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Sample records for heat treatable aluminum

  1. Standard classification of resistance to stress-corrosion cracking of heat-treatable Aluminum alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This classification covers alphabetical ratings of the relative resistance to SCC of various mill product forms of the wrought 2XXX, 6XXX, and 7XXX series heat-treated aluminum alloys and the procedure for determining the ratings. 1.2 The ratings do not apply to metal in which the metallurgical structure has been altered by welding, forming, or other fabrication processes. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  3. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan (Revision 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 degrees to 95 degrees C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern. This document is a Treatability Study Work Plan for the demonstration program. The document contains a description of the proposed treatability study, background of the EM heating process, description of the field equipment, and demonstration test design

  4. Applicability of Solid Solution Heat Treatments to Aluminum Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Rodríguez-Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present research work evaluates the influence of both density and size on the treatability of Aluminum-based (6000 series foam-parts subjected to a typical solid solution heat treatment (water quenching. The results are compared with those obtained for the bulk alloy, evaluating the fulfilment of cooling requirements. Density of the foams was modeled by tomography analysis and the thermal properties calculated, based on validated density-scaled models. With this basis, cooling velocity maps during water quenching were predicted by finite element modeling (FEM in which boundary conditions were obtained by solving the inverse heat conduction problem. Simulations under such conditions have been validated experimentally. Obtained results address incomplete matrix hardening for foam-parts bigger than 70 mm in diameter with a density below 650 kg/m3. An excellent agreement has been found in between the predicted cooling maps and final measured microhardness profiles.

  5. Comparison of hardenability calculation methods of the heat-treatable constructional steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Sitek, W. [Division of Tool Materials and Computer Techniques in Metal Science, Silesian Technical University, Gliwice (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Evaluation has been made of the consistency of calculation of the hardenability curves of the selected heat-treatable alloyed constructional steels with the experimental data. The study has been conducted basing on the analysis of present state of knowledge on hardenability calculation employing the neural network methods. Several calculation examples and comparison of the consistency of calculation methods employed are included. (author). 35 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  6. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-07-07

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the `70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid `80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern.

  7. Martensitic transformation and residual stresses after thermomechanical treatment of heat treatable steel 42CrMo4 (SAE 4140)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, A. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz-Zwickau, Chemnitz (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau und Verfahrenstechnik; Fritsche, G. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz-Zwickau, Chemnitz (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau und Verfahrenstechnik

    1996-01-01

    The influence of thermomechanical deformation on the residual stresses caused by quenching in bar shaped specimens of heat treatable steel 42CrMo4 has been investigated using a mechanical method for determining the distribution of residual stresses of the first kind. The results obtained show that the residual stress distribution after quenching is affected by the strengthening and softening of the austenite as a result of deformation and recrystallization and the modified transformation behaviour in martensite stage. An attempt is made to discuss qualitatively the influence of these changes on the generation of residual stresses as compared to results obtained after conventional hardening. (orig.).

  8. Martensitic transformation and residual stresses after thermomechanical treatment of heat treatable steel 42CrMo4 (SAE 4140)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, A.; Fritsche, G.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of thermomechanical deformation on the residual stresses caused by quenching in bar shaped specimens of heat treatable steel 42CrMo4 has been investigated using a mechanical method for determining the distribution of residual stresses of the first kind. The results obtained show that the residual stress distribution after quenching is affected by the strengthening and softening of the austenite as a result of deformation and recrystallization and the modified transformation behaviour in martensite stage. An attempt is made to discuss qualitatively the influence of these changes on the generation of residual stresses as compared to results obtained after conventional hardening. (orig.)

  9. Utilization of Aluminum Waste with Hydrogen and Heat Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryakovskaya, O. A.; Meshkov, E. A.; Vlaskin, M. S.; Shkolnokov, E. I.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2017-10-01

    A concept of energy generation via hydrogen and heat production from aluminum containing wastes is proposed. The hydrogen obtained by oxidation reaction between aluminum waste and aqueous solutions can be supplied to fuel cells and/or infrared heaters for electricity or heat generation in the region of waste recycling. The heat released during the reaction also can be effectively used. The proposed method of aluminum waste recycling may represent a promising and cost-effective solution in cases when waste transportation to recycling plants involves significant financial losses (e.g. remote areas). Experiments with mechanically dispersed aluminum cans demonstrated that the reaction rate in alkaline solution is high enough for practical use of the oxidation process. In theexperiments aluminum oxidation proceeds without any additional aluminum activation.

  10. Development and testing of aluminum micro channel heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraguruparan, G.; Sornakumar, T.

    2010-06-01

    Microchannel heat sinks constitute an innovative cooling technology for the removal of a large amount of heat from a small area and are suitable for electronics cooling. In the present work, Tool Steel D2 grade milling slitting saw type plain milling cutter is fabricated The microchannels are machined in aluminum work pieces to form the microchannel heat sink using the fabricated milling cutter in an horizontal milling machine. A new experimental set-up is fabricated to conduct the tests on the microchannel heat sink. The heat carried by the water increases with mass flow rate and heat input. The heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number increases with mass flow rate and increased heat input. The pressure drop increases with Reynolds number and decreases with input heat. The friction factor decreases with Reynolds number and decreases with input heat. The thermal resistance decreases with pumping power and decreases with input heat.

  11. Semi-solid near-net shape rheocasting of heat treatable wrought aluminum alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, UA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility of the CSIR-RCS, induction stirring with simultaneous air cooling process, in combination with high pressure die casting is successfully demonstrated by semi-solid rheocasting of plates performed on commercial 2024, 6082 and 7075 wrought...

  12. Impact Toughness and Heat Treatment for Cast Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for transforming a cast component made of modified aluminum alloy by increasing the impact toughness coefficient using minimal heat and energy. The aluminum alloy is modified to contain 0.55%-0.60% magnesium, 0.10%-0.15% titanium or zirconium, less than 0.07% iron, a silicon-tomagnesium product ratio of 4.0, and less than 0.15% total impurities. The shortened heat treatment requires an initial heating at 1,000deg F. for up to I hour followed by a water quench and a second heating at 350deg F. to 390deg F. for up to I hour. An optional short bake paint cycle or powder coating process further increase.

  13. Heat treatable indium tin oxide films deposited with high power pulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, F.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared by high power pulse magnetron sputtering [D. J. Christie, F. Tomasel, W. D. Sproul, D. C. Carter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 22 (2004) 1415. ] without substrate heating. The ITO films were deposited from a ceramic target at a deposition rate of approx. 5.5 nm*m/min kW. Afterwards, the ITO films were covered with a siliconoxynitride film sputtered from a silicon alloy target in order to prevent oxidation of the ITO film during annealing at 650 deg. C for 10 min in air. The optical and electrical properties as well as the texture and morphology of these films were investigated before and after annealing. Mechanical durability of the annealed films was evaluated at different test conditions. The results were compared with state-of-the art ITO films which were obtained at optimized direct current magnetron sputtering conditions

  14. Process Design of Aluminum Tailor Heat Treated Blanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kahrimanidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many industrials field, especially in the automotive sector, there is a trend toward lightweight constructions in order to reduce the weight and thereby the CO2 and NOx emissions of the products. An auspicious approach within this context is the substitution of conventional deep drawing steel by precipitation hardenable aluminum alloys. However, based on the low formability, the application for complex stamping parts is challenging. Therefore, at the Institute of Manufacturing Technology, an innovative technology to enhance the forming limit of these lightweight materials was invented. The key idea of the so-called Tailor Heat Treated Blanks (THTB is optimization of the mechanical properties by local heat treatment before the forming operation. An accurate description of material properties is crucial to predict the forming behavior of tailor heat treated blanks by simulation. Therefore, within in this research project, a holistic approach for the design of the THTB process in dependency of the main influencing parameters is presented and discussed in detail. The capability of the approach for the process development of complex forming operations is demonstrated by a comparison of local blank thickness of a tailgate with the corresponding results from simulation.

  15. Influence of Orientation and Radiative Heat Transfer on Aluminum Foams in Buoyancy-Induced Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiet, Marijn; De Schampheleire, Sven; Huisseune, Henk; De Paepe, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Two differently-produced open-cell aluminum foams were compared to a commercially available finned heat sink. Further, an aluminum plate and block were tested as a reference. All heat sinks have the same base plate dimensions of four by six inches. The first foam was made by investment casting of a polyurethane preform and has a porosity of 0.946 and a pore density of 10 pores per linear inch. The second foam is manufactured by casting over a solvable core and has a porosity of 0.85 and a pore density of 2.5 pores per linear inch. The effects of orientation and radiative heat transfer are experimentally investigated. The heat sinks are tested in a vertical and horizontal orientation. The effect of radiative heat transfer is investigated by comparing a painted/anodized heat sink with an untreated one. The heat flux through the heat sink for a certain temperature difference between the environment and the heat sink’s base plate is used as the performance indicator. For temperature differences larger than 30 ∘C, the finned heat sink outperforms the in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink on average by 17%. Furthermore, the in-house-made aluminum foam dissipates on average 12% less heat than the other aluminum foam for a temperature difference larger than 40 ∘C. By painting/anodizing the heat sinks, the heat transfer rate increased on average by 10% to 50%. Finally, the thermal performance of the horizontal in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink is up to 18% larger than the one of the vertical aluminum foam heat sink. PMID:28793601

  16. Influence of Orientation and Radiative Heat Transfer on Aluminum Foams in Buoyancy-Induced Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn Billiet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two differently-produced open-cell aluminum foams were compared to a commercially available finned heat sink. Further, an aluminum plate and block were tested as a reference. All heat sinks have the same base plate dimensions of four by six inches. The first foam was made by investment casting of a polyurethane preform and has a porosity of 0.946 and a pore density of 10 pores per linear inch. The second foam is manufactured by casting over a solvable core and has a porosity of 0.85 and a pore density of 2.5 pores per linear inch. The effects of orientation and radiative heat transfer are experimentally investigated. The heat sinks are tested in a vertical and horizontal orientation. The effect of radiative heat transfer is investigated by comparing a painted/anodized heat sink with an untreated one. The heat flux through the heat sink for a certain temperature difference between the environment and the heat sink’s base plate is used as the performance indicator. For temperature differences larger than 30 °C, the finned heat sink outperforms the in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink on average by 17%. Furthermore, the in-house-made aluminum foam dissipates on average 12% less heat than the other aluminum foam for a temperature difference larger than 40 °C. By painting/anodizing the heat sinks, the heat transfer rate increased on average by 10% to 50%. Finally, the thermal performance of the horizontal in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink is up to 18% larger than the one of the vertical aluminum foam heat sink.

  17. Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ian

    2013-05-21

    A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

  18. Aluminum fin-stock alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.M.; Mutasher, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have long been used in the production of heat exchanger fins. The comparative properties of the different alloys used for this purpose has not been an issue in the past, because of the significant thickness of the finstock material. However, in order to make fins lighter in weight, there is a growing demand for thinner finstock materials, which has emphasized the need for improved mechanical properties, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The objective of this project is to determine the effect of iron, silicon and manganese percentage increment on the required mechanical properties for this application by analyzing four different aluminum alloys. The four selected aluminum alloys are 1100, 8011, 8079 and 8150, which are wrought non-heat treatable alloys with different amount of the above elements. Aluminum alloy 1100 serve as a control specimen, as it is commercially pure aluminum. The study also reports the effect of different annealing cycles on the mechanical properties of the selected alloys. Metallographic examination was also preformed to study the effect of annealing on the precipitate phases and the distribution of these phases for each alloy. The microstructure analysis of the aluminum alloys studied indicates that the precipitated phase in the case of aluminum alloys 1100 and 8079 is beta-FeAI3, while in 8011 it is a-alfa AIFeSi, and the aluminum alloy 8150 contains AI6(Mn,Fe) phase. The comparison of aluminum alloys 8011 and 8079 with aluminum alloy 1100 show that the addition of iron and silicon improves the percent elongation and reduces strength. The manganese addition increases the stability of mechanical properties along the annealing range as shown by the comparison of aluminum alloy 8150 with aluminum alloy 1100. Alloy 8150 show superior properties over the other alloys due to the reaction of iron and manganese, resulting in a preferable response to thermal treatment and improved mechanical properties. (author)

  19. The study of the heat-engineering characteristics of a solar heat collector based on aluminum heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairnasov, S.M.; Zaripov, V.K.; Passamakin, B.M. et al.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies into the heat-engineering characteristics of a flat heat solar collector based on aluminum heat pipes that is designed to be used in building facades. The principle of work and the structure of the solar collector are considered; the results of its comparison with a traditional flat solar collector are presented. The studies were performed at a heat carrier temperature range of +10 - +30 degree C and at a solar heat flow density of 400 - 1000 W/m 2 . The obtained experimental heat-engineering characteristics of the collector based on heat pipes show that they are at a level of traditional flow solar collectors; for example, its efficiency is 0.65 - 0.73. Meanwhile, the hydraulic resistance of the structure with heat pipes is by a factor of 2 - 2.4 smaller and ensures a high level of scalability, reliability, and maintainability, which is important when using it as an element of facade constructions of solar heat systems. (author)

  20. Enhancement of heat dissipation of LED module with cupric-oxide composite coating on aluminum-alloy heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Junghoon; Kim, Junho; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Chung, Wonsub

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We fabricate the CuO/resin composite coating layer on aluminum alloy heat sink. • CuO/resin coating considerably improved the surface emissivity. • The LED junction temperature was reduced by CuO/resin coated heat sink. • The thermal resistance of heat sink was decreased by CuO/resin composite coating at 200 μm thickness. - Abstract: A composite coating composed of cupric oxide (CuO) and silicon-based resin was applied to an aluminum-alloy heat sink for a light emitting diode (LED) module. The purpose of the composite coating is to improve the heat dissipation performance of heat sink by enhancing thermal radiation emission. The heat dissipation performance was investigated in terms of LED junction temperature and thermal resistance using a thermal transient method. The CuO and silicon-based resin composite coating showed higher emissivity, and the lower junction temperature and thermal resistance of the heat sink was achieved. In addition, a continuous operation test of the LED chip with the heat sink revealed that the surface treated with the CuO composite coating stably dissipated heat without degradation. In conclusion, the composite coating proposed here showed a significant improvement of the heat dissipation performance of the aluminum-alloy heat sink due to the enhanced thermal radiation property.

  1. Process and equipment development for hot isostatic pressing treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Ken; Wahlquist, Dennis; Malewitz, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), LLC, has developed processes and equipment for a pilot-scale hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatability study to stabilize and volume reduce radioactive calcine stored at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy signed a Record of Decision with the state of Idaho selecting HIP technology as the method to treat 5,800 yd^3 (4,400 m^3) of granular zirconia and alumina calcine produced between 1953 and 1992 as a waste byproduct of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since the 1990s, a variety of radioactive and hazardous waste forms have been remotely treated using HIP within INL hot cells. To execute the remote process at INL, waste is loaded into a stainless-steel or aluminum can, which is evacuated, sealed, and placed into a HIP furnace. The HIP simultaneously heats and pressurizes the waste, reducing its volume and increasing its durability. Two 1 gal cans of calcine waste currently stored in a shielded cask were identified as candidate materials for a treatability study involving the HIP process. Equipment and materials for cask-handling and calcine transfer into INL hot cells, as well as remotely operated equipment for waste can opening, particle sizing, material blending, and HIP can loading have been designed and successfully tested. These results demonstrate BEA’s readiness for treatment of INL calcine.

  2. Improved corrosion resistance of aluminum brazing sheet by a post-brazing heat treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norouzi Afshar, F.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Glenn, A. M.; Taheri, P.; Sababi, M.; Terryn, H.A.; Mol, J.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    This work studies the influence of the microstructure on the corrosion mechanism and susceptibility of as-brazed aluminum sheet. Various microstructures are obtained using postbrazing heat treatments developed to enhance the corrosion resistance of an AA4xxx/AA3xxx brazing sheet. The heat

  3. Resolving electrical conductivities from collisionally damped plasmons in isochorically heated warm dense aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fletcher, L. B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chung, H. -K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gamboa, E. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lee, H. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Omarbakiyeva, Y. [International IT Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Univ. Rostock (Germany); Reinholz, H. [Univ. Rostock (Germany); ; Univ. of Western Australia, Crawley, WA (Australia); Ropke, G. [Univ. Rostock (Germany); Rosmej, S. [Univ. Rostock (Germany); Zastrau, U. [European XFEL, Hamburg (Germany); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-03-29

    We measure the highly-resolved inelastic x-ray scattering spectrum of isochorically ultrafast heated aluminum. In the x-ray forward scattering spectra the electron temperature could be measured from the down- and upshifted plasmon, where the electron density of ne = 1:8 1023 cm3 is known a priori. We have studied the plasmon damping by applying electron-particle collision models beyond the Born approximation determining the electrical conductivity of warm dense aluminum.

  4. Characterization of Aluminum Magnesium Alloy Reverse Sensitized via Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    when magnesium comes out of solution as a second phase, Al3Mg2, on the grain boundaries, eventually forming a continuous network and increasing...alloys. Al-Mg alloys can become sensitized when magnesium comes out of solution as a second phase, Al3Mg2, on the grain boundaries, eventually...THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. MOTIVATION Aluminum alloys are attractive ship-building materials. They are lightweight

  5. Heating of aluminum by SPR-III burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    Real time temperature measurements were made on an aluminum cylinder exposed to radiation bursts at SPR-III at neutron levels from 10 11 cm -2 to 4.5 x 10 14 cm -2 . Precision thermistors and high speed A/D converters were used to measure temperature with .0025 degree C resolution at 20ms intervals following the burst. Temperature data is presented as a function of neutron fluence

  6. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  7. Soil washing treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS

  8. Numbers game : using aluminum helps Global Heat Transfer develop new frac radiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsters, S.

    2009-11-15

    Aluminum is thought to be a beneficial new option for the construction of frac radiators. This article discussed how aluminum has been used to help Global Heat Transfer Ltd. (GHT) develop new frac radiators. The company developed the Jumbotron, an all-aluminum frac radiator that achieved 3,000 horsepower, but with less weight than a typical 2,250 horsepower package. The article provided information on Jumbotron, including how it was conceptualized, its features, applications, and other details. Background information on GHT was also presented. GHT focuses on the oil and gas and mining sectors and has over 500 employees worldwide in 15 locations. The aluminum parts for the Jumbotron frac radiator are produced at one of GHT's China facilities and brought to Canada for final assembly. 1 fig.

  9. Evaluation of the Characteristics of the Aluminum Alloy Casting Material by Heat Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Syung Yul; Park, Dong Hyun; Won, Jong Pil; Kim, Yun Hae; Lee, Myung Hoon; Moon, Kyung Man; Jeong, Jae Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum is on active metal, but it is well known that its oxide film plays a role as protective barrier which is comparatively stable in air and neutral aqueous solution. Thus, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in architectural trim, cold and hot-water storage vessels and piping etc., furthermore, the aluminum alloy of AC8A have been widely used in mold casting material of engine piston because of its properties of temperature and wear resistance. In recent years, the oil price is getting higher and higher, thus the using of low quality oil has been significantly increased in engines of ship and vehicle. Therefore it is considered that evaluation of corrosion resistance as well as wear resistance of AC8A material is also important to improve its property and prolong its lifetime. In this study, the effect of solution and tempering heat treatment to corrosion and wear resistance is investigated with electrochemical method and measurement of hardness. The hardness decreased with solution heat treatment compared to mold casting condition, but its value increased with tempering heat treatment and exhibited the highest value of hardness with tempering heat treatment temperature at 190 .deg. C for 24hrs. Furthermore, corrosion resistance increased with decreasing of the hardness, and decreased with increasing of the hardness reversely. As a result, it is suggested that the optimum heat treatment to improve both corrosion and wear resistance is tempering heat treatment temperature at 190 .deg. C for 16hrs

  10. Evaluation of Ultrasonic Nonlinear Characteristics in Heat-Treated Aluminum Alloy (Al-Mg-Si-Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongBeom Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear ultrasonic technique has been known to be more sensitive to minute variation of elastic properties in material than the conventional linear ultrasonic method. In this study, the ultrasonic nonlinear characteristics in the heat-treated aluminum alloy (Al-Mg-Si-Cu have been evaluated. For this, the specimens were heat treated for various heating period up to 50 hours at three different heating temperatures: 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C. The ultrasonic nonlinear characteristics of each specimen were evaluated by measuring the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter β from the amplitudes of fundamental and second harmonic frequency components in the transmitted ultrasonic wave. After the ultrasonic test, tensile strengths and elongations were obtained by the tensile test to compare with the parameter β. The heating time showing a peak in the parameter β was identical to that showing critical change in the tensile strength and elongation, and such peak appeared at the earlier heating time in the higher heating temperature. These results suggest that the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter β can be used for monitoring the variations in elastic properties of aluminum alloys according to the heat treatment.

  11. Method of Heat Treating Aluminum-Lithium Alloy to Improve Formability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor); Russell, Carolyn Kurgan (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method is provided for heat treating aluminum-lithium alloys to improve their formability. The alloy is heated to a first temperature, maintained at the first temperature for a first time period, heated at the conclusion of the first time period to a second temperature, maintained at the second temperature for a second time period, actively cooled at the conclusion of the second time period to a third temperature, maintained at the third temperature for a third time period, and then passively cooled at the conclusion of the third time period to room temperature.

  12. Systematic approach to optimal design of induction heating installations for aluminum extrusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimin, L. S.; Sorokin, A. G.; Egiazaryan, A. S.; Filimonova, O. V.

    2018-03-01

    An induction heating system has a number of inherent benefits compared to traditional heating systems due to a non-contact heating process. It is widely used in vehicle manufacture, cast-rolling, forging, preheating before rolling, heat treatment, galvanizing and so on. Compared to other heating technologies, induction heating has the advantages of high efficiency, fast heating rate and easy control. The paper presents a new systematic approach to the design and operation of induction heating installations (IHI) in aluminum alloys production. The heating temperature in industrial complexes “induction heating - deformation” is not fixed in advance, but is determined in accordance with the maximization or minimization of the total economic performance during the process of metal heating and deformation. It is indicated that the energy efficient technological complex “IHI – Metal Forming (MF)” can be designed only with regard to its power supply system (PSS). So the task of designing systems of induction heating is to provide, together with the power supply system and forming equipment, the minimum energy costs for the metal retreating.

  13. Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Strength of Three Aluminum Alloys Used in Light Poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig C. Menzemer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The conjoint influence of welding and artificial aging on mechanical properties were investigated for extrusions of aluminum alloy 6063, 6061, and 6005A. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on the aluminum alloys 6063-T4, 6061-T4, and 6005A-T1 in both the as-received (AR and as-welded (AW conditions. Tensile tests were also conducted on the AR and AW alloys, subsequent to artificial aging. The welding process used was gas metal arc (GMAW with spray transfer using 120–220 A of current at 22 V. The artificial aging used was a precipitation heat treatment for 6 h at 182 °C (360 °F. Tensile tests revealed the welded aluminum alloys to have lower strength, both for yield and ultimate tensile strength, when compared to the as-received un-welded counterpart. The beneficial influence of post weld heat treatment (PWHT on strength and ductility is presented and discussed in terms of current design provisions for welded aluminum light pole structures.

  14. Performance of casting aluminum-silicon alloy condensing heating exchanger for gas-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weixue; Liu, Fengguo; You, Xue-yi

    2018-01-01

    Condensing gas boilers are widely used due to their high heat efficiency, which comes from their ability to use the recoverable sensible heat and latent heat in flue gas. The condensed water of the boiler exhaust has strong corrosion effect on the heat exchanger, which restricts the further application of the condensing gas boiler. In recent years, a casting aluminum-silicon alloy (CASA), which boasts good anti-corrosion properties, has been introduced to condensing hot water boilers. In this paper, the heat transfer performance, CO and NOx emission concentrations and CASA corrosion resistance of a heat exchanger are studied by an efficiency bench test of the gas-fired boiler. The experimental results are compared with heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka. The results show that the excess air coefficient has a significant effect on the heat efficiency and CO and NOx emission of the CASA water heater. When the excess air coefficient of the CASA gas boiler is 1.3, the CO and NOx emission concentration of the flue gas satisfies the design requirements, and the heat efficiency of water heater is 90.8%. In addition, with the increase of heat load rate, the heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger and the heat efficiency of the water heater are increased. However, when the heat load rate is at 90%, the NOx emission in the exhaust gas is the highest. Furthermore, when the temperature of flue gas is below 57 °C, the condensation of water vapor occurs, and the pH of condensed water is in the 2.5 5.5 range. The study shows that CASA water heater has good corrosion resistance and a high heat efficiency of 88%. Compared with the heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka, there is still much work to do in optimizing and improving the water heater.

  15. Treatability study sample exemption: update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This document is a RCRA Information Brief intended to update the information in the 1991 Small-Scale Treatability Study Information Brief, and to address questions about the waste and treatability study sample exemptions that have arisen since References 3 and 5 were published

  16. Heat capacity of iron, aluminum, and chromium vanadates at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshnitskii, S.M.; Fotiev, A.A.; Ignashin, V.P.; Kesler, Y.A.

    1985-09-01

    The thermodynamic characteristics of compounds participating in the processing of vanadium-containing raw materials have not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper the authors report on measurements of the heat capacities of the compounds FeVO/sub 4/, CrVO/sub 4/, AIVO/sub 4/, Fe/sub 2/V/sub 4/O/sub 13/ and FeCr(VO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ at high temperatures. The obtained experimental data on the high-temperature heat capacity of iron, aluminum, and chromium vanadates makes it possible to calculate the thermodynamic functions of these compounds at high temperatures.

  17. Influence of coolant pH on corrosion of 6061 aluminum under reactor heat transfer conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawel, S.J.; Felde, D.K.; Pawel, R.E.

    1995-10-01

    To support the design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), an experimental program was conducted wherein aluminum alloy specimens were exposed at high heat fluxes to high-velocity aqueous coolants in a corrosion test loop. The aluminum alloys selected for exposure were candidate fuel cladding materials, and the loop system was constructed to emulate the primary coolant system for the proposed ANS reactor. One major result of this program has been the generation of an experimental database defining oxide film growth on 6061 aluminum alloy cladding. Additionally, a data correlation was developed from the database to permit the prediction of film growth for any reasonable thermal-hydraulic excursion. This capability was utilized effectively during the conceptual design stages of the reactor. During the course of this research, it became clear that the kinetics of film growth on the aluminum alloy specimens were sensitively dependent on the chemistry of the aqueous coolant and that relatively small deviations from the intended pH 5 operational level resulted in unexpectedly large changes in the corrosion behavior. Examination of the kinetic influences and the details of the film morphology suggested that a mechanism involving mass transport from other parts of the test loop was involved. Such a mechanism would also be expected to be active in the operating reactor. This report emphasizes the results of experiments that best illustrate the influence of the nonthermal-hydraulic parameters on film growth and presents data to show that comparatively small variations in pH near 5.0 invoke a sensitive response. Simply, for operation in the temperature and heat flux range appropriate for the ANS studies, coolant pH levels from 4.5 to 4.9 produced significantly less film growth than those from pH 5.1 to 6. A mechanism for this behavior based on the concept of treating the entire loop as an active corrosion system is presented

  18. Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...

  19. Thermal Analysis On The Kinetics Of Magnesium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxides In Different Heating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal decomposition of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides (LDHs was investigated by thermogravimetry analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC methods in argon environment. The influence of heating rates (including 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20K/min on the thermal behavior of LDHs was revealed. By the methods of Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, the thermal kinetic parameters of activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the exothermic processes under non-isothermal conditions were calculated using the analysis of corresponding DSC curves.

  20. Effects of heat pipe cooling on permanent mold castings of aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.; Mucciardi, F.; Gruzleski, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The temperature distribution within molds is a critical parameter in determining the ultimate casting quality in permanent mold casting processes, so there is a considerable incentive to develop a more effective method of mold cooling. Based on this consideration, a novel, effective and controllable heat pipe has been successfully developed and used as a new method of permanent mold cooling. Symmetric step casting of A356 alloy have been produced in an experimental permanent mold made of H13 tool steel, which is cooled by such heat pipes. The experimental results show that heat pipes can provide extremely high cooling rates in permanent mold castings of aluminum. The dendrite arm spacing of A356 alloy is refined considerably, and porosity and shrinkage of the castings are redistributed by the heat pipe cooling. Moreover, the heat pipe can be used to determine the time when the air gap forms at the interface between the mold and the casting. The effect of heat pipe cooling on solidification time of castings of A356 alloy with different coating types is also discussed in this paper. (author)

  1. Induction heating of a spherical aluminum moderator vessel for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, A.

    1994-01-01

    This task was to identify and design a heating system to apply 15 kW of heat to a cold source vessel to simulate the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. This research project aims at the analysis of the induction heating of a spherical aluminum moderator vessel. Computer modeling is presented for the design and analysis of the induction heating system. The objective is to apply 15 kW of heat as uniformly as possible to the outer wall of a 410 mm diameter sphere of thickness 1.5 mm. The report also aims at the analysis of a system model which is simulated using the Eddycuff electromagnetic software. The computer model is built with the finite element analysis software Patran. The induction heating system analysis shows that the predicted performance is in close agreement with the computer simulated data. Hardware constraints such as power supplies and matching load are also analyzed in terms of performance and cost. Physical modeling is also suggested, in which the coil and the workpiece are scaled down

  2. Correlation between ultrasonic nonlinearity and elastic nonlinearity in heat-treated aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The nonlinear ultrasonic technique is a potential nondestructive method to evaluate material degradation, in which the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is usually measured. The ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is defined by the elastic nonlinearity coefficients of the nonlinear Hooke’s equation. Therefore, even though the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is not equal to the elastic nonlinearity parameter, they have a close relationship. However, there has been no experimental verification of the relationship between the ultrasonic and elastic nonlinearity parameters. In this study, the relationship is experimentally verified for a heat-treated aluminum alloy. Specimens of the aluminum alloy were heat-treated at 300°C for different periods of time (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 h). The relative ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter of each specimen was then measured, and the elastic nonlinearity parameter was determined by fitting the stress-strain curve obtained from a tensile test to the 5th-order-polynomial nonlinear Hooke’s equation. The results showed that the variations in these parameters were in good agreement with each other.

  3. Effect of natural aging on the properties of heat-treated A356 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Paz, J.F.; Paray, F.; Gruzleski, J.E.; Emadi, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the heat treatment of aluminum alloys, there is usually a delay time between quenching and the final artificial aging. This delay is called natural aging or preaging at room temperature. This research was conducted in order to study the effect of various natural aging times (0, 6, 12 and 20 hours) on the properties of unmodified and strontium modified A356 aluminum alloys solution heat-treated 4 hours at 540 o C, water quenched and artificially aged 6 hours at 155 o C and 170 o C. The samples were tested for electrical conductivity, microhardness, and tensile properties. In the case of the samples artificially aged at 155 o C from the results it can be seen a decrease in the microhardness and yield strength with natural aging. Regarding the samples aged at 170 o C it is noticed that natural aging at 12 hours will result in the lowest electrical conductivity, yield strength and microhardness. However, there is evidence of recovery of those properties at 20 hours of natural aging. Regarding the elongation, natural aging seems to have a positive effect when artificial aging is carried out at 155 o C, but at 170 o C an optimum elongation is obtained only at 12 hours. (author)

  4. Microstructural transformation with heat-treatment of aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Tomohiro; Matsui, Toshiaki; Eguchi, Koichi; Kikuchi, Ryuji

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite structure was prepared, and the microstructural transformation of the sample heat-treated at various temperatures was investigated. The sample was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and BET surface area. The shape of the grains in the prepared sample was hexagonal prism-like morphology. The prepared sample kept a metastable state of alumina phase at higher temperatures than the commercially available gibbsite powders. The prepared gibbsite grains underwent characteristic structural change depending on the calcination temperature. The transformation of the surface morphology was initiated at 400degC, leading to the formation of cracks with the direction parallel to the basal plane. After calcination at 1200degC, a large number of grooves were formed on the surface of the lateral planes. The specific structural change of gibbsite induced by the heat treatment was strongly related to the topotactic dehydration from gibbsite and subsequent phase transition to aluminum oxides. (author)

  5. Effect of Heating Rate on Grain Structure and Superplasticity of 7B04 Aluminum Alloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Min

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine-grained 7B04 aluminum alloy sheets were manufactured through thermo-mechanical treatment. The effects of anneal heating rate on grain structure and superplasticity were investigated using electron back scattering diffraction(EBSD and high temperature tensile test. The results show that at the heating rate of 5.0×10-3K/s, the average grain sizes along the rolling direction(RD and normal direction(ND are 28.2μm and 13.9μm respectively, the nucleation rate is 1/1000. With the increase of heating rate, the average grain size decreases, and the nucleation rate increases. When the heating rate increases to 30.0K/s, the average grain sizes along the RD and ND decrease respectively to 9.9μm and 5.1μm, and the nucleation rate increases to 1/80. Besides, with the increase of heating rate, the elongation of sheets also increases. The elongation of the specimens increases from 100% to 730% under the deforming condition of 773K/8×10-4s-1.

  6. Effect of pressure on heat transfer coefficient at the metal/mold interface of A356 aluminum alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fardi Ilkhchy, A.; Jabbari, Masoud; Davami, P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to correlate interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) to applied external pressure, in which IHTC at the interface between A356 aluminum alloy and metallic mold during the solidification of casting under different pressures were obtained using the inverse heat...... conduction problem (IHCP) method. The method covers the expedient of comparing theoretical and experimental thermal histories. Temperature profiles obtained from thermocouples were used in a finite difference heat flow program to estimate the transient heat transfer coefficients. The new simple formula...... was presented for correlation between external pressure and heat transfer coefficient. Acceptable agreement with data in literature shows the accuracy of the proposed formula....

  7. In situ treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document describes the plans for the in situ treatment zone (ISTZ) treatability test for groundwater contaminated with strontium-90. The treatability test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, in a portion of the 100-N Area adjacent to the Columbia River referred to as N-Springs. The purpose of the treatability test is to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative technology to prevent the discharge of strontium-90 contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River. The ISTZ is a passive technology that consists of placing a treatment agent in the path of the groundwater. The treatment agent must restrict target radioactive contaminants and provide time for the contaminant to decay to acceptable levels. The permeability of the treatment zone must be greater than or equal to that of the surrounding sediments to ensure that the contaminated groundwater flows through the treatment zone agent and not around the agent

  8. Characterization of 2024-T3: An aerospace aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Zainul; Taib, Nur Iskandar; Zaharinie, Tuan

    2009-01-01

    The 2024-T3 aerospace aluminum alloy, reported in this investigation, was acquired from a local aerospace industry: Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF). The heat treatable 2024-T3 aluminum alloy has been characterized by use of modern metallographic and material characterization techniques (e.g. EPMA, SEM). The microstructural characterization of the metallographic specimen involved use of an optical microscope linked with a computerized imaging system using MSQ software. The use of EPMA and electron microprobe elemental maps enabled us to detect three types of inclusions: Al-Cu, Al-Cu-Fe-Mn, and Al-Cu-Fe-Si-Mn enriched regions. In particular, the presence of Al 2 CuMg (S-phase) and the CuAl 2 (θ') phases indicated precipitation strengthening in the aluminum alloy

  9. Characterization of 2024-T3: An aerospace aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huda, Zainul [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: drzainulhuda@hotmail.com; Taib, Nur Iskandar [Department of Geology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: ntaib@alumni.indiana.edu; Zaharinie, Tuan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: rinie_3483@hotmail.com

    2009-02-15

    The 2024-T3 aerospace aluminum alloy, reported in this investigation, was acquired from a local aerospace industry: Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF). The heat treatable 2024-T3 aluminum alloy has been characterized by use of modern metallographic and material characterization techniques (e.g. EPMA, SEM). The microstructural characterization of the metallographic specimen involved use of an optical microscope linked with a computerized imaging system using MSQ software. The use of EPMA and electron microprobe elemental maps enabled us to detect three types of inclusions: Al-Cu, Al-Cu-Fe-Mn, and Al-Cu-Fe-Si-Mn enriched regions. In particular, the presence of Al{sub 2}CuMg (S-phase) and the CuAl{sub 2} ({theta}') phases indicated precipitation strengthening in the aluminum alloy.

  10. Characterization and Processing Behavior of Heated Aluminum-Polycarbonate Composite Build Plates for the FDM Additive Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri L. Messimer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most essential components of the fused deposition modeling (FDM additive manufacturing (AM process is the build plate, the surface upon which the part is constructed. These are typically made from aluminum or glass, but there are clear disadvantages to both and restrictions on which materials can be processed on them successfully. This study examined the suitability of heated aluminum-polycarbonate (AL-PC composite print beds for FDM, looking particularly at the mechanical properties, thermal behavior, deformation behavior, bonding strength with deposited material, printing quality, and range of material usability. Theoretical examination and physical experiments were performed for each of these areas; the results were compared to similar experiments done using heated aluminum and aluminum-glass print beds. Ten distinct materials (ABS, PLA, PET, HIPS, PC, TPU, PVA, nylon, metal PLA, and carbon-fiber PLA were tested for printing performance. The use of a heated AL-PC print bed was found to be a practical option for most of the materials, particularly ABS and TPU, which are often challenging to process using traditional print bed types. Generally, the results were found to be equivalent to or superior to tempered glass and superior to standard aluminum build plates in terms of printing capability.

  11. Oceanic corrosion test of bare and zinc-protected aluminum alloys for seawater heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasscer, D. S.; Morgan, T. O.; Rivera, C.; Ernst, R.; Scott, A. C.; Summerson, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Bare 3004 tubes, 7072 Alclad 3004 tubes, and bare and zinc diffusion treated 3003 extrusions from a brazed aluminum, plate-fin heat exchanger were exposed to 1.8 m/sec flowing seawater aboard an open ocean test facility moored 3.4 km off the southeast coast of Puerto Rico. After six months exposure, the average corrosion rates for most varieties of aluminum materials converged to a low value of 0.015 mm/yr (0.6 mils/yr). Pitting did not occur in bare 3003 and 3004 samples during the six month test. Pitting did occur to varying degrees in the Alclad and zinc diffusion treated material, but did not penetrate to the base metal. Biofouling countermeasures (intermittent chlorination and brushing) did not affect the corrosion rates to any significant extent. Intermittent chlorination at a level of 0.5 ppm for 28 minutes daily controlled microbiofouling of the samples but did not prevent the development of a macrobiofouling community in areas of the plumbing with low flow.

  12. Solid and liquid Equation of state for initially porous aluminum where specific heat is constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Jerry W.; Lemar, E. R.; Brown, Mary

    2011-06-01

    A porous solid's initial state is off the thermodynamic surface of the non-porous solid to start with but when pressure is high enough to cause total pore collapse or crush up, then the final states are on the condensed matter thermodynamic surfaces. The Hugoniot for the fully compacted solid is above the Principle Hugoniot with pressure, temperature and internal energy increased at a given v. There are a number of ways to define this hotter Hugoniot, which can be referenced to other thermodynamic paths on this thermodynamic surface. The choice here was to use the Vinet isotherm to define a consistent thermodynamic surface for the solid and melt phase of 6061 aluminum where specific heat is constant for the P-v-T space of interest. Analytical equations are developed for PH and TH.

  13. Influence of heat treatment on the strength and fracture toughness of 7N01 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Wang, Xiaomin, E-mail: xmwang991011@163.com [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Chen, Hui; Hu, Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Huang, Cui [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Gou, Guoqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China)

    2016-09-05

    7N01 aluminum (Al) alloys are treated by five heat treatment methods as peak aging (T6), over aging (T74), high temperature and subsequently low temperature aging (HLA), retrogression and reaging (RRA) and double retrogression and reaging (DRRA). The strength and fracture toughness of the five samples are tested, and the microstructures are investigated by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that 7N01 Al-alloy treated at T6 condition has high strength but low fracture toughness. Compared with T6 treatment, T74 and HLA treatments increase the fracture toughness by 67% and 90% respectively, while the strength decrease by 9% and 17%. RRA process is a proper treatment method for 7N01 which improves the fracture toughness without sacrificing strength. The fracture toughness of DRRA treated alloy is much lower than that of RRA. Quantitative analysis through TEM images shows that the heat treatment affects the mechanical properties of 7N01 Al-alloy highly through changing the precipitates in grains and on grain boundaries, which can be explained by the coherency strengthening mechanism and Orowan mechanism. - Highlights: • Five heat treatments which can change the properties of 7N01 Al alloy were designed. • Quantitative analysis of precipitates was employed to study the mechanism. • RRA treatment can make proper strength/toughness property balances for 7N01 Al alloy.

  14. Damp heat stability and annealing behavior of aluminum doped zinc oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohsophon, T.; Huepkes, J.; Calnan, S.; Reetz, W.; Rech, B.; Beyer, W.; Sirikulrat, N.

    2006-01-01

    The damp heat stability and subsequent vacuum annealing behavior of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) films was investigated using Hall effect measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical spectrometry techniques. The AZO films were deposited on glass or silicon wafers using reactive and non-reactive magnetron sputtering from metallic and ceramic targets, respectively. Additionally, we characterized surface textured AZO films, which are used as light scattering transparent conductive oxide (TCO) in silicon thin film solar cells. For all films a degradation of the electrical film properties was found after the damp heat treatment. For thick compact films, with large grain size, only a small increase in the electrical resistivity was observed, whereas less compact films prepared at high deposition pressures or very thin films (< 300 nm) showed an increase in resistivity by up to a factor of three already after 300 h. The conductivity degradation during damp heat treatment could be largely reversed by annealing in vacuum. However, annealing temperatures of at least 150 deg. C were required. Possible mechanisms explaining the experimental results are discussed

  15. Effect of Anode Change on Heat Transfer and Magneto-hydrodynamic Flow in Aluminum Reduction Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Baokuan; Fafard, Mario

    2016-02-01

    In order to explore the impact of anode replacement on heat transfer and magneto-hydrodynamic flow in aluminum smelting cells, a transient three-dimensional coupled mathematical model has been developed. With a steady state magnetic field, an electrical potential approach was used to obtain electromagnetic fields. Joule heating and Lorentz force, which were the source terms in the energy and momentum equations, were updated at each iteration. The phase change of molten electrolyte (bath) was modeled by an enthalpy-based technique in which the mushy zone was treated as a porous medium with porosity equal to the liquid fraction. A reasonable agreement between the test data and simulated results was achieved. Under normal conditions, the bath at the middle of the cell is hotter, while becoming colder at the four corners. Due to the heat extracted from the bath, the temperature of the new cold anode increases over time. The temperature of the bath under the new cold anode therefore quickly drops, resulting in a decrease of the electrical conductivity. More Joule effect is created. In addition, the bath under the new cold anode gradually freezes and flows more slowly. The temperature of the new anode located at the middle of the cell rises faster because of the warmer bath. It is easier to eliminate the effect of anode change when it occurs in the middle of the cell.

  16. Influence of heat treatment on the strength and fracture toughness of 7N01 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Hui; Hu, Jie; Huang, Cui; Gou, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    7N01 aluminum (Al) alloys are treated by five heat treatment methods as peak aging (T6), over aging (T74), high temperature and subsequently low temperature aging (HLA), retrogression and reaging (RRA) and double retrogression and reaging (DRRA). The strength and fracture toughness of the five samples are tested, and the microstructures are investigated by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that 7N01 Al-alloy treated at T6 condition has high strength but low fracture toughness. Compared with T6 treatment, T74 and HLA treatments increase the fracture toughness by 67% and 90% respectively, while the strength decrease by 9% and 17%. RRA process is a proper treatment method for 7N01 which improves the fracture toughness without sacrificing strength. The fracture toughness of DRRA treated alloy is much lower than that of RRA. Quantitative analysis through TEM images shows that the heat treatment affects the mechanical properties of 7N01 Al-alloy highly through changing the precipitates in grains and on grain boundaries, which can be explained by the coherency strengthening mechanism and Orowan mechanism. - Highlights: • Five heat treatments which can change the properties of 7N01 Al alloy were designed. • Quantitative analysis of precipitates was employed to study the mechanism. • RRA treatment can make proper strength/toughness property balances for 7N01 Al alloy.

  17. Experimental investigation of heat transfer of R134a in pool boiling on stainless steel and aluminum tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengler, C.; Addy, J.; Luke, A.

    2018-03-01

    Due to high energy demand required for chemical processes, refrigeration and process industries the increase of efficiency and performance of thermal systems especially evaporators is indispensable. One of the possibilities to meet this purpose are investigations in enhancement of the heat transfer in nucleate boiling where high heat fluxes at low superheat are transferred. In the present work, the heat transfer in pool boiling is investigated with pure R134a over wide ranges of reduced pressures and heat fluxes. The heating materials of the test tubes are aluminum and stainless steel. The influence of the thermal conductivity on the heat transfer coefficients is analysed by the surface roughness of sandblasted surfaces. The heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing thermal conductivity, surface roughness and reduced pressures. The experimental results show a small degradation of the heat transfer coefficients between the two heating materials aluminum and stainless steel. In correlation with the VDI Heat Atlas, the experimental results are matching well with the predictions but do not accurately consider the stainless steel material reference properties.

