effective

  14. Effect of double quenching and tempering heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel 5Cr steel processed by electro-slag casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian, E-mail: healygo@163.com; Yu, Hao, E-mail: yuhao@ustb.edu.cn; Zhou, Tao, E-mail: zhoutao130984@163.com; Song, Chenghao, E-mail: songchenghao28@126.com; Zhang, Kai, E-mail: zhangkai8901@126.com

    2014-12-01

    The effect of double quenching and tempering (DQT) treatment as well as conventional high temperature quenching and tempering (CQT) treatment on the microstructures and mechanical properties of low carbon 5Cr martensitic as cast steel produced by electroslag casting was investigated. The microstructure changes were characterized by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characteristics of carbides precipitated during tempering were analyzed on both carbon extraction replica and thin foil samples by TEM. The mechanical performance was evaluated by Vickers hardness test, tensile test, and Charpy V-notch impact test at ambient temperature. The results of microstructure study indicated that DQT treatment led to a finer microstructure than that of CQT. The carbides of the tempered samples were identified as M{sub 7}C{sub 3}. The carbides along the prior austenite grain boundaries nucleated directly while those within the laths should be transformed from cementite which formed at the early tempering stage. Compared with CQT condition, yield strength slightly increased after DQT treatment, and impact toughness improved a lot. The strengthening mechanisms were analyzed and it was found that grain refining and precipitation strengthening were mainly responsible for the increase of strength. The superior toughness of DQT condition was attributed to the finer microstructure resulting in more frequent deflections of the cleavage crack and the smaller size of carbides along the prior austenite boundaries. EBSD analysis showed that both martensitic block and packet of low carbon 5Cr tempered martensitic steel could hinder crack propagation, while the latter was more effective.

  15. COMPUTERIZED HEAT-TREATMENT IN A ZIMBABWEAN FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Collier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Zimbabwe's current economic problems, parts of the manufacturing industry are turning their attention to the possibility of utilising local design talent in upgrading their manufacturing plants. This paper describes a project undertaken by the National University of Science and Technology to convert the heat-treatment process in a major manufacturing plant from semi -manual to a computerized one. The system comprises microcontroller connection to the furnaces and sensors, and communicates with a central computer on which software for a windowed user-interface is hosted. Experimental results for the system are presented, and a strategy for other companies in the same predicament is proposed.

  16. Influence of steel-making process and heat-treatment temperature on the fatigue and fracture properties of pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, S. K.; Na, E. G.; Baek, T. H.; Won, S. Y.; Park, S. J.; Lee, S. W.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, high strength pressure vessel steels having the same chemical compositions were manufactured by the two different steel-making processes, such as Vacuum Degassing(VD) and Electro-Slag Remelting(ESR) methods. After the steel-making process, they were normalized at 955 deg. C, quenched at 843 .deg. C, and finally tempered at 550 .deg. C or 450 deg. C, resulting in tempered martensitic microstructures with different yielding strengths depending on the tempering conditions. Low-Cycle Fatigue(LCF) tests, Fatigue Crack Growth Rate(FCGR) tests, and fracture toughness tests were performed to investigate the fatigue and fracture behaviors of the pressure vessel steels. In contrast to very similar monotonic, LCF, and FCGR behaviors between VD and ESR steels, a quite difference was noticed in the fracture toughness. Fracture toughness of ESR steel was higher than that of VD steel, being attributed to the removal of impurities in steel-making process

  17. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gopalan; Prabhu, Narayan Kotekar

    2011-04-14

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  18. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Gopalan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  19. 49 CFR 179.300-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.300-10 Section 179.300-10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Postweld heat treatment. After welding is complete, steel tanks and all attachments welded thereto, must be...

  20. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization and heat treatment. 58.236 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and... is handled according to sanitary conditions approved by the Administrator. (a) Pasteurization. (1...

  1. Effect of heat treatment temperature on binder thermal conductivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1975-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the thermal conductivities of a pitch and a polyfurfuryl alcohol binder residue was investigated. Graphites specially prepared with these two binders were used for the experiments. Measured thermal conductivities were treated in terms of a two-component system, and the binder thermal conductivities were calculated. Both binder residues showed increased thermal conductivity with increased heat treatment temperature

  2. Optimisation of the T6 heat treatment of rheocast alloy A356

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available popular solution heat treatment employed for SSM processed A356 is 6 hours at 540oC (i.e. similar to that used for permanent mould cast A356)6,7,9. Only limited work has been performed on the optimisation of the solution heat treatment of SSM processed... was not adequately studied by either Dewhirst8 or Rosso and Actis Grande5. The optimum artificial aging heat treatment proposed in both papers5,8 is 180oC for 4 hours. This was also confirmed in this work, but importantly, this applies only when natural aging...

  3. Investigation of anodic oxide coatings on zirconium after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, Maciej; Dercz, Grzegorz; Suchanek, Katarzyna; Simka, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxide layers prepared via PEO of zirconium were subjected to heat treatment. • Surface characteristics were determined for the obtained oxide coatings. • Heat treatment led to the partial destruction of the anodic oxide layer. • Pitting corrosion resistance of zirconium was improved after the modification. - Abstract: Herein, results of heat treatment of zirconium anodised under plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) conditions at 500–800 °C are presented. The obtained oxide films were investigated by means of SEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance of the zirconium specimens was evaluated in Ringer's solution. A bilayer oxide coatings generated in the course of PEO of zirconium were not observed after the heat treatment. The resulting oxide layers contained a new sublayer located at the metal/oxide interface is suggested to originate from the thermal oxidation of zirconium. The corrosion resistance of the anodised metal was improved after the heat treatment

  4. Processing simulated high-level liquid waste by heat treatment with addition of TiN and AlN or Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Masayoshi; Kinoshita, Hajime; Sakai, Etsuro; Ikeda, Akira; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    1999-01-01

    The present study aims to decrease the melting temperature of the oxide phase by the addition of the mixture of TiN and AlN or Al 2 O 3 for reduction of the treatment temperature of super high temperature method. The addition of the mixture of TiN and AlN or Al 2 O 3 with the atomic ratio of Al to Ti of 1:9 caused the melting of both the alloy phase and oxide phase at 1673 K. The measured values of density and hardness for thus obtained oxide phase were same as those for the oxide phase obtained at 1873 K without Al. Thus, above mentioned method is achieved at 1673 K without degradation of the properties of the oxide phase as an waste. (author)

  5. Technical review of process heat applications using the HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, G.

    1976-06-01

    The demand for process heat applications is surveyed. Those applications which can be served only by the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) are identified and the status of process heat applications in Europe, USA, and Japan in December 1975 is discussed. Technical problems associated with the HTGR for process heat applications are outlined together with an appraisal of the safety considerations involved. (author)

  6. Process heat transfer principles, applications and rules of thumb

    CERN Document Server

    Serth, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Process Heat Transfer is a reference on the design and implementation of industrial heat exchangers. It provides the background needed to understand and master the commercial software packages used by professional engineers in the design and analysis of heat exchangers. This book focuses on types of heat exchangers most widely used by industry: shell-and-tube exchangers (including condensers, reboilers and vaporizers), air-cooled heat exchangers and double-pipe (hairpin) exchangers. It provides a substantial introduction to the design of heat exchanger networks using pinch technology, the mos

  7. Process Design of Aluminum Tailor Heat Treated Blanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kahrimanidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many industrials field, especially in the automotive sector, there is a trend toward lightweight constructions in order to reduce the weight and thereby the CO2 and NOx emissions of the products. An auspicious approach within this context is the substitution of conventional deep drawing steel by precipitation hardenable aluminum alloys. However, based on the low formability, the application for complex stamping parts is challenging. Therefore, at the Institute of Manufacturing Technology, an innovative technology to enhance the forming limit of these lightweight materials was invented. The key idea of the so-called Tailor Heat Treated Blanks (THTB is optimization of the mechanical properties by local heat treatment before the forming operation. An accurate description of material properties is crucial to predict the forming behavior of tailor heat treated blanks by simulation. Therefore, within in this research project, a holistic approach for the design of the THTB process in dependency of the main influencing parameters is presented and discussed in detail. The capability of the approach for the process development of complex forming operations is demonstrated by a comparison of local blank thickness of a tailgate with the corresponding results from simulation.

  8. Nuclear heat source design for an advanced HTGR process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; O'Hanlon, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    A high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with a chemical process facility could produce synthetic fuels (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, methanol, hydrogen, etc.) in the long term using low-grade carbon sources (e.g., coal, oil shale, etc.). The ultimate high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant is being studied for nuclear process heat. This paper discusses a process heat plant with a 2240-MW(t) nuclear heat source, a reactor outlet temperature of 950 0 C, and a direct reforming process. The nuclear heat source outputs principally hydrogen-rich synthesis gas that can be used as a feedstock for synthetic fuel production. This paper emphasizes the design of the nuclear heat source and discusses the major components and a deployment strategy to realize an advanced HTGR process heat plant concept

  9. Thermoluminescent determination of prehistoric heat treatment of chert artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcher, C.L.; Zimmerman, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years archeologists have become interested in the extent to which prehistoric peoples heat-treated chert prior to shaping it into tools. Thermoluminescent determination of the radiation dose accumulated by an artifact since it was formed or last heated provides a simple, reliable test for such heat treatment. This test can be applied to single artifacts without the need for raw source material for comparison. Results on 25 artifacts from four sites indicate that, for many chert sources, color and luster are not useful indicators of heat treatment by prehistoric peoples

  10. Vanadium and heat treatments effect on elastic characteristics of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, E.V.; Tret'yakov, V.I.; Prokoshkin, D.A.; Pustovalov, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of vanadium content and of heat treatment conditions on the elastic properties of niobium at temperatures of 20 to 800 deg C was studied. Nb-V alloys were produced by binary vacuum remelting. The Nb-V alloys have been then subjected to thermal treatment. The total degree of deformation amounts to about 95%. The specimens were tested with a view to determine their microhardness, specific electric resistance, elasticity limit and modulus of elasticity. The elastic limit of niobium rises when alloyed with vanadium. With the increase of vanadium content the elastic limit of the alloy becomes greater. Pre-crystallization annealing at 600 - 700 deg C considerably increases the elastic limit, which is explained by development of the thermally activated processes leading to a decrease of dislocation mobility and thereby to a strengthening of the alloy

  11. A Study of Ballast Water Treatment Using Engine Waste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Rajoo; Yaakob, Omar; Koh, Kho King; Adnan, Faizul Amri bin; Ismail, Nasrudin bin; Ahmad, Badruzzaman bin; Ismail, Mohd Arif bin

    2018-05-01

    Heat treatment of ballast water using engine waste heat can be an advantageous option complementing any proven technology. A treatment system was envisaged based on the ballast system of an existing, operational crude carrier. It was found that the available waste heat could raise the temperatures by 25 °C and voyage time requirements were found to be considerable between 7 and 12 days to heat the high volumes of ballast water. Further, a heat recovery of 14-33% of input energies from exhaust gases was recorded while using a test rig arrangement representing a shipboard arrangement. With laboratory level tests at temperature ranges of around 55-75 °C, almost complete species mortalities for representative phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteria were observed while the time for exposure varied from 15 to 60 s. Based on the heat availability analyses for harvesting heat from the engine exhaust gases(vessel and test rig), heat exchanger designs were developed and optimized using Lagrangian method applying Bell-Delaware approaches. Heat exchanger designs were developed to suit test rig engines also. Based on these designs, heat exchanger and other equipment were procured and erected. The species' mortalities were tested in this mini-scale arrangement resembling the shipboard arrangement. The mortalities realized were > 95% with heat from jacket fresh water and exhaust gases alone. The viability of the system was thus validated.

  12. HTR process heat applications, status of technology and economical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical and industrial feasibility of the production of high temperature heat from nuclear fuel is presented. The technical feasibility of high temperature heat consuming processes is reviewed and assessed. The conclusion is drawn that the next technological step for pilot plant scale demonstration is the nuclear heated steam reforming process. The economical potential of HTR process heat applications is reviewed: It is directly coupled to the economical competitiveness of HTR electricity production. Recently made statements and pre-conditions on the economic competitiveness in comparison to world market coal are reported. (author). 8 figs

  13. Synergistic effects of heat and irradiation treatment (thermoradiation) in the sterilization of medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauth, C.A. Jr.; Sivinski, H.D.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes a generic class of sterilization processes is which properly chosen combinations of radiation and heat synergistically inactivate many bacteria and viruses. Treatments with optimal combinations are shown to offer the possibility of using lower total doses and lower temperatures than would be required separately for sterilization. This results from easier elimination of heat-labile, radioresistant organisms and radiolabile, heat-resistant organisms, and from synergistic inactivation of organisms which are both radioresistant and heat resistant. These processes depend upon temperature, dose-rate, and time in fairly complex ways; therefore, an analytical framework in which they can be defined is also presented. (author)

  14. Heat exchanger for coal gasification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiole, George A.

    1984-06-19

    This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

  15. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-05-01

    The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported [via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)] to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers

  16. Improvement of high temperature fatigue lifetime in AZ91 magnesium alloy by heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtarishirazabad, Mehdi [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azadi, Mohammad, E-mail: m_azadi@ip-co.com [Fatigue and Wear Workgroup, Irankhodro Powertrain Company (IPCO), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hossein Farrahi, Gholam [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Winter, Gerhard; Eichlseder, Wilfred [Chair of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2013-12-20

    In the present paper, an improvement in high temperature fatigue properties of the AZ91 magnesium alloy with rare earth elements has been obtained by a typical heat treatment, denoted by T6. For this objective, out-of-phase thermo-mechanical fatigue, room temperature and high temperature low cycle fatigue tests are performed to compare lifetimes. Several rare earth elements are initially added to the AZ91 alloy during a gravity casting process in permanent molds. Also, the type of the heat treatment is examined. Results of specimens with only the solution (the T4 heat treatment) and the solution with the ageing process (the T6 heat treatment) are compared under isothermal fatigue loadings. Microstructural investigations are carried out, before and after fatigue experiments to demonstrate the heat treatment effect. Results showed that both low cycle fatigue and thermo-mechanical fatigue of the alloy at high temperatures increases tremendously after the T6 heat treatment. This behavior attributes to the variation of the ductility, which was a result of microstructural changes during the heat treatment and the varying temperature in fatigue tests.

  17. Improvement of high temperature fatigue lifetime in AZ91 magnesium alloy by heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtarishirazabad, Mehdi; Azadi, Mohammad; Hossein Farrahi, Gholam; Winter, Gerhard; Eichlseder, Wilfred

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, an improvement in high temperature fatigue properties of the AZ91 magnesium alloy with rare earth elements has been obtained by a typical heat treatment, denoted by T6. For this objective, out-of-phase thermo-mechanical fatigue, room temperature and high temperature low cycle fatigue tests are performed to compare lifetimes. Several rare earth elements are initially added to the AZ91 alloy during a gravity casting process in permanent molds. Also, the type of the heat treatment is examined. Results of specimens with only the solution (the T4 heat treatment) and the solution with the ageing process (the T6 heat treatment) are compared under isothermal fatigue loadings. Microstructural investigations are carried out, before and after fatigue experiments to demonstrate the heat treatment effect. Results showed that both low cycle fatigue and thermo-mechanical fatigue of the alloy at high temperatures increases tremendously after the T6 heat treatment. This behavior attributes to the variation of the ductility, which was a result of microstructural changes during the heat treatment and the varying temperature in fatigue tests

  18. Heat flow and geothermal processes in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flóvenz, Ólafur G.; Saemundsson, Kristján

    1993-09-01

    Heat flow values, derived from temperature measurements in shallow boreholes in Iceland, vary substantially across the country. The near-surface temperature gradients range from almost 0 to 500°C/km. The thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks varies from 1.6 to 2.0 W/m°C. The temperature gradient in Iceland is mainly dependent on four factors: (1) the regional heat flow through the crust, (2) hydrothermal activity, (3) the permeability of the rock, and (4) residual heat in extinct volcanic centers. As Iceland is mainly made of basaltic material the radiogenic heat production is almost negligible. The thermal conductivity is, on the other hand, mainly influenced by the porosity of the rock; it increases as the porosity decreases. Iceland is made of sequences of flood basalts that formed within the volcanic rift zone—a continuation of the axis of the Mid-Atlantic ridge—and subsequently drifted sideways. Fresh basaltic lava is usually highly porous (30%) and fractured, and heat is mainly transported by convection. Therefore, a very low or even no temperature gradient is observed at shallow levels within the volcanic rift zone. As the basalt becomes buried the pores close due to lithostatic pressure and formation of secondary minerals. Below 500-1000 m depth in an uneroded lava pile, the heat is mainly transported by conduction. In the lowlands and valleys of Iceland outside the volcanic rift zone, 1000-1500 m of the original lava pile has been eroded, leaving thermal conduction as the most important heat transport mechanism. The regional temperature gradient has been measured in drillholes in dense and poorly permeable rocks away from the geothermal fields. The results show that the temperature gradient varies from 50 to 150°C/km. The highest values are found close to the volcanic rift zone and the gradient decreases with distance from the spreading axis. This result is mainly based on numerous shallow boreholes (60-500 m) but in some cases the results

  19. Process heat cogeneration using a high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Ramirez, Ramon; Valle, Edmundo del; Castillo, Rogelio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HTR feasibility for process heat cogeneration is assessed. • A cogeneration coupling for HTR is proposed and process heat cost is evaluated. • A CCGT process heat cogeneration set up is also assessed. • Technical comparison between both sources of cogeneration is performed. • Economical competitiveness of the HTR for process heat cogeneration is analyzed. - Abstract: High temperature nuclear reactors offer the possibility to generate process heat that could be used in the oil industry, particularly in refineries for gasoline production. These technologies are still under development and none of them has shown how this can be possible and what will be the penalty in electricity generation to have this additional product and if the cost of this subproduct will be competitive with other alternatives. The current study assesses the likeliness of generating process heat from Pebble Bed Modular Reactor to be used for a refinery showing different plant balances and alternatives to produce and use that process heat. An actual practical example is presented to demonstrate the cogeneration viability using the fact that the PBMR is a modular small reactor where the cycle configuration to transport the heat of the reactor to the process plant plays an important role in the cycle efficiency and in the plant economics. The results of this study show that the PBMR would be most competitive when capital discount rates are low (5%), carbon prices are high (>30 US$/ton), and competing natural gas prices are at least 8 US$/mmBTU

  20. Process heat cogeneration using a high temperature reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavoalonso3@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico); Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Ramirez, Ramon [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico); Valle, Edmundo del [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Castillo, Rogelio [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • HTR feasibility for process heat cogeneration is assessed. • A cogeneration coupling for HTR is proposed and process heat cost is evaluated. • A CCGT process heat cogeneration set up is also assessed. • Technical comparison between both sources of cogeneration is performed. • Economical competitiveness of the HTR for process heat cogeneration is analyzed. - Abstract: High temperature nuclear reactors offer the possibility to generate process heat that could be used in the oil industry, particularly in refineries for gasoline production. These technologies are still under development and none of them has shown how this can be possible and what will be the penalty in electricity generation to have this additional product and if the cost of this subproduct will be competitive with other alternatives. The current study assesses the likeliness of generating process heat from Pebble Bed Modular Reactor to be used for a refinery showing different plant balances and alternatives to produce and use that process heat. An actual practical example is presented to demonstrate the cogeneration viability using the fact that the PBMR is a modular small reactor where the cycle configuration to transport the heat of the reactor to the process plant plays an important role in the cycle efficiency and in the plant economics. The results of this study show that the PBMR would be most competitive when capital discount rates are low (5%), carbon prices are high (>30 US$/ton), and competing natural gas prices are at least 8 US$/mmBTU.

  1. Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1981-01-01

    In the chapter 'Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat', the steam gasification of brown coal and bituminous coal, the hydrogenating gasification of brown coal including nuclear process heat either by steam cracking methane in the steam reformer or by preheating the gasifying agent, as well as the hydrogenating gasification of bituminous coal are described. (HS) [de

  2. Process for adapting a heat source and a thermal machine by temporary heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.P.; Nicholson, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    The process described is intended to ensure the efficient use of the heat from a nuclear reactor or from a furnace burning fossil fuel at constant power, and of a boiler in a power station comprising a multi-stage steam turbine, the steam extracted from the turbine being used for pre-heating the boiler feed water. This process is most flexible with a varying load. It includes the high temperature storage of the excess heat energy in a low vapor pressure storage liquid (hydrocarbon oils, molten salts or liquid metals) at atmospheric pressure when the demand is low; then, when the energy demand is at its height, the reduction of steam extraction from the turbine with simultaneous utilisation of the hot heat storage liquid for the various maintenance heating functions of the power station by heat exchange, so that the heat can expand totally in the turbine with generation of energy [fr

  3. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  4. Frictional heating processes during laboratory earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, J.; Passelegue, F. X.; Deldicque, D.; Lahfid, A.; Girault, F.; Pinquier, Y.; Escartin, J.; Schubnel, A.

    2017-12-01

    Frictional heating during seismic slip plays a crucial role in the dynamic of earthquakes because it controls fault weakening. This study proposes (i) to image frictional heating combining an in-situ carbon thermometer and Raman microspectrometric mapping, (ii) to combine these observations with fault surface roughness and heat production, (iii) to estimate the mechanical energy dissipated during laboratory earthquakes. Laboratory earthquakes were performed in a triaxial oil loading press, at 45, 90 and 180 MPa of confining pressure by using saw-cut samples of Westerly granite. Initial topography of the fault surface was +/- 30 microns. We use a carbon layer as a local temperature tracer on the fault plane and a type K thermocouple to measure temperature approximately 6mm away from the fault surface. The thermocouple measures the bulk temperature of the fault plane while the in-situ carbon thermometer images the temperature production heterogeneity at the micro-scale. Raman microspectrometry on amorphous carbon patch allowed mapping the temperature heterogeneities on the fault surface after sliding overlaid over a few micrometers to the final fault roughness. The maximum temperature achieved during laboratory earthquakes remains high for all experiments but generally increases with the confining pressure. In addition, the melted surface of fault during seismic slip increases drastically with confining pressure. While melting is systematically observed, the strength drop increases with confining pressure. These results suggest that the dynamic friction coefficient is a function of the area of the fault melted during stick-slip. Using the thermocouple, we inverted the heat dissipated during each event. We show that for rough faults under low confining pressure, less than 20% of the total mechanical work is dissipated into heat. The ratio of frictional heating vs. total mechanical work decreases with cumulated slip (i.e. number of events), and decreases with

  5. Online Adaptive Hyperthermia Treatment Planning During Locoregional Heating to Suppress Treatment-Limiting Hot Spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, H. Petra; Korshuize-van Straten, Linda; Bakker, Akke; de Kroon-Oldenhof, Rianne; Geijsen, Elisabeth D.; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Crezee, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Adequate tumor temperatures during hyperthermia are essential for good clinical response, but excessive heating of normal tissue should be avoided. This makes locoregional heating using phased array systems technically challenging. Online application of hyperthermia treatment planning could help to

  6. Systematic approach to optimal design of induction heating installations for aluminum extrusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimin, L. S.; Sorokin, A. G.; Egiazaryan, A. S.; Filimonova, O. V.

    2018-03-01

    An induction heating system has a number of inherent benefits compared to traditional heating systems due to a non-contact heating process. It is widely used in vehicle manufacture, cast-rolling, forging, preheating before rolling, heat treatment, galvanizing and so on. Compared to other heating technologies, induction heating has the advantages of high efficiency, fast heating rate and easy control. The paper presents a new systematic approach to the design and operation of induction heating installations (IHI) in aluminum alloys production. The heating temperature in industrial complexes “induction heating - deformation” is not fixed in advance, but is determined in accordance with the maximization or minimization of the total economic performance during the process of metal heating and deformation. It is indicated that the energy efficient technological complex “IHI – Metal Forming (MF)” can be designed only with regard to its power supply system (PSS). So the task of designing systems of induction heating is to provide, together with the power supply system and forming equipment, the minimum energy costs for the metal retreating.

  7. Evaluating the potential of process sites for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluleye, Gbemi; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin; Perry, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis considers the temperature and duties of the available waste heat. • Models for organic Rankine cycles, absorption heat pumps and chillers proposed. • Exploitation of waste heat from site processes and utility systems. • Concept of a site energy efficiency introduced. • Case study presented to illustrate application of the proposed methodology. - Abstract: As a result of depleting reserves of fossil fuels, conventional energy sources are becoming less available. In spite of this, energy is still being wasted, especially in the form of heat. The energy efficiency of process sites (defined as useful energy output per unit of energy input) may be increased through waste heat utilisation, thereby resulting in primary energy savings. In this work, waste heat is defined and a methodology developed to identify the potential for waste heat recovery in process sites; considering the temperature and quantity of waste heat sources from the site processes and the site utility system (including fired heaters and, the cogeneration, cooling and refrigeration systems). The concept of the energy efficiency of a site is introduced – the fraction of the energy inputs that is converted into useful energy (heat or power or cooling) to support the methodology. Furthermore, simplified mathematical models of waste heat recovery technologies using heat as primary energy source, including organic Rankine cycles (using both pure and mixed organics as working fluids), absorption chillers and absorption heat pumps are developed to support the methodology. These models are applied to assess the potential for recovery of useful energy from waste heat. The methodology is illustrated for an existing process site using a case study of a petroleum refinery. The energy efficiency of the site increases by 10% as a result of waste heat recovery. If there is an infinite demand for recovered energy (i.e. all the recoverable waste heat sources are exploited), the site

  8. Process for preparing a normal lighting and heating gas etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J

    1910-12-11

    A process for preparing a normal lighting and heating gas from Australian bituminous shale by distillation and decomposition in the presence of water vapor is characterized by the fact that the gasification is suitably undertaken with gradual filling of a retort and with simultaneous introduction of water vapor at a temperature not exceeding 1,000/sup 0/ C. The resulting amount of gas is heated in the same or a second heated retort with freshly supplied vapor.

  9. Microstructural evolution of aluminide coatings on Eurofer during heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanumurthy, K.; Krauss, W.; Konys, J.

    2011-01-01

    Development of ceramic coatings are essential for the realization of Demo fusion reactor beyond ITER. These functional coatings have to be stable at high temperatures, provide insulating coatings to reduce MHD effects and also act as corrosion barriers to reduce tritium permeation. Some of important development of high temperature coatings are CVD process, powder slurry coatings, hot-dip aluminization and plasma detonation jet processes. Recently Galvono-Al (ECA) process is being used for depositing Al from organic electrolyte, where Al is existing as an toluol-based Al(C x H y ) complex. The deposit is performed under Ar cover gas at 100 deg C with a deposit rate of 10-12 μm/hr. This process is suitable for coating large and complex shaped assemblies and is a well established industrial process for coating Al for wide range of applications including automobile industry. In order to study the effect of high temperature on these coatings, few Al coated on Eurofer specimens were obtained from M/s. Rasant-Alcotec, Germany. The thickness of these coating is around 20 μm. The objective of the presents studies is to subject these coatings to standard heat treatment schedule of Eurofer and study the evolution of microchemistry and microstructure

  10. Effect of Cold Drawing and Heat Treatment on the Microstructure of Invar36 Alloy Wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seung Youb; Jang, Seon Ah; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Ki Rak; Park, Hwan Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee; Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Jea Youl; Shin, Sang Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of cold drawing and heat treatment on the microstructure of Invar36 alloy wire was investigated. Invar36 alloy wire is used as a transmission line core material, and is required to have high strength. The diameter of the Invar36 alloy wire specimens were reduced from 16 mm to 4.3 mm after three cold drawing and two heat treatment processes, thereby increasing tensile strength. Specimens were taken after each of the cold drawing and heat treatment processes, and their microstructure and tensile properties were analyzed. The Invar36 alloy wire had a γ-(Fe, Ni) phase matrix before the cold drawing and heat treatment processes. After the cold drawing processes, {220} and {200} textures were mainly achieved. After the heat treatment processes, a {200} recrystallization γ-(Fe, Ni) phase was formed with fine carbides. The recrystallization γ-(Fe, Ni) phase grains had low dislocation density, so they probably accommodated a large amount of deformation during the cold drawing processes.

