WorldWideScience

Sample records for heat preservation processes

  1. An evaluation of the potential of combination processes involving heat and irradiation for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.; Payne, B.; Cole, L.; Goodwin, M.; Borsa, J.

    1989-11-01

    Effects of combined heating and gamma radiation on Clostridium sporogenes spores and Salmonella seftenberg were examined. The order in which irradiation and heat were applied had a profound effect on the survival of the organisms. Heating of C.sporogenes spores at 95 degrees Celsius had very little effect on their sensitivity to subsequent irradiation, but irradiation of the spores at 0 degrees Celsius increased their sensitivity to subsequent heat treatment and thus reduced their heat D 10 values (time required to activate the spores to 10% of their initial number). This radiation-induced heat sensitivity increased with the increase in radiation dose. The Z values (change in temperature required for a tenfold change in D 10 values) of the spores were found to increase with the increase in pre-irradiation dose. Radiation-induced heat sensitivity was found to persist for at least 35 days in spores irradiated in frozen or freeze-dried states in distilled water or in phosphate buffer suspensions, and for at least 14 days in a number of food slurries. In phosphate buffer and nutrient broth suspensions, the radiation-heat synergism decreased with increasing pH of the media from pH 4.7 to pH 7.5. However, the effect of pH on synergism was less pronounced in spores suspended in some food slurries. Preliminary results indicate that pre-irradiation of S. senftenberg at 0.5 kGy did not change the heat sensitivity of this organism at 52 degrees Celsius, but when radiation and heat were applied simultaneously, synergistic inactivation was observed even at 50 degrees Celsius. Practical implications of these results are discussed

  2. Examination of heat treatments at preservation of grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Korzenszky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is a well-known process in food preservation. It is made to avoid and to slow down food deterioration. The process was developed by Louise Pasteur French scientist to avoid late among others wine further fermentation. The different heat treatments influence the shelf life in food production. In our article we present the process of grape must fermentation, as grape must is the base material of wine production. The treatment of harvested fresh grape juice has a big influence on end product quality. It is our experiments we examined the same grape must with four different methods in closed and in open spaces to determine CO2 concentration change. There are four different methods for treatment of grape juice: boiling, microwave treatment, treatment by water bath thermostat and a control without treatment. As a result of the comparison it can be stated that the heat treatment delays the start of fermentation, thereby increasing shelf life of grape must. However, no significant differences were found between two fermentation of heat-treated grape must by the microwave and water-bath thermostat. The different heat treatment of grape must base materials was done at the laboratory in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Szent István University. The origin of the table grapes used for the examination was Gödöllő-hillside. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE

  3. Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices along the camel milk chain in Isiolo district, Kenya. ... Despite the important contribution of camel milk to food security for pastoralists in Kenya, little is known about the postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices. In this study, existing ...

  4. Nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Hohn, H.; Schad, M.; Schwarz, D.; Singh, J.

    1993-01-01

    In a system for the application of high temperature heat from the HTR one must distinguish between the current generation and the use of process heat. In this respect it is important that the current can be generated by dual purpose power plants. The process heat is used as sensible heat, vaporisation heat and as chemical energy at the chemical conversion for the conversion of raw materials, the refinement of fossil primary energy carriers and finally circuit processes for the fission of water. These processes supply the market for heat, fuels, motor fuels and basic materials. Fifteen examples of HTR heat processes from various projects and programmes are presented in form of energy balances, however in a rather short way. (orig./DG) [de

  5. Microwave processing heats up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwaves are a common appliance in many households. In the United States microwave heating is the third most popular domestic heating method food foods. Microwave heating is also a commercial food processing technology that has been applied for cooking, drying, and tempering foods. It's use in ...

  6. Process heat. Triggering the processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2012-07-01

    If solar process heat is to find a market, then the decision makers in industrial companies need to be aware that it actually exists. This was one of the main goals of the So-Pro project, which officially drew to a close in April 2012. (orig.)

  7. Irradiation preservation processing study of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shihong; Zhu Zhaodi

    1992-01-01

    Radiation preservation processing of strawberry was studied. The results show that single seal processing or combining with irradiation processing under given doses is of no practical value, but only combining with chill processing can promote lengthening period of fresh keeping. Single irradiation processing under given doses provides not only good initial state, but also the beginning of bad development at top speed on microorganism. The composite processing of irradiation, chill and seal can supply extended shelf lifetime with optimum value of dual synergetic effect

  8. Nuclear process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulten, R [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorentwicklung

    1976-05-01

    It is anticipated that the coupled utilization of coal and nuclear energy will achieve great importance in the future, the coal serving mainly as raw material and nuclear energy more as primary energy. Prerequisite for this development is the availability of high-temperature reactors, the state of development of which is described here. Raw materials for coupled use with nuclear process heat are petroleum, natural gas, coal, lignite, and water. Steam reformers heated by nuclear process heat, which are suitable for numerous processes, are expected to find wide application. The article describes several individual methods, all based on the transport of gas in pipelines, which could be utilized for the long distance transport of 'nuclear energy'.

  9. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  10. Heat pump augmentation of nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutz, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    A system is described for increasing the temperature of a working fluid heated by a nuclear reactor. The system consists of: a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor having a core and a primary cooling loop through which a coolant is circulated so as to undergo an increase in temperature, a closed secondary loop having a working fluid therein, the cooling and secondary loops having cooperative association with an intermediate heat exchanger adapted to effect transfer of heat from the coolant to the working fluid as the working fluid passes through the intermediate heat exchanger, a heat pump connected in the secondary loop and including a turbine and a compressor through which the working fluid passes so that the working fluid undergoes an increase in temperature as it passes through the compressor, a process loop including a process chamber adapted to receive a process fluid therein, the process chamber being connected in circuit with the secondary loop so as to receive the working fluid from the compressor and transfer heat from the working fluid to the process fluid, a heat exchanger for heating the working fluid connected to the process loop for receiving heat therefrom and for transferring heat to the secondary loop prior to the working fluid passing through the compressor, the secondary loop being operative to pass the working fluid from the process chamber to the turbine so as to effect driving relation thereof, a steam generator operatively associated with the secondary loop so as to receive the working fluid from the turbine, and a steam loop having a feedwater supply and connected in circuit with the steam generator so that feedwater passing through the steam loop is heated by the steam generator, the steam loop being connected in circuit with the process chamber and adapted to pass steam to the process chamber with the process fluid

  11. 29 CFR 1926.354 - Welding, cutting, and heating in way of preservative coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and heating in way of preservative... Welding and Cutting § 1926.354 Welding, cutting, and heating in way of preservative coatings. (a) Before welding, cutting, or heating is commenced on any surface covered by a preservative coating whose...

  12. Solar Process Heat Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process Heat Basics Solar Process Heat Basics Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be

  13. Designing heat exchangers for process heat reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    A brief account is given of the IAEA specialist meeting on process heat applications technology held in Julich, November 1979. The main emphasis was on high temperature heat exchange. Papers were presented covering design requirements, design construction and prefabrication testing, and selected problems. Primary discussion centered around mechanical design, materials requirements, and structural analysis methods and limits. It appears that high temperature heat exchanges design to nuclear standards, is under extensive development but will require a lengthy concerted effort before becoming a commercial reality. (author)

  14. Progress of electron processing system useful for environmental preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Yasuhisa

    1998-01-01

    Electron Processing has been used in the field of industrial application, mainly to process plastics or polymers, which is represented by the cross-linking of Polyethylene to improve heat resistance. On the other hand, there has been many research studies to use Electron Beam for an environmental preservation. Typical examples are Sterilization of Food, Flue Gas Treatment, Sterilization of Waste Water Sludge, Purification of Water, Removal of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC), etc. These research works have been done in the USA, Germany, Austria, Japan, etc. They reported some of the features of electron beam method. In addition, there is an unique report that the combination of Ozone and Electron Beam provides a better efficiency of the purification of the water. Recently, they have started the investigation for the practical use of Electron Beam in the environmental application. Flue gas treatment is a remarkable example of the investigation. They built the demonstration plant last year and they started the operation last fall. Presently, the system is in a demonstrative operation. This paper will report an outline of the R and D works of environmental applications of Electron Beam and also will introduce the latest technologies of Electron Processing Systems which will be available for the environmental preservation. (author)

  15. 29 CFR 1915.53 - Welding, cutting and heating in way of preservative coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting and heating in way of preservative... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Welding, Cutting and Heating § 1915.53 Welding, cutting and heating in way of... and shipbulding and shall not apply to shipbreaking. (b) Before welding, cutting or heating is...

  16. The Thermos process heat reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, Bernard

    1979-01-01

    The THERMOS process heat reactor was born from the following idea: the hot water energy vector is widely used for heating purposes in cities, so why not save on traditional fossil fuels by simply substituting a nuclear boiler of comparable power for the classical boiler installed in the same place. The French Atomic Energy Commission has techniques for heating in the big French cities which provide better guarantees for national independence and for the environment. This THERMOS technique would result in a saving of 40,000 to 80,000 tons of oil per year [fr

  17. nestor Guideline for Preservation Planning – a Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Schrimpf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The nestor guideline for preservation planning is the latest in a series of nestor publications. nestor is the German competence network for digital preservation and it offers all interested parties from the private and public domains the possibility to participate in working groups. The guideline for preservation planning is the result of such a working group, which discussed the conceptual and practical issues of implementing the OAIS Functional Entity “Preservation Planning”.The guideline describes a process model and offers some guidance on potential implementations. It integrates and builds on recognized community concepts like Significant Properties, the OAIS Designated Community, the National Archives of Australia’s Performance Model, the PREMIS concept of Intellectual Entities and Representations, and the PLANET’s approach to preservation planning. Furthermore, it introduces the concepts “intended use” (Nutzungsziele, “information type” (Informationstyp and “preservation group” (Erhaltungsgruppe. The purpose of these new categories is that information objects shall be grouped by information type (e.g., audio, video, text… and intended use (e.g., reading for pleasure, search for specific information… to preservation groups for automatic processing. Significant properties can then be derived for whole preservation groups. The file format alone is considered as not completely sufficient for such categorisation. Some exemplary implementation solutions of the new concepts are presented in an annex.The guideline takes into account that resources for preservation planning and preservation actions are limited and has therefore adopted 4 premises: adequacy, financial viability, automation, and authenticity of archived objects. Its pragmatic approach becomes apparent in the definition and explanation of these dimensions. The guideline is written from the point of view of representatives of memory institutions, i

  18. Nuclear energy and process heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozier, K.S

    1999-10-01

    Nuclear energy generated in fission reactors is a versatile commodity that can, in principle, satisfy any and all of mankind's energy needs through direct or indirect means. In addition to its dominant current use for electricity generation and, to a lesser degree, marine propulsion, nuclear energy can and has been used for process heat applications, such as space heating, industrial process heating and seawater desalination. Moreover, a wide variety of reactor designs has been employed to this end in a range of countries. From this spectrum of experience, two design approaches emerge for nuclear process heating (NPH): extracting a portion of the thermal energy from a nuclear power plant (NPP) (i.e., creating a combined heat and power, or CHP, plant) and transporting it to the user, or deploying dedicated nuclear heating plants (NHPs) in generally closer proximity to the thermal load. While the former approach is the basis for much of the current NPH experience, considerable recent interest exists for the latter, typically involving small, innovative reactor plants with enhanced and passive safety features. The high emphasis on inherent nuclear safety characteristics in these reactor designs reflects the need to avoid any requirement for evacuation of the public in the event of an accident, and the desire for sustained operation and investment protection at minimum cost. Since roughly 67% of mankind's primary energy usage is not in the form of electricity, a vast potential market for NPH systems exists, particularly at the low-to-moderate end-use temperatures required for residential space heating and several industrial applications. Although only About 0.5% of global nuclear energy production is presently used for NPH applications, an expanded role in the 21st century seems inevitable, in part, as a measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. While the technical aspects of many NPH applications are considered to be well proven, a

  19. Nuclear energy and process heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozier, K.S.

    1999-10-01

    Nuclear energy generated in fission reactors is a versatile commodity that can, in principle, satisfy any and all of mankind's energy needs through direct or indirect means. In addition to its dominant current use for electricity generation and, to a lesser degree, marine propulsion, nuclear energy can and has been used for process heat applications, such as space heating, industrial process heating and seawater desalination. Moreover, a wide variety of reactor designs has been employed to this end in a range of countries. From this spectrum of experience, two design approaches emerge for nuclear process heating (NPH): extracting a portion of the thermal energy from a nuclear power plant (NPP) (i.e., creating a combined heat and power, or CHP, plant) and transporting it to the user, or deploying dedicated nuclear heating plants (NHPs) in generally closer proximity to the thermal load. While the former approach is the basis for much of the current NPH experience, considerable recent interest exists for the latter, typically involving small, innovative reactor plants with enhanced and passive safety features. The high emphasis on inherent nuclear safety characteristics in these reactor designs reflects the need to avoid any requirement for evacuation of the public in the event of an accident, and the desire for sustained operation and investment protection at minimum cost. Since roughly 67% of mankind's primary energy usage is not in the form of electricity, a vast potential market for NPH systems exists, particularly at the low-to-moderate end-use temperatures required for residential space heating and several industrial applications. Although only About 0.5% of global nuclear energy production is presently used for NPH applications, an expanded role in the 21st century seems inevitable, in part, as a measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. While the technical aspects of many NPH applications are considered to be well proven, a determined

  20. Recent trends and developments in infrared heating in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Navin K

    2012-01-01

    Fruit processing and preservation technologies must keep fresh-like characteristics while providing an acceptable and convenient shelf life as well as assuring safety and nutritional value. Processing technologies include a wide range of methodologies to inactivate microorganisms, improve quality and stability, and preserve and minimize changes of fruit fresh-like characteristics. Infrared (IR) heating offers many advantages over conventional heating under similar conditions, which include reduced heating time, uniform heating, reduced quality losses, versatile, simple and compact equipment, and significant energy saving. The integration of IR with other matured processing operations such as blanching, dehydration, freeze-dehydration, thawing, roasting, baking, cooking has been shown to open up new processing options. Combinations of IR heating with microwave heating and other common conductive and convective modes of heating have been gaining momentum because of increased energy throughput. A number of publications and patents have demonstrated novel and diverse uses of this technology. This review aims at identifying the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. The effect of IR on food quality attributes is also discussed. The types of equipment commonly used for IR processing have also been summarized.

  1. The effect of heat preservation time on the electrochemical properties of LiFePO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rui; Zhang, Lihui; Bai, Xue; Liu, Zhenfa

    2017-12-01

    LiFePO4 was prepared via high temperature solid-state method at different heat preservation time. XRD and SEM was used to test the structure and morphology of LiFePO4. Land 2001 was used to test the electrochemical performance of LiFePO4. The results illustrated that well-crystallized LiFePO4 composite with homogeneous small particles was obtained by XRD and SEM. And the optimum heat preservation time was 4 hour. From charge/discharge test, it can be seen that at 0.2C, LiFePO4 has initial discharge capacities of 159.1mAh/g at the heat preservation time 4 hour. From the rate capacity, it can be seen that the discharge capacity was of optimum sample remains above 99% after 200 cycles.

  2. Combination of preservation factors applied to minimal processing of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia de Daza, M S; Alzamora, S M; Chanes, J W

    1996-07-01

    Innovative technologies for producing minimally processed (MP) foods that apply the concept of combination of preservation factors are addressed in this article with special emphasis on a new combined approach that has been successfully applied in several Latin American countries for MP high-moisture fruit products (HMFP). HMFP can be regarded as a different approach to the commercially available and widely accepted MP concept for fruits and vegetables (even if developed for the same purpose of obtaining freshlike high-quality products with an extended shelf life) that is better adapted to Latin American countries in terms of independence of the chill chain and the use of simple and energy-efficient technologies. The continuous refrigeration hurdle associated with MP refrigerated fruits is not included in the preservation system of HMFP because a different combination of hurdles must be overcome to enhance the shelf stability of nonrespiring vegetable tissues while preserving freshlike character. Guidelines to obtain safe and high-quality MP fruit products are proposed. Other products preserved by combined factors technology are also discussed, as well as some other classical and new preservation factors whose application could enhance the quality of HMFP.

  3. Industrial process heat market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve

  4. Industrial process heat market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve.

  5. High temperature heat exchange: nuclear process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrable, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    The unique element of the HTGR system is the high-temperature operation and the need for heat exchanger equipment to transfer nuclear heat from the reactor to the process application. This paper discusses the potential applications of the HTGR in both synthetic fuel production and nuclear steel making and presents the design considerations for the high-temperature heat exchanger equipment

  6. Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

  7. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  8. Heat Transfer in a Thermoacoustic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beke, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Thermoacoustic instability is defined as the excitation of acoustic modes in chambers with heat sources due to the coupling between acoustic perturbations and unsteady heat addition. The major objective of this paper is to achieve accurate theoretical results in a thermoacoustic heat transfer process. We carry out a detailed heat transfer analysis…

  9. Polarization preserving ultra fast optical shutter for quantum information processing

    OpenAIRE

    Spagnolo, Nicolo'; Vitelli, Chiara; Giacomini, Sandro; Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We present the realization of a ultra fast shutter for optical fields, which allows to preserve a generic polarization state, based on a self-stabilized interferometer. It exhibits high (or low) transmittivity when turned on (or inactive), while the fidelity of the polarization state is high. The shutter is realized through two beam displacing prisms and a longitudinal Pockels cell. This can represent a useful tool for controlling light-atom interfaces in quantum information processing.

  10. Modeling of Heating During Food Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, Ivanka; Kamburova, Veselka

    Heat transfer processes are important for almost all aspects of food preparation and play a key role in determining food safety. Whether it is cooking, baking, boiling, frying, grilling, blanching, drying, sterilizing, or freezing, heat transfer is part of the processing of almost every food. Heat transfer is a dynamic process in which thermal energy is transferred from one body with higher temperature to another body with lower temperature. Temperature difference between the source of heat and the receiver of heat is the driving force in heat transfer.

  11. Phase change heat transfer device for process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Patterson, Mike; Utgikar, Vivek; Gunnerson, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to ∼1300 K) and industrial scale power transport (≥50 MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+ m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a thermal device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via 'pumping a fluid', a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization/condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e., without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) of vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  12. Process heat supply requirements on HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    Since it has been claimed that the MHTGR is competitive with coal in producing electricity, the MHTGR must be competitive in producing process heat. There is a huge process heat market and there are quite a number of processes where the industrial MHTGR = HTRI could supply the necessary process heat and energy. However, to enhance its introduction on the market and to conquer a reasonable share of the market, the HTRI should fulfill the following major requirements: Unlimited constant and flexible heat supply, no secondary heat transport system at higher temperatures and low radioactive contamination level of the primary helium. Unlimited constant and flexible heat supply could be achieved with smaller HTRIs having heat generation capacities below 100 MW-th. The process heat generated by smaller HTRIs need not be more expensive since the installed necessary heat supply redundancy is smaller and the excess power density lower. The process heat at elevated temperatures generated by a HTRI with a secondary heat transfer system is much more expensive due to the additional investment and operating cost as well as the reduced helium temperature span available. For some processes, the HTRI is not able to cover the total process heat requirement while other processes can consume only part of the heat offered. These limitations could be reduced by using higher core outlet and inlet temperatures or both. Due to the considerably lower heat transfer rates and the resulting larger heat transfer areas in process plants, the diffusion of nuclear activity at elevated temperatures may increase so that a more efficient helium cleaning system may be required. (author). 5 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Process heat recovery: hot prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    By updating established technologies to recover heat at higher temperatures and under more corrosive conditions, British industry could recover six to eight million tons of coal equivalent that it currently wastes. Organic liquids in organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines and simpler designs than steam turbines can increase efficiency. They also eliminate the need for vacuum pumps and permit the use of air cooling. Cooperative government-private industry research programs are exploring the use of ORC engines. Other heat-recovery projects include a Scottish paper mill, a metal decorating and printing plant, a falling-cloud heat exchanger, and heat-pipe development. 4 figures, 1 table. (DCK)

  14. Heating and cooling processes in disks*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woitke Peter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter summarises current theoretical concepts and methods to determine the gas temperature structure in protoplanetary disks by balancing all relevant heating and cooling rates. The processes considered are non-LTE line heating/cooling based on the escape probability method, photo-ionisation heating and recombination cooling, free-free heating/cooling, dust thermal accommodation and high-energy heating processes such as X-ray and cosmic ray heating, dust photoelectric and PAH heating, a number of particular follow-up heating processes starting with the UV excitation of H2, and the release of binding energy in exothermal reactions. The resulting thermal structure of protoplanetary disks is described and discussed.

  15. Nuclear reactor plant for production process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.

    1979-01-01

    The high temperature reactor is suitable as a heat source for carrying out endothermal chemical processes. A heat exchanger is required for separating the reactor coolant gases and the process medium. The heat of the reactor is transferred at a temperature lower than the process temperature to a secondary gas and is compressed to give the required temperature. The compression energy is obtained from the same reactor. (RW) [de

  16. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  17. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Hak Soo; Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin; Kang, Il Jun; Kwon, Jung Ho

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity

  18. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  19. OMR type process heat reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzetti, Franco.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of an OMR type reactor for heat generation. It includes a vessel the upper part of which is shut by a plug. The lower part of the vessel includes a core of fuel elements and is filled with an organic liquid. Over this there is a middle area filled with an inert gas. The plug includes an upper part forming a closure and resting around its edge on the vessel, and a lower part fixed under the closure and composed of a hollow cylindrical tank fitted with a bottom and filled with another organic liquid. The height of the cylindrical tank is such that, increased by the height of the first organic liquid in the lower area and above the core, it provides biological protection. The cooling system includes a heat exchanger and a pump to move the liquid from the lower part of the core and to inject some as spray into that part of the vessel filled with the inert gas. When loading and unloading, after the reactor is shut down, the clear organic liquid contained in the plug is discharged into the reactor vessel in such a way that it does not mix with the opaque organic liquid already contained in the vessel, and in that the opaque organic liquid is emptied out [fr

  20. Detailed process design based on genomics of survivors of food preservation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Klis, F.M.; Oomes, S.J.C.M.; Montijn, R.C.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Coote, P.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    The food processing industry is faced with an ever-increasing demand for safe and minimally processed wholesome foods. In order to come to a knowledge-based rather than a mainly empirical combination of appropriate preservation hurdles, we will introduce the application of the recently booming

  1. PWR type process heat reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, Gilles; Petit, Guy.

    1974-01-01

    The nuclear reactor described is of the pressurized water type. It includes a prestressed concrete vessel, the upper part of which is shut by a closure, and a core surrounded by a core ring. The core fuel assemblies are supported by an initial set of vertical tubes integral with the bottom of the vessel, which serve to guide the rods of the control system. Over the core there is a second set of vertical tubes, able to receive the absorbing part of a control rod when this is raised above the core. An annular pressurizer around the core ring keeps the water in a liquid state. A pump is located above the second set of tubes and is integral with the closure. It circulates the water between the core and the intake of at least one primary heat exchanger, the exchanger (s) being placed between the wall of the vessel and the core ring [fr

  2. Solar process heat is becoming sexy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhart, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    Linear concentrating solar collectors for solar medium-temperature process heat: an exotic niche market has turned into a wide range of offers for commercial and private customers - and there is no end in sight to the technical developments. (orig.)

  3. Microwave heating processes involving carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, J.A.; Arenillas, A.; Fidalgo, B.; Fernandez, Y.; Zubizarreta, L.; Calvo, E.G.; Bermudez, J.M. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Carbon materials are, in general, very good absorbents of microwaves, i.e., they are easily heated by microwave radiation. This characteristic allows them to be transformed by microwave heating, giving rise to new carbons with tailored properties, to be used as microwave receptors, in order to heat other materials indirectly, or to act as a catalyst and microwave receptor in different heterogeneous reactions. In recent years, the number of processes that combine the use of carbons and microwave heating instead of other methods based on conventional heating has increased. In this paper some of the microwave-assisted processes in which carbon materials are produced, transformed or used in thermal treatments (generally, as microwave absorbers and catalysts) are reviewed and the main achievements of this technique are compared with those obtained by means of conventional (non microwave-assisted) methods in similar conditions. (author)

  4. Electromagnetic heating processes: analysis and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Calay, Rajnish Kaur

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic heating (EMH) processes are being increasingly used in the industrial and domestic sectors, yet they receive relatively little attention in the thermal engineering domain. Time-temperature characteristics in EMH are qualitatively different from those in conventional heating techniques due to the additional parameters (viz dielectric properties of the material, size and shape of the product and process frequency). From a unified theory perspective, a multi-...

  5. Advances in Nuclear Power Process Heat Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    Following an IAEA coordinated research project, this publication compiles the findings of research and development activities related to practical nuclear process heat applications. An overview of current progress on high temperature gas cooled reactors coupling schemes for different process heat applications, such as hydrogen production and desalination is included. The associated safety aspects are also highlighted. The summary report documents the results and conclusions of the project.

  6. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun

    2007-07-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  7. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun [and others

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  8. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun (and others)

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  9. Thermodynamic analysis on theoretical models of cycle combined heat exchange process: The reversible heat exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chenghu; Li, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Concept of reversible heat exchange process as the theoretical model of the cycle combined heat exchanger could be useful to determine thermodynamics characteristics and the limitation values in the isolated heat exchange system. In this study, the classification of the reversible heat exchange processes is presented, and with the numerical method, medium temperature variation tendency and the useful work production and usage in the whole process are investigated by the construction and solution of the mathematical descriptions. Various values of medium inlet temperatures and heat capacity ratio are considered to analyze the effects of process parameters on the outlet temperature lift/drop. The maximum process work transferred from the Carnot cycle region to the reverse cycle region is also researched. Moreover, influence of the separating point between different sub-processes on temperature variation profile and the process work production are analyzed. In addition, the heat-exchange-enhancement-factor is defined to study the enhancement effect of the application of the idealized process in the isolated heat exchange system, and the variation degree of this factor with process parameters change is obtained. The research results of this paper can be a theoretical guidance to construct the cycle combined heat exchange process in the practical system. - Highlights: • A theoretical model of Cycle combined heat exchange process is proposed. • The classification of reversible heat exchange process are presented. • Effects of Inlet temperatures and heat capacity ratio on process are analyzed. • Process work transmission through the whole process is studied. • Heat-exchange-enhancement-factor can be a criteria to express the application effect of the idealized process.

  10. METAL CHIP HEATING PROCESS INVESTIGATION (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Dyakonov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main calculation methods for heat- and mass transfer in porous heterogeneous medium have been considered. The paper gives an evaluation of the possibility to apply them for calculation of metal chip heating process. It has been shown that a description of transfer processes in a chip has its own specific character that is attributed to difference between thermal and physical properties of chip material and lubricant-coolant components on chip surfaces. It has been determined that the known expressions for effective heat transfer coefficients can be used as basic ones while approaching mutually penetrating continuums. A mathematical description of heat- and mass transfer in chip medium can be considered as a basis of mathematical modeling, numerical solution and parameter optimization of the mentioned processes.

  11. Relaxation processes during amorphous metal alloys heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinochka, E.Ya.; Durachenko, A.M.; Borisov, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    Behaviour of Te+15 at.%Ge and Fe+13 at.%P+7 at.%C amorphous metal alloys during heating has been studied using the method of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the most convenient one for determination of the value of heat effects, activation energies, temperature ranges of relaxation processes. Thermal effects corresponding to high-temperature relaxation processes taking place during amorphous metal alloys (AMA) heating are detected. The change of ratio of relaxation peaks values on DSC curves as a result of AMA heat treatment can be explained by the presence of a number of levels of inner energy in amorphous system, separated with potential barriers, the heights of which correspond to certain activation energies of relaxation processes

  12. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public

  13. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public.

  14. Heat shock and salicylic acid on postharvest preservation of organic strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidiane Coltro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock and salicylic acid have been studied on shelf-life extension of fruits. The benefits of these techniques have been related to their effect on inducing physiological defense responses against the oxidative stress and pathogen development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat shock and salicylic acid on the postharvest preservation and contents of total phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, fresh weight loss and microbiological quality of organic strawberries cv. Dover. Strawberries produced organically and stored at 5 ºC were subjected to heat shock (45 ºC ± 3 ºC for 3 h, application of salicylic acid (soaking in 2.0 mmol L-1 solution, heat shock in combination with salicylic acid and control. After treatment, the fruits were packed and stored in a climatic chamber at 5 ºC ± 2 ºC. At 1, 7 and 14 days, the experimental units were removed from refrigeration and kept at room temperature of approximately 20 ºC for two days. There was no effect of treatments on fresh weight loss, incidence of pathogens or chemical variations in strawberry fruits during the storage period. In natural conditions, organically grown strawberries remained in good condition for sale up to seven days of storage in all treatments.

  15. Heat transfer in a thermoacoustic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beke, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Thermoacoustic instability is defined as the excitation of acoustic modes in chambers with heat sources due to the coupling between acoustic perturbations and unsteady heat addition. The major objective of this paper is to achieve accurate theoretical results in a thermoacoustic heat transfer process. We carry out a detailed heat transfer analysis aimed at determining the stability–instability border of the thermoacoustic system. In this paper, we present a project type of physical examination and modelling task. We employed an electrically heated Rijke tube in our thermoacoustic project work. The aim of our project is to help our students enlarge their knowledge about thermodynamics, mainly about thermoacoustics, and develop their applied information technology and mathematical skills. (paper)

  16. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    1999-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamma irradiation at 2-10 kGy is considered to be an effective method to control pathogenic bacteria in species including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Gamma irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in beef. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Gamma irradiation on pre-rigor beef shortens the aging-period, improves tenderness and enhances the beef quality. And, a new beef processing method using gamma irradiation, such as in the low salt sausage and hygienic beef patty was developed. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats(beefs: 0-5 kGy; porks: 0-30 kGy) in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepato carcinogenesis and the anti oxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide, which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnuts, acorns, red beans and mung beans, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach.Current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfecting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of agricultural produce. However, irradiation doses suitable for controlling pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. (author)

  17. Application of radiation processing in meat preservation and hygienization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, P.; Chawla, S.P.; Louis, S.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fresh meat has limited shelf-life at refrigerated temperatures on account of microbial spoilage, discoloration due to oxidation of the pigment myoglobin, formation of drip and lipid oxidation leading to off-flavours. Presently meat is preserved by chilling/freezing, canning, salting, drying and modified atmosphere storage in conjunction with chilling. Irradiation has considerable potential as a cost-effective alternative or supplement to these presently used preservation methods. 2 tabs

  18. Improving Process Heating System Performance v3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-11

    Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry is a development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) and the Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA). The AMO and IHEA undertook this project as part of an series of sourcebook publications developed by AMO on energy-consuming industrial systems, and opportunities to improve performance. Other topics in this series include compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, steam systems, and motors and drives

  19. High temperature nuclear process heat systems for chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiacoletti, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The development planning and status of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor as a source of industrial process heat is presented. The dwindling domestic reserves of petroleum and natural gas dictate major increases in the utilization of coal and nuclear sources to meet the national energy demand. The nuclear process heat system offers a unique combination of the two that is environmentally and economically attractive and technically sound. Conceptual studies of several energy-intensive processes coupled to a nuclear heat source are presented

  20. Oil shales and the nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpinella, C.A.

    1974-01-01

    Two of the primary energy sources most dited as alternatives to the traditional fossil fuels are oil shales and nuclear energy. Several proposed processes for the extraction and utilization of oil and gas from shale are given. Possible efficient ways in which nuclear heat may be used in these processes are discussed [pt

  1. Preservative loss from silicone tubing during filling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Verena; Matilainen, Julia; Rothkopf, Christian; Serafin, Daniel; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    Significant loss of preservative was observed during filling of drug products during filling line stops. This study evaluated the losses of three commonly used preservatives in protein drugs, i.e. benzyl alcohol, phenol, and m-cresol. Concentration losses during static incubation were quantified and interpreted with regard to the potential driving forces for the underlying sorption, diffusion, and desorption steps. Partitioning from the solution into the silicone polymer was identified as the most decisive parameter for the extent of preservative loss. Additionally, the influence of tubing inner diameter, starting concentration as well as silicone tubing type was evaluated. Theoretical calculations assuming equilibrium between solution and tubing inner surface and one-directional diffusion following Fick's first law were used to approximate experimental data. Since significant losses were found already after few minutes, adequate measures must be taken to avoid deviations during filling of preservative-containing protein solutions that may impact product quality or antimicrobial efficacy. As a possible alternative to the highly permeable silicone tubing, a specific make of fluoropolymer tubing was identified being suitable for peristaltic pumps and not showing any preservative losses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling of Dielectric Heating within Lyophilization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kyncl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A process of lyophilization of paper books is modeled. The process of drying is controlled by a dielectric heating system. From the physical viewpoint, the task represents a 2D coupled problem described by two partial differential equations for the electric and temperature fields. The material parameters are supposed to be temperature-dependent functions. The continuous mathematical model is solved numerically. The methodology is illustrated with some examples whose results are discussed.

  3. Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Wright, Sarah; Wallace, Sarah; Hamilton, Tanner; Dennis, Alexander; Zuhlke, Craig; Roth, Nick; Sanders, John

    2017-01-01

    The reliance on non-permanent coatings in Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) designs is a significant technical issue to be solved before long-duration spaceflight can occur. Therefore, high reliability CHXs have been identified by the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as critical technologies needed to move beyond low earth orbit. The Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger project aims to solve these problems through the use of femtosecond laser processed surfaces, which have unique wetting properties and potentially exhibit anti-microbial growth properties. These surfaces were investigated to identify if they would be suitable candidates for a replacement CHX surface. Among the areas researched in this project include microbial growth testing, siloxane flow testing in which laser processed surfaces were exposed to siloxanes in an air stream, and manufacturability.

  4. Numerical simulation of heat transfer process in automotive brakes

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Voltas, David

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis concerns the theoretical investigations of the heat transfer process in automotive brakes. The process of heat generation and heat transfer to ambient air in automotive brake was presented. The two–dimensional, axi-symmetrical model of transient heat conduction for the brake was applied. The relevant boundary conditions, that describe the heat generated in the brake and the heat transferred to ambient air, were used. The unsteady heat conduction problem was solved by the...

  5. HTR's role in process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, Reiner

    2008-01-01

    Advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors create a number of new opportunities for nuclear process heat applications. These opportunities are based on the high-temperature heat available, smaller reactor sizes, and enhanced safety features that allow siting close to process plants. Major sources of value include the displacement of premium fuels and the elimination of CO 2 emissions from combustion of conventional fuels and their use to produce hydrogen. High value applications include steam production and cogeneration, steam methane reforming, and water splitting. Market entry by advanced high-temperature reactor technology is challenged by the evolution of nuclear licensing requirements in countries targeted for early applications, by the development of a customer base not familiar with nuclear technology and related issues, by convergence of oil industry and nuclear industry risk management, by development of public and government policy support, by resolution of nuclear waste and proliferation concerns, and by the development of new business entities and business models to support commercialization. New HTR designs may see a larger opportunity in process heat niche applications than in power given competition from larger advanced light water reactors. Technology development is required in many areas to enable these new applications, including the commercialization of new heat exchangers capable of operating at high temperatures and pressures, convective process reactors and suitable catalysts, water splitting system and component designs, and other process-side requirements. Key forces that will shape these markets include future fuel availability and pricing, implementation and monetization of CO 2 emission limits, and the formation of international energy and environmental policy that will support initiatives to provide the nuclear licensing frameworks and risk distribution needed to support private investment. This paper was developed based on a plenary

  6. Ways in which irradiation could improve the effectiveness of several existing food preservation processes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    With the introduction of irradiation as a possible food preservation method nearly three decades ago, there was a tendency to over-emphasise the advantages to be gained with this new process to the extent that some regarded this new technique as a panacea for most of the problems experienced in the preservation of food at that time. The pendulum swung to the other extreme when irradiation did not come up to the expectations associated with a so-called 'wonder' treatment and others took a decidedly pessimistic attitude towards the future of this process. The answer obviously lies between these two extreme views and fortunately this is the attitude prevailing in many countries towards irradiation treatment at the present time. The role of irradiation can be seen as supplementary and indeed complementary to existing preservation methods instead of being regarded as directly competitive. In this paper, several preservation processes will be considered such as heat treatment, canning and refrigeration, and the effectiveness of these methods in combination with irradiation treatment will be considered with respect to shelf-life extension of several important fruits and vegetables in South Africa. The possible mechanism of the combined or synergistic effect in relation to disease control in selected biological systems will also be discussed

  7. Process heat utilization from HTGR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Work performed by the Special Research Unit 163 to supplement industrial development projects in the subject field was devoted to specific problems. The major goal was to analyse available industrial developments for potential improvements in terms of process design and engineering in line with the latest know-how, in order to enhance the economic efficiency of available techniques and methods. So research into coal gasification by nuclear processes concentrated on the potentials of a method allowing significantly higher gasification temperatures due to the use of a so-called high-temperature heat pump operating on the basis of the gas turbine principle. Exergetic analyses were made for the processes using nuclear heat in order to optimise their energy consumption. Major steps in these processes are gas purification and gas separation. Especially for the latter step, novel techniques were studied and tested on lab scale, results being used for development towards technical scale application. One novel technique is a method for separating hydrogen from methane and carbon monoxide by means of a gas turbine process step, another research task resulted in a novel absorption technique in the liquid phase. Further, alternative solutions were studied which, other than the conventional gasification processes, comprise electrochemical and other chemical process steps. The important research topic concerned with the kinetics of coal gasification was made part of a special research program on the level of fundamental research. (orig./GL) [de

  8. Heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.

    1980-01-01

    A carbon dioxide laser system was constructed for the demonstration of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation. The system consisted of a frequency doubling stage, a gas reaction cell with its vacuum and high purity gas supply system, and provisions to measure the temperature changes by pressure, or alternatively, by density changes. The theoretical considerations for the choice of designs and components are dicussed.

  9. Preserving the Context of Interrupted Business Process Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassil, S.; Rinderle, S.B.; Keller, R.; Reichert, M.U.; Kropf, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    The capability to safely interrupt business process activities is an important requirement for advanced process-aware information systems. Indeed, exceptions stemming from the application environment often appear while one or more application-related process activities are running. Safely

  10. Preserving the Context of Interrupted Business Process Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassil, S.; Rinderle, S.B.; Keller, R.; Kropf, P.G.; Reichert, M.U.; Chen, C.S.; Filipe, J.; Seruca, I.; Cordeiro, J.

    2006-01-01

    The capability to safely interrupt business process activities is an important requirement for advanced process-aware information systems. Indeed, exceptions stemming from the application environment often appear while one or more application-related process activities are running. Safely

  11. Preservation of avocados (var. Fuerte) by heat and irradiation combined treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmelic, J.; Rubio, T.; Urbina, Y.M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The high national production of avocados expected for the next years asks for the opening of new markets to be reached by ship. For this reason, it is necessary to increase the shelf-life of avocados for a period of 40 days at least. Therefore, the effect of combined treatment: mild heat (46 0 C, 20 min) and low radiation doses (25, 50, 100 Gy), in avocados is studied. Additional parameters considered in this study are: wrapping with PVC film, storage temperature (7 0 C and room temperature), two different degrees of ripening. Best results are obtained with the lowest dose (25 Gy) and low degree of ripening of wrapped avocados, stored at 7 0 C. After 40 days, 98,6% of the avocados were well preserved and 85,5% after 50 days. When compared with non irradiated samples, avocados irradiated with 25 Gy show 25% and 34% higher undamaged percentage after 40 and 50 days of storage; respectively. A negative effect is obtained when irradiation is applied to avocados with a high degree of ripening. Room temperature is not suitable for a long storage period of avocados. (Author)

  12. Mechanism of bacterial inactivation by (+-limonene and its potential use in food preservation combined processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Espina

    Full Text Available This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments.