  18. Temperature Field Prediction for Determining the Residual Stresses Under Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Livshits

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to non-stationary temperature field blanks from aluminum alloys during heat treatment. It consists of the introduction and two smaller paragraphs. In the introduction the author concerns the influence of residual stresses arising in the manufacturing process of details, on the strength of the whole aircraft construction and, consequently, on their technical and economic parameters, such as weight, reliability, efficiency, and cost. He also notes that the residual stresses appeared during the production of parts change their location, size and direction under the influence of the elastic deformations that occur during the exploitation of aircraft. Redistributed residual stresses may have a chaotic distribution that may cause overlap of these stresses on the stresses caused by the impact of workload of constructions and destruction or damage of aircraft components.The first paragraph is devoted to the existing methods and techniques for determining the residual stresses. The presented methods and techniques are analyzed to show the advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The conclusion is drawn that the method to determine the residual stresses is necessary, its cost is less than those of existing ones, and an error does not exceed 10%.In the second section, the author divides the problem of determining the residual stresses into two parts, and describes the solution methods of the first one. The first problem is to define the temperature field of the work piece. The author uses a Fourier equation with the definition of initial and boundary conditions to describe a mathematical model of the heat cycle of work piece cooling. He draws special attention here to the fact that it is complicated to determine the heat transfer coefficient, which characterizes the process of cooling the work piece during hardening because of its dependence on a number of factors, such as changing temperature-dependent material properties of

  19. Performance analysis of ORC power generation system with low-temperature waste heat of aluminum reduction cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqi; Zhou, Naijun; Jing, Guo

    Performance of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system to recover low-temperature waste heat from aluminum reduction cell was analyzed. The temperature of waste heat is 80°C-200°C and the flow rate is 3×105m3/h. The pinch temperature difference between waste heat and working fluids is 10°C. The results show that there is optimal evaporating temperature for maximum net power under the same pinch point. For heat source temperature range of 80°C-140°C and 150°C-170°C, the working fluid given biggest net power is R227ea and R236fa, respectively. When the temperature is higher than 180°C, R236ea generates the biggest net power. The variation of heat source temperature has important effect on net power. When the temperature decreases 10%, the net power will deviate 30% from the maximum value.

  20. Microstructural evolution during the homogenization heat treatment of 6XXX and 7XXX aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Pikee

    Homogenization heat treatment of as-cast billets is an important step in the processing of aluminum extrusions. Microstructural evolution during homogenization involves elimination of the eutectic morphology by spheroidisation of the interdendritic phases, minimization of the microsegregation across the grains through diffusion, dissolution of the low-melting phases, which enhances the surface finish of the extrusions, and precipitation of nano-sized dispersoids (for Cr-, Zr-, Mn-, Sc-containing alloys), which inhibit grain boundary motion to prevent recrystallization. Post-homogenization cooling reprecipitates some of the phases, changing the flow stress required for subsequent extrusion. These precipitates, however, are deleterious for the mechanical properties of the alloy and also hamper the age-hardenability and are hence dissolved during solution heat treatment. Microstructural development during homogenization and subsequent cooling occurs both at the length scale of the Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS) in micrometers and dispersoids in nanometers. Numerical tools to simulate microstructural development at both the length scales have been developed and validated against experiments. These tools provide easy and convenient means to study the process. A Cellular Automaton-Finite Volume-based model for evolution of interdendritic phases is coupled with a Particle Size Distribution-based model for precipitation of dispersoids across the grain. This comprehensive model has been used to study the effect of temperature, composition, as-cast microstructure, and cooling rates during post-homogenization quenching on microstructural evolution. The numerical study has been complimented with experiments involving Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and Differential Scanning Calorimetry and a good agreement has with numerical results has been found. The current work aims to study the microstructural evolution during

  1. Characterization and control of the microbial community affiliated with copper or aluminum heat exchangers of HVAC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael G; Attaway, Hubert H; Terzieva, Silva; Marshall, Anna; Steed, Lisa L; Salzberg, Deborah; Hamoodi, Hameed A; Khan, Jamil A; Feigley, Charles E; Michels, Harold T

    2012-08-01

    Microbial growth in heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with the subsequent contamination of indoor air is of increasing concern. Microbes and the subsequent biofilms grow easily within heat exchangers. A comparative study where heat exchangers fabricated from antimicrobial copper were evaluated for their ability to limit microbial growth was conducted using a full-scale HVAC system under conditions of normal flow rates using single-pass outside air. Resident bacterial and fungal populations were quantitatively assessed by removing triplicate sets of coupons from each exchanger commencing the fourth week after their installation for the next 30 weeks. The intrinsic biofilm associated with each coupon was extracted and characterized using selective and differential media. The predominant organisms isolated from aluminum exchangers were species of Methylobacterium of which at least three colony morphologies and 11 distinct PFGE patterns we found; of the few bacteria isolated from the copper exchangers, the majority were species of Bacillus. The concentrations and type of bacteria recovered from the control, aluminum, exchangers were found to be dependent on the type of plating media used and were 11,411-47,257 CFU cm(-2) per coupon surface. The concentration of fungi was found to average 378 CFU cm(-2). Significantly lower concentrations of bacteria, 3 CFU cm(-2), and fungi, 1 CFU cm(-2), were recovered from copper exchangers regardless of the plating media used. Commonly used aluminum heat exchangers developed stable, mixed, bacterial/fungal biofilms in excess of 47,000 organisms per cm(2) within 4 weeks of operation, whereas the antimicrobial properties of metallic copper were able to limit the microbial load affiliated with the copper heat exchangers to levels 99.97 % lower during the same time period.

  2. Joint refinery selenium treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, C.L.; Folwarkow, S.

    1993-01-01

    The San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board recently established mass limits on discharges of selenium to the San Francisco Bay from several petroleum refineries. The refineries had been working independently to develop control strategies, including both source control and treatment options, for removal of selenium from their discharges. By January 1992, over fifty different combinations of treatment technologies, wastewater streams, and pretreatment steps had been investigated to determine their effectiveness and feasibility as selenium removal processes. No treatment process studied could achieve the required mass limits without serious negative environmental consequences, such as generation of large amounts of hazardous sludge. To better facilitate the development of a feasible selenium treatment process, the six Bay Area refineries shared results of their studies and identified several technologies that, with further work, could be developed further. This additional work is currently being carried out as part of a joint selenium treatability study sponsored by the Western States Petroleum Association. A review of the previous source control and treatment studies, along with a description of the current treatability studies will be discussed

  3. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  4. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level

  5. Numerical Simulation of Steady State Conduction Heat Transfer During the Solidification of Aluminum Casting in Green Sand Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor ANJO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The solidification of molten metal during the casting process involves heat transfer from the molten metal to the mould, then to the atmosphere. The mechanical properties and grain size of metals are determined by the heat transfer process during solidification. The aim of this study is to numerically stimulate the steady conduction heat transfer during the solidification of aluminum in green sand mould using finite difference analysis 2D. The properties of materials used are industrial AI 50/60 AFS green sand mould, pure aluminum and MATLAB 7.0.1. for the numerical simulation. The method includes; the finite difference analysis of the heat conduction equation in steady (Laplace’s and transient states and using MATLAB to numerically stimulate the thermal flow and cooling curve. The results obtained are: the steady state thermal flow in 2D and transient state cooling curve of casting. The results obtain were consider relevant in the control of the grain size and mechanical properties of the casting.

  6. On the conjoint influence of heat treatment and lithium content on microstructure and mechanical properties of A380 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamouz, Mostafa; Azarbarmas, Mortaza; Emamy, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • T4 heat treatment and the addition of Li modify the microstructure of alloy. • Heat treatment improves the tensile properties of non-modified and modified alloys. • Fracture surfaces of modified specimens had more ductile dimples than base alloys. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of a T4 heat treatment on the microstructure and tensile properties of an A380 aluminum alloy with and without lithium (Li) additions have been investigated. Microstructural examination was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy, image analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis methods. The results showed that when the T4 heat treatment was applied, spheroidized eutectic Si particles and fragmented β-phase particles were formed. The influence of the heat treatment on the aspect ratio and average length of Si and β phases in a non-modified alloy was more noticeable than in the Li-modified. Significant improvements in tensile properties were also observed in heat-treated samples. Additionally, a fractographical analysis showed that the fracture surfaces of the Li-modified specimens with and without heat treatment had more ductile dimple and fewer brittle cleavage surfaces

  7. Numerical Investigation on the Impact of Anode Change on Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Aluminum Smelting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Gosselin, Louis; Fafard, Mario; Peng, Jianping; Li, Baokuan

    2016-04-01

    In order to understand the impact of anode change on heat transfer and magnetohydrodynamic flow in aluminum smelting cells, a transient three-dimensional (3D) coupled mathematical model has been developed. The solutions of the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations were simultaneously implemented by the finite volume method with full coupling of the Joule heating and Lorentz force through solving the electrical potential equation. The volume of fluid approach was employed to describe the two-phase flow. The phase change of molten electrolyte (bath) as well as molten aluminum (metal) was modeled by an enthalpy-based technique, where the mushy zone is treated as a porous medium with a porosity equal to the liquid fraction. The effect of the new anode temperature on recovery time was also analyzed. A reasonable agreement between the test data and simulated results is obtained. The results indicate that the temperature of the bath under cold anodes first decreases reaching the minimal value and rises under the effect of increasing Joule heating, and finally returns to steady state. The colder bath decays the velocity, and the around ledge becomes thicker. The lowest temperature of the bath below new anodes increases from 1118 K to 1143 K (845 °C to 870 °C) with the new anode temperature ranging from 298 K to 498 K (25°C to 225°C), and the recovery time reduces from 22.5 to 20 hours.

  8. Aluminum-based one- and two-dimensional micro fin array structures: high-throughput fabrication and heat transfer testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primeaux, Philip A; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoman; Miller, Jacob; Meng, W J; KC, Pratik; Moore, Arden L

    2017-01-01

    Microscale fin array structures were replicated onto surfaces of aluminum 1100 and aluminum 6061 alloy (Al1100/Al6061) sheet metals through room-temperature instrumented roll molding. Aluminum-based micro fin arrays were replicated at room temperature, and the fabrication process is one with high throughput and low cost. One-dimensional (1D) micro fin arrays were made through one-pass rolling, while two-dimensional (2D) micro fin arrays were made by sequential 90° cross rolling with the same roller sleeve. For roll molding of 1D micro fins, fin heights greater than 600 µ m were achieved and were shown to be proportional to the normal load force per feature width. At a given normal load force, the fin height was further shown to scale inversely with the hardness of the sheet metal. For sequential 90° cross rolling, morphologies of roll molded 2D micro fin arrays were examined, which provided clues to understand how plastic deformation occurred under cross rolling conditions. A series of pool boiling experiments on low profile Al micro fin array structures were performed within Novec 7100, a widely used commercial dielectric coolant. Results for both horizontal and vertical surface orientations show that roll molded Al micro fin arrays can increase heat flux at fixed surface temperature as compared to un-patterned Al sheet. The present results further suggest that many factors beyond just increased surface area can influence heat transfer performance, including surface finish and the important multiphase transport mechanisms in and around the fin geometry. These factors must also be considered when designing and optimizing micro fin array structures for heat transfer applications. (paper)

  9. Preparation and thermal properties of form-stable palmitic acid/active aluminum oxide composites as phase change materials for latent heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guiyin; Li, Hui; Cao, Lei; Shan, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Form-stable palmitic acid (PA)/active aluminum oxide composites as phase change materials were prepared by adsorbing liquid palmitic acid into active aluminum oxide. In the composites, the palmitic acid was used as latent heat storage materials, and the active aluminum oxide was used as supporting material. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were used to determine the chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of the composites, respectively. The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA). The FT-IR analyses results indicated that there is no chemical interaction between the palmitic acid and active aluminum oxide. The SEM results showed that the palmitic acid was well adsorbed into porous network of the active aluminum oxide. The DSC results indicated that the composites melt at 60.25 °C with a latent heat of 84.48 kJ kg −1 and solidify at 56.86 °C with a latent heat of 78.79 kJ kg −1 when the mass ratio of the PA to active aluminum oxide is 0.9:1. Compared with that of the PA, the melting and solidifying time of the composites CPCM5 was reduced by 20.6% and 21.4% because of the increased heat transfer rate through EG addition. The TGA results showed that the active aluminum oxide can improve the thermal stability of the composites. -- Highlights: ► Form-stable PA/active aluminum oxide composites as PCMs were prepared. ► Chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of composites were determined. ► Thermal properties and thermal stability of the composites were investigated. ► Expanded graphite can improve thermal conductivity of the composites.

  10. 183-H Basin sludge treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results from the treatability testing of a 1-kg sample of 183-H Basin sludge. Compressive strength measurements, Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure, and a modified ANSI 16.1 leach test were conducted

  11. LABORATORY SCALE STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory scale steam injection treatability studies were first developed at The University of California-Berkeley. A comparable testing facility has been developed at USEPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center. Experience has already shown that many volatile organic...

  12. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Hanford 118-B-1 Burial Ground Treatability Study has been required by milestone change request number-sign M-15-93-04, dated September 30, 1993. The change request requires that a treatability test be conducted at the 100-B Area to obtain additional engineering information for remedial design of burial grounds receiving waste from 100 Area removal actions. This treatability study has two purposes: (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan (PP) and Record of Decision (ROD), which will identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test also will provide critical performance and cost information necessary for remedy evaluation in the detailed analysis of alternatives during preparation of the focused feasibility study (FFS). This treatability testing supports the following 100 Area alternatives: (1) excavation and disposal, and (2) excavation, sorting, (treatment), and disposal

  13. Heat transfer simulation and retort program adjustment for thermal processing of wheat based Haleem in semi-rigid aluminum containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Hamed; Zamindar, Nafiseh; Shahedi Baghekhandan, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    A mixed computational strategy was used to simulate and optimize the thermal processing of Haleem, an ancient eastern food, in semi-rigid aluminum containers. Average temperature values of the experiments showed no significant difference (α = 0.05) in contrast to the predicted temperatures at the same positions. According to the model, the slowest heating zone was located in geometrical center of the container. The container geometrical center F0 was estimated to be 23.8 min. A 19 min processing time interval decrease in holding time of the treatment was estimated to optimize the heating operation since the preferred F0 of some starch or meat based fluid foods is about 4.8-7.5 min.

  14. NON-LINEAR TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION ANALYSIS OF INSULATION WALL OF TANK FOR TRANSPORTATION OF LIQUID ALUMINUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav M Živković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with transient nonlinear heat conduction through the insulation wall of the tank for transportation of liquid aluminum. Tanks designed for this purpose must satisfy certain requirements regarding temperature of loading and unloading, during transport. Basic theoretical equations are presented, which describe the problem of heat conduction finite element (FE analysis, starting from the differential equation of energy balance, taking into account the initial and boundary conditions of the problem. General 3D problem for heat conduction is considered, from which solutions for two- and one-dimensional heat conduction can be obtained, as special cases. Forming of the finite element matrices using Galerkin method is briefly described. The procedure for solving equations of energy balance is discussed, by methods of resolving iterative processes of nonlinear transient heat conduction. Solution of this problem illustrates possibilities of PAK-T software package, such as materials properties, given as tabular data, or analytical functions. Software also offers the possibility to solve nonlinear and transient problems with incremental methods. Obtained results for different thicknesses of the tank wall insulation materials enable its comparison in regards to given conditions

  15. Condensation heat transfer and pressure drop of R-410A in flat aluminum multi-port tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nae-Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Brazed heat exchangers with aluminum flat multi-port tubes are being used as condensers of residential air-conditioners. In this study, R-410A condensation tests were conducted in four multi-port tubes having a range of hydraulic diameter (0.78 ≤ Dh ≤ 0.95 mm). The test range covered the mass flux from 100 to 400 kg/m2 s and the heat flux at 3 kW/m2, which are typical operating conditions of residential air conditioners. Results showed that both the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop increased as the hydraulic diameter decreased. The effect of hydraulic diameter on condensation heat transfer was much larger than the predictions of existing correlations for the range of investigation. Comparison of the data with the correlations showed that some macro-channel tube correlations and mini-channel tube correlations reasonably predicted the heat transfer coefficient. However, macro-channel correlations highly overpredicted the pressure drop data.

  16. A Microstructural Evaluation of Friction Stir Welded 7075 Aluminum Rolled Plate Heat Treated to the Semi-Solid State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Azadi Chegeni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two rolled plates of 7075 aluminum alloy were used as starting material. The plates were welded using a simultaneous double-sided friction stir welding (FSW process. One way of obtaining feedstock materials for Semi-solid processing or thixoforming is via deformation routes followed by partial melting in the semi-solid state. As both the base plate materials and the friction weld area have undergone extensive deformation specimens were subjected to a post welding heat-treatment in the semi-solid range at a temperature of 628 °C, for 3 min in order to observe the induced microstructural changes. A comparison between the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of friction stir welded plates was performed before and after the heat-treatment in the Base Metal (BM, the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ, the Thermomechanically Affected Zone (TMAZ and the Nugget Zone (NZ using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM and Vickers hardness tests. The results revealed that an extremely fine-grained structure, obtained in the NZ after FSW, resulted in a rise of hardness from the BM to the NZ. Furthermore, post welding heat-treatment in the semi-solid state gave rise to a consistent morphology throughout the material which was similar to microstructures obtained by the thixoforming process. Moreover, a drop of hardness was observed after heat treatment in all regions as compared to that in the welded microstructure.

  17. DEEP VADOSE ZONE TREATABILITY TEST PLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronister, G.B.; Truex, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    (sm b ullet) Treatability test plan published in 2008 (sm b ullet) Outlines technology treatability activities for evaluating application of in situ technologies and surface barriers to deep vadose zone contamination (technetium and uranium) (sm b ullet) Key elements - Desiccation testing - Testing of gas-delivered reactants for in situ treatment of uranium - Evaluating surface barrier application to deep vadose zone - Evaluating in situ grouting and soil flushing

  18. Investigation of interfacial heat transfer mechanism for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy in HFQ hot forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Liang; Gao, Tianhan; Dai, Minghua; Hu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The transient IHTC between 7075 alloy and die in HFQ process is investigated. • The accuracy of IHTC calculated by Beck and heat balance method is compared. • The relationship between IHTC and process parameter of 7075 alloy is studied. • The transient IHTC law is verified by U-type HFQ forming experiment. - Abstract: The IHTC (Interfacial-Heat-Transfer-Coefficient) between aluminum alloy and die during HFQ (Heat-Forming-Quenching) process is an important thermal parameter to reflect the heat transfer efficiency. In the present work, the instantaneous heat transfer law for high strength 7075-T6 alloy during HFQ process based on cylindrical-die model was investigated. The accuracy of IHTC calculated by Beck’s non-linear estimation method (Beck’s method) and heat balance method (HBM) were compared, and instantaneous IHTC of 7075-T6 alloy was acquired in experiment and analyzed in consideration of different contact pressure, surface roughness and lubricate conditions. Furthermore, the obtained IHTC was applied to the simulation process of typical U-type experimental model in order to validate the universality of heat transfer law. The result shows that the average IHTC goes near to 3300 W/m"2·K when pressure is above 80 MPa; Surface roughness can also affect the IHTC in HFQ process, but the effect mechanism is different from the boron steel in hot stamping process. The average IHTC decreases sharply when surface roughness increases in the range of 0.570–0.836 μm, the value is from 3453 W/m"2·K to 2001 W/m"2·K under 80 MPa. Furthermore, surface lubrication can promote heat transfer efficiency and increase IHTC value when contact pressure is relatively high.

  19. 100 area excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This test plan documents the requirements for a treatability study on field radionuclide analysis and dust control techniques. These systems will be used during remedial actions involving excavation. The data from this treatability study will be used to support the feasibility study (FS) process. Development and screening of remedial alternatives for the 100 Area, using existing data, have been completed and are documented in the 100 Area Feasibility Study, Phases 1 and 2 (DOE-RL 1992a). Based on the results of the FS, the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE-RL 1992b) identifies and prioritizes treatability studies for the 100 Area. The data from the treatability study program support future focused FS, interim remedial measures (IRM) selection, operable unit final remedy selection, remedial design, and remedial actions. Excavation is one of the high-priority, near-term, treatability study needs identified in the program plan (DOE-RL 1992b). Excavation of contaminated soils and buried solid wastes is included in several of the alternatives identified in the 100 Area FS. Although a common activity, excavation has only been used occasionally at the Hanford Site for waste removal applications

  20. Optimizing the parameters of heat transmission in a small heat exchanger with spiral tapes cut as triangles and Aluminum oxide nanofluid using central composite design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Nahid; Aghayari, Reza; Maddah, Heydar

    2018-02-01

    The present study aims at optimizing the heat transmission parameters such as Nusselt number and friction factor in a small double pipe heat exchanger equipped with rotating spiral tapes cut as triangles and filled with aluminum oxide nanofluid. The effects of Reynolds number, twist ratio (y/w), rotating twisted tape and concentration (w%) on the Nusselt number and friction factor are also investigated. The central composite design and the response surface methodology are used for evaluating the responses necessary for optimization. According to the optimal curves, the most optimized value obtained for Nusselt number and friction factor was 146.6675 and 0.06020, respectively. Finally, an appropriate correlation is also provided to achieve the optimal model of the minimum cost. Optimization results showed that the cost has decreased in the best case.

  1. Evaporative oxidation treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment

  2. Numerical study of self-heating effects of small-size MOSFETs fabricated on silicon-on-aluminum nitride substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yanfang; Zhu Ziqiang; Zhu Ming; Lin Chenglu

    2006-01-01

    Compared with bulk-silicon technology, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology possesses many advantages but it is inevitable that the buried silicon dioxide layer also thermally insulates the metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) from the bulk due to the low thermal conductivity. One of the alternative insulator to replace the buried oxide layer is aluminum nitride (MN), which has a thermal conductivity that is about 200 times higher than that of SiO 2 (320 W·m -1 ·K -1 versus 1.4 W·m -1 ·K -l ). To investigate the self-heating effects of small-size MOSFETs fabricated on silicon-on-aluminum nitride (SOAN) substrate, a two-dimensional numerical analysis is performed by using a device simulator called MEDICI run on a Solaris workstation to simulate the electrical characteristics and temperature distribution by comparing with those of bulk and standard SOI MOSFETs. Our study suggests that AIN is a suitable alternative to silicon dioxide as a buried dielectric in SOI and expands the applications of SOI to high temperature conditions. (authors)

  3. Fabrication of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane for High Heat Flux Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    As electronics become more powerful and have higher energy densities, it is becoming more and more necessary to find solutions to dissipate these high heat fluxes. One solution to this problem is nanopore evaporative cooling. Based on current literature, the experimental data is far below what is expected from the theoretical calculations.In this thesis, the experimental results produced heat fluxes much closer to the theoretical values. Experimentally, a maximum heat dissipation of 103 W was...

  4. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Three-Layer TIG-Welded 2219 Aluminum Alloys with Dissimilar Heat Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dengkui; Li, Quan; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Xianli; Song, Jianling; Wang, Guoqing; Wu, Aiping

    2018-05-01

    2219-C10S and 2219-CYS aluminum alloys are 2219 aluminum alloys with different heat treatment processes, and they have been widely used in the aerospace industry. In the present study, 2219-C10S and 2219-CYS aluminum alloys were butt-welded by three-layer tungsten inert gas arc welding (with the welding center of the third layer shifted toward the CYS side), and the microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties of the welded joint were investigated. The lamellar θ' phases, the bulk or rod θ phases, and the coarse rod-shaped or pancake-shaped Al-Cu-Fe-Mn phases coexisted in the two aluminum alloys. The Cu content of the α-Al matrix and the distribution of eutectic structures of different welding layers in the weld zone (WZ) were varied, implying that the segregation degrees of the Cu element were different due to the different welding thermal cycles in different welding layers. The microhardness values of the CYS side were much higher than those of the C10S side in each region on both sides of the joint. The tensile test deformation was concentrated mainly in the regions of WZ and the over aged zone (OAZ), where the microhardness values were relatively low. The main deformation concentrated region was transferred from the CYS side to the C10S side with the increase in the tensile load during the tensile test. The fracture behavior of the tensile test showed that the macroscopic crack initiated near the front weld toe had gone through the crack blunt region, the shear fracture region of the partially melted zone (PMZ), and the shear fracture region of OAZ. Meanwhile, the fracture characteristics gradually evolved from brittle to ductile. The concentrated stress and the dense eutectic structure in the region near the front weld toe of the C10S side contributed to the fracture of the joint. The shift of the welding center of the third layer to the CYS side resulted in two effects: (i) the microhardness values from the middle layer to the top layer in the

  5. Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film: Energy transfer in electron and lattice sub-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin Mansoor, Saad; Sami Yilbas, Bekir, E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa

    2015-08-15

    Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film is considered and energy transfer in the film is formulated using the Boltzmann equation. Since the heating duration is short and the film thickness is considerably small, thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems is incorporated in the analysis. The electron–phonon coupling is used to formulate thermal communication of both sub-systems during the heating period. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to account for the average energy of all phonons around a local point when they redistribute adiabatically to an equilibrium state. Temperature predictions of the Boltzmann equation are compared with those obtained from the two-equation model. It is found that temperature predictions from the Boltzmann equation differ slightly from the two-equation model results. Temporal variation of equivalent equilibrium temperature does not follow the laser pulse intensity in the electron sub-system. The time occurrence of the peak equivalent equilibrium temperature differs for electron and lattice sub-systems, which is attributed to phonon scattering in the irradiated field in the lattice sub-system. In this case, time shift is observed for occurrence of the peak temperature in the lattice sub-system.

  6. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface with fungus-cleaning properties on brazed aluminum for industrial application in heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Won; Hwang, Woonbong

    2018-06-01

    Extensive research has been carried out concerning the application of superhydrophobic coating in heat exchangers, but little is known about the application of this technique to brazed aluminum heat exchangers (BAHEs). In this work, we describe a new superhydrophobic coating method, which is suitable for BAHE use on an industrial scale. We first render the BAHE superhydrophobic by fabricating micro/nanostructures using solution dipping followed by fluorination. After the complete removal of the silicon residue, we verify using surface analysis that the BAHE surface is perfectly superhydrophobic. We also studied the fungus-cleaning properties of the superhydrophobic surface by growing fungus for 4 weeks in a moist environment on BAHE fins with and without superhydrophobic coating. We observed that, whereas the fungus grown on the untreated fins is extremely difficult to remove, the fungus on the fins with the superhydrophobic coating can be removed easily with only a modest amount of water. We also found that the coated BAHE fins exhibit excellent resistance to moisture. The superhydrophobic coating method that we propose is therefore expected to have a major impact in the heating, ventilating and air conditioning industry market.

  7. Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film: Energy transfer in electron and lattice sub-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Mansoor, Saad; Sami Yilbas, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film is considered and energy transfer in the film is formulated using the Boltzmann equation. Since the heating duration is short and the film thickness is considerably small, thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems is incorporated in the analysis. The electron–phonon coupling is used to formulate thermal communication of both sub-systems during the heating period. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to account for the average energy of all phonons around a local point when they redistribute adiabatically to an equilibrium state. Temperature predictions of the Boltzmann equation are compared with those obtained from the two-equation model. It is found that temperature predictions from the Boltzmann equation differ slightly from the two-equation model results. Temporal variation of equivalent equilibrium temperature does not follow the laser pulse intensity in the electron sub-system. The time occurrence of the peak equivalent equilibrium temperature differs for electron and lattice sub-systems, which is attributed to phonon scattering in the irradiated field in the lattice sub-system. In this case, time shift is observed for occurrence of the peak temperature in the lattice sub-system

  8. Electro-thermo-mechanical coupling analysis of deep drawing with resistance heating for aluminum matrix composites sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaifeng; Zhang, Tuoda; Wang, Bo

    2013-05-01

    Recently, electro-plastic forming to be a focus of attention in materials hot processing research area, because it is a sort of energy-saving, high efficient and green manufacturing technology. An electro-thermo-mechanical model can be adopted to carry out the sequence simulation of aluminum matrix composites sheet deep drawing via electro-thermal coupling and thermal-mechanical coupling method. The first step of process is resistance heating of sheet, then turn off the power, and the second step is deep drawing. Temperature distribution of SiCp/2024Al composite sheet by resistance heating and sheet deep drawing deformation were analyzed. During the simulation, effect of contact resistances, temperature coefficient of resistance for electrode material and SiCp/2024Al composite on temperature distribution were integrally considered. The simulation results demonstrate that Sicp/2024Al composite sheet can be rapidly heated to 400° in 30s using resistances heating and the sheet temperature can be controlled by adjusting the current density. Physical properties of the electrode materials can significantly affect the composite sheet temperature distribution. The temperature difference between the center and the side of the sheet is proportional to the thermal conductivity of the electrode, the principal cause of which is that the heat transfers from the sheet to the electrode. SiCp/2024Al thin-wall part can be intactly manufactured at strain rate of 0.08s-1 and the sheet thickness thinning rate is limited within 20%, which corresponds well to the experimental result.

  9. Effect of heat treatment on impact resistance of AU5GT and AS7G06 aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzamil, Muhammad; Akhtar, Maaz; Samiuddin, Muhammad; Mehdi, Murtuza [NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2016-10-15

    Impact strength is one of the major mechanical properties that a material should possess in order to absorb sudden changes in the load intensity. The objective of current study is to compare the impact strength of two material (AU5GT and AS7G06), which are used in different structural applications. Almost no work is available which compares the impact strength of selected grade alloys along with different heat treatment cycles. Specimens are heat treated first as per designed cycles, later impact testing is performed. Charpy impact test is conducted in accordance with ASTM E23-12 standard method on three samples with and without heat treatment for each cycle. Solutionizing on samples is done at constant time and temperature to achieve homogenization. Later, aging is conducted at different temperatures ranging from 100-200°C (different intervals) at constant time to find the effect of precipitation hardness that actually increases the strength. Sample hardness is determined using Vickers micro hardness testing machine for each heat treatment cycle. Charpy test results provided the impact energy that is used to determine the strength before fracture. Heat treated samples have showed increase in impact strength for AS7G06 aluminum alloy while AU5GT shows very little change. This is because of growing the precipitation with respect to temperature, which resulted in more hard regions across grains. Hardness also shows an increasing relationship, as expected. Fracture surfaces are analyzed on stereo microscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to find the final mode of fracture, that is brittle, ductile or transitional (combination of both brittle and ductile)

  10. Compact-immersed-tube bath heating for anodizing aluminum sections; Le chauffage de bains par tubes immerges compacts pour l`anodisation de profiles aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouillet, B. [Societe Alusuisse (France); Lhomme, P.J. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The compact-immersed-tube system is composed of a burner, a combustor (where natural gas is burned) and a heat exchanger tube (where combustion heat is released to the surrounding bath); its compact configuration is designed for a direct implementation in an industrial process vessel. Natural gas is thus directly used at the utilization location, without any vapour stage and distribution heat losses. Temperature regulation, efficiency, corrosion issues and power requirements are discussed. An application example with the bath heating for aluminum anodization, is presented: energy savings and payback periods are discussed

  11. The influence of flame hardening process to aluminum 7075 series on the mechanical strength and micro structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koin, Sudibtia Titio; Triyono, Teguh; Surojo, Eko

    2018-02-01

    The 7075 series alloys are heat treatable wrought aluminum alloys based on the Al-Zn-Mg(-Cu) system. They are widely used in high-performance structural aerospace and transportation applications. Apart from compositional, casting and thermo-mechanical processing effects, the balance of properties is also significantly influenced by the way in which the materials are heat-treated. This paper describes the effect of flame hardening process to aluminum 7075 series on the increasing hardness, tensile strength, and evolution of microstructure. A test specimen had made by machining process and flame heating. Temperature of solution heat treatment is varied on 350 °C, 400 °C, 450 °C and 500 °C. After that process a test specimen would be quenched at nitrate-nitrite liquid during 45 minutes and artificial aging at 120°C until two days. The testing specimen consist of hardness and tensile strength according to ASTM. The result showed that specimen had precipitation on microstructure lead to an increase in aluminum properties. On the temperature 450°C solution heat treatment, the aluminum properties reached the highest value, namely, hardness of 129 HVN and tensile strength 570 MPa.

  12. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  13. Application of thermal energy storage to process heat recovery in the aluminum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccabe, J.

    1980-01-01

    The economic viability and the institutional compatibility of a district heating system in the city of Bellingham, Washington are assessed and the technical and economic advantages of using thermal energy storage methods are determined.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet(YAG) Single Crystal Growth by Resistance Heating Czochralski(CZ) Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Myeong Hyeon; Cha, Pil Ryung [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) single crystal has received much attention as the high power solid-state laser’s key component in industrial and medical applications. Various growth methods have been proposed, and currently the induction-heating Czochralski (IHCZ) growth method is mainly used to grow YAG single crystal. Due to the intrinsic properties of the IHCZ method, however, the solid/liquid interface has a downward convex shape and a sharp tip at the center, which causes a core defect and reduces productivity. To produce YAG single crystals with both excellent quality and higher yield, it is essential to control the core defects. In this study, using computer simulations we demonstrate that the resistance-heating CZ (RHCZ) method may avoid a downward convex interface and produce core defect free YAG single crystal. We studied the effects of various design parameters on the interface shape and found that there was an optimum combination of design parameter and operating conditions that produced a flat solid-liquid interface.

  15. Heat transfer from aluminum to He II: application to superconductive magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sciver, S.W.; Boom, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Heat transfer problems associated with large scale Superconductive Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) are unique due to the proposed size of a unit. The Wisconsin design consists of a cryogenically stable magnet cooled with He II at 1.8 K. The special properties of He II (T 2 at 1.91 K and a recovery at 0.7 W/cm 2 . The advantages of operating the magnet under subcooled conditions are exemplified by improved heat transfer. The maximum at 1.89 K and 1.3 atm pressure is 2.3 W/cm 2 with recovery enhanced to 1.9 W/cm 2 . A conservative maximum heat flux of 0.5 W/cm 2 with an associated temperature difference of 0.5 K has been chosen for design. Elements of the experimental study as well as the design will be discussed

  16. A DLC-Punch Array to Fabricate the Micro-Textured Aluminum Sheet for Boiling Heat Transfer Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhio Aizawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A diamond-like carbon (DLC film, coated on an SKD11 (alloy tool steel substrate, was shaped by plasma oxidation to form an assembly of DLC macro-pillars and to be used as a DLC-punch array that is micro-embossed into aluminum sheets. First, the SKD11 steel die substrate was prepared and DLC-coated to have a film thickness of 10 μm. This DLC coating worked as a punch material. The two-dimensional micro-patterns were printed onto this DLC film by maskless lithography. The unprinted DLC films were selectively removed by plasma oxidation to leave the three-dimensional DLC-punch array on the SKD11 substrate. Each DLC punch had a head of 3.5 μm × 3.5 μm and a height of 8 μm. This DLC-punch array was fixed into the cassette die set for a micro-embossing process using a table-top servo-stamper. Furthermore, through numerically controlled micro-embossing, an alignment of rectangular punches was transcribed into a micro-cavity array in the aluminum sheet. The single micro-cavity had a bottom surface of 3.2 μm × 3.2 μm and an average depth of 7.5 μm. A heat-transfer experiment in boiling water was also performed to investigate the effect of micro-cavity texture on bubbling behavior and the boiling curve.

  17. Heat input effect of friction stir welding on aluminum alloy AA 6061-T6 welded joint

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmak, A.; Kumar, R.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Hloch, Sergej; Tadić, S.; Djurdjević, A. A.; Čeković, I. R.; Dončeva, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2016), s. 637-641 ISSN 0354-9836 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : friction stir welding * defect * heat input * maximum temperature Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.093, year: 2016 http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0354-9836/2016/0354-98361500147D.pdf

  18. 100 Area excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This test plan documents the requirements for a treatability study on field radionuclide analysis and dust control techniques. These systems will be used during remedial actions involving excavation. The data from this treatability study will be used to support the feasibility study (FS) process. Excavation is one of the high-priority, near-term, treatability study needs identified in the program plan (DOE-RL 1992f). Excavation of contaminated soils and buried solid wastes is included in several of the alternatives identified in the 100 Area FS. Although a common activity, excavation has only been used occasionally at the Hanford Site for waste removal applications. The most recent applications are excavation of the 618-9 burial ground and partial remediation of the 316-5 process trenches (DOE-RL 1992a, 1992b). Both projects included excavation of soil and dust control (using water sprays). Excavation is a well-developed technology and equipment is readily available; however, certain aspects of the excavation process require testing before use in full-scale operations. These include the following: Measurement and control of excavation-generated dust and airborne contamination; verification of field analytical system capabilities; demonstration of soil removal techniques specific to the 100 Area waste site types and configurations. The execution of this treatability test may produce up to 500 yd 3 of contaminated soil, which will be used for future treatability tests. These tests may include soil washing with vitrification of the soil washing residuals. Other tests will be conducted if soil washing is not a viable alternative

  19. Experimental Study on the Airside Performance of Aluminum Heat Exchangers Having Slim Louver Fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nae Hyun; Cho, Honggi

    2017-01-01

    Recent trends in slim air conditioners require heat exchangers of reduced flow depth. In this study, slim louver fin geometry was obtained using predictive correlations. The deduced geometry yielded 10 mm flow depth, 0.9 mm louver pitch, and 35° louver angle. Samples were made and tests were conducted. The new slim sample yielded 36% higher j factor and 2.3% higher f factor compared with those of the standard sample. This implies that 26% reduction of heat exchanger volume was possible by reducing the flow depth. In addition, the j/f1/3 of the slim sample was 55% larger than that of the standard sample. Furthermore, the results are compared with predictions made using existing correlations.

  20. Experimental Study on the Airside Performance of Aluminum Heat Exchangers Having Slim Louver Fins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nae Hyun [Incheon Nat’l Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Honggi [Samsung Electronics Daejeon, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Recent trends in slim air conditioners require heat exchangers of reduced flow depth. In this study, slim louver fin geometry was obtained using predictive correlations. The deduced geometry yielded 10 mm flow depth, 0.9 mm louver pitch, and 35° louver angle. Samples were made and tests were conducted. The new slim sample yielded 36% higher j factor and 2.3% higher f factor compared with those of the standard sample. This implies that 26% reduction of heat exchanger volume was possible by reducing the flow depth. In addition, the j/f1/3 of the slim sample was 55% larger than that of the standard sample. Furthermore, the results are compared with predictions made using existing correlations.

  1. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  2. Effect of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior of AA2014 Aluminum – Copper Alloy Electron Beam Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Ramana, V. S. N.; Mohammed, Raffi; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    The present work pertains to the study of corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy electron beam welds. The aluminium alloy used in the present study is copper containing AA2014 alloy. Electron Beam Welding (EBW) was used to weld the alloys in annealed (O) condition. Microstructural changes across the welds were recorded and the effect of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) in T4 (Solutionized and naturally aged) condition on pitting corrosion resistance was studied. A software based PAR basic electrochemical system was used for potentio-dynamic polarization tests. From the study it is observed that weld in O condition is prone to more liquation than that of PWHT condition. This may be attributed to re-melting and solidification of excess eutectic present in the O condition of the base metal. It was also observed that slightly higher hardness values are recorded in O condition than that of PWHT condition. The pitting corrosion resistance of the PMZ/HAZ in PWHT condition is better than that of O condition. This is attributed to copper segregation at the grain boundaries of PMZ in O condition.

  3. Studies on post weld heat treatment of dissimilar aluminum alloys by laser beam welding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, B.; Krishna, N. Murali; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Sivaprasad, K.; Muthupandi, V.

    2018-03-01

    The present study mainly focuses on post weld heat treatment (PWHT) of AA5083 and AA6061 alloys by joining these using laser beam welding at three different laser power and two different beam spot sizes and three different welding speeds. Effects of these parameters on microstructural and mechanical properties like hardness, tensile strength were studied at PWHT condition and significant changes had been observed. The PWHT used was artificial aging technique. The microstructural observations revealed that there was a appreciable changes were taken place in the grain size. The microhardness observations proven that the change in the hardness profile in AA6061 was appreciable than in the AA5083. The tensile strength of 246 MPa was recorded as highest. The fractured surfaces observed are predominantly ductile in nature.

  4. Multi objective genetic algorithm to optimize the local heat treatment of a hardenable aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccininni, A.; Palumbo, G.; Franco, A. Lo; Sorgente, D.; Tricarico, L.; Russello, G.

    2018-05-01

    The continuous research for lightweight components for transport applications to reduce the harmful emissions drives the attention to the light alloys as in the case of Aluminium (Al) alloys, capable to combine low density with high values of the strength-to-weight ratio. Such advantages are partially counterbalanced by the poor formability at room temperature. A viable solution is to adopt a localized heat treatment by laser of the blank before the forming process to obtain a tailored distribution of material properties so that the blank can be formed at room temperature by means of conventional press machines. Such an approach has been extensively investigated for age hardenable alloys, but in the present work the attention is focused on the 5000 series; in particular, the optimization of the deep drawing process of the alloy AA5754 H32 is proposed through a numerical/experimental approach. A preliminary investigation was necessary to correctly tune the laser parameters (focus length, spot dimension) to effectively obtain the annealed state. Optimal process parameters were then obtained coupling a 2D FE model with an optimization platform managed by a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The optimal solution (i.e. able to maximize the LDR) in terms of blankholder force and extent of the annealed region was thus evaluated and validated through experimental trials. A good matching between experimental and numerical results was found. The optimal solution allowed to obtain an LDR of the locally heat treated blank larger than the one of the material either in the wrought condition (H32) either in the annealed condition (H111).

  5. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel

  6. Treatability studies of alternative wastewaters for Metal Finishing Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittry, D.M.; Martin, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility that uses precipitation and filtration, which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. Upon the completion of stored waste treatment, the LETF will be shut down, because production of nuclear materials for reactors stopped at the end of the Cold War. The economic use of the LETF for the treatment of alternative wastewater streams is being evaluated through laboratory bench-scale treatability studies

  7. Dural arteriovenous fistula as a treatable dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enofe, Ikponmwosa; Thacker, Ike; Shamim, Sadat

    2017-04-01

    Dementia is a chronic loss of neurocognitive function that is progressive and irreversible. Although rare, dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) could present with a rapid decline in neurocognitive function with or without Parkinson-like symptoms. DAVFs represent a potentially treatable and reversible cause of dementia. Here, we report the case of an elderly woman diagnosed with a DAVF after presenting with new-onset seizures, deteriorating neurocognitive function, and Parkinson-like symptoms.

  8. 100 Area soil washing treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general methodology for conducting a soil washing treatability study as applied to source unit contamination in the 100 Area. The objective ofthis treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The purpose of separating these fractions is to minimize the volume of soil requiring permanent disposal. It is anticipated that this treatability study will be performed in two phases of testing, a remedy screening phase and a remedy selection phase. The remedy screening phase consists of laboratory- and bench-scale studies performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest laboratories (PNL) under a work order issued by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). This phase will be used to provide qualitative evaluation of the potential effectiveness of the soil washing technology. The remedy selection phase, consists of pilot-scale testing performed under a separate service contract to be competitively bid under Westinghouse Hanford direction. The remedy selection phase will provide data to support evaluation of the soil washing technology in future feasibility studies for Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) or final operable unit (OU) remedies. Performance data from these tests will indicate whether applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or cleanup goals can be met at the site(s) by application of soil washing. The remedy selection tests wig also allow estimation of costs associated with implementation to the accuracy required for the Feasibility Study

  9. Temperature field calculation with allowance for heat of chemical reactions under electroexplosion nickel plating of aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Denis A.; Semina, Olga A.; Stepikov, Maksim A.; Gromov, Victor E.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of stress-strained state at the boundary «faced surface layer - substrate» is performed by methods of elasticity theory of inhomogeneous media, on exposure to the load distributed in a circle. The fundamental aspects of Kelvin - Helmholtz and Richtmayer - Meshkov instabilities are considered. The following methods are used for the research. The analytical method of solution is used for finding the temperature distribution of substrate and coating material as well as distribution of speed of material motion in deposition of the coating. Finite element method is required in accounting for the parameters of convective mixing. For the analysis of the proposed thickness and dispersion of the coating the concepts of hydrodynamic Kelvin - Helmholtz and Richtmayer - Meshkov instabilities are used. Using the mass, energy and momentum conservation laws, with allowance for the possible exothermal reactions, the system of equations of the mathematical model of electroexplosion synthesis on the basis of thermoreacting components of Ni-Al system is formulated. The degree of effect of model's parameters on dispersion and thickness of the coating is determined. The comparison of the modeling and experimental data is carried out. It is established that the due regard to the thermal effect of chemical reaction increases considerably the time of existence of the reacting elements in the liquid state and it facilitates the participation of the entire nickel in the reaction. The increased time of heat effect enables the other processes to occur more completely.