  11. Effect of Cold Drawing and Heat Treatment on the Microstructure of Invar36 Alloy Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Youb; Jang, Seon Ah; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Ki Rak; Park, Hwan Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Jea Youl [RandD Center, KOS Ltd., Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Yong [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, the effect of cold drawing and heat treatment on the microstructure of Invar36 alloy wire was investigated. Invar36 alloy wire is used as a transmission line core material, and is required to have high strength. The diameter of the Invar36 alloy wire specimens were reduced from 16 mm to 4.3 mm after three cold drawing and two heat treatment processes, thereby increasing tensile strength. Specimens were taken after each of the cold drawing and heat treatment processes, and their microstructure and tensile properties were analyzed. The Invar36 alloy wire had a γ-(Fe, Ni) phase matrix before the cold drawing and heat treatment processes. After the cold drawing processes, {220} and {200} textures were mainly achieved. After the heat treatment processes, a {200} recrystallization γ-(Fe, Ni) phase was formed with fine carbides. The recrystallization γ-(Fe, Ni) phase grains had low dislocation density, so they probably accommodated a large amount of deformation during the cold drawing processes.

  12. Evaluation of dry heat treatment of soft wheat flour for the production of high ratio cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, S; Bakalis, S; Leadley, C E; Sahi, S S; Fryer, P J

    2018-05-01

    An accurate method to heat treat flour samples has been used to quantify the effects of heat treatment on flour functionality. A variety of analytical methods has been used such as oscillatory rheology, rheomixer, solvent retention capacity tests, and Rapid Visco Analysis (RVA) in water and in aqueous solutions of sucrose, lactic acid, and sodium carbonate. This work supports the hypothesis that heat treatment facilitates the swelling of starch granules at elevated temperature. Results furthermore indicated improved swelling ability and increased interactions of flour polymers (in particular arabinoxylans) of heat treated flour at ambient conditions. The significant denaturation of the proteins was indicated by a lack of gluten network formation after severe heat treatments as shown by rheomixer traces. Results of these analyses were used to develop a possible cake flour specification. A method was developed using response surfaces of heat treated flour samples in the RVA using i) water and ii) 50% sucrose solution. This can uniquely characterise the heat treatment a flour sample has received and to establish a cake flour specification. This approach might be useful for the characterisation of processed samples, rather than by baking cakes. Hence, it may no longer be needed to bake a cake after flour heat treatment to assess the suitability of the flour for high ratio cake production, but 2 types of RVA tests suffice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Zr-2.5 Nb microstructure evolution during heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campitelli, Emiliano N.; Banchik, Abrahan D.; Versaci, Raul A.

    1999-01-01

    This work has the following two basic objectives: 1) To gain experience in the preparation of thin layers of zirconium alloys to be used as T.E.M specimens. To construct a double jet thinning prototype able to perform this task with appropriate finishing and reproducible results to be used in a future work (point 2). To become familiar with the relevant parameters of the thinning process and to apply this experience in the prototype. The layers must have sufficient area with good transmission and mechanical support, free of deformations and defects polishing. 2) To perform T.E.M. observations and metallographies to study the microstructural evolution during heat treatments of Zr-2.5 Nb alloy samples. These samples were obtained from a pressure tube similar to those used in Candu power plants, in the as-received condition. This alloy served, in this application, to replace Zircaloy-2, for better creep and corrosion resistance. (author)

  14. Heat treatment of cathodic arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, S.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G. [and others

    1997-02-01

    Amorphous hard carbon films of varying sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} fractions have been deposited on Si using filtered cathodic are deposition with pulsed biasing. The films were heat treated in air up to 550 C. Raman investigation and nanoindentation were performed to study the modification of the films caused by the heat treatment. It was found that films containing a high sp{sup 3} fraction sustain their hardness for temperatures at least up to 400 C, their structure for temperatures up to 500 C, and show a low thickness loss during heat treatment. Films containing at low sp{sup 3} fraction graphitize during the heat treatment, show changes in structure and hardness, and a considerable thickness loss.

  15. Mini-channel heat exchangers for industrial distillation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Bor, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the technical and economic performance of compression-resorption heat pumps has been investigated. The main objective of this thesis was to improve the performance and reduce the investment costs of compression-resorption heat pumps applied in process industry. A model that is able to

  16. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Morphologies of Copper Nanoparticles Based Films by a Spin Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the influence of heat treatment on the morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides by a spin coating method. The experiments show that heat treatment can modify the sizes and morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides. We suggest that through changing the parameters of heat treatment process may be helpful to vary the scattering and absorbing intensity of copper nanoparticles when used in energy harvesting/conversion and optical devices.

  17. Influence of microwave heating on the stability of processed samn

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, Radwan S.; Taha, Soad H.

    1991-01-01

    Butter was converted to samn by microwave and conventional heating. The quality of the processed samn by the two methods was followed by determining the acid, peroxide and TBA values over a period of six weeks at 60°C. The fatty acid composition of samn samples was determined by gas-liquid chromatographic technique. The data show that butter conversion to samn by microwave heating was accomplished in about one half of the time that conventional heating requires. Microwave heating obviously in...

  18. Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During Heat Treatment of Steel Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckermann, Christoph; Carlson, Kent

    2011-07-22

    Heat treatment and associated processing, such as quenching, are critical during high strength steel casting production. These processes must be managed closely to prevent thermal and residual stresses that may result in distortion, cracking (particularly after machining), re-work, and weld repair. The risk of casting distortion limits aggressive quenching that can be beneficial to the process and yield an improved outcome. As a result of these distortions, adjustments must be made to the casting or pattern design, or tie bars must be added. Straightening castings after heat treatments can be both time-consuming and expensive. Residual stresses may reduce a casting's overall service performance, possibly resulting in catastrophic failure. Stress relieving may help, but expends additional energy in the process. Casting software is very limited in predicting distortions during heat treatment, so corrective measures most often involve a tedious trial-and-error procedure. An extensive review of existing heat treatment residual stress and distortion modeling revealed that it is vital to predict the phase transformations and microstructure of the steel along with the thermal stress development during heat treatment. After reviewing the state-of-the-art in heat treatment residual stress and distortion modeling, an existing commercial code was selected because of its advanced capabilities in predicting phase transformations, the evolving microstructure and related properties along with thermal stress development during heat treatment. However, this software was developed for small parts created from forgings or machined stock, and not for steel castings. Therefore, its predictive capabilities for heat treatment of steel castings were investigated. Available experimental steel casting heat treatment data was determined to be of insufficient detail and breadth, and so new heat treatment experiments were designed and performed, casting and heat treating modified versions

  19. Development of the heat treatment system for the 40 T hybrid magnet superconducting outsert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W G; Chen, Z M; Chen, Z Y; Huang, P C; He, P; Zhu, J W

    2011-10-01

    The heat treatment of Nb(3)Sn coil with the glass fabric insulation is one of the key and critical processes for the outsert solenoids of the 40 T hybrid magnet, which could be wound with cable-in-conduit conductors using the insulation-wind-and-react technique. The manufacturing of the large vertical type vacuum/Ar atmosphere-protection heat treatment system has been completed and recently installed in the High Magnetic Filed Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The heat treatment system composed mainly the furnace, the purging gas supply system, the control system, the gas impurities monitoring system, and so on. At present, the regulation and testing of the heat treatment system has been successfully finished, and all of technical parameters meet or exceed specifications.

  20. Recent trends and developments in infrared heating in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Navin K

    2012-01-01

    Fruit processing and preservation technologies must keep fresh-like characteristics while providing an acceptable and convenient shelf life as well as assuring safety and nutritional value. Processing technologies include a wide range of methodologies to inactivate microorganisms, improve quality and stability, and preserve and minimize changes of fruit fresh-like characteristics. Infrared (IR) heating offers many advantages over conventional heating under similar conditions, which include reduced heating time, uniform heating, reduced quality losses, versatile, simple and compact equipment, and significant energy saving. The integration of IR with other matured processing operations such as blanching, dehydration, freeze-dehydration, thawing, roasting, baking, cooking has been shown to open up new processing options. Combinations of IR heating with microwave heating and other common conductive and convective modes of heating have been gaining momentum because of increased energy throughput. A number of publications and patents have demonstrated novel and diverse uses of this technology. This review aims at identifying the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. The effect of IR on food quality attributes is also discussed. The types of equipment commonly used for IR processing have also been summarized.

  1. Experimental heat treatment of silcrete implies analogical reasoning in the Middle Stone Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, Lyn; Prinsloo, Linda C

    2014-05-01

    Siliceous rocks that were not heated to high temperatures during their geological formation display improved knapping qualities when they are subjected to controlled heating. Experimental heat treatment of South African silcrete, using open fires of the kind used during the Middle Stone Age, shows that the process needed careful management, notwithstanding recent arguments to the contrary. Silcrete blocks fractured when heated on the surface of open fires or on coal beds, but were heated without mishap when buried in sand below a fire. Three silcrete samples, a control, a block heated underground with maximum temperature between 400 and 500 °C and a block heated in an open fire with maximum temperature between 700 and 800 °C, were analysed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), optical microscopy, and both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the volume expansion during the thermally induced α- to β-quartz phase transformation and the volume contraction during cooling play a major role in the heat treatment of silcrete. Rapid heating or cooling through the phase transformation at 573 °C will cause fracture of the silcrete. Successful heat treatment requires controlling surface fire temperatures in order to obtain the appropriate underground temperatures to stay below the quartz inversion temperature. Heat treatment of rocks is a transformative technology that requires skilled use of fire. This process involves analogical reasoning, which is an attribute of complex cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of heat-treatment on elevated temperature fatigue-crack growth behavior of two heats of Alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.

    1978-05-01

    The room temperature and elevated temperature fatigue-crack growth behavior of two heats of Alloy 718 was characterized within a linear-elastic fracture mechanics framework. Two different heat-treatments were used: the ''conventional'' (ASTM A637) treatment, and a ''modified'' heat-treatment designed to improve the toughness of Alloy 718 base metal and weldments. Heat-to-heat variations in the fatigue-crack propagation behavior were observed in the conventionally-treated material. On the other hand, no heat-to-heat variations were observed in the modified condition. Furthermore, both heats of Alloy 718 exhibited superior fatigue-crack growth resistance when given the modified heat-treatment. Electron fractographic examination of Alloy 718 fatigue fracture surfaces revealed that the operative crack growth mechanisms were dependent on heat-treatment, temperature, and ΔK level

  3. Effect of heat moisture treatment and annealing on physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red sorghum starch was physically modified by annealing and heat moisture treatment. The swelling power and solubility increased with increasing temperature range (60-90°), while annealing and heatmoisture treatment decreased swelling power and solubility of starch. Solubility and swelling were pH dependent with ...

  4. Effect of heat processing on the proximate composition and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    Received 5 August 2006. MS/No BKM/2006/027, ... In each of these locations, heat processing generally increased moisture ... underground water with hydrocarbons and dispersant products1. ..... Technology of Yam Tubers, Vol. 1. ed by.

  5. National need for utilizing nuclear energy for process heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are potential sources for generating process heat, and their applications for such use economically competitive. They help satisfy national needs by helping conserve and extend oil and natural gas resources, thus reducing energy imports and easing future international energy concerns. Several reactor types can be utilized for generating nuclear process heat; those considered here are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), gas-cooled reactors (GCRs), and liquid metal reactors (LMRs). LWRs and HWRs can generate process heat up to 280 0 C, LMRs up to 540 0 C, and GCRs up to 950 0 C. Based on the studies considered here, the estimated process heat markets and the associated energy markets which would be supplied by the various reactor types are summarized

  6. Proceedings of the solar industrial process heat symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to review the progress of various solar energy systems currently under design for supplying industrial process heat. Formal presentations consisted of a review of solar energy applications in industrial process heat as well as several on-going project reviews. An Open Forum was held to solicit the comments of the participants. The recommendations of this Open Forum are included in these proceedings. Eighteen papers were included. Separate abstracts were prepared for each paper.

  7. Citrus processing waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawash, S; Hafez, A J; El-Diwani, G

    1988-02-01

    The process utilizes biological treatment to decompose organic matter and decreases the COD to a value of 230 ppm, using 161 of air per 1 of treated waste water for a contact time of 2.5 h. Ozone is used subsequently for further purification of the waste water by destroying refractory organics. This reduces the COD to a value of 40 ppm, and consequently also lowers the BOD. Ozone also effectively removed the yellow-brown colour due to humic substances in dissolved or colloidal form; their oxidation leaves the water sparkling. Iron and manganese are also eliminated.

  8. Correlation of heat transfer coefficient in quenching process using ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davare, Sandeep Kedarnath; Balachandran, G.; Singh, R. K. P.

    2018-04-01

    During the heat treatment by quenching in a liquid medium the convective heat transfer coefficient plays a crucial role in the extraction of heat. The heat extraction ultimately influences the cooling rate and hence the hardness and mechanical properties. A Finite Element analysis of quenching a simple flat copper sample with different orientation of sample and with different quenchant temperatures were carried out to check and verify the results obtained from the experiments. The heat transfer coefficient (HTC) was calculated from temperature history in a simple flat copper disc sample experimentally. This HTC data was further used as input to simulation software and the cooling curves were back calculated. The results obtained from software and using experimentation shows nearly consistent values.

  9. UV-Heat Treatments for the Control of Foodborne Microbial Pathogens in Chicken Broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gouma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation established the process criteria for using UV-C light and mild heat (UV-H treatment to inactivate 5-Log10 cycles (performance criterion of common foodborne pathogen populations, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, when inoculated in chicken broth. To define the target microorganism and the proper UV-H treatment conditions (including UV dose, treatment time, and temperature that would achieve the stated performance criterion, mathematical equations based on Geeraerd’s model were developed for each microorganism. For the sake of comparison, inactivation equations for heat treatments were also performed on the same chicken broth and for the same microorganisms. L. monocytogenes was the most UV-H resistant microorganism at all temperatures, requiring a UV dose between 6.10 J/mL (5.6 min and 2.26 J/mL (2.09 min to achieve 5-Log10 reductions. In comparison with UV treatments at room temperatures, the combination of UV and mild heat allowed both the UV dose and treatment time to be reduced by 30% and 63% at 55°C and 60°C, respectively. Compared to heat treatments, the UV-H process reduced the heating time for 5-Log10 reductions of all the investigated microorganisms in chicken broth from 20-fold to 2-fold when the operating temperature varied from 53 to 60°C.

  10. Effect of heat treatment operations on the Rm tensile strength of silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Owing to good technological properties, low weight and good corrosion resistance, aluminum-silicon alloys are widely used as a material for cast machinery components. State of macro- and microstructure of a castings manufactured from Al-Si alloys, which is determined by a shape and distribution of hardening phases, segregation of alloying constituents and impurities, as well as distribution of porosity, create conditions to obtainment of proper mechanical properties. These properties can be improved through modification of the alloy and performed heat treatment operations. The paper presents effect of modification and heat treatment process on the Rm tensile strength of a selected silumins (EN AB-AlSi9Cu3(Fe, EN AB-AlSi12CuNiMg, EN AB-AlSi17Cu1Ni1Mg. Investigated alloys were put to treatments of refining and modification, and next to heat treatment. Temperature range of the heat treatment operations was determined on base of curves from the ATD method. Obtained results illustrate registered curves of melting and solidification from the ATD method and strength tests. On base of performed initial tests one determined parameters of the heat treatment process (temperature and duration of solutionig and ageing treatments enabling obtainment of improved Rm tensile strength of the investigated alloys.

  11. Multipurpose nuclear process heat for energy supply in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, U.; Inden, P.; Oesterwind, D.; Hukai, R.Y.; Pessine, R.T.; Pieroni, R.R.; Visoni, E.

    1978-11-01

    The industrialized nations require 75% of the energy as heat and it is likely that developing countries in the course of industrialization will show a comparable energy consumption structure. The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) allows the utilization of nuclear energy at high temperatures as process heat. In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) the development in the relevant technical areas is well advanced and warrants investigation as a matter for transfer to Brazil. In Brazil nuclear process heat finds possible applications in steel making, shale oil extraction, petroleum refining, and in the more distant future coal gasification with distribution networks. Based on growth forecasts for these industries a theoretical potential market of 38-53 GW (th) can be identified. At present nuclear process heat is marginally more expensive than conventional fossil technologies but the anticipated development is expected to add an economic incentive to the emerging necessity of providing a sound energy base in the developing countries. (author)

  12. High Magnetic Field Processing - A Heat-Free Heat Treating Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL; Manuel, Michele [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Murphy, Bart L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    The High and Thermal Magnetic Processing/Electro-magnetic Acoustic Transducer (HTMP/EMAT) technology has been shown to be an enabling disruptive materials processing technology, that can achieve significant improvements in microstructure and consequently material performance beyond that achievable through conventional processing, and will lead to the next generation of advanced performance structural and functional materials. HTMP exposure increased the reaction kinetics enabling refinement of microstructural features such as finer martensite lath size, and finer, more copious, homogeneous dispersions of strengthening carbides leading to combined strength and toughness improvements in bainitic steels. When induction heating is applied in a high magnetic field environment, the induction heating coil is configured so that high intensity acoustic/ultrasonic treatment occurs naturally. The configuration results in a highly effective electromagnetic acoustical transducer (EMAT). HTMP combined with applying high-field EMAT, produce a non-contact ultrasonic treatment that can be used to process metal alloys in either the liquid state resulting in significant microstructural changes over conventional processing. Proof-of-principle experiments on cast irons resulted in homogeneous microstructures in small castings along with improved casting surface appearance. The experiment showed that by exposing liquid metal to the non-contact acoustic/ultrasonic processing technology developed using HMFP/EMAT wrought-like microstructures were developed in cast components. This Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) project sponsored by the DOE EERE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) demonstrated the following: (1) The reduction of retained austenite in high carbon/high alloy steels with an ambient temperature HTMP process, replacing either a cryogenic or double tempering thermal process normally employed to accomplish retained austenite transformation. HTMP can be described as a 'heat

  13. Irreversibility and Action of the Heat Conduction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chao Hua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Irreversibility (that is, the “one-sidedness” of time of a physical process can be characterized by using Lyapunov functions in the modern theory of stability. In this theoretical framework, entropy and its production rate have been generally regarded as Lyapunov functions in order to measure the irreversibility of various physical processes. In fact, the Lyapunov function is not always unique. In the represent work, a rigorous proof is given that the entransy and its dissipation rate can also serve as Lyapunov functions associated with the irreversibility of the heat conduction process without the conversion between heat and work. In addition, the variation of the entransy dissipation rate can lead to Fourier’s heat conduction law, while the entropy production rate cannot. This shows that the entransy dissipation rate, rather than the entropy production rate, is the unique action for the heat conduction process, and can be used to establish the finite element method for the approximate solution of heat conduction problems and the optimization of heat transfer processes.

  14. Prospects of HTGR process heat application and role of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, S.; Miyamoto, Y.

    2000-01-01

    At Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, an effort on development of process heat application with high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) has been continued for providing a future clean alternative to the burning of fossil energy for the production of industrial process heat. The project is named 'HTTR Heat Utilization Project', which includes a demonstration of hydrogen production using the first Japanese HTGR of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). In the meantime, some countries, such as China, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa are trying to explore the HTGR process heat application for industrial use. One of the key issues for this application is economy. It has been recognized for a long time and still now that the HTGR heat application system is not economically competitive to the current fossil ones, because of the high cost of the HTGR itself. However, the recent movement on the HTGR development, as represented by South Africa Pebble Beds Modular Reactor (SA-PBMR) Project, has revealed that the HTGRs are well economically competitive in electricity production to fossil fuel energy supply under a certain condition. This suggests that the HTGR process heat application will also possibly get economical in the near future. In the present paper, following a brief introduction describing the necessity of the HTGRs for the future process heat application, Japanese activities and prospect of the development on the process heat application with the HTGRs are described in relation with the HTTR Project. In conclusion, the process heat application system with HTGRs is thought technically and economically to be one of the most promising applications to solve the global environmental issues and energy shortage which may happen in the future. However, the commercialization for the hydrogen production system from water, which is the final goal of the HTGR process heat application, must await the technology development to be completed in 2030's at the

  15. Irradiation in combination of heat treatment of mango puree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomhorm, A.; Apintanapong, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irradiation with heat combination treatment on the shelf life and quality of mango puree was studied. Thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme at 80 degree C and 15 min. was used as a measure of adequacy of pre-heat treatment. Irradiation of mango puree after heat treatment at dosage of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy showed no change in mc, pH, acidity, and TSS but during storage, growth of microorganisms brought changes in these values. Irradiation in combination with low temperature (5 degree C) reduced discoloration and darkening rate during storage. Irradiation dose from 0 to 8 kGy resulted in log linear reductions in microorganism levels but at 6 and 8 kGy, there was no growth of microorganisms. Products irradiated at 8 kGy showed no microorganism growth at both temperatures

  16. Effects of heat treatment temperature on morphology and properties of opal crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Tao; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Peng Tongjiang; Chen Jiming; Tang Yongjian

    2008-01-01

    The monodispersed SiO 2 microspheres were synthesized by reactant mixed equally. The colloid crystal templates were assemblied by vertical sedimentation method in ethanol at certain temperatures, and the effects of the heat treatment temperature on the morphology and the properties of opal colloid crystals were investigated. SEM, TCr-DSC results indicate SiO 2 colloid templates should be heat treated at 700-800 degree C, enhancing the conglutination and mechanistic intensity of opal templates. UV-Vis analysis result indicates that the heat treatment process can remove the photonic band gap location of the opal colloid crystals, and with the heat treatment temperature increasing gradually, blue shift occurs and the gap narrows. (authors)

  17. Fundamentals of electroheat electrical technologies for process heating

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the main electrical technologies for process heating, which tend to be treated separately in specialized books. Individual chapters focus on heat transfer, electromagnetic fields in electro-technologies, arc furnaces, resistance furnaces, direct resistance heating, induction heating, and high-frequency and microwave heating. The authors highlight those topics of greatest relevance to a wide-ranging teaching program, and at the same time offer a detailed review of the main applications of the various technologies. The content represents a synthesis of the extensive knowledge and experience that the authors have accumulated while researching and teaching at the University of Padua’s Engineering Faculty. This text on industrial electroheating technologies is a valuable resource not only for students of industrial, electrical, chemical, and material science engineering, but also for engineers, technicians and others involved in the application of electroheating and...

  18. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    Using alternate energy sources abundant in the U.S.A. to help curb foreign oil imports is vitally important from both national security and economic standpoints. Perhaps the most forwardlooking opportunity to realize national energy goals involves the integrated use of two energy sources that have an established technology base in the U.S.A., namely nuclear energy and coal. The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc.) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported (via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)) to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers

  19. High temperature reactor and application to nuclear process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulten, R; Kugeler, K [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-01-01

    The principle of high temperature nuclear process heat is explained and the main applications (hydrogasification of coal, nuclear chemical heat pipe, direct reduction of iron ore, coal gasification by steam and water splitting) are described in more detail. The motivation for the introduction of nuclear process heat to the market, questions of cost, of raw material resources and environmental aspects are the next point of discussion. The new technological questions of the nuclear reactor and the status of development are described, especially information about the fuel elements, the hot gas ducts, the contamination and some design considerations are added. Furthermore the status of development of helium heated steam reformers, the main results of the work until now and the further activities in this field are explained.

  20. Desensitization of stainless steels by laser surface heat-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Yoshikuni; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    1987-11-01

    Laser heating was applied for the desensitization heat-treatment of the surface layer in the sensitized HAZ of Type 304 stainless steel. The degree of sensitization was examined by EPR technique and the 10 % oxalic acid electrolytic etch test. The CO/sub 2/ laser with maximum power of 1.5 kW was used for heat-treatment. Time-Temperature-Desensitization diagram (TTDS diagram) for sensitized Type 304 stainless steels were developed by calculation assuming the chromium diffusion control for desensitization which might occur when the chromium depleted zone was healed up due to dissolution of chromium carbide and chromium diffusion from the matrix being heated at the solution annealing temperatures. TTDS diagrams calculated agree fairly well with ones determined by corrosion tests. Laser irradiation conditions (e.g., Laser power, beam diameter and traveling velocity) required for desensitization of sensitized Type 304 stainless steels were calculated using additivity rule from the TTDS diagram calculated and theoretical thermal curve of laser heating derived from the heat conduction theory. After laser beam irradiated under an optimum condition predicted by calculation, the sensitized HAZ of Type 304 stainless steel restored complete resistance to intergranular corrosion.

  1. High-temperature gas-cooled reactors and process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) are fueled with ceramic-coated microspheres of uranium and thorium oxides/carbides embedded in graphite blocks which are cooled with helium. Promising areas of HTGR application are in cogeneration, energy transport using Heat Transfer Salt, recovery of oils from oil shale, steam reforming of methane for chemical production, coal gasification, and in energy transfer using chemical heat jpipes in the long term. Further, HTGRs could be used as the energy source for hydrogen production through thermochemical water splitting in the long term. The potential market for Process Heat HTGRs is 100-200 large units by about the year 2020

  2. High-temperature process heat applications with an HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, R.N.; Vrable, D.L.

    1980-04-01

    An 842-MW(t) HTGR-process heat (HTGR-PH) design and several synfuels and energy transport processes to which it could be coupled are described. As in other HTGR designs, the HTGR-PH has its entire primary coolant system contained in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) which provides the necessary biological shielding and pressure containment. The high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. With a capability to produce hot helium in the secondary loop at 800 0 C (1472 0 F) with current designs and 900 0 C (1652 0 F) with advanced designs, a large number of process heat applications are potentially available. Studies have been performed for coal liquefaction and gasification using nuclear heat

  3. Pressurized Recuperator For Heat Recovery In Industrial High Temperature Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recuperators and regenerators are important devices for heat recovery systems in technological lines of industrial processes and should have high air preheating temperature, low flow resistance and a long service life. The use of heat recovery systems is particularly important in high-temperature industrial processes (especially in metallurgy where large amounts of thermal energy are lost to the environment. The article presents the process design for a high efficiency recuperator intended to work at high operating parameters: air pressure up to 1.2 MPa and temperature of heating up to 900°C. The results of thermal and gas-dynamic calculations were based on an algorithm developed for determination of the recuperation process parameters. The proposed technical solution of the recuperator and determined recuperation parameters ensure its operation under maximum temperature conditions.

  4. NGNP Process Heat Applications: Hydrogen Production Accomplishments for FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V Park

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process Heat Applications group in support of hydrogen production technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the production of hydrogen.

  5. Decontamination of hospital wastes by the combined action of ionising radiation and heat - the thermorad process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icre, P.; Rocquigny, H. de

    1995-01-01

    The Thermorad process is used for decontaminating hospital wastes at the hospital as they are collected from the different departments. The process utilises the combined microbiological effects of ionising radiation (5 kGy) and dry heat (60 o C). The treatment unit, which is compact and of small size, contains a cobalt 60 source of under 100,000 curies and has an annual treatment capacity of 5000 m 3 . (author)

  6. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerrfeld, R.; Kraut-Giesen, G.