  13. Mechanism of Bacterial Inactivation by (+)-Limonene and Its Potential Use in Food Preservation Combined Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; Gelaw, Tilahun K.; de Lamo-Castellví, Sílvia; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+)-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+)-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+)-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+)-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+)-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS) allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+)-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+)-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+)-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+)-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+)-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments. PMID:23424676

  14. Design of common heat exchanger network for batch processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Heat integration of energy streams is very important for the efficient energy recovery in production systems. Pinch technology is a very useful tool for heat integration and maximizing energy efficiency. Creating of heat exchangers network as a common solution for systems in batch mode that will be applicable in all existing time slices is very difficult. This paper suggests a new methodology for design of common heat exchanger network for batch processes. Heat exchanger network designs were created for all determined repeatable and non-repeatable time periods – time slices. They are the basis for creating the common heat exchanger network. The common heat exchanger network as solution, satisfies all heat-transfer needs for each time period and for every existing combination of selected streams in the production process. This methodology use split of some heat exchangers into two or more heat exchange units or heat exchange zones. The reason for that is the multipurpose use of heat exchangers between different pairs of streams in different time periods. Splitting of large heat exchangers would maximize the total heat transfer usage of heat exchange units. Final solution contains heat exchangers with the minimum heat load as well as the minimum need of heat transfer area. The solution is applicable for all determined time periods and all existing stream combinations. - Highlights: •Methodology for design of energy efficient systems in batch processes. •Common Heat Exchanger Network solution based on designs with Pinch technology. •Multipurpose use of heat exchangers in batch processes

  15. Effects of Combined Heat and Preservative Treatment on Storability of Ponkan Fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan during Postharvest Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment and preservative application have been widely used during postharvest storage of many fresh products, but the effect of their combination on citrus storage has rarely been investigated. In this study, the optimal heat treatment (HT conditions and HT combined with preservative treatment were investigated for Ponkan fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan storage. Results indicated that HT at 55°C for 20 s can significantly reduce the decay rate of Ponkan fruit, and a combination of HT and 25% of the preservative dosage used in production of iminoctadine tris (albesilate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and imazalil significantly reduced the decay rate without affecting fruit quality. In addition, the increased fiber contents in fruit receiving the HT combined with preservative treatments may be a response preventing fungus infection and enhancing fruit storability and resistance. The above results suggested that the combination of HT and 25% of the preservative production dosage was optimal for controlling Ponkan fruit decay during storage.

  16. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  17. Nitrate records of a shallow ice core from East Antarctica: Atmospheric processes, preservation and climatic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Laluraj, C.M.; Thamban, M.; Naik, S.S.; Redkar, B.L.; Chaturvedi, A.; Ravindra, R.

    the influence of environmental variability on accumulation of NO sub(3) sup(-) over the past 450 years. The results confirmed that multiple processes were responsible for the production and preservation of NO sub(3) sup(-) in Antarctic ice. Correlation between...

  18. Intermediate heat exchanger for HTR process heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crambes, M.

    1980-01-01

    In the French study on the nuclear gasification of coal, the following options were recommended: Coal hydrogenation, the hydrogen being derived from CH 4 reforming under the effects of HTR heat; the use of an intermediate helium circuit between the nuclear plant and the reforming plant. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the heat exchanger designed to transfer heat from the primary to the intermediate circuit

  19. Minimal processing - preservation methods of the future: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, T.

    1994-01-01

    Minimal-processing technologies are modern techniques that provide sufficient shelf life to foods to allow their distribution, while also meeting the demands of the consumers for convenience and fresh-like quality. Minimal-processing technologies can be applied at various stages of the food distribution chain, in storage, in processing and/or in packaging. Examples of methods will be reviewed, including modified-atmosphere packaging, high-pressure treatment, sous-vide cooking and active packaging

  20. Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The producers and traders of fresh fruit and the processers should implement quality management practices and safety standards in farming, fresh fruit, processing and storage. This is to ensure safety, enhance consumption of fruits and fruit products for health of consumers and eliminate wastage. Key words: Fresh fruit, ...

  1. Correctness-preserving configuration of business process models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Dumas, M.; Gottschalk, F.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; La Rosa, M.; Mendling, J.; Fiadeiro, J.; Inverardi, P.

    2008-01-01

    Reference process models capture recurrent business operations in a given domain such as procurement or logistics. These models are intended to be configured to fit the requirements of specific organizations or projects, leading to individualized process models that are subsequently used for domain

  2. Intensification of Evaporation and Condensation Processes in Heat Exchange Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Vasiliev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes proposed design solutions for an intensification of heat transfer in evaporation and condensation heat exchangers. Complex experimental research of heat and mass transfer processes in flat and round cross-section miniature heat pipes is carried out. Optimization, development, manufacturing and an experimental investigation of copper miniature heat pipes with sintered powder are executed. Investigation results of capillary-porous structure properties that are used in evaporation and condensation heat-exchange apparatus are presented.

  3. Heat source model for welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan, D.D.

    2006-10-01

    One of the major industrial stakes of the welding simulation relates to the control of mechanical effects of the process (residual stress, distortions, fatigue strength... ). These effects are directly dependent on the temperature evolutions imposed during the welding process. To model this thermal loading, an original method is proposed instead of the usual methods like equivalent heat source approach or multi-physical approach. This method is based on the estimation of the weld pool shape together with the heat flux crossing the liquid/solid interface, from experimental data measured in the solid part. Its originality consists in solving an inverse Stefan problem specific to the welding process, and it is shown how to estimate the parameters of the weld pool shape. To solve the heat transfer problem, the interface liquid/solid is modeled by a Bezier curve ( 2-D) or a Bezier surface (3-D). This approach is well adapted to a wide diversity of weld pool shapes met for the majority of the current welding processes (TIG, MlG-MAG, Laser, FE, Hybrid). The number of parameters to be estimated is weak enough, according to the cases considered from 2 to 5 in 20 and 7 to 16 in 3D. A sensitivity study leads to specify the location of the sensors, their number and the set of measurements required to a good estimate. The application of the method on test results of welding TIG on thin stainless steel sheets in emerging and not emerging configurations, shows that only one measurement point is enough to estimate the various weld pool shapes in 20, and two points in 3D, whatever the penetration is full or not. In the last part of the work, a methodology is developed for the transient analysis. It is based on the Duvaut's transformation which overpasses the discontinuity of the liquid metal interface and therefore gives a continuous variable for the all spatial domain. Moreover, it allows to work on a fixed mesh grid and the new inverse problem is equivalent to identify a source

  4. ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE FROM PROCESSING AND PRESERVING OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES

    OpenAIRE

    APOSTOL CIPRIAN

    2017-01-01

    Given that the world population is increasing continuously in recent years, and natural resources are becoming increasingly scarce, ensuring healthy food problem is a global challenge. Nutritional value, palatability, and high degree of assimilation by the body makes fruits and vegetables are recommended and widely used in food, both fresh and preserved. The study aims at comparing the activity of manufacturing fruit and vegetable juices with the processing and preservation of ...

  5. Industrial process heat from CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilborn, J.S.; Seddon, W.A.; Barnstaple, A.G.

    1980-08-01

    It has been demonstrated on a large scale that CANDU reactors can produce industrial process steam as well as electricity, reliably and economically. The advantages of cogeneration have led to the concept of an Industrial Energy Park adjacent to the Bruce Nuclear Power Development in the province of Ontario. For steam demands between 300,000 and 500,00 lb/h (38-63 kg/s) and an annual load factor of 80%, the estimated cost of nuclear steam at the Bruce site boundary is $3.21/MBtu ($3.04GJ), which is at least 30% cheaper than oil-fired steam at the same site. The most promising near term application of nuclear heat is likely to be found within the energy-intensive chemical industry. Nuclear energy can substitute for imported oil and coal in the eastern provinces if the price remains competitive, but low cost coal and gas in the western provinces may induce energy-intensive industries to locate near those sources of energy. In the long term it may be feasible to use nuclear heat for the mining and extraction of oil from the Alberta tar sands. (auth)

  6. Heat pipe cooling of power processing magnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, I. G.; Chester, M.

    1979-01-01

    The constant demand for increased power and reduced mass has raised the internal temperature of conventionally cooled power magnetics toward the upper limit of acceptability. The conflicting demands of electrical isolation, mechanical integrity, and thermal conductivity preclude significant further advancements using conventional approaches. However, the size and mass of multikilowatt power processing systems may be further reduced by the incorporation of heat pipe cooling directly into the power magnetics. Additionally, by maintaining lower more constant temperatures, the life and reliability of the magnetic devices will be improved. A heat pipe cooled transformer and input filter have been developed for the 2.4 kW beam supply of a 30-cm ion thruster system. This development yielded a mass reduction of 40% (1.76 kg) and lower mean winding temperature (20 C lower). While these improvements are significant, preliminary designs predict even greater benefits to be realized at higher power. This paper presents the design details along with the results of thermal vacuum operation and the component performance in a 3 kW breadboard power processor.

  7. Food-processing, packaging and irradiation/preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Jyothi

    2017-01-01

    The present talk describes the major projects being carried out in FFACS during last few years. One of the major aims of the section is development of ready-to-cook (RTC) vegetables and ready-to-eat (RTE) fruits with improved shelf life using radiation processing. RTC vegetables and fruits (French beans, ash gourd, drumstick, pumpkin, cabbage, cauliflower and pomegranate having shelf life of 2-3 days at 10 °C) with enhanced shelf life (up to 21 days at 10°C) were developed using radiation treatment. The developed products were far superior as compared to the corresponding control samples with respect to sensory and microbial quality during the intended storage period. The findings have helped the food industry in adoption of food irradiation technology. The products developed are now being taken up by HyperCITY Retail (India) Ltd. for sale on their shelves

  8. Privacy preserving processing of genomic data: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Mete; Bayrak, A Osman; Ozer, Bugra; Sağıroğlu, M Şamil

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the rapid advance in genome sequencing technology has led to production of huge amount of sensitive genomic data. However, a serious privacy challenge is confronted with increasing number of genetic tests as genomic data is the ultimate source of identity for humans. Lately, privacy threats and possible solutions regarding the undesired access to genomic data are discussed, however it is challenging to apply proposed solutions to real life problems due to the complex nature of security definitions. In this review, we have categorized pre-existing problems and corresponding solutions in more understandable and convenient way. Additionally, we have also included open privacy problems coming with each genomic data processing procedure. We believe our classification of genome associated privacy problems will pave the way for linking of real-life problems with previously proposed methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Induction Heating Process Design Using COMSOL Multiphysics Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Triwinarko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Induction heating is clean environmental heating process due to a non-contact heating process. There is lots of the induction heating type that be used in the home appliance but it is still new technology in Indonesia. The main interesting area of the induction heating design is the efficiency of the usage of energy and choice of the plate material. COMSOL Multiphysics Software can be used to simulate and estimate the induction heating process. Therefore, the software can be used to design the induction heating process that will have a optimum efficiency. The properties of the induction heating design were also simulated and analyzed such as effect of inductors width, inductors distance, and conductive plate material. The result was shown that the good design of induction heating must have a short width and distance inductor and used silicon carbide as material plate with high frequency controller.

  10. An Interactive Procedure to Preserve the Desired Edges during the Image Processing of Noise Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Tsang Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper propose a new procedure including four stages in order to preserve the desired edges during the image processing of noise reduction. A denoised image can be obtained from a noisy image at the first stage of the procedure. At the second stage, an edge map can be obtained by the Canny edge detector to find the edges of the object contours. Manual modification of an edge map at the third stage is optional to capture all the desired edges of the object contours. At the final stage, a new method called Edge Preserved Inhomogeneous Diffusion Equation (EPIDE is used to smooth the noisy images or the previously denoised image at the first stage for achieving the edge preservation. The Optical Character Recognition (OCR results in the experiments show that the proposed procedure has the best recognition result because of the capability of edge preservation.

  11. Research of the heat exchanging processes running in the heating and hot water supply loops of the coil heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Геннадіївна Шитікова

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The fuel-energy complex research has made it possible to disclose a huge power-saving potential in the municipal heat-and-power engineering. Power-and-resource-saving units and systems are becoming extremely urgent because of the power engineering crisis expansion. The self-adjusting heat supply system from the individual heating points with the heat-accumulating units and coil heat exchangers for independent heating and water supply systems has been examined. Coil heat exchangers are used in municipal heating for heat transfer (e.g. geothermal waters for the independent mains of the heating and hot water supply systems. The heat engineering calculation of the heating and accumulating unit with the coil heat exchanger for independent heat supply systems from individual heater was performed and experimental data were received at the experimental industrial unit under the laboratory conditions. The peculiarities of the flows in the intertubular space, their influence on the heat exchange and temperatures of the first and intermediate mains have been shown. It is important to know the processes running inside the apparatus to be able to improve the technical characteristics of the three-loop coil heat exchanger. The task solution will make it possible to save the materials consumption for the three-loop coil heat exchangers in the future

  12. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  13. Thermal control system. [removing waste heat from industrial process spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, D. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The temperature of an exothermic process plant carried aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft is regulated using a number of curved radiator panels accurately positioned in a circular arrangement to form an open receptacle. A module containing the process is insertable into the receptacle. Heat exchangers having broad exterior surfaces extending axially above the circumference of the module fit within arcuate spacings between adjacent radiator panels. Banks of variable conductance heat pipes partially embedded within and thermally coupled to the radiator panels extend across the spacings and are thermally coupled to broad exterior surfaces of the heat exchangers by flanges. Temperature sensors monitor the temperature of process fluid flowing from the module through the heat exchanges. Thermal conduction between the heat exchangers and the radiator panels is regulated by heating a control fluid within the heat pipes to vary the effective thermal length of the heat pipes in inverse proportion to changes in the temperature of the process fluid.

  14. Acute volume expansion preserves orthostatic tolerance during whole-body heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, David M; Low, David A; Wingo, Jonathan E; Brothers, R Matthew; Hastings, Jeff; Davis, Scott L; Crandall, Craig G

    2009-03-01

    Whole-body heat stress reduces orthostatic tolerance via a yet to be identified mechanism(s). The reduction in central blood volume that accompanies heat stress may contribute to this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute volume expansion prior to the application of an orthostatic challenge attenuates heat stress-induced reductions in orthostatic tolerance. In seven normotensive subjects (age, 40 +/- 10 years: mean +/- S.D.), orthostatic tolerance was assessed using graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) until the onset of symptoms associated with ensuing syncope. Orthostatic tolerance (expressed in cumulative stress index units, CSI) was determined on each of 3 days, with each day having a unique experimental condition: normothermia, whole-body heating, and whole-body heating + acute volume expansion. For the whole-body heating + acute volume expansion experimental day, dextran 40 was rapidly infused prior to LBNP sufficient to return central venous pressure to pre-heat stress values. Whole-body heat stress alone reduced orthostatic tolerance by approximately 80% compared to normothermia (938 +/- 152 versus 182 +/- 57 CSI; mean +/- S.E.M., P body heating completely ameliorated the heat stress-induced reduction in orthostatic tolerance (1110 +/- 69 CSI, P stress results in many cardiovascular and neural responses that directionally challenge blood pressure regulation, reduced central blood volume appears to be an underlying mechanism responsible for impaired orthostatic tolerance in the heat-stressed human.

  15. Process Heat Exchanger Options for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  16. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Kim, Eung Soo; McKellar, Michael; Anderson, Nolan

    2011-01-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  17. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-04-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  18. Effect of nitrite on the microbiological stability of canned Vienna sausages preserved by mild heat treatment or combinations of heat and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Zukal, E.; Incze, K.

    1973-01-01

    Keeping quality of Vienna sausages packed in No. 1/5 cans (ca 200 g) with salt brine and heat treated with F 0 values in the range of 0.25-0.55 was studied as a function of sodium nitrate addition. In uninoculated cans the heat requirement of preservation proved to be about 0.3 F 0 in the presence of 300 ppm NaNO 2 . A heat treatment of 0.55 F 0 and 200 ppm NaNO 2 resulted in higher microbiological stability of cans inoculated with 2x10 4 /tin Clostridium sporogenes spores than a heat treatment of 1.9 F 0 without nitrite addition. The effect of the combination of heat treatment of 0.35-0.55 F 0 and 0.45 Mrad of gamma irradiation was also studied with inoculated cans. The combination of irradiation plus heat resulted in a higher microbiological stability of the samples than the reversed order of the treatments, but this synergistic effect could not be proved in all experiments. The addition of 200 ppm NaNO 2 was not as effective in increasing the shelf-life of combination treated samples as with the solely heat treated ones. In a medium composed of a 50% extract of Vienna sausages (pH 6.4, asub(w) 0.96) and inoculated with 10 5 per ml Clostridium sporogenes spores 100 ppm or more NaNO 2 was required to ensure microbiological stability of samples heat treated with F 0 0.4. In the range of the permitted concentration level for canned meat products, sodium nitrite did not influence the heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes, but inhibited the germination of the surviving spores. (F.J.)

  19. Preservation of canned Vienna sausage by combination of heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incze, K.; Farkas, J.; Zukal, E.

    1973-01-01

    Since no texture improver is permitted in Hungarian Vienna sausage, the heat treatment necessary for bacteriological safety causes texture and consistency problems with this type of product. The aim of the investigations was to lower the heat damage by using a combination of mild heat treatment and irradiation. During the experiments an irradiation dose of 0.45 Mrad was combined with heat treatments of various F 0 values (0.2-0.5). F 0 of the control was 1.9. Naturally contaminated samples were used. Storage temperature was 30 0 C, storage time up to 2 months. Combination of irradiation (0.45 Mrad) and heat treatment (F 0 =0.4) - regardless of the sequence - gave satisfactory results in shelf-life and excellent results in organoleptic properties as compared to traditionally heat treated samples. This statement is valid for uninoculated samples only. (F.J.)

  20. Optimization of preservation and processing of sea anemones for microbial community analysis using molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joana; Coelho, Francisco J R C; Peixe, Luísa; Gomes, Newton C M; Calado, Ricardo

    2014-11-11

    For several years, knowledge on the microbiome associated with marine invertebrates was impaired by the challenges associated with the characterization of bacterial communities. With the advent of culture independent molecular tools it is possible to gain new insights on the diversity and richness of microorganisms associated with marine invertebrates. In the present study, we evaluated if different preservation and processing methodologies (prior to DNA extraction) can affect the bacterial diversity retrieved from snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community fingerprints were used as proxy to determine the bacterial diversity retrieved (H'). Statistical analyses indicated that preservation significantly affects H'. The best approach to preserve and process A. viridis biomass for bacterial community fingerprint analysis was flash freezing in liquid nitrogen (preservation) followed by the use of a mechanical homogenizer (process), as it consistently yielded higher H'. Alternatively, biomass samples can be processed fresh followed by cell lyses using a mechanical homogenizer or mortar &pestle. The suitability of employing these two alternative procedures was further reinforced by the quantification of the 16S rRNA gene; no significant differences were recorded when comparing these two approaches and the use of liquid nitrogen followed by processing with a mechanical homogenizer.

  1. Pasteurization of citrus juices with ohmic heating to preserve the carotenoid profile

    OpenAIRE

    Achir , Nawel; Dhuique-Mayer , Claudie; Hadjal , Thiziri; Madani , Khodir; Pain , Jean-Pierre; Dornier , Manuel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This study was carried out to assess, for the first time, the effect of ohmic heating on the carotenoid profile of two citrus fruit juices: grapefruit and blood orange. Two heat treatments were designed to obtain pasteurization values of 50 and 150 min (Tref= 70°C and z-value=10°C) with ohmic heating as compared to conventional heating. The results showed that xanthophyll losses could reach 70% for epoxyxanthophylls (cis-violaxanthin and cis-antheraxanthin) and 40% for...

  2. Technical review of process heat applications using the HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, G.

    1976-06-01

    The demand for process heat applications is surveyed. Those applications which can be served only by the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) are identified and the status of process heat applications in Europe, USA, and Japan in December 1975 is discussed. Technical problems associated with the HTGR for process heat applications are outlined together with an appraisal of the safety considerations involved. (author)

  3. Process heat transfer principles, applications and rules of thumb

    CERN Document Server

    Serth, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Process Heat Transfer is a reference on the design and implementation of industrial heat exchangers. It provides the background needed to understand and master the commercial software packages used by professional engineers in the design and analysis of heat exchangers. This book focuses on types of heat exchangers most widely used by industry: shell-and-tube exchangers (including condensers, reboilers and vaporizers), air-cooled heat exchangers and double-pipe (hairpin) exchangers. It provides a substantial introduction to the design of heat exchanger networks using pinch technology, the mos

  4. ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE FROM PROCESSING AND PRESERVING OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APOSTOL CIPRIAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Given that the world population is increasing continuously in recent years, and natural resources are becoming increasingly scarce, ensuring healthy food problem is a global challenge. Nutritional value, palatability, and high degree of assimilation by the body makes fruits and vegetables are recommended and widely used in food, both fresh and preserved. The study aims at comparing the activity of manufacturing fruit and vegetable juices with the processing and preservation of fruit and vegetables to highlight which of the two is more efficient in the economic and financial point of view. Through a descriptive and comparative analysis of specific indicators are reflected the main aspects of the performance of the two sectors in Romania. The main source of information is the National Agency for Fiscal Administration. The period analyzed is from 2008, when started financial and economic crisis in Romania, and 2015, because until this year were available the necessary information, which can explain the evolution of performance not only during the crisis, as well as after it is finished. In this study, it was found that the industry processing and preservation of fruits and vegetables in Romania is quite efficient and has been constantly developing, but mainly in the processing and preservation of fruits and vegetables, the production of fruit and vegetables recording much lower.

  5. Nuclear heat source design for an advanced HTGR process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; O'Hanlon, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    A high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with a chemical process facility could produce synthetic fuels (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, methanol, hydrogen, etc.) in the long term using low-grade carbon sources (e.g., coal, oil shale, etc.). The ultimate high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant is being studied for nuclear process heat. This paper discusses a process heat plant with a 2240-MW(t) nuclear heat source, a reactor outlet temperature of 950 0 C, and a direct reforming process. The nuclear heat source outputs principally hydrogen-rich synthesis gas that can be used as a feedstock for synthetic fuel production. This paper emphasizes the design of the nuclear heat source and discusses the major components and a deployment strategy to realize an advanced HTGR process heat plant concept

  6. HTR process heat applications, status of technology and economical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical and industrial feasibility of the production of high temperature heat from nuclear fuel is presented. The technical feasibility of high temperature heat consuming processes is reviewed and assessed. The conclusion is drawn that the next technological step for pilot plant scale demonstration is the nuclear heated steam reforming process. The economical potential of HTR process heat applications is reviewed: It is directly coupled to the economical competitiveness of HTR electricity production. Recently made statements and pre-conditions on the economic competitiveness in comparison to world market coal are reported. (author). 8 figs

  7. Outsourcing Set Intersection Computation Based on Bloom Filter for Privacy Preservation in Multimedia Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of cloud computing, the advantages of low cost and high computation ability meet the demands of complicated computation of multimedia processing. Outsourcing computation of cloud could enable users with limited computing resources to store and process distributed multimedia application data without installing multimedia application software in local computer terminals, but the main problem is how to protect the security of user data in untrusted public cloud services. In recent years, the privacy-preserving outsourcing computation is one of the most common methods to solve the security problems of cloud computing. However, the existing computation cannot meet the needs for the large number of nodes and the dynamic topologies. In this paper, we introduce a novel privacy-preserving outsourcing computation method which combines GM homomorphic encryption scheme and Bloom filter together to solve this problem and propose a new privacy-preserving outsourcing set intersection computation protocol. Results show that the new protocol resolves the privacy-preserving outsourcing set intersection computation problem without increasing the complexity and the false positive probability. Besides, the number of participants, the size of input secret sets, and the online time of participants are not limited.

  8. Heat exchanger for coal gasification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiole, George A.

    1984-06-19

    This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

  9. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-05-01

    The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported [via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)] to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers

  10. Pulsed electric field processing preserves the antiproliferative activity of the milk fat globule membrane on colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S; Walkling-Ribeiro, M; Griffiths, M W; Corredig, M

    2015-05-01

    The present work evaluated the effect of processing on the antiproliferative activities of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) extracts. The antiproliferative activity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells of untreated MFGM extracts were compared with those extracted from pasteurized cream, thermally treated cream, or cream subjected to pulsed electrical field (PEF) processing. The PEF with a 37 kV/cm field strength applied for 1,705μs at 50 and 65°C was applied to untreated cream collected from a local dairy. Heating at 50 or 65°C for 3min (the passage time in the PEF chamber) was also tested to evaluate the heating effect during PEF treatments. The MFGM extracted from pasteurized cream did not show an antiproliferative activity. On the other hand, isolates from PEF-treated cream showed activity similar to that of untreated samples. It was also shown that PEF induced interactions between β-lactoglobulin and MFGM proteins at 65°C, whereas the phospholipid composition remained unaltered. This work demonstrates the potential of PEF not only a means to produce a microbiologically safe product, but also as a process preserving the biofunctionality of the MFGM. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Heat flow and geothermal processes in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flóvenz, Ólafur G.; Saemundsson, Kristján

    1993-09-01

    Heat flow values, derived from temperature measurements in shallow boreholes in Iceland, vary substantially across the country. The near-surface temperature gradients range from almost 0 to 500°C/km. The thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks varies from 1.6 to 2.0 W/m°C. The temperature gradient in Iceland is mainly dependent on four factors: (1) the regional heat flow through the crust, (2) hydrothermal activity, (3) the permeability of the rock, and (4) residual heat in extinct volcanic centers. As Iceland is mainly made of basaltic material the radiogenic heat production is almost negligible. The thermal conductivity is, on the other hand, mainly influenced by the porosity of the rock; it increases as the porosity decreases. Iceland is made of sequences of flood basalts that formed within the volcanic rift zone—a continuation of the axis of the Mid-Atlantic ridge—and subsequently drifted sideways. Fresh basaltic lava is usually highly porous (30%) and fractured, and heat is mainly transported by convection. Therefore, a very low or even no temperature gradient is observed at shallow levels within the volcanic rift zone. As the basalt becomes buried the pores close due to lithostatic pressure and formation of secondary minerals. Below 500-1000 m depth in an uneroded lava pile, the heat is mainly transported by conduction. In the lowlands and valleys of Iceland outside the volcanic rift zone, 1000-1500 m of the original lava pile has been eroded, leaving thermal conduction as the most important heat transport mechanism. The regional temperature gradient has been measured in drillholes in dense and poorly permeable rocks away from the geothermal fields. The results show that the temperature gradient varies from 50 to 150°C/km. The highest values are found close to the volcanic rift zone and the gradient decreases with distance from the spreading axis. This result is mainly based on numerous shallow boreholes (60-500 m) but in some cases the results

  12. Process heat cogeneration using a high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Ramirez, Ramon; Valle, Edmundo del; Castillo, Rogelio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HTR feasibility for process heat cogeneration is assessed. • A cogeneration coupling for HTR is proposed and process heat cost is evaluated. • A CCGT process heat cogeneration set up is also assessed. • Technical comparison between both sources of cogeneration is performed. • Economical competitiveness of the HTR for process heat cogeneration is analyzed. - Abstract: High temperature nuclear reactors offer the possibility to generate process heat that could be used in the oil industry, particularly in refineries for gasoline production. These technologies are still under development and none of them has shown how this can be possible and what will be the penalty in electricity generation to have this additional product and if the cost of this subproduct will be competitive with other alternatives. The current study assesses the likeliness of generating process heat from Pebble Bed Modular Reactor to be used for a refinery showing different plant balances and alternatives to produce and use that process heat. An actual practical example is presented to demonstrate the cogeneration viability using the fact that the PBMR is a modular small reactor where the cycle configuration to transport the heat of the reactor to the process plant plays an important role in the cycle efficiency and in the plant economics. The results of this study show that the PBMR would be most competitive when capital discount rates are low (5%), carbon prices are high (>30 US$/ton), and competing natural gas prices are at least 8 US$/mmBTU

  13. Process heat cogeneration using a high temperature reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavoalonso3@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico); Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Ramirez, Ramon [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico); Valle, Edmundo del [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Castillo, Rogelio [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • HTR feasibility for process heat cogeneration is assessed. • A cogeneration coupling for HTR is proposed and process heat cost is evaluated. • A CCGT process heat cogeneration set up is also assessed. • Technical comparison between both sources of cogeneration is performed. • Economical competitiveness of the HTR for process heat cogeneration is analyzed. - Abstract: High temperature nuclear reactors offer the possibility to generate process heat that could be used in the oil industry, particularly in refineries for gasoline production. These technologies are still under development and none of them has shown how this can be possible and what will be the penalty in electricity generation to have this additional product and if the cost of this subproduct will be competitive with other alternatives. The current study assesses the likeliness of generating process heat from Pebble Bed Modular Reactor to be used for a refinery showing different plant balances and alternatives to produce and use that process heat. An actual practical example is presented to demonstrate the cogeneration viability using the fact that the PBMR is a modular small reactor where the cycle configuration to transport the heat of the reactor to the process plant plays an important role in the cycle efficiency and in the plant economics. The results of this study show that the PBMR would be most competitive when capital discount rates are low (5%), carbon prices are high (>30 US$/ton), and competing natural gas prices are at least 8 US$/mmBTU.

  14. Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1981-01-01

    In the chapter 'Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat', the steam gasification of brown coal and bituminous coal, the hydrogenating gasification of brown coal including nuclear process heat either by steam cracking methane in the steam reformer or by preheating the gasifying agent, as well as the hydrogenating gasification of bituminous coal are described. (HS) [de

  15. Process for adapting a heat source and a thermal machine by temporary heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.P.; Nicholson, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    The process described is intended to ensure the efficient use of the heat from a nuclear reactor or from a furnace burning fossil fuel at constant power, and of a boiler in a power station comprising a multi-stage steam turbine, the steam extracted from the turbine being used for pre-heating the boiler feed water. This process is most flexible with a varying load. It includes the high temperature storage of the excess heat energy in a low vapor pressure storage liquid (hydrocarbon oils, molten salts or liquid metals) at atmospheric pressure when the demand is low; then, when the energy demand is at its height, the reduction of steam extraction from the turbine with simultaneous utilisation of the hot heat storage liquid for the various maintenance heating functions of the power station by heat exchange, so that the heat can expand totally in the turbine with generation of energy [fr

  16. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  17. Frictional heating processes during laboratory earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, J.; Passelegue, F. X.; Deldicque, D.; Lahfid, A.; Girault, F.; Pinquier, Y.; Escartin, J.; Schubnel, A.

    2017-12-01

    Frictional heating during seismic slip plays a crucial role in the dynamic of earthquakes because it controls fault weakening. This study proposes (i) to image frictional heating combining an in-situ carbon thermometer and Raman microspectrometric mapping, (ii) to combine these observations with fault surface roughness and heat production, (iii) to estimate the mechanical energy dissipated during laboratory earthquakes. Laboratory earthquakes were performed in a triaxial oil loading press, at 45, 90 and 180 MPa of confining pressure by using saw-cut samples of Westerly granite. Initial topography of the fault surface was +/- 30 microns. We use a carbon layer as a local temperature tracer on the fault plane and a type K thermocouple to measure temperature approximately 6mm away from the fault surface. The thermocouple measures the bulk temperature of the fault plane while the in-situ carbon thermometer images the temperature production heterogeneity at the micro-scale. Raman microspectrometry on amorphous carbon patch allowed mapping the temperature heterogeneities on the fault surface after sliding overlaid over a few micrometers to the final fault roughness. The maximum temperature achieved during laboratory earthquakes remains high for all experiments but generally increases with the confining pressure. In addition, the melted surface of fault during seismic slip increases drastically with confining pressure. While melting is systematically observed, the strength drop increases with confining pressure. These results suggest that the dynamic friction coefficient is a function of the area of the fault melted during stick-slip. Using the thermocouple, we inverted the heat dissipated during each event. We show that for rough faults under low confining pressure, less than 20% of the total mechanical work is dissipated into heat. The ratio of frictional heating vs. total mechanical work decreases with cumulated slip (i.e. number of events), and decreases with

  18. Differential preservation in the geologic record of intraoceanic arc sedimentary and tectonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy; Clift, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Records of ancient intraoceanic arc activity, now preserved in continental suture zones, are commonly used to reconstruct paleogeography and plate motion, and to understand how continental crust is formed, recycled, and maintained through time. However, interpreting tectonic and sedimentary records from ancient terranes after arc–continent collision is complicated by preferential preservation of evidence for some arc processes and loss of evidence for others. In this synthesis we examine what is lost, and what is preserved, in the translation from modern processes to the ancient record of intraoceanic arcs. Composition of accreted arc terranes differs as a function of arc–continent collision geometry. ‘Forward-facing’ collision can accrete an oceanic arc on to either a passive or an active continental margin, with the arc facing the continent and colliding trench- and forearc-side first. In a ‘backward-facing’ collision, involving two subduction zones with similar polarity, the arc collides backarc-first with an active continental margin. The preservation of evidence for contemporary sedimentary and tectonic arc processes in the geologic record depends greatly on how well the various parts of the arc survive collision and orogeny in each case. Preservation of arc terranes likely is biased towards those that were in a state of tectonic accretion for tens of millions of years before collision, rather than tectonic erosion. The prevalence of tectonic erosion in modern intraoceanic arcs implies that valuable records of arc processes are commonly destroyed even before the arc collides with a continent. Arc systems are most likely to undergo tectonic accretion shortly before forward-facing collision with a continent, and thus most forearc and accretionary-prism material in ancient arc terranes likely is temporally biased toward the final stages of arc activity, when sediment flux to the trench was greatest and tectonic accretion prevailed. Collision geometry

  19. a-Adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness is preserved in the heated human leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, David M; Sander, Mikael; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that passive leg heating attenuates a-adrenergic vasoconstriction within that limb. Femoral blood flow (FBF, femoral artery ultrasound Doppler) and femoral vascular conductance (FVC, FBF/mean arterial blood pressure), as well as calf muscle blood flow (Calf...

  20. Three-State Locally Adaptive Texture Preserving Filter for Radar and Optical Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko T. Astola

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Textural features are one of the most important types of useful information contained in images. In practice, these features are commonly masked by noise. Relatively little attention has been paid to texture preserving properties of noise attenuation methods. This stimulates solving the following tasks: (1 to analyze the texture preservation properties of various filters; and (2 to design image processing methods capable to preserve texture features well and to effectively reduce noise. This paper deals with examining texture feature preserving properties of different filters. The study is performed for a set of texture samples and different noise variances. The locally adaptive three-state schemes are proposed for which texture is considered as a particular class. For “detection” of texture regions, several classifiers are proposed and analyzed. As shown, an appropriate trade-off of the designed filter properties is provided. This is demonstrated quantitatively for artificial test images and is confirmed visually for real-life images.

  1. Novel approaches in food-processing technology: new technologies for preserving foods and modifying function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, D

    1999-10-01

    Recent advances in emerging food-processing technologies, such as high hydrostatic pressure or high-intensity electric field pulses, allow targeted and sophisticated modification and preservation of foods. We are beginning to understand the mechanisms involved in pressure inactivation of bacterial spores and have been collecting considerable amounts of kinetic data regarding inactivation mechanisms of enzymes and vegetative microorganisms. We are also gaining more insight into the permeabilization of plant membranes and related biosynthetic responses, making progress in food structure engineering and food modification for function, and have been initiating process developments for gentle processing of delicate biomaterials based on pressure-assisted phase transitions of water.

  2. Preserved processing of musical syntax in a person with agrammatic aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhvi Saxena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of work suggests that processing hierarchical structure in language and in music rely on shared systems (review: Slevc, 2012, however this conclusion is tempered by neuropsychological dissociations between linguistic and musical processing (i.e., aphasia and amusia; review: Peretz, 2006. An influential reconciliation comes from Patel’s (2003 shared syntactic integration resource hypothesis (SSIRH, which suggests that evidence for shared processes reflect reliance on shared syntactic integration processes whereas dissociations result from damage to domain-specific syntactic representations. The SSIRH thus predicts that patients with deficits in the processing of linguistic syntax–such as agrammatic aphasics–should show parallel deficits in musical structural (harmonic processing. This prediction is countered by findings of impaired harmonic processing in patients with (apparently spared linguistic syntactic processing (e.g., Sammler et al., 2011, however evidence for the opposite dissociation–preserved harmonic processing in agrammatic aphasia–is lacking. While there are reports of preserved musical abilities despite global aphasia (Basso & Capitani, 1985 or severe Wernicke’s aphasia (Luria, Tsvetkova, & Futer, 1965, of preserved reading and writing of music in the face of alexia and agraphia (Signoret et al., 1987, and of preserved musical sound naming in the face of severe anomia (Tzortzis et al., 2000, no study (to our knowledge has demonstrated preserved musical structural processing in an agrammatic patient. In addition, at least one group of agrammatic aphasics did not show normal effects of harmonic priming, and showed a relationship between accuracy on acceptability judgments in language and in music (Patel et al., 2008. Here, we report a detailed analysis of structural processing in language and in music in HV, a 63 year-old native English-speaking female musician who sustained a left peri-Sylvian stroke. She

  3. Evaluating the potential of process sites for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluleye, Gbemi; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin; Perry, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis considers the temperature and duties of the available waste heat. • Models for organic Rankine cycles, absorption heat pumps and chillers proposed. • Exploitation of waste heat from site processes and utility systems. • Concept of a site energy efficiency introduced. • Case study presented to illustrate application of the proposed methodology. - Abstract: As a result of depleting reserves of fossil fuels, conventional energy sources are becoming less available. In spite of this, energy is still being wasted, especially in the form of heat. The energy efficiency of process sites (defined as useful energy output per unit of energy input) may be increased through waste heat utilisation, thereby resulting in primary energy savings. In this work, waste heat is defined and a methodology developed to identify the potential for waste heat recovery in process sites; considering the temperature and quantity of waste heat sources from the site processes and the site utility system (including fired heaters and, the cogeneration, cooling and refrigeration systems). The concept of the energy efficiency of a site is introduced – the fraction of the energy inputs that is converted into useful energy (heat or power or cooling) to support the methodology. Furthermore, simplified mathematical models of waste heat recovery technologies using heat as primary energy source, including organic Rankine cycles (using both pure and mixed organics as working fluids), absorption chillers and absorption heat pumps are developed to support the methodology. These models are applied to assess the potential for recovery of useful energy from waste heat. The methodology is illustrated for an existing process site using a case study of a petroleum refinery. The energy efficiency of the site increases by 10% as a result of waste heat recovery. If there is an infinite demand for recovered energy (i.e. all the recoverable waste heat sources are exploited), the site

  4. Process for preparing a normal lighting and heating gas etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J

    1910-12-11

    A process for preparing a normal lighting and heating gas from Australian bituminous shale by distillation and decomposition in the presence of water vapor is characterized by the fact that the gasification is suitably undertaken with gradual filling of a retort and with simultaneous introduction of water vapor at a temperature not exceeding 1,000/sup 0/ C. The resulting amount of gas is heated in the same or a second heated retort with freshly supplied vapor.

  5. Process for forming thin film, heat treatment process of thin film sheet, and heat treatment apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a process for forming a magnetic thin film on a base film, a heat treatment process of a thin film sheet consisting of the base film and the magnetic thin film, and an apparatus for performing heat treatment of the thin film sheet. Tension applied to the thin film sheet is substantially equal to that applied to the base film when the magnetic thin film is formed thereon. Then, the thin film sheet is treated with heat. The thin film sheet is heated with a given temperature gradient to a reactive temperature at which heat shrinkage occurs, while the tension is being applied thereto. Thereafter, the thin film sheet to which the tension is still applied is cooled with substantially the same temperature gradient as applied in heating. The heat treatment apparatus has a film driving unit including a supply reel, a take-up reel, a drive source and guide rollers; a heating unit including heating plates, heater blocks and a temperature controller for heating the sheet to the reactive temperature; and a heat insulating unit including a thermostat and another temperature controller for maintaining the sheet at the nonreactive temperature which is slightly lower than the reactive temperature

  6. An asymptotic-preserving stochastic Galerkin method for the radiative heat transfer equations with random inputs and diffusive scalings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Shi, E-mail: sjin@wisc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Institute of Natural Sciences, Department of Mathematics, MOE-LSEC and SHL-MAC, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing@math.wisc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we develop an Asymptotic-Preserving (AP) stochastic Galerkin scheme for the radiative heat transfer equations with random inputs and diffusive scalings. In this problem the random inputs arise due to uncertainties in cross section, initial data or boundary data. We use the generalized polynomial chaos based stochastic Galerkin (gPC-SG) method, which is combined with the micro–macro decomposition based deterministic AP framework in order to handle efficiently the diffusive regime. For linearized problem we prove the regularity of the solution in the random space and consequently the spectral accuracy of the gPC-SG method. We also prove the uniform (in the mean free path) linear stability for the space-time discretizations. Several numerical tests are presented to show the efficiency and accuracy of proposed scheme, especially in the diffusive regime.