  10. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  11. Reducing cell-to-cell spacing for large-format lithium ion battery modules with aluminum or PCM heat sinks under failure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Brittany; Ostanek, Jason; Heinzel, John

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Finite element analysis to evaluate heat sinks for large format li-ion batteries. • Solid metal heat sink and composite heat sink (metal filler and wax). • Transient simulations show response from rest to steady-state with normal load. • Transient simulations of two different failure modes were considered. • Significance of spacing, material properties, interface quality, and phase change. - Abstract: Thermal management is critical for large-scale, shipboard energy storage systems utilizing lithium-ion batteries. In recent years, there has been growing research in thermal management of lithium-ion battery modules. However, there is little information available on the minimum cell-to-cell spacing limits for indirect, liquid cooled modules when considering heat release during a single cell failure. For this purpose, a generic four-cell module was modeled using finite element analysis to determine the sensitivity of module temperatures to cell spacing. Additionally, the effects of different heat sink materials and interface qualities were investigated. Two materials were considered, a solid aluminum block and a metal/wax composite block. Simulations were run for three different transient load profiles. The first profile simulates sustained high rate operation where the system begins at rest and generates heat continuously until it reaches steady state. And, two failure mode simulations were conducted to investigate block performance during a slow and a fast exothermic reaction, respectively. Results indicate that composite materials can perform well under normal operation and provide some protection against single cell failure; although, for very compact designs, the amount of wax available to absorb heat is reduced and the effectiveness of the phase change material is diminished. The aluminum block design performed well under all conditions, and showed that heat generated during a failure is quickly dissipated to the coolant, even under the

  12. Direct observation of electrothermal instability structures on intensely Ohmically heated aluminum with current flowing in a surface skin layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awe, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Implosions on the Z Facility assemble high-energy-density plasmas for radiation effects and ICF experiments, but achievable stagnation pressures and temperatures are degraded by the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. While the beryllium liners (tubes) used in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments are astonishingly smooth (10 to 50 nm RMS roughness), they also contain distributed micron-scale resistive inclusions, and large MRT amplitudes are observed. Early in the implosion, an electrothermal instability (ETI) may provide a perturbation which greatly exceeds the initial surface roughness of the liner. Resistive inhomogeneities drive nonuniform current density and Joule heating, resulting in locally higher temperature, and thus still higher resistivity. Such unstable temperature and pressure growth produce density perturbations which seed MRT. For MagLIF liners, ETI seeding of MRT has been inferred by evaluating late-time MRT, but a direct observation of ETI is not made. ETI is directly observed on the surface of 1.0-mm-diameter solid Al rods pulsed to 1 MA in 100 ns via high resolution gated optical imaging (2 ns temporal and 3 micron spatial resolution). Aluminum 6061 alloy rods, with micron-scale resistive inclusions, consistently first demonstrate overheating from distinct, 10-micron-scale, sub-eV spots, which 5-10 ns later merge into azimuthally stretched elliptical spots and discrete strata (40-100 microns wide by 10 microns tall). Axial plasma filaments form shortly thereafter. Surface plasma can be suppressed for rods coated with dielectric, enabling extended study of the evolution of stratified ETI structures, and experimental inference of ETI growth rates. This fundamentally new and highly 3-dimensional dataset informs ETI physics, including when the ETI seed of MRT may be initiated.

  13. Creep properties of forged 2219 T6 aluminum alloy shell of general-purpose heat source-radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, J.P.

    1981-12-01

    The shell (2219 T6 aluminum forging) of the General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator was designed to retain the generator under sufficient elastic stress to secure it during space flight. A major concern was the extent to which the elastic stress would relax by creep. To determine acceptability of the shell construction material, the following proof tests simulating service were performed: 600 h of testing at 270 0 C under 24.1 MPa stress followed by 10,000 h of storage at 177 0 C under 55.1 MPa, both on the ground; and 10,000 h of flight in space at 270 0 C under 34.4 MPa stress. Additionally, systematic creep testing was performed at 177 and 260 0 C to establish creep design curves. The creep tests performed at 177 0 C revealed comparatively large amounts of primary creep followed by small amounts of secondary creep. The early creep is believed to be abetted by unstable substructures that are annealed out during testing at this temperature. The creep tests performed at 270 0 C showed normal primary creep followed by large amounts of secondary creep. Duplicate proof tests simulating the ground exposure conditions gave results that were in good agreement. The proof test simulating space flight at 270 0 C gave 0.11% primary creep followed by 0.59% secondary creep. About 10% of the second-stage creep was caused by four or five instantaneous strains, which began at the 4500-h mark. One or two of these strain bursts, occurred in each of several other tests at 177 and 260 0 C but were assessed as very moderate in magnitude. The effect is attributable to a slightly microsegregated condition remaining from the original cast structure

  14. Novel aluminum near field transducer and highly integrated micro-nano-optics design for heat-assisted ultra-high-density magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Lingyun; Hsiang, Thomas Y; Stoddart, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) has attracted increasing attention as one of the most promising future techniques for ultra-high-density magnetic recording beyond the current limit of 1 Tb in −2 . Localized surface plasmon resonance plays an important role in HAMR by providing a highly focused optical spot for heating the recording medium within a small volume. In this work, we report an aluminum near-field transducer (NFT) based on a novel bow-tie design. At an operating wavelength of 450 nm, the proposed transducer can generate a 35 nm spot size inside the magnetic recording medium, corresponding to a recording density of up to 2 Tb in −2 . A highly integrated micro-nano-optics design is also proposed to ensure process compatibility and corrosion-resistance of the aluminum NFT. Our work has demonstrated the feasibility of using aluminum as a plasmonic material for HAMR, with advantages of reduced cost and improved efficiency compared to traditional noble metals. (paper)

  15. Influences of post weld heat treatment on tensile strength and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded butt joints of AA2014-T6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C.; Srinivasan, K.; Balasubramanian, V.; Balaji, H.; Selvaraj, P.

    2016-08-01

    Friction stir welded (FSWed) joints of aluminum alloys exhibited a hardness drop in both the advancing side (AS) and retreating side (RS) of the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) due to the thermal cycle involved in the FSW process. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to overcome this problem by post weld heat treatment (PWHT) methods. FSW butt (FSWB) joints of Al-Cu (AA2014-T6) alloy were PWHT by two methods such as simple artificial aging (AA) and solution treatment followed by artificial aging (STA). Of these two treatments, STA was found to be more beneficial than the simple aging treatment to improve the tensile properties of the FSW joints of AA2014 aluminum alloy.

  16. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Task 1 Improved Materials and Operation of Recuperators for Aluminum Melting Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Thekdi, Arvind; Meisner Roberta A.; Phelps, Tony; Willoughby, Adam W.; Gorog, J. Peter; Zeh, John; Ningileri, Shridas; Liu, Yansheng; Xiao, Chenghe

    2007-09-30

    Production of aluminum is a very energy intensive process which is increasingly more important in the USA. This project concentrated on the materials issues associated with recovery of energy from the flue gas stream in the secondary industry where scrap and recycled metal are melted in large furnaces using gas fired burners. Recuperators are one method used to transfer heat from the flue gas to the air intended for use in the gas burners. By preheating this combustion air, less fuel has to be used to raise the gas temperature to the desired level. Recuperators have been successfully used to preheat the air, however, in many cases the metallic recuperator tubes have a relatively limited lifetime – 6 to 9 months. The intent of this project was to determine the cause of the rapid tube degradation and then to recommend alternative materials or operating conditions to prolong life of the recuperator tubes. The first step to understanding degradation of the tubes was to examine exposed tubes to identify the corrosion products. Analyses of the surface scales showed primarily iron oxides rather than chromium oxide suggesting the tubes were probably cycled to relatively high temperatures to the extent that cycling and subsequent oxide spalling reduced the surface concentration of chromium below a critical level. To characterize the temperatures reached by the tubes, thermocouples were mounted on selected tubes and the temperatures measured. During the several hour furnace cycle, tube temperatures well above 1000°C were regularly recorded and, on some occasions, temperatures of more than 1100°C were measured. Further temperature characterization was done with an infrared camera, and this camera clearly showed the variations in temperature across the first row of tubes in the four recuperator modules. Computational fluid dynamics was used to model the flow of combustion air in the tubes and the flue gas around the outside of the tubes. This modeling showed the

  17. Influence of multi-step heat treatments in creep age forming of 7075 aluminum alloy: Optimization for springback, strength and exfoliation corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arabi Jeshvaghani, R.; Zohdi, H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, H.R., E-mail: shahverdi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bozorg, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadavi, S.M.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, MA University of Technology, P.O. Box 16765-3197, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Multi-step heat treatments comprise of high temperature forming (150 Degree-Sign C/24 h plus 190 Degree-Sign C for several minutes) and subsequent low temperature forming (120 Degree-Sign C for 24 h) is developed in creep age forming of 7075 aluminum alloy to decrease springback and exfoliation corrosion susceptibility without reduction in tensile properties. The results show that the multi-step heat treatment gives the low springback and the best combination of exfoliation corrosion resistance and tensile strength. The lower springback is attributed to the dislocation recovery and more stress relaxation at higher temperature. Transmission electron microscopy observations show that corrosion resistance is improved due to the enlargement in the size and the inter-particle distance of the grain boundaries precipitates. Furthermore, the achievement of the high strength is related to the uniform distribution of ultrafine {eta} Prime precipitates within grains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Creep age forming developed for manufacturing of aircraft wing panels by aluminum alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A good combination of properties with minimal springback is required in this component. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This requirement can be improved through the appropriate heat treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-step cycles developed in creep age forming of AA7075 for improving of springback and properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results indicate simultaneous enhancing the properties and shape accuracy (lower springback).

  18. Effect of heat treatment on the properties of laser-beam welded rheo-cast F357 aluminum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Semi-solid metal rheo-cast F357 aluminum plates were joined by autogenous Nd:YAG laser welding and were welded in either the as-cast (F) condition, T4 temper or T6 temper condition. The weldability of this age-hardenable Al–7%Si–0.6%Mg casting alloy...

  19. Ignition delays, heats of combustion, and reaction rates of aluminum alkyl derivatives used as ignition and combustion enhancers for supersonic combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, T. W., III; Harlowe, W. W.; Schwab, S.

    1992-01-01

    The work was based on adapting an apparatus and procedure developed at Southwest Research Institute for rating the ignition quality of fuels for diesel engines. Aluminum alkyls and various Lewis-base adducts of these materials, both neat and mixed 50/50 with pure JP-10 hydrocarbon, were injected into the combustion bomb using a high-pressure injection system. The bomb was pre-charged with air that was set at various initial temperatures and pressures for constant oxygen density. The ignition delay times were determined for the test materials at these different initial conditions. The data are presented in absolute terms as well as comparisons with the parent alkyls. The relative heats of reaction of the various test materials were estimated based on a computation of the heat release, using the pressure data recorded during combustion in the bomb. In addition, the global reaction rates for each material were compared at a selected tmperature and pressure.

  20. Effect of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Submerged Friction Stir Welded 7A04 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Ya-xin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available 7A04 aluminum alloy plate was jointed by submerged friction stir welding(SFSW, and welded joints were treated (Post Weld Heat Treatment, PWHT, and the effect of post weld heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties in SFSW was investigated. The results show that PWHT joints exhibit dispersively distributed fine precipitates phase morphology, are significantly superior than the feature of the small amount of precipitates with dispersed distribution in SFSW joints. Compared with SFSW joints, the mechanical properties of joints are improved significantly by PWHT. The average hardness of the weld joints nugget zone is increased by 39.7HV, and the tensile strength is increased by 67MPa, reaches 96.1% of the base material, strain hardening capacity of the joints is also enhanced, the tensile fracture exhibits mixed fracture feature of microporous polymerization and cleavage.

  1. Potential of an adsorbent coated aluminum sponge asa heat storage and coldness storage; Potenzial von Adsorbens-beschichtetem Aluminiumschwamm als Waerme- und Kaeltespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Thomas; Heyse, Joerg [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Mueller, Dirk [RWTH Aachen (Germany). E.ON Energy Research Center

    2012-07-01

    In the case of electric-powered vehicles, it cannot be waived on the conditioning of the passenger compartment can not be waived in electric cars. However, if electric power from the battery is used for the supply of thermal energy, than driving energy is cannibalized. For mass-produced electric-powered vehicles, the halving of the already limited striking distance due to the electric heater in the winter could be detected in real operation. Thus, a concept for a battery-independent and thus distance-optimal conditioning of electric-powered vehicles is examined based on a thermal adsorption storage for cooling and heating. In order to realize an implementation of a closed adsorption system in a vehicle, it is necessary to optimize the energy density and power density as well as to match the needs. A new composite material is considered for the construction of the adsorber heat exchanger. It is open-pore aluminum sponge which is manufactured inexpensively by means of a pressure casting method. A microporous adsorbent is synthesized on the inner surface of using an adsorbent volume of 40 %. A high volumetric energy density can be closed. Since the aluminum sponge can be cast in heat exchanger structures, a high power density is also achieved with this adsorber concept. The design and optimization of adsorbent heat exchangers which are built up on the composite material mentioned above is described by means of numerical simulation. The simulation models used were validated with laboratory tests on samples of the composite material.

  2. Operable Unit 7-13/14 in situ thermal desorption treatability study work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Nickelson, D.; Hyde, R.

    1999-01-01

    This Work Plan provides technical details for conducting a treatability study that will evaluate the application of in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) to landfill waste at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ISTD is a form of thermally enhanced vapor vacuum extraction that heats contaminated soil and waste underground to raise its temperature and thereby vaporize and destroy most organics. An aboveground vapor vacuum collection and treatment system then destroys or absorbs the remaining organics and vents carbon dioxide and water to the atmosphere. The technology is a byproduct of an advanced oil-well thermal extraction program. The purpose of the ISTD treatability study is to fill performance-based data gaps relative to off-gas system performance, administrative feasibility, effects of the treatment on radioactive contaminants, worker safety during mobilization and demobilization, and effects of landfill type waste on the process (time to remediate, subsidence potential, underground fires, etc.). By performing this treatability study, uncertainties associated with ISTD as a selected remedy will be reduced, providing a better foundation of remedial recommendations and ultimate selection of remedial actions for the SDA

  3. Effects of Polypropylene Orientation on Mechanical and Heat Seal Properties of Polymer-Aluminum-Polymer Composite Films for Pouch Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangxinyu Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, polyamide-aluminum foil-polypropylene (PA-Al-PP composite films with different orientation status of the PP layer were prepared, and their morphology, tensile, peeling and heat seal behavior were studied. The comparative study of tensile and fracture behaviors of single-layer film of PA, Al and PP, as well as the composite films of PA-Al, PP-Al and PA-Al-PP revealed that in PA-Al-PP composite film, the PA layer with the highest tensile strength can share the tensile stress from the Al layer during stretching, while the PP layer with the lowest tensile strength can prevent further development of the small cracks on boundary of the Al layer during stretching. Moreover, the study of heat seal behavior suggested that both the orientation status and the heat seal conditions were important factors in determining the heat seal strength (HSS and failure behavior of the sample. Four failure types were observed, and a clear correspondence between HSS and failure types was found. The results also elucidated that for the composite film, only in the cases where the tensile stress was efficiently released by each layer during HSS measurement could the composite film exhibit desired high HSS that was even higher than its tensile strength.

  4. SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY TESTS FOR PESTICIDE- CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1987 Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 record of decision (ROD) identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides, and metals. Initial treatability tests conducted to assess the applicability...

  5. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  6. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-07-21

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at Hanford.

  7. Neonatal screening for treatable congenital disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoensiriwatana, W.; Janejai, N.; Boonwanich, W.; Krasao, P.; Waiyasilp, S.

    2001-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a treatable disease if detected at the early stage of life. It is one of the most frequent cause of mental retardation in children. In 85 % of cases, congenital hypothyroidism is a consequence of thyroid disgenesis, in which the gland is either absent, located ectopically and/or severely reduced in size. Early detection and treatment with thyroid hormone supplement can significantly reduce mental damage. In 1996, Thailand initiated a neonatal screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) and phenylketonuria (PKU), with the objective of bringing a better quality of life to people throughout the country, but especially in the remote areas. The programme involves implementing routine screening nationwide. The plan of action was designed with the goal of having public health service units throughout the country provide neonatal screening by year 2002 for the 1.2 million babies born per annum in Thailand. The government supported the programme by allocating a five-year budget of approximately US$15 million. The programme received additional assistance through technical support and human resource development from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the US Centers for Disease Control. This assistance promoted self-sustainability and strengthened the programme's technical base. The programme is on track. It is expected that by year 2002 all new born babies in Thailand will be screened for CHT and PKU

  8. Statistical aspects of fatigue crack growth life of base metal, weld metal and heat affected zone in FSWed 7075-T651aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Hye Jeong; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Kim, Seon Jin

    2014-01-01

    The statistical aspects of fatigue crack growth life of base metal (BM), weld metal (WM) and heat affected zone (HAZ) in friction stir welded (FSWed) 7075-T651 aluminum alloy has been studied by Weibull statistical analysis. The fatigue crack growth tests were performed at room temperature on ASTM standard CT specimens under three different constant stress intensity factor range controls. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of statistical aspects of fatigue crack growth life on stress intensity factor ranges and material properties, namely BM, WM and HAZ specimens. In this work, the Weibull distribution was employed to estimate the statistical aspects of fatigue crack growth life. The shape parameter of Weibull distribution for fatigue crack growth life was significantly affected by material properties and the stress intensity factor range. The scale parameter of WM specimen exhibited the lowest value at all stress intensity factor ranges.

  9. Control of surface temperature of an aluminum alloy billet by air flow during a heating process at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young [KITECH, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joon Hong [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The procedure of semi-solid forming is composed of heating a billet, forming, compression holding and ejecting step. There are several methods to heat a billet during semi-solid forming process such as electric heating and induction heating. Usually in semi-solid forming process, induction heating has been adopted to achieve more uniform temperature of semi-solid material. Although induction heating is better method than any others, however, there is still difference of temperature between internal part and surface part of semi-solid material. Worse yet, in case of high liquid fraction of semi-solid material, liquid of the billet will flow down though solid of the billet still remains, which is very difficult to handle. In the present study, induction heating of the billet during thixoforging process with forced surface cooling has been performed to obtain more uniform distribution of temperature, microstructure and shape of the billet. Distribution of temperature of the billets was measured and compared with that of conventional distribution of temperature. Microscopic and macroscopic aspects of the billets were discussed according to location of the measuring points. By this new induction heating method, not only temperature distributions over the whole billet become uniform, but also control of temperature distribution between inside and outside part of the billet is possible as user's experimental intentions,.

  10. Improvement of Self-Heating of Indium Gallium Zinc Aluminum Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Using Al2O3 Barrier Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Li-Yi; Lee, Hsin-Ying; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2018-02-01

    To study the self-heating effect, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) barrier layers of various thicknesses have been inserted between the channel layer and insulator layer in bottom-gate-type indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). Each IGZAO channel layer was deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate by using a magnetron radiofrequency cosputtering system with dual targets composed of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) and Al. The 3 s orbital of Al cation provided an extra transport pathway and widened the conduction-band bottom, thus increasing the electron mobility of the IGZAO films. The Al-O bonds were able to sustain the oxygen stability of the IGZAO films. The self-heating behavior of the resulting IGZAO TFTs was studied by Hall measurements on the IGZAO films as well as the electrical performance of the IGZAO TFTs with Al2O3 barrier layers of various thicknesses at different temperatures. IGZAO TFTs with 50-nm-thick Al2O3 barrier layer were stressed by positive gate bias stress (PGBS, at gate-source voltage V GS = 5 V and drain-source voltage V DS = 0 V); at V GS = 5 V and V DS = 10 V, the threshold voltage shifts were 0.04 V and 0.2 V, respectively, much smaller than for the other IGZAO TFTs without Al2O3 barrier layer, which shifted by 0.2 V and 1.0 V when stressed under the same conditions.

  11. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document

  12. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1991-02-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the in situ vitrification process. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Waste treatability guidance program. User's guide. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, C.

    1995-01-01

    DOE sites across the country generate and manage radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary wastes. It is necessary for each site to find the technologies and associated capacities required to manage its waste. One role of DOE HQ Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is to facilitate the integration of the site- specific plans into coherent national plans. DOE has developed a standard methodology for defining and categorizing waste streams into treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. This Waste Treatability Guidance Program automates the Guidance Document for the categorization of waste information into treatability groups; this application provides a consistent implementation of the methodology across the National TRU Program. This User's Guide provides instructions on how to use the program, including installations instructions and program operation. This document satisfies the requirements of the Software Quality Assurance Plan

  14. Waste treatability guidance program. User`s guide. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, C.

    1995-12-21

    DOE sites across the country generate and manage radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary wastes. It is necessary for each site to find the technologies and associated capacities required to manage its waste. One role of DOE HQ Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is to facilitate the integration of the site- specific plans into coherent national plans. DOE has developed a standard methodology for defining and categorizing waste streams into treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. This Waste Treatability Guidance Program automates the Guidance Document for the categorization of waste information into treatability groups; this application provides a consistent implementation of the methodology across the National TRU Program. This User`s Guide provides instructions on how to use the program, including installations instructions and program operation. This document satisfies the requirements of the Software Quality Assurance Plan.

  15. ''Heat Transfer at the Mold-Metal Interface in Permanent Mold Casting of Aluminum Alloys'' Final Project Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehlke, R. D.; Cookson, John M.; Shouwei Hao; Prasad Krishna; Bilkey, Kevin T.

    2001-01-01

    This project on heat transfer coefficients in metal permanent mold casting has been conducted in three areas. They are the theoretical study at the University of Michigan, the experimental investigation of squeeze casting at CMI-Tech Center (Now Hayes-Lemmerz Technical Center) and the experimental investigation of low pressure permanent mold casting at Amcast Automotive

  16. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  17. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-10-26

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the 100 Areas at the Hanford Site. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at the Hanford Site.

  18. Prediction and characterization of heat-affected zone formation due to neighboring nickel-aluminum multilayer foil reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, David P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hirschfeld, Deidre A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hooper, Ryan J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manuel, Michelle V. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Reactive multilayer foils have the potential to be used as local high intensity heat sources for a variety of applications. Much of the past research effort concerning these materials have focused on understanding the structure-property relationships of the foils that govern the energy released during a reaction. To enhance the ability of researchers to more rapidly develop technologies based on reactive multilayer foils, a deeper and more predictive understanding of the relationship between the heat released from the foil and microstructural evolution in the neighboring materials is needed. This work describes the development of a numerical model for the purpose of evaluating new foil-substrate combinations for screening and optimization. The model is experimentally validated using a commercially available Ni-Al multilayer foils and different alloys.

  19. The effect of Al–8B grain refiner and heat treatment conditions on the microstructure, mechanical properties and dry sliding wear behavior of an Al–12Zn–3Mg–2.5Cu aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour, M.; Azarbarmas, M.; Heydari, F.; Hoghoughi, M.; Alidoost, M.; Emamy, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of Al–8B on the properties of aluminum alloy was studied. ► Al–8B is an effective in reducing the grain and reagent fine microstructure. ► Al–8B is an effective in optimization of properties. -- Abstract: In this study the effect of Al–8B grain refiner on the structural and properties of Al–12Zn–3Mg–2.5Cu aluminum alloy were investigated. The optimum amount for B containing grain refiner was selected as 3.75 wt.%. The results showed that B containing grain refiner is more effective in reducing average grain size of the alloy. T6 heat treatment was applied for all specimens before tensile testing. Significant improvements in mechanical properties were obtained with the addition of grain refiner combined with T6 heat treatment. After the heat treatment, the average tensile strength increased from 479 MPa to 537 MPa for sample refined with 3.75 wt.% Al–8B. The fractography of the fractured faces and microstructure evolution was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. Dry sliding wear performance of the alloy was examined in normal atmospheric conditions. The experimental results showed that the T6 heat treatment considerably improved the resistance of Al–12Zn–3Mg–2.5Cu aluminum alloy to the dry sliding wear.

  20. Pad A Treatability Study long-range project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Pad A Treatability Study Project is to identify and demonstrate through lab- and pilot-scale testing, technologies for treating plutonium-contaminated salt waste. This document presents proposed objectives and schedules, scope of work and breakdown structure, cost elements, deployment, benefits, and change controls for the project

  1. Treatability test plan for the 200-ZP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. The primary contaminants of concern are carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene (TCE). The pilot-scale treatability testing has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants present in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume. The overall scope of this test plan includes: description of the pump and treat system to be tested, as well as the test performance objectives and data quality objectives (DQOs) that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the pilot-scale treatment system; discussion of the treatment technology to be tested and supporting development activities, including process flow and conceptual design descriptions and equipment, fabrication, utility, and system startup needs; description of pilot-scale treatment system performance, operating procedures, and operational controls, as well as anticipated monitoring activities, analytes, parameters, analytical procedures, and quality assurance protocols; summaries of other related treatability testing elements, including personnel and environmental health and safety controls, process and secondary waste management and disposition, schedule, and program organization

  2. LOSS OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN SOIL: PURE COMPOUND TREATABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive screening data on the treatability of 32 organic chemicals in soil were developed. Of the evaluated chemicals, 22 were phenolic compounds. Aerobic batch laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted using two soils: an acidic clay soil with <1% organic matter and ...

  3. A potentially treatable cause of dementia | Katsidzira | Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A potentially treatable cause of dementia. L Katsidzira, T Machiridza, A Ndlovu. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  4. Infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, S. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology; Niimi, Y. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    The infrared radiation heating is an efficient and energy saving heating method. Ceramics have been used as an infrared radiant material, because the emissivity of metals is lower than that of ceramics. However, anodized aluminum could be used as the infrared radiant material since an aluminum oxide film is formed on the surface. In the present study, the infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum have been investigated by determining the spectral emissivity curve. The spectral emissivity curve of anodized aluminum changed with the anodizing time. The spectral emissivity curve shifted to the higher level after anodizing for 10 min, but little changed afterwards. The infrared radiant material with high level spectral emissivity curve can be achieved by making an oxide film thicker than about 15 {mu}m on the surface of aluminum. Thus, anodized aluminum is applicable for the infrared radiation heating. (orig.)

  5. Probing liquation cracking and solidification through modeling of momentum, heat, and solute transport during welding of aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.; Chakraborty, S.; DebRoy, T.

    2005-01-01

    A transport phenomena-based mathematical model is developed to understand liquation cracking in weldments during fusion welding. Equations of conservation of mass, momentum, heat, and solute transport are numerically solved considering nonequilibrium solidification and filler metal addition to determine the solid and liquid phase fractions in the solidifying region and the solute distribution in the weld pool. An effective partition coefficient that considers the local interface velocity and the undercooling is used to simulate solidification during welding. The calculations show that convection plays a dominant role in the solute transport inside the weld pool. The predicted weld-metal solute content agreed well with the independent experimental observations. The liquation cracking susceptibility in Al-Cu alloy weldments could be reliably predicted by the model based on the computed solidifying weld-metal composition and solid fraction considering nonequilibrium solidification

  6. The implementation of microstructural and heat treatment models to development of forming technology of critical aluminum-alloy parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biba, Nikolay; Alimov, Artem; Shitikov, Andrey; Stebunov, Sergei

    2018-05-01

    The demand for high performance and energy efficient transportation systems have boosted interest in lightweight design solutions. To achieve maximum weight reductions, it is not enough just to replace steel parts by their aluminium analogues, but it is necessary to change the entire concept of vehicle design. In this case we must develop methods for manufacturing a variety of critical parts with unusual and difficult to produce shapes. The mechanical properties of the material in these parts must also be optimised and tightly controlled to provide the best distribution within the part volume. The only way to achieve these goals is to implement technology development methods based on simulation of the entire manufacturing chain from preparing a billet through the forming operations and heat treatment of the product. The paper presents an approach to such technology development. The simulation of the technological chain starts with extruding a round billet. Depending on the extrusion process parameters, the billet can have different levels of material workout and variation of grain size throughout the volume. After extrusion, the billet gets formed into the required shape in a forging process. The main requirements at this stage are to get the near net shape of the product without defects and to provide proper configuration of grain flow that strengthens the product in the most critical direction. Then the product undergoes solution treatment, quenching and ageing. The simulation of all these stages are performed by QForm FEM code that provides thermo-mechanical coupled deformation of the material during extrusion and forging. To provide microstructure and heat treatment simulation, special subroutines has been developed by the authors. The proposed approach is illustrated by an industrial case study.

  7. Pad A treatability study long-range project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, J.D.

    1991-06-01

    This plan addresses the work to be accomplished by the Pad A Treatability Study Project. The purpose of this project is to investigate potential treatment and separation technologies, identify the best technologies, and to demonstrate by both lab- and pilot-scale demonstration, the most applicable remedial technologies for treating plutonium-contaminated salts at the Pad A site located at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) a the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The conduct of this project will be supported by other DOE laboratories, universities, and private industries, who will provide support for near-term demonstrations of treatment and separation technologies. The purpose of this long-range planning document is to present the detailed plan for the implementation of the Pad A Treatability Study Project

  8. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1990-12-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the ISV process. The data collected in the course of these efforts will address the nine criteria set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which will be used to identify and select specific technologies to be used in the remediation of the buried wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Treatability of a Highly-Impaired, Saline Surface Water for Potential Urban Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Pontius

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As freshwater sources of drinking water become limited, cities and urban areas must consider higher-salinity waters as potential sources of drinking water. The Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley of California has a very high salinity (43 ppt, total dissolved solids (70,000 mg/L, and color (1440 CU. Future wetlands and habitat restoration will have significant ecological benefits, but salinity levels will remain elevated. High salinity eutrophic waters, such as the Salton Sea, are difficult to treat, yet more desirable sources of drinking water are limited. The treatability of Salton Sea water for potential urban water use was evaluated here. Coagulation-sedimentation using aluminum chlorohydrate, ferric chloride, and alum proved to be relatively ineffective for lowering turbidity, with no clear optimum dose for any of the coagulants tested. Alum was most effective for color removal (28 percent at a dose of 40 mg/L. Turbidity was removed effectively with 0.45 μm and 0.1 μm microfiltration. Bench tests of Salton Sea water using sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO achieved initial contaminant rejections of 99 percent salinity, 97.7 percent conductivity, 98.6 percent total dissolved solids, 98.7 percent chloride, 65 percent sulfate, and 99.3 percent turbidity.

  10. The treatable intellectual disability APP www.treatable-id.org: A digital tool to enhance diagnosis & care for rare diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID) is a devastating and frequent condition, affecting 2-3% of the population worldwide. Early recognition of treatable underlying conditions drastically improves health outcomes and decreases burdens to patients, families and society. Our systematic literature review identified 81 such inborn errors of metabolism, which present with ID as a prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. The WebAPP translates this knowledge of rare diseases into a diagnostic tool and information portal. Methods & results Freely available as a WebAPP via http://www.treatable-id.org and end 2012 via the APP store, this diagnostic tool is designed for all specialists evaluating children with global delay / ID and laboratory scientists. Information on the 81 diseases is presented in different ways with search functions: 15 biochemical categories, neurologic and non-neurologic signs & symptoms, diagnostic investigations (metabolic screening tests in blood and urine identify 65% of all IEM), therapies & effects on primary (IQ/developmental quotient) and secondary outcomes, and available evidence For each rare condition a ‘disease page’ serves as an information portal with online access to specific genetics, biochemistry, phenotype, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options. As new knowledge and evidence is gained from expert input and PubMed searches this tool will be continually updated. The WebAPP is an integral part of a protocol prioritizing treatability in the work-up of every child with global delay / ID. A 3-year funded study will enable an evaluation of its effectiveness. Conclusions For rare diseases, a field for which financial and scientific resources are particularly scarce, knowledge translation challenges are abundant. With this WebAPP technology is capitalized to raise awareness for rare treatable diseases and their common presenting clinical feature of ID, with the potential to improve health outcomes. This innovative digital

  11. The treatable intellectual disability APP www.treatable-id.org: A digital tool to enhance diagnosis & care for rare diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Karnebeek Clara D M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intellectual disability (ID is a devastating and frequent condition, affecting 2-3% of the population worldwide. Early recognition of treatable underlying conditions drastically improves health outcomes and decreases burdens to patients, families and society. Our systematic literature review identified 81 such inborn errors of metabolism, which present with ID as a prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. The WebAPP translates this knowledge of rare diseases into a diagnostic tool and information portal. Methods & results Freely available as a WebAPP via http://www.treatable-id.org and end 2012 via the APP store, this diagnostic tool is designed for all specialists evaluating children with global delay / ID and laboratory scientists. Information on the 81 diseases is presented in different ways with search functions: 15 biochemical categories, neurologic and non-neurologic signs & symptoms, diagnostic investigations (metabolic screening tests in blood and urine identify 65% of all IEM, therapies & effects on primary (IQ/developmental quotient and secondary outcomes, and available evidence For each rare condition a ‘disease page’ serves as an information portal with online access to specific genetics, biochemistry, phenotype, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options. As new knowledge and evidence is gained from expert input and PubMed searches this tool will be continually updated. The WebAPP is an integral part of a protocol prioritizing treatability in the work-up of every child with global delay / ID. A 3-year funded study will enable an evaluation of its effectiveness. Conclusions For rare diseases, a field for which financial and scientific resources are particularly scarce, knowledge translation challenges are abundant. With this WebAPP technology is capitalized to raise awareness for rare treatable diseases and their common presenting clinical feature of ID, with the potential to improve health outcomes

  12. Studying the Super-cooled Solid Solution Breakdown of V-1341 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Puchkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformable alloys of the Al-Mg-Si system are widely used in aviation industry, rocket engineering, shipbuilding, as well as on railway and highway transport. These alloys are characterized by high stamping ability, weld-ability, and machinability with a comparatively high strength and corrosion resistance in a heat-strengthened state. A promising alloy of the Al-Mg-Si system with increased structural strength and manufacturability is on par with foreign analogues in properties is the V-1341 alloy [1, 2].The properties of heat-treatable aluminum alloys strongly depend on the cooling rate of the product during quenching [3-12], which determines the structure and level of residual stresses. Decrease in structural strength, tendency to pitting and inter-crystalline corrosion with slow cooling from the quenching temperature is caused by formation of coarse unequiaxed precipitate, precipitates-free zones, and also by decreasing proportion of inclusions of the strengthening phase [3-12].Thus, the relevant task is to study the effect of isothermal quenching modes on the structure of deformable V-1341 aluminum alloy thermally hardened.The paper studies the impact of isothermal time in quenching on the composition and morphology of breakdown products of the V-1341 alloy solid solution. It is shown that at isothermal time under the solid solution breakdown, at first on the dispersoid surface and then in the solid solution are formed and grow large needle-like crystals of the β'-phase which are structural concentrators of stresses. An increasing isothermal time leads to decreasing solid solution super-saturation by doping elements and vacancies. This leads to a decrease in the fraction of the coherent finely dispersed hardening β '' phase, and also to an increase in the width of the precipitates-free zone.

  13. Evaluation of aluminum migration into foodstuffs from aluminium cookware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Radi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the existence of aluminum in human diet as a food contaminant has attracted the concerns of many researchers. It seems that the cooking pans are common sources of aluminum exposure through foodstuffs in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the migration of aluminum from cooking containers into foodstuffs. For this purpose, solutions with different concentrations of citric acid, sodium chloride, fat, protein and sugar were prepared and migration of aluminum into these solutions was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that salt and citric acid concentrations could enhance aluminum migration; whereas, acid concentration was more effective than salt due to its corrosive effect. The intensity of heat processing and the duration of heat treatment had direct relation with aluminum migration. The aluminum content of cooked foods in aluminum cooking pans was also significantly more than control samples.

  14. CARWASH WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERISTICS, VOLUMES, AND TREATABILITY BY GRAVITY OIL SEPARATION

    OpenAIRE

    C. Fall

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the characteristics, volumes and treatability of Full-service carwash wastewaters in Toluca (Mexico State). The average water use for Exterior-only wash was 50 L per small-size car and 170 L per medium-size vehicle (pick up, van or light truck). The Full-service wash (exterior, engine and chassis) required 170 L per small-size car and 300 L per light truck. Wastewaters were generally emulsified and contained high contaminant loads (in average, 1100 mg...

  15. Hanford 100-D Area Biostimulation Treatability Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Elmore, Rebecca P.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Sklarew, Deborah S.; Johnson, Christian D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Peterson, John E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Gasperikova, E.; Ajo-Franklin, J.

    2009-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a treatability test designed to demonstrate that in situ biostimulation can be applied to help meet cleanup goals in the Hanford Site 100-D Area. In situ biostimulation has been extensively researched and applied for aquifer remediation over the last 20 years for various contaminants. In situ biostimulation, in the context of this project, is the process of amending an aquifer with a substrate that induces growth and/or activity of indigenous bacteria for the purpose of inducing a desired reaction. For application at the 100-D Area, the purpose of biostimulation is to induce reduction of chromate, nitrate, and oxygen to remove these compounds from the groundwater. The in situ biostimulation technology is intended to provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) barrier previously installed in the Hanford 100-D Area and thereby increase the longevity of the ISRM barrier. Substrates for the treatability test were selected to provide information about two general approaches for establishing and maintaining an in situ permeable reactive barrier based on biological reactions, i.e., a biobarrier. These approaches included 1) use of a soluble (miscible) substrate that is relatively easy to distribute over a large areal extent, is inexpensive, and is expected to have moderate longevity; and 2) use of an immiscible substrate that can be distributed over a reasonable areal extent at a moderate cost and is expected to have increased longevity.

  16. Hanford Site physical separations CERCLA treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct a physical separations soil treatability test in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site, Washington. The objective of this test is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems as a means of concentrating chemical and radioactive contaminants into fine soil fractions and thereby minimizing waste volumes. If successful the technology could be applied to clean up millions of cubic meters of contaminated soils in waste sites at Hanford and other sites. It is not the intent of this test to remove contaminated materials from the fine soils. Physical separation is a simple and comparatively low cost technology to potentially achieve a significant reduction in the volume of contaminated soils. Organic contaminants are expected to be insignificant for the 300-FF-I Operable Unit test, and further removal of metals and radioactive contaminants from the fine fraction of soils will require secondary treatment such as chemical extraction, electromagnetic separation, or other technologies. Additional investigations/testing are recommended to assess the economic and technical feasibility of applying secondary treatment technologies, but are not within the scope of this test. This plan provides guidance and specifications for the treatability test to be conducted as a service contract. More detailed instructions and procedures will be provided as part of the vendors (sellers) proposal. The procedures will be approved by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and finalized by the seller prior to initiating the test

  17. On the kinetics of the aluminum-water reaction during exposure in high-heat flux test loops: 1, A computer program for oxidation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawel, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The ''Griess Correlation,'' in which the thickness of the corrosion product on aluminum alloy surfaces is expressed as a function of time and temperature for high-flux-reactor conditions, was rewritten in the form of a simple, general rate equation. Based on this equation, a computer program that calculates oxide-layer thickness for any given time-temperature transient was written. 4 refs

  18. Treatability study of pesticide-based industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kinnari; Chauhan, L I; Galgale, A D

    2012-10-01

    This paper finds out appropriate treatment methods for wastewater of an Organophosphorus viz, chloropyrifos pesticide manufacturing industry. The characterization of wastewater generated during trial production of chloropyrifos was carried out. Based on the characterization of wastewater, various treatability studies were conducted. The most desirable results were obtained with treatment scheme employing acidification, chlorination with NaOCl, suspended growth biological treatment, chemical precipitation for phosphorous removal and activated carbon treatment. Acidification of wastewater helps in by-product recovery as well as reduction in COD upto 36.26%. Chlorination followed by biological treatment was found to be effective to reduce the COD level by 62.06%. To comply with permissible limits prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, further treatment in the form of chemical precipitation (for phosphorous removal) and granular activated carbon is suggested.

  19. Treatability study Number PDC-1-O-T. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory provided treatability study samples from four waste streams, designated Stream number-sign 1, Stream number-sign 3, Stream number-sign 6, and Stream number-sign 7. Stream number-sign 1 consisted of one 55-gallon drum of personal protective equipment (PPE), rags, and neutralizing agent (bicarbonate) generated during the cleanup of a sodium dichromate solution spill. Stream number-sign 3 was one 55-gallon drum of paper, rags, lab utensils, tools, and tape from the decontamination of a glovebox. The sample of Stream number-sign 6 was packaged in three 30-gallon drums and a 100 ft 3 wooden box. It consisted of plastic sheeting, PPE, and paper generated from the cleanup of mock explosive (barium nitrate) from depleted uranium parts. Stream number-sign 7 was scrap metal (copper, stainless and carbon steel joined with silver solder) from the disassembly of gas manifolds. The objective of the treatability study is to determine: (1) whether the Perma-Fix stabilization/solidification process can treat the waste sample to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and the Waste Acceptance Criteria for LANL Technical Area 54, Area G, and (2) optimum loading and resulting weight and volume of finished waste form. The stabilized waste was mixed into grout that had been poured into a lined drum. After each original container of waste was processed, the liner was closed and a new liner was placed in the same drum on top of the previous closed liner. This allowed an overall reduction in waste volume but kept waste segregated to minimize the amount of rework in case analytical results indicated any batch did not meet treatment standards. Samples of treated waste from each waste stream were analyzed by Perma-Fix Analytical Services to get a preliminary approximation of TCLP metals. Splits of these samples were sent to American Environmental Network's mixed waste analytical lab in Cary, NC for confirmation analysis. Results were all below applicable limits

  20. Use of low-cost aluminum in electric energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Andrey Z.; Sheindlin, Alexander E.; Kleymenov, Boris V.; Shkolnikov, Eugene I.; Lopatin, Marat Yu.

    Suppression of the parasitic corrosion while maintaining the electrochemical activity of the anode metal is one of the serious problems that affects the energy efficiency of aluminum-air batteries. The need to use high-purity aluminum or special aluminum-based alloys results in a significant increase in the cost of the anode, and thus an increase in the total cost of energy generated by the aluminum-air battery, which narrows the range of possible applications for this type of power source. This study considers the process of parasitic corrosion as a method for hydrogen production. Hydrogen produced in an aluminum-air battery by this way may be further employed in a hydrogen-air fuel cell (Hy-air FC) or in a heat engine, or it may be burnt to generate heat. Therefore, anode materials may be provided by commercially pure aluminum, commercially produced aluminum alloys, and secondary aluminum. These materials are much cheaper and more readily available than special anode alloys of aluminum and high-purity aluminum. The aim of present study is to obtain experimental data for comparison of energy and cost parameters of some commercially produced aluminum alloys, of high-purity aluminum, and of a special Al-ln anode alloy in the context of using these materials as anodes for an Al-air battery and for combined production of electrical power and hydrogen.

  1. The effect of surface modification on initial ice formation on aluminum surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Afshari, Alireza; Fojan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    material of heat exchanger fins is aluminum, this paper focuses on the effect of aluminum wettability on the initial stages of ice formation. The ice growth was studied on bare as well as hydrophilically and hydrophobically modified surfaces of aluminum (8011A) sheets, commonly used in heat exchangers...

  2. Method of melting and decontaminating radioactive contaminated aluminum material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Noboru; Kawasaki, Katsuo; Iba, Hajime.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the decontaminating efficiency upon melting decontamination of radioactive-contaminated aluminum materials. Method: This invention concerns an improvement for the method of melting decontamination by adding slug agent composed of organic compound to contaminated aluminum material and extracting the radioactive materials into the slug thereby decontaminating the aluminum material. Specifically metals effective for reducing the active amount of aluminum are added such that the content is greater than a predetermined value in the heat melting process. The metal comprises Mg, Cu or a mixture thereof and the content is more than 4 % including those previously contained in the aluminum material. (Ikeda, J.)

  3. Treatability Study Report for In SITU Lead Immobilization Using Phosphate-Based Binders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bricka, R. M; Marwaha, Anirudha; Fabian, Gene L

    2008-01-01

    .... The treatability study described in this report was designed to develop the information necessary to support the immobilization of lead contaminants in soil by in situ treatment with phosphate-based binders...

  4. Effect of Heat Treatment on Commercial AlSi12Cu1(Fe) and AlSi12(b) Aluminum Alloy Die Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, E.; Bonollo, F.; Ferro, P.; Fabrizi, A.

    2018-03-01

    High-pressure die castings (HPDCs) cannot normally be heat-treated at a high temperature because of the presence of inner air/gas- or shrinkage-porosity that may lead to the formation of undesired surface blisters. In this paper, an unconventional heat treatment is proposed. Two secondary Al-Si alloys, AlSi12(b) and AlSi12Cu1(Fe), were stabilization heat-treated at 624 K (350 °C) with soaking times ranging from 1 to 8 hours. Enhancement of both static and dynamic mechanical properties was found to be related to the fragmentation of interconnected eutectic Si particles and the smoothing of coarser crystals. Increased ductility after heat treatment was correlated with a decrease in hardness and Si particle roundness. The formation of Si precipitates within the α-Al matrix was also observed.