    1982-01-01

    1. Goals: Verification of owner's interests during experimental and engineering phase of nuclear coal gasification. 2. Method: 2.1 Witnessing and evaluating of experimental results from running test facilities. 2.2 Influencing experimental program. 2.3 Participation in important meetings of PNP-project. 3. Results: From present point of view the realization of nuclear coal gasification with a nuclear high temperature reactor (HTR) in accordance with the present technical status as well as meeting the existing safety regulations seems to be feasable. R+D-work will be needed for affirmation of design. The gasification of hard coal basing on the allothermal principal has proved to be possible. The examination of the gasifier on a pilot scale is not yet done. The design work for the pilot plant should be started immediately, particularly keeping in mind the decision for erection of PNP in 1990. The calculation of production costs in comparison to autothermal gasification processes is promising better economics, if uncertainties of investment calculation are deemed to be neglectable. (orig.) [de

  7. Numerical analysis of heat treatment of TiCN coated AA7075 aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, M. K.; Prasad, M. S. Ganesha

    2018-04-01

    The Numerical analysis of heat treatments of TiCN coated AA7075 aluminium alloys is presented in this paper. The Convection-Diffusion-Reaction (CDR) equation with solutions in the Streamlined-Upward Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method for different parameters is provided for the understanding of the process. An experimental process to improve the surface properties of AA-7075 aluminium alloy was attempted through the coatings of TiCN and subsequent heat treatments. From the experimental process, optimized temperature and time was obtained which gave the maximum surface hardness and corrosion resistance. The paper gives an understanding and use of the CDR equation for application of the process. Expression to determine convection, diffusion and reaction parameters are provided which is used to obtain the overall expression of the heat treatment process. With the substitution of the optimized temperature and time, the governing equation may be obtained. Additionally, the total energy consumed during the heat treatment process is also developed to give a mathematical formulation of the energy consumed.

  8. A Simulation Study of Inter Heat Exchanger Process in SI Cycle Process for Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae Sun; Cho, Sung Jin; Choi, Suk Hoon; Qasim, Faraz; Lee, Euy Soo; Park, Sang Jin; Lee, Heung N.; Park, Jae Ho; Lee, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    SI Cyclic process is one of the thermochemical hydrogen production processes using iodine and sulfur for producing hydrogen molecules from water. VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) can be used to supply heat to hydrogen production process, which is a high temperature nuclear reactor. IHX (Intermediate Heat Exchanger) is necessary to transfer heat to hydrogen production process safely without radioactivity. In this study, the strategy for the optimum design of IHX between SI hydrogen process and VHTR is proposed for various operating pressures of the reactor, and the different cooling fluids. Most economical efficiency of IHX is also proposed along with process conditions

  9. Spheroidization of primary Mg{sub 2}Si in Al-20Mg{sub 2}Si-4.5Cu alloy modified with Ca and Sb during T6 heat treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hong-Chen; Wang, Hui-Yuan, E-mail: wanghuiyuan@jlu.edu.cn; Chen, Lei; Zha, Min, E-mail: minzha@jlu.edu.cn; Wang, Cheng; Li, Chao; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2017-02-08

    The morphology evolution of primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles in a Al-20Mg{sub 2}Si-4.5Cu alloy both unmodified and modified with 0.5 wt% Ca-Sb prepared by hot-extrusion followed by T6 heat treatment was investigated in the present study. Interestingly, we found that the combination of hot-extrusion and T6 heat treatment was efficient in transforming truncated octahedral primary Mg{sub 2}Si into sphere in the modified alloy. In contrast, the primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles still kept dentritic in the unmodified alloy. It suggested that the formation of truncated octahedral primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles in as-cast state, the fragmentation of particles by hot-extrusion and the enhanced solid-state diffusion of Si and/or Mg atoms during heat treatment were responsible for the spheroidization of primary Mg{sub 2}Si. Moreover, the existence of fine (~10–20 µm) spherical primary Mg{sub 2}Si played an important role in strengthening the alloy, i.e., the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) increased from ~227 MPa in the unmodified alloy to ~303 MPa in the modified one. It is because the fine spherical primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles can provide a higher fracture stress and strength of the matrix/particle interface. Our study offered a simple methodology to prepare spherical primary Mg{sub 2}Si in an Al-high Mg{sub 2}Si alloy, which is beneficial to design novel light-weight Al-Mg-Si alloys with improved mechanical properties.

  10. A previously undescribed organic residue sheds light on heat treatment in the Middle Stone Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Porraz, Guillaume; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; February, Edmund; Ligouis, Bertrand; Paris, Céline; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Parkington, John E; Miller, Christopher E; Nickel, Klaus G; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has in recent years gained increasing importance for our understanding of the evolution of 'modern human behaviour' during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). A key element in the suite of behaviours linked with modern humans is heat treatment of materials such as ochre for ritual purposes and stone prior to tool production. Until now, there has been no direct archaeological evidence for the exact procedure used in the heat treatment of silcrete. Through the analysis of heat-treated artefacts from the Howiesons Poort of Diepkloof Rock Shelter, we identified a hitherto unknown type of organic residue - a tempering-residue - that sheds light on the processes used for heat treatment in the MSA. This black film on the silcrete surface is an organic tar that contains microscopic fragments of charcoal and formed as a residue during the direct contact of the artefacts with hot embers of green wood. Our results suggest that heat treatment of silcrete was conducted directly using an open fire, similar to those likely used for cooking. These findings add to the discussion about the complexity of MSA behaviour and appear to contradict previous studies that had suggested that heat treatment of silcrete was a complex (i.e., requiring a large number of steps for its realization) and resource-consuming procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Heat treatment effect on ductility of nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnakov, K.K.; Khasin, G.A.; Danilov, V.F.; Oshchepkov, B.V.; Listkova, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    Causes of low ductility of the KhN75MBTYu and KhN78T alloys were studied along with the heat treatment effects. Samples were tested at 20, 900, 1100, 1200 deg C. Large amount of inclusions was found in intercrystalline fractures of the above low-ductile alloys. The inclusions of two types took place: (α-Al 2 O 3 , FeO(Cr 2 O 3 xAl 2 O 3 )) dendrite-like ones and large-size laminated SiO 2 , FeO,(CrFe) 2 O 3 inclusions situated as separate colonies. Heat treatment of the alloys does not increase high-temperature impact strength and steel ductility. The heating above 1000 deg C leads to a partial dissolution and coagulation of film inclusions which results in an impact strength increase at room temperature

  12. Match properties of heat transfer and coupled heat and mass transfer processes in air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Liu Xiaohua; Zhang Lun; Jiang Yi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigates match properties of heat or mass transfer processes in HVAC system. ► Losses are caused by limited transfer ability, flow and parameter mismatching. ► Condition of flow matching is the same heat capacity of the fluids. ► Parameter matching is only reached along the saturation line in air–water system. ► Analytical solutions of heat and mass transfer resistance are derived. - Abstract: Sensible heat exchangers and coupled heat and mass transfer devices between humid air and water/desiccant are commonly used devices in air-conditioning systems. This paper focuses on the match properties of sensible heat transfer processes and coupled heat and mass transfer processes in an effort to understand the reasons for performance limitations in order to optimize system performance. Limited heat transfer capability and flow mismatching resulted in heat resistance of the sensible heat transfer process. Losses occurred during the heat and mass transfer processes due to limited transfer capability, flow mismatching, and parameter mismatching. Flow matching was achieved when the heat capacities of the fluids were identical, and parameter matching could only be reached along the saturation line in air–water systems or the iso-concentration line in air–desiccant systems. Analytical solutions of heat transfer resistance and mass transfer resistance were then derived. The heat and mass transfer process close to the saturation line is recommended, and heating sprayed water resulted in better humidification performance than heating inlet air in the air humidifier.

  13. Effect of heat treatment on brewer's yeast fermentation activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kharandiuk, Tetiana; Kosiv, Ruslana; Palianytsia, Liubov; Berezovska, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of temperature treatment of brewer's yeast strain Saflager W-34/70 at temperatures of -17, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 °C on their fermentative activity was studied. It was established that the freezing of yeast leads to a decrease of fermentation activity in directly proportional to the duration way. Fermentative activity of yeast samples can be increased by 20-24% by heat treatment at 35 °C during 15-30 minutes.

  14. Heat treatment effect on impact strength of 40Kh steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, V.K.; Novikov, S.A.; Sobolev, Yu.S.; Yukina, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies on the effect of heat treatment on strength and pattern of 40Kh steel impact failure. Loading levels corresponding to macroscopic spalling microdamage initiation in the material are determined for three initial states. Metallographic study on the spalling failure pattern for 40Kh steel in different initial states and data on microhardness measurement are presented

  15. Influence of heat treatment temperature on bonding and oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of heat treatment temperature on the morphology, composition, chemical bonds, oxidation resistance and compressive strength of diamond particles coated with TiO2 films were characterized through scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray ...

  16. Influence of heat treatment temperature on bonding and oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Diamond; TiO2 film; heat treatment temperature; anti-oxidation; mechanical properties. 1. Introduction. Due to its ..... figure 4a, which was due to the change of chemical envi- ronment of ... graphite, diamond, diamond-like carbon and carbon.10.

  17. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... ween 450 and 660 m altitudes in Cide-Sehdagi (Gercek et al., 1998; Dogu ... changes continue as the temperature is increased in ... Heat treatment slows water uptake and wood cell wall absorbs ...... The Effect of Boiling Time.

  18. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... surface of wood were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of ... Some of the products developed by thermal treat- .... boards were stored uncontrolled condition in an unheated room for .... These results can be explained with material loses in ...... Finland-state of the art.

  19. Application of microjet in heat treatment of aluminium bronzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Górny

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of a CuAl10Fe4Ni4 bronze subjected to solution heat treatment and toughening were examined. In solution heattreatment, a microjet was used to raise the cooling rate. A slight increase of mechanical properties was observed.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF INTERCRITICAL HEAT TREATMENTS ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of intercritical heat treatment on 0.14wt%C 0.56wt%Mn 0.13wt%Si struc- ... Table 1: Chemical composition of the steel used (wt. %) with its critical temperature (calculated). C. Mn. Si. Ni. S ... primary austenitic grain size hardening and.

  1. Effect of heat treatment on polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of heat treatment (55°C/20 min) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities and total phenolic compounds was investigated in Algerian dates (Deglet Nour variety) at Tamar (fully ripe) stage and in dates stored for 5 months at ambient temperature and in cold storage (10°C). Results obtained ...

  2. Effects of heat treatment on density, dimensional stability and color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on some physical properties and color change of Pinus nigra wood which has high industrial use potential and large growing stocks in Turkey. Wood samples which comprised the material of the study were obtained from an industrial plant. Samples were ...

  3. Heat treatment of the EN AC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Silumins are widely used in automotive, aviation and shipbuilding industries; as having specific gravity nearly three times lower than specific gravity of cast iron the silumins can be characterized by high mechanical properties. Additionally, they feature good casting properties, good machinability and good thermal conductivity. i.e. properties as required for machinery components operating in high temperatures and at considerable loads. Mechanical properties of the silumins can be upgraded, implementing suitably selected heat treatment. In the paper is presented an effect of modification and heat treatment processes on mechanical properties of the EN AC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe alloy. Investigated alloy has undergone typical processes of modification and refining, and next heat treatment. Temperature range of the heat treatment operations was determined on base of curves from the ATD method. Obtained results concern registered melting and solidification curves from the ATD method and strength tests. On base of the performed tests one has determined range of the heat treatment parameters which would assure obtainment of the best possible mechanical properties of the EN AC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe alloy.

  4. Research of Snow-Melt Process on a Heated Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article has shown the results of experimental researches of the snow-melt on a heated platform-near building heat-pump snow-melt platform. The near-building (yard heat pump platforms for snow melt with the area up to 10-15 m2 are a basis of the new ideology of organization of the street cleaning of Moscow from snow in the winter period which supposes the creation in the megalopolis of the «distributed snow-melt system» (DSMS using non-traditional energy sources. The results of natural experimental researches are presented for the estimation of efficiency of application in the climatic conditions of Moscow of heat pumps in the snow-melt systems. The researches were conducted on a model sample of the near-building heat-pump platform which uses the low-potential thermal energy of atmospheric air. The conducted researches have confirmed experimentally in the natural conditions the possibility and efficiency of using of atmospheric air as a source of low-potential thermal energy for evaporation of the snow-melt heat pump systems in the climatic conditions of Moscow. The results of laboratory researches of snow-melt process on a heated horizontal platform are presented. The researches have revealed a considerable dependence of efficiency of the snow-melt process on its piling mode (form-building and the organization of the process of its piling mode (form-building and the organization of the process of its (snow mass heat exchange with the surface of the heated platform. In the process of researches the effect of formation of an «ice dome» under the melting snow mass called by the fact that in case of the thickness of snow loaded on the platform more than 10 cm the water formed from the melting snow while the contact with the heating surface don’t spread on it, but soaks into the snow, wets it due to capillary effect and freezes. The formation of «ice dome» leads to a sharp increase of snow-melt period and decreases the operating

  5. Cogeneration using a nuclear reactor to generate process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Ramirez, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Some of the new nuclear reactor technologies (Generation III+) are claiming the production of process heat as an additional value to electricity generation. These technologies are still under development and none of them has shown how this can be possible and what will be the penalty in electricity generation to have this additional product. The current study assess the likeliness of generate process heat from a Pebble Bed Modular Reactor to be used for a refinery showing different plant balance and alternatives to produce and use that process heat. An actual practical example is presented to demonstrate the cogeneration viability using the fact that the PBMR is a modular small reactor and also the challenges that this option has. (author)

  6. Study on Spheroidization and Related Heat Treatments of Medium Carbon Alloy Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisha S. R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of medium carbon steels as engineering materials is reflected by the fact that out of the vast majority of engineering grade ferrous alloys available and used in the market today, a large proportion of them are from the family of medium carbon steels. Typically medium carbon steels have a carbon range of 0.25 to 0.65% by weight, and a manganese content ranging from 0.060 to 1.65% by weight. Medium carbon steels are more resistive to cutting, welding and forming as compared to low carbon steels. From the last two decades a number of research scholars reported the use of verity of heat treatments to tailor the properties of medium carbon steels. Spheroidizing is the novel industrial heat treatment employed to improve formability and machinability of medium/high carbon low alloy steels. This exclusive study covers procedure, the effects and possible outcomes of various heat treatments on medium carbon steels. In the present work, other related heat treatments like annealing and special treatments for property alterations which serve as pretreatments for spheroidizing are also reviewed. Medium carbon steels with property alterations by various heat treatment processes are finding increased responsiveness in transportation, aerospace, space, underwater along with other variegated fields. Improved tribological and mechanical properties consisting of impact resistance, stiffness, abrasion and strength are the main reasons for the increased attention of these steels in various industries. In the present scenario for the consolidation of important aspects of various heat treatments and effects on mechanical properties of medium carbons steel, a review of different research papers has been attempted. This review may be used as a guide to provide practical data for heat treatment industry, especially as a tool to enhance workability and tool life.

  7. Heat treatment giving a stable high temperature micro-structure in cast austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Donald L.; Lemkey, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    A novel micro-structure developed in a cast austenitic stainless steel alloy and a heat treatment thereof are disclosed. The alloy is based on a multicomponent Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-Si-Nb-C system consisting of an austenitic iron solid solution (.gamma.) matrix reinforced by finely dispersed carbide phases and a heat treatment to produce the micro-structure. The heat treatment includes a prebraze heat treatment followed by a three stage braze cycle heat treatment.

  8. Induction heating in in-line strip production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, P.; Santinelli, M.

    1995-05-01

    ISP (In-line Strip Production), a continuous process for steel strip production, has recently been set in an italian innovative plant, where ecological impact and power requirements are lighter than usual. This report describes the studies performed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), while a prototype reheating facility was arranged by Acciaieria ISP in Cremona (Italy). The authors, after a study of the prototype electromagnetic field, calculate the heating rate, with the thermal network method. Then they detect, with a 1-D-FEM, the heat diffusion through the strip cross section. Afterward, since the heat distribution depends on the eddy current density one, which is given by the magnetic field distribution, the authors, with a 3-D-FEM, carry out a coupled, electromagnetic and thermal, analysis in time domain. The strip temperature map is established by the balance between skin depth heating and surface cooling: a thermal analysis, performed with a moving 2-D-FEM, take into account the effects of the different heating and cooling situations, originated by the strip moving at a speed of 6m/min through four consecutive reheating facilities. The temperatures of a strip sample heated by the prototype have been monitored, acquired by a computer and related with the simulation results. The little difference between experiment and simulation assessed the qualitative and quantitative validity of this analysis, that has come out to be a tool, useful to evaluate the effects of possible improvements to the ISP process

  9. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Rigby, Wayne; Wallace, John; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low (∼120 °C) and high (∼800 °C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 °C with a maximum pressure of ∼1 × 10(-5) Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 °C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 °C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of ∼2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  10. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-04-01

    The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. The intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding.

  11. Biochemical changes in full fat rice bran stabilized through microwave heating and irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.; Abaullah, M.I.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of microwave heating and irradiation treatments on proximate composition, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, free fatty acid (FFA) and fatty acids profile of full fat rice bran were examined. Full fat raw rice bran (FRB) (82.7 g / kg moisture content) was heated in microwave oven at 850 W for up to 4 min or exposed to gamma irradiation up to 25 KGy then packed in polyethylene bags and stored at room temperature for 6 months. Water, protein, fat, ash and crude fiber contents did not change significantly in raw, microwave heated and irradiated samples before and after storage. An exception for this general observation was observed for the moisture content of FRB processed through microwave heating where heating FRB for 4 min dropped the level of moisture to 64.3 g / kg at zero time. Storage of both raw and processed samples had significant (P<0.05) effects on LOX activity. LOX activity of raw samples was significantly increased from its initial value by 43.5% after storage for six months. Microwave heat and irradiated samples showed deactivated LOX and samples exhibited significant changes in LOX activity could be due to treatment dosage. Meanwhile, significant change in LOX activity was observed in processed samples stored for six months. Minor changes were observed due to applied processing methods on FFA and fatty acids composition of full fat rice bran before and after storage. The results suggested that microwave heated or irradiated full fat rice bran packed in polyethylene bags can be stored at room temperature for six months without adverse effect on proximate, fatty acid composition quality and could prevent oxidative and hydrolytic rancidity. However, gamma irradiation treatment at 25 KGy was more effective in this respect. Therefore, it could be concluded that gamma irradiation contributed to optimal processing conditions for FRB stabilization

  12. A new paradigm for heat treatment of alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustinovshikov, Y., E-mail: ust@ftiudm.ru

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • The sign of the ordering energy in alloys varies with the temperature. • Each temperature of heating leads to formation of its characteristic microstructure. • Quenching of alloys is a totally unnecessary and useless operation. - Abstract: The article considers the consequences in the field of heat treatment of alloys that could follow the introduction of the concept of phase transition ordering-phase separation into common use. By example of the Fe{sub 50}Cr{sub 50} alloy, industrial carbon tool steel and Ni{sub 88}Al{sub 12} alloy, it is shown that this transition occurs at a temperature, which is definite for each system, that the change of the sign of the chemical interaction between component atoms reverses the direction of diffusion fluxes in alloys, which affects changes in the type of microstructures. The discovery of this phase transition dramatically changes our understanding of the solid solution, changes the ideology of alloy heat treatment. It inevitably leads to the conclusion about the necessity of carrying out structural studies with the help of TEM in order to adjust the phase diagrams of the systems where this phase transition has been discovered. Conclusions have been made that quenching of alloys from the so-called region of the solid solution, which is usually performed before tempering (aging) is a completely unnecessary and useless operation, that the final structure of the alloy is formed during tempering (aging) no matter what the structure was before this heat treatment.

  13. Susceptibility of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) developmental stages to high temperatures used during structural heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahroof, R; Subramanyam, B

    2006-12-01

    Heating the ambient air of a whole, or a portion of a food-processing facility to 50 to 60 degrees C and maintaining these elevated temperatures for 24 to 36 h, is an old technology, referred to as heat treatment. There is renewed interest in adopting heat treatments around the world as a viable insect control alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. There is limited published information on responses of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), exposed to elevated temperatures typically used during heat treatments. Time-mortality relationships were determined for eggs, fifth-instars (wandering-phase larvae), pupae, and adults of P. interpunctella exposed to five constant temperatures between 44 and 52 degrees C. Mortality of each stage increased with increasing temperature and exposure time. In general, fifth-instars were the most heat-tolerant stage at all temperatures tested. Exposure for a minimum of 34 min at 50 degrees C was required to kill 99% of the fifth-instars. It is proposed that heat treatments aimed at controlling fifth-instars should be able to control all other stages of P. interpunctella.

  14. Computational simulation of laser heat processing of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Vijaya; Gnanamuthu, Daniel

    1987-04-01

    A computational model simulating the laser heat treatment of AISI 4140 steel plates with a CW CO2 laser beam has been developed on the basis of the three-dimensional, time-dependent heat equation (subject to the appropriate boundary conditions). The solution method is based on Newton iteration applied to a triple-approximate factorized form of the equation. The method is implicit and time-accurate; the maintenance of time-accuracy in the numerical formulation is noted to be critical for the simulation of finite length workpieces with a finite laser beam dwell time.

  15. The Effect of Heat Treatments and Coatings on the Outgassing Rate of Stainless Steel Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamum, Md Abdullah A. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A, [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Stutzman, Marcy L. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Adderley, Philip A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Poelker, Matthew [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The outgassing rates of four nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were measured to determine the effect of chamber coatings and heat treatments. One chamber was coated with titanium nitride (TiN) and one with amorphous silicon (a-Si) immediately following fabrication. One chamber remained uncoated throughout, and the last chamber was first tested without any coating, and then coated with a-Si following a series of heat treatments. The outgassing rate of each chamber was measured at room temperatures between 15 and 30 deg C following bakes at temperatures between 90 and 400 deg C. Measurements for bare steel showed a significant reduction in the outgassing rate by more than a factor of 20 after a 400 deg C heat treatment (3.5 x 10{sup 12} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} prior to heat treatment, reduced to 1.7 x 10{ sup -13} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} following heat treatment). The chambers that were coated with a-Si showed minimal change in outgassing rates with heat treatment, though an outgassing rate reduced by heat treatments prior to a-Si coating was successfully preserved throughout a series of bakes. The TiN coated chamber exhibited remarkably low outgassing rates, up to four orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated stainless steel. An evaluation of coating composition suggests the presence of elemental titanium which could provide pumping and lead to an artificially low outgassing rate. The outgassing results are discussed in terms of diffusion-limited versus recombination-limited processes.

  16. Novel magnetic heating probe for multimodal cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Soboyejo, Wole

    2015-05-01

    Multifunctional materials consisting of polymers and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are highly sought after in the field of biomedical engineering. These materials offer new opportunities for the development of novel cancer treatment modalities that can increase the efficacy of cancer therapy. In this paper, a novel probe for multimodal cancer treatment is proposed and analyzed. The probe is essentially a cannula with two main parts: a distal heat generating tip made of a magnetic nanocomposite and a proximal insulated shaft. A description of the concept and functional operations of the probe is presented. In an effort to assess its feasibility, the authors evaluated the ability of probe tip (made of PMMA-Fe3O4 nanocomposite) to generate heat in biological tissue using alternating magnetic field (AMF) parameters (field strength and frequency) that are acceptable for human use. Heat generation by MNPs was determined using the linear response theory. The effects of Fe3O4 volume fraction on heat generation as well as treatment time on the thermal dose were studied. The finite element method model was tested for its validity using an analytical model. Lesions were revealed to have an ellipsoidal shape and their sizes were affected by treatment time. However, their shapes remained unchanged. The comparison with the analytical model showed reasonably a good agreement to within 2%. Furthermore, the authors' numerical predictions also showed reasonable agreement with the experimental results previously reported in the literature. The authors' predictions demonstrate the feasibility of their novel probe to achieve reasonable lesion sizes, during hyperthermic or ablative heating using AMF parameters (field strength and frequency) that are acceptable for human use.

  17. Effect of T6 heat treatment on damping characteristics of Al/RHA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the present work, effect of T6 heat treatment on the damping behaviour of aluminum/rice husk ash .... alloy-based composites, there is dearth of information on the damping ... fication. Using the process 4, 6 and 8% by weight, RHA.

  18. Comparison of the heat treatment response of wrought and SSM-HPDC alloy 6082

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Möller, H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural and artificial aging responses of wrought and SSM-HPDC alloy 6082 are compared. It is shown that the heat treatment response of this Al-Mg-Si alloy is not influenced by differences in microstructures produced by different processing...

  19. Comparative study of heat transfer and wetting behaviour of conventional and bioquenchants for industrial heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Peter; Prabhu, K. Narayan [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, P.O. Srinivasnagar 575 025 Mangalore, Karnataka State (India)

    2008-02-15

    An investigation was conducted to study the suitability of vegetable oils as bioquenchants for industrial heat treatment. The study involved the assessment of the severity of quenching and wetting behaviour of conventional and vegetable oil quench media. Quench severities of sunflower, coconut and palm oils were found to be greater than mineral oil. The quench severity of aqueous media is greater than oil media although their wettability is poor as indicated by their higher contact angles. A dimensionless contact angle parameter defined in this work is found to be a better parameter to compare the wetting behaviour with heat transfer. (author)

  20. Numerical simulation of plasma processes driven by transverse ion heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra; Chan, C. B.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma processes driven by transverse ion heating in a diverging flux tube are investigated with numerical simulation. The heating is found to drive a host of plasma processes, in addition to the well-known phenomenon of ion conics. The downward electric field near the reverse shock generates a doublestreaming situation consisting of two upflowing ion populations with different average flow velocities. The electric field in the reverse shock region is modulated by the ion-ion instability driven by the multistreaming ions. The oscillating fields in this region have the possibility of heating electrons. These results from the simulations are compared with results from a previous study based on a hydrodynamical model. Effects of spatial resolutions provided by simulations on the evolution of the plasma are discussed.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF HEAT TREATMENT WITH THE LIQUID PHASE ON FORMATION OF A MICROSTRUCTURE OF EUTECTIC Al-Si-ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment on the structure of the eutectic Al-Si-alloy, a theoretical substantiation process based on thermal analyzer and cooked microstructures was presented in this paper.

  2. Numerical Simulation of the Moving Induction Heating Process with Magnetic Flux Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The induction heating with ferromagnetic metal powder bonded magnetic flux concentrator (MPB-MFC demonstrates more advantages in surface heating treatments of metal. However, the moving heating application is mostly applied in the industrial production. Therefore, the analytical understanding of the mechanism, efficiency, and controllability of the moving induction heating process becomes necessary for process design and optimization. This paper studies the mechanism of the moving induction heating with magnetic flux concentrator. The MPB-MFC assisted moving induction heating for Inconel 718 alloy is studied by establishing the finite element simulation model. The temperature field distribution is analyzed, and the factors influencing the temperature are studied. The conclusion demonstrates that the velocity of the workpiece should be controlled properly and the heat transfer coefficient (HTC has little impact on the temperature development, compared with other input parameters. In addition, the validity of the static numerical model is verified by comparing the finite element simulation with experimental results on AISI 1045 steel. The numerical model established in this work can provide comprehensive understanding for the process control in production.

  3. 99Mo production using MoO3 pellets obtained by mechanical compression and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Jorge; Mendoza, Pablo; Lopez, Alcides

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the results of the MoO 3 pellets fabrication by mechanical compression and the heat treatment method (MCHT) in order to optimize the production of 99 Mo in the RACSO Nuclear Center. The effects of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as binder are assessed by heat treatment of pellets in air atmosphere, evaluating the elimination process with increasing temperature and solubility in 5N NaOH. The results show that the pellets fabrication technique is suitable because fulfills the required technical specifications, allows to irradiate 50 % more of 98 Mo mass and facilitate a safer radiological handling of the irradiated MoO 3 . (authors).

  4. A heat mathematical model of polymer composite cylinder during microwave treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Reznik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional technologies of producing epoxy based polymer composite materials (PCM require a long-term and energy consuming thermal processing. Microwave heating could be used as an alternative technology for heating work pieces made of PCM; this would allow to reduce treatment time and energy consumption significantly. A mathematical model of temperature distribution inside a cylindrical composite system during microwave treatment was investigated in this paper. The model includes a hollow PCM cylinder made of an epoxy binder and carbon fibers and a solid cylindrical mandrel. Theoretical and experimental results on the temperature state of the system were analyzed and discussed.