  7. Processing and stabilization of Aloe Vera leaf gel by adding chemical and natural preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nazemi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Aloe vera has been used as a medicinal herb for thousands of years. Aloe vera leaves can be separated into latex and gel which have biological effects. Aloe gel is a potent source of polysaccharides. When the gel is exposed to air, it quickly decomposes and decays and loses most of its biological activity. There are various processing techniques for sterilizing and stabilizing the gel. The aim of this study was to improve stabilization of the gel by adding some chemical and natural preservatives. Methods: The gel was obtained from Aloe vera leaves and after some processing chemical and natural preservatives were added. Chemicals included citric acid, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and potassium sorbate while natural preservatives were two essential oils derived from Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Eugenia caryophyllata. All these operations were performed under sterile conditions and they were evaluated at different temperatures and times. Appearance and taste changes of gel were studied organoleptic. Microbiological tests and some physical assays such as pH, refractometry and viscosity properties as well as determination of total sugars were measured. NMR and FT-IR analyses were performed for determining the quality of samples. Results: After data analyzing, the results showed that the samples formulated with chemical additives together with essential oils were more suitable and stable compared to the control samples after 90 days and the effective ingredient acemannan, remained stable. Conclusion: The stable gel can be considered for therapeutic properties and be used for edible and medicinal purposes.

  8. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Neha; Singh, Surjit; Ojha, Nupur; Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Rai, Vivek; Bose, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry.

  9. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Neha; Singh, Surjit; Ojha, Nupur; Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Rai, Vivek; Bose, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry. PMID:26613082

  10. Human Milk Composition and Preservation: Evaluation of High-pressure Processing as a Nonthermal Pasteurization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sílvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components, and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health Organization, as it is a better alternative than infant formula. However, because of the manner in which donor milk is handled in human milk banks (HMB) many of the properties ascribed to mother's own milk are diminished or destroyed. The major process responsible for these losses is Holder pasteurization. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a novel nonthermal pasteurization technology that is being increasingly applied in food industries worldwide, primarily as an alternative to thermal treatment. This is due to its capacity to inactivate microorganisms while preserving both nutritional and bioactive components of foods. This review describes human milk composition and preservation, and critically discusses HMB importance and practices, highlighting HPP as a potential nonthermal pasteurization technology for human milk preservation. HPP technology is described and the few currently existing studies of its effects in human milk are presented.

  11. Analytical models of Ohmic heating and conventional heating in food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serventi, A.; Bozzoli, F.; Rainieri, S.

    2017-11-01

    Ohmic heating is a food processing operation in which an electric current is passed through a food and the electrical resistance of the food causes the electric power to be transformed directly into heat. The heat is not delivered through a surface as in conventional heat exchangers but it is internally generated by Joule effect. Therefore, no temperature gradient is required and it origins quicker and more uniform heating within the food. On the other hand, it is associated with high energy costs and its use is limited to a particular range of food products with an appropriate electrical conductivity. Sterilization of foods by Ohmic heating has gained growing interest in the last few years. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits of Ohmic heating with respect to conventional heat exchangers under uniform wall temperature, a condition that is often present in industrial plants. This comparison is carried out by means of analytical models. The two different heating conditions are simulated under typical circumstances for the food industry. Particular attention is paid to the uniformity of the heat treatment and to the heating section length required in the two different conditions.

  12. Mini-channel heat exchangers for industrial distillation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Bor, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the technical and economic performance of compression-resorption heat pumps has been investigated. The main objective of this thesis was to improve the performance and reduce the investment costs of compression-resorption heat pumps applied in process industry. A model that is able to

  13. Influence of microwave heating on the stability of processed samn

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, Radwan S.; Taha, Soad H.

    1991-01-01

    Butter was converted to samn by microwave and conventional heating. The quality of the processed samn by the two methods was followed by determining the acid, peroxide and TBA values over a period of six weeks at 60°C. The fatty acid composition of samn samples was determined by gas-liquid chromatographic technique. The data show that butter conversion to samn by microwave heating was accomplished in about one half of the time that conventional heating requires. Microwave heating obviously in...

  14. Effect of heat processing on the proximate composition and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    Received 5 August 2006. MS/No BKM/2006/027, ... In each of these locations, heat processing generally increased moisture ... underground water with hydrocarbons and dispersant products1. ..... Technology of Yam Tubers, Vol. 1. ed by.

  15. National need for utilizing nuclear energy for process heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are potential sources for generating process heat, and their applications for such use economically competitive. They help satisfy national needs by helping conserve and extend oil and natural gas resources, thus reducing energy imports and easing future international energy concerns. Several reactor types can be utilized for generating nuclear process heat; those considered here are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), gas-cooled reactors (GCRs), and liquid metal reactors (LMRs). LWRs and HWRs can generate process heat up to 280 0 C, LMRs up to 540 0 C, and GCRs up to 950 0 C. Based on the studies considered here, the estimated process heat markets and the associated energy markets which would be supplied by the various reactor types are summarized

  16. Fossilization processes in siliceous thermal springs: trends in preservation along thermal gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, S. L.; Farmer, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    To enhance our ability to extract palaeobiological and palaeoenvironmental information from ancient thermal spring deposits, we have studied the processes responsible for the development and preservation of stromatolites in modern subaerial thermal spring systems in Yellowstone National Park (USA). We investigated specimens collected from silica-depositing thermal springs along the thermal gradient using petrographic techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Although it is known that thermophilic cyanobacteria control the morphogenesis of thermal spring stromatolites below 73 degrees C, we have found that biofilms which contain filamentous thermophiles contribute to the microstructural development of subaerial geyserites that occur along the inner rims of thermal spring pools and geyser effluents. Biofilms intermittently colonize the surfaces of subaerial geyserites and provide a favoured substrate for opaline silica precipitation. We have also found that the preservation of biotically produced microfabrics of thermal spring sinters reflects dynamic balances between rates of population growth, decomposition of organic matter, silica deposition and early diagenesis. Major trends in preservation of thermophilic organisms along the thermal gradient are defined by differences in the mode of fossilization, including replacement, encrustation and permineralization.

  17. Proceedings of the solar industrial process heat symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to review the progress of various solar energy systems currently under design for supplying industrial process heat. Formal presentations consisted of a review of solar energy applications in industrial process heat as well as several on-going project reviews. An Open Forum was held to solicit the comments of the participants. The recommendations of this Open Forum are included in these proceedings. Eighteen papers were included. Separate abstracts were prepared for each paper.

  18. Heat processing (HTST of umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Araújo de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Umbu pulp is an important product in the economy of the northeastern region of Brazil, and its preservation can be ensured by heat treatment. A complete factorial design with 2 factors (time and temperature and 3 central points was used to verify the effect of the HTST process on the physicochemical, chemical, physical, microbiological, and sensory qualities of umbu pulps. The results showed that the heat treatments applied resulted in products without significant alterations on the physicochemical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics. With respect to color, the parameters L and a* were altered by increases in temperature indicating by darkening of color. The sensory evaluation indicated that a treatment of 88 °C for 10 seconds was the best processing condition due to the greater similarity of the resulting product to the reference sample (blanched pulp.

  19. Multipurpose nuclear process heat for energy supply in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, U.; Inden, P.; Oesterwind, D.; Hukai, R.Y.; Pessine, R.T.; Pieroni, R.R.; Visoni, E.

    1978-11-01

    The industrialized nations require 75% of the energy as heat and it is likely that developing countries in the course of industrialization will show a comparable energy consumption structure. The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) allows the utilization of nuclear energy at high temperatures as process heat. In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) the development in the relevant technical areas is well advanced and warrants investigation as a matter for transfer to Brazil. In Brazil nuclear process heat finds possible applications in steel making, shale oil extraction, petroleum refining, and in the more distant future coal gasification with distribution networks. Based on growth forecasts for these industries a theoretical potential market of 38-53 GW (th) can be identified. At present nuclear process heat is marginally more expensive than conventional fossil technologies but the anticipated development is expected to add an economic incentive to the emerging necessity of providing a sound energy base in the developing countries. (author)

  20. Irreversibility and Action of the Heat Conduction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chao Hua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Irreversibility (that is, the “one-sidedness” of time of a physical process can be characterized by using Lyapunov functions in the modern theory of stability. In this theoretical framework, entropy and its production rate have been generally regarded as Lyapunov functions in order to measure the irreversibility of various physical processes. In fact, the Lyapunov function is not always unique. In the represent work, a rigorous proof is given that the entransy and its dissipation rate can also serve as Lyapunov functions associated with the irreversibility of the heat conduction process without the conversion between heat and work. In addition, the variation of the entransy dissipation rate can lead to Fourier’s heat conduction law, while the entropy production rate cannot. This shows that the entransy dissipation rate, rather than the entropy production rate, is the unique action for the heat conduction process, and can be used to establish the finite element method for the approximate solution of heat conduction problems and the optimization of heat transfer processes.

  1. Prospects of HTGR process heat application and role of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, S.; Miyamoto, Y.

    2000-01-01

    At Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, an effort on development of process heat application with high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) has been continued for providing a future clean alternative to the burning of fossil energy for the production of industrial process heat. The project is named 'HTTR Heat Utilization Project', which includes a demonstration of hydrogen production using the first Japanese HTGR of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). In the meantime, some countries, such as China, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa are trying to explore the HTGR process heat application for industrial use. One of the key issues for this application is economy. It has been recognized for a long time and still now that the HTGR heat application system is not economically competitive to the current fossil ones, because of the high cost of the HTGR itself. However, the recent movement on the HTGR development, as represented by South Africa Pebble Beds Modular Reactor (SA-PBMR) Project, has revealed that the HTGRs are well economically competitive in electricity production to fossil fuel energy supply under a certain condition. This suggests that the HTGR process heat application will also possibly get economical in the near future. In the present paper, following a brief introduction describing the necessity of the HTGRs for the future process heat application, Japanese activities and prospect of the development on the process heat application with the HTGRs are described in relation with the HTTR Project. In conclusion, the process heat application system with HTGRs is thought technically and economically to be one of the most promising applications to solve the global environmental issues and energy shortage which may happen in the future. However, the commercialization for the hydrogen production system from water, which is the final goal of the HTGR process heat application, must await the technology development to be completed in 2030's at the

  2. DETERMINATION OF PROCESSES OF USE, PRESERVING AND REPRODUCTION IN THE SYSTEM OF RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Gazuda

    2015-11-01

    of the country as a whole and enhance implementation of basic provisions of the concept of balanced and sustainable nature management. Value/originality. Solving the problem of renewable natural resources preservation requires decreasing the level of consumption of natural resources to the level lower than their recovering capabilities are. Determination of the processes for securing reproductive capabilities of natural resources, their sustainable use and preservation substantiate the importance of the use of managerial approaches aiming to form favorable environment for their preservation and accumulation, and such way of using natural goods, that will provide for increase in consumption levels due to both advance growth of goods and their reproductive capabilities. The more the deviation between reproduction and consumption is, the more effective accumulation and reproduction processes will be, as well as consumption process in future.

  3. Fundamentals of electroheat electrical technologies for process heating

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the main electrical technologies for process heating, which tend to be treated separately in specialized books. Individual chapters focus on heat transfer, electromagnetic fields in electro-technologies, arc furnaces, resistance furnaces, direct resistance heating, induction heating, and high-frequency and microwave heating. The authors highlight those topics of greatest relevance to a wide-ranging teaching program, and at the same time offer a detailed review of the main applications of the various technologies. The content represents a synthesis of the extensive knowledge and experience that the authors have accumulated while researching and teaching at the University of Padua’s Engineering Faculty. This text on industrial electroheating technologies is a valuable resource not only for students of industrial, electrical, chemical, and material science engineering, but also for engineers, technicians and others involved in the application of electroheating and...

  4. Unified theory for stochastic modelling of hydroclimatic processes: Preserving marginal distributions, correlation structures, and intermittency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael

    2018-05-01

    Hydroclimatic processes come in all "shapes and sizes". They are characterized by different spatiotemporal correlation structures and probability distributions that can be continuous, mixed-type, discrete or even binary. Simulating such processes by reproducing precisely their marginal distribution and linear correlation structure, including features like intermittency, can greatly improve hydrological analysis and design. Traditionally, modelling schemes are case specific and typically attempt to preserve few statistical moments providing inadequate and potentially risky distribution approximations. Here, a single framework is proposed that unifies, extends, and improves a general-purpose modelling strategy, based on the assumption that any process can emerge by transforming a specific "parent" Gaussian process. A novel mathematical representation of this scheme, introducing parametric correlation transformation functions, enables straightforward estimation of the parent-Gaussian process yielding the target process after the marginal back transformation, while it provides a general description that supersedes previous specific parameterizations, offering a simple, fast and efficient simulation procedure for every stationary process at any spatiotemporal scale. This framework, also applicable for cyclostationary and multivariate modelling, is augmented with flexible parametric correlation structures that parsimoniously describe observed correlations. Real-world simulations of various hydroclimatic processes with different correlation structures and marginals, such as precipitation, river discharge, wind speed, humidity, extreme events per year, etc., as well as a multivariate example, highlight the flexibility, advantages, and complete generality of the method.

  5. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    Using alternate energy sources abundant in the U.S.A. to help curb foreign oil imports is vitally important from both national security and economic standpoints. Perhaps the most forwardlooking opportunity to realize national energy goals involves the integrated use of two energy sources that have an established technology base in the U.S.A., namely nuclear energy and coal. The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc.) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported (via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)) to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers

  6. High temperature reactor and application to nuclear process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulten, R; Kugeler, K [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-01-01

    The principle of high temperature nuclear process heat is explained and the main applications (hydrogasification of coal, nuclear chemical heat pipe, direct reduction of iron ore, coal gasification by steam and water splitting) are described in more detail. The motivation for the introduction of nuclear process heat to the market, questions of cost, of raw material resources and environmental aspects are the next point of discussion. The new technological questions of the nuclear reactor and the status of development are described, especially information about the fuel elements, the hot gas ducts, the contamination and some design considerations are added. Furthermore the status of development of helium heated steam reformers, the main results of the work until now and the further activities in this field are explained.

  7. High-temperature gas-cooled reactors and process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) are fueled with ceramic-coated microspheres of uranium and thorium oxides/carbides embedded in graphite blocks which are cooled with helium. Promising areas of HTGR application are in cogeneration, energy transport using Heat Transfer Salt, recovery of oils from oil shale, steam reforming of methane for chemical production, coal gasification, and in energy transfer using chemical heat jpipes in the long term. Further, HTGRs could be used as the energy source for hydrogen production through thermochemical water splitting in the long term. The potential market for Process Heat HTGRs is 100-200 large units by about the year 2020

  8. High-temperature process heat applications with an HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, R.N.; Vrable, D.L.

    1980-04-01

    An 842-MW(t) HTGR-process heat (HTGR-PH) design and several synfuels and energy transport processes to which it could be coupled are described. As in other HTGR designs, the HTGR-PH has its entire primary coolant system contained in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) which provides the necessary biological shielding and pressure containment. The high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. With a capability to produce hot helium in the secondary loop at 800 0 C (1472 0 F) with current designs and 900 0 C (1652 0 F) with advanced designs, a large number of process heat applications are potentially available. Studies have been performed for coal liquefaction and gasification using nuclear heat

  9. Pressurized Recuperator For Heat Recovery In Industrial High Temperature Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recuperators and regenerators are important devices for heat recovery systems in technological lines of industrial processes and should have high air preheating temperature, low flow resistance and a long service life. The use of heat recovery systems is particularly important in high-temperature industrial processes (especially in metallurgy where large amounts of thermal energy are lost to the environment. The article presents the process design for a high efficiency recuperator intended to work at high operating parameters: air pressure up to 1.2 MPa and temperature of heating up to 900°C. The results of thermal and gas-dynamic calculations were based on an algorithm developed for determination of the recuperation process parameters. The proposed technical solution of the recuperator and determined recuperation parameters ensure its operation under maximum temperature conditions.

  10. NGNP Process Heat Applications: Hydrogen Production Accomplishments for FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V Park

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process Heat Applications group in support of hydrogen production technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the production of hydrogen.

  11. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerrfeld, R.; Kraut-Giesen, G.

    1982-01-01

    1. Goals: Verification of owner's interests during experimental and engineering phase of nuclear coal gasification. 2. Method: 2.1 Witnessing and evaluating of experimental results from running test facilities. 2.2 Influencing experimental program. 2.3 Participation in important meetings of PNP-project. 3. Results: From present point of view the realization of nuclear coal gasification with a nuclear high temperature reactor (HTR) in accordance with the present technical status as well as meeting the existing safety regulations seems to be feasable. R+D-work will be needed for affirmation of design. The gasification of hard coal basing on the allothermal principal has proved to be possible. The examination of the gasifier on a pilot scale is not yet done. The design work for the pilot plant should be started immediately, particularly keeping in mind the decision for erection of PNP in 1990. The calculation of production costs in comparison to autothermal gasification processes is promising better economics, if uncertainties of investment calculation are deemed to be neglectable. (orig.) [de

  12. A Simulation Study of Inter Heat Exchanger Process in SI Cycle Process for Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae Sun; Cho, Sung Jin; Choi, Suk Hoon; Qasim, Faraz; Lee, Euy Soo; Park, Sang Jin; Lee, Heung N.; Park, Jae Ho; Lee, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    SI Cyclic process is one of the thermochemical hydrogen production processes using iodine and sulfur for producing hydrogen molecules from water. VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) can be used to supply heat to hydrogen production process, which is a high temperature nuclear reactor. IHX (Intermediate Heat Exchanger) is necessary to transfer heat to hydrogen production process safely without radioactivity. In this study, the strategy for the optimum design of IHX between SI hydrogen process and VHTR is proposed for various operating pressures of the reactor, and the different cooling fluids. Most economical efficiency of IHX is also proposed along with process conditions

  13. Match properties of heat transfer and coupled heat and mass transfer processes in air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Liu Xiaohua; Zhang Lun; Jiang Yi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigates match properties of heat or mass transfer processes in HVAC system. ► Losses are caused by limited transfer ability, flow and parameter mismatching. ► Condition of flow matching is the same heat capacity of the fluids. ► Parameter matching is only reached along the saturation line in air–water system. ► Analytical solutions of heat and mass transfer resistance are derived. - Abstract: Sensible heat exchangers and coupled heat and mass transfer devices between humid air and water/desiccant are commonly used devices in air-conditioning systems. This paper focuses on the match properties of sensible heat transfer processes and coupled heat and mass transfer processes in an effort to understand the reasons for performance limitations in order to optimize system performance. Limited heat transfer capability and flow mismatching resulted in heat resistance of the sensible heat transfer process. Losses occurred during the heat and mass transfer processes due to limited transfer capability, flow mismatching, and parameter mismatching. Flow matching was achieved when the heat capacities of the fluids were identical, and parameter matching could only be reached along the saturation line in air–water systems or the iso-concentration line in air–desiccant systems. Analytical solutions of heat transfer resistance and mass transfer resistance were then derived. The heat and mass transfer process close to the saturation line is recommended, and heating sprayed water resulted in better humidification performance than heating inlet air in the air humidifier.

  14. Research of Snow-Melt Process on a Heated Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article has shown the results of experimental researches of the snow-melt on a heated platform-near building heat-pump snow-melt platform. The near-building (yard heat pump platforms for snow melt with the area up to 10-15 m2 are a basis of the new ideology of organization of the street cleaning of Moscow from snow in the winter period which supposes the creation in the megalopolis of the «distributed snow-melt system» (DSMS using non-traditional energy sources. The results of natural experimental researches are presented for the estimation of efficiency of application in the climatic conditions of Moscow of heat pumps in the snow-melt systems. The researches were conducted on a model sample of the near-building heat-pump platform which uses the low-potential thermal energy of atmospheric air. The conducted researches have confirmed experimentally in the natural conditions the possibility and efficiency of using of atmospheric air as a source of low-potential thermal energy for evaporation of the snow-melt heat pump systems in the climatic conditions of Moscow. The results of laboratory researches of snow-melt process on a heated horizontal platform are presented. The researches have revealed a considerable dependence of efficiency of the snow-melt process on its piling mode (form-building and the organization of the process of its piling mode (form-building and the organization of the process of its (snow mass heat exchange with the surface of the heated platform. In the process of researches the effect of formation of an «ice dome» under the melting snow mass called by the fact that in case of the thickness of snow loaded on the platform more than 10 cm the water formed from the melting snow while the contact with the heating surface don’t spread on it, but soaks into the snow, wets it due to capillary effect and freezes. The formation of «ice dome» leads to a sharp increase of snow-melt period and decreases the operating

  15. Cogeneration using a nuclear reactor to generate process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Ramirez, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Some of the new nuclear reactor technologies (Generation III+) are claiming the production of process heat as an additional value to electricity generation. These technologies are still under development and none of them has shown how this can be possible and what will be the penalty in electricity generation to have this additional product. The current study assess the likeliness of generate process heat from a Pebble Bed Modular Reactor to be used for a refinery showing different plant balance and alternatives to produce and use that process heat. An actual practical example is presented to demonstrate the cogeneration viability using the fact that the PBMR is a modular small reactor and also the challenges that this option has. (author)

  16. Interaction of image noise, spatial resolution, and low contrast fine detail preservation in digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artmann, Uwe; Wueller, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to improve the validity of noise and resolution measurements on digital cameras. If non-linear adaptive noise reduction is part of the signal processing in the camera, the measurement results for image noise and spatial resolution can be good, while the image quality is low due to the loss of fine details and a watercolor like appearance of the image. To improve the correlation between objective measurement and subjective image quality we propose to supplement the standard test methods with an additional measurement of the texture preserving capabilities of the camera. The proposed method uses a test target showing white Gaussian noise. The camera under test reproduces this target and the image is analyzed. We propose to use the kurtosis of the derivative of the image as a metric for the texture preservation of the camera. Kurtosis is a statistical measure for the closeness of a distribution compared to the Gaussian distribution. It can be shown, that the distribution of digital values in the derivative of the image showing the chart becomes the more leptokurtic (increased kurtosis) the stronger the noise reduction has an impact on the image.

  17. Induction heating in in-line strip production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, P.; Santinelli, M.

    1995-05-01

    ISP (In-line Strip Production), a continuous process for steel strip production, has recently been set in an italian innovative plant, where ecological impact and power requirements are lighter than usual. This report describes the studies performed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), while a prototype reheating facility was arranged by Acciaieria ISP in Cremona (Italy). The authors, after a study of the prototype electromagnetic field, calculate the heating rate, with the thermal network method. Then they detect, with a 1-D-FEM, the heat diffusion through the strip cross section. Afterward, since the heat distribution depends on the eddy current density one, which is given by the magnetic field distribution, the authors, with a 3-D-FEM, carry out a coupled, electromagnetic and thermal, analysis in time domain. The strip temperature map is established by the balance between skin depth heating and surface cooling: a thermal analysis, performed with a moving 2-D-FEM, take into account the effects of the different heating and cooling situations, originated by the strip moving at a speed of 6m/min through four consecutive reheating facilities. The temperatures of a strip sample heated by the prototype have been monitored, acquired by a computer and related with the simulation results. The little difference between experiment and simulation assessed the qualitative and quantitative validity of this analysis, that has come out to be a tool, useful to evaluate the effects of possible improvements to the ISP process

  18. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-04-01

    The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. The intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding.

  19. Numerical simulation of plasma processes driven by transverse ion heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra; Chan, C. B.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma processes driven by transverse ion heating in a diverging flux tube are investigated with numerical simulation. The heating is found to drive a host of plasma processes, in addition to the well-known phenomenon of ion conics. The downward electric field near the reverse shock generates a doublestreaming situation consisting of two upflowing ion populations with different average flow velocities. The electric field in the reverse shock region is modulated by the ion-ion instability driven by the multistreaming ions. The oscillating fields in this region have the possibility of heating electrons. These results from the simulations are compared with results from a previous study based on a hydrodynamical model. Effects of spatial resolutions provided by simulations on the evolution of the plasma are discussed.

  20. Characterization and processing of heat treated aluminium matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doifode, Yogesh; Kulkarni, S. G.

    2018-05-01

    The present study is carried out to determine density and porosity of Aluminium bagasse ash reinforced composite produced by powder metallurgy method. Bagasse ash is used as reinforcement material having high silica and alumina contents and varied from 5 weight % to 40 weight%. The manufactured composite is heat treated, the main objective of heat treatment is to prepare the material structurally and physically fit for engineering application. The results showed that the density decreases with percentage increase in reinforcement of bagasse ash from 2.6618 gm/cm3 to 1.9830 gm/cm3 with the minimum value at 40 weight% bagasse ash without heat treatment whereas after heat treatment density of composite increases due filling up of voids and porous holes. Heat treatment processing is the key to this improvement, with the T6 heat treated composite to convene the reduced porosity of composite. Consequently aluminium metal matrix composite combines the strength of the reinforcement to achieve a combination of desirable properties not available in any single material. It may observe that porosity in case of powder metallurgy samples showed more porosity portions compare to the casting samples. In order to achieve optimality in structure and properties of Bagasse ash-reinforcement heat treatment techniques have evolved. Generally, the ceramic reinforcements increase the density of the base alloy during fabrication of composites. However, the addition of lightweight reinforcements reduces the density of the hybrid composites. The results also showed that, the density varies from to with minimum value at 40 wt. % BA. The results of the statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences among the means of each property of the composites at various levels of BA replacement .It was concluded that bagasse ash can be used as reinforcement and the produced composites have low density and heat treatment reduces porosity which could be used in automobile industry for

  1. Trace Metal Levels in Raw and Heat Processed Nigerian Staple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of some trace metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd) were quantitatively determined in raw and heat processed staple food cultivars (yam, cassava, cocoyam and maize) from oil producing areas of part of the Niger Delta and compared with a non-oil producing area of Ebonyi State as control. The survey was conducted to ...

  2. Plug and Play Process Control of a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbaek, Klaus; Knudsen, Torben; Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The main idea of plug and play process control is to initialise and reconfigure control systems automatically. In this paper these ideas are applied to a scaled laboratory model of a district heating pressure control system.  First of all this serves as a concrete example of plug and play control...

  3. Weldability of general purpose heat source new-process iridium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanne, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Weldability tests on General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) iridium capsules showed that a new iridium fabrication process reduced susceptibility to underbead cracking. Seventeen capsules were welded (a total of 255 welds) in four categories and the number of cracks in each weld was measured

  4. r-PROCESS LANTHANIDE PRODUCTION AND HEATING RATES IN KILONOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F., E-mail: jlippuner@tapir.caltech.edu [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    r-process nucleosynthesis in material ejected during neutron star mergers may lead to radioactively powered transients called kilonovae. The timescale and peak luminosity of these transients depend on the composition of the ejecta, which determines the local heating rate from nuclear decays and the opacity. Kasen et al. and Tanaka and Hotokezaka pointed out that lanthanides can drastically increase the opacity in these outflows. We use the new general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet to carry out a parameter study of r-process nucleosynthesis for a range of initial electron fractions Y{sub e}, initial specific entropies s, and expansion timescales τ. We find that the ejecta is lanthanide-free for Y{sub e} ≳ 0.22−0.30, depending on s and τ. The heating rate is insensitive to s and τ, but certain, larger values of Y{sub e} lead to reduced heating rates, due to individual nuclides dominating the heating. We calculate approximate light curves with a simplified gray radiative transport scheme. The light curves peak at about a day (week) in the lanthanide-free (-rich) cases. The heating rate does not change much as the ejecta becomes lanthanide-free with increasing Y{sub e}, but the light-curve peak becomes about an order of magnitude brighter because it peaks much earlier when the heating rate is larger. We also provide parametric fits for the heating rates between 0.1 and 100 days, and we provide a simple fit in Y{sub e}, s, and τ to estimate whether or not the ejecta is lanthanide-rich.

  5. r-PROCESS LANTHANIDE PRODUCTION AND HEATING RATES IN KILONOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.

    2015-01-01

    r-process nucleosynthesis in material ejected during neutron star mergers may lead to radioactively powered transients called kilonovae. The timescale and peak luminosity of these transients depend on the composition of the ejecta, which determines the local heating rate from nuclear decays and the opacity. Kasen et al. and Tanaka and Hotokezaka pointed out that lanthanides can drastically increase the opacity in these outflows. We use the new general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet to carry out a parameter study of r-process nucleosynthesis for a range of initial electron fractions Y e , initial specific entropies s, and expansion timescales τ. We find that the ejecta is lanthanide-free for Y e ≳ 0.22−0.30, depending on s and τ. The heating rate is insensitive to s and τ, but certain, larger values of Y e lead to reduced heating rates, due to individual nuclides dominating the heating. We calculate approximate light curves with a simplified gray radiative transport scheme. The light curves peak at about a day (week) in the lanthanide-free (-rich) cases. The heating rate does not change much as the ejecta becomes lanthanide-free with increasing Y e , but the light-curve peak becomes about an order of magnitude brighter because it peaks much earlier when the heating rate is larger. We also provide parametric fits for the heating rates between 0.1 and 100 days, and we provide a simple fit in Y e , s, and τ to estimate whether or not the ejecta is lanthanide-rich

  6. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: Examining information processing among young women with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. Objective The purpose of this paper is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by five dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. Results In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Conclusion Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women’s information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care. PMID:24552086

  7. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: examining information processing among young women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. The purpose of this article is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semistructured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by 5 dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women's information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care.

  8. 9 CFR 355.25 - Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat processing; incubation. 355.25 Section 355.25... IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Inspection Procedure § 355.25 Canning with heat...

  9. Aging and the number sense: preserved basic non-symbolic numerical processing and enhanced basic symbolic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Eloise eNorris

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging often leads to general cognitive decline in domains such as memory and attention. The effect of aging on numerical cognition, particularly on foundational numerical skills known as the Number Sense, is not well known. Early research focused on the effect of aging on arithmetic. Recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of healthy aging on basic numerical skills, but focused on non-symbolic quantity discrimination alone. Moreover, contradictory findings have emerged. The current study aimed to further investigate the impact of aging on basic non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills. A group of 25 younger (18-25 and 25 older adults (60-77 participated in non-symbolic and symbolic numerical comparison tasks. Mathematical and spelling abilities were also measured. Results showed that aging had no effect on foundational non-symbolic numerical skills, as both groups performed similarly (RTs, accuracy and Weber fractions (w. All participants showed decreased non-symbolic acuity (accuracy and w in trials requiring inhibition. However, aging appears to be associated with a greater decline in discrimination speed in such trials. Furthermore, aging seems to have a positive impact on mathematical ability and basic symbolic numerical processing, as older participants attained significantly higher mathematical achievement scores, and performed significantly better on the symbolic comparison task than younger participants. The findings suggest that aging and its lifetime exposure to numbers may lead to better mathematical achievement and stronger basic symbolic numerical skills. Our results further support the observation that basic non-symbolic numerical skills are resilient to aging, but that aging may exacerbate poorer performance on trials requiring inhibitory processes. These findings lend further support to the notion that preserved basic numerical skills in aging may reflect the preservation of an innate, primitive and embedded Number

  10. Shape Effect on the Temperature Field during Microwave Heating Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at improving the food quality during microwave process, this article mainly focused on the numerical simulation of shape effect, which was evaluated by microwave power absorption capability and temperature distribution uniformity in a single sample heated in a domestic microwave oven. This article only took the electromagnetic field and heat conduction in solid into consideration. The Maxwell equations were used to calculate the distribution of microwave electromagnetic field distribution in the microwave cavity and samples; then the electromagnetic energy was coupled as the heat source in the heat conduction process in samples. Quantitatively, the power absorption capability and temperature distribution uniformity were, respectively, described by power absorption efficiency (PAE and the statistical variation of coefficient (COV. In addition, we defined the comprehensive evaluation coefficient (CEC to describe the usability of a specific sample. In accordance with volume or the wave numbers and penetration numbers in the radial and axial directions of samples, they can be classified into different groups. And according to the PAE, COV, and CEC value and the specific need of microwave process, an optimal sample shape and orientation could be decided.

  11. A geochemical approach to distinguishing competing tectono-magmatic processes preserved in small eruptive centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Lucy E.; Brahm, Raimundo; Rowe, Michael C.; Handley, Heather K.; Morgado, Eduardo; Lara, Luis E.; Turner, Michael B.; Vinet, Nicolas; Parada, Miguel-Ángel; Valdivia, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    Small eruptive centres (SECs) representing short-lived, isolated eruptions are effective samples of mantle heterogeneity over a given area, as they are generally of basaltic composition and show evidence of little magmatic processing. This is particularly powerful in volcanic arcs where the original melting process generating stratovolcanoes is often obscured by additions from the down-going slab (fluids and sediments) and the overlying crust. The Pucón area of southern Chile contains active and dormant stratovolcanoes, Holocene, basaltic SECs and an arc-scale strike-slip fault (the Liquiñe Ofqui Fault System: LOFS). The SECs show unexpected compositional heterogeneity considering their spatial proximity. We present a detailed study of these SECs combining whole rock major and trace element concentrations, U-Th isotopes and olivine-hosted melt inclusion major element and volatile contents to highlight the complex inter-relations in this small but active area. We show that heterogeneity preserved at individual SECs relates to different processes: some start in the melting region with the input of slab-derived fluids, whilst others occur later in a centre's magmatic history with the influence of crustal contamination prior to olivine crystallisation. These signals are deduced through the combination of the different geochemical tools used in this study. We show that there is no correlation between composition and distance from the arc front, whilst the local tectonic regime has an effect on melt composition: SECs aligned along the LOFS have either equilibrium U-Th ratios or small Th-excesses instead of the large—fluid influenced—U-excesses displayed by SECs situated away from this feature. One of the SECs is modelled as being generated from fluid-enriched depleted mantle, a source which it may share with the stratovolcano Villarrica, whilst another SEC with abundant evidence of crustal contamination may share its plumbing system with its neighbouring

  12. Fuel production from coal by the Mobil Oil process using nuclear high-temperature process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two processes for the production of liquid hydrocarbons are presented: Direct conversion of coal into fuel (coal hydrogenation) and indirect conversion of coal into fuel (syngas production, methanol synthesis, Mobil Oil process). Both processes have several variants in which nuclear process heat may be used; in most cases, the nuclear heat is introduced in the gas production stage. The following gas production processes are compared: LURGI coal gasification process; steam reformer methanation, with and without coal hydrogasification and steam gasification of coal. (orig./EF) [de

  13. Heat and work distributions for mixed Gauss–Cauchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuśmierz, Łukasz; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Rubi, J Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze energetics of a non-Gaussian process described by a stochastic differential equation of the Langevin type. The process represents a paradigmatic model of a nonequilibrium system subject to thermal fluctuations and additional external noise, with both sources of perturbations considered as additive and statistically independent forcings. We define thermodynamic quantities for trajectories of the process and analyze contributions to mechanical work and heat. As a working example we consider a particle subjected to a drag force and two statistically independent Lévy white noises with stability indices α = 2 and α = 1. The fluctuations of dissipated energy (heat) and distribution of work performed by the force acting on the system are addressed by examining contributions of Cauchy fluctuations (α = 1) to either bath or external force acting on the system. (paper)

  14. European research and development on HTGR process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, Karl; Lensa, Werner von

    2003-01-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor represents a suitable and safe concept of a future nuclear power plant with the potential to produce process heat to be utilized in many industrial processes such as reforming of natural gas, coal gasification and liquefaction, heavy oil recovery to serve for the production of the storable commodities hydrogen or energy alcohols as future transportation fuels. The paper will include a description of the broad range of applications for HTGR process heat and describe the results of the German long-term projects ''Prototype Nuclear Process Heat Reactor Project'' (PNP), in which the technical feasibility of an HTGR in combination with a chemical facility for coal gasification processes has been proven, and ''Nuclear Long-Distance Energy Transportation'' (NFE), which was the demonstration and verification of the closed-cycle, long-distance energy transmission system EVA/ADAM. Furthermore, new European research initiatives are shortly described. A particular concern is the safety of a combined nuclear/chemical facility requiring a concept against potential fire and explosion hazards. (author)

  15. Predicting the benefit of binaural cue preservation in bilateral directional processing schemes for listeners with impaired hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Thomas; Hauth, Christopher; Wagener, Kirsten C.

    2018-01-01

    Linked pairs of hearing aids offer various possibilities for directional processing providing adjustable trade-off between improving signal-to-noise ratio and preserving binaural listening. The benefit depends on the processing scheme, the acoustic scenario, and the listener’s ability to exploit...... fine structure. BSIM revealed a benefit due to binaural processing in well-performing listeners when processing provided low-frequency interaural timing cues....

  16. The use of preservatives consist of green tea, piper betel and potassium sorbate on boiled salted fish processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyani, F.; Hermana, I.; Hidayah, I.

    2018-03-01

    The main problem in boiled salted fish ikan pindang is mucus and mold on the surface of the fish which is produced relatively fast as well as the high level of histamine content especially when scombroid fish species are used as raw material. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of various preservatives to overcome such problems. Three combinations of preservatives P1 (green tea and sorbate), P3 (green tea, piper betel, sorbate), P4 (green tea and piper betel) and P0 (no preservative/control) resulted from the previous study were used in this study. Before being used, the preservatives were tested against deteriorating microorganisms commonly found in boiled salted products, of which the result showed that all microorganisms were inhibited. The preservatives were then applied at three different stages of the process of boiled salted fish, i.e. before boiling, during boiling and after boiling. Sensory attributes and microbial characteristics of the products were then evaluated. The results showed that the performance of all tested preservatives against deteriorating microorganisms was relatively similar. It was also shown that the application before and during boiling performed better.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer During Quenching Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madireddi, Sowjanya; Krishnan, Krishnan Nambudiripad; Reddy, Ammana Satyanarayana

    2018-04-01

    A numerical model is developed to simulate the immersion quenching process of metals. The time of quench plays an important role if the process involves a defined step quenching schedule to obtain the desired characteristics. Lumped heat capacity analysis used for this purpose requires the value of heat transfer coefficient, whose evaluation requires large experimental data. Experimentation on a sample work piece may not represent the actual component which may vary in dimension. A Fluid-Structure interaction technique with a coupled interface between the solid (metal) and liquid (quenchant) is used for the simulations. Initial times of quenching shows boiling heat transfer phenomenon with high values of heat transfer coefficients (5000-2.5 × 105 W/m2K). Shape of the work piece with equal dimension shows less influence on the cooling rate Non-uniformity in hardness at the sharp corners can be reduced by rounding off the edges. For a square piece of 20 mm thickness, with 3 mm fillet radius, this difference is reduced by 73 %. The model can be used for any metal-quenchant combination to obtain time-temperature data without the necessity of experimentation.