  5. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil: Activated sludge treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rue-Van Es, J.E. La.

    1993-05-01

    Batch activated sludge treatability studies utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils (diesel oil and leaded gasoline) were conducted to determine: initial indigenous biological activity in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; limiting factors of microbiological growth by investigating nutrient addition, chemical emulsifiers, and co-substrate; acclimation of indigenous population of microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as sole carbon source; and temperature effects. Soil samples were taken from three different contaminated sites and sequencing batch reactors were run. Substrate (diesel fuel) and nutrient were added as determined by laboratory analysis of orthophosphate, ammonia nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. Substrate was made available to the bacterial mass by experimenting with four different chemical emulsifiers. Indigenous microorganisms capable of biotransforming hydrocarbons seem to be present in all the contaminated soil samples received from all sites. Microscopic analysis revealed no visible activity at the beginning of the study and presence of flagellated protozoa, paramecium, rotifers, and nematodes at the end of the year. Nutrient requirements and the limiting factors in microorganism growth were determined for each site. An emulsifier was initially necessary to make the substrate available to the microbial population. Decreases in removal were found with lowered temperature. Removal efficiencies ranged from 50-90%. 95 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs

  6. Soil washing treatability testing for rad-waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leis, K.S.; Lear, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Soil washing treatability testing was successfully completed on soil contaminated with Ra-226 and Th-232. The objective of the soil washing study was to determine if the radiologically contaminated fraction of the soil could be separated from the bulk of the soil material. The cleanup criteria was 38 microm) fraction was allowed to settle and was washed to separate it from the highly contaminated fine (< 38 microm) fraction. The clean coarse fraction comprised 85.7% of the total solids and had less than 15 pCi/g of Ra-226 and Th-232. This material was to be disposed at a RCRA Subtitle D disposal facility. The suspended fines were flocculated and dewatered to minimize the amount of highly contaminated material produced by the soil washing. The dewatered fines would require disposal at a low-level radiological disposal facility. Mass balance calculations were made to determine production rates and chemical and equipment requirements for the full-scale soil washing treatment

  7. In situ respiration testing: A field treatability test for bioventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.A.; Hinchee, R.E.; Miller, R.; Vogel, C.; Hoeppel, R.

    1993-01-01

    Bioventing is the process of aerating subsurface soils to stimulate in situ biological activity and promote bioremediation. Bioventing differs from soil venting in remedial approach. Soil venting is designed and operated to maximize the volatilization of low-molecular-weight compounds, with some biodegradation occurring. In contrast, bioventing is designed to maximize biodegradation of aerobically biodegradable compounds, regardless of their molecular weight, with some volatilization occurring. Bioventing is gaining wide acceptance as a remediation alternative at petroleum-contaminated sites. However, site variability usually requires that a short term treatability test be conducted in situ at potential sites to determine the applicability of bioventing. Battelle has worked with the US Air Force and the US Navy to develop a simple and inexpensive field test to evaluate bioventing potential-contaminated sites. This test has been used to evaluate the applicability of bioventing at over 50 sites. The in situ respiration test consists of injecting air and an inert tracer gas (helium) over a 24-hour period to aerate soils at an oxygen-deficient, petroleum-contaminated site. Soil vapor samples are collected to determine oxygen utilization rates and carbon dioxide production rates. The stoichiometric relationship for the oxidation of hexane is used to calculate the biodegradation rate. The tracer gas is monitored to estimate the effect of diffusion on changes in soil-gas concentrations

  8. Treatability studies in support of the nonradiological wastewater treatment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, J.M.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Villiers-Fisher, J.F.; Fowler, V.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Project (NRWTP) will treat nonradiological wastewaters generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to pollutant levels acceptable under restrictions imposed by the effluent limits of best available technology (BAT) regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), according to the goals established by the Clean Water Act. A three-phase treatability study was conducted to resolve many of the uncertainties facing the NRWTP. The first phase consisted of batch simulation of the proposed NRWTP flowsheet in the laboratory. The Phase I results revealed no major problems with the proposed flowsheet. Phase II consisted of more-detailed parametric studies of the flowsheet processes at a bench-scale level in the laboratory. The Phase II results were used to guide the planning and design of the Phase III study, which consisted of flowsheet simulation on a continuous basis using a mini-pilot plant (MPP) facility. This facility is contained within two connected semitrailer vans and an analytical trailer.

  9. Solidifications/stabilization treatability study of a mixed waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Stine, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency Region IV regarding mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) subject to the land disposal restriction provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This agreement required treatability studies of solidification/stabilization (S/S) on mixed wastes from the ORR. This paper reports the results of the cementitious S/S studies conducted on a waste water treatment sludge generated from biodenitrification and heavy metals precipitation. For the cementitious waste forms, the additives tested were Portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, Class F fly ash, and perlite. The properties measured on the treated waste were density, free-standing liquid, unconfined compressive strength, and TCLP performance. Spiking up to 10,000, 10,000, and 4,400 mg/kg of nickel, lead, and cadmium, respectively, was conducted to test waste composition variability and the stabilization limitations of the binding agents. The results indicated that nickel, lead and cadmium were stabilized fairly well in the high pH hydroxide-carbonate- ''bug bones'' sludge, but also clearly confirmed the established stabilization potential of cementitious S/S for these RCRA metals

  10. Firm contracts for treatability tests on contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Geosafe Corporation, a Pacific Northwest-headquartered hazardous waste remediation company, announced that is has successfully completed treatability testing of contaminated soils under contract with Woodward Clyde Consultants of Denver, Colorado, the prime contractor for a major hazardous waste site in the Western United States. The tests are being conducted at the University of Washington with Geosafe's specially-designed test equipment. The recently concluded testing confirms the ability of Geosafe's patented in situ vitrification (ISV) technology to treat soils containing a variety of organic and inorganic contaminants. ISV, for which Geosafe has worldwide rights, is the only technology available today that will fully comply with the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. The ability of ISV to treat mixtures of organic, inorganic and radioactive wastes in situ, in a single process, offers distinct advantages over excavation, transportation and incineration. During the ISV process, organic contaminants are pyrolized and the inorganics present are chemically incorporated into the molten soil which, when cooled, resembles naturally-occurring obsidian

  11. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil: Activated sludge treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue-Van Es, J.E. La.

    1993-05-01

    Batch activated sludge treatability studies utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils (diesel oil and leaded gasoline) were conducted to determine: initial indigenous biological activity in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; limiting factors of microbiological growth by investigating nutrient addition, chemical emulsifiers, and co-substrate; acclimation of indigenous population of microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as sole carbon source; and temperature effects. Soil samples were taken from three different contaminated sites and sequencing batch reactors were run. Substrate (diesel fuel) and nutrient were added as determined by laboratory analysis of orthophosphate, ammonia nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. Substrate was made available to the bacterial mass by experimenting with four different chemical emulsifiers. Indigenous microorganisms capable of biotransforming hydrocarbons seem to be present in all the contaminated soil samples received from all sites. Microscopic analysis revealed no visible activity at the beginning of the study and presence of flagellated protozoa, paramecium, rotifers, and nematodes at the end of the year. Nutrient requirements and the limiting factors in microorganism growth were determined for each site. An emulsifier was initially necessary to make the substrate available to the microbial population. Decreases in removal were found with lowered temperature. Removal efficiencies ranged from 50-90%. 95 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Treatability of PCB-contaminated soils with quicklime (CaO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, D.; Taylor, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    The possibility that quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO) can destroy PCBs has received much attention over the past year. Observations at an EPA remediation site, where lime-containing kiln dusts were used for interim stabilization of PCB-containing wastes prompted the EPA to sponsor a small research project to investigate quicklime-PCB interactions. That study reported decreases in PCB content in synthetic, PCB-spiked soil following the application of quicklime and heat. META Environmental, Inc., as a contractor to EPRI, recently completed research designed to evaluate the effectiveness of quicklime for treating PCBs in soil and sand matrices under several reaction conditions, and to examine the underlying dechlorination chemistry involved, if any. Experiments were run with PCB-spiked sand and with actual PCB-contaminated soil. A variety of experimental conditions were employed including tests in open and closed containers, at ambient and elevated temperatures, and over a range of one hour to four days. Granular quicklime, fly ash, and kiln dust were all tested for reaction with PCBs. Early experiments showed that a mixture of sand/quicklime/water at 1:3:1.5 by weight, placed in an insulated container reached a maximum temperature of 216 degree C. Treatability experiments were subsequently run under controlled heat at room temperature, at 80 degree C, and at 200 degree C (following the initial temperature increase which occurs when water is added to quicklime). Little or no loss of PCBs was observed in open or closed containers at ambient or at 800 degree C over any period of time studied. A significant decrease of PCBs levels was observed only in the high temperature experiments (above 200 degree C), however the fate of the PCBs in those experiments was not determined. The conditions and the results of the PCB treatment tests are presented in this report, as well as recommendations for further studies

  13. Dynamic Response of AA2519 Aluminum Alloy under High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, Adewale Taiwo

    Like others in the AA2000 series, AA2519 is a heat-treatable Al-Cu alloy. Its excellent ballistic properties and stress corrosion cracking resistance, combined with other properties, qualify it as a prime candidate for armored vehicle and aircraft applications. However, available data on its high strain-rate response remains limited. In this study, AA2519 aluminum alloy was investigated in three different temper conditions: T4, T6, and T8, to determine the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and dynamic deformation behavior of the material at high strain rates ranging within 1000 ≤ epsilon ≤ 4000 s-1. Split Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with digital image correlation system was used for mechanical response characterization. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. Results showed heterogeneous deformation in the three temper conditions. It was observed that dynamic behavior in each condition was dependent on strength properties due to the aging type controlling the strengthening precipitates produced and initial microstructure. At 1500 s -1, AA2519-T6 exhibited peak dynamic yield strength and flow stress of 509 and 667 MPa respectively, which are comparable with what were observed in T8 condition at higher rate of 3500 s-1 but AA2519-T4 showed the least strength and flow stress properties. Early stress collapse, dynamic strain aging, and higher susceptibility to shear band formation and fracture were observed in the T6 condition within the selected range of high strain rates. The alloy's general mode of damage evolution was by dispersoid particle nucleation, shearing and cracking.

  14. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G

  15. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G.

  16. Thermally sprayed coatings: Aluminum on lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, S.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Zatorski, R.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of thermally spraying aluminum on a lead substrate was initiated in support of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) Project for the US Department of Energy. The program consisted of two distinct parts: (1) the characterization of the thermally sprayed coatings, including microhardness testing, effects of heating, and microstructure and porosity determinations, and (2) effects of mercury doping and heat treatments on the thermally sprayed composite. The project determined that aluminum could successfully be thermally sprayed onto the lead. The coatings had a dense microstructure, with a Vicker's Pyramid Hardness (VPH) of about 60, and a maximum porosity (found in strips on the samples) of 12%

  17. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  18. Ignition delays, heats of combustion, and reaction rates of aluminum alkyl derivatives used as ignition and combustion enhancers for supersonic combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas W., III; Schwab, S. T.; Harlowe, W. W.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the design of supersonic combustors which will be required in order to achieve the needed reaction rates in a reasonable sized combustor. A fuel additive approach, which is the focus of this research, is the use of pyrophorics to shorten the ignition delay time and to increase the energy density of the fuel. Pyrophoric organometallic compounds may also provide an ignition source and flame stabilization mechanism within the combustor, thus permitting use of hydrocarbon fuels in supersonic combustion systems. Triethylaluminum (TEA) and trimethylaluminum (TMA) were suggested for this application due to their high energy density and reactivity. The objective here is to provide comparative data for the ignition quality, the energy content, and the reaction rates of several different adducts of both TEA and TMA. The results of the experiments indicate the aluminum alkyls and their more stable derivatives reduce the ignition delay and total reaction time to JP-10 jet fuel. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of ignition delay and total reaction time of the blends of the adducts are significantly lower than in neat JP-10.

  19. Evaluation and Comparison of the Effects of RRA, T73 and T6 Heat Treatments on Hardness, Tensile and Bending Strengths of 7075 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Assadi

    2016-09-01

    20 min and in the third stage aging process was repeated like T6 treatment. Evaluation of the microstructures and fractured surfaces were performed with optical microscopes (OM and scanning electron microscopes (SEM. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS was used to study the chemical composition of precipitates. Hardness, tensile and bending strength were evaluated according to ASTM E384-11e1, ASTM B557-06 and DIN 50121 standards. RRA treatment increased tensile strength from 466 to 485 MPa and hardness from 110 to 165 Vickers. After T6 treatment, tensile strength increased from 466 to 505 MPa and hardness from 110 to 160 Vickers. In T73 process, the tensile strength remained almost constant (465 MPa but yield strength increased from 394 to 410 MPa and hardness decreased from 110 to 84 Vickers. The bending strength increased from 797 to 844, 920 and 1030 MPa in T73, RRA and T6 processes, respectively. By applying RRA process in optimized temperature and time, hardness, tensile and bending strengths of 7075 aluminum alloy were enhanced from 5 to 15% compared to that of T6 and T73 processes.

  20. Pulsed corona discharge for improving treatability of coking wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Preis, Sergei; Kornev, Iakov; Hu, Yun; Wei, Chao-Hai

    2018-02-01

    Coking wastewater (CW) contains toxic and macromolecular substances that inhibit biological treatment. The refractory compounds remaining in biologically treated coking wastewater (BTCW) provide chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color levels that make it unacceptable for reuse or disposal. Gas-phase pulsed corona discharge (PCD) utilizing mostly hydroxyl radicals and ozone as oxidants was applied to both raw coking wastewater (RCW) and BTCW wastewater as a supplemental treatment. The energy efficiency of COD, phenol, thiocyanate and cyanide degradation by PCD was the subject of the research. The cost-effective removal of intermediate oxidation products with addition of lime was also studied. The energy efficiency of oxidation was inversely proportional to the pulse repetition frequency: lower frequency allows more effective utilization of ozone at longer treatment times. Oxidative treatment of RCW showed the removal of phenol and thiocyanate at 800 pulses per second from 611 to 227mg/L and from 348 to 86mg/L, respectively, at 42kWh/m 3 delivered energy, with substantial improvement in the BOD 5 /COD ratio (from 0.14 to 0.43). The COD and color of BTCW were removed by 30% and 93%, respectively, at 20kWh/m 3 , showing energy efficiency for the PCD treatment exceeding that of conventional ozonation by a factor of 3-4. Application of lime appeared to be an effective supplement to the PCD treatment of RCW, degrading COD by about 28% at an energy input of 28kWh/m 3 and the lime dose of 3.0kg/m 3 . The improvement of RCW treatability is attributed to the degradation of toxic substances and fragmentation of macromolecular compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of the aluminum flow pattern on the bonding of aluminum to oxidized Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.; Lambert, J.P.

    1965-04-01

    The bonds produced when hot aluminum is allowed to flow smoothly from an extrusion die to the oxidized surface of a heated tube of Zircaloy-2 are consistently inferior to those produced with back-extruded flow. The difference is believed to be due to the reduction in, or elimination of, the oxide layer on the aluminum that comes in contact with the surface of the Zircaloy-2. This method of bonding aluminum to Zircaloy-2 is covered by Canadian patent 702,438 January 1965. (author)

  2. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolucci, Stephen F.; Paras, Joseph; Rafiee, Mohammad A.; Rafiee, Javad; Lee, Sabrina; Kapoor, Deepak; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. → Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. → Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. → The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  3. Investigation of the Precipitation Behavior in Aluminum Based Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Khushaim, Muna S.

    2015-01-01

    A complete study examining the influence of common industrial heat treatment on the precipitation kinetics and phase transformations of complex aluminum alloy is performed. The qualitative evaluation results of the precipitation

  4. Numerical simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow during double-sided laser beam welding of T-joints for aluminum aircraft fuselage panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhibin; Tao, Wang; Li, Liqun; Chen, Yanbin; Shi, Chunyuan

    2017-06-01

    In comparison with conventional laser beam welding, double-sided laser beam welding has two laser heat sources simultaneously and symmetrically loaded from both sides makes it to be a more complicated coupled heat transport and fluid flow process. In this work, in order to understand the heat transfer and fluid flow, a three-dimensional model was developed and validated with the experimental results. The temperature field, fluid flow field, and keyhole characteristic were calculated using the developed model by FLUENT software. Calculated results indicated that the temperature and fluid flow fields were bilateral symmetry along the stringer center, and the molten pool maximum length was located near the keyhole intersection position. The skin side had higher temperature and faster cooling speed. Several characteristic flow patterns in the weld pool cross section, including the vortexes flows near the keyhole opening position, the convection flows above the keyhole intersection location, the regularity downward flows at the molten pool bottom. And in the lengthwise section, a distinct vortex flow below the keyhole, and the liquid metal behind the keyhole first flowed to near the molten pool maximum length location and then to the molten pool surface. Perpendicular to and along welding direction the keyhole liquid metal flowed to the weld molten pool surface and around the keyhole, respectively. The special temperature fields and fluid flow patterns were closely related to the effects of the double sides' laser energy coupling and enhancement. The calculated weld pool geometry basically in good agreement with the experimental results indicated that the developed model was validity and reasonable.

  5. beta Phase Growth and Precipitation in the 5xxx Series Aluminum Alloy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto D'Antuono, Daniel

    The 5xxx series aluminum alloys are commonly used for structural applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and weldability. This material system is a non-heat treatable aluminum and derives its strength from a super saturation of magnesium (3%>), and from cold rolling. While these materials have many admiral properties, they can undergo a process known as sensitization when exposed to elevated temperatures (50-280°C) for extended periods of time. During this process, magnesium segregates toward the grain boundaries and forms the secondary precipitate β phase (Al3Mg2). When exposed to harsh environments such as sea water, a galvanic couple is formed between the Al matrix and the β phase precipitates. The precipitates become anodic to the matrix and preferentially dissolve leaving gaps along the boundary network, ultimately leading to stress corrosion cracking. While this problem has been known to occur for some time now, questions relating to nucleation sites, misorientation dependence, effect of prior strain, and preferred temperature regimes remain unanswered. The work contained in this thesis attempted to better understand the kinetics, growth, and misorientation dependence, of β phase precipitation using in situ transmission electron microscopy experiments which allowed for direct visualization of the precipitation process. Orientation imaging using a Nanomegas/ASTAR system (OIM in TEM) coupled with the in situ experiments, along with elemental STEM EELs mapping were used to better understand the diffusion of Mg and found low angle boundaries as potential sites for nucleation. The resulting STEM EELs experiments also showed that Mg is much more stable at the grain boundaries than previously thought. Concurrent bulk ex-situ studies were used to compare various heat treatments, as well as to failed in service material showing that the low temperature treatments yield the metastable β’ phase more readily than the

  6. FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, J.; Gillam, J.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved

  7. Fabrication and heat treatment of high strength Al-Cu-Mg alloy processed using selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hu; Zhu, Haihong; Nie, Xiaojia; Qi, Ting; Hu, Zhiheng; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2016-04-01

    The proposed paper illustrates the fabrication and heat treatment of high strength Al-Cu-Mg alloy produced by selective laser melting (SLM) process. Al-Cu-Mg alloy is one of the heat treatable aluminum alloys regarded as difficult to fusion weld. SLM is an additive manufacturing technique through which components are built by selectively melting powder layers with a focused laser beam. The process is characterized by short laser-powder interaction times and localized high heat input, which leads to steep thermal gradients, rapid solidification and fast cooling. In this research, 3D Al-Cu-Mg parts with relative high density of 99.8% are produced by SLM from gas atomized powders. Room temperature tensile tests reveal a remarkable mechanical behavior: the samples show yield and tensile strengths of about 276 MPa and 402 MPa, respectively, along with fracture strain of 6%. The effect of solution treatment on microstructure and related tensile properties is examined and the results demonstrate that the mechanical behavior of the SLMed Al-Cu-Mg samples can be greatly enhanced through proper heat treatment. After T4 solution treatment at 540°C, under the effect of precipitation strengthening, the tensile strength and the yield strength increase to 532 MPa and 338 MPa, respectively, and the elongation increases to 13%.

  8. The effect of aluminum content on phase constitution and heat treatment behavior of Ti-Cr-Al alloys for healthcare application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Daisuke; Ikeda, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    As life expectancy steadily increases, developing reliable functional materials for healthcare applications gains importance. Titanium and its alloys, while attractive for such applications, are expensive. The present investigation suggests that it may be possible to reduce costs by using new, low-cost beta Ti alloys. To assess their reliability, the heat treatment behavior of beta Ti alloys, Ti-7 mass% Cr with varying Al content (0%, 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5%), was investigated through electrical resistivity and Vickers hardness measurements. In the Ti-7Cr-0Al alloy quenched from 1173 K, only the beta phase was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In Ti-7Cr-1.5 to 4.5 Al alloys, XRD detected both beta and orthorhombic martensite. On isochronal heat treatment behavior of Ti-7Cr-3.0, 4.5 Al alloys, resistivity at liquid nitrogen temperature and resistivity ratio increased between 423 and 523 K.These increases are due to reverse transformation of orthorhombic martensite to the metastable beta phase

  9. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  10. Explosion hazards of aluminum finishing operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taveau, J.R.; Hochgreb, Simone; Lemkowitz, S.M.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Metal dust deflagrations have become increasingly common in recent years. They are also more devastating than deflagrations involving organic materials, owing to metals' higher heat of combustion, rate of pressure rise, explosion pressure and flame temperature. Aluminum finishing operations offer

  11. Explosion hazards of aluminum finishing operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taveau, J.; Hochgreb, S.; Lemkowitz, S.M.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Metal dust deflagrations have become increasingly common in recent years. They are also more devastating than deflagrations involving organic materials, owing to metals' higher heat of combustion, rate of pressure rise, explosion pressure and flame temperature. Aluminum finishing operations offer a

  12. Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

  13. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test of Soil Desiccation for the Hanford Central Plateau: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Co., Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greenwood, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, John E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hubbard, Susan S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ward, Anderson L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-02-20

    Some of the inorganic and radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site are at depths where direct exposure pathways are not of concern, but may need to be remediated to protect groundwater. The Department of Energy developed a treatability test program for technologies to address Tc-99 and uranium in the deep vadose zone. These contaminants are mobile in the subsurface environment, have been detected at high concentrations deep in the vadose zone, and at some locations have reached groundwater. The treatability test of desiccation described herein was conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation was shown to be a potentially effective vadose zone remediation technology to protect groundwater when used in conjunction with a surface infiltration barrier.

  14. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are 99 Tc and 60 Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and 90 Sr, 239/240 Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes

  15. Measurements and mechanisms of localized aqueous corrosion in aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Rudolph G., Jr.; Stoner, Glenn E.

    1990-01-01

    Like most heat treatable aluminum alloys, localized corrosion and stress corrosion of Al-Li-Cu alloys is strongly dependent on the nature and distribution of second phase particles. To develop a mechanistic understanding of the role of localized corrosion in the stress corrosion process, bulk samples of T(sub 1) (Al2CuLi) and a range of Al-Cu-Fe impurity phases were prepared for electrochemical experiments. Potentiodynamic polarization and galvanic couple experiments were performed in standard 0.6 M NaCl and in simulated crevice solutions to assess corrosion behavior of these particles with respect to the alpha-Al matrix. A comparison of time to failure versus applied potential using a constant load, smooth bar SCC test technique in Cl(-), Cl(-)/CrO4(2-), and Cl(-)/CO3(2-) environments shows that rapid failures are to be expected when applied potentials are more positive than the breakaway potential (E sub br) of T(sub 1) (crack tip) but less than E(sub br) of alpha-Al (crack walls). It is shown that this criterion is not satisfied in aerated Cl(-) solutions. Accordingly, SCC resistance is good. This criterion is satisfied, however, in an alkaline isolated fissure exposed to a CO2 containing atmosphere. Rapid failure induced by these fissures was recently termed preexposure embrittlement. Anodic polarization shows that the corrosion behavior of T(sub 1) is relatively unaffected in alkaline CO3(2-) environments but the alpha-Al phase is rapidly passivated. X ray diffraction of crevice walls from artificial crevices suggests that passivation of alpha-Al occurs as hydrotalcite-type compound (LiAl2(OH)6)2(+) - CO3(2-) - nH2O.

  16. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  17. Oxidation dynamics of aluminum nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Department of Computer Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Aluminum nanorods (Al-NRs) are promising fuels for pyrotechnics due to the high contact areas with oxidizers, but their oxidation mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study thermally initiated burning of oxide-coated Al-NRs with different diameters (D = 26, 36, and 46 nm) in oxygen environment. We found that thinner Al-NRs burn faster due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio. The reaction initiates with the dissolution of the alumina shell into the molten Al core to generate heat. This is followed by the incorporation of environmental oxygen atoms into the resulting Al-rich shell, thereby accelerating the heat release. These results reveal an unexpectedly active role of the alumina shell as a “nanoreactor” for oxidation.

  18. Cationic polymers in water treatment: Part 1: Treatability of water with cationic polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polasek, P.; Mutl, Silvestr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2002), s. 69-82 ISSN 0378-4738 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2067107 Keywords : cationic polymers * treatability * water quality Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.481, year: 2002

  19. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  20. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust. PMID:24806729

  1. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  2. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittreich, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume

  3. Survey of commercial firms with mixed-waste treatability study capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, J.; McNeel, K.; Eaton, D.; Kimmel, R.

    1996-01-01

    According to the data developed for the Proposed Site Treatment Plans, the US Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 230,000 m 3 and embodied in approximately 2,000 waste streams. Many of these streams are unique and may require new technologies to facilitate compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act disposal requirements. Because most waste streams are unique, a demonstration of the selected technologies is justified. Evaluation of commercially available or innovative technologies in a treatability study is a cost-effective method of providing a demonstration of the technology and supporting decisions on technology selection. This paper summarizes a document being prepared by the Mixed Waste Focus Area of the DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50). The document will provide DOE waste managers with a list of commercial firms (and universities) that have mixed-waste treatability study capabilities and with the specifics regarding the technologies available at those facilities. In addition, the document will provide a short summary of key points of the relevant regulations affecting treatability studies and will compile recommendations for successfully conducting an off-site treatability study. Interim results of the supplier survey are tabulated in this paper. The tabulation demonstrates that treatment technologies in 17 of the US Environmental Protection Agency's technology categories are available at commercial facilities. These technologies include straightforward application of standard technologies, such as pyrolysis, as well as proprietary technologies developed specifically for mixed waste. The paper also discusses the key points of the management of commercial mixed-waste treatability studies

  4. Diffusionless bonding of aluminum to Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.

    1965-04-01

    Aluminum can be bonded to zirconium without difficulty even when a thin layer of oxide is present on the surface of the zirconium . No detectable diffusion takes place during the bonding process. The bond layer can be stretched as much. as 8% without affecting the bond. The bond can be heated for 1000 hours at 260 o C (500 o F), and can be water quenched from 260 o C (500 o F) without any noticeable change in the bond strength. An extrusion technique has been devised for making transition sections of aluminum bonded to zirconium which can then be used to join these metals by conventional welding. Welding can be done close to the bond zone without seriously affecting the integrity of the bond. This method of bonding aluminum to Zircaloy-2 is covered by Canadian patent 702,438 January 26, 1965. (author)

  5. NASA-427: A New Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center researchers have developed a new, stronger aluminum alloy, ideal for cast aluminum products that have powder or paint-baked thermal coatings. With advanced mechanical properties, the NASA-427 alloy shows greater tensile strength and increased ductility, providing substantial improvement in impact toughness. In addition, this alloy improves the thermal coating process by decreasing the time required for heat treatment. With improvements in both strength and processing time, use of the alloy provides reduced materials and production costs, lower product weight, and better product performance. The superior properties of NASA-427 can benefit many industries, including automotive, where it is particularly well-suited for use in aluminum wheels.

  6. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

  7. Precision forging technology for aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Wang, Xinyun; Jin, Junsong; Xia, Juchen

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum alloy is a preferred metal material for lightweight part manufacturing in aerospace, automobile, and weapon industries due to its good physical properties, such as low density, high specific strength, and good corrosion resistance. However, during forging processes, underfilling, folding, broken streamline, crack, coarse grain, and other macro- or microdefects are easily generated because of the deformation characteristics of aluminum alloys, including narrow forgeable temperature region, fast heat dissipation to dies, strong adhesion, high strain rate sensitivity, and large flow resistance. Thus, it is seriously restricted for the forged part to obtain precision shape and enhanced property. In this paper, progresses in precision forging technologies of aluminum alloy parts were reviewed. Several advanced precision forging technologies have been developed, including closed die forging, isothermal die forging, local loading forging, metal flow forging with relief cavity, auxiliary force or vibration loading, casting-forging hybrid forming, and stamping-forging hybrid forming. High-precision aluminum alloy parts can be realized by controlling the forging processes and parameters or combining precision forging technologies with other forming technologies. The development of these technologies is beneficial to promote the application of aluminum alloys in manufacturing of lightweight parts.

  8. The Identification of Aluminum in Human Brain Tissue Using Lumogallion and Fluorescence Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Ambreen; King, Andrew; Troakes, Claire; Exley, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum in human brain tissue is implicated in the etiologies of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. While methods for the accurate and precise measurement of aluminum in human brain tissue are widely acknowledged, the same cannot be said for the visualization of aluminum. Herein we have used transversely-heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to measure aluminum in the brain of a donor with Alzheimer’s disease, and we have developed and validated fluorescence microscopy and the fluor lumogallion to show the presence of aluminum in the same tissue. Aluminum is observed as characteristic orange fluorescence that is neither reproduced by other metals nor explained by autofluorescence. This new and relatively simple method to visualize aluminum in human brain tissue should enable more rigorous testing of the aluminum hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease (and other neurological conditions) in the future. PMID:27472886

  9. Framework for replacing steel with aluminum fibers in bituminous mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlatos, N.; Apostolidis, P.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2018-01-01

    This research explores the incentives for replacing steel fibers with aluminum fibers in fiber modified bituminous mixes. In this work the focus is on fiber modified bituminous mixes especially designed for induction heating. Inductive fibers are heated up because eddy currents are generated -

  10. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  11. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  12. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  13. Reactions of aluminum with uranium fluorides and oxyfluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Nichols, R.W.; Lankford, B.S. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Every 30 to 40 million operating hours a destructive reaction is observed in one of the {approximately}4000 large compressors that move UF{sub 6} through the gaseous diffusion plants. Despite its infrequency, such a reaction can be costly in terms of equipment and time. Laboratory experiments reveal that the presence of moderate pressures of UF{sub 6} actually cools heated aluminum, although thermodynamic calculations indicate the potential for a 3000-4000{degrees}C temperature rise. Within a narrow and rather low (<100 torr; 1 torr = 133.322 Pa) pressure range, however, the aluminum is seen to react with sufficient heat release to soften an alumina boat. Three things must occur in order for aluminum to react vigorously with either UF{sub 6} or UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. 1. An initiating source of heat must be provided. In the compressors, this source can be friction, permitted by disruption of the balance of the large rotating part or by creep of the aluminum during a high-temperature treatment. In the absence of this heat source, compressors have operated for 40 years in UF{sub 6} without significant reaction. 2. The film protecting the aluminum must be breached. Melting (of UF{sub 5} at 620 K or aluminum at 930 K) can cause such a breach in laboratory experiments. In contrast, holding Al samples in UF{sub 6} at 870 K for several hours produces only moderate reaction. Rubbing in the cascade can undoubtedly breach the protective film. 3. Reaction products must not build up and smother the reaction. While uranium products tend to dissolve or dissipate in molten aluminum, AIF{sub 3} shows a remarkable tendency to surround and hence protect even molten aluminum. Hence the initial temperature rise must be rapid and sufficient to move reactants into a temperature region in which products are removed from the reaction site.

  14. 300-FF-1 operable unit remedial investigation phase II report: Physical separation of soils treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the approach and results of physical separations treatability tests conducted at the Hanford Site in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Physical separation of soils was identified as a remediation alternative due to the potential to significantly reduce the amount of contaminated soils prior to disposal. Tests were conducted using a system developed at Hanford consisting of modified EPA equipment integrated with screens, hoppers, conveyors, tanks, and pumps from the Hanford Site. The treatability tests discussed in this report consisted of four parts, in which an estimated 84 tons of soil was processed: (1) a pre-test run to set up the system and adjust system parameters for soils to be processed; (2) a baseline run to establish the performance of the system - Test No. 1; (3) a final run in which the system was modified as a result of findings from the baseline run - Test No. 2; and (4) water treatment.

  15. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao; Siegert, Michael; Ivanov, Ivan; Pisciotta, John M.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2A/m2 (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Treatability tests on water from a low-level waste burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Lab-scale treatability tests on trench water from a low-level waste burial ground have shown that the water can be successfully treated by existing wastewater treatment plants at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water from the four most highly contaminated trenches that had been identified to date was used in the treatability tests. The softening and ion exchange processes used in the Process Wastewater Treatment Plant removed Sr-90 from the trench water, which was the only radionuclide present at above the discharge limits. The air stripping and activated carbon adsorption processes used in the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant removed volatile and semi-volatile organics, which were the main contaminants in the trench water, to below detection limits. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  17. 300-FF-1 operable unit remedial investigation phase II report: Physical separation of soils treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the approach and results of physical separations treatability tests conducted at the Hanford Site in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Physical separation of soils was identified as a remediation alternative due to the potential to significantly reduce the amount of contaminated soils prior to disposal. Tests were conducted using a system developed at Hanford consisting of modified EPA equipment integrated with screens, hoppers, conveyors, tanks, and pumps from the Hanford Site. The treatability tests discussed in this report consisted of four parts, in which an estimated 84 tons of soil was processed: (1) a pre-test run to set up the system and adjust system parameters for soils to be processed; (2) a baseline run to establish the performance of the system - Test No. 1; (3) a final run in which the system was modified as a result of findings from the baseline run - Test No. 2; and (4) water treatment

  18. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao

    2013-05-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2A/m2 (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. TREATABILITY TEST PLAN FOR DEEP VADOSE ZONE REMEDIATION AT THE HANFORD'S SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PETERSEN SW; MORSE JG; TRUEX MJ; LAST GV

    2007-01-01

    A treatability test plan has been prepared to address options for remediating portions of the deep vadose zone beneath a portion of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The vadose zone is the region of the subsurface that extends from the ground surface to the water table. The overriding objective of the treatability test plan is to recommend specific remediation technologies and laboratory and field tests to support the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 remedial decision-making process in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. Most of the technologies considered involve removing water from the vadose zone or immobilizing the contaminants to reduce the risk of contaminating groundwater. A multi-element approach to initial treatability testing is recommended, with the goal of providing the information needed to evaluate candidate technologies. The proposed tests focus on mitigating two contaminants--uranium and technetium. Specific technologies are recommended for testing at areas that may affect groundwater in the future, but a strategy to test other technologies is also presented

  20. Treatability of stabilize landfill leachate by using pressmud ash as an adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azme, N. N. Mohd; Murshed, M. F.

    2018-04-01

    Leachate is a liquid produced from the landfill that contains high concentration of heavy metals, chemicals and nutrient loading. The treatability of these contaminants are complicated since the current treatment technology are costly and site specific. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the treatability of stabilized landfill leachate by using waste (pressmud ash) as an absorbent. Pressmud ash was prepared by burning at different temperature from 100 to 700 degree Celsius and test at 24 hours shaking time, pH 8, and 4000 rpm. Leachate samples were collected from municipal solid waste (MSW) Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL) and were analyzed for heavy metal, COD, ammonia and colour. This study was performed in two phases i) leachate characteristic, ii) treatability assessment by using pressmud ash. Pressmud was sampled from the sugar mill, Malaysian Sugar Manufacturing (MSM) Sdn Bhd, Seberang Perai, Pulau Pinang. The pressmud with 400°C are highly potential material with a low cost which can be a good adsorbent was capable reducing efficiencies of COD (60.76%), ammonia (64.37%) and colour (35.78%) from real wastewater leachate. Pressmud showed good sorption capability. Surface modification with burning greatly enhanced the reducing efficiency of sugar waste based adsorbent with adsorption efficiency.

  1. Experimental Plan: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-09-20

    This Test Plan describes a laboratory-testing program to be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the 300-FF-5 Feasibility Study (FS). The objective of the proposed treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. This study will be used to: (1) Develop implementation cost estimates; (2) Identify implementation challenges; and (3) Investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives These activities will be conducted in parallel with a limited field investigation, which is currently underway to more accurately define the vertical extent of uranium in the vadose zone, and in the capillary fringe zone laterally throughout the plume. The treatability test will establish the viability of the method and, along with characterization data from the limited field investigation, will provide the means for determining how best to implement the technology in the field. By conducting the treatability work in parallel with the ongoing Limited Field Investigation, the resulting Feasibility Study (FS) will provide proven, site-specific information for evaluating polyphosphate addition and selecting a suitable remediation strategy for the uranium plume within the FS time frame at an overall cost savings.

  2. Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of INEL low-level mixed wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Patel, B.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Adams, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed wastes were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The treatability work, which included thermal screening and/or processibility testing, was performed on priority candidate wastes identified by INEL to determine the applicability of polyethylene encapsulation for the solidification and stabilization of these mixed wastes. The candidate wastes selected for this preliminary study were Eutectic Salts, Ion Exchange Resins, Activated Carbons, Freon Contaminated Rags, TAN TURCO Decon 4502, ICPP Sodium Bearing Liquid Waste, and HTRE-3 Acid Spill Clean-up. Thermal screening was conducted for some of these wastes to determine the thermal stability of the wastes under expected pretreatment and processing conditions. Processibility testing to determine whether the wastes were amenable to extrusion processing included monitoring feed consistency, extruder output consistency, waste production homogeneity, and waste form performance. Processing parameters were not optimized within the scope of this study. However, based on the treatability results, polyethylene encapsulation does appear applicable as a primary or secondary treatment for most of these wastes

  3. Aluminum industry options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    In 1990, Canada's producers of aluminum (third largest in the world) emitted 10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to 6.4 tonnes of greenhouse gas intensity per tonne of aluminum. In 2000, the projection is that on a business-as-usual (BAU) basis Canadian producers now producing 60 per cent more aluminum than in 1990, will emit 10.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to a GHG intensity of 4.2 tonnes per tonne of aluminum. This improvement is due to production being based largely on hydro-electricity, and partly because in general, Canadian plants are modern, with technology that is relatively GHG-friendly. The Aluminum Association of Canada estimates that based on anticipated production, and under a BAU scenario, GHG emissions from aluminum production will rise by 18 per cent by 2010 and by 30 per cent by 2020. GHG emissions could be reduced below the BAU forecast first, by new control and monitoring systems at some operations at a cost of $4.5 to 7.5 million per smelter. These systems could reduce carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 0.8 million tonnes per year. A second alternative would require installation of breaker feeders which would further reduce perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions by 0.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Cost of the breakers feeders would be in the order of $200 million per smelter. The third option calls for the the shutting down of some of the smelters with older technology by 2015. In this scenario GHG emissions would be reduced by 2010 by 0.8 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent. However, the cost in this case would be about $1.36 billion. The industry would support measures that would encourage the first two sets of actions, which would produce GHG emissions from aluminum production in Canada of about 10.2 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent, or about two per cent above 1990 levels with double the aluminum production of 1990. Credit for

  4. Mesoporous aluminum phosphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Haskouri, Jamal; Perez-Cabero, Monica; Guillem, Carmen; Latorre, Julio; Beltran, Aurelio; Beltran, Daniel; Amoros, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    High surface area pure mesoporous aluminum-phosphorus oxide-based derivatives have been synthesized through an S + I - surfactant-assisted cooperative mechanism by means of a one-pot preparative procedure from aqueous solution and starting from aluminum atrane complexes and phosphoric and/or phosphorous acids. A soft chemical extraction procedure allows opening the pore system of the parent as-prepared materials by exchanging the surfactant without mesostructure collapse. The nature of the pore wall can be modulated from mesoporous aluminum phosphate (ALPO) up to total incorporation of phosphite entities (mesoporous aluminum phosphite), which results in a gradual evolution of the acidic properties of the final materials. While phosphate groups in ALPO act as network building blocks (bridging Al atoms), the phosphite entities become basically attached to the pore surface, what gives practically empty channels. The mesoporous nature of the final materials is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The materials present regular unimodal pore systems whose order decreases as the phosphite content increases. NMR spectroscopic results confirm the incorporation of oxo-phosphorus entities to the framework of these materials and also provide us useful information concerning the mechanism through which they are formed. - Abstract: TEM image of the mesoporous aluminum phosphite showing the hexagonal disordered pore array that is generated by using surfactant micelles as template. Also a scheme emphasizing the presence of an alumina-rich core and an ALPO-like pore surface is presented.

  5. A Designer Fluid For Aluminum Phase Change Devices: Aluminum Inorganic Aqueous Solutions (IAS) Chemistry and Experiments. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-17

    returned from the condenser to the evaporator by a variety of methods. In the simplest implementation of a heat pipe, a thermo-syphon, the walls of the...flow condensation as compared to that with natural convection cooling spread over the entire exposed pipe. The use of an aluminum heat transfer ...a larger thermal resistance throughout the tube. This resistance would work against heat transfer into the evaporator section. Excess permanganate

  6. Chemical Reduction Synthesis of Iron Aluminum Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita-Méndez, N. N.; la Torre, G. Carbajal-De; Ballesteros-Almanza, L.; Villagómez-Galindo, M.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Espinosa-Medina, M. A.

    In this study, a chemical reduction synthesis method of iron aluminum (FeAl) nano-dimensional intermetallic powders is described. The process has two stages: a salt reduction and solvent evaporation by a heat treatment at 1100°C. The precursors of the synthesis are ferric chloride, aluminum foil chips, a mix of Toluene/THF in a 75/25 volume relationship, and concentrated hydrochloric acid as initiator of the reaction. The reaction time was 20 days, the product obtained was dried at 60 °C for 2 h and calcined at 400, 800, and 1100 °C for 4 h each. To characterize and confirm the obtained synthesis products, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used. The results of morphology and chemical characterization of nano-dimensional powders obtained showed a formation of agglomerated particles of a size range of approximately 150 nm to 1.0 μm. Composition of powders was identified as corundum (Al2O3), iron aluminide (FeAl3), and iron-aluminum oxides (Fe0. 53Al0. 47)2O3 phases. The oxide phases formation were associated with the reaction of atmospheric concentration-free oxygen during synthesis and sintering steps, reducing the concentration of the iron aluminum phase.

  7. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  8. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J.

    2009-04-21

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  9. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  10. Use of aluminum nitride to obtain temperature measurements in a high temperature and high radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernsman, Bernard R.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Tittman, Bernhard R.; Parks, David A.

    2016-04-26

    An aluminum nitride piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer successfully operates at temperatures of up to 1000.degree. C. and fast (>1 MeV) neutron fluencies of more than 10.sup.18 n/cm.sup.2. The transducer comprises a transparent, nitrogen rich aluminum nitride (AlN) crystal wafer that is coupled to an aluminum cylinder for pulse-echo measurements. The transducer has the capability to measure in situ gamma heating within the core of a nuclear reactor.

  11. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  12. Fluxless aluminum brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    This invention relates to a fluxless brazing alloy for use in forming brazed composites made from members of aluminum and its alloys. The brazing alloy consists of 35-55% Al, 10--20% Si, 25-60% Ge; 65-88% Al, 2-20% Si, 2--18% In; 65--80% Al, 15-- 25% Si, 5- 15% Y. (0fficial Gazette)

  13. Aluminum Corrosion and Turbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longtin, F.B.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum corrosion and turbidity formation in reactors correlate with fuel sheath temperature. To further substantiate this correlation, discharged fuel elements from R-3, P-2 and K-2 cycles were examined for extent of corrosion and evidence of breaking off of the oxide film. This report discusses this study

  14. Aluminum concentration in hydrangeas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagawa, M.; Haruyama, Y.; Saito, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been trying to measure concentration of aluminum in Ajisai, Hydrangea macrophylla for these days. But due to bad luck, we have encountered detector trouble for two years in a low. Thus, we have few data to analyze and obtained quite limited results. (author)

  15. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  16. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Hutchins, D.A.; Chodak, P. III

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide open-quotes proof-of-principleclose quotes data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.)

  17. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hutchins, D.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chodak, P. III [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.).