  5. EFFECT OF PRE-HEAT TREATMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Ti-6Al-4V WELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnofam Jacques TCHEIN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here is related to the optimization of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW process. The objective is to study the influence of some parameters used in the production of welded joints by FSW. The most important parameters are the welding speed and the rotational speed of the tool. The effect of pre-heat treatment on the plates to be welded is also studied by the design of experimental methods. These pre-heat treatments result not only in a change of mechanical properties of plates to be welded, but also of their microstructure. The experiments were performed following a 16 lines fractional Taguchi table.

  6. Influence of heat treatment on physicochemical and rheological characteristics of natural yogurts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Célia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of heat treatment on physicochemical and rheological characteristics of natural yogurts, as well as the influence of lyophilization process on natural yogurts after reconstitution. In the first experiment, three yogurt treatments were processed, as follows: Treatment 1, yogurt produced with raw refrigerated milk; Treatment 2, yogurt produced with refrigerated pasteurized milk; and Treatment 3, yogurt produced with UHT (ultra-high temperature milk, in addition to analyses of fat, protein, moisture, titratable acidity, and pH. The shelf life of yogurts at 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29 days of storage, as well as pH, acidity, syneresis, viscosity, viable lactic bacteria, and total coliforms were also assessed. In the second experiment, yogurts were submitted to lyophilization process, performed by scanning electron microscopy analysis and subsequently in those reconstituted, in addition to being assessed the physicochemical, rheological, and viable lactic bacteria characteristics. The results found in the first experiment showed that heat treatment was positive for viscosity, syneresis, and lactic bacteria, being viable until the 15th day of storage only for yogurts submitted to heat treatment. In the second experiment, lyophilization preserved the physicochemical characteristics of yogurts, but the number of initial lactic bacteria was different, also negatively affecting yogurt viscosity.

  7. Ploidy Manipulation of Zebrafish Embryos with Heat Shock 2 Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Destiny L.; Pelegri, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of ploidy allows for useful transformations, such as diploids to tetraploids, or haploids to diploids. In the zebrafish Danio rerio, specifically the generation of homozygous gynogenetic diploids is useful in genetic analysis because it allows the direct production of homozygotes from a single heterozygous mother. This article describes a modified protocol for ploidy duplication based on a heat pulse during the first cell cycle, Heat Shock 2 (HS2). Through inhibition of centriole duplication, this method results in a precise cell division stall during the second cell cycle. The precise one-cycle division stall, coupled to unaffected DNA duplication, results in whole genome duplication. Protocols associated with this method include egg and sperm collection, UV treatment of sperm, in vitro fertilization and heat pulse to cause a one-cell cycle division delay and ploidy duplication. A modified version of this protocol could be applied to induce ploidy changes in other animal species. PMID:28060351

  8. Trace Metal Levels in Raw and Heat Processed Nigerian Staple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of some trace metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd) were quantitatively determined in raw and heat processed staple food cultivars (yam, cassava, cocoyam and maize) from oil producing areas of part of the Niger Delta and compared with a non-oil producing area of Ebonyi State as control. The survey was conducted to ...

  9. Plug and Play Process Control of a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbaek, Klaus; Knudsen, Torben; Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The main idea of plug and play process control is to initialise and reconfigure control systems automatically. In this paper these ideas are applied to a scaled laboratory model of a district heating pressure control system.  First of all this serves as a concrete example of plug and play control...

  10. Weldability of general purpose heat source new-process iridium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanne, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Weldability tests on General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) iridium capsules showed that a new iridium fabrication process reduced susceptibility to underbead cracking. Seventeen capsules were welded (a total of 255 welds) in four categories and the number of cracks in each weld was measured

  11. r-PROCESS LANTHANIDE PRODUCTION AND HEATING RATES IN KILONOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F., E-mail: jlippuner@tapir.caltech.edu [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    r-process nucleosynthesis in material ejected during neutron star mergers may lead to radioactively powered transients called kilonovae. The timescale and peak luminosity of these transients depend on the composition of the ejecta, which determines the local heating rate from nuclear decays and the opacity. Kasen et al. and Tanaka and Hotokezaka pointed out that lanthanides can drastically increase the opacity in these outflows. We use the new general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet to carry out a parameter study of r-process nucleosynthesis for a range of initial electron fractions Y{sub e}, initial specific entropies s, and expansion timescales τ. We find that the ejecta is lanthanide-free for Y{sub e} ≳ 0.22−0.30, depending on s and τ. The heating rate is insensitive to s and τ, but certain, larger values of Y{sub e} lead to reduced heating rates, due to individual nuclides dominating the heating. We calculate approximate light curves with a simplified gray radiative transport scheme. The light curves peak at about a day (week) in the lanthanide-free (-rich) cases. The heating rate does not change much as the ejecta becomes lanthanide-free with increasing Y{sub e}, but the light-curve peak becomes about an order of magnitude brighter because it peaks much earlier when the heating rate is larger. We also provide parametric fits for the heating rates between 0.1 and 100 days, and we provide a simple fit in Y{sub e}, s, and τ to estimate whether or not the ejecta is lanthanide-rich.

  12. r-PROCESS LANTHANIDE PRODUCTION AND HEATING RATES IN KILONOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.

    2015-01-01

    r-process nucleosynthesis in material ejected during neutron star mergers may lead to radioactively powered transients called kilonovae. The timescale and peak luminosity of these transients depend on the composition of the ejecta, which determines the local heating rate from nuclear decays and the opacity. Kasen et al. and Tanaka and Hotokezaka pointed out that lanthanides can drastically increase the opacity in these outflows. We use the new general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet to carry out a parameter study of r-process nucleosynthesis for a range of initial electron fractions Y e , initial specific entropies s, and expansion timescales τ. We find that the ejecta is lanthanide-free for Y e ≳ 0.22−0.30, depending on s and τ. The heating rate is insensitive to s and τ, but certain, larger values of Y e lead to reduced heating rates, due to individual nuclides dominating the heating. We calculate approximate light curves with a simplified gray radiative transport scheme. The light curves peak at about a day (week) in the lanthanide-free (-rich) cases. The heating rate does not change much as the ejecta becomes lanthanide-free with increasing Y e , but the light-curve peak becomes about an order of magnitude brighter because it peaks much earlier when the heating rate is larger. We also provide parametric fits for the heating rates between 0.1 and 100 days, and we provide a simple fit in Y e , s, and τ to estimate whether or not the ejecta is lanthanide-rich

  13. Phase transformation and hardness of SS 316 L steel cast alloy after heat treatment at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, S.; Prayitno, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Heat treatment Study of SS 316 L cast alloy at high temperature was conducted. The alloy of SS 316 L was melted by arc melting furnace in argon atmosphere. Heat treatment of SS 316 L casting alloy was carried out in tube furnace at 1400 o C for period of 1/2, 1, and 2 hours. The optical microscopic characterization showed that SS 316 L cast has got dendritic micro structure with ferrite as the primary phase. After the heat treatment, the ferrite phase underwent gradual decrease followed by an increase of the austenite phase. The heat treatment process also resulted in the formation of the new grain boundary. The hardness examination revealed that for longer period of the heat treatment, the hardness of SS 316 L increased. (author)

  14. Processing of light and heat-resistant alloys. Obrabotka legkikh i zharoprochnykh splavov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belova, A F

    1976-01-01

    Results are given on the latest studies undertaken by Academician A.F. Belov. An examination is made of general problems in the processing (pressure, welding, thermal treatment, and others) of light and heat-resistant metals, problems in the technology and metal science studies of aluminum alloys, and problems of metallurgy and the processing of titanium and heat-resistant alloys. The publication is designed for researchers, designers, metallurgists, metal science specialists, machine building specialists, and students at corresponding institutions of higher learning.

  15. 9 CFR 355.25 - Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat processing; incubation. 355.25 Section 355.25... IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Inspection Procedure § 355.25 Canning with heat...

  16. Influence of the chemical composition, heat and surface treatment in the biofouling of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarro, M. I.; Aleman, O.; Moreno, D. A.; Roso, M.; Ranninger, C.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the biofouling processes in the kinds of stainless steels used normally in industry (UNS S30400, UNS S30403 and UNS S31600), with different surface treatments after grinding and polishing. The study was developed using two microscopy techniques. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was used to evaluate the microorganisms distribution in the materials, and Epi fluorescence Microscopy was used to evaluate the viability of cells in the biofilm. The results revealed the influence of the material, heat treatment, surface treatment and roughness in the biofouling processes in the stainless steel assays. (Author) 33 refs

  17. Shape Effect on the Temperature Field during Microwave Heating Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at improving the food quality during microwave process, this article mainly focused on the numerical simulation of shape effect, which was evaluated by microwave power absorption capability and temperature distribution uniformity in a single sample heated in a domestic microwave oven. This article only took the electromagnetic field and heat conduction in solid into consideration. The Maxwell equations were used to calculate the distribution of microwave electromagnetic field distribution in the microwave cavity and samples; then the electromagnetic energy was coupled as the heat source in the heat conduction process in samples. Quantitatively, the power absorption capability and temperature distribution uniformity were, respectively, described by power absorption efficiency (PAE and the statistical variation of coefficient (COV. In addition, we defined the comprehensive evaluation coefficient (CEC to describe the usability of a specific sample. In accordance with volume or the wave numbers and penetration numbers in the radial and axial directions of samples, they can be classified into different groups. And according to the PAE, COV, and CEC value and the specific need of microwave process, an optimal sample shape and orientation could be decided.

  18. The heat treatment of steel. A mathematical control problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoemberg, Dietmar; Kern, Daniela

    2009-07-21

    The goal of this paper is to show how the heat treatment of steel can be modelled in terms of a mathematical optimal control problem. The approach is applied to laser surface hardening and the cooling of a steel slab including mechanical effects. Finally, it is shown how the results can be utilized in industrial practice by a coupling with machine-based control. (orig.)

  19. Deep heat muscle treatment: A mathematical model - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogulu, A.; Bestman, A.R.

    1992-03-01

    The flow of blood during deep heat muscle treatment is studied in this paper. We model the blood vessel as a long tube in circular section whose radius varied slowly. Under the Boussinesq approximation, we seek asymptotic series expansions for the velocity components, temperature and pressure about a small parameter, ε, characterizing the radius variation. The study reveals mathematically why physicians recommend a hot bath for cuts and physiotherapists use ice packs for bruises. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  20. Wellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ian Alexander; Geddes, Cameron James; Rudolf, Randall Lynn; Selby, Bruce Allen; MacDonald, Duncan Charles

    2012-12-11

    A method includes making coiled tubing at a coiled tubing manufacturing unit coupled to a coiled tubing transportation system. One or more coiled tubing reels are transported from the coiled tubing manufacturing unit to one or more moveable well drilling systems using the coiled tubing transportation system. The coiled tubing transportation system runs from the tubing manufacturing unit to one or more movable well drilling systems, and then back to the coiled tubing manufacturing unit.

  1. Microwave heat treatment as a substitute for conventional treatment of palm oil fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujahid H Al-Fayadh; Nor Azura Masabbir Ali

    1996-01-01

    Microwave energy has become a sound method of heat treatment because of its high penetration power, cleanliness and possible economic significance. In this research, microwave heat was used as a substitute for conventional blanching method of palm oil fruits. Microwave treatment at 2450 MHz and 800 watts gave very close color and frn,frying characteristics to oil of blanched fruits after one minute exposure time. However, five minutes of microwave heat gave severe husk oil discoloration after 49 hours of deep frying, compared to all oils extracted from fruits treated by either low, microwave exposure time or conventional steam treatment. Kernel oil, after five minutes of microwave treatment, was less discolored than both steam or microwave-treated fruits for one minute. More carotenes and discoloration compounds may be contributed to discoloration during microwave treatments. Oil chemical constants of both husk and kernel oils treated by microwave heat were close to those treated by conventional heat. Further research is needed to investigate detailed oil characteristics and evaluate the feasibility study for using microwave energy, as a substitute for conventional heat in palm oil industry

  2. Heat treatment of TI-6AL-4V produced by lasercusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker, Thorsten

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available LaserCUSING® is a selective laser melting (SLM process that is capable of manufacturing parts by melting powder with heat input from a laser beam. LaserCUSING demonstrates potential for producing the intricate geometries specifically required for biomedical implants and aerospace applications. One main limitation to this form of rapid prototyping is the lack of published studies on the material performance of the resulting material. Studies of the material’s performance are often complicated by dependence on several factors, including starting powder properties, laser parameters, and post-processing heat treatments. This study aims to investigate the mechanical properties of LaserCUSING-produced Ti-6Al-4V and its performance relative to the conventional wrought counterpart. A combination of conventional and LaserCUSING-tailored heat treatments is performed. The resulting microstructures are studied and linked to the properties obtained from hardness tests. The findings highlight that LaserCused Ti-6Al-4V is competitive with traditional materials, provided that optimal parameters are chosen and parts are subject to tailored post-processing. In the as-built condition, LaserCused Ti-6Al-4V displays superior strength and hardness as a result of a martensitic microstructure, and a poorer performance in ductility. However, the material performance can be improved using tailored heat treatments. Careful consideration must be given to suitable post-processing before application in critical components in the aerospace or biomedical industry can occur

  3. Heat treatment trials for ITER toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kunihiro; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Nakajima, Hideo; Kimura, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Kazunari

    2012-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors using Nb 3 Sn strands are used in ITER toroidal fields (TF) coils. Heat treatment generates thermal strain in CIC conductors because of the difference in thermal expansion between the Nb 3 Sn strands and the stainless-steel jacket. The elongation/shrinkage of the TF conductor may make it impossible to insert a wound TF conductor into the groove of a radial plate. In addition, it is expected that the deformation of the winding due to heat treatment-based release of the residual force in the jacket may also make it impossible to insert the winding in the groove, and that correcting the winding geometry to allow insertion of the winding may influence the superconducting performance of the TF conductor. The authors performed several trials using heat treatment as the part of activities in Phase II of TF coil procurement aiming to resolve the above-mentioned technical issues, and evaluated the elongations of 0.064, 0.074 and 0.072% for the straight and curved conductors and 1/3-scale double-pancake (DP) winding, respectively. It was confirmed that correction if the deformed winding did not influence the superconducting performance of the conductor. (author)

  4. Fuel production from coal by the Mobil Oil process using nuclear high-temperature process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two processes for the production of liquid hydrocarbons are presented: Direct conversion of coal into fuel (coal hydrogenation) and indirect conversion of coal into fuel (syngas production, methanol synthesis, Mobil Oil process). Both processes have several variants in which nuclear process heat may be used; in most cases, the nuclear heat is introduced in the gas production stage. The following gas production processes are compared: LURGI coal gasification process; steam reformer methanation, with and without coal hydrogasification and steam gasification of coal. (orig./EF) [de

  5. Heat and work distributions for mixed Gauss–Cauchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuśmierz, Łukasz; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Rubi, J Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze energetics of a non-Gaussian process described by a stochastic differential equation of the Langevin type. The process represents a paradigmatic model of a nonequilibrium system subject to thermal fluctuations and additional external noise, with both sources of perturbations considered as additive and statistically independent forcings. We define thermodynamic quantities for trajectories of the process and analyze contributions to mechanical work and heat. As a working example we consider a particle subjected to a drag force and two statistically independent Lévy white noises with stability indices α = 2 and α = 1. The fluctuations of dissipated energy (heat) and distribution of work performed by the force acting on the system are addressed by examining contributions of Cauchy fluctuations (α = 1) to either bath or external force acting on the system. (paper)

  6. European research and development on HTGR process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, Karl; Lensa, Werner von

    2003-01-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor represents a suitable and safe concept of a future nuclear power plant with the potential to produce process heat to be utilized in many industrial processes such as reforming of natural gas, coal gasification and liquefaction, heavy oil recovery to serve for the production of the storable commodities hydrogen or energy alcohols as future transportation fuels. The paper will include a description of the broad range of applications for HTGR process heat and describe the results of the German long-term projects ''Prototype Nuclear Process Heat Reactor Project'' (PNP), in which the technical feasibility of an HTGR in combination with a chemical facility for coal gasification processes has been proven, and ''Nuclear Long-Distance Energy Transportation'' (NFE), which was the demonstration and verification of the closed-cycle, long-distance energy transmission system EVA/ADAM. Furthermore, new European research initiatives are shortly described. A particular concern is the safety of a combined nuclear/chemical facility requiring a concept against potential fire and explosion hazards. (author)

  7. Uninterrupted heat-treatment of starch raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronshtein, D Z

    1958-01-01

    A setup is presented, with a Rekord grinder, a Khronos scale, and other equipment of Soviet manufacture, in which oats, rye, wheat, and other grains are treated at 42 to 45 degrees prior to their use as raw materials in the ethanol industry. These materials are analyzed with respect to H/sub 2/O, starch, bulk, weight, screen analysis, and the final ethanol yields/ton of such raw materials. In a three year run in plant, this heat-treatment was advantageous, as compared to the former treatment of the starch materials.

  8. Uninterrupted heat-treatment of starch raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronshtein, D Z

    1958-01-01

    A setup is presented, with a Rekord grinder, a Khronos scale, and other equipment of Soviet manufacture, in which oats, rye, wheat, and other grains are treated at 42 to 45/sup 0/ prior to their use as raw materials in the ethanol industry. These materials are analyzed with respect to H/sub 2/O, starch, bulk weight, screen analysis, and the final ethanol yields/ton of such raw materials. In a three year run in a plant, this heat-treatment was advantageous, as compared to the former treatment of the starch materials.

  9. Effect of pre-cooling and heat treatment on antioxidant enzymes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of pre-cooling and heat treatment on antioxidant enzymes profile of mango and banana. ... In banana, pre-cooling treatment (8 ºC) and heat treatment followed by cooling reduced CAT activity in peel and pulp, whereas POX activity increased. Pre-cooling and heat treatments altered normal homeostasis of these fruits, ...

  10. Effect of the Heat Treatment on the Graphite Matrix of Fuel Element for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chungyong; Lee, Seungjae; Suh, Jungmin; Jo, Youngho; Lee, Youngwoo; Cho, Moonsung

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the cylinder-formed fuel element for the block type reactor is focused on, which consists of the large part of graphite matrix. One of the most important properties of the graphite matrix is the mechanical strength for the high reliability because the graphite matrix should be enabled to protect the TRISO particles from the irradiation environment and the impact from the outside. In this study, the three kinds of candidate graphites and Phenol as a binder were chosen and mixed with each other, formed and heated for the compressive strength test. The objective of this research is to optimize the kinds and composition of the mixed graphite and the forming process by evaluating the compressive strength before/after heat treatment (carbonization of binder). In this study, the effect of heat treatment on graphite matrix was studied in terms of the density and the compressive strength. The size (diameter and length) of pellet is increased by heat treatment. Due to additional weight reduction and swelling (length and diameter) of samples the density of graphite pellet is decreased from about 2.0 to about 1.7g/cm 3 . From the mechanical test results, the compressive strength of graphite pellets was related to the various conditions such as the contents of binder, the kinds of graphite and the heat treatment. Both the green pellet and the heat treated pellet, the compressive strength of G+S+P pellets is relatively higher than that of R+S+P pellets. To optimize fuel element matrix, the effect of Phenol and other binders, graphite composition and the heat treatment on the mechanical properties will be deeply investigated for further study

  11. Conception of a modular HTR-process heat facility with optimization of the pressure level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousack, H.

    1984-11-01

    The operation of a steam reformer heated by nuclear power with a process pressure of about 20 bar provides advantages with respect to process engineering due to the improved conversion and simplified product gas treatment for the follow-on process. The effects of a reduction in pressure on the components of the primary circuit in a modular HTR facility, as well as various process engineering possibilities for producing methanol in the follow-on process are discussed in this paper. Studies cover the influence of core geometry and power density, as well as possibilities of increasing the modular power at a maximum accident temperature of 1600 0 C. An inherently functioning area cooling system is proposed for afterheat removal outside the primary circuit. Based on the optimized pressure, a modular HTR process heat facility is conceived to produce methanol from natural gas and carbon dioxide basically satisfying the requirement of zero emission. (orig.) [de

  12. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer During Quenching Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madireddi, Sowjanya; Krishnan, Krishnan Nambudiripad; Reddy, Ammana Satyanarayana

    2018-04-01

    A numerical model is developed to simulate the immersion quenching process of metals. The time of quench plays an important role if the process involves a defined step quenching schedule to obtain the desired characteristics. Lumped heat capacity analysis used for this purpose requires the value of heat transfer coefficient, whose evaluation requires large experimental data. Experimentation on a sample work piece may not represent the actual component which may vary in dimension. A Fluid-Structure interaction technique with a coupled interface between the solid (metal) and liquid (quenchant) is used for the simulations. Initial times of quenching shows boiling heat transfer phenomenon with high values of heat transfer coefficients (5000-2.5 × 105 W/m2K). Shape of the work piece with equal dimension shows less influence on the cooling rate Non-uniformity in hardness at the sharp corners can be reduced by rounding off the edges. For a square piece of 20 mm thickness, with 3 mm fillet radius, this difference is reduced by 73 %. The model can be used for any metal-quenchant combination to obtain time-temperature data without the necessity of experimentation.

  13. Heat and mass transfer enhancement in absorbing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, Kunio; Lee, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The key to improving the performance of absorption-type heat machines lies in the enhancement of the mass transfer of the vapor into the absorbant solution, since the mass diffusivity in the solution is very small compared to the thermal diffusivity. The absorption process is influenced by many factors including physical properties of the fluids, the flow pattern and others, especially the velocity profile near the interface is the most important. From these stand points, the heat and mass transfer in the absorption was investigated by following three steps. First, an augmentation of the absorption to a liquid film flowing in groove was theoretically investigated, in which the interface between the vapor and liquid film is cooled by the grooved surfaces. Secondly, systematical experiments were carried out on several factors that affect the absorption process, which were the cooling wall temperature, the inlet solution subcooling, and the fin configuration. Finally, a numerical study of the heat and mass transfer enhancement due to flow agitation by the periodically grooved channel was conducted. That flow realized by fabricating ridges on the fin surface. A secondary flow due to these ridges is expected to enhance the heat and mass transfer. These results were compared with experimental ones. (orig.)

  14. Technical project of complex fast cycle heat treatment of hydrogenous coal preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Moiseev, V. A.; Andrienko, V. G.; Pileckij, V. G.; Urvancev, A. I.; Gvozdyakov, Dmitry Vasilievich; Gubin, Vladimir Evgenievich; Matveev, Aleksandr Sergeevich; Savostiyanova, Ludmila Viktorovna

    2015-01-01

    Problems of heat-treated milled hydrogenous coal preparation site creation in leading fast cycle heat treatment complex were considered. Conditions for effective use of electrostatic methods of heat-treated milled hydrogenous coal preparation were set. Technical project of heat treatment of milled hydrogenous coal preparation site was developed including coupling of working equipment complex on fast heat treatment and experimental samples of equipment being designed for manufacturing. It was ...

  15. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Expanded heat treatment to form residual compressive hoop stress on inner surface of zirconium alloy tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    A specific heat treatment process that introduces hoop stress has been developed. This technique can produce zirconium alloy tubing with a residual compressive hoop stress near the inner surface by taking advantage of the mechanical anisotropy in hexagonal close-packed zirconium crystal. Since a crystal having its basal pole parallel to the tangential direction of the tubing is easier to exhibit plastic elongation under the hoop stress than that having its basal pole parallel to the radial direction, the plastic and elastic elongation can coexist under a certain set of temperature and hoop stress conditions. The mechanical anisotropy plays a role to extend the coexistent stress range. Thus, residual compressive hoop stress is formed at the inner surface where more plastic elongation occurs during the heat treatment. This process is referred to as expanded heat treatment. Since this is a fundamental crystallographic principle, it has various applications. The application to improve PCI/SCC (pellet cladding interaction/stress corrosion cracking) properties of water reactor fuel cladding is promising. Excellent results were obtained with laboratory-scale heat treatment and an out-reactor iodine SCC test. These results included an extension of the time to SCC failure. (author)

  17. Heat processing (HTST of umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Araújo de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Umbu pulp is an important product in the economy of the northeastern region of Brazil, and its preservation can be ensured by heat treatment. A complete factorial design with 2 factors (time and temperature and 3 central points was used to verify the effect of the HTST process on the physicochemical, chemical, physical, microbiological, and sensory qualities of umbu pulps. The results showed that the heat treatments applied resulted in products without significant alterations on the physicochemical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics. With respect to color, the parameters L and a* were altered by increases in temperature indicating by darkening of color. The sensory evaluation indicated that a treatment of 88 °C for 10 seconds was the best processing condition due to the greater similarity of the resulting product to the reference sample (blanched pulp.

  18. Effect of heat treatment on the grooving corrosion resistance of ERW pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Kwon; Lee, Jae Young; Lim, Soo Hyun; Park, Ji Hwan; Seo, Bo Min; Kim, Seon Hwa

    2002-01-01

    The v-sharp grooving corrosion of ERW(electrical resistance welding) steel pipes limited their wide application in the industry in spite of their high productivity and efficiency. The grooving corrosion is caused mainly by the different microstructures between the matrix and weld that is formed during the rapid heating and cooling cycle in welding. By this localized corrosion reaction of pipes, it evolves economic problems such as the early damage of industrial facilities and pipe lines of apartment, and water pollution. Even though the diminishing of sulfur content is most effective to decrease the susceptibility of grooving corrosion, it requires costly process. In this study, improvement of grooving corrosion resistance was pursuited by post weld heat treatment in the temperature range between 650 .deg. C and 950 .deg. C. Also, the effect of heat input in the welding was investigated. By employing chromnoamperometry and potentiodynamic experiment, the corrosion rate and grooving corrosion index(α) were obtained. It was found that heat treatment could improve the grooving corrosion resistance. Among them, the heat treated at 900 .deg. C and 950 .deg. C had excellent grooving corrosion resistance. The index of heat treated specimen at 900 .deg. C and 950 .deg. C were 1.0, 1.2, respectively, which are almost immune to the grooving corrosion. Potential difference after the heat treatment, between base and weld metal was decreased considerably. While the as-received one measured 61∼71 mV, that of the 900 .deg. C heat treated steel pipe measured only 10mV. The results were explained and discussed

  19. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods: Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC. The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata. Results: Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00 mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67 mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67 mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67 mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P<0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that the TPC and colour is not correlated with the antimycotic capacity. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  20. Gasification of coal using nuclear process heat. Chapter D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.-D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1979-01-01

    In the light of the high price of coal and the enormous advances made recently in nuclear engineering, the possibility of using heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for gasification processes was discussed as early as the 1960s. The advantages of this technology are summarized. A joint programme of development work is described, in which the Nuclear Research Centre at Juelich is aiming to develop a high-temperature reactor which will supply process heat at as high a temperature as possible, while other organizations are working on the hydrogasification of lignites and hard coals, and steam gasification. Experiments are at present being carried out on a semi-technical scale, and no operational data for large-scale plants are available as yet. (author)

  1. Measurement of heat treatment induced residual stresses by using ESPI combined with hole-drilling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Cheng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, residual stresses in heat treated specimen were measured by using ESPI (Electronic Speckle-Pattern Interferometry combined with the hole-drilling method. The specimen, made of SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel, was quenched and water cooled to room temperature. Numerical simulation using a hybrid FDM/FEM package was also carried out to simulate the heat treatment process. As a result, the thermal stress fields were obtained from both the experiment and the numerical simulation. By comparision of stress fields, results from the experimental method and numerical simulation well agreed to each other, therefore, it is proved that the presented experimental method is applicable and reliable for heat treatment induced residual stress measurement.

  2. Influence of heat processing methods on the nutrient composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No significant difference (P > 0.05) was obtained in the saponification number of the three samples analyzed and values ranged from 161.3 ±2.92 in RS to 163.0 ± 2.60 in FS. Heat processing (boiling and frying) generally decreased significantly (p<0.05) the crude protein, crude fat, caloric value, Fe, Zn, vitamins A and C as ...