  18. Heat and mass transfer enhancement in absorbing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, Kunio; Lee, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The key to improving the performance of absorption-type heat machines lies in the enhancement of the mass transfer of the vapor into the absorbant solution, since the mass diffusivity in the solution is very small compared to the thermal diffusivity. The absorption process is influenced by many factors including physical properties of the fluids, the flow pattern and others, especially the velocity profile near the interface is the most important. From these stand points, the heat and mass transfer in the absorption was investigated by following three steps. First, an augmentation of the absorption to a liquid film flowing in groove was theoretically investigated, in which the interface between the vapor and liquid film is cooled by the grooved surfaces. Secondly, systematical experiments were carried out on several factors that affect the absorption process, which were the cooling wall temperature, the inlet solution subcooling, and the fin configuration. Finally, a numerical study of the heat and mass transfer enhancement due to flow agitation by the periodically grooved channel was conducted. That flow realized by fabricating ridges on the fin surface. A secondary flow due to these ridges is expected to enhance the heat and mass transfer. These results were compared with experimental ones. (orig.)

  19. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztasiran, I.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H 3 0+ and H 2 O 2 . Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  1. Gasification of coal using nuclear process heat. Chapter D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.-D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1979-01-01

    In the light of the high price of coal and the enormous advances made recently in nuclear engineering, the possibility of using heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for gasification processes was discussed as early as the 1960s. The advantages of this technology are summarized. A joint programme of development work is described, in which the Nuclear Research Centre at Juelich is aiming to develop a high-temperature reactor which will supply process heat at as high a temperature as possible, while other organizations are working on the hydrogasification of lignites and hard coals, and steam gasification. Experiments are at present being carried out on a semi-technical scale, and no operational data for large-scale plants are available as yet. (author)

  2. Short term preservation of hide using vacuum: influence on properties of hide and of processed leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudro, Ilze; Valeika, Virgilijus; Sirvaitytė, Justa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate vacuum influence on hide preservation time and how it affects hide structure. It was established that vacuum prolongs the storage time without hide tissue putrefaction up to 21 days when the storage temperature is 4°C. The microorganisms act for all storage times, but the action is weak and has no observable influence on the quality of hide during the time period mentioned. The hide shrinkage temperature decrease is negligible, which shows that breaking of intermolecular bonds does not occur. Optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry also did not show any structural changes which can influence the quality of leather produced from such hide. The qualitative indexes of wet blue processed under laboratory conditions and of leather produced during industrial trials are presented. Indexes such as chromium compounds exhaustion, content of chromium in leather, content of soluble matter in dichloromethane, strength properties, and shrinkage temperature were determined. Properties of the leather produced from vacuumed hide under industrial conditions conformed to the requirements of shoe upper leather.

  3. Influence of heat processing methods on the nutrient composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No significant difference (P > 0.05) was obtained in the saponification number of the three samples analyzed and values ranged from 161.3 ±2.92 in RS to 163.0 ± 2.60 in FS. Heat processing (boiling and frying) generally decreased significantly (p<0.05) the crude protein, crude fat, caloric value, Fe, Zn, vitamins A and C as ...

  4. Potential industrial market for process heat from nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R.W.

    1976-07-01

    A specific segment of industrial process heat use has been examined in detail to identify individual plant locations throughout the United states where nuclear generated steam may be a viable alternative. Five major industries have been studied: paper, chemicals, petroleum, rubber, and primary metals. For these industries, representing 75 percent of the total industrial steam consumption, the individual plant locations within the U.S. using steam in large quantities have been located and characterized as to fuel requirements

  5. Preparation of silicon carbide nanowires via a rapid heating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xintong; Chen Xiaohong; Song Huaihe

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires were fabricated in a large quantity by a rapid heating carbothermal reduction of a novel resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF)/SiO 2 hybrid aerogel in this study. SiC nanowires were grown at 1500 deg. C for 2 h in an argon atmosphere without any catalyst via vapor-solid (V-S) process. The β-SiC nanowires were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) facility, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The analysis results show that the aspect ratio of the SiC nanowires via the rapid heating process is much larger than that of the sample produced via gradual heating process. The SiC nanowires are single crystalline β-SiC phase with diameters of about 20-80 nm and lengths of about several tens of micrometers, growing along the [1 1 1] direction with a fringe spacing of 0.25 nm. The role of the interpenetrating network of RF/SiO 2 hybrid aerogel in the carbothermal reduction was discussed and the possible growth mechanism of the nanowires is analyzed.

  6. IAEA Activities in Nuclear High Temperature Heat for Industrial Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    IAEA activities to support Member States: Information Exchange; Modelling and Simulations; Development of Methodologies; Safety; Technology Support; Education and Training; Knowledge Preservation. Assist MSs with national nuclear programmes; Support innovations in nuclear power deployment; Facilitate and assist international R&D collaborations. Interest in HTGR technology • The IAEA activities in the area of HTGR are guided by the recommendations of the TWG-GCRs – Currently 14 members: China, France, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (Rep. of), Netherlands, Russian Federation, South Africa, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America – 3 International Organizations: OECD/NEA, European Commission, Gen-IV Forum. – 2 new members in 2017: Poland and Singapore. Meetings • Meet every 24 months • Next meeting: 30 October – 1 November 2017 • Other Member states with some activities on HTGRs – Kazakhstan – history of close cooperation with Japan – Saudi Arabia – feasibility study for HTGRs to provide heat for the petro-chemical industry – Canada – three HTR designs under consideration in the nuclear regulator pre-licensing vendor design reviews

  7. Radiation preservation of sea-foods : development of dehydro-irradiation processes for shrimp (Penaeus indicus) and Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, N.F.

    1978-01-01

    Bombay duck which comprises more than 10% of India's annual fish catch is not amenable to freezing and canning mainly due to the high content of free water and extreme lability of its proteins. The commercially available sun-dried product is suspect to rapid spoilage by mould leading to impairment of organoleptic qualities. The dehydro-irradiation process using heat and gamma radiation has been developed to stabilise sea foods and is studied with Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) and shrimp (Penaeus indicus). The process has been found to preserve Bombay duck laminates for a period of four months at ambient temperature and the products are more superior in organoleptic qualities to those prepared by the conventional sun-drying method. (M.G.B.)

  8. Mathematical modeling of heat treatment processes conserving biological activity of plant bioresources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N. S.; Popov, E. S.; Pozhidaeva, E. A.; Pynzar, S. S.; Ryaskina, L. O.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical model of the heat exchange process of LT-processing to estimate the dynamics of temperature field changes and optimize the regime parameters, due to the non-stationarity process, the physicochemical and thermophysical properties of food systems. The application of LT-processing, based on the use of low-temperature modes in thermal culinary processing of raw materials with preliminary vacuum packaging in a polymer heat- resistant film is a promising trend in the development of technics and technology in the catering field. LT-processing application of food raw materials guarantees the preservation of biologically active substances in food environments, which are characterized by a certain thermolability, as well as extend the shelf life and high consumer characteristics of food systems that are capillary-porous bodies. When performing the mathematical modeling of the LT-processing process, the packet of symbolic mathematics “Maple” was used, as well as the mathematical packet flexPDE that uses the finite element method for modeling objects with distributed parameters. The processing of experimental results was evaluated with the help of the developed software in the programming language Python 3.4. To calculate and optimize the parameters of the LT processing process of polycomponent food systems, the differential equation of non-stationary thermal conductivity was used, the solution of which makes it possible to identify the temperature change at any point of the solid at different moments. The present study specifies data on the thermophysical characteristics of the polycomponent food system based on plant raw materials, with the help of which the physico-mathematical model of the LT- processing process has been developed. The obtained mathematical model allows defining of the dynamics of the temperature field in different sections of the LT-processed polycomponent food systems on the basis of calculating the

  9. Soft-Bodied Fossils Are Not Simply Rotten Carcasses - Toward a Holistic Understanding of Exceptional Fossil Preservation: Exceptional Fossil Preservation Is Complex and Involves the Interplay of Numerous Biological and Geological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Luke A; Smithwick, Fiann; Nordén, Klara K; Saitta, Evan T; Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Tanner, Alastair R; Caron, Jean-Bernard; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Briggs, Derek E G; Vinther, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils are the product of complex interplays of biological and geological processes including burial, autolysis and microbial decay, authigenic mineralization, diagenesis, metamorphism, and finally weathering and exhumation. Determining which tissues are preserved and how biases affect their preservation pathways is important for interpreting fossils in phylogenetic, ecological, and evolutionary frameworks. Although laboratory decay experiments reveal important aspects of fossilization, applying the results directly to the interpretation of exceptionally preserved fossils may overlook the impact of other key processes that remove or preserve morphological information. Investigations of fossils preserving non-biomineralized tissues suggest that certain structures that are decay resistant (e.g., the notochord) are rarely preserved (even where carbonaceous components survive), and decay-prone structures (e.g., nervous systems) can fossilize, albeit rarely. As we review here, decay resistance is an imperfect indicator of fossilization potential, and a suite of biological and geological processes account for the features preserved in exceptional fossils. © 2017 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Process Design of Aluminum Tailor Heat Treated Blanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kahrimanidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many industrials field, especially in the automotive sector, there is a trend toward lightweight constructions in order to reduce the weight and thereby the CO2 and NOx emissions of the products. An auspicious approach within this context is the substitution of conventional deep drawing steel by precipitation hardenable aluminum alloys. However, based on the low formability, the application for complex stamping parts is challenging. Therefore, at the Institute of Manufacturing Technology, an innovative technology to enhance the forming limit of these lightweight materials was invented. The key idea of the so-called Tailor Heat Treated Blanks (THTB is optimization of the mechanical properties by local heat treatment before the forming operation. An accurate description of material properties is crucial to predict the forming behavior of tailor heat treated blanks by simulation. Therefore, within in this research project, a holistic approach for the design of the THTB process in dependency of the main influencing parameters is presented and discussed in detail. The capability of the approach for the process development of complex forming operations is demonstrated by a comparison of local blank thickness of a tailgate with the corresponding results from simulation.

  11. Control of the tritium path in process heat HTR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirch, N.; Scheidler, G.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear Process Heat plant converting fossil fuels into liquid or gaseous secondary energy carriers generate tritium by several nuclear reactions. Control of the tritium path through the walls of the heat exchanger is highly important to meet regulatory requirements on the acceptable contamination in the product gas or liquid. Therefore, significant effort in the project 'Prototypanlage Nukleare Prozesswaerme' was put not only into generating a data base, but also into means of reducing tritium generation and permeation. Clean graphites with lithium impurities in the ppb level provide a low tritium source term. Realistic modeling of graphite retention and special helium purification systems are essentials. The main barrier to tritium permeation are heat exchanger walls requiring detailed characterization of in-situ surface layers. Studies to optimize the water/steam mass flow in the conversion process offer possibilities for further tritium retention. Progress can be demonstrated as follows: In 1980, between 2 and 8 Bq tritium per gram of product were predicted based on available data and even higher concentrations during startup. However, present day validated code predictions are below required 0.5 Bq/g equilibrium concentration level. During transients - particularly startup - this limit cannot be guaranteed as yet, but further retention potential is being offered by tritium gettering or filtering. An expected increase of the German regulatory requirement to 5 Bq/g will easily be met by present plant design under all operational conditions. (author)

  12. Particle Acceleration and Heating Processes at the Dayside Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchem, J.; Lapenta, G.; Richard, R. L.; El-Alaoui, M.; Walker, R. J.; Schriver, D.

    2017-12-01

    It is well established that electrons and ions are accelerated and heated during magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. However, a detailed description of the actual physical mechanisms driving these processes and where they are operating is still incomplete. Many basic mechanisms are known to accelerate particles, including resonant wave-particle interactions as well as stochastic, Fermi, and betatron acceleration. In addition, acceleration and heating processes can occur over different scales. We have carried out kinetic simulations to investigate the mechanisms by which electrons and ions are accelerated and heated at the dayside magnetopause. The simulation model uses the results of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to set the initial state and the evolving boundary conditions of fully kinetic implicit particle-in-cell (iPic3D) simulations for different solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field conditions. This approach allows us to include large domains both in space and energy. In particular, some of these regional simulations include both the magnetopause and bow shock in the kinetic domain, encompassing range of particle energies from a few eV in the solar wind to keV in the magnetospheric boundary layer. We analyze the results of the iPic3D simulations by discussing wave spectra and particle velocity distribution functions observed in the different regions of the simulation domain, as well as using large-scale kinetic (LSK) computations to follow particles' time histories. We discuss the relevance of our results by comparing them with local observations by the MMS spacecraft.

  13. Influence of microwave heating on the stability of processed samn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag, Radwan S.

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Butter was converted to samn by microwave and conventional heating. The quality of the processed samn by the two methods was followed by determining the acid, peroxide and TBA values over a period of six weeks at 60°C. The fatty acid composition of samn samples was determined by gas-liquid chromatographic technique. The data show that butter conversion to samn by microwave heating was accomplished in about one half of the time that conventional heating requires. Microwave heating obviously increased the development of samn rancidity compared with the conventional heating. The parameters used for measuring lipid rancidity indicated that the main cause of samn rancidity under the present conditions is an oxidation mechanism.

    Mantequilla fue transformada en samn por calentamiento en microonda y convencional. La calidad del elaborado de samn por los dos métodos fue seguida mediante determinación de los índices de acidez, peróxido y TBA durante un período de seis semanas a 60°C. La composición en ácidos grasos de muestras de samn fue determinada por técnica cromatográfica gas-líquido. Los datos mostraron que la conversión de mantequilla a samn por calentamiento en microonda fue realizada en aproximadamente una vez y media el tiempo que exige el calentamiento convencional. El calentamiento en microonda, evidentemente, aumentó el desarrollo de la rancidez del samn comparado con el calentamiento convencional. Los parámetros usados para la medida de la rancidez lipídica indicaron que la causa principal de la rancidez del samn bajo las condiciones presentes es un mecanismo de oxidación.

  14. Improved process for heating finely divided carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-08-01

    A process for heating finely divided carbonaceous particles by burning a proportion of the carbon consists of passing the carbonaceous material at a temperature above 800/sup 0/F into an upwardly disposed, slender, combustion zone, suspending the particles in an upwardly-moving gas containing free oxygen so that the suspension has a density from 0.1 to 5.0 lb/cu. ft., passing the suspension upwardly through the combustion zone at a velocity of from 5 to 100 ft./sec., and injecting at least one stream of a second gas containing free oxygen at a point in the combustion zone such that at least 50% of the oxygen in the first gas has been consumed by the time the suspension reaches this point. The total quantity of oxygen is chosen so that the finely divided carbonaceous material is heated to a temperature of not less than 1,050/sup 0/F.

  15. Students’ Conception on Heat and Temperature toward Science Process Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasari, D.; Sukarmin, S.; Suparmi, S.; Aminah, N. S.

    2017-09-01

    This research is aimed to analyze the effect of students’ conception toward science process skill. This is a descriptive research with subjects of the research were 10th-grade students in Surakarta from high, medium and low categorized school. The sample selection uses purposive sampling technique based on physics score in national examination four latest years. Data in this research collecting from essay test, two-tier multiple choice test, and interview. Two-tier multiple choice test consists of 30 question that contains an indicator of science process skill. Based on the result of the research and analysis, it shows that students’ conception of heat and temperature affect science process skill of students. The students’ conception that still contains the wrong concept can emerge misconception. For the future research, it is suggested to improve students’ conceptual understanding and students’ science process skill with appropriate learning method and assessment instrument because heat and temperature is one of physics material that closely related with students’ daily life.

  16. Simulating the heat transfer process of horizontal anode baking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Q. Zhang; C.G. Zheng; M.H. Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2005-07-01

    A transient two-dimensional mathematical model of a horizontal baking furnace is presented. The model combines complex thermal phenomena in a baking process such as air infiltration, evolution and combustion of volatile matters, combustion of packing coke, and heat losses. The predicted results are in good agreement with measured data. Furthermore, the process is simulated under different operating conditions such as firing cycle time, airflow and air infiltration. The simulated results indicate that the fuel consumption decreases as the firing cycle time decreases. It is also found that reducing the airflow and air infiltration will help to save fuel. The model is proved to be a useful tool for the process optimisation of the baking furnace in the aluminum industry.

  17. Research of processes of heat exchange in horizontal pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A. K.; Dokoukin, V. P.; Lykov, Y. V.; Fetisov, V. G.

    2018-03-01

    The energy crisis, which becomes more evident in Russia, stems in many respects from unjustified high consumption of energy resources. Development and exploitation of principal oil and gas deposits located in remote areas with severe climatic conditions require considerable investments increasing essentially the cost of power generation. Account should be taken also of the fact that oil and gas resources are nonrenewable. An alternative fuel for heat and power generation is coal, the reserves of which in Russia are quite substantial. For this reason the coal extraction by 2020 will amount to 450-550 million tons. The use of coal, as a solid fuel for heat power plants and heating plants, is complicated by its transportation from extraction to processing and consumption sites. Remoteness of the principal coal mining areas (Kuzbass, Kansk-Achinsk field, Vorkuta) from the main centers of its consumption in the European part of the country, Siberia and Far East makes the problem of coal transportation urgent. Of all possible transportation methods (railway, conveyor, pipeline), the most efficient is hydrotransport which provides continuous transportation at comparatively low capital and working costs, as confirmed by construction and operation of extended coal pipelines in many countries.

  18. PROBLEMS OF FORMING FUTURE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ HEALTH-PRESERVING TECHNOLOGIES AND IMPLEMENTING THEM INTO THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla Horobets

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The issues of forming future primary school teachers’ health-preserving technologies and implementing them into the educational process are discussed in the article. Motivational, information and knowledgeable, and operational and instrumental components are singled out as main ones in teachers’ training. Filling the components takes place during the theoretical training while teaching natural, psychological, pedagogical and methodological disciplines, as well as during practical pedagogical training. One of the main tasks of practical pedagogical training is students’ independent work in school hygiene. Methodological recommendations to the independent work are made by the authors; the list of tasks is given. Doing tasks in school hygiene, students assess hygienic conditions for pupils’ work: determine the air-thermal regime, lighting, room equipment, analyze the working mode of a school and a timetable. Unfavorable social and economic problems in contemporary Ukraine, the difficult ecological situation, overloads of information and intensification of educational process cause the tendencies to schoolchildren’s health impairment. Primary school teacher plays an especially important part in organization of preserving and strengthening children’s health that is caused by young learners’ age peculiarities. Primary school teacher, as a main organizer of the educational process, should systematically and effectively influence his/her pupils’ healthy development. Nowadays the problem of preserving pupils’ health is studied by R. Aizman, H. Zaitsev, V. Kabanov, O. Yazlovetska; the ways of preserving and strengthening pupils’ health through implementing health-preserving technologies are disclosed by A. Akhutina, V. Kovalko, V.Lozynskyi, M. Smirnov; the approaches to organizing the holistic educational process as the basis of forming, preserving and incipiency of pupils’ health are developed by M. Bezrukikh, P. Bohdan, V

  19. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  20. Prediction of deformations of steel plate by artificial neural network in forming process with induction heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Truong Thinh; Yang, Young Soo; Bae, Kang Yul; Choi, Sung Nam

    2009-01-01

    To control a heat source easily in the forming process of steel plate with heating, the electro-magnetic induction process has been used as a substitute of the flame heating process. However, only few studies have analyzed the deformation of a workpiece in the induction heating process by using a mathematical model. This is mainly due to the difficulty of modeling the heat flux from the inductor traveling on the conductive plate during the induction process. In this study, the heat flux distribution over a steel plate during the induction process is first analyzed by a numerical method with the assumption that the process is in a quasi-stationary state around the inductor and also that the heat flux itself greatly depends on the temperature of the workpiece. With the heat flux, heat flow and thermo-mechanical analyses on the plate to obtain deformations during the heating process are then performed with a commercial FEM program for 34 combinations of heating parameters. An artificial neural network is proposed to build a simplified relationship between deformations and heating parameters that can be easily utilized to predict deformations of steel plate with a wide range of heating parameters in the heating process. After its architecture is optimized, the artificial neural network is trained with the deformations obtained from the FEM analyses as outputs and the related heating parameters as inputs. The predicted outputs from the neural network are compared with those of the experiments and the numerical results. They are in good agreement

  1. Design of the HTGR for process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrable, D.L.; Quade, R.N.

    1980-05-01

    This paper discusses a design study of an advanced 842-MW(t) HTGR with a reactor outlet temperature of 850 0 C (1562 0 F), coupled with a chemical process whose product is hydrogen (or a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) generated by steam reforming of a light hydrocarbon mixture. This paper discusses the plant layout and design for the major components of the primary and secondary heat transfer systems. Typical parametric system study results illustrate the capability of a computer code developed to model the plant performance and economics

  2. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  3. Synthesis of hydrocarbons using coal and nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickhoff, H.G.; Kugeler, K.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the global petroleum resources and demand shows that the amount of mineral oil products is sufficient to meet the requirements of the next decades. The geographical resources, however, could lead to problems of distribution and foreign exchange. The production of hydrocarbons with coal as basis using high temperature nuclear process heat has advantages compared to the conventional techniques. Next to the conservation of reserve fossil primary energy carriers there are advantages as regards prices, which at high coal costs are especially pronounced. (orig.) [de

  4. Direct quantitation of the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acid in processed foods using derivative spectrophotometry combined with micro dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Tomoharu; Ikami, Takahito; Kikukawa, Koji; Kobayashi, Masato; Takai, Rina; Kozaki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    The preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid are generally quantified with separation techniques, such as HPLC or GC. Here we describe a new method for determining these compounds in processed food samples based on a narrowness of the UV-visible spectral band width with derivative processing. It permits more selective identification and determination of target analytes in matrices. After a sample is purified by micro dialysis, UV spectra of sample solutions were measured and fourth order derivatives of the spectrum were calculated. The amplitude between the maximum and minimum values in a high-order derivative spectrum was used for the determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid. Benzoic acid and sorbic acid levels in several commercially available processed foods were measured by HPLC and the proposed spectrometry method. The levels obtained by the two methods were highly correlated (r 2 >0.97) for both preservatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Innovative food processing technology using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging for meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ruri; Fukuoka, Mika; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2014-02-01

    Since the Tohoku earthquake, there is much interest in processed foods, which can be stored for long periods at room temperature. Retort heating is one of the main technologies employed for producing it. We developed the innovative food processing technology, which supersede retort, using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging. Electrical heating involves the application of alternating voltage to food. Compared with retort heating, which uses a heat transfer medium, ohmic heating allows for high heating efficiency and rapid heating. In this paper we ohmically heated chicken breast samples and conducted various tests on the heated samples. The measurement results of water content, IMP, and glutamic acid suggest that the quality of the ohmically heated samples was similar or superior to that of the retort-heated samples. Furthermore, based on the monitoring of these samples, it was observed that sample quality did not deteriorate during storage. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The American Meat Science Association. All rights reserved.

  6. The Challenges of Preserving Historic Resources During the Deactivation and Decommissioning of Highly Contaminated Historically Significant Plutonium Process Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.; Minette, M.; Sorenson, D.; Heineman, R.; Gerber, M.; Charboneau, S.; Bond, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Manhattan Project was initiated to develop nuclear weapons for use in World War II. The Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) was established in eastern Washington State as a production complex for the Manhattan Project. A major product of the HEW was plutonium. The buildings and process equipment used in the early phases of nuclear weapons development are historically significant because of the new and unique work that was performed. When environmental cleanup became Hanford's central mission in 1991, the Department of Energy (DOE) prepared for the deactivation and decommissioning of many of the old process facilities. In many cases, the process facilities were so contaminated, they faced demolition. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate the historic significance of properties under their jurisdiction for eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places before altering or demolishing them so that mitigation through documentation of the properties can occur. Specifically, federal agencies are required to evaluate their proposed actions against the effect the actions may have on districts, sites, buildings or structures that are included or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. In an agreement between the DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL), the Washington State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), the agencies concurred that the Hanford Site Historic District is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places and that a Site-wide Treatment Plan would streamline compliance with the NHPA while allowing RL to manage the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Currently, many of the old processing buildings at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) are undergoing deactivation and decommissioning. RL and Fluor Hanford project managers at the PFP are committed to preserving historical artifacts of the plutonium production process. They

  7. Manufacturing of tailored tubes with a process integrated heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordych, Illia; Boiarkin, Viacheslav; Rodman, Dmytro; Nürnberger, Florian

    2017-10-01

    The usage of work-pieces with tailored properties allows for reducing costs and materials. One example are tailored tubes that can be used as end parts e.g. in the automotive industry or in domestic applications as well as semi-finished products for subsequent controlled deformation processes. An innovative technology to manufacture tubes is roll forming with a subsequent inductive heating and adapted quenching to obtain tailored properties in the longitudinal direction. This processing offers a great potential for the production of tubes with a wide range of properties, although this novel approach still requires a suited process design. Based on experimental data, a process simulation is being developed. The simulation shall be suitable for a virtual design of the tubes and allows for gaining a deeper understanding of the required processing. The model proposed shall predict microstructural and mechanical tube properties by considering process parameters, different geometries, batch-related influences etc. A validation is carried out using experimental data of tubes manufactured from various steel grades.

  8. Energy conversion processes for the use of geothermal heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, R. [Minder Energy Consulting, Oberlunkhofen (Switzerland); Koedel, J.; Schaedle, K.-H.; Ramsel, K. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland); Girardin, L.; Marechal, F. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratory for industrial energy systems (LENI), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on energy conversion processes that can be used when geothermal heat is to be used. The study deals with both theoretical and practical aspects of the conversion of geothermal heat to electricity. The report is divided into several parts and covers general study, practical experience, planning and operation of geothermal power plants as well as methodology for the optimal integration of energy conversion systems in geothermal power plants. In the first part, the specific properties and characteristics of geothermal resources are discussed. Also, a general survey of conversion processes is presented with special emphasis on thermo-electric conversion. The second part deals with practical aspects related to planning, construction and operation of geothermal power plant. Technical basics, such as relevant site-specific conditions, drilling techniques, thermal water or brine quality and materials requirements. Further, planning procedures are discussed. Also, operation and maintenance aspects are examined and some basic information on costs is presented. The third part of the report presents the methodology and results for the optimal valorisation of the thermodynamic potential of deep geothermal systems.

  9. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP), reference phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fladerer, R.; Schrader, L.

    1982-07-01

    The coal gasification processes using nuclear process heat being developed within the framwork of the PNP project, have the advantages of saving feed coal, improving efficiency, reducing emissions, and stabilizing energy costs. One major gasification process is the hydrogasification of coal for producing SNG or gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; this process can also be applied in a conventional route. The first steps to develop this process were planning, construction and operation of a semi-technical pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal in a fluidized bed having an input of 100 kg C/h. Before the completion of the development phase (reference phase) describing here, several components were tested on part of which no operational experience had so far been gained; these were the newly developed devices, e.g. the inclined tube for feeding coal into the fluidized bed, and the raw gas/hydrogenation gas heat exchanger for utilizing the waste heat of the raw gas leaving the gasifier. Concept optimizing of the thoroughly tested equipment parts led to an improved operational behaviour. Between 1976 and 1980, the semi-technical pilot plant was operated for about 19,400 hours under test conditions, more than 7,400 hours of which it has worked under gasification conditions. During this time approx. 1,100 metric tons of dry brown coal and more than 13 metric tons of hard coal were gasified. The longest coherent operational phase under gasification conditions was 748 hours in which 85.4 metric tons of dry brown coal were gasified. Carbon gasification rates up to 82% and methane contents in the dry raw gas (free of N 2 ) up to 48 vol.% were obtained. A detailed evaluation of the test results provided information of the results obtained previously. For the completion of the test - primarily of long-term tests - the operation of the semi-technical pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal is to be continued up to September 1982. (orig.) [de

  10. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, K.H. van

    1982-05-01

    This report describes the tasks, which Bergbau-Forschung has carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal in cooperation with partners and contractors during the reference phase of the project. On the basis of the status achieved to date it can be stated, that the mode of operation of the gas-generator developed including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal is technically feasible. Moreover through-put can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole industrial application of steam gasification - WKV - using nuclear process heat stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favourable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations these are 20 to 25% lower. (orig.) [de

  11. A Fresnel collector process heat experiment at Capitol Concrete Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauger, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is planned, conducted and evaluated to determine the feasibility of using a Power Kinetics' Fresnel concentrator to provide process heat in an industrial environment. The plant provides process steam at 50 to 60 psig to two autoclaves for curing masonry blocks. When steam is not required, the plant preheats hot water for later use. A second system is installed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory parabolic dish test site for hardware validation and experiment control. Experiment design allows for the extrapolation of results to varying demands for steam and hot water, and includes a consideration of some socio-technical factors such as the impact on production scheduling of diurnal variations in energy availability.

  12. Nuclear district heating. 1. Process heat reactors and transmission and distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caizergues, R.

    1979-01-01

    Three kinds of production station are considered: joint electricity and heat-producing stations, heat-producing stations with CAS reactors and heat-producing stations with Thermos reactors. The thermal energy supply possibilities of these stations, the cost price of this energy and the cost price per therm produced by the district heating source and conveyed to the user are studied [fr

  13. Large deviations in stochastic heat-conduction processes provide a gradient-flow structure for heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peletier, Mark A.; Redig, Frank; Vafayi, Kiamars

    2014-01-01

    We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form −log ρ; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ρ 2 for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ρ for the nonlinear heat equation

  14. Effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields processing and conventional heat treatment on orange-carrot juice carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Francisco; Cortés, Clara; Esteve, María J; Frígola, Ana

    2005-11-30

    Liquid chromatography (LC) was the method of choice for quantification of carotenoids (including geometrical isomers) to evaluate the effects of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF), a nonthermal preservation method, with different parameters (electric field intensities and treatment times), on an orange-carrot juice mixture (80:20, v/v). In parallel, a conventional heat treatment (98 degrees C, 21 s) was applied to the juice. HIPEF processing generally caused a significant increase in the concentrations of the carotenoids identified as treatment time increased. HIPEF treatment at 25 and 30 kV/cm provided a vitamin A concentration higher than that found in the pasteurized juice.

  15. The maximum power condition of the brayton cycle with heat exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Pyung Suk; Cha, Jin Girl; Ro, Sung Tack

    1985-01-01

    The ideal brayton cycle has been analyzed with the heat exchange processes between the working fluid and the heat source and the sink while their heat capacity rates are constant. The power of the cycle can be expressed in terms of a temperature of the cycle and the heat capacity rate of the working fluid. There exists an optimum power condition where the heat capacity rate of the working fluid has a value between those of the heat source and the heat sink, and the cycle efficiency is determined by the inlet temperatures of the heat source and the sink. (Author)

  16. High Magnetic Field Processing - A Heat-Free Heat Treating Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL; Manuel, Michele [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Murphy, Bart L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    The High and Thermal Magnetic Processing/Electro-magnetic Acoustic Transducer (HTMP/EMAT) technology has been shown to be an enabling disruptive materials processing technology, that can achieve significant improvements in microstructure and consequently material performance beyond that achievable through conventional processing, and will lead to the next generation of advanced performance structural and functional materials. HTMP exposure increased the reaction kinetics enabling refinement of microstructural features such as finer martensite lath size, and finer, more copious, homogeneous dispersions of strengthening carbides leading to combined strength and toughness improvements in bainitic steels. When induction heating is applied in a high magnetic field environment, the induction heating coil is configured so that high intensity acoustic/ultrasonic treatment occurs naturally. The configuration results in a highly effective electromagnetic acoustical transducer (EMAT). HTMP combined with applying high-field EMAT, produce a non-contact ultrasonic treatment that can be used to process metal alloys in either the liquid state resulting in significant microstructural changes over conventional processing. Proof-of-principle experiments on cast irons resulted in homogeneous microstructures in small castings along with improved casting surface appearance. The experiment showed that by exposing liquid metal to the non-contact acoustic/ultrasonic processing technology developed using HMFP/EMAT wrought-like microstructures were developed in cast components. This Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) project sponsored by the DOE EERE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) demonstrated the following: (1) The reduction of retained austenite in high carbon/high alloy steels with an ambient temperature HTMP process, replacing either a cryogenic or double tempering thermal process normally employed to accomplish retained austenite transformation. HTMP can be described as a 'heat

  17. A numerical study of EGS heat extraction process based on a thermal non-equilibrium model for heat transfer in subsurface porous heat reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiliang; Jiang, Fangming

    2016-02-01

    With a previously developed numerical model, we perform a detailed study of the heat extraction process in enhanced or engineered geothermal system (EGS). This model takes the EGS subsurface heat reservoir as an equivalent porous medium while it considers local thermal non-equilibrium between the rock matrix and the fluid flowing in the fractured rock mass. The application of local thermal non-equilibrium model highlights the temperature-difference heat exchange process occurring in EGS reservoirs, enabling a better understanding of the involved heat extraction process. The simulation results unravel the mechanism of preferential flow or short-circuit flow forming in homogeneously fractured reservoirs of different permeability values. EGS performance, e.g. production temperature and lifetime, is found to be tightly related to the flow pattern in the reservoir. Thermal compensation from rocks surrounding the reservoir contributes little heat to the heat transmission fluid if the operation time of an EGS is shorter than 15 years. We find as well the local thermal equilibrium model generally overestimates EGS performance and for an EGS with better heat exchange conditions in the heat reservoir, the heat extraction process acts more like the local thermal equilibrium process.

  18. Soil Heat Flow. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, James R.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Soil heat flow and the resulting soil temperature distributions have ecological consequences…

  19. Comparison of three different collectors for process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunold, Stefan; Frey, R.; Frei, Ulrich

    1994-09-01

    In general vacuum tube collectors are used in solar process heat systems. Another possibility is to use transparent insulated flat plate collectors. A critical point however, is that most of the common transparent insulating materials can not withstand high temperatures because they consist of plastics. Thus, temperature resistive collector covers combining a high tranmisivity with a low U-value are required. One possibility is to use capillaries made of glass instead of plastics. Measurement results of collector efficiency and incident angle modifier will be presented as well as calculated energy gains for three different collectors: a vacuum tube collector (Giordano Ind., France), a CPC vacuum tube collector (microtherm Energietechnik Germany; a new flat plate collector using glass capillary as transparent insulation (SET, Germany).

  20. Industrial process heat case studies. [PROSYS/ECONMAT code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, D.W.; May, E.K.; West, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Commercially available solar collectors have the potential to provide a large fraction of the energy consumed for industrial process heat (IPH). Detailed case studies of individual industrial plants are required in order to make an accurate assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of applications. This report documents the results of seven such case studies. The objectives of the case study program are to determine the near-term feasibility of solar IPH in selected industries, identify energy conservation measures, identify conditions of IPH systems that affect solar applications, test SERI's IPH analysis software (PROSYS/ECONOMAT), disseminate information to the industrial community, and provide inputs to the SERI research program. The detailed results from the case studies are presented. Although few near-term, economical solar applications were found, the conditions that would enhance the opportunities for solar IPH applications are identified.

  1. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs

  2. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  3. Process of optimization of district heat production by utilizing waste energy from metallurgical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Fužir, Miran; Slatinek, Matic; Šepul, Tanja; Plesnik, Kristijan; Lečnik, Samo

    2017-07-01

    In a consortium with SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group), Metal Ravne, the local community of Ravne na Koro\\vskem and the public research Institut Jožef Stefan, with its registered office in Slovenia, Petrol Energetika, d.o.o. set up a technical and technological platform of an innovative energy case for a transition of steel industry into circular economy with a complete energy solution called »Utilization of Waste Heat from Metallurgical Processes for District Heating of Ravne na Koro\\vskem. This is the first such project designed for a useful utilization of waste heat in steel industry which uses modern technology and innovative system solutions for an integration of a smart, efficient and sustainable heating and cooling system and which shows a growth potential. This will allow the industry and cities to make energy savings, to improve the quality of air and to increase the benefits for the society we live in. On the basis of circular economy, we designed a target-oriented co-operation of economy, local community and public research institute to produce new business models where end consumers are put into the centre. This innovation opens the door for steel industry and local community to a joint aim that is a transition into efficient low-carbon energy systems which are based on involvement of natural local conditions, renewable energy sources, the use of waste heat and with respect for the principles of sustainable development.

  4. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

    2012-09-30

    lubricants and technical support. Experiments conducted with these lubricants demonstrated good protection of the substrate steel. Graphite and boron nitride used as benchmarks are capable of completely eliminating soldering and washout. However, because of cost and environmental considerations these materials are not widely used in industry. The best water-based die lubricants evaluated in this program were capable of providing similar protection from soldering and washout. In addition to improved part quality and higher production rates, improving die casting processes to preserve the life of the inserts will result in energy savings and a reduction in environmental wastes. Improving die life by means of optimized cooling line placement, baffles and bubblers in the die will allow for reduced die temperatures during processing, saving energy associated with production. The utilization of optimized die lubricants will also reduce heat requirements in addition to reducing waste associated with soldering and washout. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.1 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on commercial introduction in 2010, a market penetration of 70% by 2020 is 1.26 trillion BTU's/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.025 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  5. Modeling conductive heat transfer during high-pressure thawing processes: determination of latent heat as a function of pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, S; Van Loey, A M; Hendrickx, M E

    2000-01-01

    A numerical heat transfer model for predicting product temperature profiles during high-pressure thawing processes was recently proposed by the authors. In the present work, the predictive capacity of the model was considerably improved by taking into account the pressure dependence of the latent heat of the product that was used (Tylose). The effect of pressure on the latent heat of Tylose was experimentally determined by a series of freezing experiments conducted at different pressure levels. By combining a numerical heat transfer model for freezing processes with a least sum of squares optimization procedure, the corresponding latent heat at each pressure level was estimated, and the obtained pressure relation was incorporated in the original high-pressure thawing model. Excellent agreement with the experimental temperature profiles for both high-pressure freezing and thawing was observed.

  6. Autogenous transplantation of rib cartilage preserved in glycerol, after removal of the perichondrium, to the malar process of rats--a histological study (Part I).

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, T.; Gabrielli, M. A.; de Oliveira Júnior, O. B.; Marcantonio, E.; Gabrielli, M. F.

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-two male albino rats received autogenous transplants of glycerol-preserved rib cartilage into the malar process. The animals were divided into two groups which received preserved cartilage with or without perichondrium. The implants were well tolerated and removal of the perichondrium enhanced the rate of resorption and bone replacement of the material.

  7. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  8. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  9. SOLTECH 1992 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17-20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil, (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, and (6) Photovoltaic (PV) Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35 mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  10. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  11. Containerless Heating Process of a Deeply Undercooled Metal Droplet by Electrostatic Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei-Long; Dai Bin; Liu Xue-Feng; Sun Yi-Ning; Sun Zhi-Bin; Yu Qiang; Zhai Guang-Jie

    2015-01-01

    We present the containerless heating process of a deeply undercooled metal droplet by electrostatic levitation. The problem of surface charge loss in the heating process is discussed and specific formulas are given to describe the basic process of charge supplement by the photoelectric and thermoelectric effects. The pure metal zirconium is used to be melted and solidified to analyze the heating process. The temperature-time curve clearly shows the features including melting, undercooling, recalescence and solid-state phase transformation. (paper)

  12. Effect of some factors used to the chicken meat preservation and processing on the protease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przysiezna, E.; Skrabka-Blotnicka, T.