  18. Borated aluminum alloy manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, Jun; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Katsura; Aruga, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Borated aluminum alloy is used as the basket material of cask because of its light weight, thermal conductivity and superior neutron absorbing abilities. Kobe Steel has developed a unique manufacturing process for borated aluminum alloy using a vacuum induction melting method. In this process, aluminum alloy is melted and agitated at higher temperatures than common aluminum alloy fabrication methods. It is then cast into a mold in a vacuum atmosphere. The result is a high quality aluminum alloy which has a uniform boron distribution and no impurities. (author)

  19. Generation and structural characterization of aluminum cyanoacetylide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, Carlos; Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L., E-mail: alargo@qf.uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén 5, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio, E-mail: alargo@qf.uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Departamento de Química Física y Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Paseo de Belén 7, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Guillemin, Jean-Claude [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Cernicharo, José [Group of Molecular Astrophysics, ICMM C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz N3 Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-14

    Combined spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations bring to light a first investigation of a metallic cyanoacetylide, AlC{sub 3}N, using laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. This molecule was synthesized in a supersonic expansion by the reaction of aluminum vapour with C{sub 3}N, produced from solid aluminum rods and BrCCCN in a newly constructed ablation-heating nozzle device. A set of accurate rotational and {sup 27}Al and {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants have been determined from the analysis of the rotational spectrum and compared with those predicted in a high-level ab initio study, conducting to the assignment of the observed species to linear AlCCCN. We have searched for this species towards the carbon-rich evolved star IRC + 10216 but only an upper limit to its abundance has been obtained.

  20. Safety assessment for the 118-B-1 Burial Ground excavation treatability tests. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, J.J.; Frain, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    This revision of the Safety Assessment provides an auditable safety analysis of the hazards for the proposed treatability test activities per DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, DOE Limited Standard, Hazard Baseline Documentation (DOE 1994). The proposed activities are classified as radiological activities and as such, no longer require Operational Safety Limits (OSLs). The OSLS, Prudent Actions, and Institutional and Organization Controls have been removed from this revision and replaced with ''Administrative Actions Important to Safety,'' as determined by the hazards analysis. Those Administrative Actions Important to Safety are summarized in Section 1.1, ''Assessment Summary.''

  1. Etiological explanation, treatability and preventability of childhood autism: a survey of Nigerian healthcare workers' opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonkwo Kevin O

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their peculiar sociocultural background, healthcare workers in sub-Saharan African subcultures may have various conceptions on different aspects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, such as etiology, treatment and issues of prognosis. These various conceptions, if different from current knowledge in literature about ASD, may negatively influence help-seeking behavior of parents of children with ASD who seek advice and information from the healthcare workers. This study assessed the opinions of healthcare workers in Nigeria on aspects of etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism, and relates their opinions to the sociodemographic variables. Methods Healthcare workers working in four tertiary healthcare facilities located in the south-east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with a sociodemographic questionnaire, personal opinion on etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism (POETPCA questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire to assess their knowledge and opinions on various aspects of childhood autism. Results A total of 134 healthcare workers participated in the study. In all, 78 (58.2%, 19 (14.2% and 36 (26.9% of the healthcare workers were of the opinion that the etiology of childhood autism can be explained by natural, preternatural and supernatural causes, respectively. One (0.7% of the healthcare workers was unsure of the explanation of the etiology. Knowledge about childhood autism as measured by scores on the KCAHW questionnaire was the only factor significantly associated with the opinions of the healthcare workers on etiology of childhood autism. In all, 73 (54.5% and 43 (32.1%, of the healthcare workers subscribed to the opinion that childhood autism is treatable and preventable respectively. Previous involvement with managing children with ASD significantly influenced the opinion of the healthcare

  2. [Analysis of tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake in foods by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiding; Chang, Cuilan; Guo, Qilei; Cao, Hong; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2014-04-01

    A novel analytical method for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was studied. The pigments contained in the color lakes were successfully separated from the aluminum matrix in the pre-treatment process, which included the following steps: dissolve the color lakes in 0.1 mol/L H2SO4, adjust the pH of the solution to 5.0, then mix it with the solution of EDTA x 2Na and heat it in a water bath, then use polyamide powder as the stationary phase of solid phase extraction to separate the pigments from the solution, and finally elute the pigments with 0.1 mol/L NaOH. The CZE conditions systematically optimized for tartrazine aluminum lake were: 48.50 cm of a fused silica capillary with 40.00 cm effective length and 50 microm i. d., the temperature controlled at 20.0 degrees C, 29.0 kV applied, HPO4(2-)-PO4(3-) (0.015 mol/L, pH 11.45) solution as running buffer, detection at 263 nm. The conditions for sunset yellow aluminum lake were: the same capillary and temperature, 25.0 kV applied, HPO4(2-)-PO4(3-) (0.025 mol/L, pH 11.45) solution as running buffer, detection at 240 nm. The limits of detection were 0.26 mg/L and 0.27 mg/L, and the linear ranges were 0.53-1.3 x 10(2) mg/L and 0.54-1.4 x 10(2) mg/L for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake, respectively. The RSDs were 4.3% and 5.7% (run to run, n = 6), 5.6% and 6.0% (day to day, n = 6) for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake, respectively. Further developments for this method could make it a routinely used method analyzing color lakes in foods.

  3. ON THE REACTIONS IN ILMENITE, ALUMINUM AND GRAPHITE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khoshhal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3/TiC composites are used as cutting tools for machining gray cast iron and steels. The addition of iron improves the toughness of Al2O3/TiC composites. Ilmenite, aluminum and graphite can be used to produce in-situ Al2O3/TiC–Fe composites. However, the formation mechanism and reaction sequences of this system are not clear enough. Therefore, the present research is designed to determine the reactions mechanism of the first step of reactions that may be occurred between raw materials. In this research, pure ilmenite was synthesized to eliminate the effects of impurities available in the natural ilmenite in the system. The milled and pressed samples, prepared from the synthesized ilmenite, aluminum and graphite mixture with a molar ratio of 1:2:1, were heat treated at 720°C for 48h. In addition, two samples one containing ilmenite and aluminum with a molar ratio of 1:2 and ilmenite and graphite with a molar ratio of 1:1 were heat treated at 720°C for 48h. The final products were analyzed with XRD. It was found that at 720°C, aluminum reacts with FeTiO3, forming Fe, TiO2 and Al2O3. Since the aluminum content used in the mixture was more than the stoichiometry for reaction of ilmenite and aluminum, some unreacted aluminum remains. Therefore, the residual aluminum reacts with the reduced Fe to form Fe2Al5.

  4. Treatability studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Studds, Phil

    developed a mobile test unit including equipment for both standard and more advanced oxidation test directly on the site. The remediation techniques included are electrochemical oxidation, photochemical/photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, Fenton’s, permanganate, and persulfate among others. A versatile...

  5. Demonstration of the Impact of Thermomagnetic Processing on Cast Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Bart L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kesler, Michael S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, Hunter B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This project builds on an earlier Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Technical Collaboration phase 1 project to investigate application of high magnetic fields during solution heat treating and aging of three different cast aluminum alloys.

  6. Identifying Medical Diagnoses and Treatable Diseases by Image-Based Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermany, Daniel S; Goldbaum, Michael; Cai, Wenjia; Valentim, Carolina C S; Liang, Huiying; Baxter, Sally L; McKeown, Alex; Yang, Ge; Wu, Xiaokang; Yan, Fangbing; Dong, Justin; Prasadha, Made K; Pei, Jacqueline; Ting, Magdalene Y L; Zhu, Jie; Li, Christina; Hewett, Sierra; Dong, Jason; Ziyar, Ian; Shi, Alexander; Zhang, Runze; Zheng, Lianghong; Hou, Rui; Shi, William; Fu, Xin; Duan, Yaou; Huu, Viet A N; Wen, Cindy; Zhang, Edward D; Zhang, Charlotte L; Li, Oulan; Wang, Xiaobo; Singer, Michael A; Sun, Xiaodong; Xu, Jie; Tafreshi, Ali; Lewis, M Anthony; Xia, Huimin; Zhang, Kang

    2018-02-22

    The implementation of clinical-decision support algorithms for medical imaging faces challenges with reliability and interpretability. Here, we establish a diagnostic tool based on a deep-learning framework for the screening of patients with common treatable blinding retinal diseases. Our framework utilizes transfer learning, which trains a neural network with a fraction of the data of conventional approaches. Applying this approach to a dataset of optical coherence tomography images, we demonstrate performance comparable to that of human experts in classifying age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema. We also provide a more transparent and interpretable diagnosis by highlighting the regions recognized by the neural network. We further demonstrate the general applicability of our AI system for diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia using chest X-ray images. This tool may ultimately aid in expediting the diagnosis and referral of these treatable conditions, thereby facilitating earlier treatment, resulting in improved clinical outcomes. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a treatability variance guidance document for US DOE mixed-waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuer, N.; Spikula, R.; Harms, T.

    1990-03-01

    In response to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) anticipated need for variances from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs), a treatability variance guidance document was prepared. The guidance manual is for use by DOE facilities and operations offices. The manual was prepared as a part of an ongoing effort by DOE-EH to provide guidance for the operations offices and facilities to comply with the RCRA (LDRs). A treatability variance is an alternative treatment standard granted by EPA for a restricted waste. Such a variance is not an exemption from the requirements of the LDRs, but rather is an alternative treatment standard that must be met before land disposal. The manual, Guidance For Obtaining Variance From the Treatment Standards of the RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions (1), leads the reader through the process of evaluating whether a variance from the treatment standard is a viable approach and through the data-gathering and data-evaluation processes required to develop a petition requesting a variance. The DOE review and coordination process is also described and model language for use in petitions for DOE radioactive mixed waste (RMW) is provided. The guidance manual focuses on RMW streams, however the manual also is applicable to nonmixed, hazardous waste streams. 4 refs

  8. Quality Management and Control of Low Pressure Cast Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dianxi; Zhang, Yanbo; Yang, Xiufan; Chen, Zhaosong; Jiang, Zelan

    2018-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the history of low pressure casting and summarizes the major production processes of low pressure casting. It briefly introduces the quality management and control of low pressure cast aluminum alloy. The main processes include are: preparation of raw materials, Melting, refining, physical and chemical analysis, K-mode inspection, sand core, mold, heat treatment and so on.

  9. Electroless nickel plating on stainless steels and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Procedures for applying an adherent electroless nickel plating on 303 SE, 304, and 17-7 PH stainless steels, and 7075 aluminum alloy was developed. When heat treated, the electroless nickel plating provides a hard surface coating on a high strength, corrosion resistant substrate.

  10. Characteristics of aluminum alloy microplastic deformation in different structural states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seregin, G.V.; Efimenko, L.L.; Leonov, M.V. [Novosibirsk Pedagogical Inst. (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    The solution to the problem of improving the mechanical properties (including cyclic strength) of structural materials is largely dependent on our knowledge of the laws governing the development of microplastic deformations in them. The effect of heat and mechanical treatment on the elastoplastic properties and fatigue resistance of the commercial aluminum alloys AK4-1 and D16 is analyzed.

  11. Design studies of an aluminum first wall for INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Yu, W.S.; Hsieh, S.Y.; Pearlman, H.; Kramer, R.; Franz, E.; Craig, A.; Farrell, K.

    1980-01-01

    Besides the high erosion rates (including evaporation) expected for INTOR, there may also be high heat fluxes to the first wall, e.g., approx. 9 (Case I) to 24 (Case II) W/cm 2 , from two sources - radiation and charge exchange neutrals. There will also be internal heat generation by neutron and gamma deposition. An aluminum first wall design is analyzed, which substantially reduces concerns about survivability of the first wall during INTOR's operating life

  12. Single-shot optical conductivity measurement of dense aluminum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churina, I. V.; Cho, B.-I.; Bernstein, A.; Stoker, D. S.; Dalton, A.; Symes, D. R.; Ditmire, T.

    2009-01-01

    The optical conductivity of a dense femtosecond laser-heated aluminum plasma heated to 0.1-1.5 eV was measured using frequency-domain interferometry with chirped pulses, permitting simultaneous observation of optical probe reflectivity and probe pulse phase shift. Coupled with published models of bound-electron contributions to the conductivity, these two independent experimental data yielded a direct measurement of both real and imaginary components of the plasma conductivity.

  13. Thermal resistance of aluminum gravity heaГІ pipe with threaded capillary structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaenko Yu. E.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experimental study of the thermal resistance of an aluminum gravitational heat pipe with isobutane (R600a as a working fluid under conditions of heat removal of natural air convection are presented. Comparison of the thermal resistance of an aluminum gravitational heat pipe with a threaded capillary structure and the thermal resistance of an aluminum thermosyphon of the same size, having a smooth surface of the body in the evaporation zone, is given. It is shown that in the range of values of the input heat flux from 5 to 50 W the thermal resistance of the gravitational heat pipe is substantially lower than the thermal resistance of the thermosiphon. The studies were conducted both without the use of additional radiators in the condensation zone of heat transfer devices, and with the use of one, two and three radiators.

  14. Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres formed through a self-templating solid-gas interface reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jie; Song Xubo; Zhang Yaohua; Li Yan; Li Xingguo; Pu Yikang

    2007-01-01

    Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres were synthesized by simply heating aluminum nanoparticles in ammonia at 1000 deg. C. The as-synthesized sphere shells are polycrystalline with cavity diameters ranging from 15 to 100 nm and shell thickness from 5 to 15 nm. The formation mechanism can be explained by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, which results from the difference in diffusion rates between aluminum and nitrogen. The Al nanoparticles served as both reactant and templates for the hollow sphere formation. The effects of precursor particle size and temperature were also investigated in terms of product morphology. Room temperature cathode luminescence spectrum of the nanosized hollow spheres showed a broad emission band centered at 415 nm, which is originated from oxygen related luminescence centers. The hollow structure survived a 4-h heat treatment at 1200 deg. C, exhibiting excellent thermal stability. - Graphical abstract: Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres were synthesized by nitridation of aluminum nanoparticles at 1000 deg. C using ammonia

  15. Modeling aluminum-lithium alloy welding characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Edward L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a finite element model of the heat-affected zone in the vicinity of a weld line on a plate in order to determine an accurate plastic strain history. The resulting plastic strain increments calculated by the finite element program were then to be used to calculate the measure of damage D. It was hoped to determine the effects of varying welding parameters, such as beam power, efficiency, and weld speed, and the effect of different material properties on the occurrence of microfissuring. The results were to be compared first to the previous analysis of Inconel 718, and then extended to aluminum 2195.

  16. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  17. Nitrogen bonding in aluminum oxynitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Paul W., E-mail: pwang@bradley.edu [Department of Physics, Bradley University, 1501 W. Bradley Ave., Peoria, IL 61625 (United States); Hsu, Jin-Cherng [Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Hsinchuang, Taipei Hsien 24205, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yung-Hsin; Chen, Huang-Lu [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, Hsinchuang, Taipei Hsien 24205, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    Assignment of oxidation states of N{sub 1s} in XPS spectra of aluminum oxynitride by curve fitting is difficult. The XPS curve fitting was previously discussed in the paper published in J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 224 (1998) 31, in which O{sub 1s} photoelectrons from GeO{sub 2} glass were used to illustrate how to fit the XPS spectra. Three different ways were pointed out to eliminate the ambiguity caused by curve fitting such as comparing the data to data from standard samples, investigating the continuous surface modifications caused by slowly sputtering the surface, and monitoring the continuous surface modifications due to gradual increases in surface species under heating, cooling, or irradiation. Our recent work in aluminum oxynitride films provides another example of how to fit the XPS spectra of N{sub 1s} by three different oxidation states of N{sup +}, N{sup 2+}, and N{sup 3+}, by comparison of the measured data to data from previously published results, and by the gradual changes of spectra as functions of the oxygen contents in the films. Three oxidation states in different nitrogen bonding in the aluminum oxynitride, AlO{sub 2}N, Al{sub 2}O{sub 5}N{sub 2}, and AlO{sub 3}N, were clearly deduced.

  18. Fracture toughness of steel--aluminum deformation welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, C.E.

    1978-11-01

    A study of the fracture toughness (in this case, G/sub Ic/) of steel--aluminum deformation welds using a specially developed double cantilever beam fracture toughness specimen is presented. Welds made at 350 0 C were heat treated at 360, 380, 400, 420, and 440 0 C. An intermetallic reaction product layer of Fe 2 Al 5 is formed at the steel--aluminum interface with increasing heat treating temperature and time by a process of nucleation and growth of discrete particles. A transition in toughness from a higher average G/sub Ic/ value (6097 N/m) to a very low average G/sub Ic/ value (525 N/m) is observed. The decrease in toughness is accompanied by an increase in Fe 2 Al 5 particle diameter from 4 to 8 μm. Failure at the higher toughness values is characterized by ductile rupture through the aluminum. At the lower toughness values, failure occurs between the aluminum and the Fe 2 Al 5 reaction product layer. A void layer forming by a vacancy condensation mechanism in the aluminum adjacent to the Fe 2 Al 5 is shown to cause the embrittlement

  19. Heat transfer in heterogeneous propellant combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, M.Q.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that heat transfer plays an important role in several critical areas of heterogeneous, solid-propellant combustion systems. These areas include heat feedback to the propellant surface, heat transfer between burning aluminum droplets and their surroundings, heat transfer to internal insulation systems, and heat transfer to aft-end equipment. Gas conduction dominates heat feedback to the propellant surface in conventional ammonium perchlorate (AP) composite propellants, although particle radiative feedback also plays a significant role in combustion of metalized propellants. Particle radiation plays a dominant role in heat transfer to internal insulation, compared with that of convection. However, conduction by impingement of burning aluminum particles, which has not been extensively studied, may also be significant. Radiative heat loss plays an important role in determining the burning rate of molten aluminum particles due to a highly luminous, oxide particle-laden, detached flame envelope. Radiation by aluminum oxide smoke particles also plays a dominant role in heat transfer from the exhaust plume to aft-end equipment. Uncertainties in aluminum oxide particle-size distribution and optical properties still make it difficult to predict radiative plume heat transfer accurately from first principles

  20. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION OF A THERMAL DESORPTION/UV PHOTOLYSIS PROCESS FOR DECONTAMINATING SOILS CONTAINING HERBICIDE ORANGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This treatability study report presents the results of laboratory and field tests on the effectiveness of a new decontamination process for soils containing 2,4-D/2,4,5-T and traces of dioxin. The process employs three operations, thermal desorption, condensation and absorp...

  1. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of 137 Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997

  2. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Tixier, J.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997.

  3. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Loutfy, Raouf O.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1984-01-01

    Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  4. Applied Electrochemistry of Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Qiu, Zhuxian

    Electrochemistry of aluminum is of special importance from both theoretical and technological point of view. It covers a wide range of electrolyte systems from molten fluoride melts at around 1000oC to room temperature molten salts, from aqueous to various organic media and from liquid to solid...... electrolytes. The book is an updated review of the technological advances in the fields of electrolytic production and refining of metals, electroplating, anodizing and other electrochemical surface treatments, primary and secondary batteries, electrolytic capacitors; corrosion and protection and others....

  5. Helium trapping in aluminum and sintered aluminum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.; Rossing, T.

    1975-01-01

    The surface erosion of annealed aluminum and of sintered aluminum powder (SAP) due to blistering from implantation of 100-keV 4 He + ions at room temperature has been investigated. A substantial reduction in the blistering erosion rate in SAP was observed from that in pure annealed aluminum. In order to determine whether the observed reduction in blistering is due to enhanced helium trapping or due to helium released, the implanted helium profiles in annealed aluminum and in SAP have been studied by Rutherford backscattering. The results show that more helium is trapped in SAP than in aluminum for identical irradiation conditions. The observed reduction in erosion from helium blistering in SAP is more likely due to the dispersion of trapped helium at the large Al-Al 2 O 3 interfaces and at the large grain boundaries in SAP than to helium release

  6. The importance of fragment size distribution on underwater aluminum ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Kim, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    In the study of postulated severe accidents for uranium-aluminum-fueled research reactors, it is necessary to consider the possibility and consequences of fuel/coolant interactions. In the event of a severe accident, where the fuel melts and comes into contact with the coolant, an explosion of considerable violence may occur due to the very fast heat transfer rates involved in the process; this is referred to as thermal interaction. However, when a chemical reaction between the molten aluminum and water occurs simultaneously, its contribution to the energetics of the explosion will produce a much more damaging explosion, referred to as an ignition-type interaction

  7. Urea cycle disorders: a life-threatening yet treatable cause of metabolic encephalopathy in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Nicholas F; Cremer, Philip D; Tchan, Michel C

    2015-02-01

    Urea cycle disorders are inborn errors of metabolism that, in rare cases, can present for the first time in adulthood. We report a perplexing presentation in a woman 4 days postpartum of bizarre and out-of-character behaviour interspersed with periods of complete normality. Without any focal neurological signs or abnormality on initial investigations, the diagnosis became clear with the finding of a significantly elevated plasma ammonia level, just as she began to deteriorate rapidly. She improved following intravenous dextrose and lipid emulsion, together with sodium benzoate, arginine and a protein-restricted diet. She remains well 12 months later with no permanent sequelae. Whilst this is a rare presentation of an uncommon disease, it is a treatable disorder and its early diagnosis can prevent a fatal outcome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Vapor vacuum extraction treatability study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herd, M.D.; Matthern, G.; Michael, D.L.; Spang, N.; Downs, W.; Weidner, J.; Cleary, P.

    1993-01-01

    During the 1960s and early 1970s, barreled mixed waste containing volatile organic compounds (VOCS) and radioactive waste was buried at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Over time, some of the barrels have deteriorated allowing, VOC vapors to be released into the vadose zone. The primary VOC contaminates of concern are CCl 4 and trichloroethylene; however, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane have also been detected. Vapor Vacuum Extraction (VVE) is one alternative being considered for remediation of the RWMC SDA vadose zone. A proposed pilot-scale treatability study (TS) will provide operation and maintenance costs for the design of the potential scale-up of the system

  9. Treatability Test Plan for 300 Area Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Bruce A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a study into possible options for stabilizing uranium at the 300 Area using polyphosphate injection. As part of this effort, PNNL will perform bench- and field-scale treatability testing designed to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to reduced uranium concentrations in the groundwater to meet drinking water standards (30 ug/L) in situ. This technology works by forming phosphate minerals (autunite and apatite) in the aquifer that directly sequester the existing aqueous uranium in autunite minerals and precipitates apatite minerals for sorption and long term treatment of uranium migrating into the treatment zone, thus reducing current and future aqueous uranium concentrations. Polyphosphate injection was selected for testing based on technology screening as part of the 300-FF-5 Phase III Feasibility Study for treatment of uranium in the 300-Area.

  10. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-01-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10 -14 to 10 -4 curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095)

  11. AMPD2 regulates GTP synthesis and is mutated in a potentially treatable neurodegenerative brainstem disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizu, Naiara; Cantagrel, Vincent; Schroth, Jana; Cai, Na; Vaux, Keith; McCloskey, Douglas; Naviaux, Robert K; Van Vleet, Jeremy; Fenstermaker, Ali G; Silhavy, Jennifer L; Scheliga, Judith S; Toyama, Keiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Sonmez, Fatma M; Celep, Figen; Oraby, Azza; Zaki, Maha S; Al-Baradie, Raidah; Faqeih, Eissa A; Saleh, Mohammed A M; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; Morisaki, Takayuki; Holmes, Edward W; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2013-08-01

    Purine biosynthesis and metabolism, conserved in all living organisms, is essential for cellular energy homeostasis and nucleic acid synthesis. The de novo synthesis of purine precursors is under tight negative feedback regulation mediated by adenosine and guanine nucleotides. We describe a distinct early-onset neurodegenerative condition resulting from mutations in the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 gene (AMPD2). Patients have characteristic brain imaging features of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) due to loss of brainstem and cerebellar parenchyma. We found that AMPD2 plays an evolutionary conserved role in the maintenance of cellular guanine nucleotide pools by regulating the feedback inhibition of adenosine derivatives on de novo purine synthesis. AMPD2 deficiency results in defective GTP-dependent initiation of protein translation, which can be rescued by administration of purine precursors. These data suggest AMPD2-related PCH as a potentially treatable early-onset neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. AMPD2 Regulates GTP Synthesis and is Mutated in a Potentially-Treatable Neurodegenerative Brainstem Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizu, Naiara; Cantagrel, Vincent; Schroth, Jana; Cai, Na; Vaux, Keith; McCloskey, Douglas; Naviaux, Robert K.; Vleet, Jeremy Van; Fenstermaker, Ali G.; Silhavy, Jennifer L.; Scheliga, Judith S.; Toyama, Keiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Celep, Figen; Oraby, Azza; Zaki, Maha S.; Al-Baradie, Raidah; Faqeih, Eissa; Saleh, Mohammad; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; Morisaki, Takayuki; Holmes, Edward W.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Purine biosynthesis and metabolism, conserved in all living organisms, is essential for cellular energy homeostasis and nucleic acids synthesis. The de novo synthesis of purine precursors is under tight negative feedback regulation mediated by adenosine and guanine nucleotides. We describe a new distinct early-onset neurodegenerative condition resulting from mutations in the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 gene (AMPD2). Patients have characteristic brain imaging features of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH), due to loss of brainstem and cerebellar parenchyma. We found that AMPD2 plays an evolutionary conserved role in the maintenance of cellular guanine nucleotide pools by regulating the feedback inhibition of adenosine derivatives on de novo purine synthesis. AMPD2 deficiency results in defective GTP-dependent initiation of protein translation, which can be rescued by administration of purine precursors. These data suggest AMPD2-related PCH as a new, potentially treatable early-onset neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23911318

  13. Treatability Test Plan for 300 Area Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Williams, M. D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Bruce A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a study into possible options for stabilizing uranium at the 300 Area using polyphosphate injection. As part of this effort, PNNL will perform bench- and field-scale treatability testing designed to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to reduced uranium concentrations in the groundwater to meet drinking water standards (30 (micro)g/L) in situ. This technology works by forming phosphate minerals (autunite and apatite) in the aquifer that directly sequester the existing aqueous uranium in autunite minerals and precipitates apatite minerals for sorption and long term treatment of uranium migrating into the treatment zone, thus reducing current and future aqueous uranium concentrations. Polyphosphate injection was selected for testing based on technology screening as part of the 300-FF-5 Phase III Feasibility Study for treatment of uranium in the 300-Area

  14. Effect of ozonation on the biological treatability of a textile mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, O; Dulkadiroglu, H; Kabdasli, I; Sozen, S; Babuna, F Germirli; Orhon, D

    2002-12-01

    Ozonation applied prior to biological processes, has proved to be a very effective chemical treatment step mostly for colour removal when soluble dyes are used in textile finishing operations. Its impact on biological treatability however has not been fully evaluated yet. This study evaluates the effect of ozonation on the quality of wastewater from a textile mill involving bleaching and reactive dyeing of cotton and synthetic knit fabric. The effect of ozonation on COD fractionation and kinetic coefficients defining major biological processes is emphasised. The results indicate that the extent of ozone applied greatly affects the remaining organic carbon composition in the wastewater. The relative magnitude of different COD fractions varies as a function of the ozone dose. Ozonation does not however exert a measurable impact on the rate of major biological processes.

  15. Biodegradability oriented treatability studies on high strength segregated wastewater of a woolen textile dyeing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baban, Ahmet; Yediler, Ayfer; Ciliz, NilgunKiran; Kettrup, Antonius

    2004-11-01

    Textile dyeing and finishing industry involves considerable amount of water usage as well as polluted and highly colored wastewater discharges. Biological treatability by means of mineralization, nitrification and denitrification of high strength woolen textile dye bathes, first- and second-rinses is presented. COD fractionation study was carried out and kinetic parameters were determined. Biodegradability of organic compounds in highly loaded composite wastewater after segregation and the effluent of applied biological treatment of high strength composite wastewater were measured by determining oxygen consumption rates. The results were used in terms of assessing an alternative method for inert COD fractionation. The study implied that about 80% soluble COD, 50% color and 75% toxicity reduction were possible by single sludge biological processes. Sixteen per cent of total COD was found to be initially inert. Inert fraction was increased to 22% by production of soluble and particulate microbial products through biological treatment. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Normal-pressure hydrocephalus and the saga of the treatable dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    A case study of a 74-year-old woman is presented which illustrates the difficulty of understanding dementing illnesses. A diagnosis of normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) was made because of the development of abnormal gait, with urinary incontinence and severe, diffuse, white matter lesions on the MRI scan. Computed tomographic, MRI scans and positron emission tomographic images of glucose use are presented. The treatable dementias are a large, multifaceted group of illnesses, of which NPH is one. The author proposes a new term for this disorder commonly known as NPH because the problem with the term normal-pressure hydrocephalus is that the cerebrospinal fluid pressure is not always normal in the disease

  17. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation technology relies on removal of water from a portion of the subsurface such that the resultant low moisture conditions inhibit downward movement of water and dissolved contaminants. Previously, a field test report (Truex et al. 2012a) was prepared describing the active desiccation portion of the test and initial post-desiccation monitoring data. Additional monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and is reported herein along with interpretation with respect to desiccation performance. This is an interim report including about 2 years of post-desiccation monitoring data.

  18. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T.

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent

  19. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

  20. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  1. Aluminum and aluminum/silicon coatings on ferritic steels by CVD-FBR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, F.J.; Hierro, M.P.; Trilleros, J.A.; Carpintero, M.C.; Sanchez, L.; Bolivar, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of chemical vapor deposition by fluidized bed reactors (CVD-FBR) offers some advantages in comparison to other coating techniques such as pack cementation, because it allows coating deposition at lower temperatures than pack cementation and at atmospheric pressure without affecting the mechanical properties of material due to heat treatments of the bulk during coating process. Aluminum and aluminum/silicon coatings have been obtained on two different ferritics steels (P-91 and P-92). The coatings were analyzed using several techniques like SEM/EDX and XRD. The results indicated that both coatings were form by Fe 2 Al 5 intermetallic compound, and in the co-deposition the Si was incorporated to the Fe 2 Al 5 structure in small amounts

  2. Field demonstration of ex situ biological treatability of contaminated groundwater at the Strachan gas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, M.D.; Stepan, D.J.

    1997-03-01

    A multi-phase study was conducted to deal with the issues of groundwater and soil contamination by sour gas processing plants in Alberta. Phase One consisted of a review of all soil and groundwater monitoring data submitted to Alberta Environment by sour gas plants in accordance with the Canadian Clean Water Act. The current phase involves the development, evaluation and demonstration of selected remediation technologies to address subsurface contamination of sediments and groundwater at sour gas treatment plants with special attention to the presence of natural gas condensate in the subsurface. Results are presented from a pilot-scale biological treatability test that was performed at the Gulf Strachan Natural Gas Processing Plant in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, where contaminated groundwater from the plant was being pumped to the surface through many recovery wells to control contaminant migration. The recovered groundwater was directed to a pump-and-treat system that consisted of oil-water separation, iron removal, hardness removal, and air stripping, before being reinjected. The pilot-scale biological treatability testing was conducted to evaluate process stability in treating groundwater without pretreatment for iron and hardness reduction and to evaluate the removal of organic contaminants. Results of a groundwater characterization analysis are discussed. Chemical characteristics of the groundwater at the Strachan Gas Plant showed that an ex situ remediation technology would address the dissolved volatile and semi-volatile organic contamination from natural gas condensates, as well as the nitrogenous compounds resulting from the use of amine-based process chemicals. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  3. 100-D Area In Situ Redox Treatability Test for Chromate-Contaminated Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2000-10-12

    A treatability test was conducted for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology at the 100 D Area of the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The target contaminant was dissolved chromate in groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a permeable subsurface treatment zone to reduce mobile chromate in groundwater to an insoluble form. The ISRM permeable treatment zone is created by reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron within the aquifer sediments, which is accomplished by injecting aqueous sodium dithionite into the aquifer and then withdrawing the reaction products. The goal of the treatability test was to create a linear ISRM barrier by injecting sodium dithionite into five wells. Well installation and site characterization activities began in spring 1997; the first dithionite injection took place in September 1997. The results of this first injection were monitored through the spring of 1998. The remaining four dithionite injections were carried out in May through July of 1998.These five injections created a reduced zone in the Hanford unconfined aquifer approximately 150 feet in length (perpendicular to groundwater flow) and 50 feet wide. The reduced zone extended over the thickness of the unconfined zone. Analysis of post-emplacement groundwater samples showed concentrations of chromate, in the reduced zone decreased from approximately 1.0 mg/L before the tests to below analytical detection limits (<0.007 mg/L). Chromate concentrations also declined in downgradient monitoring wells to as low as 0.020 mg/L. These data, in addition to results from pre-test reducible iron characterization, indicate the barrier should be effective for 20 to 25 years. The 100-D Area ISRM barrier is being expanded to a length of up to 2,300 ft to capture a larger portion of the chromate plume.

  4. An Evaluation by Midwives and Gynecologists of Treatability of Cervical Lesions by Cryotherapy Among Human Papillomavirus–Positive Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Adadevoh, Sydney; Alvarez Larraondo, Manuel J.; Chumworathayi, Bandit; Lejarza, Sandra Vargas; Araya, Luis Villegas; Garcia, Francisco; Budihas, Scott R.; Long, Rodney; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Herrero, Rolando; Burk, Robert D.; Jeronimo, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To estimate efficacy of a visual triage of human papillomavirus (HPV)– positive women to either immediate cryotherapy or referral if not treatable (eg, invasive cancer, large precancers). Methods We evaluated visual triage in the HPV-positive women aged 25 to 55 years from the 10,000-woman Guanacaste Cohort Study (n = 552). Twelve Peruvian midwives and 5 international gynecologists assessed treatability by cryotherapy using digitized high-resolution cervical images taken at enrollment. The reference standard of treatability was determined by 2 lead gynecologists from the entire 7-year follow-up of the women. Women diagnosed with histologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse or 5-year persistence of carcinogenic HPV infection were defined as needing treatment. Results Midwives and gynecologists judged 30.8% and 41.2% of women not treatable by cryotherapy, respectively (P cryotherapy. The proportion of women judged not treatable by a reviewer varied widely and ranged from 18.6%to 61.1%. Interrater agreement was poor with mean pairwise overall agreement of 71.4% and 66.3% and κ ’s of 0.33 and 0.30 for midwives and gynecologists, respectively. Conclusions In future “screen-and-treat” cervical cancer prevention programs using HPV testing and cryotherapy, practitioners will visually triage HPV-positive women. The suboptimal performance of visual triage suggests that screen-and-treat programs using cryotherapy might be insufficient for treating precancerous lesions. Improved, low-technology triage methods and/or improved safe and low-technology treatment options are needed. PMID:19509579

  5. An evaluation by midwives and gynecologists of treatability of cervical lesions by cryotherapy among human papillomavirus-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Adadevoh, Sydney; Larraondo, Manuel J Alvarez; Chumworathayi, Bandit; Lejarza, Sandra Vargas; Araya, Luis Villegas; Garcia, Francisco; Budihas, Scott R; Long, Rodney; Katki, Hormuzd A; Herrero, Rolando; Burk, Robert D; Jeronimo, Jose

    2009-05-01

    To estimate efficacy of a visual triage of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive women to either immediate cryotherapy or referral if not treatable (eg, invasive cancer, large precancers). We evaluated visual triage in the HPV-positive women aged 25 to 55 years from the 10,000-woman Guanacaste Cohort Study (n = 552). Twelve Peruvian midwives and 5 international gynecologists assessed treatability by cryotherapy using digitized high-resolution cervical images taken at enrollment. The reference standard of treatability was determined by 2 lead gynecologists from the entire 7-year follow-up of the women. Women diagnosed with histologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse or 5-year persistence of carcinogenic HPV infection were defined as needing treatment. Midwives and gynecologists judged 30.8% and 41.2% of women not treatable by cryotherapy, respectively (P cryotherapy. The proportion of women judged not treatable by a reviewer varied widely and ranged from 18.6% to 61.1%. Interrater agreement was poor with mean pairwise overall agreement of 71.4% and 66.3% and kappa's of 0.33 and 0.30 for midwives and gynecologists, respectively. In future "screen-and-treat" cervical cancer prevention programs using HPV testing and cryotherapy, practitioners will visually triage HPV-positive women. The suboptimal performance of visual triage suggests that screen-and-treat programs using cryotherapy might be insufficient for treating precancerous lesions. Improved, low-technology triage methods and/or improved safe and low-technology treatment options are needed.

  6. Treatability Test Report For The Removal Of Chromium From Groundwater At 100-D Area Using Electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to accelerate cleanup of contaminated groundwater along the Columbia River. The current treatment approach was driven by a series of Interim Action Records of Decision (IAROD) issued in the mid-1990s. Part of the approach for acceleration involves increasing the rate of groundwater extraction for the chromium plume north of the 100-D Reactor and injecting the treated water in strategic locations to hydraulically direct contaminated groundwater toward the extraction wells. The current treatment system uses ion exchange for Cr(VI) removal, with off-site regeneration of the ion exchange resins. Higher flow rates will increase the cost and frequency of ion exchange resin regeneration; therefore, alternative technologies are being considered for treatment at high flow rates. One of these technologies, electrocoagulation (EC), was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. The primary purpose of the treatability study was to determine the effectiveness of Cr(VI) removal and the robustness/implementability of an EC system. Secondary purposes of the study were to gather information about derivative wastes and to obtain data applicable to scaling the process from the treatability scale to full-scale. The treatability study work plan identified a performance objective and four operational objectives. The performance objective for the treatability study was to determine the efficiency (effectiveness) of hexavalent chromium removal from the groundwater, with a desired concentration of (le) 20 micrograms per liter ((micro)g/L) Cr(VI) in the effluent prior to re-injection. Influent and effluent total chromium and hexavalent chromium data were collected using a field test kit for multiple samples per week, and from off-site laboratory analysis of samples collected approximately monthly. These data met all data quality requirements. Two of three effluent chromium samples analyzed in the off-site (that is, fixed) laboratory

  7. TREATABILITY TEST REPORT FOR THE REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM FROM GROUNDWATER AT 100-D AREA USING ELECTROCOAGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2009-09-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to accelerate cleanup of contaminated groundwater along the Columbia River. The current treatment approach was driven by a series of Interim Action Records of Decision (IAROD) issued in the mid-1990s. Part of the approach for acceleration involves increasing the rate of groundwater extraction for the chromium plume north of the 100-D Reactor and injecting the treated water in strategic locations to hydraulically direct contaminated groundwater toward the extraction wells. The current treatment system uses ion exchange for Cr(VI) removal, with off-site regeneration of the ion exchange resins. Higher flow rates will increase the cost and frequency of ion exchange resin regeneration; therefore, alternative technologies are being considered for treatment at high flow rates. One of these technologies, electrocoagulation (EC), was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. The primary purpose of the treatability study was to determine the effectiveness of Cr(VI) removal and the robustness/implementability of an EC system. Secondary purposes of the study were to gather information about derivative wastes and to obtain data applicable to scaling the process from the treatability scale to full-scale. The treatability study work plan identified a performance objective and four operational objectives. The performance objective for the treatability study was to determine the efficiency (effectiveness) of hexavalent chromium removal from the groundwater, with a desired concentration of {le} 20 micrograms per liter ({micro}g/L) Cr(VI) in the effluent prior to re-injection. Influent and effluent total chromium and hexavalent chromium data were collected using a field test kit for multiple samples per week, and from off-site laboratory analysis of samples collected approximately monthly. These data met all data quality requirements. Two of three effluent chromium samples analyzed in the off-site (that is, fixed) laboratory

  8. Modeling aluminum-air battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinell, R. F.; Willis, M. S.

    The performance of a complete aluminum-air battery system was studied with a flowsheet model built from unit models of each battery system component. A plug flow model for heat transfer was used to estimate the amount of heat transferred from the electrolyte to the air stream. The effect of shunt currents on battery performance was found to be insignificant. Using the flowsheet simulator to analyze a 100 cell battery system now under development demonstrated that load current, aluminate concentration, and electrolyte temperature are dominant variables controlling system performance. System efficiency was found to decrease as both load current and aluminate concentration increases. The flowsheet model illustrates the interdependence of separate units on overall system performance.

  9. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  10. Dehydration of aluminum chloride hexahydrate: a technical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    Physical and chemical properties of aluminum chloride hexahydrate, ACH, and related compounds are noted as well as the relation of these properties to the problem of dehydration of ACH to form anhydrous aluminum chloride. Several approaches to the dehydration of ACH are discussed and a rationale or each approach is given: solvent extraction, ligand exchange, azeotropic distillation, chemical dehydration, and energy specific direct heating. While the thermodynamics of dehydration are frequently favorable, the rate of reaction and the mechanisms of reaction are more frequently unfavorable. However, each approach requires experimentation to test its effectiveness. The stability of the aluminum-oxygen bond in the hydrate is such that dehydration without decomposition to the oxide will be very difficult

  11. Evaluation of several corrosion protective coating systems on aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study of several protective coating systems for use on aluminum in seawater/seacoast environments was conducted to review the developments made on protective coatings since early in the Space Shuttle program and to perform comparative studies on these coatings to determine their effectiveness for providing corrosion protection during exposure to seawater/seacoast environments. Panels of 2219-T87 aluminum were coated with 21 different systems and exposed to a 5 percent salt spray for 4000 hr. Application properties, adhesion measurements, heat resistance and corrosion protection were evaluated. For comparative studies, the presently specified Bostik epoxy system used on the SRB structures was included. Results of these tests indicate four systems with outstanding performance and four additional systems with protection almost as good. These systems are based on a chromated pretreatment, a chromate epoxy primer, and a polyurethane topcoat. Consideration for one of these systems should be included for those applications where superior corrosion protection for aluminum surfaces is required.

  12. Shielding gas effect to diffusion activities of magnesium and copper on aluminum clad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Charles SP; Napitupulu, Richard AM

    2017-09-01

    Aluminum is the second most metal used in many application, because of its corrosion resistance. The Aluminum will be damaged in over time if it’s not maintained in good condition. That is important to give protection to the Aluminums surface. Cladding process is one of surface protection methodes, especially for metals. Aluminum clad copper (Al/Cu) or copper clad aluminum (Cu/Al) composite metals have been widely used for many years. These mature protection method and well tested clad metal systems are used industrially in a variety application. The inherent properties and behavior of both copper and aluminum combine to provide unique performance advantages. In this paper Aluminum 2024 series will be covered with Aluminum 1100 series by hot rolling process. Observations will focus on diffusion activities of Mg and Cu that not present on Aluminum 1100 series. The differences of clad material samples is the use of shielding gas during heating before hot rolling process. The metallurgical characteristics will be examined by using optical microscopy. Transition zone from the interface cannot be observed but from Energy Dispersive Spectrometry it’s found that Mg and Cu are diffused from base metal (Al 2024) to the clad metal (Al 1100). Hardness test proved that base metals hardness to interface was decrease.

  13. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part I: Influence of aluminum purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Joo; Park, In-Jun; Lee, Hyeok-Jae; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2015-03-01

    2N5 commercial grade aluminum (99.5% purity) leads to the lower aluminum-air battery performances than 4N high pure grade aluminum (99.99% purity) due to impurities itself and formed impurity complex layer which contained Fe, Si, Cu and others. The impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al declines the battery voltage on standby status. It also depletes discharge current and battery efficiency at 1.0 V which is general operating voltage of aluminum-air battery. However, the impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al is dissolved with decreasing discharge voltage to 0.8 V. This phenomenon leads to improvement of discharge current density and battery efficiency by reducing self-corrosion reaction. This study demonstrates the possibility of use of 2N5 grade Al which is cheaper than 4N grade Al as the anode for aluminum-air battery.

  14. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  15. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples.

  16. Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable

  17. Aluminum oxide film thickness and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    Aluminum reactor components which are not actively cooled could be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Radiative heat transfer is the dominant heat transfer process in this scenario and therefore the emittance of these components is of interest. Of particular interest are the safety rod thimbles and Mark 60B blanket assemblies; for the K Reactor, these components have been exposed to low temperature (< 55 degrees C) moderator for about a year. The average moderator temperature was assumed to be 30 degrees C. The Al oxide film thickness at this temperature, after one year of exposure, is predicted to be 6.4 μm ± 10%; insensitive to exposure time. Dehydration of the film during the gamma heating accident would result in a film thickness of 6.0 μm ± 11%. Total hemispherical emittance is predicted to be 0.69 at 96 degrees C, decreasing to 0.45 at 600 degrees C. Some phenomena which would tend to yield thicker oxide films in the reactor environment relative to those obtained under experimental conditions were neglected and the predicted film thickness values are therefore conservative. The emittance values predicted for a given film thickness are also conservative. The conservativisms inherent in the predicted emittance are particularly relevant for uncertainty analysis of temperatures generated using these values

  18. Fatigue behavior in rheocast aluminum 357 suspension arms using the SEED process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Ehab; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Bouaicha, Amine; Bouazara, Mohamed

    Extensive studies have been devoted to the use of aluminum alloys in the automotive industry, by virtue of the favourable mechanical properties that can be attained. Moreover, the aluminum casting method employed has also been the subject of scrutiny, given the multitude of casting options available. The present work serves to illustrate the advancements made in the area of rheocasting, using the SEED method, as carried out at the National Research Council Canada — Aluminum Technology Centre. The SEED (Swirled Enthalpy Equilibration Device) process, which relies on heat extraction of the liquid aluminum alloy via mechanical agitation in a confined cylinder to form the semi-solid billet, has already proven successful in producing sound aluminum castings having an excellent combination of strength and ductility. Moreover, fatigue testing on the cast alloy parts has shown enormous potential for this emerging technology.