  3. Potential industrial market for process heat from nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R.W.

    1976-07-01

    A specific segment of industrial process heat use has been examined in detail to identify individual plant locations throughout the United states where nuclear generated steam may be a viable alternative. Five major industries have been studied: paper, chemicals, petroleum, rubber, and primary metals. For these industries, representing 75 percent of the total industrial steam consumption, the individual plant locations within the U.S. using steam in large quantities have been located and characterized as to fuel requirements

  4. Some technological aspects of combined processing of meat by heat and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, S.Yu.; Nomenotskaya, N.F.; Mozul', M.Ya.

    1974-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of ionizing radiation to prolong the storage life of meat and meat products. Irradiating raw meat with doses of 0.4-0.6 Mrad increased storage life up to two months at low above-zero C temperatures. The difficulty of inhibiting autolytic processes during storage of irradiated raw meat led to searches for combined methods of meat treatment. A series of experiments was staged with pre-irradiation heating of meat up to 75, 77, and 80 0 C in order to see how cathepsin activity is affected by the duration and temperature of heating in the case of combined treatment. To increase the resistance of meat products to microbial damage, tests were carried out in which meat was exposed to short-term but intensive heat by immersing it in hot (130-160 0 C) vegetable oil (frying grease). The results are presented in the form of tables and diagrams. (E.T.)

  5. Applicability of Solid Solution Heat Treatments to Aluminum Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Rodríguez-Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present research work evaluates the influence of both density and size on the treatability of Aluminum-based (6000 series foam-parts subjected to a typical solid solution heat treatment (water quenching. The results are compared with those obtained for the bulk alloy, evaluating the fulfilment of cooling requirements. Density of the foams was modeled by tomography analysis and the thermal properties calculated, based on validated density-scaled models. With this basis, cooling velocity maps during water quenching were predicted by finite element modeling (FEM in which boundary conditions were obtained by solving the inverse heat conduction problem. Simulations under such conditions have been validated experimentally. Obtained results address incomplete matrix hardening for foam-parts bigger than 70 mm in diameter with a density below 650 kg/m3. An excellent agreement has been found in between the predicted cooling maps and final measured microhardness profiles.

  6. Modeling of heat transfer in a vascular tissue-like medium during an interstitial hyperthermia process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeid; Saboonchi, Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the role of small vessels in heat transfer mechanisms of a tissue-like medium during local intensive heating processes, for example, an interstitial hyperthermia treatment. To this purpose, a cylindrical tissue with two co- and counter-current vascular networks and a central heat source is introduced. Next, the energy equations of tissue, supply fluid (arterial blood), and return fluid (venous blood) are derived using porous media approach. Then, a 2D computer code is developed to predict the temperature of blood (fluid phase) and tissue (solid phase) by conventional volume averaging method and a more realistic solution method. In latter method, despite the volume averaging the blood of interconnect capillaries is separated from the arterial and venous blood phases. It is found that in addition to blood perfusion rate, the arrangement of vascular network has considerable effects on the pattern and amount of the achieved temperature. In contrast to counter-current network, the co-current network of vessels leads to considerable asymmetric pattern of temperature contours and relocation of heat affected zone along the blood flow direction. However this relocation can be prevented by changing the site of hyperthermia heat source. The results show that the cooling effect of co-current blood vessels during of interstitial heating is more efficient. Despite much anatomical dissimilarities, these findings can be useful in designing of protocols for hyperthermia cancer treatment of living tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation of silicon carbide nanowires via a rapid heating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xintong; Chen Xiaohong; Song Huaihe

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires were fabricated in a large quantity by a rapid heating carbothermal reduction of a novel resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF)/SiO 2 hybrid aerogel in this study. SiC nanowires were grown at 1500 deg. C for 2 h in an argon atmosphere without any catalyst via vapor-solid (V-S) process. The β-SiC nanowires were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) facility, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The analysis results show that the aspect ratio of the SiC nanowires via the rapid heating process is much larger than that of the sample produced via gradual heating process. The SiC nanowires are single crystalline β-SiC phase with diameters of about 20-80 nm and lengths of about several tens of micrometers, growing along the [1 1 1] direction with a fringe spacing of 0.25 nm. The role of the interpenetrating network of RF/SiO 2 hybrid aerogel in the carbothermal reduction was discussed and the possible growth mechanism of the nanowires is analyzed.

  8. Analysis of Thermal Stresses and Strains Developing during the Heat Treatment of Windmill Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebo-Rudnicka A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results of evaluation of the temperature and stress fields during four cycles of the heat treatment process of the windmill shaft has been presented. The temperature field has been calculated from the solution to the heat conduction equation over the whole heat treatment cycles of the windmill shaft. To calculate the stress field an incremental method has been used. The relations between stresses and strains have been described by Prandtl-Reuss equation for the elastic-plastic body. In order to determine the changes in the temperature and stress fields during heat treatment of the windmill shaft self-developed software utilizing the Finite Element Method has been used. This software can also be used to calculate temperature changes and stress field in ingots and other axially symmetric products. In the mathematical model of heating and cooling of the shaft maximum values of the strains have been determined, which allowed to avoid the crack formation. The critical values of strains have been determined by using modified Rice and Tracy criterion.

  9. Influence of heat treatment on the strength and fracture toughness of 7N01 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Wang, Xiaomin, E-mail: xmwang991011@163.com [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Chen, Hui; Hu, Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Huang, Cui [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Gou, Guoqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China)

    2016-09-05

    7N01 aluminum (Al) alloys are treated by five heat treatment methods as peak aging (T6), over aging (T74), high temperature and subsequently low temperature aging (HLA), retrogression and reaging (RRA) and double retrogression and reaging (DRRA). The strength and fracture toughness of the five samples are tested, and the microstructures are investigated by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that 7N01 Al-alloy treated at T6 condition has high strength but low fracture toughness. Compared with T6 treatment, T74 and HLA treatments increase the fracture toughness by 67% and 90% respectively, while the strength decrease by 9% and 17%. RRA process is a proper treatment method for 7N01 which improves the fracture toughness without sacrificing strength. The fracture toughness of DRRA treated alloy is much lower than that of RRA. Quantitative analysis through TEM images shows that the heat treatment affects the mechanical properties of 7N01 Al-alloy highly through changing the precipitates in grains and on grain boundaries, which can be explained by the coherency strengthening mechanism and Orowan mechanism. - Highlights: • Five heat treatments which can change the properties of 7N01 Al alloy were designed. • Quantitative analysis of precipitates was employed to study the mechanism. • RRA treatment can make proper strength/toughness property balances for 7N01 Al alloy.

  10. Influence of heat treatment on the strength and fracture toughness of 7N01 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Hui; Hu, Jie; Huang, Cui; Gou, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    7N01 aluminum (Al) alloys are treated by five heat treatment methods as peak aging (T6), over aging (T74), high temperature and subsequently low temperature aging (HLA), retrogression and reaging (RRA) and double retrogression and reaging (DRRA). The strength and fracture toughness of the five samples are tested, and the microstructures are investigated by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that 7N01 Al-alloy treated at T6 condition has high strength but low fracture toughness. Compared with T6 treatment, T74 and HLA treatments increase the fracture toughness by 67% and 90% respectively, while the strength decrease by 9% and 17%. RRA process is a proper treatment method for 7N01 which improves the fracture toughness without sacrificing strength. The fracture toughness of DRRA treated alloy is much lower than that of RRA. Quantitative analysis through TEM images shows that the heat treatment affects the mechanical properties of 7N01 Al-alloy highly through changing the precipitates in grains and on grain boundaries, which can be explained by the coherency strengthening mechanism and Orowan mechanism. - Highlights: • Five heat treatments which can change the properties of 7N01 Al alloy were designed. • Quantitative analysis of precipitates was employed to study the mechanism. • RRA treatment can make proper strength/toughness property balances for 7N01 Al alloy.

  11. Methods for the Evaluation of Waste Treatment Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Gehrmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers for waste management are confronted with the problem of selecting the most economic, environmental, and socially acceptable waste treatment process. This paper elucidates evaluation methods for waste treatment processes for the comparison of ecological and economic aspects such as material flow analysis, statistical entropy analysis, energetic and exergetic assessment, cumulative energy demand, and life cycle assessment. The work is based on the VDI guideline 3925. A comparison of two thermal waste treatment plants with different process designs and energy recovery systems was performed with the described evaluation methods. The results are mainly influenced by the type of energy recovery, where the waste-to-energy plant providing district heat and process steam emerged to be beneficial in most aspects. Material recovery options from waste incineration were evaluated according to sustainability targets, such as saving of resources and environmental protection.

  12. Investigation of heat distribution during magnetic heating treatment using a polyurethane–ferrofluid phantom-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, F.; Rahn, H.; Odenbach, S.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic heating treatment can be used as an adjuvant treatment for cancer therapy. In this therapy, magnetic nanoparticles are enriched inside the tumour and exposed to an alternating magnetic field. Due to magnetic losses the temperature in the tumour rises. The resulting temperature profile inside the tumour is useful for the therapeutic success. In this context heat transfer between tissue with nanoparticles and tissue without nanoparticles is a highly important feature which is actually not understood in detail. In order to investigate this, a phantom has been created which can be used to measure the temperature profile around a region enriched with magnetic nanoparticles. This phantom is composed of a material, which has similar thermal conductivity as human tissue. A tempered water bath surrounds the phantom to establish a constant surrounding temperature simulating the heat sink provided by the human body in a real therapeutic application. It has been found that even at a low concentration of magnetic nanoparticles around 13 mg/ml, sufficient heating of the enriched region can be achieved. Moreover it has been observed that the temperature drops rapidly in the material surrounding the enriched region. Corresponding numerical investigations provide a basis for future recalculations of the temperature inside the tumour using temperature data obtained in the surrounding tissue. - Highlights: • The temperature profile by magnetic hyperthermia was examined. • A model was built to get a deeper understanding of the temperature profile. • The temperature profile of the model inside magnetic fields was measured. • Based on the model a simulation of the temperature profile was performed. • The simulated temperature profile agreed well with the measured profile

  13. Process for the treatment of salt water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, R J

    1966-06-12

    A procedure is described for the treatment of salty or brackish water for the production of steam, which is directly utilized afterward, either in a condensed form as sweet water or deoxidized for injection into oil formations for raising the temperature thereof and other uses. The water-purification treatment is continuous, and is of the type in which the salty or brackish water is passed in direct heat exchange relationship with the steam produced for preheating the water up to a temperature where some of the dissolved ions of calcium and magnesium are precipitated in the form of insoluble salts. In the passage of the preheated water being purified, a zone is created for the completion of the reaction. A part of the water is retained in this reaction zone while the other part is being passed in indirect heat exchange relationship with a heating means, for converting this part of the water into steam. All of the steam obtained in the latter described heat exchange is utilized in the water purification, and/or added to the produced steam, as first noted.

  14. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of the nickel base alloy (Alloy 600) after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Stela Maria de Carvalho

    1993-01-01

    The characterization of microstructural and mechanical properties of cold rolled and heat treated alloys 600 made in Brazil were investigated. The recovery and recrystallization behavior as well as solubilization and aging have been studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Microhardness and tensile testing have been carried out. The recovery process of the cold rolled alloy 600 occurred until 600 deg C and the recrystallization stage was situated between 600 and 850 deg C. The primary recrystallization temperature was obtained at 850 deg C after 1 hour (isochronal heat treatments). The aged alloy 600 shows carbide precipitation on grains bu with ductility maintenance. (author)

  15. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Hardness and Wear of Grinding Balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissat, Sahraoui; Sadeddine, Abdelhamid; Bradai, Mohand Amokrane; Younes, Rassim; Bilek, Ali; Benabbas, Abderrahim

    2017-09-01

    The effect quenching and tempering by different regimes on Rockwell hardness and wear processes of grinding balls 50 and 70 mm in diameter made of two melts of chromium-molybdenum cast iron is studied. The heating temperature for quenching is 850, 950, and 1050°C; the tempering temperature is 250, 400, and 600°C. Iron is analyzed in an electron microscope. Diffraction patterns are obtained. A model of cast iron wear is suggested and compared to the Davis model and to experimental results. An optimum heat treatment regime is proposed.

  16. Effects of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Qunying Mou; Yiqiang Wu; Yuan Liu

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effect of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was investigated. Wood specimens were subjected to heat treatment at 160, 180, 200 and 220°C for 1, 2, 3 and 4h. The results show that heat treatment resulted in a darkened color, decreased moisture performance and increased dimensional stability of...

  17. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2

  18. Optimization of properties of parts in the heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpis, Kh.I.

    1981-01-01

    Properties of parts of the improved steel depending considerably on the structure obtained after the tempering have been investigated. It is shown that in many cases properties of steel with the structure of the tempered lower bainite are no worse than the properties of steels with the structure of tempered martensite. At certain dimensions of parts and under certain conditions of cooling tempering degree is determined with calcination. Calcination of steel is evaluated by the dispersion bands of hardness obtained using the method of end quenching. Account of the calcination when steels are selected permits to optimize part properties during heat treatment [ru

  19. Effect of heat treatment on carbon fiber surface properties and fibers/epoxy interfacial adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Zhishuang; Zhang Baoyan; Shi Fenghui; Li Min; Zhang Zuoguang; Gu Yizhuo

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fiber surface properties are likely to change during the molding process of carbon fiber reinforced matrix composite, and these changes could affect the infiltration and adhesion between carbon fiber and resin. T300B fiber was heat treated referring to the curing process of high-performance carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites. By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), activated carbon atoms can be detected, which are defined as the carbon atoms conjunction with oxygen and nitrogen. Surface chemistry analysis shows that the content of activated carbon atoms on treated carbon fiber surface, especially those connect with the hydroxyl decreases with the increasing heat treatment temperature. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) analysis reveals that the dispersive surface energy γ S d increases and the polar surface energy γ S sp decreases as the heat treatment temperature increases to 200. Contact angle between carbon fiber and epoxy E51 resin, which is studied by dynamic contact angle test (DCAT) increases with the increasing heat treatment temperature, indicating the worse wettability comparing with the untreated fiber. Moreover, micro-droplet test shows that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the treated carbon fiber/epoxy is lower than that of the untreated T300B fiber which is attributed to the decrement of the content of reactive functional groups including hydrogen group and epoxy group.

  20. Microstructure of Multi-Pass Friction-Stir-Processed Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys Reinforced by Nano-Sized TiB2 Particles and the Effect of T6 Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Ju

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a fine-grained structure with a uniform distribution of TiB2 particles and precipitates was achieved in TiB2 particle-reinforced (PR Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys by friction stir processing (FSP. The effects of multi-pass FSP on the microstructure, and TiB2 particle distribution, as well as the microstructural evolution in the following T6 treatment, were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and associated electron backscattered diffraction. The results showed that the distribution of TiB2 particles and alloy precipitates was further improved with an increase in the FSP passes. Moreover, compared with alloy segregation in the as-cast PR alloys during T6 treatment, a complete solution of the precipitates was achieved in the FSP-treated PR alloys. The fine-grained structure of the FSP-treated PR alloys was thermally stable without any abnormal growth at the high temperature of T6 treatment due to the pinning effect of dispersed TiB2 particles. The strength and ductility of the PR alloys were simultaneously improved by the combination of FSP and T6 treatment.

  1. Control of the tritium path in process heat HTR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirch, N.; Scheidler, G.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear Process Heat plant converting fossil fuels into liquid or gaseous secondary energy carriers generate tritium by several nuclear reactions. Control of the tritium path through the walls of the heat exchanger is highly important to meet regulatory requirements on the acceptable contamination in the product gas or liquid. Therefore, significant effort in the project 'Prototypanlage Nukleare Prozesswaerme' was put not only into generating a data base, but also into means of reducing tritium generation and permeation. Clean graphites with lithium impurities in the ppb level provide a low tritium source term. Realistic modeling of graphite retention and special helium purification systems are essentials. The main barrier to tritium permeation are heat exchanger walls requiring detailed characterization of in-situ surface layers. Studies to optimize the water/steam mass flow in the conversion process offer possibilities for further tritium retention. Progress can be demonstrated as follows: In 1980, between 2 and 8 Bq tritium per gram of product were predicted based on available data and even higher concentrations during startup. However, present day validated code predictions are below required 0.5 Bq/g equilibrium concentration level. During transients - particularly startup - this limit cannot be guaranteed as yet, but further retention potential is being offered by tritium gettering or filtering. An expected increase of the German regulatory requirement to 5 Bq/g will easily be met by present plant design under all operational conditions. (author)

  2. Particle Acceleration and Heating Processes at the Dayside Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchem, J.; Lapenta, G.; Richard, R. L.; El-Alaoui, M.; Walker, R. J.; Schriver, D.

    2017-12-01

    It is well established that electrons and ions are accelerated and heated during magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. However, a detailed description of the actual physical mechanisms driving these processes and where they are operating is still incomplete. Many basic mechanisms are known to accelerate particles, including resonant wave-particle interactions as well as stochastic, Fermi, and betatron acceleration. In addition, acceleration and heating processes can occur over different scales. We have carried out kinetic simulations to investigate the mechanisms by which electrons and ions are accelerated and heated at the dayside magnetopause. The simulation model uses the results of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to set the initial state and the evolving boundary conditions of fully kinetic implicit particle-in-cell (iPic3D) simulations for different solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field conditions. This approach allows us to include large domains both in space and energy. In particular, some of these regional simulations include both the magnetopause and bow shock in the kinetic domain, encompassing range of particle energies from a few eV in the solar wind to keV in the magnetospheric boundary layer. We analyze the results of the iPic3D simulations by discussing wave spectra and particle velocity distribution functions observed in the different regions of the simulation domain, as well as using large-scale kinetic (LSK) computations to follow particles' time histories. We discuss the relevance of our results by comparing them with local observations by the MMS spacecraft.

  3. Influence of microwave heating on the stability of processed samn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag, Radwan S.

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Butter was converted to samn by microwave and conventional heating. The quality of the processed samn by the two methods was followed by determining the acid, peroxide and TBA values over a period of six weeks at 60°C. The fatty acid composition of samn samples was determined by gas-liquid chromatographic technique. The data show that butter conversion to samn by microwave heating was accomplished in about one half of the time that conventional heating requires. Microwave heating obviously increased the development of samn rancidity compared with the conventional heating. The parameters used for measuring lipid rancidity indicated that the main cause of samn rancidity under the present conditions is an oxidation mechanism.

    Mantequilla fue transformada en samn por calentamiento en microonda y convencional. La calidad del elaborado de samn por los dos métodos fue seguida mediante determinación de los índices de acidez, peróxido y TBA durante un período de seis semanas a 60°C. La composición en ácidos grasos de muestras de samn fue determinada por técnica cromatográfica gas-líquido. Los datos mostraron que la conversión de mantequilla a samn por calentamiento en microonda fue realizada en aproximadamente una vez y media el tiempo que exige el calentamiento convencional. El calentamiento en microonda, evidentemente, aumentó el desarrollo de la rancidez del samn comparado con el calentamiento convencional. Los parámetros usados para la medida de la rancidez lipídica indicaron que la causa principal de la rancidez del samn bajo las condiciones presentes es un mecanismo de oxidación.

  4. Improved process for heating finely divided carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-08-01

    A process for heating finely divided carbonaceous particles by burning a proportion of the carbon consists of passing the carbonaceous material at a temperature above 800/sup 0/F into an upwardly disposed, slender, combustion zone, suspending the particles in an upwardly-moving gas containing free oxygen so that the suspension has a density from 0.1 to 5.0 lb/cu. ft., passing the suspension upwardly through the combustion zone at a velocity of from 5 to 100 ft./sec., and injecting at least one stream of a second gas containing free oxygen at a point in the combustion zone such that at least 50% of the oxygen in the first gas has been consumed by the time the suspension reaches this point. The total quantity of oxygen is chosen so that the finely divided carbonaceous material is heated to a temperature of not less than 1,050/sup 0/F.

  5. Heat treatment temperature influence on ASTM A890 GR 6A super duplex stainless steel microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Duplex and super duplex stainless steels are ferrous alloys with up to 26% chromium, 8% nickel, 5% molybdenum and 0.3% nitrogen, which are largely used in applications in media containing ions from the halogen family, mainly the chloride ion (Cl - ). The emergence of this material aimed at substituting Copper-Nickel alloys (Cupro-Nickel) that despite presenting good corrosion resistance, has mechanical properties quite inferior to steel properties. The metallurgy of duplex and super duplex stainless steel is complex due to high sensitiveness to sigma phase precipitation that becomes apparent, due to the temperatures they are exposed on cooling from solidification as well as from heat treatment processes. The objective of this study was to verify the influence of heat treating temperatures on the microstructure and hardness of ASTM A890/A890M Gr 6A super duplex stainless steel type. Microstructure control is of extreme importance for castings, as the chemical composition and cooling during solidification inevitably provide conditions for precipitation of sigma phase. Higher hardness in these materials is directly associated to high sigma phase concentration in the microstructure, precipitated in the ferrite/austenite interface. While heat treatment temperature during solution treatment increases, the sigma phase content in the microstructure decreases and consequently, the material hardness diminishes. When the sigma phase was completely dissolved by the heat treatment, the material hardness was influenced only due to ferrite and austenite contents in the microstructure

  6. Whole-genome transcriptional analysis of Escherichia coli during heat inactivation processes related to industrial cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernec, A; Robichaud-Rincon, P; Saucier, L

    2013-08-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 was grown to the stationary phase, for maximum physiological resistance, in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at 37°C. Cells were then heated at 58°C or 60°C to reach a process lethality value \\[\\mathbf{\\left(}{{\\mathit{F}}^{\\mathit{o}}}_{\\mathbf{70}}^{\\mathbf{10}}\\mathbf{\\right)} \\] of 2 or 3 or to a core temperature of 71°C (control industrial cooking temperature). Growth recovery and cell membrane integrity were evaluated immediately after heating, and a global transcription analysis was performed using gene expression microarrays. Only cells heated at 58°C with F(o) = 2 were still able to grow on liquid or solid BHI broth after heat treatment. However, their transcriptome did not differ from that of bacteria heated at 58°C with F(o) = 3 (P value for the false discovery rate [P-FDR] > 0.01), where no growth recovery was observed posttreatment. Genome-wide transcriptomic data obtained at 71°C were distinct from those of the other treatments without growth recovery. Quantification of heat shock gene expression by real-time PCR revealed that dnaK and groEL mRNA levels decreased significantly above 60°C to reach levels similar to those of control cells at 37°C (P citE, glyS, oppB, and asd, whose expression was upregulated at 71°C, may be worth investigating as good biomarkers for accurately determining the efficiency of heat treatments, especially when cells are too injured to be enumerated using growth media.

  7. Students’ Conception on Heat and Temperature toward Science Process Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasari, D.; Sukarmin, S.; Suparmi, S.; Aminah, N. S.

    2017-09-01

    This research is aimed to analyze the effect of students’ conception toward science process skill. This is a descriptive research with subjects of the research were 10th-grade students in Surakarta from high, medium and low categorized school. The sample selection uses purposive sampling technique based on physics score in national examination four latest years. Data in this research collecting from essay test, two-tier multiple choice test, and interview. Two-tier multiple choice test consists of 30 question that contains an indicator of science process skill. Based on the result of the research and analysis, it shows that students’ conception of heat and temperature affect science process skill of students. The students’ conception that still contains the wrong concept can emerge misconception. For the future research, it is suggested to improve students’ conceptual understanding and students’ science process skill with appropriate learning method and assessment instrument because heat and temperature is one of physics material that closely related with students’ daily life.

  8. Effect of Shortened Heat Treatment on the Hardness and Microstructure of 320.0 Aluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezda J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of Al-Si alloys properties in scope of classic method is connected with change of Si precipitations morphology through: using modification of the alloy, maintaining suitable temperature of overheating and pouring process, as well as perfection of heat treatment methods. Growing requirements of the market make it necessary to search after such procedures, which would quickly deliver positive results with simultaneous consideration of economic aspects. Presented in the paper shortened heat treatment with soaking of the alloy at temperature near temperature of solidus could be assumed as the method in the above mentioned understanding of the problem. Such treatment consists in soaking of the alloy to temperature of solutioning, keeping in such temperature, and next, quick quenching in water (20 °C followed by artificial ageing. Temperature ranges of solutioning and ageing treatments implemented in the adopted testing plan were based on analysis of recorded curves from the ATD method. Obtained results relate to dependencies and spatial diagrams describing effect of parameters of the solutioning and ageing treatments on HB hardness of the investigated alloy and change of its microstructure. Performed shortened heat treatment results in precipitation hardening of the investigated 320.0 alloy, what according to expectations produces increased hardness of the material.

  9. Financial barriers to the use of solar-industrial-process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Industry concerns about solar process heat, attitudes toward investment in solar process heat, and decision processes and factors are reported. Four cases were selected from among 30 potential solar process heat installations that had been carried through the design stage, and case was analyzed using discounted cash flow to determine what internal rate of return would be earned under current tax laws over 10 years. No case showed any significant rate of return from capital invested in the solar installation. Several possible changes in the cost of solar equipment, its tax treatment or methods of financing were tested through computer simulation. A heavy load of extra tax incentives can improve the return on an investment, but such action is not recommended because they are not found to induce adoption of solar process heat, and if they were effective, capital may be drawn away from applications such as conservation were the potential to improve the nation's energy dilemma is greater. Tax shelter financing through limited partnership may be available. (LEW)

  10. ORNL process waste treatment plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant removes low levels of radionuclides (primarily Cs-137 and Sr-90) from process waste water prior to discharge. The previous plant operation used a scavenging precipitaton - ion exchange process which produced a radioactive sludge. In order to eliminate the environmental problems associated with sludge disposal, the plant is being converted to a new ion exchange process without the precipitation process

  11. Hierarchical Cu precipitation in lamellated steel after multistage heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingdong; Gu, Jianfeng

    2017-09-01

    The hierarchical distribution of Cu-rich precipitates (CRPs) and related partitioning and segregation behaviours of solute atoms were investigated in a 1.54 Cu-3.51 Ni (wt.%) low-carbon high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel after multistage heat treatment by using the combination of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). Intercritical tempering at 725 °C of as-quenched lathlike martensitic structure leads to the coprecipitation of CRPs at the periphery of a carbide precipitate which is possibly in its paraequilibrium state due to distinct solute segregation at the interface. The alloyed carbide and CRPs provide constituent elements for each other and make the coprecipitation thermodynamically favourable. Meanwhile, austenite reversion occurs to form fresh secondary martensite (FSM) zone where is rich in Cu and pertinent Ni and Mn atoms, which gives rise to a different distributional morphology of CRPs with large size and high density. In addition, conventional tempering at 500 °C leads to the formation of nanoscale Cu-rich clusters in α-Fe matrix. As a consequence, three populations of CRPs are hierarchically formed around carbide precipitate, at FSM zone and in α-Fe matrix. The formation of different precipitated features can be turned by controlling diffusion pathways of related solute atoms and further to tailor mechanical properties via proper multistage heat treatments.

  12. Application of heat treatment and dispersive strengthening concept in interlayer deposition to enhance diamond film adherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Chiiruey [Tatung Inst. of Technol., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mech. Eng.; Kuo Chengtzu; Chang Rueyming [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30050 (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1997-10-31

    Two different deposition processes were carried out to enhance adherence of diamond films on WC+3-5%Co substrate with Ti-Si as the interlayer. One process can be called two-step diamond deposition process. Another process can be called interlayer heat treatment process. Diamond films were deposited by a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system. Ti and Si interlayer are deposited by DC sputter and an E-gun, respectively. Film morphologies, interface structure and film quality were examined by SEM, XRD, Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The residual stresses and adhesion strengths of the films were determined by Raman spectroscopy and indentation adhesion testing, respectively. Comparing the regular one-step diamond deposition process with the present two different new processes, the average dP/dX values, which are a measure of the adherence of the film, are 354 kgf/mm, 494 kgf/mm and 787 kgf/mm, respectively. In other words, the interlayer heat treatment process gives the best film adherence on average. For the two-step diamond deposition process, the interlayer thickness and the percent diamond surface coverage of the first diamond deposition step are the main parameters, and there exists an optimum Ti thickness and percent diamond coverage for the best film adherence. The main contribution to better film adherence is not a large difference in residual stress, but is due to the following reasons. The interlayer heat treatment can transform amorphous Si to polycrystalline Si, and may form strong TiC and SiC bonding. The polycrystalline Si and the diamond particles from the first diamond deposition step can be an effective seeds to enhance diamond nucleation. (orig.) 11 refs.