    1996-01-01

    The obtained results indicated that the cathepsin activity was higher by about 60% in the extract from thigh than from breast muscles. Freezing and defrosting (not stored) of chicken meat did not influence the breast muscle cathepsin activity while they caused a decrease of activity of about 20% in the case of thigh muscles. The increase in cathepsin activity was noticed in both kinds of muscles during storage at -20 °C up to 4 months (45.6% and 19.4% for thigh and breast muscles respectively). The activity of cathepsin in extract from 5 months stored meat reached 80% in case of breast muscles and 83% in case of thigh muscles in relation to control sample respectively. The cathepsin activity significantly increased during heating of breast muscles up to 60 °C, but in case of thigh muscles it was slightly higher than at 50°C. The heating of cured chicken breast muscles up to 60°C caused a non significant growth in cathepsin activity opposite to raw muscles. The cathepsin activity from all cured samples heated up to 70°C were several times lower in relation to control samples. The cathepsin activity of both thigh and breast muscles were resistant to gamma radiation. The investigated factors caused changes in the activity of cathepsin but none of them caused its total inactivation. The changes of cathepsin activity depended on the kind of muscles and the kind and the value of acting factors

  13. Waste heat and water recovery opportunities in California tomato paste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amón, Ricardo; Maulhardt, Mike; Wong, Tony; Kazama, Don; Simmons, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Water and energy efficiency are important for the vitality of the food processing industry as demand for these limited resources continues to increase. Tomato processing, which is dominated by paste production, is a major industry in California – where the majority of tomatoes are processed in the United States. Paste processing generates large amounts of condensate as moisture is removed from the fruit. Recovery of the waste heat in this condensate and reuse of the water may provide avenues to decrease net energy and water use at processing facilities. However, new processing methods are needed to create demand for the condensate waste heat. In this study, the potential to recover condensate waste heat and apply it to the tomato enzyme thermal inactivation processing step (the hot break) is assessed as a novel application. A modeling framework is established to predict heat transfer to tomatoes during the hot break. Heat recovery and reuse of the condensate water are related to energy and monetary savings gained through decreased use of steam, groundwater pumping, cooling towers, and wastewater processing. This analysis is informed by water and energy usage data from relevant unit operations at a commercial paste production facility. The case study indicates potential facility seasonal energy and monetary savings of 7.3 GWh and $166,000, respectively, with most savings gained through reduced natural gas use. The sensitivity of heat recovery to various process variables associated with heat exchanger design and processing conditions is presented to identify factors that affect waste heat recovery. - Highlights: • The potential to recovery waste heat in tomato paste processing is examined. • Heat transfer from evaporator condensate to tomatoes in the hot break is modeled. • Processing facility data is used in model to predict heat recovery energy savings. • The primary benefit of heat recovery is reduced use of natural gas in boilers. • Reusing

  14. Prediction of heat treatment in food processing machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Torben; Friis, Alan; Szabo, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The velocity and temperature fields of a shear thinning fluid in a co-rotating disc scraped surface heat exchanger (CDHE) are calculated using the finite element method. By tracking and timingparticles through the heat exchanger residence time and thermal time distributions are computed. The resi...

  15. Research on Heat Exchange Process in Aircraft Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichindaev, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Using of heat-exchanger-condenser in the air conditioning system of the airplane Tu-204 (Boeing, Airbus, Superjet 100, MS-21, etc.) for cooling the compressed air by the cold air with negative temperature exiting the turbine results in a number of operational problems. Mainly it’s frosting of the heat exchange surface, which is the cause of live-section channels frosting, resistance increasing and airflow in the system decreasing. The purpose of this work is to analyse the known freeze-up-fighting methods for heat-exchanger-condenser, description of the features of anti-icing protection and offering solutions to this problem. For the problem of optimizing the design of heat exchangers in this work used generalized criterion that describes the ratio of thermal resistances of cold and hot sections, which include: the ratio of the initial values of heat transfer agents flow state; heat exchange surface finning coefficients; factors which describes the ratio of operating parameters and finning area. By controlling the ratio of the thermal resistances can be obtained the desired temperature of the heat exchange surface, which would prevent freezing. The work presents the results of a numerical study of the effect of different combinations of regime and geometrical factors changes on reduction of the heat-exchanger-condenser freezing surface area, including using of variable ratio of thermal resistances.

  16. Correlation of heat transfer coefficient in quenching process using ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davare, Sandeep Kedarnath; Balachandran, G.; Singh, R. K. P.

    2018-04-01

    During the heat treatment by quenching in a liquid medium the convective heat transfer coefficient plays a crucial role in the extraction of heat. The heat extraction ultimately influences the cooling rate and hence the hardness and mechanical properties. A Finite Element analysis of quenching a simple flat copper sample with different orientation of sample and with different quenchant temperatures were carried out to check and verify the results obtained from the experiments. The heat transfer coefficient (HTC) was calculated from temperature history in a simple flat copper disc sample experimentally. This HTC data was further used as input to simulation software and the cooling curves were back calculated. The results obtained from software and using experimentation shows nearly consistent values.

  17. Chemical stability of astaxanthin integrated into a food matrix: Effects of food processing and methods for preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Delgado, Alejandra Anahí; Khandual, Sanghamitra; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro Josefina

    2017-06-15

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment found in numerous organisms ranging from bacteria to algae, yeasts, plants, crustaceans and fish such as salmon. Technological importance of this pigment emerged from various studies demonstrating that it is a powerful antioxidant, even with higher activity than alpha-tocopherol and other carotenoids. It has been included in various pharmaceutical products because of several beneficial properties. By its nature, astaxanthin is susceptible to degradation and can undergo chemical changes during food processing. Therefore, different studies have focused on improving the stability of the carotenoid under conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and mechanical force, among others. In this review, common processes involved in food processing and their effect on the stability of astaxanthin, integrated into a food matrix are discussed. Moreover, preservation techniques such as microencapsulation, inclusion in emulsions, suspensions, liposomes, etc., that are being employed to maintain stability of the product are also reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement -Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, Myeong Uh; Cho, Han Ok; Yang, Jae Seung; Cho, Seong Ki; Kang, Il Joon

    1994-07-01

    With the increased consumption of processed food, quality control techniques are inevitably required in the food industry for its mass production and distribution. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of irradiation for solving the infrastructural problems in the food industry by developing viable alternatives to conventional technology and by improving the quality of processed foods. Even though food irradiation technology has been commercialized in 25 countries, and 18 items of irradiated foods have been approved for human consumption domestically, infrastructural studies are needed for the practical application of this technology. In order to enlarge the utilization of irradiation technology in solving the infrastructural problems of the food industry, this project was designed to investigate the efficacy of gamma irradiation for improving the process and physical properties of dried foods (corn and soybean), for preserving the reserved foods for emergency (red pepper) and for producing natural products (red polyketied pigment) using microbial immobilization with radiation-induced polymer

  19. Circles of Consensus: The Preservation of Cultural Diversity through Political Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Jaria i Manzano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Western modern culture has expanded at the universal level and has thereby become a threat to other cultures, particularly those of chthonic communities. But these cultures have progressively recognized its worth as a source of richness, which can be very useful in facing future challenges to humanity. Moreover, in terms of human dignity and the equality of all human beings, Western modern culture has to be recognized as having an intrinsic value as well. Given these facts, we must find a way to protect this cultural diversity in an effective manner. It is obvious that assimilationist or isolationist models are not satisfactory. So I propose a third way. I call it an integrationist or a deep approach. It consists of giving political density to cultural diversity through the design of federalist strategies that have, as a result, the definition of different levels of decision (circles of consensus. After having exposed my model, I will pay attention to the recent constitutional experiences in Ecuador and Bolivia, where some new developments in this sense are intended. I compare these models with my proposal and, finally, I analyze the main problems that a deep approach to preserving cultural diversity has to face up to.

  20. Developing maintenance technologies for FBR's heat exchanger units by advanced laser processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Akihiko; Shimada, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    Laser processing technologies were developed for the purpose of maintenance of FBR's heat exchanger units. Ultrashort laser processing fabricated fiber Bragg grating sensor for seismic monitoring. Fiber laser welding with a newly developed robot system repair cracks on inner wall of heat exchanger tubes. Safety operation of the heat exchanger units will be improved by the advanced laser processing technologies. These technologies are expected to be applied to the maintenance for the next generation FBRs. (author)

  1. Large-surface-area diamond (111) crystal plates for applications in high-heat-load wavefront-preserving X-ray crystal optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Antipov, Sergey; Butler, James E; Kolyadin, Alexander V; Katrusha, Andrey

    2016-09-01

    Fabrication and results of high-resolution X-ray topography characterization of diamond single-crystal plates with large surface area (10 mm × 10 mm) and (111) crystal surface orientation for applications in high-heat-load X-ray crystal optics are reported. The plates were fabricated by laser-cutting of the (111) facets of diamond crystals grown using high-pressure high-temperature methods. The intrinsic crystal quality of a selected 3 mm × 7 mm crystal region of one of the studied samples was found to be suitable for applications in wavefront-preserving high-heat-load crystal optics. Wavefront characterization was performed using sequential X-ray diffraction topography in the pseudo plane wave configuration and data analysis using rocking-curve topography. The variations of the rocking-curve width and peak position measured with a spatial resolution of 13 µm × 13 µm over the selected region were found to be less than 1 µrad.

  2. Heat recovery networks synthesis of large-scale industrial sites: Heat load distribution problem with virtual process subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouransari, Nasibeh; Maréchal, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesizing industrial size heat recovery network with match reduction approach. • Targeting TSI with minimum exchange between process subsystems. • Generating a feasible close-to-optimum network. • Reducing tremendously the HLD computational time and complexity. • Generating realistic network with respect to the plant layout. - Abstract: This paper presents a targeting strategy to design a heat recovery network for an industrial plant by dividing the system into subsystems while considering the heat transfer opportunities between them. The methodology is based on a sequential approach. The heat recovery opportunity between process units and the optimal flow rates of utilities are first identified using a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. The site is then divided into a number of subsystems where the overall interaction is resumed by a pair of virtual hot and cold stream per subsystem which is reconstructed by solving the heat cascade inside each subsystem. The Heat Load Distribution (HLD) problem is then solved between those packed subsystems in a sequential procedure where each time one of the subsystems is unpacked by switching from the virtual stream pair back into the original ones. The main advantages are to minimize the number of connections between process subsystems, to alleviate the computational complexity of the HLD problem and to generate a feasible network which is compatible with the minimum energy consumption objective. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated through a number of case studies, discussed and compared with the relevant results from the literature

  3. Improvements of reforming performance of a nuclear heated steam reforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Kazuhiko

    1996-10-01

    Performance of an energy production process by utilizing high temperature nuclear process heat was not competitive to that by utilizing non-nuclear process heat, especially fossil-fired process heat due to its less favorable chemical reaction conditions. Less favorable conditions are because a temperature of the nuclear generated heat is around 950degC and the heat transferring fluid is the helium gas pressurized at around 4 MPa. Improvements of reforming performance of nuclear heated steam reforming process were proposed in the present report. The steam reforming process, one of hydrogen production processes, has the possibility to be industrialized as a nuclear heated process as early as expected, and technical solutions to resolve issues for coupling an HTGR with the steam reforming system are applicable to other nuclear-heated hydrogen production systems. The improvements are as follows: As for the steam reformer, (1) increase in heat input to process gas by applying a bayonet type of reformer tubes and so on, (2) increase in reforming temperature by enhancing heat transfer rate by the use of combined promoters of orifice baffles, cylindrical thermal radiation pipes and other proposal, and (3) increase in conversion rate of methane to hydrogen by optimizing chemical compositions of feed process gas. Regarding system arrangement, a steam generator and superheater are set in the helium loop as downstream coolers of the steam reformer, so as to effectively utilize the residual nuclear heat for generating feed steam. The improvements are estimated to achieve the hydrogen production rate of approximately 3800 STP-m 3 /h for the heat source of 10 MW and therefore will provide the potential competitiveness to a fossil-fired steam reforming process. Those improvements also provide the compactness of reformer tubes, giving the applicability of seamless tubes. (J.P.N.)

  4. In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chester Ledlie [Palo Alto, CA; Fowler, Thomas David [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Schoeber, Willen Jan Antoon Henri

    2009-08-18

    An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.

  5. Modelling of heat and mass transfer processes in neonatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginalski, Maciej K [FLUENT Europe, Sheffield Business Park, Europa Link, Sheffield S9 1XU (United Kingdom); Nowak, Andrzej J [Institute of Thermal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 22, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Wrobel, Luiz C [School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: maciej.ginalski@ansys.com, E-mail: Andrzej.J.Nowak@polsl.pl, E-mail: luiz.wrobel@brunel.ac.uk

    2008-09-01

    This paper reviews some of our recent applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model heat and mass transfer problems in neonatology and investigates the major heat and mass transfer mechanisms taking place in medical devices such as incubators and oxygen hoods. This includes novel mathematical developments giving rise to a supplementary model, entitled infant heat balance module, which has been fully integrated with the CFD solver and its graphical interface. The numerical simulations are validated through comparison tests with experimental results from the medical literature. It is shown that CFD simulations are very flexible tools that can take into account all modes of heat transfer in assisting neonatal care and the improved design of medical devices.

  6. Modelling of heat and mass transfer processes in neonatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginalski, Maciej K; Nowak, Andrzej J; Wrobel, Luiz C

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews some of our recent applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model heat and mass transfer problems in neonatology and investigates the major heat and mass transfer mechanisms taking place in medical devices such as incubators and oxygen hoods. This includes novel mathematical developments giving rise to a supplementary model, entitled infant heat balance module, which has been fully integrated with the CFD solver and its graphical interface. The numerical simulations are validated through comparison tests with experimental results from the medical literature. It is shown that CFD simulations are very flexible tools that can take into account all modes of heat transfer in assisting neonatal care and the improved design of medical devices

  7. Science, practice, and human errors in controlling Clostridium botulinum in heat-preserved food in hermetic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, Irving J

    2010-05-01

    The incidence of botulism in canned food in the last century is reviewed along with the background science; a few conclusions are reached based on analysis of published data. There are two primary aspects to botulism control: the design of an adequate process and the delivery of the adequate process to containers of food. The probability that the designed process will not be adequate to control Clostridium botulinum is very small, probably less than 1.0 x 10(-6), based on containers of food, whereas the failure of the operator of the processing equipment to deliver the specified process to containers of food may be of the order of 1 in 40, to 1 in 100, based on processing units (retort loads). In the commercial food canning industry, failure to deliver the process will probably be of the order of 1.0 x 10(-4) to 1.0 x 10(-6) when U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations are followed. Botulism incidents have occurred in food canning plants that have not followed the FDA regulations. It is possible but very rare to have botulism result from postprocessing contamination. It may thus be concluded that botulism incidents in canned food are primarily the result of human failure in the delivery of the designed or specified process to containers of food that, in turn, result in the survival, outgrowth, and toxin production of C. botulinum spores. Therefore, efforts in C. botulinum control should be concentrated on reducing human errors in the delivery of the specified process to containers of food.

  8. Process for extracting residual heat and device for the ultimate absorption of heat for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Lawrence Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This invention concerns a 'heat sink' or device for the ultimate absorption of heat for electric power stations using the most widespread thermal neutron nuclear reactors, namely 'light water' reactors such as boiling or pressurized water reactors. The residual heat given off by these reactors can be safely extracted with this method by using dry cooling. However, the invention does not concern the problems arising from the cooling of the steam used for actuating the steam turbine nor the cooling of the steam exhausted by the turbine or coming from it, but it does concern the 'safety' part of the nuclear power station in which the residual heat discharged in the reactor is controlled and dissipated [fr

  9. Heat and work integration: Fundamental insights and applications to carbon dioxide capture processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Chao; Gundersen, Truls

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The problem definition of heat and work integration is introduced. • The fundamental insights of heat and work integration are presented. • The design methodology is illustrated with two small test examples. • Applications of to three carbon dioxide capture processes are presented. - Abstract: The integration of heat has achieved a notable success in the past decades. Pinch Analysis is a well-established methodology for heat integration. Work is an equally important thermodynamic parameter. The enthalpy of a process stream can be changed by the transfer of heat and/or work. Heat and work are actually interchangeable and can thus be integrated. For example, compression processes consume more work at higher temperatures, however, the compression heat may be upgraded and utilized; expansion processes produce more work at higher temperatures, however, more heat may be required. The classical heat integration problem is thus extended to a new research topic about the integration of both heat and work. The aim of this paper is to present the problem definition, fundamental thermodynamic insights and industrial applications of heat and work integration. The results from studies on the three carbon dioxide capture processes show that significant energy savings can be achieved by proper heat and work integration. In the oxy-combustion process, the work consumption for cryogenic air separation is reduced by 10.1%. In the post-combustion membrane separation process, the specific work consumption for carbon dioxide separation is reduced by 12.9%. In the membrane air separation process, the net work consumption (excluding heat consumption) is reduced by 90%.

  10. High-temperature process heat reactor with solid coolant and radiant heat exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.M.; Bulkin, Yu.M.; Vasil'ev, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    The high temperature graphite reactor with the solid coolant in which heat transfer is realized by radiant heat exchange is described. Neutron-physical and thermal-technological features of the reactor are considered. The reactor vessel is made of sheet carbon steel in the form of a sealed rectangular annular box. The moderator is a set of graphite blocks mounted as rows of arched laying Between the moderator rows the solid coolant annular layings made of graphite blocks with high temperature nuclear fuel in the form of coated microparticles are placed. The coolant layings are mounted onto ring movable platforms, the continuous rotation of which is realizod by special electric drives. Each part of the graphite coolant laying consecutively passes through the reactor core neutron cut-off zones and technological zone. In the core the graphite is heated up to the temperature of 1350 deg C sufficient for effective radiant heat transfer. In the neutron cut-off zone the chain reaction and further graphite heating are stopped. In the technological zone the graphite transfers the accumulated heat to the walls of technological channels in which the working medium moves. The described reactor is supposed to be used in nuclear-chemical complex for ammonia production by the method of methane steam catalytic conversion

  11. Lactic acid bacteria stress response to preservation processes in the beverage and juice industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucka-Kolendo, Joanna; Sokołowska, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    In this review we summarize stress factors that affect the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and cause different molecular stress responses. LAB belong to a group of bacteria that is very widespread in food and beverages. They are present, and desired, in fermented products like yogurts, cheese, vegetables, meat or wine. In most of them, LAB are providing positive sensory and nutritive features. However, as harmless and desired microbes in one product, LAB can cause spoilage and a bad taste of others, especially in juices and beverages. LAB are resistant to many stress factors which allows them to survive in harsh environments. The most common stress factors they have to deal with are: heat, cold, acidity, NaCl and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Their ability to survive depends on their skills to cope with stress factors. Under stress conditions, LAB activate mechanisms that allow them to adjust to the new conditions, which can influence their viability and technological properties. This ability to adapt to different stress conditions may come from the cross-protection systems they have, as resistance to one factor may help them to deal with the other stress effectors. LAB are highly valuable for the food industry and that is why it is important to understand their stress response mechanisms.

  12. A process to preserve valuable compounds and acquire essential oils from pomelo flavedo using a microwave irradiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zaizhi; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    A microwave pretreatment method was developed to preserve pectin, naringin, and limonin contents in pomelo flavedo to allow for longer storage times and subsequent extraction of pomelo essential oil. In terms of the essential oil, microwave pretreatment performed better than hydrodistillation with respect to extraction efficiency (1.88±0.06% in 24min versus 1.91±0.08% in 240min), oxygenation fraction (48.59±1.32% versus 29.63±1.02%), energy consumption (0.15kWh versus 1.54kWh), and environmental impact (123.20g CO 2 versus 1232g CO 2 ). Microwave-pretreated samples retained higher amounts of pectin, naringin, and limonin compared with non-pretreated samples. No obvious change in the degree of pectin esterification was observed. This study shows that the proposed process is a promising methodology for both preserving valuable compounds in pomelo flavedo during storage and acquiring essential oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed in which a suitably tuned CO2 laser, frequency doubled by a Tl3AsSe37 crystal, was brought into resonance with a P-line or two R-lines in the fundamental vibration spectrum of CO. Cooling or heating produced by absorption in CO was measured in a gas-thermometer arrangement. P-line cooling and R-line heating could be demonstrated, measured, and compared. The experiments were continued with CO mixed with N2 added in partial pressures from 9 to 200 Torr. It was found that an efficient collisional resonance energy transfer from CO to N2 existed which increased the cooling effects by one to two orders of magnitude over those in pure CO. Temperature reductions in the order of tens of degrees Kelvin were obtained by a single pulse in the core of the irradiated volume. These measurements followed predicted values rather closely, and it is expected that increase of pulse energies and durations will enhance the heat pump effects. The experiments confirm the feasibility of quasi-isentropic engines which convert laser power into work without the need for heat rejection. Of more immediate potential interest is the possibility of remotely powered heat pumps for cryogenic use, such applications are discussed to the extent possible at the present stage.

  14. Processes to Preserve Spice and Herb Quality and Sensory Integrity During Pathogen Inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Susan E; Moberg, Kayla; Amin, Kemia N; Wright, Melissa; Newkirk, Jordan J; Ponder, Monica A; Acuff, Gary R; Dickson, James S

    2017-05-01

    Selected processing methods, demonstrated to be effective at reducing Salmonella, were assessed to determine if spice and herb quality was affected. Black peppercorn, cumin seed, oregano, and onion powder were irradiated to a target dose of 8 kGy. Two additional processes were examined for whole black peppercorns and cumin seeds: ethylene oxide (EtO) fumigation and vacuum assisted-steam (82.22 °C, 7.5 psia). Treated and untreated spices/herbs were compared (visual, odor) using sensory similarity testing protocols (α = 0.20; β = 0.05; proportion of discriminators: 20%) to determine if processing altered sensory quality. Analytical assessment of quality (color, water activity, and volatile chemistry) was completed. Irradiation did not alter visual or odor sensory quality of black peppercorn, cumin seed, or oregano but created differences in onion powder, which was lighter (higher L * ) and more red (higher a * ) in color, and resulted in nearly complete loss of measured volatile compounds. EtO processing did not create detectable odor or appearance differences in black peppercorn; however visual and odor sensory quality differences, supported by changes in color (higher b * ; lower L * ) and increased concentrations of most volatiles, were detected for cumin seeds. Steam processing of black peppercorn resulted in perceptible odor differences, supported by increased concentration of monoterpene volatiles and loss of all sesquiterpenes; only visual differences were noted for cumin seed. An important step in process validation is the verification that no effect is detectable from a sensory perspective. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  15. Systematic approach to optimal design of induction heating installations for aluminum extrusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimin, L. S.; Sorokin, A. G.; Egiazaryan, A. S.; Filimonova, O. V.

    2018-03-01

    An induction heating system has a number of inherent benefits compared to traditional heating systems due to a non-contact heating process. It is widely used in vehicle manufacture, cast-rolling, forging, preheating before rolling, heat treatment, galvanizing and so on. Compared to other heating technologies, induction heating has the advantages of high efficiency, fast heating rate and easy control. The paper presents a new systematic approach to the design and operation of induction heating installations (IHI) in aluminum alloys production. The heating temperature in industrial complexes “induction heating - deformation” is not fixed in advance, but is determined in accordance with the maximization or minimization of the total economic performance during the process of metal heating and deformation. It is indicated that the energy efficient technological complex “IHI – Metal Forming (MF)” can be designed only with regard to its power supply system (PSS). So the task of designing systems of induction heating is to provide, together with the power supply system and forming equipment, the minimum energy costs for the metal retreating.

  16. High pressure-temperature processing as an alternative for preserving basil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebbers, B.; Matser, A.; Koets, M.; Bartels, P.; Berg, van den R.

    2002-01-01

    In this study the effect of sterilisation by high pressure (HP) on the quality of basil was compared to conventional processing techniques. By means of freezing, or blanching followed by drying, microbial reduction of spores was maximal one-log. Pulsed HP-temperature treatment yielded a reduction of

  17. Integrated design and optimization of technologies for utilizing low grade heat in process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Dong-Hun; Binns, Michael; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Implementation of a modeling and design framework for the utilization of low grade heat. • Application of process simulator and optimization techniques for the design of technologies for heat recovery. • Systematic and holistic exploitation for the recovery of industrial low grade heat. • Demonstration of the applicability and benefit of integrated design and optimization framework through a case study. - Abstract: The utilization of low grade heat in process industries has significant potential for improving site-wide energy efficiency. This paper focuses on the techno-economic analysis of key technologies for energy recovery and re-use, namely: Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC), boiler feed water heating, heat pumping and absorption refrigeration in the context of process integration. Process modeling and optimization in a holistic manner identifies the optimal integrated configuration of these technologies, with rigorous assessment of costs and technical feasibility of these technologies. For the systematic screening and evaluation of design options, detailed process simulator models are evaluated and optimization proceeds subject to design constraints for the particular economic scenarios where technology using low grade heat is introduced into the process site. Case studies are presented to illustrate how the proposed modeling and optimization framework can be useful and effective in practice, in terms of providing design guidelines and conceptual insights for the application of technologies using low grade heat. From the case study, the best options during winter are the ORC giving a 6.4% cost reduction for the ideal case with low grade heat available at a fixed temperature and boiler feed water heating giving a 2.5% cost reduction for the realistic case with low grade heat available at a range of temperatures. Similarly during summer boiler feed water heating was found to be the best option giving a 3.1% reduction of costs considering a

  18. Computational simulation of laser heat processing of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Vijaya; Gnanamuthu, Daniel

    1987-04-01

    A computational model simulating the laser heat treatment of AISI 4140 steel plates with a CW CO2 laser beam has been developed on the basis of the three-dimensional, time-dependent heat equation (subject to the appropriate boundary conditions). The solution method is based on Newton iteration applied to a triple-approximate factorized form of the equation. The method is implicit and time-accurate; the maintenance of time-accuracy in the numerical formulation is noted to be critical for the simulation of finite length workpieces with a finite laser beam dwell time.

  19. Upper-Ocean Heat Balance Processes and the Walker Circulation in CMIP5 Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, C.; Lyon, B.; Ricciardulli, L.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable uncertainty remains as to the importance of mechanisms governing decadal and longer variability of the Walker Circulation, its connection to the tropical climate system, and prospects for tropical climate change in the face of anthropogenic forcing. Most contemporary climate models suggest that in response to elevated CO2 and a warmer but more stratified atmosphere, the required upward mass flux in tropical convection will diminish along with the Walker component of the tropical mean circulation as well. Alternatively, there is also evidence to suggest that the shoaling and increased vertical stratification of the thermocline in the eastern Pacific will enable a muted SST increase there-- preserving or even enhancing some of the dynamical forcing for the Walker cell flow. Over the past decade there have been observational indications of an acceleration in near-surface easterlies, a strengthened Pacific zonal SST gradient, and globally-teleconnected dislocations in precipitation. But is this evidence in support of an ocean dynamical thermostat process posited to accompany anthropogenic forcing, or just residual decadal fluctuations associated with variations in warm and cold ENSO events and other stochastic forcing? From a modeling perspective we try to make headway on this question by examining zonal variations in surface energy fluxes and dynamics governing tropical upper ocean heat content evolution in the WCRP CMIP5 model projections. There is some diversity among model simulations; for example, the CCSM4 indicates net ocean warming over the IndoPacific region while the CSIRO model concentrates separate warming responses over the central Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. The models, as with observations, demonstrate strong local coupling between variations in column water vapor, downward surface longwave radiation and SST; but the spatial patterns of changes in the sign of this relationship differ among models and, for models as a whole, with

  20. Engineering Analysis of Thermal-Load Components in the Process of Heating of Pet Preforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, D. É.; Kolosov, A. E.; Kazak, I. A.; Pogorelyi, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of thermal-load components (convection, collimated and uncollimated components of infrared radiation) in the process of production of PET packaging on the heating of PET preforms has been assessed. It has been established that the collimated component of infrared radiation ensures most (up to 70%) of the thermal energy in the process of heating of a PET preform.

  1. Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Myron Ira; Vinegar; Harold J.; Baker, Ralph Sterman; Heron, Goren

    2010-11-30

    Methods of treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Methods for treating a subsurface treatment area in a formation may include introducing a fluid into the formation from a plurality of wells offset from a treatment area of an in situ heat treatment process to inhibit outward migration of formation fluid from the in situ heat treatment process.

  2. Thermal-hydraulic process for cooling, heating and power production with low-grade heat sources in residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgogno, R.; Mauran, S.; Stitou, D.; Marck, G.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of solar thermal-hydraulic process for tri-generation application. • Choice of the most suitable working fluid pair (R1234yf/R1233zd). • Evaluation of the global annual performance in Mediterranean climate. • Global annual COP and heat amplification achieving 0.24 and 1.2 respectively. • Global annual performance achieving an electric efficiency of 3.7%. - Abstract: A new process based on thermal-hydraulic conversion actuated by low-grade thermal energy is investigated. Input thermal energy can be provided by the means of solar collectors, as well as other low temperature energy sources. In the following article, “thermo-hydraulic” term refers to a process involving an incompressible fluid used as an intermediate medium to transfer work hydraulically between different thermal operated components or sub-systems. The system aims at providing trigeneration energy features for the residential sector, that is providing heating, cooling and electrical power for meeting the energy needs of domestic houses. This innovative system is made of two dithermal processes (working at two different levels of temperatures) and featuring two different working fluids. The first process is able to directly supply either electrical energy generated by an hydraulic turbine or drives the second process thanks to the incompressible fluid, which is similar to a heat pump effect for heating or cooling purposes. The innovative aspect of this process relies on the use of an hydraulic transfer fluid to transfer the work between each sub-system and therefore simplifying the conversion chain. A model, assuming steady-state operation, is developed to assess the energy performances of different variants of this thermo-hydraulic process with various heat source temperatures (80–110 °C) or heat sinks (0–30 °C), as well as various pairs of working fluids. For instance, in the frame of a single-family home, located in the Mediterranean region, the working

  3. Quality Criteria for Architectural 3D Data in Usage and Preservation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindlar, Michelle; Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    responsible for the archival of information about publically funded buildings. Architectural practise of today commonly includes 3D object processing. The output of these processes is slowly reaching the aforementioned cultural heritage institutions which are now facing the task of quality assessment...... of the material. The paper will present a first analysis of potential quality factors and compare architectural and cultural heritage domain expectations in 3D data quality. It will look at two forms of 3D data: modelled 3D objects and scanned 3D objects. The work presented in this paper is based on work......Quality assessment of digital material has been just one of the new tasks the digital revolution brought into the library domain. With the first big print material digitization efforts in the digital heritage domain dating back to the 1980ies, plenty of experience has been gathered...

  4. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Araujo, M.M.; Fanaro, G.B.; Rela, P.R.; Mancini-Filho, J.

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in Sao Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at 'Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares' (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a 60 Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process

  5. Microwave heating and the fast ADOR process for preparing zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navarro, M.; Morris, S. A.; Mayoral, A.; Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 17 (2017), s. 8037-8043 ISSN 2050-7488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : membranes * zeolites * microwave heating Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 8.867, year: 2016

  6. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  7. Nuclear safety inspection in treatment process for SG heat exchange tubes deficiency of unit 1, TNPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunming; Song Chenxiu; Zhao Pengyu; Hou Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes treatment process for SG heat exchange tubes deficiency of Unit 1, TNPS, nuclear safety inspection of Northern Regional Office during treatment process for deficiency and further inspection after deficiency had been treated. (authors)

  8. Process integration in bioprocess indystry: waste heat recovery in yeast and ethyl alcohol plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskovic, P.; Anastasovski, A.; Markovska, Lj.; Mesko, V.

    2010-01-01

    The process integration of the bioprocess plant for production of yeast and alcohol was studied. Preliminary energy audit of the plant identified the huge amount of thermal losses, caused by waste heat in exhausted process streams, and reviled the great potential for energy efficiency improvement by heat recovery system. Research roadmap, based on process integration approach, is divided on six phases, and the primary tool used for the design of heat recovery network was Pinch Analysis. Performance of preliminary design are obtained by targeting procedure, for three process stream sets, and evaluated by the economic criteria. The results of process integration study are presented in the form of heat exchanger networks which fulfilled the utilization of waste heat and enable considerable savings of energy in short payback period.

  9. Alternative Procedure of Heat Integration Tehnique Election between Two Unit Processes to Improve Energy Saving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, S. S.; Renanto; Altway, A.

    2018-01-01

    The energy use system in a production process, in this case heat exchangers networks (HENs), is one element that plays a role in the smoothness and sustainability of the industry itself. Optimizing Heat Exchanger Networks (HENs) from process streams can have a major effect on the economic value of an industry as a whole. So the solving of design problems with heat integration becomes an important requirement. In a plant, heat integration can be carried out internally or in combination between process units. However, steps in the determination of suitable heat integration techniques require long calculations and require a long time. In this paper, we propose an alternative step in determining heat integration technique by investigating 6 hypothetical units using Pinch Analysis approach with objective function energy target and total annual cost target. The six hypothetical units consist of units A, B, C, D, E, and F, where each unit has the location of different process streams to the temperature pinch. The result is a potential heat integration (ΔH’) formula that can trim conventional steps from 7 steps to just 3 steps. While the determination of the preferred heat integration technique is to calculate the potential of heat integration (ΔH’) between the hypothetical process units. Completion of calculation using matlab language programming.

  10. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Jo, Sung Ki; Yook, Hong Sun; Kwon, Oh Jin; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung; Im, Sung Il

    1997-09-01

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs.

  11. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Jo, Sung Ki; Yook, Hong Sun; Kwon, Oh Jin; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung; Im, Sung Il.

    1997-09-01

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs

  12. Parametric Accuracy: Building Information Modeling Process Applied to the Cultural Heritage Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagnani, S.; Manferdini, A. M.

    2013-02-01

    Since their introduction, modeling tools aimed to architectural design evolved in today's "digital multi-purpose drawing boards" based on enhanced parametric elements able to originate whole buildings within virtual environments. Semantic splitting and elements topology are features that allow objects to be "intelligent" (i.e. self-aware of what kind of element they are and with whom they can interact), representing this way basics of Building Information Modeling (BIM), a coordinated, consistent and always up to date workflow improved in order to reach higher quality, reliability and cost reductions all over the design process. Even if BIM was originally intended for new architectures, its attitude to store semantic inter-related information can be successfully applied to existing buildings as well, especially if they deserve particular care such as Cultural Heritage sites. BIM engines can easily manage simple parametric geometries, collapsing them to standard primitives connected through hierarchical relationships: however, when components are generated by existing morphologies, for example acquiring point clouds by digital photogrammetry or laser scanning equipment, complex abstractions have to be introduced while remodeling elements by hand, since automatic feature extraction in available software is still not effective. In order to introduce a methodology destined to process point cloud data in a BIM environment with high accuracy, this paper describes some experiences on monumental sites documentation, generated through a plug-in written for Autodesk Revit and codenamed GreenSpider after its capability to layout points in space as if they were nodes of an ideal cobweb.

  13. Deposits on heat exchanging surfaces, causes in the bleaching process and countermeasures; Belaeggningar paa vaermevaexlare, orsaker i blekprocessen och aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Staahl, Charlotte; Widell, Lars [AaF-Celpap AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Energy conservation in process industry implies to a large extent recovery of heat (or cold) from a process stream and its utilization for another process stream. The savings of energy that can be achieved depend on the process streams, but also on the efficiency of the heat exchange. A small driving temperature difference is a condition for an extensive recovery and a satisfactory preservation of its quality, i.e. its temperature. As process streams contain compounds or components that can precipitate and form deposits on heat exchanging surfaces, the recovery of heat is degraded. In the pulp and paper industry, two trends combine to increase the extent of fouling: a larger degree of closure for the process and a change in pH-profile caused by a switch to elementary chlorine free bleaching. In this study, the occurrence of deposits has been investigated for the mills that produce mechanical pulp and for the fiber line in mills producing chemical pulp. Deposits on the evaporator surfaces are treated in a parallel study. Except for some plants, deposits are not an important problem today. That does not mean that there has not been any problem or that problems will not occur. The origin of deposits lies in the chemistry of the process, but deposits have consequences for the thermal energy management. A list of possible actions in order to avoid deposits or to mitigate their consequences has been dressed in this report. They should be considered with the following order of priority: avoiding that the compounds that may form deposits enter at all the process, section 6.1; avoiding that these compounds form a deposit once they have entered the process, section 6.2; cleaning if nothing else helps or costs too much, section 6.3. Some of these methods are well known or are conventional changes in the processes. Some of these methods are less well proven or less well documented. In a longer time perspective, the kidney technology that is being developed could contribute to

  14. Design of the steam reformer for the HTR-10 high temperature process heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Huaiming; Xu Yuanhui; Jia Haijun

    2000-01-01

    The 10 MW High Temperature Reactor Test Module (HTR-10) is being constructed now and planned to be operational in 2000. One of the objectives is to develop the high temperature process heat application. The methane steam reformer is one of the key-facilities for the nuclear process heat application system. The paper describes the conceptual design of the HTR-10 Steam Reformer with He heating, and the design optimization computer code. It can be used to perform sensitivity analysis for parameters, and to improve the design. Principal parameters and construction features of the HTR-10 reformer heated by He are introduced. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Heat Flux Measurement as a New Process Analytical Technology Monitoring Tool in Freeze Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Ilona; Pauli, Victoria; Friess, Wolfgang; Freitag, Angelika; Hawe, Andrea; Winter, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the suitability of heat flux measurement as a new technique for monitoring product temperature and critical end points during freeze drying. The heat flux sensor is tightly mounted on the shelf and measures non-invasively (no contact with the product) the heat transferred from shelf to vial. Heat flux data were compared to comparative pressure measurement, thermocouple readings, and Karl Fischer titration as current state of the art monitoring techniques. The whole freeze drying process including freezing (both by ramp freezing and controlled nucleation) and primary and secondary drying was considered. We found that direct measurement of the transferred heat enables more insights into thermodynamics of the freezing process. Furthermore, a vial heat transfer coefficient can be calculated from heat flux data, which ultimately provides a non-invasive method to monitor product temperature throughout primary drying. The end point of primary drying determined by heat flux measurements was in accordance with the one defined by thermocouples. During secondary drying, heat flux measurements could not indicate the progress of drying as monitoring the residual moisture content. In conclusion, heat flux measurements are a promising new non-invasive tool for lyophilization process monitoring and development using energy transfer as a control parameter. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  17. Role of heat equation in lap joint for welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Rohit, Sooraj

    2017-07-01

    Welding is predominantly used in industrial purposes and growth in their industry, which gives exact welding and more efficient. The major advantage of using this welding technique at initial stage it takes very low heat to weld the portion and gives a good result of low distortion in modules. In this context, two dissimilar metals copper and nickel are chosen for analysis in tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) in which length is 300 mm and breadth is 100 mm thickness 15 mm welded at room temperature a welded portion zone is formed simulation analysis has done on CATIA® and ANSYS®and MATLAB® code is generated for calculating temperatures at each node to calculate temperature at each node a new technique is used tri-diagonal matrix algorithm is used (TDMA) Steady state one dimension heat is calculated results compared between simulation analysis and analytical analysis temperature at each node is calculated both the temperatures are equal with error.

  18. Influence of storage and heating on protein glycation levels of processed lactose-free and regular bovine milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-04-15

    Thermal treatment preserves the microbiological safety of milk, but also induces Maillard reactions modifying for example proteins. The purpose of this study was evaluating the influence of consumer behaviors (storage and heating) on protein glycation degrees in bovine milk products. Lactosylation and hexosylation sites were identified in ultra-high temperature (UHT), lactose-free pasteurized, and lactose-free UHT milk (ULF) and infant formula (IF) using tandem mass spectrometry (electron transfer dissociation). Overall, 303 lactosylated and 199 hexosylated peptides were identified corresponding to 170 lactosylation (31 proteins) and 117 hexosylation sites (25 proteins). In quantitative terms, storage increased lactosylation up to fourfold in UHT and IF and hexosylation up to elevenfold in ULF and threefold in IF. These levels increased additionally twofold when the stored samples were heated (40°C). In conclusion, storage and heating appear to influence protein glycation levels in milk at similar or even higher degrees than industrial processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Opportunities for low-grade heat recovery in the UK food processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Richard; Harvey, Adam; Reay, David

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency in the process industry is becoming an increasingly important issue due to the rising costs of both electricity and fossil fuel resources, as well as the tough targets for the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions outlined in the Climate Change Act 2008. Utilisation of waste heat sources is key to improving industrial energy efficiency, with an estimated 11.4 TWh of recoverable heat being wasted each year, a quarter of which is from the food and drinks processing sector. This paper examines the low-grade waste heat sources common to the food and drinks processing sector and the various opportunities for the use of this heat. A review of the best available technologies for recovery of waste heat is provided, ranging from heat transfer between source and sink, to novel technologies for the generation of electricity and refrigeration. Generally, the most economic option for waste heat recovery is heat exchange between nearby/same process source and sink, with a number of well-developed heat exchangers widely available for purchase. More novel options, such as the use of organic Rankine cycles for electricity generation prove to be less economical due to high capital outlays. However, with additional funding provision for demonstration of such projects and development of modular units, such technologies would become more common

  20. Processing complex pseudo-words in mild cognitive impairment: The interaction of preserved morphological rule knowledge with compromised cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouilidou, Christina; Dolenc, Barbara; Marvin, Tatjana; Pirtošek, Zvezdan

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects the cognitive performance of elderly adults. However, the level of severity is not high enough to be diagnosed with dementia. Previous research reports subtle language impairments in individuals with MCI specifically in domains related to lexical meaning. The present study used both off-line (grammaticality judgment) and on-line (lexical decision) tasks to examine aspects of lexical processing and how they are affected by MCI. 21 healthy older adults and 23 individuals with MCI saw complex pseudo-words that violated various principles of word formation in Slovenian and decided if each letter string was an actual word of their language. The pseudo-words ranged in their degree of violability. A task effect was found, with MCI performance to be similar to that of healthy controls in the off-line task but different in the on-line task. Overall, the MCI group responded slower than the elderly controls. No significant differences were observed in the off-line task, while the on-line task revealed a main effect of Violation type, a main effect of Group and a significant Violation × Group interaction reflecting a difficulty for the MCI group to process pseudo-words in real time. That is, while individuals with MCI seem to preserve morphological rule knowledge, they experience additional difficulties while processing complex pseudo-words. This was attributed to an executive dysfunction associated with MCI that delays the recognition of ungrammatical formations.