  19. Packaging material and aluminum. Hoso zairyo to aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaya, T [Mitsubishi Aluminum Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-02-01

    The present paper introduces aluminum foil packaging materials among the relation between packing materials and aluminum. The characteristics of aluminum foil in the packaging area are in its barrier performance, non-toxicity, tastelessness and odorlessness. Its excellent functions and processibility suit best as functional materials for food, medicine and industrial material packaging. While an aluminum foil may be used as a single packing material as in foils used in homes, many of it as a packaging material are used in combination with adhesives, papers or plastic films, or coated or printed. It is used as composite materials laminated or coated with other materials according to their use for the purpose of complementing the aluminum foil as the base material. Representative method to laminate aluminum foils include the wet lamination, dry lamination, thermally dissolved lamination and extruded lamination. The most important quality requirement in lamination is the adhesion strength, which requires a close attention in selecting the kinds of adhesive, laminating conditions, and aging conditions. 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. TREATABILITY TEST FOR REMOVING TECHNETIUM-99 FROM 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; TORTOSO AC; ELLIOTT WS; BYRNES ME

    2007-11-29

    The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) is one of two groundwater OUs located within the 200 West groundwater aggregate area of the Hanford Site. The primary risk-driving contaminants within the 200-ZP-1 OU include carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99 (Tc-99). A pump-and-treat system for this OU was initially installed in 1995 to control the 0.002 kg/m{sup 3} (2000 {micro}g/L) contour of the carbon tetrachloride plume. Carbon tetrachloride is removed from groundwater with the assistance of an air-stripping tower. Ten extraction wells and three injection wells operate at a combined rate of approximately 0.017m{sup 3}/s (17.03 L/s). In 2005, groundwater from two of the extraction wells (299-W15-765 and 299-W15-44) began to show concentrations greater than twice the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of Tc-99 (33,309 beq/m{sup 3} or 900 pCi/L). The Tc-99 groundwater concentrations from all ten of the extraction wells when mixed were more than one-half of the MCL and were slowly increasing. If concentrations continued to rise and the water remained untreated for Tc-99, there was concern that the water re-injected into the aquifer could exceed the MCL standard. Multiple treatment technologies were reviewed for selectively removing Tc-99 from the groundwater. Of the treatment technologies, only ion exchange was determined to be highly selective, commercially available, and relatively low in cost. Through research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the ion-exchange resin Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E was found to successfully remove Tc-99 from groundwater, even in the presence of competing anions. For this and other reasons, Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E ion exchange resin was selected for treatability testing. The treatability test required installing resin columns on the discharge lines from extraction wells 299-W15-765 and 299-W15-44. Preliminary test results have concluded that the Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E resin is effective at removing Tc-99 from groundwater to

  1. Functions and requirements for a waste dislodging and conveyance system for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, J.D.; Mullen, O.D.

    1995-09-01

    Functions and requirements for the Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System to be deployed in Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) and tested and evaluated as a candidate tank waste retrieval technology by the GAAT Treatability Study (GAAT TS)

  2. Draft Technical Protocol: A Treatability Test for Evaluating the Potential Applicability of the Reductive Anaerobic Biological in Situ Treatment Technology (Rabitt) to Remediate Chloroethenes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    This draft, unvalidated protocol describes a comprehensive approach for conducting a phased treatability test to determine the potential for employing the Reductive Anaerobic Biological In Situ Treatment Technology (RABITT...

  3. Hybrid Heat Pipes for High Heat Flux Spacecraft Thermal Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Grooved aluminum/ammonia Constant Conductance Heat Pipes (CCHPs) are the standard for thermal control in zero-gravity. Unfortunately, they are limited in terms of...

  4. Project management plan for the gunite and associated tanks treatability studies project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Studies Project satisfies the requirements of the program management plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program as established in the Program Management Plan for the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Environmental Restoration Program. This plan is a subtier of several other ER documents designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1 requirement for major systems acquisitions. This project management plan identifies the major activities of the GAAT Treatability Studies Project; establishes performance criteria; discusses the roles and responsibilities of the organizations that will perform the work; and summarizes the work breakdown structure, schedule, milestones, and cost estimate for the project

  5. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau. Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Program. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 4 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  6. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  7. "Ripples" in an Aluminum Pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, James; Wang, Si-Yin; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2018-05-01

    Our motivation for this article is for students to realize that opportunities for discovery are all around them. Discoveries that can still puzzle present day researchers. Here we explore an observation by a middle school student concerning the production of what appears to be water-like "ripples" produced in aluminum foil when placed between two colliding spheres. We both applaud and explore the student's reasoning that the ripples were formed in a melted aluminum pool.

  8. A Virtual Aluminum Reduction Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Zhou, Chenn Q.; Wu, Bing; Li, Jie

    2013-11-01

    The most important component in the aluminum industry is the aluminum reduction cell; it has received considerable interests and resources to conduct research to improve its productivity and energy efficiency. The current study focused on the integration of numerical simulation data and virtual reality technology to create a scientifically and practically realistic virtual aluminum reduction cell by presenting complex cell structures and physical-chemical phenomena. The multiphysical field simulation models were first built and solved in ANSYS software (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA). Then, the methodology of combining the simulation results with virtual reality was introduced, and a virtual aluminum reduction cell was created. The demonstration showed that a computer-based world could be created in which people who are not analysis experts can see the detailed cell structure in a context that they can understand easily. With the application of the virtual aluminum reduction cell, even people who are familiar with aluminum reduction cell operations can gain insights that make it possible to understand the root causes of observed problems and plan design changes in much less time.

  9. Hydraulic testing plan for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatability technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project directly supports the BCV Feasibility Study. Part of the Treatability Study, Phase II Hydraulic Performance Testing, will produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design a long-term treatment system. This effort consists of the installation and testing of two groundwater collection systems: a trench in the vicinity of GW-835 and an angled pumping well adjacent to NT-1. Pumping tests and evaluations of gradients under ambient conditions will provide data for full-scale design of treatment systems. In addition to hydraulic performance, in situ treatment chemistry data will be obtained from monitoring wells installed in the reactive media section of the trench. The in situ treatment work is not part of this test plan. This Hydraulic Testing Plan describes the location and installation of the trench and NT-1 wells, the locations and purpose of the monitoring wells, and the procedures for the pumping tests of the trench and NT-1 wells

  10. Electrocoagulation of simulated reactive dyebath effluent with aluminum and stainless steel electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Kabdaşli, Işik; Vardar, Burcu; Tünay, Olcay

    2009-05-30

    Reactive dyebath effluents are ideal candidates for electrocoagulation due to their intensive color, medium strength, recalcitrant COD and high electrolyte (NaCl) content. The present study focused on the treatability of simulated reactive dyebath effluent (COD(o)=300 mg/L; color in terms of absorbance values A(o,436)=0.532 cm(-1), A(o,525)=0.693 cm(-1) and A(o,620)=0.808 cm(-1)) employing electrocoagulation with aluminum and stainless steel electrodes. Optimization of critical operating parameters such as initial pH (pH(o) 3-11), applied current density (J(c)=22-87 mA/cm(2)) and electrolyte type (NaCl or Na(2)SO(4)) improved the overall treatment efficiencies resulting in effective decolorization (99% using stainless steel electrodes after 60 min, 95% using aluminum electrodes after 90 min electrocoagulation) and COD abatement (93% with stainless steel electrodes after 60 min, 86% with aluminum electrodes after 90 min of reaction time). Optimum electrocoagulation conditions were established as pH(o) 5 and J(c)=22 mA/cm(2) for both electrode materials. The COD and color removal efficiencies also depended on the electrolyte type. No in situ, surplus adsorbable organically bound halogens (AOX) formation associated with the use of NaCl as the electrolyte during electrocoagulation was detected. An economical evaluation was also carried out within the frame of the study. It was demonstrated that electrocoagulation of reactive dyebath effluent with aluminum and stainless steel electrodes was a considerably less electrical energy-intensive, alternative treatment method as compared with advanced chemical oxidation techniques.

  11. Anodized aluminum on LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of reported analyses and results obtained for anodized aluminum flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was prepared. Chromic acid, sulfuric acid, and dyed sulfuric acid anodized surfaces were exposed to the space environment. The vast majority of the anodized surface on LDEF was chromic acid anodize because of its selection as a thermal control coating for use on the spacecraft primary structure, trays, tray clamps, and space end thermal covers. Reports indicate that the chromic acid anodize was stable in solar absorptance and thermal emittance, but that contamination effects caused increases in absorptance on surfaces exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. There were some discrepancies, however, in that some chromic acid anodized specimens exhibited significant increases in absorptance. Sulfuric acid anodized surfaces also appeared stable, although very little surface area was available for evaluation. One type of dyed sulfuric acid anodize was assessed as an optical baffle coating and was observed to have improved infrared absorptance characteristics with exposure on LDEF.

  12. Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC's Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ''proof-of-principle'' demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings

  13. Intra-abdominal hypertension in fulminant Clostridium difficile infection--an under-recognized treatable complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2010-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea in adults, with recent reports of increased severity and case fatality. Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are increasingly recognized and treatable complications of severe illness in medical patients, and are independent predictors of mortality. Patients with severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are at increased risk for IAH and ACS. However, ACS has been only rarely described in this population. We report a case of a 61 year-old morbidly obese, chronically ill, ventilator dependent patient, who developed fulminant CDI, including progressive colonic distension, acute renal failure and intra-abdominal fluid sequestration. Her clinical course worsened abruptly, with new shock, worsening hypoxic respiratory failure, increased peak airway pressures and reduced tidal volumes. Intra-abdominal pressure was 30 mm Hg. The patient was not considered a surgical candidate, was refractory to escalating non-surgical support, and died following withdrawal of life support. Although patients with fulminant CDI share many risk factors for IAH and ACS, these conditions were rarely reported in this population and are likely under recognized, as was the case with the present patient. Increased vigilance for IAH is needed in this at-risk population.

  14. Potentially Treatable Disorder Diagnosed Post Mortem by Exome Analysis in a Boy with Respiratory Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Imperatore

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We highlight the importance of exome sequencing in solving a clinical case of a child who died at 14 months after a series of respiratory crises. He was the half-brother of a girl diagnosed at 7 years with the early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome due to CDKL5 mutation. We performed a test for CDKL5 in the boy, which came back negative. Driven by the mother’s compelling need for a diagnosis, we moved forward performing whole exome sequencing analysis. Surprisingly, two missense mutations in compound heterozygosity were identified in the RAPSN gene encoding a receptor-associated protein with a key role in clustering and anchoring nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites. This gene is responsible for a congenital form of myasthenic syndrome, a disease potentially treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, an earlier diagnosis in this boy would have led to a better clinical management and prognosis. Our study supports the key role of exome sequencing in achieving a definite diagnosis in severe perinatal diseases, an essential step especially when a specific therapy is available.

  15. Determination of Biological Treatability Processes of Textile Wastewater and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Akif Kabuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biological treatability of textile wastewater. For this purpose, a membrane bioreactor (MBR was utilized for biological treatment after the ozonation process. Due to the refractory organic contents of textile wastewater that has a low biodegradability capacity, ozonation was implemented as an advanced oxidation process prior to the MBR system to increase the biodegradability of the wastewater. Textile wastewater, oxidized by ozonation, was fed to the MBR at different hydraulic retention times (HRT. During the process, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD removal efficiencies were monitored for 24-hour, 12-hour, 6-hour, and 3-hour retention times. Under these conditions, 94% color, 65% COD, and 55% BOD removal efficiencies were obtained in the MBR system. The experimental outputs were modeled with multiple linear regressions (MLR and fuzzy logic. MLR results suggested that color removal is more related to COD removal relative to BOD removal. A surface map of this issue was prepared with a fuzzy logic model. Furthermore, fuzzy logic was employed to the whole modeling of the biological system treatment. Determination coefficients for COD, BOD, and color removal efficiencies were 0.96, 0.97, and 0.92, respectively.

  16. Treatability test of a stacked-tray air stripper for VOC in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pico, T., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    A common strategy for hydraulic containment and mass removal at VOC contaminated sites is `pump and treat (P&T)`. In P&T operations, contaminated ground water is pumped from wells, treated above ground, and discharged. Many P&T remediation systems at VOC sites rely on air stripping technology because VOCs are easily transferred to the vapor phase. In stacked-tray air strippers, contaminated water is aerated while it flows down through a series of trays. System operations at LLNL are strictly regulated by the California and federal Environmental Protection Agencies (Cal/EPA and EPA), the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB) and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC). These agencies set discharge limits, require performance monitoring, and assess penalties for non-compliance. National laboratories are also subject to scrutiny by the public and other government agencies. This extensive oversight makes it necessary to accurately predict field treatment performance at new extraction locations to ensure compliance with all requirements prior to facility activation. This paper presents treatability test results for a stacked- tray air stripper conducted at LLNL and compares them to the vendor`s modeling software results.

  17. Process evaluation and treatability study of wastewater in a textile dyeing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, Debabrata [Civil Engineering Department, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, P.O. - Botanic Garden, Horah, West Bengal - 711 103 (India)

    2011-07-01

    The process was investigated in a textile dying unit and subsequently wastewater generation profile was studied for the development of a viable treatment. The dyeing unit under the study generated a considerable volume of wastewater containing inorganic chemicals and organic reactive green dye. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) resulting from all the chemically oxidizible substances and the residual color of the dye were targeted for removal. The wastewater samples were collected from different sub-processes and then characterized for the parameters viz. pH, Total solid, Suspended solid, Dissolved solid, COD and Alkalinity. A composite wastewater sample was prepared according to the measured wastewater discharge from various unit operations and used for treatability study. In the first stage, coagulation-flocculation with alum and chemical oxidation with bleaching powder were performed separately. Subsequently, adsorption study was conducted with crushed burnt coal (C.B.C.) on the composite wastewater, initially treated with 10% bleaching powder solution. After several trials, this combination was found to be effective for a C.B.C. content of 10% under a contact period of 90 minutes, which showed 100% colour and about 95% COD removal.

  18. Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

    2000-01-01

    A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment

  19. Impact of paint shop decanter effluents on biological treatability of automotive industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Didem; Hanhan, Oytun; Aksoy, Elif Ceren; Insel, Güçlü; Çokgör, Emine

    2017-05-15

    A lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was implemented to investigate biological treatability and kinetic characteristics of paint shop wastewater (PSW) together with main stream wastewater (MSW) of a bus production factory. Readily biodegradable and slowly biodegradable COD fractions of MWS were determined by respirometric analysis: 4.2% (S S ), 10.4% (S H ) and 59.3% (X S ). Carbon and nitrogen removal performance of the SBR feeding with MSW alone were obtained as 89% and 58%, respectively. When PSW was introduced to MSW, both carbon and nitrogen removal were deteriorated. Model simulation indicated that maximum heterotrophic growth rate decreased from 7.2 to 5.7day -1 , maximum hydrolysis rates were reduced from 6 to 4day -1 (k hS ) and 4 to 1day -1 (k hX ). Based on the dynamic model simulation for the evaluation of nitrogen removal, a maximum specific nitrifier growth rate was obtained as 0.45day -1 for MSW feeding alone. When PSW was introduced, nitrification was completely inhibited and following the termination of PSW addition, nitrogen removal performance was recovered in about 100 days, however with a much lower nitrifier growth rate (0.1day -1 ), possibly due to accumulation of toxic compounds in the sludge. Obviously, a longer recovery period is required to ensure an active nitrifier community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatability studies performed in support of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Mueller, J.P.; Sundquist, J.A.; Moore, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Southern Shipbuilding Corporation (SSC) site is located on 54 acres of wooded land adjacent to Bayou Bonfouca, approximately 1.8 miles downstream of the Bayou Bonfouca National Priorities List (NPL) Superfund site in Slidell, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. Two one-acre, impoundments on the SSC site were used to store wastes generated from vessel cleaning. Wastes stored in the impoundments are migrating into Bayou Bonfouca, which empties into Lake Pontchartrain. In addition, the impoundments are frequently invaded by flood waters. The US EPA Emergency Response Branch (EPA-ERB) performed a site investigation which indicated that the majority of the contamination is petroleum-related and that the compounds of concern are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PARs). The wastes are generally contained with the two impoundments and surrounding soils. As part of an Engineering Evaluation/Cost Basis (EE/CA) of potential response action alternatives, four treatability studies were performed. A thermal treatment (incineration) study was performed at the EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF). Biodegradation remedy selection feasibility assessment was conducted on-site. A remedy screening soil washing study was also performed by TAT. A solidification/stabilization (S/S) study was conducted through EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) to ascertain if the PAHs could be immobilized within a solid matrix. Experimental objectives, dead methodology and conclusions for these studies are presented as they relate to potential response actions being evaluated at the SSC site

  1. Strontium zirconate as silicon and aluminum scavenger in yttria stabilized zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Hansen, Karin Vels; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2011-01-01

    Here we report on strontium zirconate as a getter for silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide in yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystals for cleaning purposes. YSZ single crystals were covered with strontium zirconate powder and heat treated at 1450°C in water vapor. After treatment the YSZ...... by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the interface region between bump and YSZ single crystal bulk was examined. EDS showed a homogeneous distribution of silicon and aluminum through the cross section of a bump. The results suggest strontium zirconate as a good getter for silicon and aluminum from bulk...

  2. Improving resistance welding of aluminum sheets by addition of metal powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Naimi, Ihsan K.; Al-Saadi, Moneer H.; Daws, Kasim M.

    2015-01-01

    . The improvement obtained is shown to be due to the development of a secondary bond in the joint beside the weld nugget increasing the total weld area. The application of powder additive is especially feasible, when using welding machines with insufficient current capacity for producing the required nugget size......In order to ensure good quality joints between aluminum sheets by resistance spot welding, a new approach involving the addition of metal powder to the faying surfaces before resistance heating is proposed. Three different metal powders (pure aluminum and two powders corresponding to the alloys AA....... In such cases the best results are obtained with pure aluminum powder....

  3. Ultrasonic Real-Time Quality Monitoring Of Aluminum Spot Weld Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Regalado, Waldo Josue

    The real-time ultrasonic spot weld monitoring system, introduced by our research group, has been designed for the unsupervised quality characterization of the spot welding process. It comprises the ultrasonic transducer (probe) built into one of the welding electrodes and an electronics hardware unit which gathers information from the transducer, performs real-time weld quality characterization and communicates with the robot programmable logic controller (PLC). The system has been fully developed for the inspection of spot welds manufactured in steel alloys, and has been mainly applied in the automotive industry. In recent years, a variety of materials have been introduced to the automotive industry. These include high strength steels, magnesium alloys, and aluminum alloys. Aluminum alloys have been of particular interest due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. Resistance spot welding requirements for aluminum vary greatly from those of steel. Additionally, the oxide film formed on the aluminum surface increases the heat generation between the copper electrodes and the aluminum plates leading to accelerated electrode deterioration. Preliminary studies showed that the real-time quality inspection system was not able to monitor spot welds manufactured with aluminum. The extensive experimental research, finite element modelling of the aluminum welding process and finite difference modeling of the acoustic wave propagation through the aluminum spot welds presented in this dissertation, revealed that the thermodynamics and hence the acoustic wave propagation through an aluminum and a steel spot weld differ significantly. For this reason, the hardware requirements and the algorithms developed to determine the welds quality from the ultrasonic data used on steel, no longer apply on aluminum spot welds. After updating the system and designing the required algorithms, parameters such as liquid nugget penetration and nugget diameter were available in the ultrasonic data

  4. Wear-resistance of Aluminum Matrix Microcomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kandeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A procedure is developed for the study of wear of aluminum alloys AlSi7 obtained by casting, reinforced by TiC microparticles, before and after heat treatment. Tribological study is realized under conditions of friction on counterbody with fixed abrasive. Experimental results were obtained for mass wear, wear rate, wear intensity and wear-resistance of the alloys with different wt% of microparticles.

  5. Temperature and concentration transients in the aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsy, R. V.

    1981-08-01

    Coupled conservation equations of heat and mass transfer are solved that predict temperature and concentration of the electrolyte of an aluminum-air battery system upon start-up and shutdown. Results of laboratory studies investigating the crystallization kinetics and solubility of the caustic-aluminate electrolyte system are used in the predictions. Temperature and concentration start-up transients are short, while during standby conditions, temperature increases to maximum and decreases slowly.

  6. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the river’s shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms for Sr with Ca, a plant macronutrient as well as no discrimination between Sr and 90Sr. Willow 90Sr concentration ratios [CR’s; (pCi 90Sr/g dry wt. of new growth tissue)/(pCi 90Sr/g soil porewater)] were consistently greater than 65 with three-quarters of the assimilated label partitioned into the above ground shoot. Insect herbivore experiments also demonstrated no significant potential for bioaccumulation or food chain transfer from their natural activities. The objectives of this field study were three-fold: (1) to demonstrate that a viable, “managed” plot of coyote willows can be established on the shoreline of the Columbia River that would survive the same microenvironment to be encountered at the 100-NR-2 shoreline; (2) to show through engineered barriers that large and small animal herbivores can be prevented from feeding on these plants; and (3) to show that once established, the plants will provide sufficient biomass annually to support the phytoextraction technology. A field treatability demonstration plot was established on the Columbia River shoreline alongside the 100-K West water intake at the end of January 2007. The plot was delimited by a 3.05 m high chain-link fence and was approximately 10 x 25 m in size. A layer of fine mesh metal small animal screening was placed around the plot at the base of the fencing to a depth of 45 cm. A total of sixty plants were placed in six slightly staggered rows with 1-m spacing between plants. The actual plot size was 0.00461 hectare (ha). At the time of planting (March 12, 2007), the plot was located about 10 m from the

  7. Grenade Range Management Using Lime for Metals Immobilization and Explosives Transformation Treatability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Chemical symbols Al Aluminum As Arsenic Ca Calcium ERDC/EL TR-07-5 ix Cd Cadmium Cr Chromium Cu Copper Fe Iron Hg Mercury K...2006) are enhanced bioremediation and phytoremediation . The length of time and the effects of climate on cleanup are disadvantages shared by...technologies include electrokinetics and phytoremediation (FRTR 2006). These tech- nologies, however, do not meet the optimum remediation requirements

  8. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs.

  9. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs

  10. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the '70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid '80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern

  11. Does patient-delivered partner treatment improve disclosure for treatable sexually transmitted diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Leichliter, Jami S; Schmidt, Norine; Farley, Thomas A; Kissinger, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the factors associated with disclosure of three treatable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data were obtained from two intervention trials to determine the ideal means of partner referral. Men diagnosed with urethritis and women diagnosed with trichomoniasis at public clinics in New Orleans, Louisiana were randomly assigned to partner referral (PR), booklet-enhanced partner referral (BEPR), or patient-delivered partner treatment (PDPT). Participants were asked about sex partners at baseline, then whether they disclosed to them at follow-up. The male trial was conducted from December 2001 to March 2004 and the female trial from December 2001 to August 2004. Data on men and women were analyzed separately. Nine hundred seventy-seven men and 463 women-reporting information on 1991 and 521 sex partners-were respectively enrolled in each trial. Disclosure occurred to 57.8% and 87.3% of their partners, respectively. Most men (68.3%) reported having two or more partners and disclosure was more likely to occur in: those who reported only one sex partner (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54 [1.10, 2.16]); those in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 1.37 [1.08,1.74]); and those assigned PDPT [OR [95% CI]: 2.71 [1.93,3.82]). Most women reported having only one partner (86.8%) and disclosure was more likely to occur in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 2.65 [1.24,5.66]), and when sex was reinitiated with partners during the follow-up period (OR [95% CI]: 3.30 [1.54,7.09]). The provision of PDPT was associated with increased STD disclosure among men but not among women. Both men and women were less likely to disclose to casual partners. Women had high rates of disclosure irrespective of intervention arm.

  12. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump-and-treat testing at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The test will be conducted in fulfillment of interim Milestone M-15-06E to begin pilot-scale pump-and-treat operations by August 1994. The scope of the test was determined based on the results of lab/bench-scale tests (WHC 1993a) conducted in fulfillment of Milestone M-15-06B. These milestones were established per agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and documented on Hanford Federal of Ecology Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-15-93-02. This test plan discusses a pilot-scale pump-and-treat test for the chromium plume associated with the D Reactor portion of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Data will be collected during the pilot test to assess the effectiveness, operating parameters, and resource needs of the ion exchange (IX) pump-and-treat system. The test will provide information to assess the ability to remove contaminants by extracting groundwater from wells and treating extracted groundwater using IX. Bench-scale tests were conducted previously in which chromium VI was identified as the primary contaminant of concern in the 100-D reactor plume. The DOWEX 21K trademark resin was recommended for pilot-scale testing of an IX pump-and-treat system. The bench-scale test demonstrated that the system could remove chromium VI from groundwater to concentrations less than 50 ppb. The test also identified process parameters to monitor during pilot-scale testing. Water will be re-injected into the plume using wells outside the zone of influence and upgradient of the extraction well

  13. Savannah River Site chemical, metal, and pesticide (CMP) waste vitrification treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as well as Department of Defense (DOD) and commercial facilities, have used earthen pits for disposal of chemicals, organic contaminants, and other waste materials. Although this was an acceptable means of disposal in the past, direct disposal into earthen pits without liners or barriers is no longer a standard practice. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately three million pounds of such material was removed from seven chemical, metal, and pesticide disposal pits. This material is known as the Chemical, Metal, and Pesticide (CMP) Pit waste and carries several different listed waste codes depending on the contaminants in the respective storage container. The waste is not classified as a mixed waste because it is believed to be non-radioactive; however, in order to treat the material in a non-radioactive facility, the waste would first have to be screened for radioactivity. The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Section of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the DOE-Savannah River (SR) office to determine the viability of vitrification of the CMP Pit wastes. Radioactive vitrification facilities exist which would be able to process this waste, so the material would not have to be analyzed for radioactive content. Bench-scale treatability studies were performed by the DWPT to determine whether a homogeneous and durable glass could be produced from the CMP Pit wastes. Homogeneous and durable glasses were produced from the six pits sampled. The optimum composition was determined to be 68.5 wt% CMP waste, 7.2 wt% Na 2 O, 9 wt% CaO, 7.2 wt% Li 2 O and 8.1 wt% Fe 2 O 3 . This glass melted at 1,150 C and represented a two fold volume reduction

  14. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor......Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree...... are discussed and compared with results from an earlier study1 covering the recrystallization behavior of commercial aluminum of the same purity deformed at higher degrees of deformation (50 to 90 pct reduction in thickness by cold-rolling)....

  15. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  16. Aluminum-air battery crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype crystallizer system for the aluminum-air battery operated reliably through simulated startup and shutdown cycles and met its design objectives. The crystallizer system allows for crystallization and removal of the aluminium hydroxide reaction product; it is required to allow steady-state and long-term operation of the aluminum-air battery. The system has to minimize volume and maintain low turbulence and shear to minimize secondary nucleation and energy consumption while enhancing agglomeration. A lamella crystallizer satisfies system constraints.

  17. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  18. Aluminum nitride insulating films for MOSFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, G. W.; Maserjian, J.

    1972-01-01

    Application of aluminum nitrides as electrical insulator for electric capacitors is discussed. Electrical properties of aluminum nitrides are analyzed and specific use with field effect transistors is defined. Operational limits of field effect transistors are developed.

  19. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  20. 75 FR 70689 - Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division; Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,376] Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum- Greenwood Forge Division; Currently Known As Contech Forgings, LLC..., applicable to workers of Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC, Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division...

  1. Work plan for the treatability study for PCB dehalogenation by Agent 313 in Waste Area Grouping 11 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This work Plan describes the treatability study for Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) debalogenation by Agent 313 (a registered trademark of the A.L. Sandpiper Corporation of Columbus, ohio) to be conducted at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 11 on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The study will be conducted at WAG 11 as a result of the contamination of several small areas of soil by leaking capacitors. The primary purpose of this treatability study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of Agent 313 in remediating PCB-contaminated soil. However, the WAG 11 soils to be treated may also contain radionuclides and metals. In addition to providing the procedures to be followed during the treatability study, the work plan briefly describes the project background and technology, lists applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements for the project, and delineates project goals and objectives. This document also follows the general suggested outline for treatability study work plans shown in the 1992 report Guide for conducting Treatability Studies Under CERCLA: Final, EPA;540/R-92-071a, published by the US Environmental Protection Agency

  2. Laboratory treatability studies preparatory to field testing a resting-cell in situ microbial filter bioremediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.T.; Hanna, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    Prior to a down-hole-column treatability test of a Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b attached-resting-cell in situ biofilter strategy, a set of three sequential laboratory experiments were carried out to define several key operational parameters and to evaluate the likely degree of success at a NASA Kennedy Space Center site. They involved the cell attachment to site-specific sediments, the intrinsic resting-cell biotransformation capacities for the contaminants of interest plus their time-dependent extents of biodegradative removal at the concentrations of concern, and a scaled in situ mini-flow-through-column system that closely mimics the subsurface conditions during a field-treatability or pilot test of an emplaced resting-cell filter. These experiments established the conditions required for the complete metabolic removal of a vinyl chloride (VC), cis-dichlororthylene (cis-DCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) mixture. However, the gas chromatographic (GC) procedures that we utilized and the mini-flow-through column data demonstrated that, at most, only about 50--70% of the site-water VC, cis-DCE, and TCE would be biodegraded. This occurred because of a limiting level of dissolved oxygen, which was exacerbated by the simultaneous presence of several additional previously unrecognized groundwater components, especially methane, that are also competing substrates for the whole-cell soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) enzyme complex. Irrespective, collectively the simplicity of the methods that we have developed and the results obtainable with them appear to provide relevant laboratory-based test-criteria before taking our microbial filter strategy to an in situ field treatability or pilot demonstration stage at other sites in the future

  3. 75 FR 80527 - Aluminum Extrusions From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...)] Aluminum Extrusions From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of aluminum extrusions, primarily provided... contained in Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Determination of...

  4. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. The microstructure of aluminum A5083 butt joint by friction stir welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasri, M. A. H. M.; Afendi, M.; Ismail, A.; Ishak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the microstructure of the aluminum A5083 butt joint surface after it has been joined by friction stir welding (FSW) process. The FSW process is a unique welding method because it will not change the chemical properties of the welded metals. In this study, MILKO 37 milling machine was modified to run FSW process on 4 mm plate of aluminum A5083 butt joint. For the experiment, variables of travel speed and tool rotational speed based on capability of machine were used to run FSW process. The concentrated heat from the tool to the aluminum plate changes the plate form from solid to plastic state. Two aluminum plates is merged to become one plate during plastic state and return to solid when concentrated heat is gradually further away. After that, the surface and cross section of the welded aluminum were investigated with a microscope by 400 x multiplication zoom. The welding defect in the FSW aluminum was identified. Then, the result was compared to the American Welding Society (AWS) FSW standard to decide whether the plate can be accepted or rejected

  8. Response to Thermal Exposure of Ball-Milled Aluminum-Borax Powder Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birol, Yucel

    2013-04-01

    Aluminum-borax powder mixtures were ball milled and heated above 873 K (600 °C) to produce Al-B master alloys. Ball-milled powder blends reveal interpenetrating layers of deformed aluminum and borax grains that are increasingly refined with increasing milling time. Thermal exposure of the ball-milled powder blends facilitates a series of thermite reactions between these layers. Borax, dehydrated during heating, is reduced by Al, and B thus generated reacts with excess Al to produce AlB2 particles dispersed across the aluminum grains starting at 873 K (600 °C). AlB2 particles start to form along the interface of the aluminum and borax layers. Once nucleated, these particles grow readily to become hexagonal-shaped crystals that traverse the aluminum grains with increasing temperatures as evidenced by the increase in the size as well as in the number of the AlB2 particles. Ball milling for 1 hour suffices to achieve a thermite reaction between borax and aluminum. Ball milling further does not impact the response of the powder blend to thermal exposure. The nucleation-reaction sites are multiplied, however, with increasing milling time and thus insure a higher number of smaller AlB2 particles. The size of the AlB2 platelets may be adjusted with the ball milling time.

  9. The microstructure of aluminum A5083 butt joint by friction stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasri, M. A. H. M.; Afendi, M. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Pauh, 02600, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ismail, A. [UniKL MIMET, JalanPantaiRemis, 32200, Lumut, Perak (Malaysia); Ishak, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 02600, Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This study presents the microstructure of the aluminum A5083 butt joint surface after it has been joined by friction stir welding (FSW) process. The FSW process is a unique welding method because it will not change the chemical properties of the welded metals. In this study, MILKO 37 milling machine was modified to run FSW process on 4 mm plate of aluminum A5083 butt joint. For the experiment, variables of travel speed and tool rotational speed based on capability of machine were used to run FSW process. The concentrated heat from the tool to the aluminum plate changes the plate form from solid to plastic state. Two aluminum plates is merged to become one plate during plastic state and return to solid when concentrated heat is gradually further away. After that, the surface and cross section of the welded aluminum were investigated with a microscope by 400 x multiplication zoom. The welding defect in the FSW aluminum was identified. Then, the result was compared to the American Welding Society (AWS) FSW standard to decide whether the plate can be accepted or rejected.

  10. MICROSTRUCTURE CHARACTERISTIC OF ALUMINUM TITANATE SYNTHESIED BY BOTH SOLID- STATE AND SOL-GEL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khosravi Saghezchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparing study on formation and microstructure features of aluminum titanate is investigated through both solid-state and sol-gel processes. Aluminum titanate formed by firing at 1350ºC and 1450ºC for 4h in solid-state process. In the sol-gel process formation of submicron sized particles is followed by addition of sucrose into the transparent sol. XRD analysis was confirmed the formation of aluminum titanate at 1400ºC  in lower duration of calcination (3h without any additives in the sol-gel process. In this work 2wt% MgO is added to the samples as the additive for forming acceleration of aluminum titanate. The influence of MgO addition and heat treatment are studied on phase formation and microstructure development of aluminum titanate in both procedures. Additive optimizes aluminum titanate formation at lower temperatures (1300-1350ºC. Phase and microstructure studies of Mg containing samples optimally show significance in aluminum titanate formation.

  11. Characterization of ultrafine aluminum nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Mang, Joseph T.; Smith, Bettina L.; Son, Steven F.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum nanopowders with particle sizes ranging from ∼25 nm to 80 nm were characterized by a variety of methods. We present and compare the results from common powder characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), BET gas adsorption surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and low angle laser light scattering (LALLS). Aluminum nanoparticles consist of an aluminum core with an aluminum oxide coating. HRTEM measurements of both the particle diameter and oxide layer thickness tend to be larger than those obtained from BET and TGA. LALLS measurements show a large degree of particle agglomeration in solution; therefore, primary particle sizes could not be determined. Furthermore, results from small-angle scattering techniques (SAS), including small-angle neutron (SANS) and x-ray (SAXS) scattering are presented and show excellent agreement with the BET, TGA, and HRTEM. The suite of analytical techniques presented in this paper can be used as a powerful tool in the characterization of many types of nanosized powders.

  12. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  13. Fusion boundary microstructure evolution in aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrivas, Anastasios Dimitrios

    2000-10-01

    A melting technique was developed to simulate the fusion boundary of aluminum alloys using the GleebleRTM thermal simulator. Using a steel sleeve to contain the aluminum, samples were heated to incremental temperatures above the solidus temperature of a number of alloys. In alloy 2195, a 4wt%Cu-1wt%Li alloy, an equiaxed non-dendritic zone (EQZ) could be formed by heating in the temperature range from approximately 630 to 640°C. At temperatures above 640°C, solidification occurred by the normal epitaxial nucleation and growth mechanism. Fusion boundary behavior was also studied in alloys 5454-H34, 6061-T6, and 2219-T8. Additionally, experimental alloy compositions were produced by making bead on plate welds using an alloy 5454-H32 base metal and 5025 or 5087 filler metals. These filler metals contain zirconium and scandium additions, respectively, and were expected to influence nucleation and growth behavior. Both as-welded and welded/heat treated (540°C and 300°C) substrates were tested by melting simulation, resulting in dendritic and EQZ structures depending on composition and substrate condition. Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM(TM)) was employed to study the crystallographic character of the microstructures produced and to verify the mechanism responsible for EQZ formation. OIM(TM) proved that grains within the EQZ have random orientation. In all other cases, where the simulated microstructures were dendritic in nature, it was shown that epitaxy was the dominant mode of nucleation. The lack of any preferred crystallographic orientation relationship in the EQZ supports a theory proposed by Lippold et al that the EQZ is the result of heterogeneous nucleation within the weld unmixed zone. EDS analysis of the 2195 on STEM revealed particles with ternary composition consisted of Zr, Cu and Al and a tetragonal type crystallographic lattice. Microdiffraction line scans on EQZ grains in the alloy 2195 showed very good agreement between the measured Cu

  14. Alkaline corrosion properties of laser-clad aluminum/titanium coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Herbreteau, Alexis; Rombouts, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the use of titanium as a protecting element for aluminum in alkaline conditions. Design/methodology/approach - Aluminum coatings containing up to 20 weight per cent Ti6Al4V were produced using laser cladding and were investigated using light optical...... microscope, scanning electron microscope - energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction, together with alkaline exposure tests and potentiodynamic measurements at pH 13.5. Findings - Cladding resulted in a heterogeneous solidification microstructure containing an aluminum matrix...... with supersaturated titanium ( (1 weight per cent), Al3Ti intermetallics and large partially undissolved Ti6Al4V particles. Heat treatment lowered the titanium concentration in the aluminum matrix, changed the shape of the Al3Ti precipitates and increased the degree of dissolution of the Ti6Al4V particles. Corrosion...

  15. CO{sub 2} laser coating of nanodiamond on aluminum using an annular beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Rodger; Molian, Pal, E-mail: molian@iastate.edu

    2014-01-01

    Laser coating of nanodiamond (ND) on aluminum alloy A319 substrate was investigated using a diffraction-free ring beam. A 1000 W continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser in the ring beam configuration heated the 25–35 μm thick electrostatically sprayed ND powder layers on aluminum surface, melted a very thin layer (10 μm) of aluminum in a controlled fashion and caused phase transition of ND to form 50–60 μm thick ND/diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. Significant improvements in friction, wear resistance and surface finish were observed in the ring beam method over the traditional Gaussian beam method suggesting that these thick (50–60 μm) ND/DLC laser coatings can outperform the currently used thin (<4 μm) chemically vapor deposited DLC coatings for aluminum parts in automobiles.

  16. CO2 laser coating of nanodiamond on aluminum using an annular beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Rodger; Molian, Pal

    2014-01-01

    Laser coating of nanodiamond (ND) on aluminum alloy A319 substrate was investigated using a diffraction-free ring beam. A 1000 W continuous wave CO 2 laser in the ring beam configuration heated the 25–35 μm thick electrostatically sprayed ND powder layers on aluminum surface, melted a very thin layer (10 μm) of aluminum in a controlled fashion and caused phase transition of ND to form 50–60 μm thick ND/diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. Significant improvements in friction, wear resistance and surface finish were observed in the ring beam method over the traditional Gaussian beam method suggesting that these thick (50–60 μm) ND/DLC laser coatings can outperform the currently used thin (<4 μm) chemically vapor deposited DLC coatings for aluminum parts in automobiles.

  17. The preparation of lithium aluminate by the hydrolysis of lithium and aluminum alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Clatworthy, B.C.; Gin, A.Y.H.

    1987-10-01

    Lithium aluminate was prepared by heating the hydrolysis products from various combinations of lithium and aluminum alkoxides under an atmosphere of nitrogen. The product was β-LiA1O 2 when aluminum iso-propoxide was a starting material, whereas γ-LiA1O 2 was the product for preparations starting with aluminum n-butoxide. The results were independent of the choice of lithium alkoxide. The hydrolysis of aluminum sec-butoxide with a solution of LiOH led to the γ phase as well. The temperature at which the γ phase developed depended upon the conditions of the hydrolysis reaction and was observed at a temperature as low as 550 degrees Celcius

  18. Bile Acid Malabsorption After Pelvic and Prostate Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: An Uncommon but Treatable Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Victoria [Academic Urology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Benton, Barbara [Gastroenterology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Sohaib, Aslam [Department of Radiology, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Dearnaley, David [Academic Urology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Andreyev, H. Jervoise N., E-mail: j@andreyev.demon.co.uk [Gastroenterology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a significant therapeutic advance in prostate cancer, allowing increased tumor dose delivery and increased sparing of normal tissues. IMRT planning uses strict dose constraints to nearby organs to limit toxicity. Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is a treatable disorder of the terminal ileum (TI) that presents with symptoms similar to radiation therapy toxicity. It has not been described in patients receiving RT for prostate cancer in the contemporary era. We describe new-onset BAM in men after IMRT for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Diagnosis of new-onset BAM was established after typical symptoms developed, selenium-75 homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) scanning showed 7-day retention of <15%, and patients' symptoms unequivocally responded to a bile acid sequestrant. The TI was identified on the original radiation therapy plan, and the radiation dose delivered was calculated and compared with accepted dose-volume constraints. Results: Five of 423 men treated in a prospective series of high-dose prostate and pelvic IMRT were identified with new onset BAM (median age, 65 years old). All reported having normal bowel habits before RT. The volume of TI ranged from 26-141 cc. The radiation dose received by the TI varied between 11.4 Gy and 62.1 Gy (uncorrected). Three of 5 patients had TI treated in excess of 45 Gy (equivalent dose calculated in 2-Gy fractions, using an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3) with volumes ranging from 1.6 cc-49.0 cc. One patient had mild BAM (SeHCAT retention, 10%-15%), 2 had moderate BAM (SeHCAT retention, 5%-10%), and 2 had severe BAM (SeHCAT retention, <5%). The 3 patients whose TI received {>=}45 Gy developed moderate to severe BAM, whereas those whose TI received <45 Gy had only mild to moderate BAM. Conclusions: Radiation delivered to the TI during IMRT may cause BAM. Identification of the TI from unenhanced RT planning computed tomography scans is difficult and may impede

  19. Corrosion protected reversing heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawierucha, R.

    1984-01-01

    A reversing heat exchanger of the plate and fin type having multiple aluminum parting sheets in a stacked arrangement with corrugated fins separating the sheets to form multiple flow paths, means for closing the ends of the sheets, an input manifold arrangement of headers for the warm end of of the exchanger and an output manifold arrangement for the cold end of the exchanger with the input air feed stream header and the waste gas exhaust header having an alloy of zinc and aluminum coated on the inside surface for providing corrosion protection to the stack

  20. Reaction of unirradiated high-density fuel with aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Meyer, M.K.; Prokofiev, I.G.; Keiser, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    Excellent dispersion fuel performance requires that fuel particles remain stable and do not react significantly with the surrounding aluminum matrix. A series of high-density fuels, which contain uranium densities >12 g/cm 3 , have been fabricated into plates. As part of standard processing, all of these fuels were subjected to a blister anneal of 1 h at 485 deg. C. Changes in plate thickness were measured and evaluated. From these results, suppositions about the probable irradiation properties of these fuels have been proposed. In addition, two fuels, U-10 wt% Mo and U 2 Mo, were subjected to various heat treatments and were found to be very stable in an aluminum matrix. On the basis of the experimental data, hypotheses of the irradiation behavior of these fuels are presented. (author)

  1. Effect of Tritium on Cracking Threshold in 7075 Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Morgan, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-02-28

    The effect of long-term exposure to tritium gas on the cracking threshold (KTH) of 7075 Aluminum Alloy was investigated. The alloy is the material of construction for a cell used to contain tritium in an accelerator at Jefferson Laboratory designed for inelastic scattering experiments on nucleons. The primary safety concerns for the Jefferson Laboratory tritium cell is a tritium leak due to mechanical failure of windows from hydrogen isotope embrittlement, radiation damage, or loss of target integrity from accidental excessive beam heating due to failure of the raster or grossly mis-steered beam. Experiments were conducted to investigate the potential for embrittlement of the 7075 Aluminum alloy from tritium gas.

  2. Core–Shell Electrospun Hollow Aluminum Oxide Ceramic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Rajala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, core–shell electrospinning was employed as a simple method for the fabrication of composite coaxial polymer fibers that became hollow ceramic tubes when calcined at high temperature. The shell polymer solution consisted of polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP in ethanol mixed with an aluminum acetate solution to act as a ceramic precursor. The core polymer was recycled polystyrene to act as a sacrificial polymer that burned off during calcination. The resulting fibers were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS to confirm the presence of gamma-phase aluminum oxide when heated at temperatures above 700 °C. The fiber diameter decreased from 987 ± 19 nm to 382 ± 152 nm after the calcination process due to the polymer material being burned off. The wall thickness of these fibers is estimated to be 100 nm.

  3. Current and Future Uses of Aluminum in the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, R. S.; Boettcher, E.; Crawford, D.