  13. Heat treatment on keruing and light red meranti: The effect of heat exposure at different levels of temperature on bending strength properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Nur Ilya Farhana Md; Ahmad, Zakiah

    2017-11-01

    Heat treatment on timbers is a process of applying heat to modify and equip the timbers with new improvised characteristics. It is environmental friendly compared to the common practice of treating timber by chemical preservatives. Malaysian hardwood timbers namely Keruing and Light Red Meranti which are in green condition were heat treated at temperature 150°C, 170°C, 190°C and 210°C, in a specially designed electronic furnace within one hour duration. The objectives were to determine the effect of heat treatment on bending strength properties of heat treated timbers in terms of Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and to examine the significance changes at each temperature level. Untreated samples for each species were used as a control sample. The results indicated that the bending strength properties for both species of timbers were affected by the heat exposure. Both MOE and MOR values for heat treated Keruing were increased when subjected to the temperature levels at 150°C, 170°C and 190°C except at 210°C. Heat treated Light Red Meranti shows the same pattern of increment on its MOE and MOR values after exposure to heat at three temperature levels applied and the values dropped at 210°C. However, for both of species, even though there were decrement occurred at 210°C, the value is still higher compared to the control sample. The increments of MOE and MOR values are an indicator that heat treatment had successfully improvised the bending strength properties of these two species of hardwood timber.

  14. Heart rate variability during exertional heat stress: effects of heat production and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Bravi, Andrea; Wright-Beatty, Heather E; Green, Geoffrey; Seely, Andrew J; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the efficacy of different treatments (i.e., treatment with ice water immersion vs. natural recovery) and the effect of exercise intensities (i.e., low vs. high) for restoring heart rate variability (HRV) indices during recovery from exertional heat stress (EHS). Nine healthy adults (26 ± 3 years, 174.2 ± 3.8 cm, 74.6 ± 4.3 kg, 17.9 ± 2.8 % body fat, 57 ± 2 mL·kg·(-1) min(-1) peak oxygen uptake) completed four EHS sessions incorporating either walking (4.0-4.5 km·h(-1), 2 % incline) or jogging (~7.0 km·h(-1), 2 % incline) on a treadmill in a hot-dry environment (40 °C, 20-30 % relative humidity) while wearing a non-permeable rain poncho for a slow or fast rate of rectal temperature (T re) increase, respectively. Upon reaching a T re of 39.5 °C, participants recovered until T re returned to 38 °C either passively or with whole-body immersion in 2 °C water. A comprehensive panel of 93 HRV measures were computed from the time, frequency, time-frequency, scale-invariant, entropy and non-linear domains. Exertional heat stress significantly affected 60/93 HRV measures analysed. Analyses during recovery demonstrated that there were no significant differences between HRV measures that had been influenced by EHS at the end of passive recovery vs. whole-body cooling treatment (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the cooling treatment required statistically significantly less time to reduce T re (p whole-body immersion in 2 °C water results in faster cooling, there were no observed differences in restoration of autonomic heart rate modulation as measured by HRV indices with whole-body cold-water immersion compared to passive recovery in thermoneutral conditions.

  15. Simulating the heat transfer process of horizontal anode baking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Q. Zhang; C.G. Zheng; M.H. Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2005-07-01

    A transient two-dimensional mathematical model of a horizontal baking furnace is presented. The model combines complex thermal phenomena in a baking process such as air infiltration, evolution and combustion of volatile matters, combustion of packing coke, and heat losses. The predicted results are in good agreement with measured data. Furthermore, the process is simulated under different operating conditions such as firing cycle time, airflow and air infiltration. The simulated results indicate that the fuel consumption decreases as the firing cycle time decreases. It is also found that reducing the airflow and air infiltration will help to save fuel. The model is proved to be a useful tool for the process optimisation of the baking furnace in the aluminum industry.

  16. Research of processes of heat exchange in horizontal pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A. K.; Dokoukin, V. P.; Lykov, Y. V.; Fetisov, V. G.

    2018-03-01

    The energy crisis, which becomes more evident in Russia, stems in many respects from unjustified high consumption of energy resources. Development and exploitation of principal oil and gas deposits located in remote areas with severe climatic conditions require considerable investments increasing essentially the cost of power generation. Account should be taken also of the fact that oil and gas resources are nonrenewable. An alternative fuel for heat and power generation is coal, the reserves of which in Russia are quite substantial. For this reason the coal extraction by 2020 will amount to 450-550 million tons. The use of coal, as a solid fuel for heat power plants and heating plants, is complicated by its transportation from extraction to processing and consumption sites. Remoteness of the principal coal mining areas (Kuzbass, Kansk-Achinsk field, Vorkuta) from the main centers of its consumption in the European part of the country, Siberia and Far East makes the problem of coal transportation urgent. Of all possible transportation methods (railway, conveyor, pipeline), the most efficient is hydrotransport which provides continuous transportation at comparatively low capital and working costs, as confirmed by construction and operation of extended coal pipelines in many countries.

  17. Heat-radiation combination for control of mold infection in harvested fruits and processed cereal foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawdal-Desai, S.R.; Ghanekar, A.S.; Thomas, P.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1973-01-01

    A combination of mild heat and low dose irradiation was found to extend the shelf-life of fresh fruits and processed cereal foods by controlling mold infection. Chapaties (Indian unleavened bread) and bread slices packed in polycell pouches, subjected to 50 krad followed by dry heat (65 0 C) were free from mold and shelf-stable for 10 weeks at ambient temperature (28-32 0 C). Inoculated pack studies confirmed the efficiency of the treatment. No immediate changes in organoleptic attributes were discernible even after exposure to 100 krad. The quality deterioration in sliced bread stored for 2 1/2 months has been attributed to natural staling rather than radiation. Hot water dip (50 0 C for 5 min) followed by 150 krad irradiation extended the shelf-life of fresh figs by 3-4 days at 28-32 0 C and 8-10 days at 15 0 C. Regardless of the sequence of treatments, combination of heat and 100 krad extended the shelf-life of grapes both at ambinet and refrigerated storage. In mangoes, heat followed by 50 krad was effective in controlling anthracnose and stem-end rot whereas in bananas irradiated for delayed ripening, hot water treatment can be used as a supplementary process to control stem-end rot. Quality of combination treated fruits was comparable to normally ripened fruits. In vitro studies with fungal pathogens isolated from the above fruits and cereal foods revealed that the synergistic effect of heat-radiation combination depends on the sequence of treatments which varied with respect to different pathogens studied. Some biochemical aspects of combination treated fruits is discussed. (F.J.)

  18. Effect of ohmic heating processing conditions on color stability of fungal pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Machado, Diederich; Morales-Oyervides, Lourdes; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Aguilar, Cristóbal; Méndez-Zavala, Alejandro; Raso, Javier; Montañez, Julio

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of ohmic heating processing conditions on the color stability of a red pigment extract produced by Penicillium purpurogenum GH2 suspended in a buffer solution (pH 6) and in a beverage model system (pH 4). Color stability of pigmented extract was evaluated in the range of 60-90 ℃. The degradation pattern of pigments was well described by the first-order (fractional conversion) and Bigelow model. Degradation rate constants ranged between 0.009 and 0.088 min -1 in systems evaluated. Significant differences in the rate constant values of the ohmic heating-treated samples in comparison with conventional thermal treatment suggested a possible effect of the oscillating electric field generated during ohmic heating. The thermodynamic analysis also indicated differences in the color degradation mechanism during ohmic heating specifically when the pigment was suspended in the beverage model system. In general, red pigments produced by P. purpurogenum GH2 presented good thermal stability under the range of the evaluated experimental conditions, showing potential future applications in pasteurized food matrices using ohmic heating treatment.

  19. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  20. Prediction of deformations of steel plate by artificial neural network in forming process with induction heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Truong Thinh; Yang, Young Soo; Bae, Kang Yul; Choi, Sung Nam

    2009-01-01

    To control a heat source easily in the forming process of steel plate with heating, the electro-magnetic induction process has been used as a substitute of the flame heating process. However, only few studies have analyzed the deformation of a workpiece in the induction heating process by using a mathematical model. This is mainly due to the difficulty of modeling the heat flux from the inductor traveling on the conductive plate during the induction process. In this study, the heat flux distribution over a steel plate during the induction process is first analyzed by a numerical method with the assumption that the process is in a quasi-stationary state around the inductor and also that the heat flux itself greatly depends on the temperature of the workpiece. With the heat flux, heat flow and thermo-mechanical analyses on the plate to obtain deformations during the heating process are then performed with a commercial FEM program for 34 combinations of heating parameters. An artificial neural network is proposed to build a simplified relationship between deformations and heating parameters that can be easily utilized to predict deformations of steel plate with a wide range of heating parameters in the heating process. After its architecture is optimized, the artificial neural network is trained with the deformations obtained from the FEM analyses as outputs and the related heating parameters as inputs. The predicted outputs from the neural network are compared with those of the experiments and the numerical results. They are in good agreement

  1. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  2. Design of the HTGR for process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrable, D.L.; Quade, R.N.

    1980-05-01

    This paper discusses a design study of an advanced 842-MW(t) HTGR with a reactor outlet temperature of 850 0 C (1562 0 F), coupled with a chemical process whose product is hydrogen (or a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) generated by steam reforming of a light hydrocarbon mixture. This paper discusses the plant layout and design for the major components of the primary and secondary heat transfer systems. Typical parametric system study results illustrate the capability of a computer code developed to model the plant performance and economics

  3. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  4. Synthesis of hydrocarbons using coal and nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickhoff, H.G.; Kugeler, K.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the global petroleum resources and demand shows that the amount of mineral oil products is sufficient to meet the requirements of the next decades. The geographical resources, however, could lead to problems of distribution and foreign exchange. The production of hydrocarbons with coal as basis using high temperature nuclear process heat has advantages compared to the conventional techniques. Next to the conservation of reserve fossil primary energy carriers there are advantages as regards prices, which at high coal costs are especially pronounced. (orig.) [de

  5. Efeito do branqueamento, processo osmótico, tratamento térmico e armazenamento na estabilidade da vitamina C de pedúnculos de caju processados por métodos combinados Effect of bleaching, osmotic process, heat treatment and storage on ascorbic acid stability of cashew apple processed by combined methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Men de Sá M. SOUZA FILHO

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Pedúnculos de caju foram processados por métodos combinados. As principais mudanças verificadas nas características físico-químicas foram redução do pH, aumento no teor de sólidos solúveis e de açúcares redutores. Observaram-se, também, perdas percentuais de ácido ascórbico, em relação ao pedúnculo "in natura", de 23,3% após o branqueamento, 31,7% após o primeiro dia de osmose, 35,5% após o quinto dia de osmose, 69,0% após o tratamento térmico e 87,3% ao final de 60 dias de armazenamento à temperatura ambiente (~ 28° C.Cashew apples were processed by combined methods. Major physical and chemical changes were pH decrease, soluble solids and reducing sugars increase. Ascorbic acid loss was 23,3% after bleaching, 31,7% after one day osmosis, 35,5% after five day osmosis, 69,0% after heat treatment and 87,3% after 60 days storage at ambient temperature (~ 28° C.

  6. Effects of Heating Rate on the Dynamic Tensile Mechanical Properties of Coal Sandstone during Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of coal layered combustion and the heat injection rate on adjacent rock were examined in the process of underground coal gasification and coal-bed methane mining. Dynamic Brazilian disk tests were conducted on coal sandstone at 800°C and slow cooling from different heating rates by means of a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB test system. It was discovered that thermal conditions had significant effects on the physical and mechanical properties of the sandstone including longitudinal wave velocity, density, and dynamic linear tensile strength; as the heating rates increased, the thermal expansion of the sandstone was enhanced and the damage degree increased. Compared with sandstone at ambient temperature, the fracture process of heat-treated sandstone was more complicated. After thermal treatment, the specimen had a large crack in the center and cracks on both sides caused by loading; the original cracks grew and mineral particle cracks, internal pore geometry, and other defects gradually appeared. With increasing heating rates, the microscopic fracture mode transformed from ductile fracture to subbrittle fracture. It was concluded that changes in the macroscopic mechanical properties of the sandstone were result from changes in the composition and microstructure.

  7. Innovative food processing technology using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging for meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ruri; Fukuoka, Mika; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2014-02-01

    Since the Tohoku earthquake, there is much interest in processed foods, which can be stored for long periods at room temperature. Retort heating is one of the main technologies employed for producing it. We developed the innovative food processing technology, which supersede retort, using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging. Electrical heating involves the application of alternating voltage to food. Compared with retort heating, which uses a heat transfer medium, ohmic heating allows for high heating efficiency and rapid heating. In this paper we ohmically heated chicken breast samples and conducted various tests on the heated samples. The measurement results of water content, IMP, and glutamic acid suggest that the quality of the ohmically heated samples was similar or superior to that of the retort-heated samples. Furthermore, based on the monitoring of these samples, it was observed that sample quality did not deteriorate during storage. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The American Meat Science Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of heat treatment regime on structural lamination in ferritic-austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizov, R.A.; Zakharova, M.I.; Novikov, I.I.; Bannykh, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of preliminary thermal treatment on lamination and viscosity of EhP-53 and KO-3 steels after durable aging at the temperature of 350 is studied. It is shown that preliminary heat treatment considerably affects lamination processes in the result of aging of 0Kh18G8N2T steel. The lowest rate of lamination and higher impact strength after aging at 350 deg C for 4500 hours corresponds to the following heat treatment: 10 hour aging at 650 deg C with cooling in the air, then quenching in water from 950 deg C after aging for 30 min and the following tempering (650 deg C, 5 hours). Unlike the 0Kh18G8N2T steel, lamination parameters of steel 0Kh22N6T practically do not change after the application of heat treatment. Nevertherless, taking into account results of impact strength, it is advisable to have thermal treatment according to the regime: quenching in water at 950 deg C after aging for 30 min

  9. Functional Properties of Glutinous Rice Flour by Dry-Heat Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qin

    Full Text Available Glutinous rice flour (GRF and glutinous rice starch (GRS were modified by dry-heat treatment and their rheological, thermal properties and freeze-thaw stability were evaluated. Compared with the native GRF and GRS, the water-holding ability of modified GRF and GRS were enhanced. Both the onset and peak temperatures of the modified samples increased while the endothermic enthalpy change decreased significantly (p < 0.05. Meanwhile, dry heating remarkably increased the apparent viscosities of both GRF and GRS. Importantly, compared with GRS samples, the storage modulus (G' and loss modulus (G" values of modified GRF increased more greatly and the tanδ values decreased more remarkably, indicating that the dry-heat treatment showed more impact on the GRF and a higher viscoelasticity compared with GRS. Our results suggest the dry-heat treatment of GRF is a more effective method than that of GRS, which omits the complex and tedious process for purifying GRS, and thereby has more practical applications in the food industry.

  10. Microbial safety control of compost material with cow dung by heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chun-ming

    2007-01-01

    Various kinds of pathogenic bacteria derived from the intestinal tract of animals exist in compost material like cow dung. In order to sterilize the pathogenic bacteria completely in compost material, the cow dung was put into a heat treatment machine in pilot plan, and harmless condition in short time was examined. The results indicated, pathogenic indicator bacteria such as coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and salmonella were all 106 cfu/g dw at the beginning, died rapidly when cow dung temperature rose to above 50 degrees C, and not detected at 54-68 degrees C for 6-24 h heat treatment. Coliform bacteria and salmonella in heated cow dung were not detected by re-growth culture and enrichment culture examination. Moreover, it was hardly influenced on the fermentation ability of composting microbe, organic decomposition bacteria. During heat treatment, the mesophile decreased rapidly and the thermophile stabilized or increased, and the most of composting microbe were bacillus in cow dung by fluorescence microscope, this indicated that bacillus was dominator and composting microbe in composting process.

  11. Effect of grain orientation and heat treatment on mechanical properties of pure W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noto, Hiroyuki, E-mail: noto_hiroyuki@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan); Taniguchi, Shuichi [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kurishita, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Satoru [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Ukita, Takashi; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi [Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Kimura, Akihiko [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    The effect of grain orientation, heat-treatment temperature and test temperature on the mechanical properties of tungsten (W), which vary depending on plastic working and fabrication process, was investigated by mechanical testing of tensile or bending. Heavily worked W samples (1.5–2.0 mm in the final thickness) exhibit degradation of fracture strength due to recrystallization embrittlement after heat-treatment at 1240 °C (temperature of diffusion bonding between W and a candidate material of the Fe base support structure). On the other hand, W samples with lower thickness reduction rates do not suffer degradation of fracture strength after heating up to around 1300 °C, and show somewhat higher fracture strength by heat-treatment below 1300 °C than the samples in the as-received state. The observed behavior is a reflection of recovery of dislocations introduced by plastic working. High temperature tensile testing of ITER grade W with an anisotropic grain structure and S-TUN with an equiaxed grain structure revealed that both W grades exhibit plastic elongation at temperatures higher than 200 °C with essentially the same temperature dependence of yield strength, which is relatively insensitive to grain orientation in the structure at 200–1300 °C.

  12. Effect of grain orientation and heat treatment on mechanical properties of pure W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Satoru; Ukita, Takashi; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Kimura, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    The effect of grain orientation, heat-treatment temperature and test temperature on the mechanical properties of tungsten (W), which vary depending on plastic working and fabrication process, was investigated by mechanical testing of tensile or bending. Heavily worked W samples (1.5–2.0 mm in the final thickness) exhibit degradation of fracture strength due to recrystallization embrittlement after heat-treatment at 1240 °C (temperature of diffusion bonding between W and a candidate material of the Fe base support structure). On the other hand, W samples with lower thickness reduction rates do not suffer degradation of fracture strength after heating up to around 1300 °C, and show somewhat higher fracture strength by heat-treatment below 1300 °C than the samples in the as-received state. The observed behavior is a reflection of recovery of dislocations introduced by plastic working. High temperature tensile testing of ITER grade W with an anisotropic grain structure and S-TUN with an equiaxed grain structure revealed that both W grades exhibit plastic elongation at temperatures higher than 200 °C with essentially the same temperature dependence of yield strength, which is relatively insensitive to grain orientation in the structure at 200–1300 °C

  13. Functional Properties of Glutinous Rice Flour by Dry-Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yang; Liu, Chengzhen; Jiang, Suisui; Cao, Jinmiao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-01-01

    Glutinous rice flour (GRF) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) were modified by dry-heat treatment and their rheological, thermal properties and freeze-thaw stability were evaluated. Compared with the native GRF and GRS, the water-holding ability of modified GRF and GRS were enhanced. Both the onset and peak temperatures of the modified samples increased while the endothermic enthalpy change decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, dry heating remarkably increased the apparent viscosities of both GRF and GRS. Importantly, compared with GRS samples, the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") values of modified GRF increased more greatly and the tanδ values decreased more remarkably, indicating that the dry-heat treatment showed more impact on the GRF and a higher viscoelasticity compared with GRS. Our results suggest the dry-heat treatment of GRF is a more effective method than that of GRS, which omits the complex and tedious process for purifying GRS, and thereby has more practical applications in the food industry.

  14. Flexible and stable heat energy recovery from municipal wastewater treatment plants using a fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Ren, Xianghao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Specially designed fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system was developed. • Hybrid operation performed better at part loads than single inverter operation. • The applied heat pump can work stably over a wide range of heat load variations. • Heat energy potential of treated effluent was better than influent. • The heat pump’s COP from the field test was 4.06 for heating and 3.64 for cooling. - Abstract: Among many options to improve energy self-sufficiency in sewage treatment plants, heat extraction using a heat pump holds great promise, since wastewater contains considerable amounts of thermal energy. The actual heat energy demand at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) varies widely with time; however, the heat pumps typically installed in WWTPs are of the on/off controlled fixed-speed type, thus mostly run intermittently at severe part-load conditions with poor efficiency. To solve this mismatch, a specially designed, fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system incorporating a fixed-speed compressor and an inverter-driven, variable-speed compressor was developed and tested in a real WWTP. In this hybrid configuration, to improve load response and energy efficiency, the base-heat load was covered by the fixed-speed compressor consuming relatively less energy than the variable-speed type at nominal power, and the remaining varying load was handled by the inverter compressor which exhibits a high load-match function while consuming relatively greater energy. The heat pump system developed reliably extracted heat from the treated effluent as a heat source for heating and cooling purposes throughout the year, and actively responded to the load changes with a high measured coefficient of performance (COP) of 4.06 for heating and 3.64 for cooling. Moreover, this hybrid operation yielded a performance up to 15.04% better on part loads than the single inverter operation, suggesting its effectiveness for improving annual energy saving when

  15. Regional waste treatment facilities with underground monolith disposal for all low-heat-generating nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    An alternative system for treatment and disposal of all ''low-heat-generating'' nuclear wastes from all sources is proposed. The system, Regional Waste Treatment Facilities with Underground Monolith Disposal (RWTF/UMD), integrates waste treatment and disposal operations into single facilities at regional sites. Untreated and/or pretreated wastes are transported from generation sites such as reactors, hospitals, and industries to regional facilities in bulk containers. Liquid wastes are also transported in bulk after being gelled for transport. The untreated and pretreated wastes are processed by incineration, crushing, and other processes at the RWTF. The processed wastes are mixed with cement. The wet concrete mixture is poured into large low-cost, manmade caverns or deep trenches. Monolith dimensions are from 15 to 25 m wide, and 20 to 60 m high and as long as required. This alternative waste system may provide higher safety margins in waste disposal at lower costs

  16. Solid waste treatment processes for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state-of-the-art of solid waste(s) treatment processes applicable to a Space Station. From the review of available information a source term model for solid wastes was determined. An overall system is proposed to treat solid wastes under constraints of zero-gravity and zero-leakage. This study contains discussion of more promising potential treatment processes, including supercritical water oxidation, wet air (oxygen) oxidation, and chemical oxidation. A low pressure, batch-type treament process is recommended. Processes needed for pretreatment and post-treatment are hardware already developed for space operations. The overall solid waste management system should minimize transfer of wastes from their collection point to treatment vessel.

  17. Energy conversion processes for the use of geothermal heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, R. [Minder Energy Consulting, Oberlunkhofen (Switzerland); Koedel, J.; Schaedle, K.-H.; Ramsel, K. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland); Girardin, L.; Marechal, F. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratory for industrial energy systems (LENI), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on energy conversion processes that can be used when geothermal heat is to be used. The study deals with both theoretical and practical aspects of the conversion of geothermal heat to electricity. The report is divided into several parts and covers general study, practical experience, planning and operation of geothermal power plants as well as methodology for the optimal integration of energy conversion systems in geothermal power plants. In the first part, the specific properties and characteristics of geothermal resources are discussed. Also, a general survey of conversion processes is presented with special emphasis on thermo-electric conversion. The second part deals with practical aspects related to planning, construction and operation of geothermal power plant. Technical basics, such as relevant site-specific conditions, drilling techniques, thermal water or brine quality and materials requirements. Further, planning procedures are discussed. Also, operation and maintenance aspects are examined and some basic information on costs is presented. The third part of the report presents the methodology and results for the optimal valorisation of the thermodynamic potential of deep geothermal systems.

  18. Effects of Induction Heat Bending and Heat Treatment on the Boric Acid Corrosion of Low Alloy Steel Pipe for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Kim, Young-Sik [Andong National University, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyun-Young; Park, Heung-Bae [KEPCO EandC, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi-Ho; Shin, Min-Chul [Sungil SIM Co. Ltd, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In many plants, including nuclear power plants, pipelines are composed of numerous fittings such as elbows. When plants use these fittings, welding points need to be increased, and the number of inspections also then increases. As an alternative to welding, the pipe bending process forms bent pipe by applying strain at low or high temperatures. This work investigates how heat treatment affects on the boric acid corrosion of ASME SA335 Gr. P22 caused by the induction heat bending process. Microstructure analysis and immersion corrosion tests were performed. It was shown that every area of the induction heat bent pipe exhibited a high corrosion rate in the boric acid corrosion test. This behavior was due to the enrichment of phosphorous in the ferrite phase, which occurred during the induction heat bending process. This caused the ferrite phase to act as a corrosion initiation site. However, when re-heat treatment was applied after the bending process, it enhanced corrosion resistance. It was proved that this resistance was closely related to the degree of the phosphorus segregation in the ferrite phase.

  19. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes

  20. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes.

  1. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP), reference phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fladerer, R.; Schrader, L.

    1982-07-01

    The coal gasification processes using nuclear process heat being developed within the framwork of the PNP project, have the advantages of saving feed coal, improving efficiency, reducing emissions, and stabilizing energy costs. One major gasification process is the hydrogasification of coal for producing SNG or gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; this process can also be applied in a conventional route. The first steps to develop this process were planning, construction and operation of a semi-technical pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal in a fluidized bed having an input of 100 kg C/h. Before the completion of the development phase (reference phase) describing here, several components were tested on part of which no operational experience had so far been gained; these were the newly developed devices, e.g. the inclined tube for feeding coal into the fluidized bed, and the raw gas/hydrogenation gas heat exchanger for utilizing the waste heat of the raw gas leaving the gasifier. Concept optimizing of the thoroughly tested equipment parts led to an improved operational behaviour. Between 1976 and 1980, the semi-technical pilot plant was operated for about 19,400 hours under test conditions, more than 7,400 hours of which it has worked under gasification conditions. During this time approx. 1,100 metric tons of dry brown coal and more than 13 metric tons of hard coal were gasified. The longest coherent operational phase under gasification conditions was 748 hours in which 85.4 metric tons of dry brown coal were gasified. Carbon gasification rates up to 82% and methane contents in the dry raw gas (free of N 2 ) up to 48 vol.% were obtained. A detailed evaluation of the test results provided information of the results obtained previously. For the completion of the test - primarily of long-term tests - the operation of the semi-technical pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal is to be continued up to September 1982. (orig.) [de

  2. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, K.H. van

    1982-05-01

    This report describes the tasks, which Bergbau-Forschung has carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal in cooperation with partners and contractors during the reference phase of the project. On the basis of the status achieved to date it can be stated, that the mode of operation of the gas-generator developed including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal is technically feasible. Moreover through-put can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole industrial application of steam gasification - WKV - using nuclear process heat stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favourable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations these are 20 to 25% lower. (orig.) [de

  3. A Fresnel collector process heat experiment at Capitol Concrete Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauger, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is planned, conducted and evaluated to determine the feasibility of using a Power Kinetics' Fresnel concentrator to provide process heat in an industrial environment. The plant provides process steam at 50 to 60 psig to two autoclaves for curing masonry blocks. When steam is not required, the plant preheats hot water for later use. A second system is installed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory parabolic dish test site for hardware validation and experiment control. Experiment design allows for the extrapolation of results to varying demands for steam and hot water, and includes a consideration of some socio-technical factors such as the impact on production scheduling of diurnal variations in energy availability.

  4. Hemodialysis Catheter Heat Transfer for Biofilm Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ian P; Sturtevant, Rachael; Heung, Michael; Solomon, Michael J; Younger, John G; VanEpps, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are not easily treated, and many catheters (e.g., hemodialysis catheters) are not easily replaced. Biofilms (the source of infection) on catheter surfaces are notoriously difficult to eradicate. We have recently demonstrated that modest elevations of temperature lead to increased staphylococcal susceptibility to vancomycin and significantly soften the biofilm matrix. In this study, using a combination of microbiological, computational, and experimental studies, we demonstrate the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of using heat as an adjuvant treatment for infected hemodialysis catheters. Specifically, we show that treating with heat in the presence of antibiotics led to additive killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis with similar trends seen for Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The magnitude of temperature elevation required is relatively modest (45-50°C) and similar to that used as an adjuvant to traditional cancer therapy. Using a custom-designed benchtop model of a hemodialysis catheter, positioned with tip in the human vena cava as well as computational fluid dynamic simulations, we demonstrate that these temperature elevations are likely achievable in situ with minimal increased in overall blood temperature.