  1. Modeling heat and mass transfer in the heat treatment step of yerba maté processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Peralta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to estimate the leaf and twig temperature and moisture content of yerba maté branches (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire during heat treatment, carried out in a rotary kiln dryer. These variables had to be estimated (modeling the heat and mass transfer due to the difficulty of experimental measurement in the dryer. For modeling, the equipment was divided into two zones: the flame or heat treatment zone and the drying zone. The model developed fit well with the experimental data when water loss took place only in leaves. In the first zone, leaf temperature increased until it reached 135°C and then it slowly decreased to 88°C at the exit, despite the gas temperature, which varied in this zone from 460°C to 120°C. Twig temperature increased in the two zones from its inlet temperature (25°C up to 75°C. A model error of about 3% was estimated based on theoretical and experimental data on leaf moisture content.

  2. Evaluation methodology for advance heat exchanger concepts using analytical hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Kim, Eung Soo; Patterson, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study describes how the major alternatives and criteria being developed for the heat exchangers for next generation nuclear reactors are evaluated using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). This evaluation was conducted as an aid in developing and selecting heat exchangers for integrating power production and process heat applications with next generation nuclear reactors. The basic setup for selecting the most appropriate heat exchanger option was established with evaluation goals, alternatives, and criteria. The two potential candidates explored in this study were shell-and-tube (helical coiled) and printed circuit heat exchangers. Based on study results, the shell-and-tube (helical coiled) heat exchanger is recommended for a demonstration reactor in the near term, mainly because of its reliability.

  3. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor as the basis for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity, hydrogen production, and process heat applications. The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. An intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding. This report describes the preliminary results of a scoping study that evaluated the diffusion welding process parameters and the resultant mechanical properties of diffusion welded joints using Alloy 800H. The long-term goal of the program is to progress towards demonstration of small heat exchanger unit cells fabricated with diffusion welds. Demonstration through mechanical testing of the unit cells will support American Society of Mechanical Engineers rules and standards development, reduce technical risk, and provide proof of concept for heat exchanger fabrication methods needed to deploy heat exchangers in several potential NGNP configurations.1 Researchers also evaluated the usefulness of modern thermodynamic and diffusion computational tools (Thermo-Calc and Dictra) in optimizing the parameters for diffusion welding of Alloy 800H. The modeling efforts suggested a temperature of 1150 C for 1 hour with an applied pressure of 5 MPa using 15 {micro}m nickel foil as joint filler to reduce chromium oxidation on the welded surfaces. Good agreement between modeled and experimentally determined concentration gradients was achieved

  4. Research on heat transfer characteristic of crude oil during the tubular heating process in the floating roof tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of finite volume method, the heat transfer characteristic of crude oil under the tubular heating in the floating roof tank is investigated by numerical simulation. The evolution of temperature profile and its relationship with the flow pattern is presented in detail. A noticeable finding is that there exists the transformation of the flow pattern which affects the temperature profile apparently during the heating process. Special concern is taken on the evolution of temperature distribution on the interface between oil and the inner wall of the tank. The temperature profile on the top wall, sidewall and base wall of the tank is investigated. It is concluded that the plume induced by natural convection takes most responsibility for the formation of temperature field in the tank. The second factor is the boundary condition of the tank.

  5. Experimental studies of parameters affecting the heat generation in friction stir welding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović Miroslav M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat generation is a complex process of transformation of a specific type of energy into heat. During friction stir welding, one part of mechanical energy delivered to the welding tool is consumed in the welding process, another is used for deformational processes etc., and the rest of the energy is transformed into heat. The analytical procedure for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding is very complex because it includes a significant number of variables and parameters, and many of them cannot be fully mathematically explained. Because of that, the analytical model for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding defines variables and parameters that dominantly affect heat generation. These parameters are numerous and some of them, e. g. loads, friction coefficient, torque, temperature, are estimated experimentally. Due to the complex geometry of the friction stir welding process and requirements of the measuring equipment, adequate measuring configurations and specific constructional solutions that provide adequate measuring positions are necessary. This paper gives an overview of the process of heat generation during friction stir welding, the most influencing parameters on heat generation, constructional solutions for the measuring equipment needed for these experimental researches and examples of measured values.

  6. Tube with helical grooving for a heat exchanger and its manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolsky, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    This claim broadly concerns heat transfer tubes for heat exchangers of the kind described in the main patent specification and, in particular, a heat transfer tube and a process for manufacturing it. This tube includes a strip of metal, the opposite sides of which extend to form a certain number of longitudinal grooves of specific profile and height. This strip is helically wound and the lateral edges are joined butt to butt so as to be leak tight to fluids [fr

  7. Mathematical modelling of thermal and flow processes in vertical ground heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pater Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main task of mathematical modelling of thermal and flow processes in vertical ground heat exchanger (BHE-Borehole Heat Exchanger is to determine the unit of borehole depth heat flux obtainable or transferred during the operation of the installation. This assignment is indirectly associated with finding the circulating fluid temperature flowing out from the U-tube at a given inlet temperature of fluid in respect to other operational parameters of the installation.

  8. ANALYSIS OF NONMAGNETIC METAL INDUCTION HEATING PROCESSES BY FLAT-TYPE CIRCULAR SOLENOIDAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Batygin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the electromagnetic processes in the system of induction heating with estimating the main characteristics of heating the non-magnetic sheet metal. The analytical expressions for numerical estimates of the induced current in terms of the phase of the excitation signal are presented. The dependence for the heating temperature of the considered circular sheet metal area for the time corresponding to the interval phase has been determined.

  9. Improved process for the treatment of bituminous materials. [two heat treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1947-04-30

    A continuous process for recovering valuable hydrocarbon oils from solid minerals adapted to produce such oils upon application of heat, consists of reducing the raw minerals to a powder, suspending the powdered minerals in a gaseous medium and subjecting the suspension thus formed to heat treatment in a primary reaction zone, followed by heat treatment in a secondary reaction zone separate from the primary reaction zone. The temperature during the second of said treatments being substantially higher than that of the first.

  10. Steam condensation process in a power production cycle and heat exchanger for it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, Gerard; Andro, Jean; Marjollet, Jacques; Pouderoux, Pierre.

    1982-01-01

    Steam condensation process in a power production cycle by expansion in turbines, characterized by the fact that this condensation is performed by the vaporization of a coolant with a vaporization temperature at atmospheric pressure lower than that of water, and that the vaporized coolant fluid is expanded in a turbine and then condensed by heat exchange with cold water being heated, while the liquefied coolant is recompressed and used for heat exchange with the steam to be condensed [fr

  11. Optimal operation of integrated processes. Studies on heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glemmestad, Bjoern

    1997-12-31

    Separators, reactors and a heat exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery are important parts of an integrated plant. This thesis deals with the operation of HENs, in particular, optimal operation. The purpose of heat integration is to save energy, but the HEN also introduces new interactions and feedback into the overall plant. A prerequisite for optimisation is that there are extra degrees of freedom left after regulatory control is implemented. It is shown that extra degrees of freedom may not always be utilized for energy optimisation, and a quantitative expression for the degrees of freedom that can be so utilized are presented. A simplified expression that is often valid is also deduced. The thesis presents some improvements and generalisations of a structure based method that has been proposed earlier. Structural information is used to divide possible manipulations into three categories depending on how each manipulation affects the utility consumption. By means of these categories and two heuristic rules for operability, the possible manipulations are ordered in a priority table. This table is used to determine which manipulation should be preferred and which manipulation should be selected if an active manipulation is saturated. It is shown that the method may correspond to split-range control. A method that uses parametric information in addition to structural information is proposed. In this method, the optimal control structure is found through solving an integer programming problem. The thesis also proposes a method that combines the use of steady state optimisation and optimal selection of measurements. 86 refs., 46 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. CFD SIMULATION OF THE HEAT TRANSFER PROCESS IN A CHEVRON PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER USING THE SST TURBULENCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Skočilas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation of the heat transfer process during turbulent hot water flow between two chevron plates in a plate heat exchanger. A three-dimensional model with the simplified geometry of two cross-corrugated channels provided by chevron plates, taking into account the inlet and outlet ports, has been designed for the numerical study. The numerical model was based on the shear-stress transport (SST k-! model. The basic characteristics of the heat exchanger, as values of heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop, have been investigated. A comparative analysis of analytical calculation results, based on experimental data obtained from literature, and of the results obtained by numerical simulation, has been carried out. The coefficients and the exponents in the design equations for the considered plates have been arranged by using simulation results. The influence on the main flow parameters of the corrugation inclination angle relative to the flow direction has been taken into account. An analysis of the temperature distribution across the plates has been carried out, and it has shown the presence of zones with higher heat losses and low fluid flow intensity.

  13. Heat transfer phenomena during thermal processing of liquid particulate mixtures-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anubhav Pratap; Singh, Anika; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2017-05-03

    During the past few decades, food industry has explored various novel thermal and non-thermal processing technologies to minimize the associated high-quality loss involved in conventional thermal processing. Among these are the novel agitation systems that permit forced convention in canned particulate fluids to improve heat transfer, reduce process time, and minimize heat damage to processed products. These include traditional rotary agitation systems involving end-over-end, axial, or biaxial rotation of cans and the more recent reciprocating (lateral) agitation. The invention of thermal processing systems with induced container agitation has made heat transfer studies more difficult due to problems in tracking the particle temperatures due to their dynamic motion during processing and complexities resulting from the effects of forced convection currents within the container. This has prompted active research on modeling and characterization of heat transfer phenomena in such systems. This review brings to perspective, the current status on thermal processing of particulate foods, within the constraints of lethality requirements from safety view point, and discusses available techniques of data collection, heat transfer coefficient evaluation, and the critical processing parameters that affect these heat transfer coefficients, especially under agitation processing conditions.

  14. Experimental data processing technique for nonstationary heat transfer on fuel rod simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, S.P.; Nikonov, A.P.; Belyukin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Non-stationary heat-transfer data processing is considered in connection with experimental studies of the emergency cooling whereat fuel rod imitators both with direct and indirect shell heating were used. The objective of data processing was obtaining the temperature distribution within the imitator, the heat flux removed by the coolant and the shell-coolant heat-transfer coefficient. The special attention was paid to the temperature distribution calculation at the data processing during the reflooding experiments. In this case two factors are assumed to be known: the time dependency of temperature variation at a certain point within the imitator cross-section and the heat flux at some point of the same cross-section. The initial data preparation for calculations, employing the procedure of smoothing by cubic spline functions, is considered as well, with application of an algorithm reported in the literature, which is efficient for the given functional dependency wherein the deviation in each point is known [ru

  15. Estimation of the heat transfer coefficient in melt spinning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkatch, V I; Maksimov, V V; Grishin, A M

    2009-01-01

    Effect of the quenching wheel velocity in the range 20.7-26.5 m/s on the cooling rate as well as on the structure and microtopology of the contact surfaces of the glass-forming FeNiPB melt-spun ribbons has been experimentally studied. Both the values of the cooling rate and heat transfer coefficient at the wheel-ribbon interface estimated from the temperature vs. time curves recorded during melt spinning runs are in the ranges (1.6-5.2)x10 6 K/s and (2.8-5.2)x10 5 Wm -2 K -1 , respectively, for ribbon thicknesses of 31.4-22.0 μm. It was found that the density of the air pockets at the underside surface of ribbons decreases while its average depth remains essentially unchanged with the wheel velocity. Using the surface quality parameters the values of the heat transfer coefficient in the areas of direct ribbon-wheel contact were evaluated to be ranging from 5.75 to 6.65x10 5 Wm -2 K -1 .

  16. Development of shelf stable, processed, low acid food products using heat-irradiation combination treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnaar, A.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of ionizing irradiation needed to sterilize low acid vegetable and starch products (with and without sauces) commercially impairs their sensorial and nutritive qualities, and use of thermal processes for the same purpose may also have an adverse effect on the product quality. A systematic approach to the establishment of optimized combination parameters was developed for heat-irradiation processing to produce high quality, shelf stable, low acid food products. The effects of selected heat, heat-irradiation combination and irradiation treatments on the quality of shelf stable mushrooms in brine and rice, stored at ambient temperature, were studied. From a quality viewpoint, use of heat-irradiation combination treatments favouring low irradiation dose levels offered a feasible alternative to thermally processed or radappertized mushrooms in brine. However, shelf stable rice produced by heat-irradiation combination treatments offered a feasible alternative only to radappertized rice from the standpoint of quality. The technical requirements for the heat and irradiation processing of a long grain rice cultivar from the United States of America oppose each other directly, thereby reducing the feasibility of using heat-irradiation combination processing to produce shelf stable rice. The stability of starch thickened white sauces was found to be affected severely during high dose irradiation and subsequent storage at ambient temperature. However, use of pea protein isolate as a thickener in white sauces was found to have the potential to maintain the viscosity of sauces for irradiated meat and sauce products throughout processing and storage. (author)

  17. Application of induction heating in food processing and cooking: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction heating is an electromagnetic heating technology that has several advantages such as high safety, scalability, and high energy efficiency. It has been applied for a long time in metal processing, medical applications, and cooking. However, the application of this technology in the food pro...

  18. Innovation in the district heating. Process study in February 2012; Innovasjon i fjernvarme. Prossesstudie februar 201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoey, Mads Bruun

    2012-07-01

    This process study shows that, in order to create more innovation for growth in the district heating sector, it requires a new initiative, carried out by the district heating companies themselves, in the areas described in the study. This is regarded as the opportunities that the program should look for and will be more complete by the descriptions of the workshop results. (eb)

  19. A novel NGL (natural gas liquid) recovery process based on self-heat recuperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Duc Long, Nguyen; Lee, Moonyong

    2013-01-01

    This study examined an innovative self-heat-recuperation technology that circulates latent and sensible heat in the thermal process and applied it to the NGL (natural gas liquid) recovery process. A CGCC (column grand composite curve) was used to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of implementing the heat pump system and self-heat-recuperation technology into a conventional distillation column. The proposed distillation based on self-heat recuperation reduced the energy consumption dramatically by compressing the effluent stream, whose temperature was increased to provide the minimum temperature difference for the heat exchanger, and circulating the stream heat in the process. According to a simulation of the proposed sequence, up to 73.43 and 83.48% of the condenser and reboiler energy, respectively, were saved compared to a conventional column. This study also proposes heat integration to improve the performance of self-heat recuperation. The results showed that the modified sequence saves up 64.35, 100.00 and 31.60% of the condenser energy requirements, reboiler energy requirements and OP (operating cost), respectively, compared to a classical heat pump system, and 90.24, 100.00, and 67.19%, respectively, compared to a conventional column. The use of these sequences to retrofit a distillation column to save energy was also considered. - Highlights: • Innovative self-heat-recuperation technology that circulates latent and sensible heat. • A CGCC (column grand composite curve) is used to assess the thermodynamic feasibility. • The proposed sequence saves up 67.19% of the OP (operating cost). • The proposed sequences can be used to retrofit a distillation column to save energy

  20. Development of processes for the utilization of Brazilian coal using nuclear process heat and/or nuclear process steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamert, H.; Niessen, H.F.; Walbeck, M.; Wasrzik, U.; Mueller, R.; Schiffers, U.; Strauss, W.

    1980-01-01

    Status of the project: End of the project definition phase and preparation of the planned conceptual phase. Objective of the project: Development of processes for the utilization of nuclear process heat and/or nuclear process steam for the gasification of coal with high ash content, in particular coal from Brazil. Results: With the data of Brazilian coal of high ash content (mine Leao/ 43% ash in the mine-mouth quality, 20% ash after preparation) there have been worked out proposals for the mine planning and for a number of processes. On the basis of these proposals and under consideration of the main data specified by the Brazilian working group there have been choosen two processes and worked out in a conceptual design: 1) pressurized water reactor + LURGI-pressure gasifier/hydrogasification for the production of SNG and 2) high temperature reactor steam gasification for the production of town gas. The economic evaluation showed that the two processes are not substantially different in their cost efficiency and they are economical on a long-term basis. For more specific design work there has been planned the implementation of an experimental programme using the semi-technical plants 'hydrogasification' in Wesseling and 'steam gasification' in Essen as the conceptual phase. (orig.) [de

  1. Metallic materials for heat exchanger components and highly stressed internal of HTR reactors for nuclear process heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The programme was aimed at the development and improvement of materials for the high-temperature heat exchanger components of a process steam HTR. The materials must have high resistance to corrosion, i.e. carburisation and internal oxidation, and high long-term toughness over a wide range of temperatures. They must also meet the requirements set in the nuclear licensing procedure, i.e. resistance to cyclic stress and irradiation, non-destructive testing, etc. Initially, it was only intended to improve and qualify commercial alloys. Later on an alloy development programme was initiated in which new, non-commercial alloys were produced and modified for use in a nuclear process heat facility. Separate abstracts were prepared for 19 pays of this volume. (orig./IHOE) [de

  2. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Madsen, C.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) is to provide a high-efficient ammonia heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process while the discharged...... tank, is charging. Charging is done by circulating the water in the tank through the condenser several times and thereby gradually heats the water. This result in a lower condensing temperature than if the water was heated in one step. A dynamic model of the system, implemented in Dymola, is used...... to investigate the performance of the ISEC system. The ISEC concept approaches the efficiency of a number of heat pumps in series and the COP of the system may reach 6.8, which is up to 25 % higher than a conventional heat pump heating water in one step....

  3. The thermodynamic quantity minimized in steady heat and fluid flow processes: A control volume approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Ahmet Z.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The optimality in both heat and fluid flow systems has been investigated. ► A new thermodynamic property has been introduced. ► The second law of thermodynamics was extended to present the temheat balance that included the temheat destruction. ► The principle of temheat destruction minimization was introduced. ► It is shown that the rate of total temheat destruction is minimized in steady heat conduction and fluid flow problems. - Abstract: Heat transfer and fluid flow processes exhibit similarities as they occur naturally and are governed by the same type of differential equations. Natural phenomena occur always in an optimum way. In this paper, the natural optimality that exists in the heat transfer and fluid flow processes is investigated. In this regard, heat transfer and fluid flow problems are treated as optimization problems. We discovered a thermodynamic quantity that is optimized during the steady heat transfer and fluid flow processes. Consequently, a new thermodynamic property, the so called temheat, is introduced using the second law of thermodynamics and the definition of entropy. It is shown, through several examples, that overall temheat destruction is always minimized in steady heat and fluid flow processes. The principle of temheat destruction minimization that is based on the temheat balance equation provides a better insight to understand how the natural flow processes take place.

  4. Adding rectifying/stripping section type heat integration to a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Kejin; Shan Lan; Zhu Qunxiong; Qian Jixin

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the economical effect of considering rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process separating a binary homogeneous pressure-sensitive azeotrope. The schemes for arranging heat integration between the rectifying section and the stripping section of the high- and low-pressure distillation columns, respectively, are derived and an effective procedure is devised for the conceptual process design of the heat-integrated PSD processes. In terms of the separation of a binary azeotropic mixture of acetonitrile and water, intensive comparisons are made between the conventional and heat-integrated PSD processes. It is demonstrated that breaking a pressure-sensitive azeotropic mixture can be made more economical than the current practice with the conventional PSD process. For boosting further the thermodynamic efficiency of a PSD process, it is strongly suggested to consider simultaneously the condenser/reboiler type heat integration with the rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in process synthesis and design

  5. Adding rectifying/stripping section type heat integration to a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Kejin [School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chaoyang-qu, Beijing-shi, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: huangkj@mail.buct.edu.cn; Shan Lan; Zhu Qunxiong [School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chaoyang-qu, Beijing-shi, Beijing 100029 (China); Qian Jixin [School of Information Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Xihu-qu, Hangzhou-shi, Zhejiang 300027 (China)

    2008-06-15

    This paper studies the economical effect of considering rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process separating a binary homogeneous pressure-sensitive azeotrope. The schemes for arranging heat integration between the rectifying section and the stripping section of the high- and low-pressure distillation columns, respectively, are derived and an effective procedure is devised for the conceptual process design of the heat-integrated PSD processes. In terms of the separation of a binary azeotropic mixture of acetonitrile and water, intensive comparisons are made between the conventional and heat-integrated PSD processes. It is demonstrated that breaking a pressure-sensitive azeotropic mixture can be made more economical than the current practice with the conventional PSD process. For boosting further the thermodynamic efficiency of a PSD process, it is strongly suggested to consider simultaneously the condenser/reboiler type heat integration with the rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in process synthesis and design.

  6. Do heat and moisture exchangers in the anaesthesia breathing circuit preserve body temperature in dogs undergoing anaesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khenissi, Latifa; Covey-Crump, Gwen; Knowles, Toby G; Murrell, Joanna

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether the use of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) preserves body temperature in dogs weighing dogs. Dogs were assigned randomly to a treatment group [HME (n = 16) or no HME (n = 15)]. Dogs were pseudorandomised according to the premedication they were administered, either dexmedetomidine or no dexmedetomidine. Induction agents were not standardised. General anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane vaporised in 100% oxygen delivered using a T-piece and a fresh gas flow of 600 mL kg -1 minute -1 . Rectal temperature was measured before premedication (T1), after induction (T2), before moving to the MRI unit (T3) and at the end of the MRI scan (T4). Ambient temperatures were measured in the induction room, outside and inside the MRI unit. Data were analysed using a general linear model with T4 as the outcome variable. Linear correlations were performed between T1, T2, T3 and T4, and variables that predicted T4 were investigated. Sex, age and body mass were not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences in rectal temperature between groups at any time point (group with HME at the end of MRI = 36.3 ± 1.1 °C; group with no HME at the end of MRI = 36.2 ± 1.4 °C) but at the end of the MRI, dogs administered dexmedetomidine (36.6 ± 0.7 °C) had a higher rectal temperature compared with dogs not administered dexmedetomidine (35.9 ± 1.6 °C) for premedication. Rectal temperature varied directly with ambient temperature in MRI scanning room and inversely with anaesthetic duration. Using an HME did not alter body temperature in dogs weighing temperature during anaesthesia. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heat supply analysis of steam reforming hydrogen production process in conventional and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Alimah; Djati Hoesen Salimy

    2015-01-01

    Tile analysis of heat energy supply in the production of hydrogen by natural gas steam reforming process has been done. The aim of the study is to compare the energy supply system of conventional and nuclear heat. Methodology used in this study is an assessment of literature and analysis based on the comparisons. The study shows that the heat sources of fossil fuels (natural gas) is able to provide optimum operating conditions of temperature and pressure of 850-900 °C and 2-3 MPa, as well as the heat transfer is dominated by radiation heat transfer, so that the heat flux that can be achieved on the catalyst tube relatively high (50-80 kW/m"2) and provide high thermal efficiency of about 85 %. While in the system with nuclear energy, due to the demands of safety, process operating at less than optimum conditions of temperature and pressure of 800-850 °C and 4.5 MPa, as well as the heat transfer is dominated by convection heat transfer, so that the heat flux that can be achieved catalyst tube is relatively low (1020 kW/m"2) and it provides a low thermal efficiency of about 50 %. Modifications of reformer and heat utilization can increase the heat flux up to 40 kW/m"2 so that the thermal efficiency can reach 78 %. Nevertheless, the application of nuclear energy to hydrogen production with steam reforming process is able to reduce the burning of fossil fuels which has implications for the potential decrease in the rate of CO2 emissions into the environment. (author)

  8. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  9. Heat transfer and fluid flow in biological processes advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sid

    2015-01-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to biosystems and medical technology. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach to provide a comprehensive prospective on biofluid mechanics and heat transfer advances and includes reviews of the most recent methods in modeling of flows in biological media, such as CFD. Written by internationally recognized researchers in the field, each chapter provides a strong introductory section that is useful to both readers currently in the field and readers interested in learning more about these areas. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes is an indispensable reference for professors, graduate students, professionals, and clinical researchers in the fields of biology, biomedical engineering, chemistry and medicine working on applications of fluid flow, heat transfer, and transport phenomena in biomedical technology. Provides a wide range of biological and clinical applications of fluid...

  10. Processing ‘Ataulfo’ Mango into Juice Preserves the Bioavailability and Antioxidant Capacity of Its Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Quirós-Sauceda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The health-promoting effects of phenolic compounds depend on their bioaccessibility from the food matrix and their consequent bioavailability. We carried out a randomized crossover pilot clinical trial to evaluate the matrix effect (raw flesh and juice of ‘Ataulfo’ mango on the bioavailability of its phenolic compounds. Twelve healthy male subjects consumed a dose of mango flesh or juice. Blood was collected for six hours after consumption, and urine for 24 h. Plasma and urine phenolics were analyzed by electrochemical detection coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ECD. Five compounds were identified and quantified in plasma. Six phenolic compounds, plus a microbial metabolite (pyrogallol were quantified in urine, suggesting colonic metabolism. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax occurred 2–4 h after consumption; excretion rates were maximum at 8–24 h. Mango flesh contributed to greater protocatechuic acid absorption (49%, mango juice contributed to higher chlorogenic acid absorption (62%. Our data suggests that the bioavailability and antioxidant capacity of mango phenolics is preserved, and may be increased when the flesh is processed into juice.

  11. Adaptive Spatial Filter Based on Similarity Indices to Preserve the Neural Information on EEG Signals during On-Line Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Delisle-Rodriguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new on-line adaptive filter, which is based on a similarity analysis between standard electrode locations, in order to reduce artifacts and common interferences throughout electroencephalography (EEG signals, but preserving the useful information. Standard deviation and Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC between target electrodes and its correspondent neighbor electrodes are analyzed on sliding windows to select those neighbors that are highly correlated. Afterwards, a model based on CCC is applied to provide higher values of weight to those correlated electrodes with lower similarity to the target electrode. The approach was applied to brain computer-interfaces (BCIs based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA to recognize 40 targets of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP, providing an accuracy (ACC of 86.44 ± 2.81%. In addition, also using this approach, features of low frequency were selected in the pre-processing stage of another BCI to recognize gait planning. In this case, the recognition was significantly ( p < 0.01 improved for most of the subjects ( A C C ≥ 74.79 % , when compared with other BCIs based on Common Spatial Pattern, Filter Bank-Common Spatial Pattern, and Riemannian Geometry.

  12. Sample preservation, transport and processing strategies for honeybee RNA extraction: Influence on RNA yield, quality, target quantification and data normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Eva; Locke, Barbara; Semberg, Emilia; Laugen, Ane T; Miranda, Joachim R de

    2017-08-01

    Viral infections in managed honey bees are numerous, and most of them are caused by viruses with an RNA genome. Since RNA degrades rapidly, appropriate sample management and RNA extraction methods are imperative to get high quality RNA for downstream assays. This study evaluated the effect of various sampling-transport scenarios (combinations of temperature, RNA stabilizers, and duration) of transport on six RNA quality parameters; yield, purity, integrity, cDNA synthesis efficiency, target detection and quantification. The use of water and extraction buffer were also compared for a primary bee tissue homogenate prior to RNA extraction. The strategy least affected by time was preservation of samples at -80°C. All other regimens turned out to be poor alternatives unless the samples were frozen or processed within 24h. Chemical stabilizers have the greatest impact on RNA quality and adding an extra homogenization step (a QIAshredder™ homogenizer) to the extraction protocol significantly improves the RNA yield and chemical purity. This study confirms that RIN values (RNA Integrity Number), should be used cautiously with bee RNA. Using water for the primary homogenate has no negative effect on RNA quality as long as this step is no longer than 15min. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy efficiency improvement of a Kraft process through practical stack gases heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostajeran Goortani, B.; Mateos-Espejel, E.; Moshkelani, M.; Paris, J.

    2011-01-01

    A process scheme for the optimal recovery of heat from stack gases considering energy and technical constraints has been developed and applied to an existing Kraft pulping mill. A system based on a closed loop recirculation of hot oil is used to recover the heat from stack gases and distribute it to the appropriate cold streams. The recovery of heat from stack gases is part of an overall optimization of the Kraft mill. Tools such as Pinch Analysis and exergy analysis are used to evaluate the process streams. The results indicate that 10.8 MW of heat from stack gases can be reused to heat process streams such as the deaerator water, hot water, drying filtrates, and black liquor. A simulation model of the recirculation loop has been developed to determine the specifications of the recovery system. The total heat exchanger surface area required by the system is 3460 m 2 , with a hot oil recirculation temperature of 137 o C. The anticipated total investment is $10.3 M, with a payback time of 1.8 years. - Highlights: → We developed a process design for recovering heat from stack gases in a Kraft mill. → The recovered heat is optimally distributed to the process cold streams. → Heat recovery system has a total surface area of 3500 m 2 without gases condensation. → A reduction of 7 percent in total process steam demand is anticipated. → A total investment of 10.3 M$ is needed with a payback time of less than two years

  14. Convective and Stratiform Precipitation Processes and their Relationship to Latent Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Steve; Zeng, Xiping; Shige, Shoichi; Takayabu, Yukari

    2009-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to the Earth's climate system, with rainfall and the physics of its formation acting as the key links in the cycle. Two-thirds of global rainfall occurs in the Tropics. Associated with this rainfall is a vast amount of heat, which is known as latent heat. It arises mainly due to the phase change of water vapor condensing into liquid droplets; three-fourths of the total heat energy available to the Earth's atmosphere comes from tropical rainfall. In addition, fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability exerts a large impact upon the structure and motions of the upper ocean layer. An improved convective -stratiform heating (CSH) algorithm has been developed to obtain the 3D structure of cloud heating over the Tropics based on two sources of information: 1) rainfall information, namely its amount and the fraction due to light rain intensity, observed directly from the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the TRMM satellite and 2) synthetic cloud physics information obtained from cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of cloud systems. The cloud simulations provide details on cloud processes, specifically latent heating, eddy heat flux convergence and radiative heating/cooling, that. are not directly observable by satellite. The new CSH algorithm-derived heating has a noticeably different heating structure over both ocean and land regions compared to the previous CSH algorithm. One of the major differences between new and old algorithms is that the level of maximum cloud heating occurs 1 to 1.5 km lower in the atmosphere in the new algorithm. This can effect the structure of the implied air currents associated with the general circulation of the atmosphere in the Tropics. The new CSH algorithm will be used provide retrieved heating data to other heating algorithms to supplement their performance.

  15. Heat Integration and Renewable Energy in Meat Processing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Colley, Tracey Anne

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to optimise energy efficiency at meat processing plants and minimise their carbon footprint, as a way of reducing operating costs and minimising the potential negative impacts of a carbon price on the red meat industry. In the context of the export meat industry, there is continual competition with the live export trade. Therefore, there is a risk that a carbon price could increase the live export trade over domestic processing of meat, thereby exporti...

  16. Nonlinear processes in laser heating of chemically active media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunkin, F V; Kirichenko, N A; Luk' yanchuk, B S

    1984-08-01

    After it had been discovered and in due measure physically comprehended that numerous nontrivial phenomena observed during laser heating of chemically active media are caused primarily by self-stress of laser radiation due to the chemical intertial nonlinearity of the medium, an approach was found for solving problems of laser thermochemistry that is most adequate from the mathematical (and physical) standpoint: the approach of the theory of nonlinear oscillations in point systems and distributed systems. This approach has provided a uniform viewpoint for examination of a variety of phenomena of spatiotemporal self-organization of chemically active media under the effect of laser radiation, qualitative, and in some cases quantitative description of such phenomena as the onset of thermochemical instability, self-oscillations, various spatial structures and the like. Evidently it can be rightly considered that at this juncture a definite stage has been completed in the development of laser thermochemistry marked by the creation of an ideology, method and overall approach to interpretation of the most diverse phenomena under conditions of actual physical experiments. References to the numerous studies that make up the content of this stage of development of laser thermochemistry are to be found in survey papers. 48 references, 10 figures.

  17. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  18. Supercritical strata in Lower Paleozoic fluvial rocks: a super critical link to upper flow regime processes and preservation in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, David; Arnott, Bill

    2015-04-01

    Recent experimental work has much improved our understanding of the lithological attributes of open-channel supercritical flow deposits, namely those formed by antidunes, chutes-and-pools and cyclic steps. However their limited documentation in the ancient sedimentary record brings into question details about their geological preservation. Antidune, chute-and-pool and cyclic step deposits are well developed in sandy ephemeral fluvial deposits of the Upper Cambrian - Lower Ordovician Potsdam Group in the Ottawa Embayment of eastern North America. These high energy fluvial strata form dm- to a few m-thick units intercalated within thick, areally expansive successions of sheet sandstones consisting mostly of wind ripple and adhesion stratification with common deflation lags. Collectively these strata record deposition in a semi-arid environment in which rare, episodic high-energy fluvial events accounted for most of the influx of sediment from upland sources. Following deposition, however, extensive aeolian processes reworked the sediment pile, and hence modified profoundly the preserved stratigraphic record. Antidune deposits occur as 0.2 - 1.6 m thick cosets made up of 2 - 15 cm thick lenticular sets of low angle (≤ 20o) cross-stratified, medium- to coarse-grained sandstone bounded by low-angle (5 - 15o) concave-upward scours and, in many cases, capped by low angle (10 - 15o) convex-upwards symmetrical formsets. Chute-and-pool deposits form single sets, 5 - 55 cm thick and 0.6 - 6 m wide, with scoured bases and low to high angle (5 - 25o) sigmoidal cross-strata consisting of medium- to coarse-grained sandstone. Cyclic step deposits consist of trough cross-stratified sets, 20 cm - 1.6 m thick, 2.5 - 12 m long and 7 - 35 m wide, typically forming trains that laterally are erosively juxtaposed at regularly-spaced intervals. They are composed of medium- to coarse-grained sandstone with concave-up, moderate to high angle (15 - 35o) cross-strata with tangential bases

  19. Influence of inductive heating on microstructure and material properties in roll forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guk, Anna; Kunke, Andreas; Kräusel, Verena; Landgrebe, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    The increasing demand for sheet metal parts and profiles with enhanced mechanical properties by using high and ultra-high-strength (UHS) steels for the automotive industry must be covered by increasing flexibility of tools and machines. This can be achieved by applying innovative technologies such as roll forming with integrated inductive heating. This process is similar to indirect press hardening and can be used for the production of hardened profiles and profiles with graded properties in longitudinal and traverse direction. The advantage is that the production of hardened components takes place in a continuous process and the integration of heating and quenching units in the profiling system increases flexibility, accompanied by shortening of the entire process chain and minimizing the springback risk. The features of the mentioned process consists of the combination of inhomogeneous strain distribution over the stripe width by roll forming and inhomogeneity of microstructure by accelerated inductive heating to austenitizing temperature. Therefore, these two features have a direct influence on the mechanical properties of the material during forming and hardening. The aim of this work is the investigation of the influence of heating rates on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties to determine the process window. The results showed that heating rate should be set at 110 K/s for economic integration of inductive heating into the roll forming process.

  20. Studies on the low temperature infrared heat processing of soybeans and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouzeh Kanani, M.

    1985-01-01

    A modified process for the infrared heat processing of oilseeds and cereal grains at relatively low temperatures is put forward. The process which involves an additional holding step and potentials for saving energy was investigated on a pilot plant on the basis of which a design is proposed for

  1. Evaluation of the wood CCA preservative treatment process of Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias; Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako

    2013-01-01

    Brazil produces around 1,2 mi m 3 of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp)and pine (Pinus ssp). The most wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) and CCB (Copper Chromium and Boron Salt). The analytical methods, such as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Plasma Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) have been used for the evaluation of those treatment processes. In this work, the sapwood sample was obtained from eucalyptus trees (Eucaliptus ssp) obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Sawdust sapwood sample was grounded and submitted to different additions of CCA solutions (0.2, 0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3.6, 6.3, 11.7and17.9 kg m -3 ). Power and pressed pellets sapwood samples, analyzed by EDXRFS, showed a good linear relation (r 2 >0.99) between the characteristic intensity fluorescent lines (CuΚα, CrΚαand AsΚΒ) and their concentration, also, showed adequate sensitivity (LQ -1 ) for Cu, Cr and As determination in treated woods. Cu, Cr and As were determined in powdered sawdust samples by FAA spectrometry, using the AWPA A11-93 standard method; the relation between the CCA retention and their concentration showed a lower linear relation than EDXRFS; the FAAS spreading result could be attributed to laboratorial CCA addition process. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the wood CCA preservative treatment process of Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias, E-mail: matias@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako, E-mail: imsato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Brazil produces around 1,2 mi m{sup 3} of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp)and pine (Pinus ssp). The most wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) and CCB (Copper Chromium and Boron Salt). The analytical methods, such as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Plasma Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) have been used for the evaluation of those treatment processes. In this work, the sapwood sample was obtained from eucalyptus trees (Eucaliptus ssp) obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Sawdust sapwood sample was grounded and submitted to different additions of CCA solutions (0.2, 0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3.6, 6.3, 11.7and17.9 kg m{sup -3}). Power and pressed pellets sapwood samples, analyzed by EDXRFS, showed a good linear relation (r{sup 2}>0.99) between the characteristic intensity fluorescent lines (CuΚα, CrΚαand AsΚΒ) and their concentration, also, showed adequate sensitivity (LQ < 5mgkg{sup -1}) for Cu, Cr and As determination in treated woods. Cu, Cr and As were determined in powdered sawdust samples by FAA spectrometry, using the AWPA A11-93 standard method; the relation between the CCA retention and their concentration showed a lower linear relation than EDXRFS; the FAAS spreading result could be attributed to laboratorial CCA addition process. (author)

  3. Assessment of very high-temperature reactors in process applications. Appendix II. VHTR process heat application studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E.; Gambill, W.R.; Cooper, R.H.; Fox, E.C.; Fuller, L.C.; Littlefield, C.C.; Silverman, M.D.