    2017-12-01

    Aluminum use is growing in automotive closures and body in white applications to improve vehicle performance and fuel economy. The auto industry is looking for higher-strength aluminum materials needed for strength-driven safety-critical parts. Through cooperation with industrial partners and support from the Department of Energy (DOE), multiple experimental 7xxx alloys were developed for automotive applications. The objective is to enable complex shapes to be formed at temperatures below 225°C. A demonstration part has been developed that is representative of the forming challenges within a current hot-stamped door ring component. This part tooling has been built and installed into a press line which includes blank heating and robotic transfer. Forming trials of these alloys are currently underway and the formability, strength and corrosion performance of these materials are being evaluated.

  4. CALCIUM CARBIDE: AN EFFICIENT ALTERNATIVE TO THE USE OF ALUMINUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Carlos Pinheiro Cardoso Filho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The steel demand for fine applications have increased considerably in the last years, and the criteria for its production are even stricter, mainly in relation to the residual elements content and cleanness required. In relation to the steel cleanness, the main problem faced is the control of the amount and morphology of alumina inclusions, generated in the steel deoxidation with aluminum. Besides harming the products quality, the presence of non metallic inclusions can originate nozzle clogging, and consequently interruptions in the process flux. Aiming to improve the steel cleanness and to minimize nozzle clogging, this study is developed to evaluate the partial substitution of aluminum by calcium carbide in the steel deoxidation. Along the operational procedures, the calcium carbide was applied to 397 heats, through what the improvement in steel cleanness is confirmed, with consequent reduction in the nozzle clogging occurrence.

  5. Development of guidance for preparing treatability variance petitions from the RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions for DOE [Department of Energy] mixed-waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, T.; Scheuer, N.; Martin, R.; Van Epp, T.; Triplett, M.

    1990-01-01

    In response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) anticipated need for variances from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment requirements, a treatability variance guidance document is being prepared for use by DOE facilities and operations offices. The guidance document, although applicable to non-mixed hazardous waste streams, provides specific guidance regarding radioactive mixed-waste streams. Preparation of the guidance manual has involved developing an overview of the Land Disposal Restrictions, as well as an overview of the petition preparation process. The DOE internal review requirements are specifically addressed in the manual. Specific data requirements and engineering analyses are also described. A discussion of EPA's criteria for granting a treatability variance is also provided. A checklist for completeness of the petition is provided. Model language for use in DOE treatability variance petitions will be provided in a petition for a DOE waste stream as an appendix to the document

  6. Fabrication of Aluminum Tubes Filled with Aluminum Alloy Foam by Friction Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Hangai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum foam is usually used as the core of composite materials by combining it with dense materials, such as in Al foam core sandwich panels and Al-foam-filled tubes, owing to its low tensile and bending strengths. In this study, all-Al foam-filled tubes consisting of ADC12 Al-Si-Cu die-cast aluminum alloy foam and a dense A1050 commercially pure Al tube with metal bonding were fabricated by friction welding. First, it was found that the ADC12 precursor was firmly bonded throughout the inner wall of the A1050 tube without a gap between the precursor and the tube by friction welding. No deformation of the tube or foaming of the precursor was observed during the friction welding. Next, it was shown that by heat treatment of an ADC12-precursor-bonded A1050 tube, gases generated by the decomposition of the blowing agent expand the softened ADC12 to produce the ADC12 foam interior of the dense A1050 tube. A holding time during the foaming process of approximately tH = 8.5 min with a holding temperature of 948 K was found to be suitable for obtaining a sound ADC12-foam-filled A1050 tube with sufficient foaming, almost uniform pore structures over the entire specimen, and no deformation or reduction in the thickness of the tube.

  7. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  8. Sampling and analysis plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study, and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that impact ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of media testing. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetlands. This plan will be implemented as part of the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Best Management Practices Plan and in conjunction with the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Health and Safety Plan and the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Waste Management Plan

  9. Evaluation of fall chinook salmon spawning adjacent to the In-Situ Redox Manipulation treatability test site, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.P.; Geist, D.R.

    1998-10-01

    The In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) experiment is being evaluated as a potential method to remove contaminants from groundwater adjacent to the Columbia River near the 100-D Area. The ISRM experiment involves using sodium dithionate (Na 2 O 6 S 2 ) to precipitate chromate from the groundwater. The treatment will likely create anoxic conditions in the groundwater down-gradient of the ISRM treatability test site; however, the spatial extent of this anoxic plume is not exactly known. Surveys were conducted in November 1997, following the peak spawning of fall chinook salmon. Aerial surveys documented 210 redds (spawning nests) near the downstream island in locations consistent with previous surveys. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented fall chinook spawning in the vicinity of the ISRM treatability test site. Based on measurements of depth, velocity, and substrate, less than 1% of the study area contained suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat, indicating low potential for fall chinook salmon to spawn in the vicinity of the ISRM experiment

  10. Taking Stock and Taking Steps: The Case for an Adolescent Version of the Short-Assessment of Risk and Treatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Jodi L; Cruise, Keith R; Nicholls, Tonia L; Desmarais, Sarah L; Webster, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The field of violence risk assessment has matured considerably, possibly advancing beyond its own adolescence. At this point in the field's evolution, it is more important than ever for the development of any new device to be accompanied by a strong rationale and the capacity to provide a unique contribution. With this issue in mind, we first take stock of the field of adolescent risk assessment in order to describe the rapid progress that this field has made, as well as the gaps that led us to adapt the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START; Webster, Martin, Brink, Nicholls, & Desmarais, 2009) for use with adolescents. We view the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV; Nicholls, Viljoen, Cruise, Desmarais, & Webster, 2010; Viljoen, Cruise, Nicholls, Desmarais, & Webster, in progress) as complementing other risk measures in four primary ways: 1) rather than focusing solely on violence risk, it examines broader adverse outcomes to which some adolescents are vulnerable (including self-harm, suicide, victimization, substance abuse, unauthorized leave, self-neglect, general offending); 2) it places a balanced emphasis on adolescents' strengths; 3) it focuses on dynamic factors that are relevant to short-term assessment, risk management, and treatment planning; and 4) it is designed for both mental health and justice populations. We describe the developmentally-informed approach we took in the adaptation of the START for adolescents, and outline future steps for the continuing validation and refinement of the START:AV.

  11. Preparation of three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foam by two-step foaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, J.T.; Xuming, Chu; Deping, He

    2008-01-01

    A novel method, named two-step foaming, was investigated to prepare three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foam used in car industry, spaceflight, packaging and related areas. Calculations of thermal decomposition kinetics of titanium hydride showed that there is a considerable amount of hydrogen releasing when the titanium hydride is heated at a relatively high temperature after heated at a lower temperature. The hydrogen mass to sustain aluminum alloy foam, having a high porosity, was also estimated by calculations. Calculations indicated that as-received titanium hydride without any pre-treatment can be used as foaming agents in two-step foaming. The processes of two-step foaming, including preparing precursors and baking, were also studied by experiments. Results showed that, low titanium hydride dispersion temperature, long titanium hydride dispersion time and low precursors porosity are beneficial to prepare three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foams with uniform pores

  12. Report of the advanced neutron source (ANS) aluminum cladding corrosion workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.H.; Gibson, G.W.; Griess, J.C.; Pawel, R.E.; Pace, N.E.; Ryskamp, J.M.

    1989-02-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Corrosion Workshop on aluminum cladding corrosion in reactor environments is summarized. The Workshop was held to examine the aluminum cladding oxidation studies being conducted in support of the ANS design. This report was written principally to provide a record of the ideas and judgments expressed by the workshop attendees. The ANS operating heat flux is significantly higher than that in existing reactors, and early experiments indicate that there may be an aluminum cladding oxidation problem unique to higher heat fluxes or associated cladding temperatures that, if not solved, may limit the operation of the ANS to unacceptably low power levels. A brief description of the information presented by each speaker is included along with a compilation of the most significant ideas and recommended research areas. The appendixes contain a copy of the workshop agenda and a list of attendees

  13. Aluminum precipitation from Hanford DSSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgen, D.; Frazier, P.; Staton, G.

    1994-01-01

    A series of pilot scale tests using simulated Double Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) showed that well-settled aluminum precipitate can be produced in Hanford double shell tank (DST) high level waste by slow neutralization with carbon dioxide. This pretreatment could provide an early grout feed and free tank space, as well as facilitate downstream processes such as ion exchange by providing a less caustic feed. A total of eight test runs were completed using a 10-ft tall 3-in i.d. glass column. The 10-ft height corresponds to about one third of the vertical height of a DST, hence providing a reasonable basis for extrapolating the observed precipitate settling and compaction to the actual waste tank environment. Four runs (three with a simplified simulant and one with a chemically complete simulant) produced well settled precipitates averaging 1.5 to 2 feet high. Aluminum gel rather than settled precipitate resulted from one test where neutralization was too rapid

  14. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  15. Heat pipes as perspective base elements of heat recovery in heat supply and ventilating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes are considered as high-efficient heat-transfer devices, which can provide energy-saving technologies for heat supply and ventilating systems and for different branches of industry. Thermotechnical and working (”performance capability” characteristics of heat pipes are investigated. By ”performance capability” of heat pipes and heat-transfer devices on heat pipes we mean the system state, where it can perform set functions and keep parameter values (thermal power, conductivity, thermal resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc. within the regulations of standardized specifications. The article presents theoretical and experimental methods of «gaslock» length determination on noncondensable gases during long-lasting tests of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum shape АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (alloy АD – 31. The paper gives results of research of thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes in horizontal and vertical states (separate and as a set part while using different systems of thermal insulation. The obtained results of thermotechnical and resource tests show the advantages of ammonia heat pipes as basic elements for heat exchanger design in heating and ventilation systems.

  16. Predicting treatable traits for long-acting bronchodilators in patients with stable COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang J

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jieun Kang,1,* Ki Tae Kim,2,* Ji-Hyun Lee,3 Eun Kyung Kim,3 Tae-Hyung Kim,4 Kwang Ha Yoo,5 Jae Seung Lee,1 Woo Jin Kim,6 Ju Han Kim,2 Yeon-Mok Oh1 1Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Seoul National University Biomedical Informatics and Systems Biomedical Informatics Research Center, Division of Biomedical Informatics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Internal Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, 4Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, 6Department of Internal Medicine and Environmental Health Center, Kangwon National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: There is currently no measure to predict a treatability of long-acting β-2 agonist (LABA or long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We aimed to build prediction models for the treatment response to these bronchodilators, in order to determine the most responsive medication for patients with COPD.Methods: We performed a prospective open-label crossover study, in which each long-acting bronchodilator was given in a random order to 65 patients with stable COPD for 4 weeks, with a 4-week washout period in between. We analyzed 14 baseline clinical traits, expression profiles of 31,426 gene transcripts, and damaged-gene scores of 6,464 genes acquired from leukocytes. The gene expression profiles were measured by RNA microarray and the damaged-gene scores were obtained after DNA exome sequencing. Linear regression analyses were performed to build prediction models after using

  17. Method of thermally processing superplastically formed aluminum-lithium alloys to obtain optimum strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Claire E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Optimum strengthening of a superplastically formed aluminum-lithium alloy structure is achieved via a thermal processing technique which eliminates the conventional step of solution heat-treating immediately following the step of superplastic forming of the structure. The thermal processing technique involves quenching of the superplastically formed structure using static air, forced air or water quenching.

  18. Low alloy additions of iron, silicon, and aluminum to uranium: a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the literature has been made on the experimental results of small additions of iron, silicon, and aluminum to uranium. Information is also included on the constitution, mechanical properties, heat treatment, and deformation of various binary and ternary alloys. 42 references, 24 figures, 13 tables

  19. Nickel-aluminum diffusion: A study of evolution of microstructure and phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein; Kjartansdóttir, Cecilía Kristín; Burrows, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Microstructural and phase evolution of an aluminum deposit on nickel, after heat treatment at 883 K, is studied by means of various microscopy techniques, i.e. energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, backscattered electron imaging, electron backscatter diffraction, ion channeling contrast imaging...

  20. Technique for in-place welding of aluminum backed up by a combustible material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, A. C.

    1971-01-01

    Welding external aluminum jacket, tightly wrapped around inner layer of wood composition fiberboard, in oxygen free environment prevents combustion and subsequent damage to underlying fiberboard. Technique also applies to metal cutting in similar assemblies without disassembly to remove combustible materials from welding heat proximity.

  1. Investigation of the system aluminum soap-hydrocarbon by the dielectric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozovaya, V.I.; Dagaev, V.A.; Mankovskaya, N.K.

    The plots of the dielectric parameters (epsilon, tg delta) vs. temperature, obtained during heating of aluminum disoap suspensions in organic solvents, show 2 maxima. The first is associated with the gelation process in the system, and the second with the transition of the colloidal solution into a true one. (11 refs.)

  2. On the plastic collapse stress of open-cell aluminum foam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, E.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Onck, P. R.

    Duocel open-cell aluminum foam (20 PPI) was tested with the long axis of the cells oriented longitudinal or transverse to the loading direction, and for both orientations the samples were both annealed and heat treated. Using the extrapolated stiffness at zero per cent strain, the strain-hardening

  3. Effects of Be, Sr, Fe and Mg interactions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum based aeronautical alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Fawzy

    The present work was carried out on a series of heat-treatable aluminum-based aeronautical alloys containing various amounts of magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), strontium (Sr) and beryllium (Be). Tensile test bars (dendrite arm spacing ~ 24mum) were solutionized for either 5 or 12 hours at 540°C, followed by quenching in warm water (60°C). Subsequently, these quenched samples were aged at 160°C for times up to 12 hours. Microstructural assessment was performed. All heat-treated samples were pulled to fracture at room temperature using a servo-hydraulic tensile testing machine. The results show that Be causes partial modification of the eutectic silicon (Si) particles similar to that reported for Mg addition. Addition of 0.8 wt.% Mg reduced the eutectic temperature by ~10°C. During solidification of alloys containing high levels of Fe and Mg, without Sr, a peak corresponding to the formation of a Be-Fe phase (Al8Fe2BeSi) was detected at 611°C. The Be-Fe phase precipitates in a script-like morphology. A new quinary eutectic-like reaction was observed to take place near the end of solidification of high Mg, high Fe, Be-containing alloys. This new reaction is composed mainly of fine particles of Si, Mg2Si, pi-Al 8Mg3FeSi6 and (Be-Fe) phases. The volume fraction of this reaction decreased with the addition of Sr. The addition of Be has a noticeable effect on decreasing the beta-phase length, or volume fraction, this effect may be limited by adding Sr. Beryllium addition also results in the precipitation of the beta-phase in a nodular form, which reduces the harmful effects of these intermetallics on the alloy mechanical properties. Increasing both Mg and Fe levels led to an increase in the amount of the pi-phase; increasing the iron content led to an increase in the volume fraction of the partially soluble beta- and pi-phases, while Mg2Si particles were completely dissolved. The beta-phase platelets were observed to undergo changes in their morphology due to the

  4. Springback of aluminum alloy brazing sheet in warm forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu Bin; George, Ryan; Kurukuri, Srihari; Worswick, Michael J.; Winkler, Sooky

    2017-10-01

    The use of aluminum is increasing in the automotive industry due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, recyclability and corrosion resistance. However, aluminum is prone to significant springback due to its low elastic modulus coupled with its high strength. In this paper, a warm forming process is studied to improve the springback characteristics of 0.2 mm thick brazing sheet with an AA3003 core and AA4045 clad. Warm forming decreases springback by lowering the flow stress. The parts formed have complex features and geometries that are representative of automotive heat exchangers. The key objective is to utilize warm forming to control the springback to improve the part flatness which enables the use of harder temper material with improved strength. The experiments are performed by using heated dies at several different temperatures up to 350 °C and the blanks are pre-heated in the dies. The measured springback showed a reduction in curvature and improved flatness after forming at higher temperatures, particularly for the harder temper material conditions.

  5. Dependence of size and size distribution on reactivity of aluminum nanoparticles in reactions with oxygen and MoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Juan; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Simon, Sindee L.

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation reaction of aluminum nanoparticles with oxygen gas and the thermal behavior of a metastable intermolecular composite (MIC) composed of the aluminum nanoparticles and molybdenum trioxide are studied with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as a function of the size and size distribution of the aluminum particles. Both broad and narrow size distributions have been investigated with aluminum particle sizes ranging from 30 to 160 nm; comparisons are also made to the behavior of micrometer-size particles. Several parameters have been used to characterize the reactivity of aluminum nanoparticles, including the fraction of aluminum that reacts prior to aluminum melting, heat of reaction, onset and peak temperatures, and maximum reaction rates. The results indicate that the reactivity of aluminum nanoparticles is significantly higher than that of the micrometer-size samples, but depending on the measure of reactivity, it may also depend strongly on the size distribution. The isoconversional method was used to calculate the apparent activation energy, and the values obtained for both the Al/O 2 and Al/MoO 3 reaction are in the range of 200-300 kJ/mol

  6. Plasma-based water treatment: development of a general mechanistic model to estimate the treatability of different types of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mededovic Thagard, Selma; Stratton, Gunnar R; Paek, Eunsu; Dai, Fei; Holsen, Thomas M; Bellona, Christopher L; Bohl, Douglas G; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2017-01-01

    To determine the types of applications for which plasma-based water treatment (PWT) is best suited, the treatability of 23 environmental contaminants was assessed through treatment in a gas discharge reactor with argon bubbling, termed the enhanced-contact reactor. The contaminants were treated in a mixture to normalize reaction conditions and convective transport limitations. Treatability was compared in terms of the observed removal rate constant ( k obs ). To characterize the influence of interfacial processes on k obs , a model was developed that accurately predicts k obs for each compound, as well as the contributions to k obs from each of the three general degradation mechanisms thought to occur at or near the gas–liquid interface: ‘sub-surface’, ‘surface’ and ‘above-surface’. Sub-surface reactions occur just underneath the gas–liquid interface between the contaminants and dissolved plasma-generated radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of compounds that lack surfactant-like properties and so are not highly concentrated at the interface. Surface reactions occur at the interface between the contaminants and dissolved radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of surfactant-like compounds that have high interfacial concentrations. The contaminants’ interfacial concentrations were calculated using surface-activity parameters determined through surface tension measurements. Above-surface reactions are proposed to take place in the plasma interior between highly energetic plasma species and exposed portions of compounds that extend out of the interface. This mechanism largely accounts for the degradation of surfactant-like contaminants that contain highly hydrophobic perfluorocarbon groups, which are most likely to protrude from the interface. For a few compounds, the degree of exposure to the plasma interior was supported by new and previously reported molecular dynamics simulations results. By reviewing the predicted

  7. Plasma-based water treatment: development of a general mechanistic model to estimate the treatability of different types of contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mededovic Thagard, Selma; Stratton, Gunnar R.; Dai, Fei; Bellona, Christopher L.; Holsen, Thomas M.; Bohl, Douglas G.; Paek, Eunsu; Dickenson, Eric R. V.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the types of applications for which plasma-based water treatment (PWT) is best suited, the treatability of 23 environmental contaminants was assessed through treatment in a gas discharge reactor with argon bubbling, termed the enhanced-contact reactor. The contaminants were treated in a mixture to normalize reaction conditions and convective transport limitations. Treatability was compared in terms of the observed removal rate constant (k obs). To characterize the influence of interfacial processes on k obs, a model was developed that accurately predicts k obs for each compound, as well as the contributions to k obs from each of the three general degradation mechanisms thought to occur at or near the gas-liquid interface: ‘sub-surface’, ‘surface’ and ‘above-surface’. Sub-surface reactions occur just underneath the gas-liquid interface between the contaminants and dissolved plasma-generated radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of compounds that lack surfactant-like properties and so are not highly concentrated at the interface. Surface reactions occur at the interface between the contaminants and dissolved radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of surfactant-like compounds that have high interfacial concentrations. The contaminants’ interfacial concentrations were calculated using surface-activity parameters determined through surface tension measurements. Above-surface reactions are proposed to take place in the plasma interior between highly energetic plasma species and exposed portions of compounds that extend out of the interface. This mechanism largely accounts for the degradation of surfactant-like contaminants that contain highly hydrophobic perfluorocarbon groups, which are most likely to protrude from the interface. For a few compounds, the degree of exposure to the plasma interior was supported by new and previously reported molecular dynamics simulations results. By reviewing the predicted

  8. Torsion Property of the Structure Bonded Aluminum Foam Due to Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang G.W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An aluminum foam added with foaming agent, is classified into an open-cell type for heat transfer and a closed-cell type for shock absorption. This study investigates the characteristic on the torsion of aluminum foam for a closed-cell type under impact. The fracture characteristics are investigated through the composite of five types of aluminum foam (the thicknesses of 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 mm, when applying the torsional moment of impact energy on the junction of a porous structure attached by an adhesive. When applying the impact energy of 100, 200 and 300J, the aluminum foams with thicknesses of 25 mm and 35 mm broke off under all conditions. For the energy over 200J, aluminums thicker than 55 mm continued to be attached. Furthermore, the aluminum specimens with thicknesses of 55 mm and 65 mm that were attached with more than 30% of bonding interface remained, proving that they could maintain bonding interface against impact energy. By comparing the data based on the analysis and test result, an increase in the thickness of specimen leads to the plastic deformation as the stress at the top and bottom of bonding interface moves to the middle by spreading the stress horizontally. Based on this fracture characteristic, this study can provide the data on the destruction and separation of bonding interface and may contribute to the safety design.

  9. Aluminum metal combustion in water revealed by high-speed microphotography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, William C.; Frank, Alan M.; Clements, Rochelle E.; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    1991-01-01

    In high explosives designed for air blast cratering fragmentation and underwater applications metallic additives chemically react with the oxidizer and are used to tailor the rate of energy delivery by the expansion medium. Although the specific mechanism for sustained metal combustion in the dense detonation medium remains in question it is generally accepted that the fragmentation of the molten particle and disruption of its oxide layer are a necessity. In this study we use high speed microphotography to examine the ignition and combustion of small 25-76 jim diameter and 23 mm long aluminum wires rapidly heated by a capacitor discharge system in water. Streak and framing photographs detailing the combustion phenomenon and the fragmentation of the molten aluminum were obtained over periods of 100 nsec - 100 j. tsec with a spatial resolution of 2 . im. The wire temperature was determined as a function of time by integrating the circuit equation together with the energy equation for an adiabatic wire and incorporating known aluminum electrical resistivity and temperature functions of energy density in the integration. In order for the aluminum to sustain a rapid chemical reaction with the water we found that the wire temperature has to be raised above the melting temperature of aluminum oxide. The triggering mechanism for this rapid reaction appears to be the fragmentation of the molten aluminum from the collapse of a vapor blanket about

  10. Treatability study work plan for in situ vitrification of seepage pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1994-07-01

    A treatability study is described that encompasses the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage pit 1 by the end of fiscal year 1995. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlapping melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused melt segments; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of 137 Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. The initial step of this treatability study will be to gather the required site characterization data about pit 1 so that the in situ vitrification can be effectively and safely planned. The second phase will be the field ISV operations at pit 1 employing at least two settings to achieve overlapping and fused melts. Such field operations are likely to require 6 to 8 weeks. Following termination of ISV melting operations at pit 1 and demobilization of portable ISV equipment and the off-gas hood, posttest characterization activities will begin

  11. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FULL SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR FIELD TRIAL: PHASE I, VERIFICATION TRIAL BURN ON DIOXIN/HERBICIDE ORANGE CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This treatability study reports on the results of one of a series of field trials using various remedial action technologies that may be capable of restoring Herbicide Orange (HO)XDioxin contaminated sites. A full-scale field trial using a rotary kiln incinerator capable of pro...

  12. Risk score for identifying adults with CSF pleocytosis and negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasbun, Rodrigo; Bijlsma, Merijn; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Khoury, Nabil; Hadi, Christiane M.; van der Ende, Arie; Wootton, Susan H.; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hossain, Md Monir; Beilke, Mark; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to derive and validate a risk score that identifies adults with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause. Patients with CSF pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain were stratified into a prospective derivation (n = 193)

  13. Thermoelectrical power analysis of precipitation in 6013 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdala, M.R.W.S.; Garcia de Blas, J.C.; Barbosa, C.; Acselrad, O.

    2008-01-01

    The 6013 aluminum alloy was first developed for application in the aircraft industry and, more recently, as a replacement option for the use of the 6061 alloy in the automotive industry. The present work describes the evolution of the process of formation and dissolution of different kinds of precipitates in 6013 aluminum alloy, subjected to different conditions of heat treatment, using for this purpose measurements of thermoelectrical power, Vickers microhardness and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Although in the last years many works have been published on the use of thermoelectrical power (TEP) measurements for the analysis of precipitation process in traditional alloys such as 6061, there is still little information related to 6013 alloy. The results obtained are compared with a previous characterization work on the same alloy using transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that TEP measurements are very sensitive to precipitation phenomena in this alloy, and it has been found that there is an inverse relation between TEP and Vickers microhardness values, which allowed proposing a precipitation sequence for 6013 aluminum alloy

  14. New electrolytes for aluminum production: Ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Kamavarum, Venkat; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-11-01

    In this article, the reduction, refining/recycling, and electroplating of aluminum from room-temperature molten salts are reviewed. In addition, the characteristics of several non-conventional organic solvents, electrolytes, and molten salts are evaluated, and the applicability of these melts for production of aluminum is discussed with special attention to ionic liquids. Also reviewed are electrochemical processes and conditions for electrodeposition of aluminum using ionic liquids at near room temperatures.

  15. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  16. An all aluminum alloy UHV components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Kenzaburo

    1985-01-01

    An all aluminum components was developed for use with UHV system. Aluminum alloy whose advantage are little discharge gas, easy to bake out, light weight, little damage against radieactivity radiation is used. Therefore, as it is all aluminum alloy, baking is possible. Baking temperature is 150 deg C in case of not only ion pump, gate valve, angle valve but also aluminum components. Ion pump have to an ultrahigh vacuum of order 10 -9 torr can be obtained without baking, 10 -10 torr order can be obtained after 24 hour of baking. (author)

  17. Gut: An underestimated target organ for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignal, C; Desreumaux, P; Body-Malapel, M

    2016-06-01

    Since World War II, several factors such as an impressive industrial growth, an enhanced environmental bioavailability and intensified food consumption have contributed to a significant amplification of human exposure to aluminum. Aluminum is particularly present in food, beverages, some drugs and airbone dust. In our food, aluminum is superimposed via additives and cooking utensils. Therefore, the tolerable intake of aluminum is exceeded for a significant part of the world population, especially in children who are more vulnerable to toxic effects of pollutants than adults. Faced with this oral aluminum influx, intestinal tract is an essential barrier, especially as 38% of ingested aluminum accumulates at the intestinal mucosa. Although still poorly documented to date, the impact of oral exposure to aluminum in conditions relevant to real human exposure appears to be deleterious for gut homeostasis. Aluminum ingestion affects the regulation of the permeability, the microflora and the immune function of intestine. Nowadays, several arguments are consistent with an involvement of aluminum as an environmental risk factor for inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigating aluminum alloy reinforced by graphene nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.J., E-mail: shaojiuyan@126.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, S.L.; Zhang, X.Y.; Yang, C.; Hong, Q.H.; Chen, J.Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Lin, Z.M. [Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2014-08-26

    As one of the most important engineering materials, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in many fields. However, the requirement of enhancing their mechanical properties without sacrificing the ductility is always a challenge in the development of aluminum alloys. Thanks to the excellent physical and mechanical properties, graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) have been applied as promising reinforcing elements in various engineering materials, including polymers and ceramics. However, the investigation of GNFs as reinforcement phase in metals or alloys, especially in aluminum alloys, is still very limited. In this study, the aluminum alloy reinforced by GNFs was successfully prepared via powder metallurgy approach. The GNFs were mixed with aluminum alloy powders through ball milling and followed by hot isostatic pressing. The green body was then hot extruded to obtain the final GNFs reinforced aluminum alloy nanocomposite. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis show that GNFs were well dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix and no chemical reactions were observed at the interfaces between the GNFs and aluminum alloy matrix. The mechanical properties' testing results show that with increasing filling content of GNFs, both tensile and yield strengths were remarkably increased without losing the ductility performance. These results not only provided a pathway to achieve the goal of preparing high strength aluminum alloys with excellent ductilitybut they also shed light on the development of other metal alloys reinforced by GNFs.

  19. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  20. 40 CFR 180.1091 - Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1091 Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Aluminum isopropoxide (CAS Reg. No. 555...

  1. Effect of zirconium addition on welding of aluminum grain refined by titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum and its alloys solidify in large grains columnar structure which tends to reduce their mechanical behaviour and surface quality. Therefore, they are industrially grain refined by titanium or titanium + boron. Furthermore, aluminum oxidizes in ordinary atmosphere which makes its weldability difficult and weak. Therefore, it is anticipated that the effect of addition of zirconium at a weight percentages of 0.1% (which proved to be an effective grain refiner on the weldability of aluminum grain refined by Ti) is worthwhile investigating. This formed the objective of this research work. In this paper, the effect of zirconium addition at a weight percentage of 0.1%, which corresponds to the peritctic limit on the aluminum-zirconium phase diagram, on the weldability of aluminum grain refined by Ti is investigated. Rolled sheets of commercially pure aluminum, Al grain refined Ti of 3 mm thickness were welded together using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding method (GTAW), formerly known as TIG. A constant air gap was maintained at a constant current level, 30 ampere AC, was used because it removes the oxides of the welding process under the same process parameters. Metallographic examination of weldments of the different combinations of aluminum and its microalloys at the heat affected zone, HAZ, and base metal was carried out and examined for width, porosity, cracks and microhardness. It was found that grain refining of commercially pure aluminum by Ti resulted in enhancement of its weldability. Similarly, addition of zirconium to Al grain refined by Ti resulted in further enhancement of the weldment. Photomicrographs of the HAZ regions are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. Using AlN-Coated Heat Sink to Improve the Heat Dissipation of LED Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ming-Der

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study optimizes aluminum nitride (AlN ceramics, in order to enhance the thermal performance of light-emitting diode (LED packages. AlN coatings are grown on copper/ aluminum substrates as a heat interface material, using an electrostatic spraying process. The effect of the deposition parameters on the coatings is determined. The thermal performance of AlN coated Cu/Al substrates is evaluated in terms of the heat dissipated and compared by measuring the LED case temperature. The structure and properties of the coating are also examined a scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In sum, the thermal performance of the LED is increased and good heat resistance characteristics are obtained. The results show that using AlN ceramic coating on a copper/aluminum substrate increases the thermal performance.

  3. Hydrogen effects in aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Dexter, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    The permeability of six commercial aluminum alloys to deuterium and tritium was determined by several techniques. Surface films inhibited permeation under most conditions; however, contact with lithium deuteride during the tests minimized the surface effects. Under these conditions phi/sub D 2 / = 1.9 x 10 -2 exp (--22,400/RT) cc (NTP)atm/sup -- 1 / 2 / s -1 cm -1 . The six alloys were also tested before, during, and after exposure to high pressure hydrogen, and no hydrogen-induced effects on the tensile properties were observed

  4. Fabrication and properties of aluminum silicate fibrous materials with in situ synthesized K2Ti6O13 whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wei, Nan; Wang, Zhou-fu; Wang, Xi-tang; Ma, Yan

    2017-11-01

    To improve their mechanical and thermal insulation properties, aluminum silicate fibrous materials with in situ synthesized K2Ti6O13 whiskers were prepared by firing a mixture of short aluminum silicate fibers and gel powders obtained from a sol-gel process. During the preparation process, the fiber surface was coated with K2Ti6O13 whiskers after the fibers were subjected to a heat treatment carried out at various temperatures. The effects of process parameters on the microstructure, compressive strength, and thermal conductivity were analyzed systematically. The results show that higher treatment temperatures and longer treatment durations promoted the development of K2Ti6O13 whiskers on the surface of aluminum silicate fibers; in addition, the intersection structure between whiskers modulated the morphology and volume of the multi-aperture structure among fibers, substantially increasing the fibers' compressive strength and reducing their heat conduction and convective heat transfer at high temperatures.

  5. Analysis of the flow property of aluminum alloy AA6016 based on the fracture morphology using the hydroforming technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lihui; Zhang, Quanda; Sun, Zhiying; Wang, Yao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the hydraulic bulging experiments were respectively carried out using AA6016-T4 aluminum alloy and AA6016-O aluminum alloy, and the deformation properties and fracture mechanism of aluminum alloy under the conditions of thermal and hydraulic were analyzed. Firstly, the aluminum alloy AA6016 was dealt with two kinds of heat treatment systems such as solid solution heat treatment adding natural ageing and full annealing, then the aluminum alloy such as AA6016-T4 and AA6016-O were obtained. In the same working environment, the two kinds of materials were used in the process of hydraulic bulging experiments, according to the observation and measurement of the deformation sizes of grid circles and material thicknesses near the fracture region, the flow properties and development trend of fracture defect of the materials were analyzed comprehensively from the perspective of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis; Secondly, the two kinds of materials were sampled in different regions of the fracture area and the microstructure morphology of the fracture was observed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The influence laws of the heat treatment systems on the fracture defect of the aluminum alloy under the condition of the liquid pressure were studied preliminarily by observing the distribution characteristics of the fracture microstructure morphology of dimple. At the same time, the experimental research on the ordinary stamping forming process of AA6016-O was carried out and the influence law of different forming process on the fracture defect of the aluminum alloy material was studied by observing the distribution of the fracture microstructure morphology; Finally, the development process of the fracture defect of aluminum alloy sheet was described theoretically from the view of the stress state.

  6. Some properties of aluminum-uranium alloys in the cast, rolled and annealed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.I.; McGee, I.J.; Norlock, L.R.

    1960-06-01

    The metallographic and hardness changes associated with the rolling and subsequent. annealing of aluminum alloys containing up to 30-wt.% uranium have been described. The alloys possessed good rolling properties. However the richer alloys were unusual in that after an initial reduction,, further cold rolling caused softening. In the alloy range examined, increasing uranium contents caused reduced preferred orientation. Qualitative explanations have been proposed to account for the observations on roll softening and preferred orientation. Heat-treating and ageing experiments confirmed that the solid solubility of uranium in aluminum is negligible. (author)

  7. Creep Analysis of Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel in Repository Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.; Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuels (Al SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors are being consolidated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These fuels are planned to be put into dry storage followed by disposal in the federal repository. Temperature conditions in storage and disposal systems due to nuclear decay heat sources will promote creep information of the fuel elements. Excessive deformation of the Al SNF will cause gross distortion (slump) of the fuels and may cause gross cladding rupture

  8. Precision heat forming of tetrafluoroethylene tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, W. V.; Thatcher, C. S. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An invention that provides a method of altering the size of tetrafluoroethylene tubing which is only available in limited combination of wall thicknesses and diameter are discussed. The method includes the steps of sliding the tetrafluoroethylene tubing onto an aluminum mandrel and clamping the ends of the tubing to the mandrel by means of clamps. The tetrafluorethylene tubing and mandrel are then placed in a supporting coil which with the mandrel and tetrafluorethylene tubing are then positioned in a insulated steel pipe which is normally covered with a fiber glass insulator to smooth out temperature distribution therein. The entire structure is then placed in an event which heats the tetrafluorethylene tubing which is then shrunk by the heat to the outer dimension of the aluminum mandrel. After cooling the aluminum mandrel is removed from the newly sized tetrafluorethylene tubing by a conventional chemical milling process.

  9. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  10. Heat pipe heat storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A; Pasquetti, R [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (FR). Inst. Universitaire des Systemes; Grakovich, L P; Vasiliev, L L [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst. of the BSSR, Academy of Sciences, Minsk (BY)

    1989-01-01

    Heat storage offers essential thermal energy saving for heating. A ground heat store equipped with heat pipes connecting it with a heat source and to the user is considered in this paper. It has been shown that such a heat exchanging system along with a batch energy source meets, to a considerable extent, house heating requirements. (author).

  11. Photothermally activated motion and ignition using aluminum nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, Jacques E.; Chong Xinyuan; Zhang Mingjun; Zhang Zhili; Jiang Naibo; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.

    2013-01-01

    The aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs) are demonstrated to serve as active photothermal media, to enhance and control local photothermal energy deposition via the photothermal effect activated by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and amplified by Al NPs oxidation. The activation source is a 2-AA-battery-powered xenon flash lamp. The extent of the photothermally activated movement of Al NPs can be ∼6 mm. Ignition delay can be ∼0.1 ms. Both scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements of motion-only and after-ignition products confirm significant Al oxidation occurs through sintering and bursting after the flash exposure. Simulations suggest local heat generation is enhanced by LSPR. The positive-feedback effects from the local heat generation amplified by Al oxidation produce a large increase in local temperature and pressure, which enhances movement and accelerates ignition.

  12. Aluminum alloy and associated anode and battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarcy, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an aluminum alloy. It comprises: eutectic amounts of at least two alloying elements selected from the group consisting of bismuth, cadmium, scandium, gallium, indium, lead, mercury, thallium, tin, and zinc with the balance being aluminum and the alloying elements being about 0.01 to 3.0 percent by weight of the alloy

  13. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    aluminum resources are accumulated in landfill sites. Understanding the sizes of primary and secondary aluminum reserves enables us to extend knowledge of efficient raw material sourcing from a narrow perspective of primary reserves alone to a broader perspective of both primary and secondary reserves...

  14. 21 CFR 172.310 - Aluminum nicotinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.310 Aluminum nicotinate. Aluminum nicotinate may be safely...

  15. Scientific Background for Processing of Aluminum Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononchuk, Olga; Alekseev, Alexey; Zubkova, Olga; Udovitsky, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Changing the source of raw materials for producing aluminum and the emergence of a huge number of secondary alumina waste (foundry slag, sludge, spent catalysts, mineral parts of coal and others that are formed in various industrial enterprises) require the creation of scientific and theoretical foundations for their processing. In this paper, the aluminum alloys (GOST 4784-97) are used as an aluminum raw material component, containing the aluminum component produced as chips in the machine-building enterprises. The aluminum waste is a whole range of metallic aluminum alloys including elements: magnesium, copper, silica, zinc and iron. Analysis of the aluminum waste A1- Zn-Cu-Si-Fe shows that depending on the content of the metal the dissolution process of an aluminum alloy should be treated as the result of the chemical interaction of the metal with an alkaline solution. It is necessary to consider the behavior of the main components of alloys in an alkaline solution as applied to the system Na2O - Al2O3 - SiO2 - CO2 - H2O.

  16. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brown, Craig W.

    2002-07-16

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  17. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  18. Aluminum extrusion with a deformable die

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assaad, W.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum extrusion process is one of metal forming processes. In aluminum extrusion, a work-piece (billet) is pressed through a die with an opening that closely resembles a desired shape of a profile. By this process, long profiles with an enormous variety of cross-sections can be produced to

  19. Effect of Silicon on Desulfurization of Aluminum-killed Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debdutta

    controlled by mass transfer in the metal and slag phase mass transfer has a minor effect on the overall desulfurization kinetics. The model results are in agreement with the experimental data for the change in sulfur, silicon and aluminum contents with time which renders credibility to the underlying hypothesis of the kinetic model. Although the change of sulfur content with time is not very sensitive to the activity data source, the change of aluminum and silicon contents with time depend on the activity data source. The experimental results demonstrate that if the silicon content in the steel is high enough, the silicon can reduce the alumina from the slag and thus the steel melt will pick up aluminum. This can cause significant savings in aluminum consumption. For most of the slag compositions used in the experiments, the overall mass transfer is only limited by the steel phase and the slag phase mass transfer can be neglected for most practical cases. Mass balance calculations in the experiments support the basis of the model and also show that with respect to aluminum consumption, silica reduction is the main aluminum consuming (or production) reaction and the desulfurization reaction is only a secondary consumer of aluminum. Results from the plant trials conducted to test the effect of silicon on ladle desulfurization show that the rate and extent of desulfurization increase with the increase of the initial Si content, so in the ladle refining process, adding all the silicon in the beginning with the aluminum and the fluxes will be beneficial and could save considerable processing time at the ladle. The aluminum consumption for the heats with silicon added in the beginning (both in terms of the Al added to the steel and as slag deoxidants) is considerably lower compared to the cases where the silicon is added at the end. However, on a relative cost term, aluminum and silicon are similarly priced so substitution would not offer a major cost advantage.

  20. Precipitation behavior of aluminum alloy 2139 fabricated using additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, Craig, E-mail: craig.a.brice@lmco.com [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Shenoy, Ravi [Northrop Grumman Corporation Technical Services, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Kral, Milo; Buchannan, Karl [University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2015-11-11

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging technology capable of producing near net shape structures in a variety of materials directly from a computer model. Standard metallic alloys that were developed for cast or wrought processing have largely been adopted for AM feedstock. In many applications, these legacy alloys are quite acceptable. In the aluminum alloy family, however, there is a significant performance gap between the casting alloys currently being used in AM processes and the high strength/toughness capability available in certain wrought alloys. The precipitation hardenable alloys, most often used in high performance structures, present challenges for processing by AM. The near net shape nature of AM processes does not allow for mechanical work prior to the heat treatment that is often necessary to develop a uniform distribution of precipitates and give peak mechanical performance. This paper examines the aluminum (Al) alloy 2139, a composition that is strengthened by homogeneous precipitation of Ω (Al{sub 2}Cu) plates and thus ideally suited for near net shape processes like AM. Transmission electron microscopy, microhardness, and tensile testing determined that, with proper processing conditions, Al 2139 can be additively manufactured and subsequently heat treated to strength levels comparable to those of peak aged wrought Al 2139.

  1. Precipitation behavior of aluminum alloy 2139 fabricated using additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, Craig; Shenoy, Ravi; Kral, Milo; Buchannan, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging technology capable of producing near net shape structures in a variety of materials directly from a computer model. Standard metallic alloys that were developed for cast or wrought processing have largely been adopted for AM feedstock. In many applications, these legacy alloys are quite acceptable. In the aluminum alloy family, however, there is a significant performance gap between the casting alloys currently being used in AM processes and the high strength/toughness capability available in certain wrought alloys. The precipitation hardenable alloys, most often used in high performance structures, present challenges for processing by AM. The near net shape nature of AM processes does not allow for mechanical work prior to the heat treatment that is often necessary to develop a uniform distribution of precipitates and give peak mechanical performance. This paper examines the aluminum (Al) alloy 2139, a composition that is strengthened by homogeneous precipitation of Ω (Al_2Cu) plates and thus ideally suited for near net shape processes like AM. Transmission electron microscopy, microhardness, and tensile testing determined that, with proper processing conditions, Al 2139 can be additively manufactured and subsequently heat treated to strength levels comparable to those of peak aged wrought Al 2139.

  2. Trends in the global aluminum fabrication industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subodh; Yin, Weimin

    2007-02-01

    The aluminum fabrication industry has become more vital to the global economy as international aluminum consumption has grown steadily in the past decades. Using innovation, value, and sustainability, the aluminum industry is strengthening its position not only in traditional packaging and construction applications but also in the automotive and aerospace markets to become more competitive and to face challenges from other industries and higher industrial standards. The aluminum fabrication industry has experienced a significant geographical shift caused by rapid growth in emerging markets in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Market growth and distribution will vary with different patterns of geography and social development; the aluminum industry must be part of the transformation and keep pace with market developments to benefit.

  3. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  4. High strength cast aluminum alloy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druschitz, Edward A.

    The goal of this research was to understand how chemistry and processing affect the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength cast aluminum alloys. Two alloy systems were investigated including the Al-Cu-Ag and the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu systems. Processing variables included solidification under pressure (SUP) and heat treatment. This research determined the range in properties that can be achieved in BAC 100(TM) (Al-Cu micro-alloyed with Ag, Mn, Zr, and V) and generated sufficient property data for design purposes. Tensile, stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue testing were performed. CuAl2 and Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallics were identified as the ductility limiting flaws. A solution treatment of 75 hours or longer was needed to dissolve most of the intermetallic CuAl 2. The Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallic was unaffected by heat treatment. These results indicate that faster cooling rates, a reduction in copper concentration and a reduction in iron concentration might increase the ductility of the alloy by decreasing the size and amount of the intermetallics that form during solidification. Six experimental Al-Zn-Mg-Cu series alloys were produced. Zinc concentrations of 8 and 12wt% and Zn/Mg ratios of 1.5 to 5.5 were tested. Copper was held constant at 0.9%. Heat treating of the alloys was optimized for maximum hardness. Al-Zn-Mg-Cu samples were solution treated at 441°C (826°F) for 4 hours before ramping to 460°C (860°F) for 75 hours and then aged at 120°C (248°F) for 75 hours. X-ray diffraction showed that the age hardening precipitates in most of these alloys was the T phase (Mg32Zn 31.9Al17.1). Tensile testing of the alloys showed that the best mechanical properties were obtained in the lowest alloy condition. Chilled Al-8.2Zn-1.4Mg-0.9Cu solidified under pressure resulted in an alloy with a yield strength of 468MPa (68ksi), tensile strength of 525MPa (76ksi) and an elongation of 9%.