  5. Nuclear district heating. 1. Process heat reactors and transmission and distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caizergues, R.

    1979-01-01

    Three kinds of production station are considered: joint electricity and heat-producing stations, heat-producing stations with CAS reactors and heat-producing stations with Thermos reactors. The thermal energy supply possibilities of these stations, the cost price of this energy and the cost price per therm produced by the district heating source and conveyed to the user are studied [fr

  6. Influence of heat treatment on corrosive resistance of concrete steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldan, A.; Suliga, I.; Kusinski, J.; Jazowy, R.

    1998-01-01

    The reinforcing bars are essential elements of ferro-concrete structures. During the building structure service the reinforcing bars should co-operate with surrounding concrete. Any bonding defects as well as corrosion induced strength reduction may result in construction failure. The reinforcing steel working environment is determined by concrete chemical and phase composition and surrounding environmental properties. The aggressive corrosive activity of the letter implies necessity of effective ways development to protect elements against corrosion. The effect of heat treatment, increased Si content in steel on corrosion resistance of reinforcing steel in concrete was studied in the current work. Corrosion tests and metallographic examinations proved a positive influence of hardening and Si enrichment on corrosion resistance of reinforcing bars in ferro-concrete structures. (author)

  7. Apparatus with moderating material for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN

    2011-05-10

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  8. Online Adaptive Hyperthermia Treatment Planning During Locoregional Heating to Suppress Treatment-Limiting Hot Spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, H Petra; Korshuize-van Straten, Linda; Bakker, Akke; de Kroon-Oldenhof, Rianne; Geijsen, Elisabeth D; Stalpers, Lukas J A; Crezee, Johannes

    2017-11-15

    Adequate tumor temperatures during hyperthermia are essential for good clinical response, but excessive heating of normal tissue should be avoided. This makes locoregional heating using phased array systems technically challenging. Online application of hyperthermia treatment planning could help to improve the heating quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefit of online treatment planning during treatment of pelvic tumors heated with the AMC-8 locoregional hyperthermia system. For online adaptive hyperthermia treatment planning, a graphical user interface was developed. Electric fields were calculated in a preprocessing step using our in-house-developed finite-difference-based treatment planning system. This allows instant calculation of the temperature distribution for user-selected phase-amplitude settings during treatment and projection onto the patient's computed tomographic scan for online visualization. Online treatment planning was used for 14 treatment sessions in 8 patients to reduce the patients' reports of hot spots while maintaining the same level of tumor heating. The predicted decrease in hot spot temperature should be at least 0.5°C, and the tumor temperature should decrease less than 0.2°C. These predictions were compared with clinical data: patient feedback about the hot spot and temperature measurements in the tumor region. In total, 17 hot spot reports occurred during the 14 sessions, and the alternative settings predicted the hot spot temperature to decrease by at least 0.5°C, which was confirmed by the disappearance of all 17 hot spot reports. At the same time, the average tumor temperature was predicted to change on average -0.01°C (range, -0.19°C to 0.34°C). The measured tumor temperature change was on average only -0.02°C (range, -0.26°C to 0.31°C). In only 2 cases the temperature decrease was slightly larger than 0.2°C, but at most it was 0.26°C. Online application of hyperthermia treatment planning is

  9. Large deviations in stochastic heat-conduction processes provide a gradient-flow structure for heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peletier, Mark A.; Redig, Frank; Vafayi, Kiamars

    2014-01-01

    We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form −log ρ; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ρ 2 for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ρ for the nonlinear heat equation

  10. Effect of heat treatment of whole cottonseed on in vitro, in situ and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Amino acid flow, heat treatment, protein degradation, whole cononseed. * Author to whom ... heat-treated soybearu were compared with raw soybeans, it was found that ... et al., 1985; Faldet & Sarter, 1989) while milk fat percenrage.

  11. Effect of high intensity pulsed electric fields and heat treatments on vitamins of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendicho, Silvia; Espachs, Alexandre; Arántegui, Javier; Martín, Olga

    2002-02-01

    The effects of high intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatments at room or moderate temperature on water-soluble (thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid) and fat-soluble vitamins (cholecalciferol and tocopherol) were evaluated and compared with conventional thermal treatments. Vitamin retention was determined in two different substrates, milk and simulated skim milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF). Samples were subjected to HIPEF treatments of up to 400 micros at field strengths from 18.3 to 27.1 kV/cm and to heat treatments of up to 60 min at temperatures from 50 to 90 degrees C. No changes in vitamin content were observed after HIPEF or thermal treatments except for ascorbic acid. Milk retained more ascorbic acid after a 400 microstreatment at 22.6 kV/cm (93.4%) than after low (63 degrees C-30 min; 49.7% retained) or high (75 degrees C-15s; 86.7% retained) heat pasteurisation treatments. Retention of ascorbic acid fitted a first-order kinetic model for both HIPEF and thermal processes. First-order constant values varied from 1.8 x 10.4 to 1.27 x 10(-3) micros(-1) for the HIPEF treatments (18.3-27.1 kV/cm) and, for thermal processing ranged from 5 x 10(-3) to 8 x 10(-2) min(-1) (50-90 degrees C). No significant differences were found between the results obtained after applying HIPEF treatments at room or moderate temperature. However, results depended on the treatment media. A beneficial effect of natural skim milk components, mainly proteins, was observed on the preservation of ascorbic acid, since skim milk retained more ascorbic acid than SMUF after HIPEF treatments.

  12. To investigate the effect of heat treatment on fracture toughness of welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, A.; Pasha, R.A.; Shah, M.

    2013-01-01

    Annealing as a post weld heat treatment (PWHT), increases toughness in the welding joints of medium carbon steel in the same way as it increases toughness of the non-welded medium carbon steel. Measurement of increase in toughness through PWHT is focus of the present research work. Welded samples of commercially available steel AISI -1035 have been used for the proposed evaluation. The samples welded by two different techniques namely oxyacetylene gas welding and manual metal arc welding, passed through annealing process along with non-welded samples for comparison of increase in toughness. Toughness measured by impact tests revealed the improvement, which in the order of increasing effects is in gas welded, electric welded and non-welded samples. The aim of the present research was to measure the improvement in fracture toughness through post weld heat treatment (annealing). It has been shown that toughness increases as the structural flaws decrease. (author)

  13. Effect of phosphorus and heat treatment on microstructure of Al-25%Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that phosphorus can refine the primary silicon and heat treatment can spheroidize the eutectic silicon. This paper presents an optimal combination of heat treatment processes and P refinement on hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. The optimal P addition amount, and the solution and aging temperatures for Al-25%Si alloy were obtained through the orthogonal experiment, and their modification effects were discussed. The results show that P addition has the greatest modification effect, followed by aging temperature, and the modification effect of solution temperature is the least. The optimized modification parameters are: addition of 0.6% P, solution at 540 篊 and aging at 160 篊 . In addition, the cooling curve, superheating and hardness of the alloy were also analyzed.

  14. Structural steels for power generating equipment and heat and chemical heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astaf'ev, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Development of structural steels for power generating equipment and for reactor engineering, in particular, is elucidated. Noted is utilization of the 15Kh2NMFA steels for the WWER-1000 reactor vessels, the 10GN2MFA steels for steam generators, pressurizers, vessels of the automatic emergency shut down and safety system; the 00Kh12N3DL steel for cast pump vessels and main locking bars. The recommendations on heat treatment of big forgings, for instance, ensuring the necessary complex of mechanical properties are given. Diffusion chromizing with subsequent nitriding of austenitic steels which increase durability of the components in BN reactors more than 4 times, is practised on a large scale

  15. Endogenous System Microbes as Treatment Process ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the efficacy of treatment strategies to remove pathogens in decentralized systems remains a challenge. Evaluating log reduction targets by measuring pathogen levels is hampered by their sporadic and low occurrence rates. Fecal indicator bacteria are used in centralized systems to indicate the presence of fecal pathogens, but are ineffective decentralized treatment process indicators as they generally occur at levels too low to assess log reduction targets. System challenge testing by spiking with high loads of fecal indicator organisms, like MS2 coliphage, has limitations, especially for large systems. Microbes that are endogenous to the decentralized system, occur in high abundances and mimic removal rates of bacterial, viral and/or parasitic protozoan pathogens during treatment could serve as alternative treatment process indicators to verify log reduction targets. To identify abundant microbes in wastewater, the bacterial and viral communities were examined using deep sequencing. Building infrastructure-associated bacteria, like Zoogloea, were observed as dominant members of the bacterial community in graywater. In blackwater, bacteriophage of the order Caudovirales constituted the majority of contiguous sequences from the viral community. This study identifies candidate treatment process indicators in decentralized systems that could be used to verify log removal during treatment. The association of the presence of treatment process indic

  16. Electron beam flue gas treatment process. Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkonen, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The basis of the process for electron beam flue gas treatment are presented in the report. In tabular form the history of the research is reviewed. Main dependences of SO 2 and NO x removal efficiencies on different physico-chemical parameters are discussed. Trends concerning industrial process implementation are presented in the paper,finally. (author). 74 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  17. Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are

  18. The maximum power condition of the brayton cycle with heat exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Pyung Suk; Cha, Jin Girl; Ro, Sung Tack

    1985-01-01

    The ideal brayton cycle has been analyzed with the heat exchange processes between the working fluid and the heat source and the sink while their heat capacity rates are constant. The power of the cycle can be expressed in terms of a temperature of the cycle and the heat capacity rate of the working fluid. There exists an optimum power condition where the heat capacity rate of the working fluid has a value between those of the heat source and the heat sink, and the cycle efficiency is determined by the inlet temperatures of the heat source and the sink. (Author)

  19. A numerical study of EGS heat extraction process based on a thermal non-equilibrium model for heat transfer in subsurface porous heat reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiliang; Jiang, Fangming

    2016-02-01

    With a previously developed numerical model, we perform a detailed study of the heat extraction process in enhanced or engineered geothermal system (EGS). This model takes the EGS subsurface heat reservoir as an equivalent porous medium while it considers local thermal non-equilibrium between the rock matrix and the fluid flowing in the fractured rock mass. The application of local thermal non-equilibrium model highlights the temperature-difference heat exchange process occurring in EGS reservoirs, enabling a better understanding of the involved heat extraction process. The simulation results unravel the mechanism of preferential flow or short-circuit flow forming in homogeneously fractured reservoirs of different permeability values. EGS performance, e.g. production temperature and lifetime, is found to be tightly related to the flow pattern in the reservoir. Thermal compensation from rocks surrounding the reservoir contributes little heat to the heat transmission fluid if the operation time of an EGS is shorter than 15 years. We find as well the local thermal equilibrium model generally overestimates EGS performance and for an EGS with better heat exchange conditions in the heat reservoir, the heat extraction process acts more like the local thermal equilibrium process.

  20. Soil Heat Flow. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, James R.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Soil heat flow and the resulting soil temperature distributions have ecological consequences…

  1. Laboratory Investigation on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Granite After Heating and Water-Cooling Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Jianjian; Hu, Dawei; Skoczylas, Frederic; Shao, Jianfu

    2018-03-01

    High-temperature treatment may cause changes in physical and mechanical properties of rocks. Temperature changing rate (heating, cooling and both of them) plays an important role in those changes. Thermal conductivity tests, ultrasonic pulse velocity tests, gas permeability tests and triaxial compression tests are performed on granite samples after a heating and rapid cooling treatment in order to characterize the changes in physical and mechanical properties. Seven levels of temperature (from 25 to 900 °C) are used. It is found that the physical and mechanical properties of granite are significantly deteriorated by the thermal treatment. The porosity shows a significant increase from 1.19% at the initial state to 6.13% for samples heated to 900 °C. The increase in porosity is mainly due to three factors: (1) a large number of microcracks caused by the rapid cooling rate; (2) the mineral transformation of granite through high-temperature heating and water-cooling process; (3) the rapid cooling process causes the mineral particles to weaken. As the temperature of treatment increases, the thermal conductivity and P-wave velocity decrease while the gas permeability increases. Below 200 °C, the elastic modulus and cohesion increase with temperature increasing. Between 200 and 500 °C, the elastic modulus and cohesion have no obvious change with temperature. Beyond 500 °C, as the temperature increases, the elastic modulus and cohesion obviously decrease and the decreasing rate becomes slower with the increase in confining pressure. Poisson's ratio and internal frictional coefficient have no obvious change as the temperature increases. Moreover, there is a transition from a brittle to ductile behavior when the temperature becomes high. At 900 °C, the granite shows an obvious elastic-plastic behavior.

  2. Insight in psychosis: Metacognitive processes and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    de Vos, Annerieke

    2016-01-01

    Insight is impaired in 50- 80% of the patients with schizophrenia. Annerieke de Vos working at GGZ Drenthe and the University Medical Hospital Groningen, aimed to elucidate which processes underlie impaired insight and tried to improve insight in patients by targeting these processes. On September 21st she will defend her thesis entitled: "Insight in psychosis. Metacognitive processes and treatment.". Patients with impaired insight may fail to recognize that things in life are not going well ...

  3. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E.; Lynd, Lee R.; Laser, Mark

    2013-03-12

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  4. Processes underlying treatment success and failure in assertive community treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Laura G; McGrew, John H; Salyers, Michelle P

    2012-02-01

    Processes underlying success and failure in assertive community treatment (ACT), a widely investigated treatment model for persons with severe mental illness, are poorly understood. The purpose of the current study was to examine processes in ACT by (1) understanding how consumers and staff describe the processes underlying treatment success and failure and (2) comparing processes identified by staff and consumers. Investigators conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 staff and 23 consumers from four ACT teams. Both staff and consumers identified aspects of the ACT team itself as the most critical in the process of consumer success. For failure, consumers identified consumer characteristics as most critical and staff identified lack of social relationships. Processes underlying failure were not viewed as merely the opposite of processes underlying success. In addition, there was notable disagreement between staff and consumers on important processes. Findings overlap with critical ingredients identified in previous studies, including aspects of the ACT team, social involvement and employment. In contrast to prior studies, there was little emphasis on hospitalizations and greater emphasis on not abusing substances, obtaining wants and desires, and consumer characteristics.

  5. Effect of heat treatment upon the fatigue-crack growth behavior of Alloy 718 weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.

    1981-05-01

    The microstructural features that influenced the room and elevated temperature fatigue-crack growth behavior of as-welded, conventional heat-treated, and modified heat-treated Alloy 718 GTA weldments were studied. Electron fractographic examination of fatigue fracture surfaces revealed that operative fatigue mechanisms were dependent on microstructure, temperatures and stress intensity factor. All specimens exhibited three basic fracture surface appearances at temperatures up to 538 degrees C: crystallographic faceting at low stress intensity range (ΔK) levels, striation, formation at intermediate values, and dimples coupled with striations in the highest (ΔK) regime. At 649 degrees C, the heat-treated welds exhibited extensive intergranular cracking. Laves and δ particles in the conventional heat-treated material nucleated microvoids ahead of the advancing crack front and caused on overall acceleration in crack growth rates at intermediate and high ΔK levels. The modified heat treatment removed many of these particles from the weld zone, thereby improving its fatigue resistance. The dramatically improved fatigue properties exhibited by the as-welded material was attributed to compressive residual stresses introduced by the welding process. 19 refs., 16 figs

  6. Local total and radiative heat-transfer coefficients during the heat treatment of a workpiece in a fluidised bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, W.M.; Kong, L.X.; Hodgson, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    The heat-transfer coefficients around a workpiece immersed in an electrically heated heat treatment fluidised bed were studied. A suspension probe designed to simulate a workpiece of complex geometry was developed to measure local total and radiative heat-transfer coefficients at a high bed temperature. The probe consisted of an energy-storage region separated by insulation from the fluidised bed, except for the measuring surface, and a multi-thermocouple measurement system. Experiments in the fluidised bed were performed for a fluidising medium of 120-mesh alumina, a wide temperature range of 110-1050 deg. C and a fluidising number range of 1.18-4.24. It was found that the workpiece surface temperature has a more significant effect on heat transfer than the bed temperature. The total heat-transfer coefficient at the upper surface of the workpiece sharply decreased at the start of heating, and then steadily increased as heating progressed, while a sharp decrease became a rapid increase and then a slow increase for the radiative heat-transfer coefficient. A great difference in the heat-transfer coefficients around the workpiece was observed

  7. Comparison of three different collectors for process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunold, Stefan; Frey, R.; Frei, Ulrich

    1994-09-01

    In general vacuum tube collectors are used in solar process heat systems. Another possibility is to use transparent insulated flat plate collectors. A critical point however, is that most of the common transparent insulating materials can not withstand high temperatures because they consist of plastics. Thus, temperature resistive collector covers combining a high tranmisivity with a low U-value are required. One possibility is to use capillaries made of glass instead of plastics. Measurement results of collector efficiency and incident angle modifier will be presented as well as calculated energy gains for three different collectors: a vacuum tube collector (Giordano Ind., France), a CPC vacuum tube collector (microtherm Energietechnik Germany; a new flat plate collector using glass capillary as transparent insulation (SET, Germany).

  8. Industrial process heat case studies. [PROSYS/ECONMAT code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, D.W.; May, E.K.; West, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Commercially available solar collectors have the potential to provide a large fraction of the energy consumed for industrial process heat (IPH). Detailed case studies of individual industrial plants are required in order to make an accurate assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of applications. This report documents the results of seven such case studies. The objectives of the case study program are to determine the near-term feasibility of solar IPH in selected industries, identify energy conservation measures, identify conditions of IPH systems that affect solar applications, test SERI's IPH analysis software (PROSYS/ECONOMAT), disseminate information to the industrial community, and provide inputs to the SERI research program. The detailed results from the case studies are presented. Although few near-term, economical solar applications were found, the conditions that would enhance the opportunities for solar IPH applications are identified.

  9. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs

  10. Investigation of the kinetics of the change in the group composition of the anthracene fraction on heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Lur' e, M.V.; Stepanenko, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the reported experiments, an investigation has been made of the kinetics of the change in the group composition of the anthracene fraction during heat treatment under various conditions. On the basis of the results obtained, a kinetic model of the process has been developed which permits rational conditions for obtaining a heat-treated product of the necessary group composition to be found. 6 refs.

  11. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  12. Aesthetic value improvement of the ruby stone using heat treatment and its synergetic surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, Barada K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural ruby is heated at high temperature with metal oxide additives (PbO and ZnO) to enhance its aesthetic value. • Changes in surface characteristics of these natural rubies before and after heat treatment are compared. • The R-line peak splitting in the PL spectra and the contrary shift of the Al 2p peaks in the XPS spectra are explicated. - Abstract: The surface behavior of the natural ruby stones before and after heat treatment with metal oxide additives like: zinc oxide (ZnO) and lead oxide (PbO) have been studied. The surface appearance of the ruby stones processed with the metal oxides changed whereas the bulk densities of the stones remained within the range of 3.9–4.0 g/cm 3 . The cracks healing and pores filling by the metal oxides on the surface of the ruby have been examined using scanning electron microscopy. The chemical compositions based on the XPS survey scans are in good agreement with the expected composition. The phase and crystallinity of the ruby stones original and heat-treated were obtained from their X-ray diffraction patterns. The change in peak separation between R 1 and R 2 – peaks in photoluminescence spectra and the contrary binding energy shift of the Al 2p peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectra have been explicated. Moreover, in this work we describe the change in surface chemical and physical characteristics of the ruby stone before and after heat treatment

  13. Microstructure evolution during spray rolling and heat treatment of 2124 Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K.M. [Industrial Technology Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2050 (United States)], E-mail: kevin.mchugh@inl.gov; Lin, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Johnson, S.B.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Lavernia, E.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2008-03-25

    Spray rolling is a strip-casting technology that combines elements of spray forming and twin-roll casting. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, quenching the resultant droplets in flight, and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets and conduction heat transfer at the rolls rapidly remove the metal's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly-solidified strip. Spray rolling operates at a higher solidification rate than conventional twin-roll casting and is able to process a broader range of alloys at high production rates. A laboratory-scale strip caster was constructed and used to evaluate the interplay of processing parameters and strip quality for strips up to 200 mm wide and 1.6-6.4 mm thick. This paper examines microstructure evolution during spray rolling and explores how gas-to-metal mass flow ratio influences the microstructure and mechanical properties of spray-rolled 2124 Al. The influences of solution heat treatment and cold rolling on grain structure and constituent particle spheroidization are also examined.

  14. Assessment of heat treatment of dairy products by MALDI-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltretter, Jasmin; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès; Becker, Cord-Michael; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2009-12-01

    The formation of the Amadori product from lactose (protein lactosylation) is a major parameter to evaluate the quality of processed milk. Here, MALDI-TOF-MS was used for the relative quantification of lactose-adducts in heated milk. Milk was heated at a temperature of 70, 80, and 100 degrees C between 0 and 300 min, diluted, and subjected directly to MALDI-TOF-MS. The lactosylation rate of alpha-lactalbumin increased with increasing reaction temperature and time. The results correlated well with established markers for heat treatment of milk (concentration of total soluble protein, soluble alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin at pH 4.6, and fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and soluble tryptophan index; r=0.969-0.997). The method was also applied to examine commercially available dairy products. In severely heated products, protein pre-purification by immobilized metal affinity chromatography improved spectra quality. Relative quantification of protein lactosylation by MALDI-TOF-MS proved to be a very fast and reliable method to monitor early Maillard reaction during milk processing.

  15. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Properties of CoCrMo Alloy Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoqing, Zhang; Junxin, Li; Xiaoyu, Zhou; Jin, Li; Anmin, Wang

    2018-05-01

    To obtain medical implants with better mechanical properties, it is necessary to conduct studies on the heat treatment process of the selective laser melting (SLM) manufacturing parts. The differential scanning calorimetry method was used to study the heat treatment process of the phase transition of SLM CoCrMo alloy parts. The tensile properties were tested with a tensile test machine, the quantity of carbide precipitated after heat treatment was measured by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and the tensile fracture morphology of the parts was investigated using SEM. The obtained results were: Mechanical properties in terms of elongation and tensile strength of CoCrMo alloy manufactured by SLM that had been heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h followed by cooling with water were not only higher than the national standard but also higher than the experimental results of the same batch of castings. The mechanism of fracture of parts manufactured by SLM without heat treatment was brittle fracture, whereas parts which had been heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h combined with water cooling and at 1200 °C for 1 h with furnace cooling suffered ductile fracture. This study provides the basis for defining the applications for which CoCrMo alloys manufactured by SLM are suitable within the field of medical implants.

  16. Optimisasi Suhu Pemanasan dan Kadar Air pada Produksi Pati Talas Kimpul Termodifikasi dengan Teknik Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT (Optimization of Heating Temperature and Moisture Content on the Production of Modified Cocoyam Starch Using Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kencana Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the physically starch modification technique is heat-moisture treatment (HMT. This technique can increase the resistance of starch to heat, mechanical treatment, and acid during processing.  This research aimed to find out the influence of heating temperature and moisture content in the modification process of cocoyam starch  with HMT techniques on the characteristic of product, and then to determine the optimum heating temperature and moisture content in the process. The research was designed with a complete randomized design (CRD with two factors factorial experiment.  The first factor was temperature of the heating consists of 3 levels namely 100 °C, 110 °C, and 120 °C. The second factor was the moisture content of starch which consists of 4 levels, namely 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, and 30 %. The results showed that the heating temperature and moisture content significantly affected water content, amylose content and swelling power of modified cocoyam starch product, but the treatment had no significant effect on the solubility of the product. HMT process was able to change the type of cocoyam starch from type B to type C. The optimum heating temperature and water content on modified cocoyam starch production process was 110 °C and 30 % respectively. Such treatment resulted in a modified cocoyam starch with moisture content of 6.50 %, 50,14 % amylose content, swelling power of 7.90, 0.0009% solubility, paste clarity of 96.310 % T, and was classified as a type C starch.   ABSTRAK Salah satu teknik modifikasi pati secara fisik adalah teknik Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT. Teknik ini dapat meningkatkan ketahanan pati terhadap panas, perlakuan mekanik, dan asam selama pengolahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan kadar air pada proses modifikasi pati talas kimpul dengan teknik HMT terhadap karakteristik produk, dan selanjutnya menentukan suhu dan kadar air yang optimal dalam proses tersebut. Penelitian ini dirancang

  17. Correlation between radwaste processing and hazardous waste treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, O.U.J.; Tulipano, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The basic framework under SARA has established that preferred remedies are those which permanently and significantly reduce toxicity, mobility or volume of wastes. In the 1970's radwaste process designs at power plants received pressure to satisfy essentially the same criteria when increased emphasis was placed on limited disposal sites which resulted in rapidly escalating disposal costs. This paper provides a historical perspective of radwaste experience and discusses valuable insight to hazardous waste treatment technologies. The radwaste system experience is discussed in terms of providing a source of proven and reliable technologies. Discussion is presented on specific radwaste processes which are applicable technologies for hazardous waste treatment. The technologies presented include (a) Solidification, (b) Evaporation, and (c) Incineration. Experience is presented which establishes assurance that the treatment technologies will provide a permanent remedy to hazardous waste treatment. This paper describes typical radwaste solidification, evaporation and incineration processes at power plants. The design requirements and implementation of radwaste equipment is correlated to design requirement of hazardous waste equipment. Specific discussion is provided on how the available process equipment can reduce toxicity, mobility, and volume of waste. Discussion is presented on how the standard off the shelf processing equipment needs to be modified for radwaste and hazardous waste applications

  18. Effects of Heat-treatments on the Mechanical Strength of Coated YSZ: An Experimental Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack; Sørensen, Bent F.; Linderoth, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical strength of thin, symmetric sandwich specimens consisting of a dense yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate coated with a porous NiO–YSZ layer at both major faces was investigated. Specimens were loaded in uniaxial tension to failure following heat treatments at various...... temperatures. In comparison with the YSZ material, the failure strength of coated specimens was found to increase for heat treatments at 1100°C, but decreased again with further increased heat-treatment temperatures....

  19. Process of optimization of district heat production by utilizing waste energy from metallurgical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Fužir, Miran; Slatinek, Matic; Šepul, Tanja; Plesnik, Kristijan; Lečnik, Samo

    2017-07-01

    In a consortium with SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group), Metal Ravne, the local community of Ravne na Koro\\vskem and the public research Institut Jožef Stefan, with its registered office in Slovenia, Petrol Energetika, d.o.o. set up a technical and technological platform of an innovative energy case for a transition of steel industry into circular economy with a complete energy solution called »Utilization of Waste Heat from Metallurgical Processes for District Heating of Ravne na Koro\\vskem. This is the first such project designed for a useful utilization of waste heat in steel industry which uses modern technology and innovative system solutions for an integration of a smart, efficient and sustainable heating and cooling system and which shows a growth potential. This will allow the industry and cities to make energy savings, to improve the quality of air and to increase the benefits for the society we live in. On the basis of circular economy, we designed a target-oriented co-operation of economy, local community and public research institute to produce new business models where end consumers are put into the centre. This innovation opens the door for steel industry and local community to a joint aim that is a transition into efficient low-carbon energy systems which are based on involvement of natural local conditions, renewable energy sources, the use of waste heat and with respect for the principles of sustainable development.

  20. Exploiting heat treatment effects on SMAs macro and microscopic properties in developing fire protection devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlacu, L.; Cimpoeşu, N.; Bujoreanu, L. G.; Lohan, N. M.