    1977-06-01

    A critical review is presented of the technology and economics for coupling a very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor to a variety of process applications. It is concluded that nuclear steam reforming of light hydrocarbons for coal conversion could be a near-term alternative and that direct nuclear coal gasification could be a future consideration. Thermochemical water splitting appears to be more costly and its availability farther in the future than the coal-conversion systems. Nuclear steelmaking is competitive with the direct reduction of iron ore from conventional coal-conversion processes but not competitive with the reforming of natural gas at present gas prices. Nuclear process heat for petroleum refining, even with the necessary backup systems, is competitive with fossil energy sources. The processing with nuclear heat of oil shale and tar sands is of marginal economic importance. An analysis of peaking power applications using nuclear heat was also made. It is concluded that steam reforming methane for energy storage and production of peaking power is not a viable economic alternative, but that energy storage with a high-temperature heat transfer salt (HTS) is competitive with conventional peaking systems. An examination of the materials required in process heat exchangers is made

  4. The Integration Of Process Heat Applications To High Temperature Gas Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    A high temperature gas reactor, HTGR, can produce industrial process steam, high-temperature heat-transfer gases, and/or electricity. In conventional industrial processes, these products are generated by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, resulting in significant emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Heat or electricity produced in an HTGR could be used to supply process heat or electricity to conventional processes without generating any greenhouse gases. Process heat from a reactor needs to be transported by a gas to the industrial process. Two such gases were considered in this study: helium and steam. For this analysis, it was assumed that steam was delivered at 17 MPa and 540 C and helium was delivered at 7 MPa and at a variety of temperatures. The temperature of the gas returning from the industrial process and going to the HTGR must be within certain temperature ranges to maintain the correct reactor inlet temperature for a particular reactor outlet temperature. The returning gas may be below the reactor inlet temperature, ROT, but not above. The optimal return temperature produces the maximum process heat gas flow rate. For steam, the delivered pressure sets an optimal reactor outlet temperature based on the condensation temperature of the steam. ROTs greater than 769.7 C produce no additional advantage for the production of steam.

  5. Development of a revolving drum reactor for open-sorption heat storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettl, Bernhard; Englmair, Gerald; Steinmaurer, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of an open sorption storage process using molecular sieves to provide thermal energy for space heating and hot water, an experimental study of adsorption heat generation in a rotating reactor is presented. Dehydrated zeolite of the type 4A and MSX were used in form of spherical grains and humidified room air was blown through the rotating bed. Zeolite batches of about 50 kg were able to generate an adsorption heat up to 12 kWh and temperature shifts of the process air up to 36 K depending on the inlet air water content and the state of dehydration of the storage materials. A detailed study of the heat transfer effects, the generated adsorption heat, and the evolving temperatures show the applicability of the reactor and storage concept. - Highlights: • Use of an open adsorption concept for domestic heat supply was proved. • A rotating heat drum reactor concept was successfully applied. • Zeolite batches of 50 kg generated up to 12 kWh adsorption heat (580 kJ/kg). • Temperature shift in the rotating material bed was up to 60 K during adsorption

  6. APPLICATIONS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TO WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.

    1979-07-31

    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  7. Mathematical model development of heat and mass exchange processes in the outdoor swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Shaptala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently exploitation of outdoor swimming pools is often not cost-effective and, despite of their relevance, such pools are closed in large quantities. At this time there is no the whole mathematical model which would allow assessing qualitatively the effect of energy-saving measures. The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model of heat and mass exchange processes for calculating basic heat and mass losses that occur during its exploitation. Methodology. The method for determination of heat and mass loses based on the theory of similarity criteria equations is used. Findings. The main types of heat and mass losses of outdoor pool were analyzed. The most significant types were allocated and mathematically described. Namely: by evaporation of water from the surface of the pool, by natural and forced convection, by radiation to the environment, heat consumption for water heating. Originality. The mathematical model of heat and mass exchange process of the outdoor swimming pool was developed, which allows calculating the basic heat and mass loses that occur during its exploitation. Practical value. The method of determining heat and mass loses of outdoor swimming pool as a software system was developed and implemented. It is based on the mathematical model proposed by the authors. This method can be used for the conceptual design of energy-efficient structures of outdoor pools, to assess their use of energy-intensive and selecting the optimum energy-saving measures. A further step in research in this area is the experimental validation of the method of calculation of heat losses in outdoor swimming pools with its use as an example the pool of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan. The outdoor pool, with water heating- up from the boiler room of the university, is operated year-round.

  8. Assessment of professional risk caused by heating microclimate in the process of un-derground mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Л. Рудаков

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the possibility to apply probit-function to assess professional risks of underground mining under conditions of heating microclimate. Operations under conditions of heating microclimate, whose parameters exceed threshold criteria, can lead to dehydration, fainting and heat stroke for mine workers. Basing on the results of medico-biological research on the effects of microclimate on human body, the authors have assessed probabilistic nature of excessive heat accumulation depending on heat stress index.Using Shapiro-Wilk statistics, an assessment has been carried out in order to test correspondence of experimental data on heat accumulation in the human body to the normal law of distribution for different values of heat stress index, measured in the process of underground mining operations under conditions of heating microclimate.The paper justifies construction of a probit-model to assess professional risks caused by overheating for various types of underground mining operations, depending on their intensity.Modeling results have been verified by way of comparison with a currently used deterministic model of body overheating. Taking into account satisfactory convergence of results, the authors suggest using probit-model to assess professional risks of overheating, as this model allows to obtain a continuous dependency between professional risk and heat stress index, which in its own turn facilitates a more justified approach to the selection of measures to upgrade working conditions of personnel.

  9. Heating Processes Of The Axle-Boxes Of Rolling-Stock On Railway Track Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the heating process of the axle-boxes ofrolling stock when the train is in motion and discusses the forcesacting on the wheel-set when rolling stock moves along the trackcurves. The paper analyses scientific publications relevant tothe forces acting on the wheel-set of rolling stock and focuseson the axle-box heating process. The article also discusses theresults of theoretical studies on wheel-set forces that affect theheat exchange process of axle-boxes for a railway vehicle. Theresearch has determined a change in heating temperatures ofdifferent axle-boxes of rolling stock and reasons for their variationsand tendencies. The paper has estimated an effect of thetrain running along the track curves on the heating intensity ofthe axle-box. Finally, valid conclusions and recommendationshave been provided.

  10. Status and prospect of solar heat for industrial processes in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    jia, Teng; Huang, Junpeng; Li, Rui

    2018-01-01

    In the past decades, solar heat for industrial processes (SHIP) have been rapidly developed and applied, and also getting more attention in the world. China is still the largest energy consumer with industry accounting for almost 70% of total energy consumption. Low- and medium-temperature heat...... takes up 45% of process heat, holding 50%-70% of industrial energy consumption, which provides a favorable condition for solar application. China has built some demonstration projects to make industrial processes well integrated with solar heating systems. This paper briefly presents the status of China......'s energy consumption, integration of SHIP, as well as available solar technologies. 10 typical industrial sectors are selected to specifically describe their potential of SHIP. Moreover, 26 SHIP cases covering the 10 sectors in China are presented by field researches, with their capacity of energy saving...

  11. Status and prospect of solar heat for industrial processes in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    jia, Teng; Huang, Junpeng; Li, Rui

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, solar heat for industrial processes (SHIP) have been rapidly developed and applied, and also getting more attention in the world. China is still the largest energy consumer with industry accounting for almost 70% of total energy consumption. Low- and medium-temperature heat...... takes up 45% of process heat, holding 50%-70% of industrial energy consumption, which provides a favorable condition for solar application. China has built some demonstration projects to make industrial processes well integrated with solar heating systems. This paper briefly presents the status of China......'s energy consumption, integration of SHIP, as well as available solar technologies. 10 typical industrial sectors are selected to specifically describe their potential of SHIP. Moreover, 26 SHIP cases covering the 10 sectors in China are presented by field researches, with their capacity of energy saving...

  12. Robust Modelling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Processing of Solid Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu

    The study is focused on combined heat and mass transfer during processing of solid foods such as baking and frying processes. Modelling of heat and mass transfer during baking and frying is a significant scientific challenge. During baking and frying, the food undergoes several changes...... in microstructure and other physical properties of the food matrix. The heat and water transport inside the food is coupled in a complex way, which for some food systems it is not yet fully understood. A typical example of the latter is roasting of meat in convection oven, where the mechanism of water transport...... is unclear. Establishing the robust mathematical models describing the main mechanisms reliably is of great concern. A quantitative description of the heat and mass transfer during the solid food processing, in the form of mathematical equations, implementation of the solution techniques, and the value...

  13. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  14. Change in the color of heat-treated, vacuum-packed broccoli stems and florets during storage: effects of process conditions and modeling by an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pero, Milad; Askari, Gholamreza; Skåra, Torstein; Skipnes, Dagbjørn; Kiani, Hossein

    2018-02-08

    Vacuum-packed broccoli stems and florets were subjected to heat treatment (60-99 °C) for various time intervals. The activity of peroxidase was measured after processing. Thermally processed samples were then stored at 4 °C for 35 days, and the color of the samples was measured every 7 days. Effects of parameters (heating temperature and duration, storage time) on the color of broccoli were modeled and simulated by an artificial neural network (ANN). Simulations confirmed that stems were predicted to be more prone to changes than florets. More color loss was observed with longer processing or storage combinations. The simulations also confirmed that higher temperatures during heat processing could retard color changes during storage. For stems treated at 80 °C for short durations, color loss was more predominant than both 65 and 99 °C, probably due to the incomplete inactivation of enzymes besides more tissue damage, with increased enzyme access to the substrate. The greenness of both stems and florets during storage can be better preserved at higher temperatures (99 °C) and short times. The simulation results revealed that the ANN method could be used as an effective tool for predicting and analyzing the color values of heat-treated broccoli. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Utilization of process heat from the HTR in the chemical and related industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, M.; Didas, U.; Ebeling, F.; Kreutzkamp, G.; Renner, H.

    1988-12-01

    The wide introduction of the HTRI as heat and energy sources would be beneficial when the HTRI operating parameters were more suitable for flexible adaptation to the wide possible field of applications and requirements of the potential customer. Here of importance are: Guaranteed reliable, easily adaptable as well as effective process heat provision; a small HTRI size, under 100 MW if possible, for economic process plant operation never negatively influenced by the operational behaviour of the individual HTRI; avoidance of a secondary heat transfer circulation system for economic reasons by an extremely clean primary helium at all times and under all circumstances; greater flexibility in the HTRI helium inlet and outlet temperatures. Initially at least a helium inlet temperature of 300deg C or better 350deg C. At 250deg C too much heat is often offered in the low-temperature range which can in the main be used for domestic heating and power export only. The processes technically and economically interesting which could be provided with heat from the HTRI cover the field of mineral oil technology. Their process temperatures are below 600deg C, a temperature range demanding conventional technology. Thus, for this purpose it is only necessary to: Test the heat exchangers to be designed new; find the most effective combined plant concept in each case; carry out the necessary safety examinations into the combined operation of the two plant sections - HTRI and process plant. In addition, the market for the process heat supply in mineral oil technology has a considerable potential. (orig./GL)

  16. Numerical Simulation of the Moving Induction Heating Process with Magnetic Flux Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The induction heating with ferromagnetic metal powder bonded magnetic flux concentrator (MPB-MFC demonstrates more advantages in surface heating treatments of metal. However, the moving heating application is mostly applied in the industrial production. Therefore, the analytical understanding of the mechanism, efficiency, and controllability of the moving induction heating process becomes necessary for process design and optimization. This paper studies the mechanism of the moving induction heating with magnetic flux concentrator. The MPB-MFC assisted moving induction heating for Inconel 718 alloy is studied by establishing the finite element simulation model. The temperature field distribution is analyzed, and the factors influencing the temperature are studied. The conclusion demonstrates that the velocity of the workpiece should be controlled properly and the heat transfer coefficient (HTC has little impact on the temperature development, compared with other input parameters. In addition, the validity of the static numerical model is verified by comparing the finite element simulation with experimental results on AISI 1045 steel. The numerical model established in this work can provide comprehensive understanding for the process control in production.

  17. HTGR high temperature process heat design and cost status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the status of the studies conducted on the 850 0 C ROT indirect cycle and the 950 0 C ROT direct cycle through the end of Fiscal Year 1981. Volume I provides summaries of the design and optimization studies and the resulting capital and product costs, for the HTGR/thermochemical pipeline concept. Additionally, preliminary evaluations are presented for coupling of candidate process applications to the HTGR system

  18. PECULIARITIES OF GENERALIZATION OF SIMILAR PHENOMENA IN THE PROCESS OF FISH HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Pokhol’chenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical presuppositions for the possibility of generalizing and similarity founding in dehydration and wet materials heating processes are studieded in this article. It is offered to carry out the given processes generalization by using dimensionless numbers of similarity. At the detailed analyzing of regularities of heat treatment processes of fish in different modes a significant amount of experienced material was successfully generalized on the basis of dimensionless simplex (similarity numbers. Using the dimensionless simplex allowed to detect a number of simple mathematical models for the studied phenomena. The generalized kinetic models of fish dehydration, the generalized dynamic models (changing moisture diffusion coefficients, the generalized kinetic models of fish heating (the temperature field changing in the products thickness, average volume and center were founded. These generalized mathematical models showed also relationship of dehydration and heating at the processes of fish semi-hot, hot smoking (drying and frying. The relationship of the results from the physical nature of the dehydration process, including a change in the binding energy of the moisture with the material to the extent of the process and the shrinkage impact on the rate of the product moisture removal is given in the article. The factors influencing the internal structure and properties of the raw material changing and retarding the dehydration processes are described there. There was a heating rate dependence of fish products on the chemical composition the geometric dimensions of the object of heating and on the coolant regime parameters. A unique opportunity is opened by using the generalized models, combined with empirically derived equations and the technique of engineering calculation of these processes, to design a rational modes of heat treatment of raw materials and to optimize the performance of thermal equipment.

  19. Protein Molecular Structures, Protein SubFractions, and Protein Availability Affected by Heat Processing: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization and availability of protein depended on the types of protein and their specific susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis (inhibitory activities) in the gastrointestine and was highly associated with protein molecular structures. Studying internal protein structure and protein subfraction profiles leaded to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein. An understanding of the molecular structure of the whole protein was often vital to understanding its digestive behavior and nutritive value in animals. In this review, recently obtained information on protein molecular structural effects of heat processing was reviewed, in relation to protein characteristics affecting digestive behavior and nutrient utilization and availability. The emphasis of this review was on (1) using the newly advanced synchrotron technology (S-FTIR) as a novel approach to reveal protein molecular chemistry affected by heat processing within intact plant tissues; (2) revealing the effects of heat processing on the profile changes of protein subfractions associated with digestive behaviors and kinetics manipulated by heat processing; (3) prediction of the changes of protein availability and supply after heat processing, using the advanced DVE/OEB and NRC-2001 models, and (4) obtaining information on optimal processing conditions of protein as intestinal protein source to achieve target values for potential high net absorbable protein in the small intestine. The information described in this article may give better insight in the mechanisms involved and the intrinsic protein molecular structural changes occurring upon processing.

  20. Potential applications of helium-cooled high-temperature reactors to process heat use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTRs) permit nuclear energy to be applied to a number of processes presently utilizing fossil fuels. Promising applications of HTRs involve cogeneration, thermal energy transport using molten salt systems, steam reforming of methane for production of chemicals, coal and oil shale liquefaction or gasification, and - in the longer term - energy transport using a chemical heat pipe. Further, HTRs might be used in the more distant future as the energy source for thermochemical hydrogen production from water. Preliminary results of ongoing studies indicate that the potential market for Process Heat HTRs by the year 2020 is about 150 to 250 GW(t) for process heat/cogeneration application, plus approximately 150 to 300 GW(t) for application to fossil conversion processes. HTR cogeneration plants appear attractive in the near term for new industrial plants using large amounts of process heat, possibly for present industrial plants in conjunction with molten-salt energy distribution systems, and also for some fossil conversion processes. HTR reformer systems will take longer to develop, but are applicable to chemicals production, a larger number of fossil conversion processes, and to chemical heat pipes

  1. Heat transfer in condensation and evaporation. Application to industrial and environmental processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvillet, C [CEA/Grenoble, Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique (DRN-GRETh), 38 (France); Vidil, R [CEA/Saclay, Direction des Technologies Avancees (DTA), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1999-07-01

    Eurotherm Seminar number 62 objective is to provide a European forum for the presentation and the discussion of recent researches on heat transfer in condensation and evaporation and recent developments relevant to evaporators, condensers technology for: industrial processes; air conditioning and refrigeration processes; environmental processes; food industry processes; cooling processes of electronic or mechanical devices. The following topics are to be addressed: fundamentals of phase with pure fluids and mixtures; enhanced surfaces for improved tubular or plate heat exchangers; advanced methods and software for condenser and evaporator simulation and design; innovative design and concept of heat exchangers. This 2-days Seminar will be interest to a large group of researches and engineers from universities, research centres and industry. (authors)

  2. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  3. Usage of Heat Pump Dryer in Food Drying Process and Apple Drying Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Gürlek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, drying is achieved natural method by spreading out the material on the ground. In this way, there are many disadvantages like low quality and hygienic problems. The resulting loss of food quality in the dried products may have effect negatively trade potential and economical worth. For preventing the deterioration of the materials different types of drying methods have been developed. Low energy consumption applications are important for drying industry besides high product quality. For this purpose, heat pump dryer is gaining importance day by day in drying applications. In this study, the working principle of the heat pump dryer, heat pump types in the drying process and the heat pump dryer performance criteria will be considered. An example of application will be described using obtained results from apple drying operation that is conducted in the heat pump dryer.

  4. Retrofit of heat exchanger networks with pressure recovery of process streams at sub-ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Viviani C.; Ravagnani, Mauro A.S.S.; Caballero, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New mathematical model for heat exchanger networks retrofit with pressure recovery. • Optimal heat and work integration applied to the retrofit of sub-ambient processes. • Streams pressure manipulation is used to enhance heat integration of the system. • Compressors and turbines can act on a coupling shaft and/or as stand-alone equipment. • Use of smaller amount of cold utilities, reducing significantly the operational costs. - Abstract: This paper presents a new mathematical programming model for the retrofit of heat exchanger networks (HENs), wherein the pressure recovery of process streams is conducted to enhance heat integration. Particularly applied to cryogenic processes, HENs retrofit with combined heat and work integration is mainly aimed at reducing the use of expensive cold services. The proposed multi-stage superstructure allows the increment of the existing heat transfer area, as well as the use of new equipment for both heat exchange and pressure manipulation. The pressure recovery of streams is carried out simultaneously with the HEN design, such that the process conditions (streams pressure and temperature) are variables of optimization. The mathematical model is formulated using generalized disjunctive programming (GDP) and is optimized via mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), through the minimization of the retrofit total annualized cost, considering the turbine and compressor coupling with a helper motor. Three case studies are performed to assess the accuracy of the developed approach, including a real industrial example related to liquefied natural gas (LNG) production. The results show that the pressure recovery of streams is efficient for energy savings and, consequently, for decreasing the HEN retrofit total cost especially in sub-ambient processes

  5. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-11-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to be strongly left-lateralized, combining measures of tissue integrity, neural activation and behavioural performance. In a functional neuroimaging study participants heard spoken sentences that differentially loaded on syntactic and semantic information. While healthy controls activated a left-hemisphere network of correlated activity including Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus during syntactic processing, patients activated Brodmann areas 45/47 bilaterally and right middle temporal gyrus. However, voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that only tissue integrity in left Brodmann areas 45/47 was correlated with activity and performance; poor tissue integrity in left Brodmann area 45 was associated with reduced functional activity and increased syntactic deficits. Activity in the right-hemisphere was not correlated with damage in the left-hemisphere or with performance. Reduced neural integrity in the left-hemisphere through brain damage or healthy ageing results in increased right-hemisphere activation in homologous regions to those left-hemisphere regions typically involved in the young. However, these regions do not support the same linguistic functions as those in the left-hemisphere and only indirectly contribute to preserved syntactic capacity. This establishes the unique role of the left hemisphere in syntax, a core component in human language.

  6. Estimating the potential for solar thermal applications in the industrial process heat market 1990-2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demeter, C.P.; Gray, E.E.; Carwile, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary evaluation of the potential domestic market for solar thermal energy supply technologies matched to industrial process heat applications. The study estimates current and projects future industrial process heat demand to the year 2030 by two-digit standard industrial classification code for the manufacturing industrial sector and discusses the potential to displace conventional fossil fuel sources such as natural gas with alternative sources of supply. The PC Industrial Model, used by DOE's Energy Information Administration in support of the National Energy Strategy (NES) is used for forecast industrial energy demand. Demand is disaggregated by census region to account for geographic variations in solar insolation, and by heat medium and temperature to facilitate end-use matching with appropriate solar energy supply technologies. Levelized energy costs (LEC) are calculated for flat plate collectors for low- temperature preheat applications, parabolic troughs for intermediate temperature process steam and direct heat, and parabolic dish technologies for high-temperature, direct heat applications. LEC is also developed for a conventional natural gas-fueled Industrial Process Heat (IPH) supply source assuming natural gas price escalation consistent with NES forecasts to develop a relative figure of merit used in a market penetration model

  7. Nuclear process heat at high temperature: Application, realization and development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammeck, K.H.; Fischer, R.

    1976-01-01

    Studies in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the USA and the United Kingdom have shown that high-temperature helium energy from an HTR can advantageously be utilized for coal gasification and other fossil fuel conversion processes, and that a substantial demand for substitute natural gas (SNG) can be expected in the future. These results are based on plant design studies, economic assessments and basic development efforts in the field of coal gasification with nuclear heat, which in the FRG were carried out by Arbeitsgemeinschaft Nukleare Prozesswaerme (ANP)-members, HRB and KFA Juelich. Nuclear process plants are based on different gasification processes, resulting in different concepts of the nuclear heat system. In the case of hydro-gasification it is expected that steam reformers, arranged within the primary circuit of the reactor, will be heated directly by the primary helium. In the case of steam gasification, the high-temperature energy must be transferred to the gasification process via an intermediate circuit which is coupled to a gasifier outside the containment. In both cases the design of the nuclear reactor resembles an HTR for electricity generation. The main objectives of the development of nuclear process heat are to increase the helium outlet temperature of the reactor up to 950 0 C, to develop metallic alloys for high-temperature components such as heat exchangers, to design and construct a hot-gas duct, a steam reformer and a helium-helium heat exchanger and to develop the gasification processes. The nuclear safety regulations and the interface problems between the reactor, the process plant and the electricity generating plant have to be considered thoroughly. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft Nukleare Prozesswaerme and HRB started a development programme, in close collaboration with KFA Juelich, which will lead to the construction of a prototype plant for coal gasification with nuclear heat within 5 to 5 1/2 years. A survey of the main objectives

  8. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2

  9. Urine Preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  10. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

  11. Numerical simulation of the alloying process during impulse induction heating of the metal substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. N.

    2017-10-01

    2D numerical modeling of the processes during the alloying of the substrate surface metal layer is carried out. Heating, phase transition, heat and mass transfer in the molten metal, solidification of the melt are considered with the aid the proposed mathematical model. Under study is the applicability of the high-frequency electromagnetic field impulse for metal heating and melting. The distribution of the electromagnetic energy in the metal is described by empirical formulas. According to the results of numerical experiments, the flow structure in the melt and distribution of the alloying substances is evaluated.

  12. What factors hinder the decision-making process for women with cancer and contemplating fertility preservation treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georgina; Hughes, Jane; Mahmoodi, Neda; Smith, Emily; Skull, Jonathan; Ledger, William

    2017-07-01

    Although fertility preservation (FP) treatment options have increased, the existing evidence suggests that many women with cancer do not feel well supported in making these decisions, but find them stressful and complex and fail to take up fertility care at this crucial time. Whilst existing reviews have all made important contributions to our understanding of the FP decision-making process, none of them examine solely and specifically these processes for women of reproductive age with a diagnosis of any cancer, leaving a gap in the knowledge base. Given the expectation that care is patient-centred, our review aims to address this gap which may be of help to those managing patients struggling to make difficult decisions in the often brief period before potentially sterilizing cancer treatment is started. Underpinning this narrative review was the question 'What factors hinder the decision-making process for women with any cancer and contemplating FP treatment?' Our objectives were to (i) assess and summarize this existing literature, (ii) identify the factors that hinder this decision-making process, (iii) explore to what extent these factors may differ for women choosing different methods of FP and (iv) make recommendations for service delivery and future research. A systematic search of the medical and social science literature from the 1 January 2005 up to the end of January 2016 was carried out using three electronic databases (Web of Science (PubMed), Ovid SP Medline and CINAHL via Ebsco). Included in the review were quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method studies. Reference lists of relevant papers were also hand searched. From the 983 papers identified, 46 papers were included. Quality assessment was undertaken using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. From the analysis, 6 key themes with 15 sub-themes emerged: (i) fertility information provision (lack of information, timing of the information, patient

  13. Emergence of a fluctuation relation for heat in nonequilibrium Landauer processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranto, Philip; Modi, Kavan; Pollock, Felix A.

    2018-05-01

    In a generalized framework for the Landauer erasure protocol, we study bounds on the heat dissipated in typical nonequilibrium quantum processes. In contrast to thermodynamic processes, quantum fluctuations are not suppressed in the nonequilibrium regime and cannot be ignored, making such processes difficult to understand and treat. Here we derive an emergent fluctuation relation that virtually guarantees the average heat produced to be dissipated into the reservoir either when the system or reservoir is large (or both) or when the temperature is high. The implication of our result is that for nonequilibrium processes, heat fluctuations away from its average value are suppressed independently of the underlying dynamics exponentially quickly in the dimension of the larger subsystem and linearly in the inverse temperature. We achieve these results by generalizing a concentration of measure relation for subsystem states to the case where the global state is mixed.

  14. Local description of the energy transfer process in a packed bed heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.L.M.; Sampaio, R.; Gama, R.M.S. da.

    1990-01-01

    The energy transfer process in a packed-bed heat exchanger, in counter0flow arrangement is considered. The phenomenon is described through a Continuum Theory of Mixtures approach, in which fluid and solid (porous matrix) are regarded as continuous constituents possessing, each one, its own temperature and velocity fields. The heat 'exchangers consists of two channels, separated by an impermeable wall without thermal resistence, in which there exists a saturated flow. Some particular cases are simulated. (author)

  15. Mathematical model development of heat and mass exchange processes in the outdoor swimming pool

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Shaptala; D. E. Shaptala

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Currently exploitation of outdoor swimming pools is often not cost-effective and, despite of their relevance, such pools are closed in large quantities. At this time there is no the whole mathematical model which would allow assessing qualitatively the effect of energy-saving measures. The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model of heat and mass exchange processes for calculating basic heat and mass losses that occur during its exploitation. Methodology. The m...

  16. Heat-reactivatable adsorbent gas fractionator and process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrando, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    A process and apparatus are provided for removing a first polar gas from a mixture thereof with a second gas. The gas mixture is passed through a sorbent bed having a preferential affinity for the first polar gas and the first polar gas is sorbed thereon so as to produce a gaseous effluent which has a concentration of first polar gas therein below a predetermined maximum. Then the polar gas sorbed on the sorbent bed is removed therefrom by application of microwave energy, at a temperature at which the sorbent is transparent to such energy, while passing a purge flow of gas in contact with the bed to flush out desorbed first polar gas from the bed. The bed is allowed to cool to a relatively efficient temperature for adsorption. The gas mixture is then again passed in contact with the bed. If two beds are used, one bed can be desorbed while the other is on-stream thereby maintaining a substantially continuous flow of effluent gas. The apparatus of the invention provides a sorbent bed assembly having a microwave energy generator positioned to direct such energy into the sorbent bed for desorption of first polar gas from the bed

  17. 9 CFR 318.305 - Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processing systems. 318.305 Section 318.305 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS Canning and Canned Products § 318.305 Equipment and procedures for heat processing...

  18. Optimized Compositional Design and Processing-Fabrication Paths for Larger Heats of Nanostructured Ferritic Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odette, G. Robert [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The objective of this work was to characterize the alloy 14YWT-PM2, which is an extruded and cross-rolled precursor alloy to a large heat of 14YWT being produced using an alternative processing path that incorporates Y during gas atomization process.

  19. Numerical Modeling of Induction Heating Process using Inductors with Circular Shape Turns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Novac

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the problemof numerical modeling of electromagneticfield coupled with the thermal one in theheating process of the steel billets, usinginductors with circular shape turns. As resultswe have: electromagnetic field lines evolutionand map temperatures in piece at the endingof heating process.

  20. Analysis of heating effect on the process of high deposition rate microcrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Dan, Zhang; He, Zhang; Chang-Chun, Wei; Jian, Sun; Guo-Fu, Hou; Shao-Zhen, Xiong; Xin-Hua, Geng; Ying, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    A possible heating effect on the process of high deposition rate microcrystalline silicon has been studied. It includes the discharge time-accumulating heating effect, discharge power, inter-electrode distance, and total gas flow rate induced heating effect. It is found that the heating effects mentioned above are in some ways quite similar to and in other ways very different from each other. However, all of them will directly or indirectly cause the increase of the substrate surface temperature during the process of depositing microcrystalline silicon thin films, which will affect the properties of the materials with increasing time. This phenomenon is very serious for the high deposition rate of microcrystalline silicon thin films because of the high input power and the relatively small inter-electrode distance needed. Through analysis of the heating effects occurring in the process of depositing microcrystalline silicon, it is proposed that the discharge power and the heating temperature should be as low as possible, and the total gas flow rate and the inter-electrode distance should be suitable so that device-grade high quality deposition rate microcrystalline silicon thin films can be fabricated

  1. High-temperature industrial process heat: technology assessment and introduction rationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-03

    Three specific topics of interest to DOE are addressed: to establish the significance and identify the role of high-temperature process heat in the nation's energy economy; to identify the role of solar thermal power in these high-temperature industrial applications in terms of possible markets and economic potential; and to recommend programmatic approaches for these solar thermal high-temperature process heat activities, including proposed content for initial Request for Proposals (RFPs) to accomplish such activities. The scope of the work required to accomplish these three purposes included the following: review of US industrial energy requirements, survey of current DOE low-temperature Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Program, examination of high-temperature solar thermal electric systems already developed or under development by DOE and industry, and coordination with the high-energy user segments of industry (i.e., cement, chemical and petroleum) to find additional markets for some or all of the systems or components being developed in the DOE solar thermal electric program. Statistical data are presented identifying energy allocations to process heat and defining DOE's involvement. Three current fossil fuel process heat system examples are provided and the corresponding solar potential is identified.

  2. Crystal Structure of the HEAT Domain from the Pre-mRNA Processing Factor Symplekin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Sarah A.; Frazier, Monica L.; Steiniger, Mindy; Mast, Ann M.; Marzluff, William F.; Redinbo, Matthew R.; (UNC)

    2010-09-30

    The majority of eukaryotic pre-mRNAs are processed by 3'-end cleavage and polyadenylation, although in metazoa the replication-dependent histone mRNAs are processed by 3'-end cleavage but not polyadenylation. The macromolecular complex responsible for processing both canonical and histone pre-mRNAs contains the {approx} 1160-residue protein Symplekin. Secondary-structural prediction algorithms identified putative HEAT domains in the 300 N-terminal residues of all Symplekins of known sequence. The structure and dynamics of this domain were investigated to begin elucidating the role Symplekin plays in mRNA maturation. The crystal structure of the Drosophila melanogaster Symplekin HEAT domain was determined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution with single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing methods. The structure exhibits five canonical HEAT repeats along with an extended 31-amino-acid loop (loop 8) between the fourth and fifth repeat that is conserved within closely related Symplekin sequences. Molecular dynamics simulations of this domain show that the presence of loop 8 dampens correlated and anticorrelated motion in the HEAT domain, therefore providing a neutral surface for potential protein-protein interactions. HEAT domains are often employed for such macromolecular contacts. The Symplekin HEAT region not only structurally aligns with several established scaffolding proteins, but also has been reported to contact proteins essential for regulating 3'-end processing. Together, these data support the conclusion that the Symplekin HEAT domain serves as a scaffold for protein-protein interactions essential to the mRNA maturation process.

  3. The trigger matters: The decision-making process for heating systems in the residential building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecher, Maria; Hatzl, Stefanie; Knoeri, Christof; Posch, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    As heat demand of buildings accounts for a significant amount of final energy use and related carbon emissions, it’s important to gain insights into the homeowners’ decision-making processes and to identify factors determining the choice of heating systems. In this study, data was collected in an online survey carried out in 2015, from private homeowners of existing and newly built single and double-family houses in Austria who had invested in a new heating system within the last ten years (N=484). In contrast to previous studies, this study specifically investigates the triggers behind homeowner decisions to invest in a new heating system (e.g. problem, opportunity, or new building situation). Results of binary logistic regression analysis show that subsidies for heating system tabinvestments and infrastructural adjustments reveal to be most effective for homeowners in problem situations to foster alternative heating systems. For homeowners in opportunity situations (e.g. building refurbishment), in addition operational convenience appears to be important. For new buildings, the main barriers for alternative heating system adoption were found in the positive perception of fuel supply security and feasibility of fossil systems. Thus, the use of trigger-specific policy measures is proposed to foster alternative heating systems in the residential building sector. - Highlights: • Homeowners’ triggers determine heating system adoption decisions. • It is crucial to reach homeowners early enough to avoid problem situations. • For problem-triggered homeowners, subsidies are most effective. • Opportunity-triggered homeowners prefer alternative heating systems. • Opportunity-triggered homeowners need solid decision basis for technology comparison.

  4. Theoretical Design of a Thermosyphon for Efficient Process Heat Removal from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) for Production of Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Fred Gunnerson; Akira Tokuhiro; Vivek Utgiker; Kevan Weaver; Steven Sherman

    2007-01-01

    The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase Thermosyphon heat transfer performance with various alkali metals. Thermosyphon is a device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. Heat transport occurs via evaporation and condensation, and the heat transport fluid is re-circulated by gravitational force. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. For process heat, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) are required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant in the most efficient way possible. The production of power at higher efficiency using Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production requires both heat at higher temperatures (up to 1000 C) and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. The purpose for selecting a compact heat exchanger is to maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. The IHX design requirements are governed by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet of the NGNP (900 C, based on the current capabilities of NGNP), and the temperatures in the hydrogen production plant. Spiral Heat Exchangers (SHE's) have superior heat transfer characteristics, and are less susceptible to fouling. Further, heat losses to surroundings are minimized because of its compact configuration. SHEs have never been examined for phase-change heat transfer applications. The research presented provides useful information for thermosyphon design and Spiral Heat Exchanger

  5. Evaluation of the Low Heat Input Process for Weld Repair of Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, J.; Richards, N. L.

    2011-10-01

    The repair of turbine blades and vanes commonly involves gas tungsten arc welding or an equivalent process, but unfortunately these components are often susceptible to heat-affected zone (HAZ) cracking during the weld repair process. This is a major problem especially in cast alloys due to their coarse-grain size and where the (Al + Ti) contents is in excess of 3-4%; vacuum brazing is also used but mainly on low stress non-rotating components such as vanes. Micro-welding has the potential to deposit small amounts of filler at low heat input levels with minimum HAZ and thus is an attractive process for depositing a quality weld. As with conventional fusion processes, the filler alloy is deposited by the generation of a low power arc between a consumable electrode and the substrate. The low heat input of this process offers unique advantages over more common welding processes such as gas tungsten arc, plasma arc, laser, and electron beam welding. In this study, the low heat input characteristic of micro-welding has been used to simulate weld repair using Inconel (IN) (Inconel and IN are trademarks of INCO Alloys International) 625, Rene (Rene is a trademark of General Electric Company) 41, Nimonic (Nimonic is a trademark of INCO Alloys International) 105 and Inconel 738LC filler alloys, to a cast Inconel 738LC substrate. The effect of micro-welding process parameters on the deposition rate, coating quality, and substrate has been investigated.

  6. Coal gasification by indirect heating in a single moving bed reactor: Process development & simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Akhlas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development and simulation of a new coal gasification process with indirect heat supply is performed. In this way, the need of pure oxygen production as in a conventional gasification process is avoided. The feasibility and energetic self-sufficiency of the proposed processes are addressed. To avoid the need of Air Separation Unit, the heat required by gasification reactions is supplied by the combustion flue gases, and transferred to the reacting mixture through a bayonet heat exchanger installed inside the gasifier. Two alternatives for the flue gas generation have been investigated and compared. The proposed processes are modeled using chemical kinetics validated on experimental gasification data by means of a standard process simulator (Aspen PlusTM, integrated with a spreadsheet for the modeling of a special type of heat exchanger. Simulation results are presented and discussed for proposed integrated process schemes. It is shown that they do not need external energy supply and ensure overall efficiencies comparable to conventional processes while producing syngas with lower content of carbon dioxide.

  7. Processes subject to integrated pollution control. Combustion processes: reheat and heat treatment furnaces 50 MW(th) and over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document, part of a series offering guidance on pollution control regulations issued by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, focuses on combustion processes involved with reheat and heat treatment furnaces of 50 MW (th) and over. Techniques for controlling releases into air, water and to land are detailed as are the various pollution monitoring strategies. (UK)

  8. Macroscopic lattice Boltzmann model for heat and moisture transfer process with phase transformation in unsaturated porous media during freezing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wenyu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a macroscopic lattice Boltzmann model for simulating the heat and moisture transport phenomenon in unsaturated porous media during the freezing process was proposed. The proposed model adopted percolation threshold to reproduce the extra resistance in frozen fringe during the freezing process. The freezing process in Kanagawa sandy loam soil was demonstrated by the proposed model. The numerical result showed good agreement with the experimental result. The proposed model also offered higher computational efficiency and better agreement with the experimental result than the existing numerical models. Lattice Boltzmann method is suitable for simulating complex heat and mass transfer process in porous media at macroscopic scale under proper dimensionless criterion, which makes it a potentially powerful tool for engineering application.

  9. Effect of incentives on the financial attractiveness of solar industrial process heating in India★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ashish K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available India has a huge industrial demand for process heating at temperatures that can be provided with commercially available solar collectors. Government of India with support from multi-lateral agencies has initiated an ambitious programme for promoting large scale adoption of Solar Industrial Process Heating (SIPH in the industrial sector of the country. This paper presents the details of an attempt to study the effect of several existing and potential incentives on the financial attractiveness of SIPH systems in India. A case of solar process heating in dairy industry has been presented to demonstrate the relative efficacy of different incentives on the economics of SIPH systems in terms of their impact on levelized cost of useful thermal energy delivered. Finally, policy implications of the results obtained have been discussed.

  10. Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J'Tia Patrice; Shropshire, David E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated system

  11. Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J' Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated

  12. New heating schedule in hydrogen annealing furnace based on process simulation for less energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboonchi, Ahmad; Hassanpour, Saeid; Abbasi, Shahram

    2008-01-01

    Cold rolled steel coils are annealed in batch furnaces to obtain desirable mechanical properties. Annealing operations involve heating and cooling cycles which take long due to high weight of the coils under annealing. To reduce annealing time, a simulation code was developed that is capable of evaluating more effective schedules for annealing coils during the heating process. This code is additionally capable of accurate determination of furnace turn-off time for different coil weights and charge dimensions. After studying many heating schedules and considering heat transfer mechanism in the annealing furnace, a new schedule with the most advantages was selected as the new operation conditions in the hydrogen annealing plant. The performance of all the furnaces were adjusted to the new heating schedule after experiments had been carried out to ensure the accuracy of the code and the fitness of the new operation condition. Comparison of similar yield of cold rolled coils over two months revealed that specific energy consumption of furnaces under the new heating schedule decreased by 11%, heating cycle time by 16%, and the hydrogen consumption by 14%

  13. New heating schedule in hydrogen annealing furnace based on process simulation for less energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saboonchi, Ahmad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84154 (Iran); Hassanpour, Saeid [Rayan Tahlil Sepahan Co., Isfahan Science and Technology Town, Isfahan 84155 (Iran); Abbasi, Shahram [R and D Department, Mobarakeh Steel Complex, Isfahan (Iran)

    2008-11-15

    Cold rolled steel coils are annealed in batch furnaces to obtain desirable mechanical properties. Annealing operations involve heating and cooling cycles which take long due to high weight of the coils under annealing. To reduce annealing time, a simulation code was developed that is capable of evaluating more effective schedules for annealing coils during the heating process. This code is additionally capable of accurate determination of furnace turn-off time for different coil weights and charge dimensions. After studying many heating schedules and considering heat transfer mechanism in the annealing furnace, a new schedule with the most advantages was selected as the new operation conditions in the hydrogen annealing plant. The performance of all the furnaces were adjusted to the new heating schedule after experiments had been carried out to ensure the accuracy of the code and the fitness of the new operation condition. Comparison of similar yield of cold rolled coils over two months revealed that specific energy consumption of furnaces under the new heating schedule decreased by 11%, heating cycle time by 16%, and the hydrogen consumption by 14%. (author)

  14. Heat recovery from flue gas of coal fired installations with reduced pollutant emission - the Zittau process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H; Strauss, R; Hofmann, K -D; Suder, M; Hultsch, T; Wetzel, W; Gabrysch, H; Jung, J [Technische Hochschule, Zittau (German Democratic Republic)

    1988-12-01

    Reviews the technology applied in the Zittau process for flue gas heat recovery and flue gas desulfurization in small brown coal fired power plants. Steam generators have a capacity of 6.5 or 10 t/h, low grade fuel with 8.2 MJ/kg calorific value is combusted. Technology has been developed on an experimental 10 t/h steam generator since 1986; an industrial 6.5 t/h prototype steam generator is now in operation achieving 95% SO{sub 2} removal from flue gas with 5600 to 7800 mg SO{sub 2} per m{sup 3} of dry flue gas. The Zittau technology is available in 3 variants: with maximum waste heat recovery, with partial waste heat recovery or without waste heat recovery and only wet flue gas scrubbing. Two flowsheets of flue gas and suspension circulation are provided. The first variant recovers 25.7% of nominal heat capacity (1.1 thermal MW from a 4.2 MW steam generator with 6.5 t/h steam capacity), the second variant recovers 6.5% of waste heat by reducing heat exchangers to 20% of the size of the first variant. Flue gas suspension scrubbing utilizes power plant ash, which is capable of absorbing 50 to 70% of SO{sub 2}, additional 25% SO{sub 2} removal is achieved by providing either 40% ash from another power plant or limestone for suspensions. Various technological details are included. 5 refs.