  5. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW GLASSES FOR HANFORD'S WTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Joseph, I.; Bowman, B.W.; Gan, H.; Kot, W.; Matlack, K.S.; Pegg, I.L

    2009-01-01

    The world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility is now under construction at the United State Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is designed to treat nearly 53 million gallons of mixed hazardous and radioactive waste now residing in 177 underground storage tanks. This multi-decade processing campaign will be one of the most complex ever undertaken because of the wide chemical and physical variability of the waste compositions generated during the cold war era that are stored at Hanford. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated a program to improve the long-term operating efficiency of the WTP vitrification plants with the objective of reducing the overall cost of tank waste treatment and disposal and shortening the duration of plant operations. Due to the size, complexity and duration of the WTP mission, the lifecycle operating and waste disposal costs are substantial. As a result, gains in High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) waste loadings, as well as increases in glass production rate, which can reduce mission duration and glass volumes for disposal, can yield substantial overall cost savings. EnergySolutions and its long-term research partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America, have been involved in a multi-year ORP program directed at optimizing various aspects of the HLW and LAW vitrification flow sheets. A number of Hanford HLW streams contain high concentrations of aluminum, which is challenging with respect to both waste loading and processing rate. Therefore, a key focus area of the ORP vitrification process optimization program at EnergySolutions and VSL has been development of HLW glass compositions that can accommodate high Al 2 O 3 concentrations while maintaining high processing rates in the Joule Heated Ceramic Melters (JHCMs) used for waste vitrification at the WTP. This paper, reviews the

  6. Aluminum phosphate shows more adjuvanticity than Aluminum hydroxide in recombinant hepatitis –B vaccine formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a number of investigation have been carried out to find alternative adjuvants to aluminum salts in vaccine formulations, they are still extensively used due to their good track record of safety, low cost and proper adjuvanticity with a variety of antigens. Adsorption of antigens onto aluminum compounds depends heavily on electrostatic forces between adjuvant and antigen. Commercial recombinant protein hepatitis B vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant is facing low induction of immunity in some sections of the vaccinated population. To follow the current global efforts in finding more potent hepatitis B vaccine formulation, adjuvanticity of aluminum phosphate has been compared to aluminum hydroxide. Materials and methods: The adjuvant properties of aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate in a vaccine formulation containing a locally manufactured hepatitis B (HBs surface antigen was evaluated in Balb/C mice. The formulations were administered intra peritoneally (i.p. and the titers of antibody which was induced after 28 days were determined using ELISA technique. The geometric mean of antibody titer (GMT, seroconversion and seroprotection rates, ED50 and relative potency of different formulations were determined. Results: All the adjuvanicity markers obtained in aluminum phosphate formulation were significantly higher than aluminum hydroxide. The geometric mean of antibody titer of aluminum phosphate was approximately three folds more than aluminum hydroxide. Conclusion: Aluminum phosphate showed more adjuvanticity than aluminum hydroxide in hepatitis B vaccine. Therefore the use of aluminum phosphate as adjuvant in this vaccine may lead to higher immunity with longer duration of effects in vaccinated groups.

  7. Aluminum recovery as a product with high added value using aluminum hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Kopac, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Granular and compact aluminum dross were physically and chemically characterized. • A relationship between density, porosity and metal content from dross was established. • Chemical reactions involving aluminum in landfill and negative consequences are shown. • A processing method for aluminum recovering from aluminum dross was developed. • Aluminum was recovered as an value product with high grade purity such as alumina. -- Abstract: The samples of hazardous aluminum solid waste such as dross were physically and chemically characterized. A relationship between density, porosity and metal content of dross was established. The paper also examines the chemical reactions involving aluminum dross in landfill and the negative consequences. To avoid environmental problems and to recovery the aluminum, a processing method was developed and aluminum was recovered as an added value product such as alumina. This method refers to a process at low temperature, in more stages: acid leaching, purification, precipitation and calcination. At the end of this process aluminum was extracted, first as Al 3+ soluble ions and final as alumina product. The composition of the aluminum dross and alumina powder obtained were measured by applying the leaching tests, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and chemical analysis. The mineralogical composition of aluminum dross samples and alumina product were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method presented in this work allows the use of hazardous aluminum solid waste as raw material to recover an important fraction from soluble aluminum content as an added value product, alumina, with high grade purity (99.28%)

  8. Heat transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  9. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  10. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  11. Investigation of the Precipitation Behavior in Aluminum Based Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Khushaim, Muna S.

    2015-11-30

    The transportation industries are constantly striving to achieve minimum weight to cut fuel consumption and improve overall performance. Different innovative design strategies have been placed and directed toward weight saving combined with good mechanical behavior. Among different materials, aluminum-based alloys play a key role in modern engineering and are widely used in construction components because of their light weight and superior mechanical properties. Introduction of different nano-structure features can improve the service and the physical properties of such alloys. For intelligent microstructure design in the complex Al-based alloy, it is important to gain a deep physical understanding of the correlation between the microstructure and macroscopic properties, and thus atom probe tomography with its exceptional capabilities of spatially resolution and quantitative chemical analyses is presented as a sophisticated analytical tool to elucidate the underlying process of precipitation phenomena in aluminum alloys. A complete study examining the influence of common industrial heat treatment on the precipitation kinetics and phase transformations of complex aluminum alloy is performed. The qualitative evaluation results of the precipitation kinetics and phase transformation as functions of the heat treatment conditions are translated to engineer a complex aluminum alloy. The study demonstrates the ability to construct a robust microstructure with an excellent hardness behavior by applying a low-energy-consumption, cost-effective method. The proposed strategy to engineer complex aluminum alloys is based on both mechanical strategy and intelligent microstructural design. An intelligent microstructural design requires an investigation of the different strengthen phases, such as T1 (Al2CuLi), θ′(Al2Cu), β′(Al3Zr) and δ′(Al3Li). Therefore, the early stage of phase decomposition is examined in different binary Al-Li and Al-Cu alloys together with different

  12. Method to increase the toughness of aluminum-lithium alloys at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Krishnan K. (Inventor); Sova, Brian J. (Inventor); Babel, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method to increase the toughness of the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 and similar alloys at cryogenic temperatures above their room temperature toughness is provided. Increasing the cryogenic toughness of the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 allows the use of alloy C458 for cryogenic tanks, for example for launch vehicles in the aerospace industry. A two-step aging treatment for alloy C458 is provided. A specific set of times and temperatures to age the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 to T8 temper is disclosed that results in a higher toughness at cryogenic temperatures compared to room temperature. The disclosed two-step aging treatment for alloy 458 can be easily practiced in the manufacturing process, does not involve impractical heating rates or durations, and does not degrade other material properties.

  13. Carbon Footprint versus Performance of Aluminum, Plastic, and Wood Window Frames from Cradle to Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kutnar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Window frame material has significant impact on the thermal performance of the window. Moreover, with sustainable design becoming a necessity, window frame materials need to have higher levels of environmental performance to be considered sustainable. As a result, a holistic performance metric is needed to assess window frame material. Three similar frames were considered, manufactured from aluminum, polyvinyl chloride (PVC, and wood. First their thermal performance was evaluated and compared using a heat transfer model. Then, carbon footprints of the three materials were considered for 1m2 of window area with a similar thermal performance. It was found that the thermal, as well as the environmental, performance of the wooden window frame was superior to those of aluminum and PVC. On the other hand aluminum frames had high environmental impacts and comparatively lower thermal performance. This study provides a holistic viewpoint on window frames by considering both environmental and thermal performance.

  14. Thermally induced processes in mixtures of aluminum with organic acids after plastic deformations under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhorin, V. A.; Kiselev, M. R.; Roldugin, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    DSC is used to measure the thermal effects of processes in mixtures of solid organic dibasic acids with powdered aluminum, subjected to plastic deformation under pressures in the range of 0.5-4.0 GPa using an anvil-type high-pressure setup. Analysis of thermograms obtained for the samples after plastic deformation suggests a correlation between the exothermal peaks observed around the temperatures of degradation of the acids and the thermally induced chemical reactions between products of acid degradation and freshly formed surfaces of aluminum particles. The release of heat in the mixtures begins at 30-40°C. The thermal effects in the mixtures of different acids change according to the order of acid reactivity in solutions. The extreme baric dependences of enthalpies of thermal effects are associated with the rearrangement of the electron subsystem of aluminum upon plastic deformation at high pressures.

  15. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel and Aluminum in Sodium Hydroxide: Field Failure and Laboratory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prawoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through an investigation of the field failure analysis and laboratory experiment, a study on (stress corrosion cracking SCC behavior of steel and aluminum was performed. All samples were extracted from known operating conditions from the field failures. Similar but accelerated laboratory test was subsequently conducted in such a way as to mimic the field failures. The crack depth and behavior of the SCC were then analyzed after the laboratory test and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking was studied. The results show that for the same given stress relative to ultimate tensile strength, the susceptibility to SCC is greatly influenced by heat treatment. Furthermore, it was also concluded that when expressed relative to the (ultimate tensile strength UTS, aluminum has similar level of SCC susceptibility to that of steel, although with respect to the same absolute value of applied stress, aluminum is more susceptible to SCC in sodium hydroxide environment than steel.

  16. Experimental and numerical analysis of the combustor for a cogeneration system based on the aluminum/water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Paltrinieri, Fabrizio; Stefani, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aluminum reaction with water is studied as a technology for hydrogen production. • A test rig is developed for the analysis of aluminum/water reaction. • The system is the core component of a cogeneration plant for hydrogen/power production. • The interaction of liquid aluminum jet and water steam stream is investigated. • The main capabilities of the injection system are assessed. - Abstract: The paper focuses on the design of the experimental apparatus aimed at analyzing the performance of the combustion chamber of a cogeneration system based on the reaction of liquid aluminum and water steam. The cogeneration system exploits the heat released by the oxidation of aluminum with water for super-heating the vapor of a steam cycle and simultaneously producing hydrogen. The only by-product is alumina, which in a closed loop can be recycled back and transformed again into aluminum. Therefore, aluminum is used as an energy carrier to transport the energy from the alumina reduction plant to the location of the proposed system. The water is also used in a closed loop since the amount of water produced employing the hydrogen obtained by the proposed system corresponds to the oxidizing water for the Al/H 2 O reaction. This study investigates the combustor where the liquid aluminum–steam reaction takes place. In particular, the design of the combustion chamber and the interaction between the liquid aluminum jet and the water steam flow are evaluated using a numerical and an experimental approach. The test rig is specifically designed for the analysis of the liquid aluminum injection in a slightly super-heated steam stream. The first experiments are carried out to verify the correct behavior of the test rig. Thermography is employed to qualitatively assess the steam entrainment of the liquid aluminum jet. Finally, the experimental measurements are compared with the multi-dimension multi-phase flow simulations in order to estimate the influence of

  17. Experiment and modeling: Ignition of aluminum particles with a carbon dioxide laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Salil

    Aluminum is a promising ingredient for high energy density compositions used in propulsion systems, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Aluminum powder fuel additives enable one to achieve higher combustion enthalpies and reaction temperatures. Therefore, to develop aluminum based novel and customized high density energetic materials, understanding of ignition and combustion kinetics of aluminum powders is required. In most practical systems, metal ignition and combustion occur in environments with rapidly changing temperatures and gas compositions. The kinetics of exothermic reactions in related energetic materials is commonly characterized by thermal analysis, where the heating rates are very low, on the order of 1--50 K/min. The extrapolation of the identified kinetics to the high heating rates is difficult and requires direct experimental verification. This difficulty led to development of new experimental approaches to directly characterize ignition kinetics for the heating rates in the range of 103--104 K/s. However, the practically interesting heating rates of 106 K/s range have not been achieved. This work is directed at development of an experimental technique and respective heat transfer model for studying ignition of aluminum and other micron-sized metallic particles at heating rates varied around 106 K/s. The experimental setup uses a focused CO2 laser as a heating source and a plate capacitor aerosolizer to feed the aluminum particles into the laser beam. The setup allows using different environment for particle aerosolization. The velocities of particles in the jet are in the range of 0.1 --0 3 m/s. For each selected jet velocity, the laser power is increased until the particles are observed to ignite. The ignition is detected optically using a digital camera and a photomultiplier. The ignition thresholds for spherical aluminum powder were measured at three different particle jet velocities, in air environment. A single particle heat transfer model was

  18. Process for anodizing aluminum foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.A.; Scott, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the anodization of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors including the formation of a hydrous oxide layer on the foil prior to anodization and stabilization of the foil in alkaline borax baths during anodization, the foil is electrochemically anodized in an aqueous solution of boric acid and 2 to 50 ppm phosphate having a pH of 4.0 to 6.0. The anodization is interrupted for stabilization by passing the foil through a bath containing the borax solution having a pH of 8.5 to 9.5 and a temperature above 80 0 C. and then reanodizing the foil. The process is useful in anodizing foil to a voltage of up to 760 V

  19. The thermal power of aluminum nitride at temperatures between 1350 and 1650 deg C in argon and nitrogen atmospheres. Ph.D. Thesis - Rhine-Westphalia High School at Aachen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, W. A.; Schuh, B.

    1978-01-01

    The test apparatus for measuring the thermal voltage of aluminum nitride for temperature differences of up to + or - 60 C between 1350 and 1650 C is described. The thermal power and its homogeneous proportion are determined and the heat transfer of the migration ions resulting from the homogeneous thermal power is calculated. The conduction mechanism in aluminum nitride is discussed.

  20. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF 6 . This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible

  1. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A.; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W.; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  2. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  3. Thermocurrent dosimetry with high purity aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerton, G.D.; Cameron, J.R.; Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of thermocurrent (TC) to ionizing radiation dosimetry was studied. It was shown that TC in alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) has properties that are suited to personnel dosimetry and environmental monitoring. TC dosimeters were made from thin disks of alumina. Aluminum electrodes were evaporated on each side: on one face a high voltage electrode and on the opposite face a measuring electrode encircled by a guard ring. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in stored electrons and holes in metastable trapping sites. The signal was read-out by heating the dosimeter with a voltage source and picnometer connected in series between the opposite electrodes. The thermally remobilized charge caused a transient TC. The thermogram, TC versus time or temperature, is similar to a TL glow curve. Either the peak current or the integrated current is a measure of absorbed dose. Six grades of alumina were studied from a total of four commercial suppliers. All six materials displayed radiation induced TC signals. Sapphire of uv-grade quality from the Adolf Meller Co. (AM) had the best dosimetry properties of those investigated. Sources of interference were studied. Thermal fading, residual signal and radiation damage do not limit TC dosimetry. Ultraviolet light can induce a TC response but it is readily excluded with uv-opaque cladding. Improper surface preparation prior to electrode evaporation was shown to cause interference. A spurious TC signal resulted from polarization of surface contaminants. Spurious TC was reduced by improved cleaning prior to electrode application. Polished surfaces resulted in blocking electrodes and caused a sensitivity shift due to radiation induced thermally activated polarization. This was not observed with rough cut surfaces

  4. Thermocurrent dosimetry with high purity aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullerton, G.D.; Cameron, J.R.; Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of thermocurrent (TC) to ionizing radiation dosimetry was studied. It was shown that TC in alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) has properties that are suited to personnel dosimetry and environmental monitoring. TC dosimeters were made from thin disks of alumina. Aluminum electrodes were evaporated on each side: on one face a high voltage electrode and on the opposite face a measuring electrode encircled by a guard ring. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in stored electrons and holes in metastable trapping sites. The signal was read-out by heating the dosimeter with a voltage source and picnometer connected in series between the opposite electrodes. The thermally remobilized charge caused a transient TC. The thermogram, TC versus time or temperature, is similar to a TL glow curve. Either the peak current or the integrated current is a measure of absorbed dose. Six grades of alumina were studied from a total of four commercial suppliers. All six materials displayed radiation induced TC signals. Sapphire of uv-grade quality from the Adolf Meller Co. (AM) had the best dosimetry properties of those investigated. Sources of interference were studied. Thermal fading, residual signal and radiation damage do not limit TC dosimetry. Ultraviolet light can induce a TC response but it is readily excluded with uv-opaque cladding. Improper surface preparation prior to electrode evaporation was shown to cause interference. A spurious TC signal resulted from polarization of surface contaminants. Spurious TC was reduced by improved cleaning prior to electrode application. Polished surfaces resulted in blocking electrodes and caused a sensitivity shift due to radiation induced thermally activated polarization. This was not observed with rough cut surfaces.

  5. Treatability Study Operational Testing Program and Implementation Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    To support future decision making of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU) remedy selection, the Department of Energy (DOE) is performing a Treatability Study (TS), consistent with the EPA guidance for Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability studies. The study will inform stakeholders about various waste removal technologies and the cost of potential remediation approaches, particularly the cost associated with sluicing and the reduction in risk to human health and the environment from tank content removal. As part of the GAAT OU remedy, a series of studies and technology tests will be preformed. These may address one or more of the following areas, characterization, removal, treatment, and transfer of wastes stored in the GAAT OU

  6. Treatability Study Operational Testing Program and Implementation Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    To support future decision making of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU) remedy selection, the Department of Energy (DOE) is performing a Treatability Study (TS), consistent with the EPA guidance for Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability studies. The study will inform stakeholders about various waste removal technologies and the cost of potential remediation approaches, particularly the cost associated with sluicing and the reduction in risk to human health and the environment from tank content removal. As part of the GAAT OU remedy, a series of studies and technology tests will be preformed. These may address one or more of the following areas, characterization, removal, treatment, and transfer of wastes stored in the GAAT OU.

  7. Application of pulsed flash thermography method for specific defect estimation in aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Ljubiša D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nondestructive thermal examination can uncover the presence of defects via temperature distribution profile anomalies that are created on the surface as a result of a defect. There are many factors that affect the temperature distribution map of the surface being tested by Infrared Thermography. Internal defect properties such as thermal conductivity, heat capacity and defect depth, play an important role in the temperature behavior of the pixels or regions being analyzed. Also, it is well known that other external factors such as the convection heat transfer, variations on the surface emissivity and ambient radiation reflectivity can affect the thermographic signal received by the infrared camera. In this paper we considered a simple structure in the form of flat plate covered with several defects, whose surface we heated with a uniform heat flux impulse. We conducted a theoretical analysis and experimental test of the method for case of defects on an aluminum surface. First, experiments were conducted on surfaces with intentionally created defects in order to determine conditions and boundaries for application of the method. Experimental testing of the pulsed flash thermography (PFT method was performed on simulated defects on an aluminum test plate filled with air and organic compound n-hexadecane, hydrocarbon that belongs to the Phase Change Materials (PCMs. Study results indicate that it is possible, using the PFT method, to detect the type of material inside defect holes, whose presence disturbs the homogeneous structure of aluminum.

  8. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  9. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  10. Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. Additionally, the treatability study involves installation of a trench and incline well to evaluate and assess hydraulic impacts of pumping groundwater. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes the following points: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits

  11. Nanshan Aluminum Reached Strategic Cooperation with CSR Corporation Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    As a key supplier of aluminum profiles and aluminum plate,sheet and trip products for CSR Corporation Limited,Nanshan Aluminum will join hands with CSR Corporation Limited to reach strategic cooperation.On January 5,Nanshan Aluminum signed strategic cooperation agreement with CSR Sifang Locomotive&Rolling; Stock Co.,Ltd,both

  12. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum...

  13. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of Shipping...

  14. A simple aluminum gasket for use with both stainless steel and aluminum flanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langley, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for making aluminum wire seal gaskets of various sizes and shapes for use with both stainless steel and aluminum alloy flanges. The gasket material used is 0.9999 pure aluminum, drawn to a diameter of 3 mm. This material can be easily welded and formed into various shapes. A single gasket has been successfully used up to five times without baking. The largest gasket tested to date is 3.5 m long and was used in the shape of a parallelogram. Previous use of aluminum wire gaskets, including results for bakeout at temperatures from 20 to 660{degree}C, is reviewed. A search of the literature indicates that this is the first reported use of aluminum wire gaskets for aluminum alloy flanges. The technique is described in detail, and the results are summarized. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  15. A Theoretical Evaluation of Secondary Atomization Effects on Engine Performance for Aluminum Gel Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, D. C.; Turns, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    A one-dimensional model of a gel-fueled rocket combustion chamber has been developed. This model includes the processes of liquid hydrocarbon burnout, secondary atomization. aluminum ignition, and aluminum combustion. Also included is a model of radiative heat transfer from the solid combustion products to the chamber walls. Calculations indicate that only modest secondary atomization is required to significantly reduce propellant burnout distances, aluminum oxide residual size and radiation heat wall losses. Radiation losses equal to approximately 2-13 percent of the energy released during combustion were estimated. A two-dimensional, two-phase nozzle code was employed to estimate radiation and nozzle two-phase flow effects on overall engine performance. Radiation losses yielded a 1 percent decrease in engine I(sub sp). Results also indicate that secondary atomization may have less effect on two-phase losses than it does on propellant burnout distance and no effect if oxide particle coagulation and shear induced droplet breakup govern oxide particle size. Engine I(sub sp) was found to decrease from 337.4 to 293.7 seconds as gel aluminum mass loading was varied from 0-70 wt percent. Engine I(sub sp) efficiencies, accounting for radiation and two-phase flow effects, on the order of 0.946 were calculated for a 60 wt percent gel, assuming a fragmentation ratio of 5.

  16. Aluminum-silicon co-deposition by FB-CVD on austenitic stainless steel AISI 316

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marulanda, J L; Perez, F J; Remolina-Millán, A

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum-silicon coatings were deposited on stainless steel AISI 316 in the temperature range of 540 to 560°C by CVD-FBR. It was used a fluidized bed with 2.5% silicon and 7.5% aluminum powder and 90% inert (alumina). This bed was fluidized with Ar and as an activator a mixture of HCl/H2 in ratios of 1/10 to 1/16. Furthermore, the deposition time of the coatings was varied between 45 minutes to 1.5 hours, with a 50% active gas, neutral gases 50%. Thermodynamic simulation was conducted with the Thermocalc software to get the possible compositions and amount of material deposited for the chosen conditions. The coatings presented the follow compounds FeAl 2 Si, FeAl 2 and Fe 2 Al 5 . Aluminum-silicon coatings were heat treated to improve its mechanical properties and its behavior against oxidation for the inter diffusion of the alloying elements. The heat treatment causes the aluminum diffuse into the substrate and the iron diffuse into coating surface. This leads to the transformation of the above compounds in FeAl, Al 2 FeSi, Cr 3 Si, AlFeNi and AlCrFe

  17. Waste management plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This Waste Management Plant (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including: continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the denitrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term denitrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits

  18. Field Implementation Plan for the In-Situ Bioremediation Treatability Study at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-31

    This Field Implementation Plan (FIP) was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) and provides instruction on conducting a series of in-situ bioremediation (ISB) tests as described in the Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern, referred to as the Revised Work Plan in this FIP. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater via three injection wells to perform bioremediation of the constituents of concern (COCs), nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE), in the regions with the highest concentrations at the Technical Area-V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern (AOC). The Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation solution delivery and COC treatment over time. This FIP is designed for SNL/NM work planning and management. It is not intended to be submitted for regulator’s approval. The technical details presented in this FIP are subject to change based on field conditions, availability of equipment and materials, feasibility, and inputs from Sandia personnel and Aboveground Injection System contractor.

  19. Field Implementation Plan for the In-Situ Bioremediation Treatability Study at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This Field Implementation Plan (FIP) was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) and provides instruction on conducting a series of in-situ bioremediation (ISB) tests as described in the Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern, referred to as the Revised Work Plan in this FIP. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater via three injection wells to perform bioremediation of the constituents of concern (COCs), nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE), in the regions with the highest concentrations at the Technical Area-V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern (AOC). The Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation solution delivery and COC treatment over time. This FIP is designed for SNL/NM work planning and management. It is not intended to be submitted for regulator's approval. The technical details presented in this FIP are subject to change based on field conditions, availability of equipment and materials, feasibility, and inputs from Sandia personnel and Aboveground Injection System contractor.

  20. Safety analysis report for the North Tank Farm, Tank W-11, and the Gunite and Associated Tanks -- Treatability Study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1997-02-01

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) tanks consist of eight underground storage tanks which have been removed from service because of age and changes in liquid waste system needs and requirements. Tank W-11, which was constructed in 1943, has been removed from service, and contains several hundred gallons of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Study involves the demonstration of sludge removal techniques and equipment for use in other waste storage tanks throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The hazards associated with the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study are identified in hazard identification table in Appendixes A, B, and C. The hazards identified for the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study were analyzed in the preliminary hazards analyses (PHA) included as Appendices D and E. The PHA identifies potential accident scenarios and qualitatively estimates the consequences. Because of the limited quantities of materials present in the tanks and the types of energy sources that may result in release of the materials, none of the accidents identified are anticipated to result in significant adverse health effects to on-site or off-site personnel

  1. Coordination Structure of Aluminum in Magnesium Aluminum Hydroxide Studied by 27Al NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The coordination structure of aluminum in magnesium aluminum hydroxide was studiedby 27Al NMR. The result showed that tetrahedral aluminum (AlⅣ) existed in magnesiumaluminum hydroxide, and the contents of AlⅣ increased with the increase of the ratio of Al/Mg andwith the peptizing temperature. AlⅣ originated from the so-called Al13 polymer with the structureof one Al tetrahedron surrounded by twelve Al octahedrons.

  2. Seasonal variation of organic matter concentration and characteristics in the Maji ya Chai River (Tanzania): Impact on treatability by ultrafiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Aschermann, Geert

    2016-05-07

    Many waters in Tanzania exhibit high concentrations of organic matter and dissolved contaminants such as fluoride. Due to bacteria and virus removal, ultrafiltration (UF) is an attractive option for drinking water treatment, and when coupled with adsorbents, may compete with other established processes like nanofiltration (NF) for lower contaminant concentrations. The results presented here examine the characteristics and treatability of tropical natural organic matter (NOM) by UF as a function of seasonal variation. The Tanzanian river Maji ya Chai was sampled monthly during one year. The composition of NOM in Maji ya Chai River is influenced strongly by precipitation. Total organic carbon (TOC), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) and concentration of allochthonous organics substances (such as humic substances (HS)) are elevated in periods following high precipitation, while TOC is lower and contains more biopolymers in the dry seasons. UF experiments with two regenerated cellulose membranes of different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO, 5 and 10 kDa) were conducted. UF is able to remove 50–95% of TOC with a seasonal variability of 10–20%. Due to the remaining NOM in the water that would contribute to disinfection by-product formation and bacterial regrowth, the physically disinfected water is more applicable for point of use systems than distribution or storage.

  3. Case study and presentation of the DOE treatability group concept for low-level and mixed waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.; Heath, B.A.; Davis, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 requires the US Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an inventory report of its mixed waste and treatment capacities and technologies. Grouping waste streams according to technological requirements is the logical means of matching waste streams to treatment technologies, and streamlines the effort of identifying technology development needs. To provide consistency, DOE has developed a standard methodology for categorizing waste into treatability groups based on three characteristic parameters: radiological, bulk physical/chemical form, and regulated contaminant. Based on category and component definitions in the methodology, descriptive codes or strings of codes are assigned under each parameter, resulting in a waste characterization amenable to a computerized format for query and sort functions. By using only the applicable parameters, this methodology can be applied to all waste types generated within the DOE complex: radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary/municipal. Implementation of this methodology will assist the individual sites and DOE Headquarters in analyzing waste management technology and facility needs

  4. Feasibility/treatability studies for removal of heavy metals from training range soils at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    A feasibility/treatability study was performed to investigate the leaching potential of heavy metals (particularly lead) from soils at the Grafenw6hr Training Area (GTA) in Germany. The study included an evaluation of the effectiveness of chelant extraction to remediate the heavy-metal-contarninated soils. Batch shaker tests indicated that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (0.01M) was more effective than citric acid (0.01M) at removing cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. EDTA and citric acid were equally effective in mobilizing chromium and barium from the soil. The batch shaker technique with chelant extraction offers promise as a remediation technique for heavy-metal-contaninated soil at the GTA. Columnar flooding tests conducted as part of the study revealed that deionized water was the least effective leaching solution for mobilization of the heavy metals; the maximum solubilization obtained was 3.72% for cadmium. EDTA (0.05M) achieved the greatest removal of lead (average removal of 17.6%). The difficulty of extraction using deionized water indicates that all of the heavy metals are very tightly bound to the soil; therefore, they are very stable in the GTA soils and do not pose a serious threat to the groundwater system. Columnar flooding probably does not represent a viable remediation technique for in-situ cleanup of heavy-metal-contaminated soils at the GTA.

  5. Metallurgical Laboratory (MetLab) Treatability Study: An Analysis of Passive Soil Vapor Extraction Wells (PSVE) FY1999 Update; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riha, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    The results to date on the treatability study of the PSVE system at the MetLab of the Savannah River Site (SRS) indicate the technology is performing well. Well concentrations are decreasing and contour maps of the vadose zone soil gas plume show a decrease in the extent of the plume. In the 18 months of operation approximately 200 pounds of chlorinated organic contaminants have been removed by natural barometric pumping of wells fitted with BaroBall valves (low pressure check valves). The mass removal estimates are approximate since the flow rates are estimated, the concentration data is based on exponential fits of a limited data set, and the concentration data is normalized to the average CO2.The concentration values presented in this report should be taken as the general trend or order of magnitude of concentration until longer-term data is collected. These trends are of exponentially decreasing concentration showing the same characteristics as the concentration trends at the SRS Miscellaneous Chemical Basin after three years of PSVE (Riha et. al., 1999)

  6. Aluminum exclusion and aluminum tolerance in woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ivano; Sperisen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The aluminum (Al) cation Al(3) (+) is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al(3) (+) conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al(3) (+) from root cells (exclusion mechanisms) and those that enable plants to tolerate Al(3) (+) once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms). The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al(3) (+) exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al(3) (+) adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  7. The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0075 The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters KIT BOWEN JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD...2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30-09-2014 to 29-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Oxidation Products of Aluminum ...Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14-1-0324 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) KIT

  8. 40 CFR 63.5753 - How do I calculate the combined organic HAP content of aluminum wipedown solvents and aluminum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAP content of aluminum wipedown solvents and aluminum recreational boat surface coatings? 63.5753... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations § 63.5753 How do I calculate the combined organic HAP content of aluminum...

  9. Improved Interfacial Bonding in Magnesium/Aluminum Overcasting Systems by Aluminum Surface Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Yiqing; Luo, Alan A.

    2014-12-01

    "Overcasting" technique is used to produce bimetallic magnesium/aluminum (Mg/Al) structures where lightweight Mg can be cast onto solid Al substrates. An inherent difficulty in creating strong Mg/Al interfacial bonding is the natural oxide film on the solid Al surfaces, which reduces the wettability between molten Mg and Al substrates during the casting process. In the paper, an "electropolishing + anodizing" surface treatment has been developed to disrupt the oxide film on a dilute Al-0.08 wt pct Ga alloy, improving the metallurgical bonding between molten Mg and Al substrates in the bimetallic experiments carried out in a high-vacuum test apparatus. The test results provided valuable information of the interfacial phenomena of the Mg/Al bimetallic samples. The results show significantly improved metallurgical bonding in the bimetallic samples with "electropolishing + anodizing" surface treatment and Ga alloying. It is recommended to adjust the pre-heating temperature and time of the Al substrates and the Mg melt temperature to control the interfacial reactions for optimum interfacial properties in the actual overcasting processes.

  10. Electron-beam welding of aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, Marcel; de Bony, Yves

    1980-08-15

    The objective of this article is to describe the status of the application of electron-beam welding to aluminum alloys. These alloys are widely employed in the aeronautics, space and nuclear industries.

  11. Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-based fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willit, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated aluminum electrorefining from a U-Al-Si alloy that simulates spent aluminum-based reactor fuel. The aluminum product contains less than 200 ppm uranium. All the results obtained have been in agreement with predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. We have also demonstrated the need for adequate stirring to achieve a low-uranium product. Most of the other process steps have been demonstrated in other programs. These include uranium electrorefining, transuranic fission product scrubbing, fission product oxidation, and product consolidation by melting. Future work will focus on the extraction of active metal and rare earth fission products by a molten flux salt and scale-up of the aluminum electrorefining

  12. Masking of aluminum surface against anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G. B.; Thompson, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Masking material and a thickening agent preserve limited unanodized areas when aluminum surfaces are anodized with chromic acid. For protection of large areas it combines well with a certain self-adhesive plastic tape.

  13. Aluminum titanate crucible for molten uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbury, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    An improved crucible for molten uranium is described. The crucible or crucible liner is formed of aluminum titanate which essentially eliminates contamination of uranium and uranium alloys during molten states thereof. (U.S.)

  14. Interpretation of aluminum-alloy weld radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, P. C.; Risch, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Report proposes radiographic terminology standardization which allows scientific interpretation of radiographic films to replace dependence on individual judgement and experience. Report includes over 50 photographic pages where radiographs of aluminum welds with defects are compared with prepared weld sections photomacrographs.

  15. Recycling of aluminum to produce green energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Lopez Benites, Wendy; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos C.P. 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    High-purity hydrogen gas was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum with sodium hydroxide. Several molar relations of sodium hydroxide/aluminum were investigated in this study. The experimental results showed that hydrogen yields are acceptable and its purity was good enough to be used in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. An estimation of the amount of energy produced from the reaction of 100 aluminum cans with caustic soda showed that the hydrogen production is feasible to be scaled up to reach up to 5kWh in a few hours. This study is environmentally friendly and also shows that green energy can be produced from aluminum waste at a low cost.

  16. Aluminum alloy excellent in neutron absorbing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Tetsuya; Tamamura, Tadao; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Ouchi, Ken-ichiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain structural materials made of aluminum alloys having favorable neutron absorbing performance and excellent in the performance as structural materials such as processability and strength. Constitution: Powder of Gd 2 O 3 as a gadolinium compound or metal gadolinium is uniformly mixed with the powder of aluminum or aluminum alloy. The amount of the gadolinium compound added is set to 0.1 - 30 % by weight. No sufficient neutron absorbing performance can be obtained if it is less than 0.1 % by weight, whereas the processability and mechanical property of the alloy are degraded if it exceeds 30 % by weight. Further, the grain size is set to less about 50 μm. Further, since the neutron absorbing performance varies greatly if the aluminum powder size exceeds 100 μm, the diameter is set to less than about 100 μm. These mixtures are molded in a hot press. This enables to obtain aimed structural materials. (Takahashi, M.)

  17. Seacoast stress corrosion cracking of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of high strength, wrought aluminum alloys in a seacoast atmosphere was investigated and the results were compared with those obtained in laboratory tests. Round tensile specimens taken from the short transverse grain direction of aluminum plate and stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths were exposed to the seacoast and to alternate immersion in salt water and synthetic seawater. Maximum exposure periods of one year at the seacoast, 0.3 or 0.7 of a month for alternate immersion in salt water, and three months for synthetic seawater were indicated for aluminum alloys to avoid false indications of stress corrosion cracking failure resulting from pitting. Correlation of the results was very good among the three test media using the selected exposure periods. It is concluded that either of the laboratory test media is suitable for evaluating the stress corrosion cracking performance of aluminum alloys in seacoast atmosphere.

  18. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Etre, A.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions

  19. Corrosion of aluminum components and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.T.; Khalique, A.; Malik, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum has versatile physical properties, mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, and is used in special applications like aerospace, automobiles and other strategic industries. The outdoor exposed structural components of aluminum have very good corrosion resistance due to the thick oxide layer (0.2 -0.4 micro). This study involves the corrosion of aluminum based components, though aluminum is protected by an oxide layer but due to extreme weather and environmental conditions the oxide layer was damaged. The corroded product was removed, pits or cavities formed due to the material removal were filled with epoxy resins and acrylic-based compounds containing fibreglass as reinforcement. Optimum results were obtained with epoxy resins incorporated with 5% glass fibers. The inner surface of the components was provided further protection with a cellulose nitrate compound. (author)

  20. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investment casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength

  1. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T e and N e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T e and N e for aluminum in aluminum alloys as a marker for the correct alloying using an optical fiber probe.

  2. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T(e and N(e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T(e and N(e for the aluminum in aluminum alloys using an optical fiber probe.

  3. Anodizing of aluminum with improved corrosion properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, P.; Khan, I.U.

    2010-01-01

    Anodizing of aluminum was studied in sulphuric/oxalic/boric acid electroiyte system. The corrosion resistance of the anodic oxide coating of aluminum was determined by potentiodynamic polarization test and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the surface morphology before and after corrosion test. It was found that the oxide coating obtained by this method showed better corrosion resistance with no significant difference in surface morphology. (author)

  4. The effects of ultrasonic solidification on aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Slavko 1

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ultrasound on characteristics of solidified aluminum was shown. An ultrasonic head and ultrasonic system for modification was designed and applied to the crystallizing aluminum melt. The ultrasonic generator allows power of 50-500 W, amplitude of oscillations 10-100 um.m and the operating frequency of 25 kHz. Ultrasonic modification was done by ultrasound introduced from above into the melt. Microstructure photographs show decreasing of the grain size more than five times.

  5. The effects of ultrasonic solidification on aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Slavko 1

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrasound on characteristics of solidified aluminum was shown. An ultrasonic head and ultrasonic system for modification was designed and applied to the crystallizing aluminum melt. The ultrasonic generator allows power of 50-500 W, amplitude of oscillations 10-100 um.m and the operating frequency of 25 kHz. Ultrasonic modification was done by ultrasound introduced from above into the melt. Microstructure photographs show decreasing of the grain size more than five times.

  6. Scientific Background for Processing of Aluminum Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kononchuk Olga

    2017-01-01

    of the aluminum waste A1- Zn-Cu-Si-Fe shows that depending on the content of the metal the dissolution process of an aluminum alloy should be treated as the result of the chemical interaction of the metal with an alkaline solution. It is necessary to consider the behavior of the main components of alloys in an alkaline solution as applied to the system Na2O - Al2O3 - SiO2 - CO2 - H2O.

  7. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  8. A Study on Infrared Local Heat Treatment for AA5083 to Improve Formability and Automotive Part Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ho; Yang, Dong-Yol; Ko, SeJin

    2017-10-01

    Automotive industries are increasingly employing aluminum alloys for auto parts to reduce vehicle weight. However, the low formability of aluminum alloys has been an obstacle to their application. To resolve the formability problem, some studies involving heat treatments under laboratory conditions have been reported. However, for industrial applications, the heat treatment sequence, heating energy efficiency, and a commercial part test should be studied. This work shows an infrared (IR) local heat treatment, heating only small areas where the heat treatment is required, for an aluminum alloy to improve the formability with a reduction of heating energy. The experiment shows that the formability drastically increases when the aluminum alloy is heat treated between two forming stages, referred to as intermediate heat treatment. The microstructures of the test pieces are evaluated to identify the cause of the increase in the formability. For an industrial application, an aluminum tailgate, which cannot be manufactured without heat treatment, was successfully manufactured by the IR local heat treatment with a reduction of energy. A simulation was also conducted with a stress-based forming limit diagram, which is not affected by the strain path and heat treatment histories. The simulation gives a good prediction of the formability improvement.

  9. Research of plating aluminum and aluminum foil on internal surface of carbon fiber composite material centrifuge rotor drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuqi; Dong Jinping; Dai Xingjian

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity and sealability of the internal surface of carbon fiber/epoxy composite material centrifuge rotor drum, magnetron sputtering aluminum and pasting an aluminum foil on the inner wall of the drum are adopted to realize the aim. By means of XRD, SEM/EDS and OM, the surface topography of aluminum coated (thickness of 5 μm and 12 μm) and aluminum foil (12 μm) are observed and analyzed; the cohesion of between aluminum coated (or aluminum foil) and substrate material (CFRP) is measured by scratching experiment, direct drawing experiment, and shear test. Besides, the ultra-high-speed rotation experiment of CFRP ring is carried out to analyze stress and strain of coated aluminum (or aluminum foil) which is adhered on the ring. The results showed aluminum foil pasted on inner surface do better performance than magnetron sputtering aluminum on CFRP centrifuge rotor drum. (authors)

  10. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Ohashi, H; Nagai, H; Kakimi, S; Ogawa, Y; Iwata, Y; Ishii, K

    1993-12-31

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer`s disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer`s disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer`s disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer`s disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author).

  12. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nagai, H.; Kakimi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer's disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  13. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using 14 C autoradiography to measure the uptake of 14 C 2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 14 C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-μm resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The 14 C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of 14 C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10 9 Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  15. Heat Transfer Enhancement by Finned Heat Sinks with Micro-structured Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventola, L.; Chiavazzo, E.; Calignano, F.; Manfredi, D.; Asinari, P.

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the benefits of micro-structured roughness on heat transfer performance of heat sinks, cooled by forced air. Heat sinks in aluminum alloy by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) manufacturing technique were fabricated; values of the average surface roughness Ra from 1 to 25 microns (standard milling leads to roughness around 1 micron) under turbulent regimes (Reynolds number based on heating edge from 3000 to 17000) have been explored. An enhancement of 50% in thermal performances with regards to standard manufacturing was observed. This may open the way for huge boost in the technology of electronic cooling by DMLS.

  16. Heat transfer enhancement by finned heat sinks with micro-structured roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventola, L; Chiavazzo, E; Asinari, P; Calignano, F; Manfredi, D

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the benefits of micro-structured roughness on heat transfer performance of heat sinks, cooled by forced air. Heat sinks in aluminum alloy by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) manufacturing technique were fabricated; values of the average surface roughness R a from 1 to 25 microns (standard milling leads to roughness around 1 micron) under turbulent regimes (Reynolds number based on heating edge from 3000 to 17000) have been explored. An enhancement of 50% in thermal performances with regards to standard manufacturing was observed. This may open the way for huge boost in the technology of electronic cooling by DMLS.

  17. The influence of strain-induced damage on the mechanical response of open-cell aluminum foam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, E.; de Vries, J. H. B.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Onck, P. R.

    Compression and tensile tests have been performed on annealed (AN) and heat-treated (HT) Duocel open-cell aluminum foam (20 PPI) samples for relative densities ranging between 3 and 13%. The novel approach in this work is to study the evolution of damage and to distinguish the influence of ductile

  18. Effects of SiO2 nano-particles on tribological and mechanical properties of aluminum matrix composites by different dispersion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Mahboobeh; Zolfaghari, Mehrdad; Rezanezhad, Saeid; Azadi, Mohammad

    2018-05-01

    This study has been presented with mechanical properties of aluminum matrix composites, reinforced by SiO2 nano-particles. The stir casting method was employed to produce various aluminum matrix composites. Different composites by varying the SiO2 nano-particle content (including 0.5 and 1 weight percents) and two dispersion methods (including ball-milling and pre-heating) were made. Then, the density, the hardness, the compression strength, the wear resistance and the microstructure of nano-composites have been studied in this research. Besides, the distribution of nano-particles in the aluminum matrix for all composites has been also evaluated by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Obtained results showed that the density, the elongation and the ultimate compressive strength of various nano-composites decreased by the presence of SiO2 nano-particles; however, the hardness, the wear resistance, the yield strength and the elastic modulus of composites increased by auditioning of nano-particles to the aluminum alloy. FESEM images indicated better wetting of the SiO2 reinforcement in the aluminum matrix, prepared by the pre-heating dispersion method, comparing to ball-milling. When SiO2 nano-particles were added to the aluminum alloy, the morphology of the Si phase and intermetallic phases changed, which enhanced mechanical properties. In addition, the wear mechanism plus the friction coefficient value were changed for various nano-composites with respect to the aluminum alloy.

  19. Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L

    2008-12-01

    The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer (26)Al. (26)Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous (27)Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentration x time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F=0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F=0.1-0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F=0.1%). Time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability x daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water.

  20. Study of tritium decontamination of stainless steel, copper, aluminum metals by tritium dry desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yun; Shi Zhengkun; Wu Tao

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the decontamination efficiency of stainless steel, copper, aluminum metals contaminated by tritium, the metals were decontaminated by exposing to UV, ozone, heating, and the combination of heating, UV and ozone. The result indicates that the elevation of temperature can obviously improve decontamination. While irradiated by 172 nm UV, the decontamination efficiency is low, but it is better while heated and irradiated by 172 nm UV. If the stainless steel is irradiated by 172 nm UV and heated at 500℃ for 4 h, the decontamination efficiency is 99.2%. There is better decontamination efficiency of copper while exposed to ozone. While exposed to ozone and heated at 500℃, the decontamination efficiencies of stainless steel, copper and aluminum are higher than 99.2%. The decontamination efficiency can more obviously improve when metal is heated at high temperature (500℃) than low temperature (300℃). The surface tritium of metal placed at 30 d after decontamination increases because of diffusion and penetration of the tritium. Resolution spectra of tritium show that there are four kinds of contamination adsorbed tritium of stainless steel. (authors)