    2017-08-01

    Ni-Ti shape memory alloys (SMAs) are intelligent alloys which demonstrate unique properties, such as shape memory effect, two-way shape memory effect, super-elasticity and vibration damping which, accompanied by good processability, excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility as well as fair wear resistance and cyclic stability, enabled the development of important industrial applications (such as sensors, actuators, fasteners, couplings and valves), medical applications (such as stents, bone implants, orthodontic archwires, minimal invasive surgical equipment) as well as environmental health and safety devices (anti-seismic dampers, fire safety devices). The phase transitions in Ni-Ti SMAs are strongly influenced by processing methods, chemical compositions and thermomechanical history. This paper presents a study of the effects of heat treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of commercial Ni-Ti shape memory alloy (SMA). The experimental work involved subjecting a SMA rod to heat-treatment consisting in heating up to 500°C, 10 minutes-maintaining and water quenching. Mechanical properties were highlighted by microhardness tests while thermal characteristics were emphasized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The presence of chemical composition fluctuations was checked by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy performed with an EDAX Bruker analyzer.

  1. Calculation of α/γ equilibria in SA508 grade 3 steels for intercritical heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.J.; Kim, H.D.; Hong, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    An attempt has been made to suggest an optimum temperature for intercritical heat treatment of an SA508 grade 3 steel for nuclear pressure vessels, based on thermodynamic calculation of the α/γ phase equilibria. A thermodynamic database constructed for the Fe-Mn-Ni-Mo-Cr-Si-V-Al-C-N ten-component system and an empirical criterion that the amount of reformed austenite should be around 40 pct were used for thermodynamic calculation and derivation of the optimum heat-treatment temperature, respectively. The calculated optimum temperature, 720 C, was in good agreement with an experimentally determined temperature of 725 C obtained through an independent experimental investigation of the same steel. The agreement between the calculated and measured fraction of reformed austenite during the intercritical heat treatment was also confirmed. Based on the agreement between calculation and experiment, it could be concluded that thermodynamic calculations can be successfully applied to the materials and/or process design as an additive tool to the already established technology, and that the currently constructed thermodynamic database for steel systems shows an accuracy that makes such applications possible

  2. Effects of isothermal heat treatment on nanostructured bainite morphology and microstructures in laser cladded coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanbing [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Kai; Lu, Fenggui; Zhang, Ke [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composite, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hosseini, Seyed Reza Elmi [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Min [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composite, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Nanobainitic coatings under 200, 250 and 300 °C heat treatments are fabricated. • The size of bainite sheaves increased with the isothermal temperature increasing. • Textured and chaotic distributions are observed in 200 and 300 °C microstructures. • The evolution model of nanobainite morphology is established and analyzed. • The bainitic ferrite of 200 °C heat treatment has a true thickness of 45 nm. - Abstract: Laser cladding and subsequent isothermal heat treatments have been used to fabricate nanostructured bainitic coatings. XRD has been used to determine the kinetics of bainitic transformation process. OM, SEM and TEM have been used to characterize the morphology and microstructures at different stages of transformation. The results showed that at the initial stage of bainitic transformation, the bainite sheaves are short and thin at a relatively low transformation temperature. The fully transformed bainitic microstructure obtained at a relatively high temperature present a textured morphology. The chaotic growth orientations of the sheaves and the island like of the retained austenite have been observed at the low transformation temperature. A simple model has been established to describe the microstructures and the bainite sheaves growth evolutions during the isothermal holding at the different transformed temperatures. The morphology and distribution of the bainite in the coatings were analyzed by using the nucleation and growth rate of bainitic transformation theories, which is consisted with the experiment results.

  3. Effects of isothermal heat treatment on nanostructured bainite morphology and microstructures in laser cladded coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yanbing; Feng, Kai; Lu, Fenggui; Zhang, Ke; Li, Zhuguo; Hosseini, Seyed Reza Elmi; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanobainitic coatings under 200, 250 and 300 °C heat treatments are fabricated. • The size of bainite sheaves increased with the isothermal temperature increasing. • Textured and chaotic distributions are observed in 200 and 300 °C microstructures. • The evolution model of nanobainite morphology is established and analyzed. • The bainitic ferrite of 200 °C heat treatment has a true thickness of 45 nm. - Abstract: Laser cladding and subsequent isothermal heat treatments have been used to fabricate nanostructured bainitic coatings. XRD has been used to determine the kinetics of bainitic transformation process. OM, SEM and TEM have been used to characterize the morphology and microstructures at different stages of transformation. The results showed that at the initial stage of bainitic transformation, the bainite sheaves are short and thin at a relatively low transformation temperature. The fully transformed bainitic microstructure obtained at a relatively high temperature present a textured morphology. The chaotic growth orientations of the sheaves and the island like of the retained austenite have been observed at the low transformation temperature. A simple model has been established to describe the microstructures and the bainite sheaves growth evolutions during the isothermal holding at the different transformed temperatures. The morphology and distribution of the bainite in the coatings were analyzed by using the nucleation and growth rate of bainitic transformation theories, which is consisted with the experiment results.

  4. System and process for biomass treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

    2013-08-20

    A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

  5. Process for sewage biological treatment from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru; Craciun, Iftimie Ionel; Rudic, Valeriu; Gulea, Aurelian; Cepoi, Liliana

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the sewage treatment, in particular to the sewage biological treatment from radioactive waste, namely from uranium. The process for sewage biological treatment from uranium includes cultivation in the sewage of the aquatic plants Lemna minor and Spirulina platensis. The plant cultivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage for cultivation is used Lemna minor and in the second stage - Spirulina platensis. After finishing the plant cultivation it is carried out separation of their biomass. The result of the invention consists in increasing the uranyl ions accumulation by the biomass of plants cultivated in the sewage.

  6. The Effect of Heat Treatment on Physical, Chemical and Structural Properties of Calcium Sulfate Based Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan OFLAZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available 3D printed calcium sulfate (CS is a promising material for on custom bone substitutes. Since it dissolves easily in body fluids, manufactured samples require to being improved to reduce solubility.  The main aim of this study was reducing the dissolubility of CS based samples by using sintering and investigating the effect of heat treatment on their physical, chemical and structural properties. To observe the effect of heat treatment on samples, contact angles were measured, X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD was performed, and scanning electron microscope (SEM micrographs were captured before and after the sintering process, and the results were compared. Furthermore, sintered and non-sintered samples were soaked in phosphate buffered saline (PBS to observe the impact of sintering on the solubility of the material. Also, three different pore sized scaffolds were manufactured to test the limits of the 3D printer for manufacturing of scaffolds with open pores. Sintering process results in a volume reduction and according to SEM results, CS grains were fused together after heat treatment. Although non-sintered CS sample starts to dissolve in high rate and nearly 1/3 of the sample was at the bottom of the glass in a matter of minutes, sintering creates more rigid structure and there were not visible dissolution in PBS at the end of a week. The contact angle of samples cannot be measured, so it can be concluded that 3D printed material showed a super-hydrophilic property. XRD diagram suggested that there is not any new phase created in the printing and sintering processes except related hydrates of CS. As a result of the 3D printing, 500 µm, 750 µm and 1000 µm pore sized scaffolds were manufactured, successfully. However, it was seen that 500 µm pores could not be open by using depowdering after the printing process.

  7. Modeling conductive heat transfer during high-pressure thawing processes: determination of latent heat as a function of pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, S; Van Loey, A M; Hendrickx, M E

    2000-01-01

    A numerical heat transfer model for predicting product temperature profiles during high-pressure thawing processes was recently proposed by the authors. In the present work, the predictive capacity of the model was considerably improved by taking into account the pressure dependence of the latent heat of the product that was used (Tylose). The effect of pressure on the latent heat of Tylose was experimentally determined by a series of freezing experiments conducted at different pressure levels. By combining a numerical heat transfer model for freezing processes with a least sum of squares optimization procedure, the corresponding latent heat at each pressure level was estimated, and the obtained pressure relation was incorporated in the original high-pressure thawing model. Excellent agreement with the experimental temperature profiles for both high-pressure freezing and thawing was observed.

  8. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  9. Integration of Heat Treatment with Shot Peening of 17-4 Stainless Steel Fabricated by Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMangour, Bandar; Yang, Jenn-Ming

    2017-11-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a promising powder-based additive manufacturing process for fabrication of near-net-shape parts. However, the typically poor fatigue performance of DMLS parts must be addressed for use in demanding industrial applications. Post-treatment can be applied to enhance the performance of such components. Earlier attempts at inducing grain refinement through severe plastic deformation of part surfaces using shot peening improved the physical and mechanical properties of metals without chemical alteration. However, heat treatment can modify the surface-hardening effects attained by shot peening. Hence, we examined the feasibility of applying shot peening combined with heat treatment to improve the performance of DMLS-fabricated 17-4 stainless steel parts through microstructural evolution studies and hardness measurements. Compared to a specimen treated only by shot peening, the sample exposed to additional heat treatment showed increased hardness due to aging of the dominant phase.

  10. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  11. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  12. SOLTECH 1992 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17-20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil, (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, and (6) Photovoltaic (PV) Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35 mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  13. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  14. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Inconel 625 Alloy on Low Carbon Steel by Heat Treatment after Overlay Welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungpil; Jang, Jaeho; Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Byung Jun; Sohn, Keun Yong; Nam, Dae-Geun

    2016-01-01

    Overlay welding technique is one of methods used to improve metal mechanical properties such as strength, toughness and corrosion resistance. Generally, Inconel 625 alloy is used for overlay welding layer on low carbon steels for economic consideration. However, the method produces some problems in the microstructure of the cast structure and some defects, caused by the elevated temperatures of the overlay process. To resolve these problems, heat treatments are required. In this study, Inconel 625 alloy was welded on a low carbon steel by the overlay welding process to investigate the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties. A double heat treatment was performed to improve the mechanical properties of the welding and substrate layers. It was found that Inconel 625 alloy had an austenite microstructure after the first heat treatment, but the low carbon steel had a ferrite-pearlite microstructure after the second heat treatment. After the double heat treatment, the sample showed the optimum hardness because of grain refinement and homogenization of the microstructure.

  15. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Inconel 625 Alloy on Low Carbon Steel by Heat Treatment after Overlay Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungpil; Jang, Jaeho; Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Byung Jun; Sohn, Keun Yong; Nam, Dae-Geun [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Overlay welding technique is one of methods used to improve metal mechanical properties such as strength, toughness and corrosion resistance. Generally, Inconel 625 alloy is used for overlay welding layer on low carbon steels for economic consideration. However, the method produces some problems in the microstructure of the cast structure and some defects, caused by the elevated temperatures of the overlay process. To resolve these problems, heat treatments are required. In this study, Inconel 625 alloy was welded on a low carbon steel by the overlay welding process to investigate the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties. A double heat treatment was performed to improve the mechanical properties of the welding and substrate layers. It was found that Inconel 625 alloy had an austenite microstructure after the first heat treatment, but the low carbon steel had a ferrite-pearlite microstructure after the second heat treatment. After the double heat treatment, the sample showed the optimum hardness because of grain refinement and homogenization of the microstructure.

  16. Effect of heat-treatment on toughness and strength properties of C-Mn steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd bin Harun; Goh Kian Seong; Jasmin binti Baba

    1991-01-01

    The strength and toughness of the heat-treated and tempered C-Mn are studied. Two types of heat-treatment have been carried out with the specimens in an argon gas. The variation in the fracture surfaces of the heat-treated and tempered specimens with impact test temperature is discussed also

  17. Effect of heat treatment of toughness and strength properties of C-Mn steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad bin Harun; Goh Kian Seong; Yasmin binti Baba

    1989-01-01

    The strength and toughness of the heat-treated and tempered C-Mn are studied. Two type of heat-treatments have been carried out with the specimens in an argon gas. The variation in the fracture surfaces of the heat-treated and tempered specimens with impact test temperatures also is discussed. (author)

  18. Calculation and Designing of Up-to-Date Gas-Flame Plants for Metal Heating and Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Тimoshpolsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of development trends in the CIS machine-building industry and current status of the heating and heat treatment furnaces of main machine-building enterprises of the Republic of Belarus as of the 1st quarter of 2008 is given in the paper.The paper presents the most efficient engineering solutions from technological and economic point of view that concern calculation and designing of up-to-date gas-flame plants which are to be applied for modernization of the current heating and heat treatment furnaces of the machine-building enterprises in the Republic of Belarus.A thermo-technical calculation of main indices of the up-to-date gas-flame plant has been carried out in the paper.

  19. Abnormal Grain Growth in the Heat Affected Zone of Friction Stir Welded Joint of 32Mn-7Cr-1Mo-0.3N Steel during Post-Weld Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The abnormal grain growth in the heat affected zone of the friction stir welded joint of 32Mn-7Cr-1Mo-0.3N steel after post-weld heat treatment was confirmed by physical simulation experiments. The microstructural stability of the heat affected zone can be weakened by the welding thermal cycle. It was speculated to be due to the variation of the non-equilibrium segregation state of solute atoms at the grain boundaries. In addition, the pressure stress in the welding process can promote abnormal grain growth in the post-weld heat treatment.

  20. Effect of an Intermediate Heat-treatment on a Change of the Corrosion Resistance and Hardness of a HANA-4 Outer Strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Sang Yoon; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Eom, Kyong Bo; Park, Nam Gyu; Lim, Yoon Soo

    2008-01-01

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) in collaboration with KNF (Korea Nuclear Fuel) undertook some researches on the applicability of HANA-4 and HANA-6 alloys for the spacer grid for a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear fuel. As a part of the research, KAERI studied the effect of the final heat-treatment on the mechanical and corrosion properties of a HANA-4 inner strip. The strip was manufactured with a sheet which had been intermediately heat-treated at about 580 .deg. C for 2.5-4 hours after each cold rolling before being processed into the final strip product. It was mentioned that the process with the intermediate heat treatment needed reviewing to establish an improved manufacturing process for the cold rolling. So, this work tried to check the effect of an intermediate heat-treatment on the properties of a HANA-4 strip using a specimen that was taken from a second hot rolled material before a cold-rolling. The manufacturing processes, with three different kinds of annealings, were introduced to investigate the applicable intermediate heat-treatment process. After all the cold-rolling processes, the Vickers hardness was measured for the final annealed specimens and 60 days of corrosion tests were carried out to check on the effect of the intermediate heat-treatment. Finally, an appropriate intermediate heat-treatment was proposed to improve the manufacturability of the HANA-4 strip

  1. Evaluation procedure for radioactive waste treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.

    1979-11-01

    An aspect of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's nuclear waste management R and D programs has been to develop an evaluation procedure for radioactive waste treatment processes. This report describes the process evaluation method. Process worth is expressed as a numerical index called the Figure-of-Merit (FOM), which is computed using a hierarchial, linear, additive, scoring model with constant criteria weights and nonlinear value functions. A numerical example is used to demonstrate the procedure and to point out some of its strengths and weaknesses. Potential modifications and extensions are discussed, and an extensive reference list is included

  2. Containerless Heating Process of a Deeply Undercooled Metal Droplet by Electrostatic Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei-Long; Dai Bin; Liu Xue-Feng; Sun Yi-Ning; Sun Zhi-Bin; Yu Qiang; Zhai Guang-Jie

    2015-01-01

    We present the containerless heating process of a deeply undercooled metal droplet by electrostatic levitation. The problem of surface charge loss in the heating process is discussed and specific formulas are given to describe the basic process of charge supplement by the photoelectric and thermoelectric effects. The pure metal zirconium is used to be melted and solidified to analyze the heating process. The temperature-time curve clearly shows the features including melting, undercooling, recalescence and solid-state phase transformation. (paper)

  3. Effects of Heat Treatment on SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Michael W.

    Residual stresses resulting from the manufacturing process found within a silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) ceramic matrix composite were thoroughly investigated through the use of high-energy X-ray diffraction and Raman microspectroscopy. The material system studied was a Rolls-Royce composite produced with Hi-Nicalon fibers woven into a five harness satin weave, coated with boron nitride and silicon carbide interphases, and subsequently infiltrated with silicon carbide particles and a silicon matrix. Constituent stress states were measured before, during, and after heat treatments ranging from 900 °C to 1300 °C for varying times between one and sixty minutes. Stress determination methods developed through these analyses can be utilized in the development of ceramic matrix composites and other materials employing boron-doped silicon. X-ray diffraction experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source to investigate the evolution of constituent stresses through heat treatment, and determine how stress states are affected at high temperature through in situ measurements during heat treatments up to 1250 °C for 30 minutes. Silicon carbide particles in the as-received condition exhibited a nearly isotropic stress state with average tensile stresses of approximately 300 MPa. The silicon matrix exhibited a complimentary average compressive stress of approximately 300 MPa. Strong X-ray diffraction evidence is presented demonstrating solid state boron diffusion and increased boron solubility found in silicon throughout heat treatment. While the constituent stress states did evolve through the heat treatment cycles, including approaching nearly stress-free conditions at temperatures close to the manufacturing temperature, no permanent relaxation of stress was observed. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to investigate stresses found within silicon carbide particles embedded within the matrix and the silicon matrix as an alternate

  4. Surface hardening using cw CO2 laser: laser heat treatment, modelation, and experimental work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, German; Alum, Jorge

    1996-02-01

    In the present work are given the results of the application of laser metal surface hardening techniques using a cw carbon dioxide laser as an energy source on steel 65 G. The laser heat treatment results are presented theoretically and experimentally. Continuous wave carbon dioxide laser of 0.6, 0.3, and 0.4 kW were used. A physical model for the descriptions of the thermophysical laser metal interactions process is given and a numerical algorithm is used to solve this problem by means of the LHT code. The results are compared with the corresponding experimental ones and a very good agreement is observed. The LHT code is able to do predictions of transformation hardening by laser heating. These results will be completed with other ones concerning laser alloying and cladding presented in a second paper.

  5. Influence of Heat Treatment on Mercury Cavitation Resistance of Surface Hardened 316LN Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Hsu, Julia [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2010-11-01

    The cavitation-erosion resistance of carburized 316LN stainless steel was significantly degraded but not destroyed by heat treatment in the temperature range 500-800 C. The heat treatments caused rejection of some carbon from the carburized layer into an amorphous film that formed on each specimen surface. Further, the heat treatments encouraged carbide precipitation and reduced hardness within the carburized layer, but the overall change did not reduce surface hardness fully to the level of untreated material. Heat treatments as short as 10 min at 650 C substantially reduced cavitation-erosion resistance in mercury, while heat treatments at 500 and 800 C were found to be somewhat less detrimental. Overall, the results suggest that modest thermal excursions perhaps the result of a weld made at some distance to the carburized material or a brief stress relief treatment will not render the hardened layer completely ineffective but should be avoided to the greatest extent possible.

  6. Heat treatment device for extending the life of a pressure vessel, particularly a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, P.; Mueller, E.; Poerner, H.; Weber, R.

    1979-01-01

    A support body in the form of an insulating cylinder is tightly sealed by connected surfaces at its outer circumference to the inner wall of the pressure vessel. It forms an annular heating space. The heat treatment or tempering of the pressure vessel takes place with the reactor space empty and screened from the outside by ceiling bolts. Heating gas or an induction winding can be used as the means of heating. (DG) [de

  7. Simple approach to carboxyl-rich materials through low-temperature heat treatment of hydrothermal carbon in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhen; Ma Lijian; Li Shuqiong; Geng Junxia; Song Qiang; Liu Jun; Wang Chunli; Wang Hang; Li Juan [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu 610064 (China); Qin Zhi [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li Shoujian, E-mail: sjli000616@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2011-08-01

    It was found that a large number of oxygen-containing functional groups (OFGs) could be created on the surface of hydrothermal carbon (HTC) by simply heating at lower temperature in air during the course of our preliminary experiments which focused on oxidation pre-treatment of pristine HTC for the purpose of grafting functionalization. Especially carboxyl groups on HTC would increase significantly, from 0.53 to 3.70 mmol/g after heat treatment at 300 deg. C. So, effects of heat-treatment on the OFGs on the carbon microsphere were deeply studied to confirm and explain the findings. Experiments involving different materials (HTC, activated carbon and glucose) were performed under varying conditions (heating temperature and time, in air or in Ar atmosphere). A reaction mechanism for newly generating carboxyl groups on HTC surface during heat-treatment process was supposed based on the results from the sample characterization using Boehm titrations, infrared spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and elemental analysis. In addition, the as heat-treated product has excellent sorption capability for Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions.

  8. The local heat treatment equipment and technology of the pipelines welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol'kov, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The principal methods and equipment for local treatment of the pipe-lines weld joints in different industry branches is described. Recommendations about heat treatment equipment and technology application are given

  9. Study of critical dependence of stable phases in Nitinol on heat treatment using electrical resistivity probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchil, J.; Mohanchandra, K.P.; Kumara, K.G.; Mahesh, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    Phase transformations in 40% cold-worked Nitinol as a function of heat treatment have been studied using electrical resistivity variation with temperature. The stabilisation of austenitic, rhombohedral and martensitic phases is shown to critically depend on the temperatures of heat treatment by the analysis of temperature dependence of electrical resistivity in heating and cooling parts of the cycle. Characteristic values of electrical resistivity of the stable phases are determined. The R-phase has been found to form continuously with increasing heat-treatment temperature starting from room temperature and to suddenly disappear beyond heat-treatment at 683 K. The observed presence or absence of R-phase is confirmed by heat capacity measurements as a function of temperature. (orig.)

  10. Heat Treatment of a Casting Element of a Through Clamp to Suspension of Electric Cables on Line Post Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezda J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment of a casting elements poured from silumins belongs to technological processes aimed mainly at change of their mechanical properties in solid state, inducing predetermined structural changes, which are based on precipitation processes (structural strengthening of the material, being a derivative of temperature and duration of solutioning and ageing operations. The subject-matter of this paper is the issue concerning implementation of a heat treatment process, basing on selection of dispersion hardening parameters to assure improvement of technological quality in terms of mechanical properties of a clamping element of energy network suspension, poured from hypoeutectic silumin of the LM25 brand; performed on the basis of experimental research program with use of the ATD method, serving to determination of temperature range of solutioning and ageing treatments. The heat treatment performed in laboratory conditions on a component of energy network suspension has enabled increase of the tensile strength Rm and the hardness HB with about 60-70% comparing to the casting without the heat treatment, when the casting was solutioned at temperature 520 °C for 1 hour and aged at temperature 165 °C during 3 hours.

  11. Waste heat and water recovery opportunities in California tomato paste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amón, Ricardo; Maulhardt, Mike; Wong, Tony; Kazama, Don; Simmons, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Water and energy efficiency are important for the vitality of the food processing industry as demand for these limited resources continues to increase. Tomato processing, which is dominated by paste production, is a major industry in California – where the majority of tomatoes are processed in the United States. Paste processing generates large amounts of condensate as moisture is removed from the fruit. Recovery of the waste heat in this condensate and reuse of the water may provide avenues to decrease net energy and water use at processing facilities. However, new processing methods are needed to create demand for the condensate waste heat. In this study, the potential to recover condensate waste heat and apply it to the tomato enzyme thermal inactivation processing step (the hot break) is assessed as a novel application. A modeling framework is established to predict heat transfer to tomatoes during the hot break. Heat recovery and reuse of the condensate water are related to energy and monetary savings gained through decreased use of steam, groundwater pumping, cooling towers, and wastewater processing. This analysis is informed by water and energy usage data from relevant unit operations at a commercial paste production facility. The case study indicates potential facility seasonal energy and monetary savings of 7.3 GWh and $166,000, respectively, with most savings gained through reduced natural gas use. The sensitivity of heat recovery to various process variables associated with heat exchanger design and processing conditions is presented to identify factors that affect waste heat recovery. - Highlights: • The potential to recovery waste heat in tomato paste processing is examined. • Heat transfer from evaporator condensate to tomatoes in the hot break is modeled. • Processing facility data is used in model to predict heat recovery energy savings. • The primary benefit of heat recovery is reduced use of natural gas in boilers. • Reusing

  12. Research on Heat Exchange Process in Aircraft Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichindaev, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Using of heat-exchanger-condenser in the air conditioning system of the airplane Tu-204 (Boeing, Airbus, Superjet 100, MS-21, etc.) for cooling the compressed air by the cold air with negative temperature exiting the turbine results in a number of operational problems. Mainly it’s frosting of the heat exchange surface, which is the cause of live-section channels frosting, resistance increasing and airflow in the system decreasing. The purpose of this work is to analyse the known freeze-up-fighting methods for heat-exchanger-condenser, description of the features of anti-icing protection and offering solutions to this problem. For the problem of optimizing the design of heat exchangers in this work used generalized criterion that describes the ratio of thermal resistances of cold and hot sections, which include: the ratio of the initial values of heat transfer agents flow state; heat exchange surface finning coefficients; factors which describes the ratio of operating parameters and finning area. By controlling the ratio of the thermal resistances can be obtained the desired temperature of the heat exchange surface, which would prevent freezing. The work presents the results of a numerical study of the effect of different combinations of regime and geometrical factors changes on reduction of the heat-exchanger-condenser freezing surface area, including using of variable ratio of thermal resistances.

  13. A novel laboratory scale method for studying heat treatment of cake flour

    OpenAIRE

    Chesterton, AKS; Wilson, David Ian; Sadd, PI; Moggridge, Geoffrey Dillwyn

    2014-01-01

    A lab-scale method for replicating the time–temperature history experienced by cake flours undergoing heat treatment was developed based on a packed bed configuration. The performance of heat-treated flours was compared with untreated and commercially heat-treated flour by test baking a high ratio cake formulation. Both cake volume and AACC shape measures were optimal after 15 min treatment at 130 °C, though their values varied between harvests. Separate oscillatory rheometry tests of cake ba...

  14. Heat Treatment of Gas-Atomized Powders for Cold Spray Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, William A.; Brewer, Luke N.

    2018-02-01

    This communication demonstrates the efficacy of heat treatment on the improved deposition characteristics of aluminum alloy powders. A novel furnace was constructed for solutionizing of feedstock powders in an inert atmosphere while avoiding sintering. This furnace design achieved sufficiently high cooling rates to limit re-precipitation during powder cooling. Microscopy showed homogenization of the powder particle microstructures after heat treatment. Cold spray deposition efficiency with heat-treated powders substantially increased for the alloys AA2024, AA6061, and AA7075.

  15. Heat stroke during long-term clozapine treatment: should we be concerned about hot weather?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; Oliveira, Lucas Mendes; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the case of a patient with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment who had an episode of heat stroke. Case description During a heat wave in January and February 2014, a patient with schizophrenia who was on treatment with clozapine was initially referred for differential diagnose between systemic infection and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, but was finally diagnosed with heat stroke and treated with control of body temperature and hydration. Comments This report aims to...

  16. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment...... is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies...... briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication....

  17. Process for sewage biological treatment from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, K.; Cecal, A.; Craciun, I.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the sewage treatment, in particular to the sewage biological treatmen from radioactive waste, namely from uranium. The process dor sewage biological treatment from uranium includes cultivation in the sewage of the aquatic plants Lemna minor and Spirulina platensis. The plants cultivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage for cultivation is used Lemna minor in the second stage - Spirulina platensis . After finishing the plant cultivation it is carried out separation of their biomass. The result of the invention consists in increasing the uranyl ions by the biomass of plants cultivated in the sewage

  18. Effect of heat treatment duration on phase separation of sodium borosilicate glass, containing copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shejnina, T.G.; Gutner, S.Kh.; Anan'in, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment duration on phase separation of sodium borosilicate (SBS) glass, containing copper is studied. It is stated that phase separation close to equilibrium one is attained under 12 hours of heat treatment of SBS glass containing copper

  19. Industrial heat treatment of R-HPDC A356 automotive brake callipers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chauke, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment of rheo-high pressure die cast (R-HPDC) A356 brake callipers has produced good mechanical properties on the laboratory scale. An industrial heat treatment is required to evaluate the applicability and conformance of the R-HPDC A356...

  20. Relaxation of residual stress in MMC after combined plastic deformation and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, G.; Ceretti, M.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.; Manescu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron Diffraction shows that plastic pre-deformation and heat treatments have opposite effects on the residual stress in Al-SiC p composites. The thermal micro residual stress is relaxed or even reversed by pre-strains above 0.2%, but restored by heat treatments. The sense of relaxation changes above 400 deg. C (the mixing temperature)