  15. Conception of a modular HTR-process heat facility with optimization of the pressure level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousack, H.

    1984-11-01

    The operation of a steam reformer heated by nuclear power with a process pressure of about 20 bar provides advantages with respect to process engineering due to the improved conversion and simplified product gas treatment for the follow-on process. The effects of a reduction in pressure on the components of the primary circuit in a modular HTR facility, as well as various process engineering possibilities for producing methanol in the follow-on process are discussed in this paper. Studies cover the influence of core geometry and power density, as well as possibilities of increasing the modular power at a maximum accident temperature of 1600 0 C. An inherently functioning area cooling system is proposed for afterheat removal outside the primary circuit. Based on the optimized pressure, a modular HTR process heat facility is conceived to produce methanol from natural gas and carbon dioxide basically satisfying the requirement of zero emission. (orig.) [de

  16. KINETICS PROCESSES OF DEHYDRATION AND HEATING FISH DURING FRYING, DURING SEMI HOT AND HOT SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Pokholchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Calculated methods of graphing of curves for kinetics of dehydration and fish heating during the processes of frying, semi hot smoking and hot smoking have been developed. The offered methods of calculating are based on the basic regularities of heat and mass exchanges of these processes. Based on the research of the regularities of dehydration on the kinetic curves, critical points were identified, that characterize the transition from the moisture removal with lower energy of its bond with material to the removal of one with higher energy bond, also the influence of the product shrinkage on the velocity of the moisture removal. These points are characteristic for the temperature curves as well. It’s suggested for the temperature curve to be replaced by broken line that consists of three straight lines that are crossing in points, corresponded with the critical moistures and critical temperatures. Significant amount of the experimental material of the research of the kinetics of dehydration and fish heating under different modes is shown by authors in the form of generalized dependencies. The method allows modeling the processes of heating and dehydrating of fish and choosing the most rational modes based on the calculated data. The proposed technique makes it possible to construct the curves of the kinetics of heating and dehydration kinetics in processes of roasting, semi hot and hot smoked fish, which allows to optimize a particular process, design more efficient in terms of consumption of raw materials and energy technology, as well as to create better machines or upgrade existing equipment into account the relationship of heat and mass transfer processes.

  17. Mathematical model for solar-hydrogen heated desalination plant using humidification-dehumidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin, Jamal S.; Eljrushi, Gibril S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for thermal desalination plant operating with solar energy and hydrogen. This plant is composed of two main systems, the heating system and the distillation system. The distillation system is composed of multi-cells; each cell is using the humidification-dehumidification (H-D) process in the distillation unit and getting the required amount of heat from feed seawater heater. The feed seawater heater is a heat exchanger used to raise the temperature of the preheated seawater coming from the condensation chamber (Dehumidifier) of each cell to about 85 degree centigrade. The heating amount in the heat exchangers is obtained from the thermal storage tank, which gets its energy from solar thermal system and is coupled with a hydrogen-fired backup system to guaranty necessary operating conditions and permit 24 hours solar H-D desalination plant to enhance the performance of this system. The mathematical model studies the performance of the proposed desalination system using thermal solar energy and hydrogen as fuel. Other pertinent variable in the heating and distillation system are also studied. The outcomes of this study are analyzed to enhance the used solar desalination process and make commercial.(Author)

  18. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  19. HTGR high temperature process heat design and cost status report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-12-01

    Information is presented concerning the 850/sup 0/C IDC reactor vessel; primary cooling system; secondary helium system; steam generator; heat cycle evaluations for the 850/sup 0/C IDC plant; 950/sup 0/C DC reactor vessel; 950/sup 0/C DC steam generator; direct and indirect cycle reformers; methanation plant; thermochemical pipeline; methodology for screening candidate synfuel processes; ECCG process; project technical requirements; process gas explosion assessment; HTGR program economic guidelines; and vendor respones.

  20. Utilization of process heat from the HTRM in the chemical and related industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, M.; Barnert, H.; Candeli, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lurgi investigated the feasibility of supplying industrial processes with heat and energy from a Module High Temperature Reactor in an extensive study. This study shows that there are several processes suitable for coupling with the HTRM almost immediately and only require that the layouts are tested. The most interesting process in this respect with high market potential are aluminium oxide production and crude oil refining. (author)

  1. HTGR high temperature process heat design and cost status report. Volume II. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    Information is presented concerning the 850 0 C IDC reactor vessel; primary cooling system; secondary helium system; steam generator; heat cycle evaluations for the 850 0 C IDC plant; 950 0 C DC reactor vessel; 950 0 C DC steam generator; direct and indirect cycle reformers; methanation plant; thermochemical pipeline; methodology for screening candidate synfuel processes; ECCG process; project technical requirements; process gas explosion assessment; HTGR program economic guidelines; and vendor respones

  2. Heat-processing method and facility for helium-containing metal material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takahiko; Kodama, Hideyo; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Aono, Yasuhisa; Nagata, Tetsuya; Hattori, Shigeo; Kaneda, Jun-ya; Ono, Shigeki.

    1996-01-01

    Electric current is supplied to an objective portion of a He-containing metal material to be applied with heat processing without causing melting, to decrease the He content of the portion. Subsequently, the defect portion of the tissues of the He-containing metal is modified by heating the portion with melting. Since electric current can be supplied to the metal material in a state where the metal material is heated and the temperature thereof is elevated, an effect of further reducing the He content can be obtained. Further, if the current supply and/or the heating relative to the metal material is performed in a vacuum or inert gas atmosphere, an effect of reducing the degradation of the surface of the objective portion to be supplied with electric current can be obtained. (T.M.)

  3. Effects of Mead Wort Heat Treatment on the Mead Fermentation Process and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabaj, Sławomir; Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Kliks, Jarosław

    2017-05-14

    The effects of mead wort heat treatment on the mead fermentation process and antioxidant activity were tested. The experiment was conducted with the use of two different honeys (multiflorous and honeydew) collected from the Lower Silesia region (Poland). Heat treatment was performed with the use of a traditional technique (gently boiling), the more commonly used pasteurization, and without heat treatment (control). During the experiment fermentation dynamics were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-RID). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were estimated for worts and meads using UV/Vis spectrophotometric analysis. The formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was monitored by HPLC analyses. Heat treatment had a great impact on the final antioxidant capacity of meads.

  4. [Modeling of processes of heat transfer in whole-body hyperthermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsht, D N

    2006-01-01

    The method of whole-body hyperthermia in which the body temperature for a short time reaches values up to 43-44 degrees C holds currently much promise. However, at body temperatures above 42 degrees C, the risks associated with the hemodynamic instability and the appearance of arrhythmia in the patient increase. A model of heat transfer has been created to increase the efficiency and safety of the immersion-convectional method of whole-body hyperthermia. This model takes into account changes in the skin blood flow and the dynamics of pulse rate depending on body temperature. The model of heat transfer adequately reflects processes of heating of the organism and can form a basis for the calculation of distribution of heat inside the organism.

  5. Stochastic modeling of stock price process induced from the conjugate heat equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeng, Seong-Hun

    2015-02-01

    Currency can be considered as a ruler for values of commodities. Then the price is the measured value by the ruler. We can suppose that inflation and variation of exchange rate are caused by variation of the scale of the ruler. In geometry, variation of the scale means that the metric is time-dependent. The conjugate heat equation is the modified heat equation which satisfies the heat conservation law for the time-dependent metric space. We propose a new model of stock prices by using the stochastic process whose transition probability is determined by the kernel of the conjugate heat equation. Our model of stock prices shows how the volatility term is affected by inflation and exchange rate. This model modifies the Black-Scholes equation in light of inflation and exchange rate.

  6. Investigation of heat treatment conditions of structural material for blanket fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Takanori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Sawai, Tomotsugu; Jitsukawa, Shiro

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents recent results of thermal hysteresis effects on ceramic breeder blanket structural material. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF) steel is the leading candidates for the first wall structural materials of breeding blankets. RAF steel demonstrates superior resistance to high dose neutron irradiation, because the steel has tempered martensite structure which contains the number of sink site for radiation defects. This microstructure obtained by two-step heat treatment, first is normalizing at temperature above 1200 K and the second is tempering at temperature below 1100 K. Recent study revealed the thermal hysteresis has significant impacts on the post-irradiation mechanical properties. The breeding blanket has complicated structure, which consists of tungsten armor and thin first wall with cooling pipe. The blanket fabrication requires some high temperature joining processes. Especially hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is examined as a near-net-shape fabrication process for this structure. The process consists of heating above 1300 K and isostatic pressing at the pressure above 150 MPa followed by tempering. Moreover ceramics pebbles are packed into blanket module and the module is to be seamed by welding followed by post weld heat treatment in the final assemble process. Therefore the final microstructural features of RAFs strongly depend on the blanket fabrication process. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of thermal hysteresis corresponding to blanket fabrication process on RAFs microstructure in order to establish appropriate blanket fabrication process. Japanese RAFs F82H (Fe-0.1C-8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.05Ta) was investigated by metallurgical method after isochronal heat treatment up to 1473 K simulating high temperature bonding process. Although F82H showed significant grain growth after conventional solid HIP conditions (1313 K x 2 hr.), this coarse grained microstructure was refined by the post HIP normalizing at

  7. Distribution of tritium in a nuclear process heat plant with HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinwarz, W.; Stoever, D.; Hecker, R.; Thiele, W.

    1984-01-01

    The application of HTR-process heat in chemical processes involves low contamination of the product by tritium permeation through the heat exchanger walls. According to conservative assumptions for the tritium release rate and based on experimental permeation data of the German R und D-program a tritium concentration in the PNP-product gas of about 10 pCi/g was calculated. The domestic use of the product gas in unvented kitchen ranges as the most important direct radiation exposure pathway then leads to an effective equivalent radiation dose of only 20 μrem/a. (orig.)

  8. Processing of light and heat-resistant alloys. Obrabotka legkikh i zharoprochnykh splavov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belova, A F

    1976-01-01

    Results are given on the latest studies undertaken by Academician A.F. Belov. An examination is made of general problems in the processing (pressure, welding, thermal treatment, and others) of light and heat-resistant metals, problems in the technology and metal science studies of aluminum alloys, and problems of metallurgy and the processing of titanium and heat-resistant alloys. The publication is designed for researchers, designers, metallurgists, metal science specialists, machine building specialists, and students at corresponding institutions of higher learning.

  9. Emittance preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, V; Arduini, G; Goddard, B; Holzer, B J; Jowett, J M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, T; Roncarolo, F; Schaumann, M; Versteegen, R; Wenninger, J [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Emittance measurements during the LHC proton run 2011 indicated a blow-up of 20 % to 30 % from LHC injection to collisions. This presentation will show the emittance preservation throughout the different parts of the LHC cycle and discuss the current limitations on emittance determination. An overview of emittance preservation through the injector complex as function of bunch intensity will also be given. Possible sources for the observed blow-up and required tests in 2012 will be presented. Possible improvements of emittance diagnostics and analysis tools for 2012 will be shown.

  10. Catalyzed deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium fusion blankets for high temperature process heat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.M.H.; Salimi, B.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiumless blanket designs, associated with a catalyzed deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion cycle and using a single high temperature solid pebble or falling bed zone, for process heat production, are proposed. Neutronics and photonics calculations, using the Monte Carlo method, show that an about 90% heat deposition fraction is possible in the high temperature zone, compared to a 30 to 40% fraction if a deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion cycle is used with separate breeding and heat deposition zones. Such a design is intended primarily for synthetic fuels manufacture through hydrogen production using high temperature water electrolysis. A system analysis involving plant energy balances and accounting for the different fusion energy partitions into neutrons and charged particles showed that plasma amplification factors in the range of 2 are needed. In terms of maximization of process heat and electricity production, and the maximization of the ratio of high temperature process heat to electricity, the catalyzed D-D system outperforms the D-T one by about 20%. The concept is thought competitive to the lithium boiler concept for such applications, with the added potential advantages of lower tritium inventories in the plasma, reduced lithium pumping (in the case of magnetic confinement) and safety problems, less radiation damage at the first wall, and minimized risks of radioactive product contamination by tritium

  11. Non-Conventional Tools to Preserve and Prolong the Quality of Minimally-Processed Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Corbo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this paper is a focus on some non-conventional tools to preserve the microbiological and physico-chemical quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. The quality of fresh-cut foods is the result of a complex equilibrium involving surface microbiota, storage temperature, gas in the headspace and the use of antimicrobials. This paper proposes a short overview of some non-conventional approaches able to preserve the quality of this kind of product, with a special focus on some new ways, as follows: (1 use of edible or antimicrobial-containing coatings (e.g., chitosan-based coatings on fruits or vegetables; (2 alternative modified atmospheres (e.g., high O2-modified atmosphere packaging (MAP or the use of essential oils in the headspace; (3 conditioning solutions with antimicrobials or natural compounds for fruit salad; and (4 biopreservation and use of a probiotic coating.

  12. An Innovative VHTR Waste Heat Integration with Forward Osmosis Desalination Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Young; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The integration concept implies the coupling of the waste heat from VHTR with the draw solute recovery system of FO process. By integrating these two novel technologies, advantages, such as improvement of total energy utilization, and production of fresh water using waste heat, can be achieved. In order to thermodynamically analyze the integrated system, the FO process and power conversion system of VHTR are simulated using chemical process software UNISIM together with OLI property package. In this study, the thermodynamic analysis on the VHTR and FO integrated system has been carried out to assess the feasibility of the concept. The FO process including draw solute recovery system is calculated to have a higher GOR compared to the MSF and MED when reasonable FO performance can be promised. Furthermore, when FO process is integrated with the VHTR to produce potable water from waste heat, it still shows a comparable GOR to typical GOR values of MSF and MED. And the waste heat utilization is significantly higher in FO than in MED and MSF. This results in much higher water production when integrated to the same VHTR plant. Therefore, it can be concluded that the suggested integrated system of VHTR and FO is a very promising and strong system concept which has a number of advantages over conventional technologies.

  13. Financial barriers to the use of solar-industrial-process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Industry concerns about solar process heat, attitudes toward investment in solar process heat, and decision processes and factors are reported. Four cases were selected from among 30 potential solar process heat installations that had been carried through the design stage, and case was analyzed using discounted cash flow to determine what internal rate of return would be earned under current tax laws over 10 years. No case showed any significant rate of return from capital invested in the solar installation. Several possible changes in the cost of solar equipment, its tax treatment or methods of financing were tested through computer simulation. A heavy load of extra tax incentives can improve the return on an investment, but such action is not recommended because they are not found to induce adoption of solar process heat, and if they were effective, capital may be drawn away from applications such as conservation were the potential to improve the nation's energy dilemma is greater. Tax shelter financing through limited partnership may be available. (LEW)

  14. Experimental process investigation of a latent heat energy storage system with a staggered heat exchanger with different phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolakoglou, Nikolas P.; Koukou, Maria K.; Vrachopoulos, Michalis Gr.; Tachos, Nikolaos; Lymberis, Kostas; Stathopoulos, Vassilis

    2017-11-01

    This work investigates melting and solidification processes of four different Phase Change Materials (PCM) used as latent heat thermal storage system. The experimental rig was consisted of an insulated tank, filled with the under investigation PCM, a staggered heat exchanger to supply or extract heat from the PCM cavity and a water pump to circulate Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF). Both charging (melting) and discharging (solidification) processes were conducted for two different HTF flow rates. The main scope of this work was to develop a first approach and to investigate the behaviour of PCM under various load conditions (different HTF flow rates). Results show that different HTF flow rates affect melting and solidification time periods; in both processes time was reduced while HTF flow rate was increased but in differentways due to the transition from conduction to convection heat transfer mechanisms.

  15. Experimental process investigation of a latent heat energy storage system with a staggered heat exchanger with different phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolakoglou Nikolas P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates melting and solidification processes of four different Phase Change Materials (PCM used as latent heat thermal storage system. The experimental rig was consisted of an insulated tank, filled with the under investigation PCM, a staggered heat exchanger to supply or extract heat from the PCM cavity and a water pump to circulate Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF. Both charging (melting and discharging (solidification processes were conducted for two different HTF flow rates. The main scope of this work was to develop a first approach and to investigate the behaviour of PCM under various load conditions (different HTF flow rates. Results show that different HTF flow rates affect melting and solidification time periods; in both processes time was reduced while HTF flow rate was increased but in differentways due to the transition from conduction to convection heat transfer mechanisms.

  16. The design of integrated cooling processes in district heating systems; Kylprocessers design i fjaerrvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Viktoria [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (SE). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology; Setterwall, Fredrik [Fredrik Setterwall Konsult AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Andersson, Mikael [AB Berglunds Rostfria, Boden (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results from an investigation regarding the design of integrated cooling processes in district heating systems. Increasing investment levels in district heating networks combined with expanding comfort cooling demand makes heat-driven cooling processes extremely interesting. This solution has a great potential tbe cost effective. At the same time, the problem with the environmentally harmful refrigerants used in conventional vapor compression chillers is avoided. In many cases it is beneficial for the district heating provider to lower the supply and/or return temperatures in the network, at least for part of the year. In combined heat and power generation (CHP) a lower supply temperature means that the electricity yield increases. In this context, it is important to consider that conventional absorption chillers are designed to run on 120 deg C heat. However,they can work on heat with temperature as low as 80 deg C if a chiller with a large enough generator area is used, although this has a negative impact on the dimensions of other components and leads ta lower coefficient of performance. For these reasons low temperature driven absorption chillers have been developed in recent years. Two concepts (from different manufacturers) are now available on the market. Factors that affect the choice of district heat-integrated cooling processes have been investigated in this study. Key system aspects that embody a holistic view on the production of heating, cooling and power are especially highlighted. Important tasks have been: To quantify the following effects on the design of an integrated cooling process: the temperatures in the district heating net, available cooling water temperature (to cool the absorber and condenser), electricity price, and the composition of the energy system (e.g. fuel and CHP or power-only mode of operation). To analyze the potential of the low temperature driven chiller concept with regards to energy and cost

  17. Black hole evaporation in a heat bath as a nonequilibrium process and its final fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    We consider a black hole in a heat bath, and the whole system which consists of the black hole and the heat bath is isolated from outside environments. When the black hole evaporates, the Hawking radiation causes an energy flow from the black hole to the heat bath. Therefore, since no energy flow arises in an equilibrium state, the thermodynamic state of the whole system is not in equilibrium. That is, in a region around the black hole, the matter field of Hawking radiation and that of heat bath should be in a nonequilibrium state due to the energy flow. Using a simple model which reflects the nonequilibrium nature of energy flow, we find the nonequilibrium effect on a black hole evaporation as follows: if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is not so large, the evaporation time scale of a black hole in a heat bath becomes longer than that in an empty space (a situation without heat bath), because of the incoming energy flow from the heat bath to the black hole. However, if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is sufficiently large, the evaporation time scale in a heat bath becomes shorter than that in an empty space, because a nonequilibrium effect of the temperature difference between the black hole and heat bath appears as a strong energy extraction from the black hole by the heat bath. Further, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon is found: a quasi-equilibrium evaporation stage under the nonequilibrium effect proceeds abruptly to a quantum evaporation stage at a semi-classical level (at black hole radius R g > Planck length) within a very short time scale with a strong burst of energy. (Contrarily, when the nonequilibrium effect is not taken into account, a quasi-equilibrium stage proceeds smoothly to a quantum stage at R g < Planck length without so strong an energy burst.) That is, the nonequilibrium effect of energy flow tends to make a black hole evaporation process more dynamical and to accelerate that process. Finally, on the final fate

  18. Impact of process parameters and design options on heat leaks of straight cryogenic distribution lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Duda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Future Circular Collider (FCC accelerator will require a helium distribution system that will exceed the presently exploited transfer lines by almost 1 order of magnitude. The helium transfer line will contain five process pipes protected against heat leaks by a common thermal shield. The design pressure of the FCC process pipe with supercritical helium will be equal to 5.0 MPa, significantly exceeding the 2.0 MPa value in the present, state-of–art transfer lines. The increase of the design pressure requires construction changes to be introduced to the support system, the vacuum barriers and the compensation bellows. This will influence heat flows to the helium. The paper analyses the impact of the increased design pressure on the heat flow. The paper also offers a discussion of the design modifications to the compensation system, including the replacement of stainless steel with Invar®—aimed at mitigating the pressure increase.

  19. Analysis of prompt supercritical process with heat transfer and temperature feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU BO; ZHU Qian; CHEN Zhiyun

    2009-01-01

    The prompt supercritical process of a nuclear reactor with temperature feedback and initial power as well as heat transfer with a big step reactivity (ρ0>β) is analyzed in this paper.Considering the effect of heat transfer on temperature of the reactor,a new model is set up.For any initial power,the variations of output power and reactivity with time are obtained by numerical method.The effects of the big inserted step reactivity and initial power on the prompt supercritical process are analyzed and discussed.It was found that the effect of heat transfer on the output power and reactivity can be neglected under any initial power,and the output power obtained by the adiabatic model is basically in accordance with that by the model of this paper,and the analytical solution can be adopted.The results provide a theoretical base for safety analysis and operation management of a power reactor.

  20. Impact of process parameters and design options on heat leaks of straight cryogenic distribution lines

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Pawel; Chorowski, Maciej Pawel; Polinski, J

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) accelerator will require a helium distribution system that will exceed the presently exploited transfer lines by almost 1 order of magnitude. The helium transfer line will contain five process pipes protected against heat leaks by a common thermal shield. The design pressure of the FCC process pipe with supercritical helium will be equal to 5.0 MPa, significantly exceeding the 2.0 MPa value in the present, state-of–art transfer lines. The increase of the design pressure requires construction changes to be introduced to the support system, the vacuum barriers and the compensation bellows. This will influence heat flows to the helium. The paper analyses the impact of the increased design pressure on the heat flow. The paper also offers a discussion of the design modifications to the compensation system, including the replacement of stainless steel with Invar—aimed at mitigating the pressure increase.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline graphite from coconut shell with heating process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachid, Frischa M., E-mail: frischamw@yahoo.com, E-mail: adhiyudhaperkasa@yahoo.com, E-mail: afandisar@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurulrosyidah92@gmail.com, E-mail: darminto@physics.its.ac.id; Perkasa, Adhi Y., E-mail: frischamw@yahoo.com, E-mail: adhiyudhaperkasa@yahoo.com, E-mail: afandisar@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurulrosyidah92@gmail.com, E-mail: darminto@physics.its.ac.id; Prasetya, Fandi A., E-mail: frischamw@yahoo.com, E-mail: adhiyudhaperkasa@yahoo.com, E-mail: afandisar@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurulrosyidah92@gmail.com, E-mail: darminto@physics.its.ac.id; Rosyidah, Nurul, E-mail: frischamw@yahoo.com, E-mail: adhiyudhaperkasa@yahoo.com, E-mail: afandisar@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurulrosyidah92@gmail.com, E-mail: darminto@physics.its.ac.id; Darminto, E-mail: frischamw@yahoo.com, E-mail: adhiyudhaperkasa@yahoo.com, E-mail: afandisar@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurulrosyidah92@gmail.com, E-mail: darminto@physics.its.ac.id [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Campus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    Graphite were synthesized and characterized by heating process of coconut shell with varying temperature (400, 800 and 1000°C) and holding time (3 and 5 hours). After heating process, the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and analyzed by X'pert HighScore Plus Software, Scanning Electron Microcope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX) and Transmission Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (TEM-EDX). Graphite and londsdaelite phase were analyzed by XRD. According to EDX analysis, the sample was heated in 1000°C got the highest content of carbon. The amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline graphite were observed by SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline graphite from coconut shell with heating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachid, Frischa M.; Perkasa, Adhi Y.; Prasetya, Fandi A.; Rosyidah, Nurul; Darminto

    2014-01-01

    Graphite were synthesized and characterized by heating process of coconut shell with varying temperature (400, 800 and 1000°C) and holding time (3 and 5 hours). After heating process, the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and analyzed by X'pert HighScore Plus Software, Scanning Electron Microcope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX) and Transmission Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (TEM-EDX). Graphite and londsdaelite phase were analyzed by XRD. According to EDX analysis, the sample was heated in 1000°C got the highest content of carbon. The amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline graphite were observed by SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX

  3. A new method to estimate heat source parameters in gas metal arc welding simulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Xiaolei; Xu, Jie; Liu, Zhaoheng; Huang, Shaojie; Fan, Yu; Sun, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A new method for accurate simulation of heat source parameters was presented. •The partial least-squares regression analysis was recommended in the method. •The welding experiment results verified accuracy of the proposed method. -- Abstract: Heat source parameters were usually recommended by experience in welding simulation process, which induced error in simulation results (e.g. temperature distribution and residual stress). In this paper, a new method was developed to accurately estimate heat source parameters in welding simulation. In order to reduce the simulation complexity, a sensitivity analysis of heat source parameters was carried out. The relationships between heat source parameters and welding pool characteristics (fusion width (W), penetration depth (D) and peak temperature (T p )) were obtained with both the multiple regression analysis (MRA) and the partial least-squares regression analysis (PLSRA). Different regression models were employed in each regression method. Comparisons of both methods were performed. A welding experiment was carried out to verify the method. The results showed that both the MRA and the PLSRA were feasible and accurate for prediction of heat source parameters in welding simulation. However, the PLSRA was recommended for its advantages of requiring less simulation data

  4. Modeling of heat transfer in a vascular tissue-like medium during an interstitial hyperthermia process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeid; Saboonchi, Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the role of small vessels in heat transfer mechanisms of a tissue-like medium during local intensive heating processes, for example, an interstitial hyperthermia treatment. To this purpose, a cylindrical tissue with two co- and counter-current vascular networks and a central heat source is introduced. Next, the energy equations of tissue, supply fluid (arterial blood), and return fluid (venous blood) are derived using porous media approach. Then, a 2D computer code is developed to predict the temperature of blood (fluid phase) and tissue (solid phase) by conventional volume averaging method and a more realistic solution method. In latter method, despite the volume averaging the blood of interconnect capillaries is separated from the arterial and venous blood phases. It is found that in addition to blood perfusion rate, the arrangement of vascular network has considerable effects on the pattern and amount of the achieved temperature. In contrast to counter-current network, the co-current network of vessels leads to considerable asymmetric pattern of temperature contours and relocation of heat affected zone along the blood flow direction. However this relocation can be prevented by changing the site of hyperthermia heat source. The results show that the cooling effect of co-current blood vessels during of interstitial heating is more efficient. Despite much anatomical dissimilarities, these findings can be useful in designing of protocols for hyperthermia cancer treatment of living tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... architectural value in preservation work as a matter of maintaining the buildings -as keeping them "alive" and allowing this to continue in the future. The predominantly aesthetic preservation approach will stop the buildings' life process, which is the same as - "letting them die". Finnebyen in Aarhus...... is an example of a residential area, where the planning authority currently has presented a preservational district plan, following guidelines from the SAVE method. The purpose is to protect the area's architectural values in the future. The predominantly aesthetic approach is here used coupled to the concept...

  6. Economic and environmental benefits of converting industrial processes to district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric Ilic, Danica; Trygg, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The potential for converting industrial processes to district heating is analyzed. • The study includes 83 manufacturing companies in three Swedish counties. • The energy costs for the companies decrease after the conversions. • The conversion opens up for a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. • CHP plants in the local district heating system are better utilized. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyse the possibilities of converting industrial processes from electricity and fossil fuels to district heating in 83 companies in three Swedish counties. Effects on the local district heating systems were explored, as well as economic effects and impacts on global emissions of greenhouse gases. The study was conducted considering two different energy market conditions for the year 2030. The results show that there is a potential for increasing industrial district heating use in all analysed counties. The greatest potential regarding percentage is found in Jönköping, where the annual district heating use in the manufacturing companies could increase from 5 GW h to 45 GW h. The annual industrial district heating use could increase from 84 GW h to 168 GW h in Östergötland and from 14 GW h to 58 GW h in Västra Götaland. The conversion of the industrial production processes to district heating would lead to district heating demand curves which are less dependent on outdoor temperature. As a result, the utilization period of the base load plants (above all of the combined heat and power plants) would be prolonged; this would decrease district heating production costs due to the increased income from the electricity production. The energy costs for the industrial companies decrease after the conversions as well. Furthermore, the increased electricity production in the combined heat and power plants, and the decreased electricity and fossil fuel use in the industrial sector opens up a possibility for a reduction of global

  7. 9 CFR 381.305 - Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems. 381.305 Section 381.305 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...

  8. Increase in the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd by a heat-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Shaoyun, Wang; Shutao, Liu; Jianwu, Zhou; Lijing, Ke; Pingfan, Rao

    2013-12-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) is widely regarded as one of the best remedy foods for diabetes. The positive effect of bitter gourd on diabetes has been attributed in part to the remarkable free radical scavenging activity of its boiled water extract from sun-dried fruits. It is well known that a heat process significantly influences the antioxidant activity of fresh fruits. However, the heat drying processes of bitter gourd have not been studied so far. Here, we show that the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd extract significantly increases after the heat drying process, while the content of flavonoids and phenols, which are generally regarded as the main antioxidant components in bitter gourd, remain unaffected. Furthermore, the content of free amino acids and the total reducing sugar were found to decrease with increasing browning index, indicating the progression of the Maillard reaction, products of which are known to possess significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, it suggests that Maillard reaction products may be the main contributors to the increase in antioxidant capability. Finally, the bitter gourd extract with the higher antioxidant activity, was shown to manifest a corresponding higher proliferation activity on NIT-1 beta-cells. These results suggest that controllable conditions in the heat-drying processing of fresh bitter gourd fruit is of significance for enhancing the total free radical scavenging capacity, beta-cell proliferation activity and possibly the anti-diabetic activity of this fruit.

  9. Progress and safety aspects in process heat utilization from nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1995-01-01

    Report about the Status and the Progress in the Various Programs and Projects in the Federal Republic of Germany in Process Heat Utilization from the High Temperature Reactor and on Recent Changes of the Atomic Law in the Federal Republic of Germany with Big Influence on the Safety of Nuclear Energy Technology. (author)

  10. T5 heat treatment of semi-solid metal processed aluminium alloy F357

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The T5 heat treatment of semi-solid metal (SSM) processed alloy F357 was investigated by considering the effects of cooling rate and natural aging after casting, as well as artificial aging parameters on tensile properties. In addition, the tensile...

  11. The Effects of pH and Heat Treatment Processing on the Stability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of pH and heat treatment processing on stability and natural food colours used in dairy products. A repeated laboratory experiment was conducted in which loss of colour intensity or change in shade of natural food colours used in acid and nearly neutral dairy products at ...

  12. Fractional-Order Identification and Control of Heating Processes with Non-Continuous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Caponetto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a fractional order model of a heating process and a comparison of fractional and standard PI controllers in its closed loop system. Preliminarily, an enhanced fractional order model for the heating process on non-continuous materials has been identified through a fitting algorithm on experimental data. Experimentation has been carried out on a finite length beam filled with three non-continuous materials (air, styrofoam, metal buckshots in order to identify a model in the frequency domain and to obtain a relationship between the fractional order of the heating process and the different materials’ properties. A comparison between the experimental model and the theoretical one has been performed, proving a significant enhancement of the fitting performances. Moreover the obtained modelling results confirm the fractional nature of the heating processes when diffusion occurs in non-continuous composite materials, and they show how the model’s fractional order can be used as a characteristic parameter for non-continuous materials with different composition and structure. Finally, three different kinds of controllers have been applied and compared in order to keep constant the beam temperature constant at a fixed length.

  13. Plug and Play Process Control Applied to a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Trangbæk, Klaus; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose

    2008-01-01

    The general ideas within plug and play process control (PTC) are to initialize and reconfigure control systems just by plug and play. In this paper these ideas are applied to a district heating pressure control problem. First of all this serves as a concrete example of PTC, secondly some of the f...

  14. New method of processing heat treatment experiments with numerical simulation support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, T.; Moravec, J.; Novakova, I.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, benefits of combining modern software for numerical simulations of welding processes with laboratory research was described. Proposed new method of processing heat treatment experiments leading to obtaining relevant input data for numerical simulations of heat treatment of large parts was presented. It is now possible, by using experiments on small tested samples, to simulate cooling conditions comparable with cooling of bigger parts. Results from this method of testing makes current boundary conditions during real cooling process more accurate, but also can be used for improvement of software databases and optimization of a computational models. The point is to precise the computation of temperature fields for large scale hardening parts based on new method of temperature dependence determination of the heat transfer coefficient into hardening media for the particular material, defined maximal thickness of processed part and cooling conditions. In the paper we will also present an example of the comparison standard and modified (according to newly suggested methodology) heat transfer coefficient data’s and theirs influence on the simulation results. It shows how even the small changes influence mainly on distribution of temperature, metallurgical phases, hardness and stresses distribution. By this experiment it is also possible to obtain not only input data and data enabling optimization of computational model but at the same time also verification data. The greatest advantage of described method is independence of used cooling media type.

  15. Relativistic thermodynamics of irreversible processes I. Heat conduction, diffusion, viscous flow and chemical reactions; formal part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, G.A.; Groot, S.R. de; Mazur, P.

    1953-01-01

    The relativistic thermodynamics of irreversible processes is developed for an isotropic mixture in which heat conduction, diffusion, viscous flow, chemical reactions and their cross-phenomena may occur. The four-vectors, representing the relative flows of matter, are defined in such a way that, in

  16. Computerized property prediction and process planning in heat treatment of steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gergely, M. (Steel Advisory Centre for Industrial Technologies (SACIT), Budapest (Hungary)); Somogyi, S. (Steel Advisory Centre for Industrial Technologies (SACIT), Budapest (Hungary)); Kohlheb, R. (Steel Advisory Centre for Industrial Technologies (SACIT), Budapest (Hungary))

    1994-01-01

    Recent years have seen widespread interest in the establishment of prediction methods, based on phenomenological description and computer simulation of transformation processes during heat treatment, and in the introduction of software for technological planning. The steady development of this approach is aimed at meeting the requirement of metallurgists, design engineers dealing with material selection and dimensioning, and technologists planning heat treatment processes. Research in this field of computer simulation has been concentrated so far on two main areas of interest: . Modelling of transformation processes and the prediction of microstructures and/or properties, . Developing program packages to help solve concrete tasks such as material selection, on-line process control and monitoring, and the design of heat-treating operations. During the last two decades in the field of heat treatment, various mathematical models with different accuracy and complexity have been developed. In this paper, an attempt is made to outline some important results in computer simulation and computerized property prediction without aiming at completeness. The topic is restricted to quenched and tempered, and case-hardened steels. (orig.)

  17. Simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes during the vacuum frying of potato chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Yamsaengsung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental two-dimensional model to predict the heat and mass transfer that occur during the vacuum frying of potato chips was solved using the Finite Element toolbox in MATLAB 6.1. The simulation of the heat transfer process included the convection of heat from the surface to the product, the conduction of heat into the product, and a loss of heat using the heat source term representing evaporation. The mass transfer process was divided into two periods: (1 water loss and (2 oil absorption. The first scenario included a diffusion term and a source term. The source term represented the convection and evaporation of water from the product. For the second period, the diffusion term represented the gradual absorption of oil through capillary diffusion.From the simulation, a good agreement between the experimental data and the predicted values was obtained. From the heat transfer model, the rapid increase in temperature of the product toward the boiling point of water (at the associated pressure followed by its steady increase toward the temperature of the oil was validated. Furthermore, by separating the rate of moisture loss into two parts to represent the constant rate and falling rate period of drying, the model was able to predict an initial period of rapid moisture loss followed by a decreasing rate of moisture loss. The simulation also demonstrated the formation of the crust and the gradual movement of the crust inward. Finally, using two sets of diffusion coefficients that correlated to the two schemes of moisture loss, the model predicted the rapid flux of oil into the product during the constant drying stage, followed by a small amount of oil absorption into its interior once the crust had been established.

  18. Exergetic life cycle assessment of cement production process with waste heat power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Xiuwen; Zhang, Yun; Shao, Shuai; Zhang, Shushen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergetic life cycle assessment was performed for the cement production process. • Each system’s efficiency before and after waste heat power generation was analyzed. • The waste heat power generation improved the efficiency of each production system. • It provided technical support for the implementation of energy-saving schemes. - Abstract: The cement industry is an industry that consumes a considerable quantity of resources and energy and has a very large influence on the efficient use of global resources and energy. In this study, exergetic life cycle assessment is performed for the cement production process, and the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of each system before and after waste heat power generation is investigated. The study indicates that, before carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies of the raw material preparation system, pulverized coal preparation system and rotary kiln system are 39.4%, 10.8% and 50.2%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 4.5%, 1.4% and 33.7%, respectively; after carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies are 45.8%, 15.5% and 55.1%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 7.8%, 2.8% and 38.1%, respectively. The waste heat power generation project can recover 3.7% of the total input exergy of a rotary kiln system and improve the objective exergy efficiencies of the above three systems. The study can identify degree of resource and energy utilization and the energy-saving effect of a waste heat power generation project on each system, and provide technical support for managers in the implementation of energy-saving schemes

  19. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  20. Modeling of heat and mass transfer processes during core melt discharge from a reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, T.N.; Bui, V.A.; Nourgaliev, R.R. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The objective of the paper is to study heat and mass transfer processes related to core melt discharge from a reactor vessel is a severe light water reactor accident. The phenomenology of the issue includes (1) melt convection in and heat transfer from the melt pool in contact with the vessel lower head wall; (2) fluid dynamics and heat transfer of the melt flow in the growing discharge hole; and (3) multi-dimensional heat conduction in the ablating lower head wall. A program of model development, validation and application is underway (i) to analyse the dominant physical mechanisms determining characteristics of the lower head ablation process; (ii) to develop and validate efficient analytic/computational methods for estimating heat and mass transfer under phase-change conditions in irregular moving-boundary domains; and (iii) to investigate numerically the melt discharge phenomena in a reactor-scale situation, and, in particular, the sensitivity of the melt discharge transient to structural differences and various in-vessel melt progression scenarios. The paper presents recent results of the analysis and model development work supporting the simulant melt-structure interaction experiments.

  1. Microwave heating processing as alternative of pretreatment in second-generation biorefinery: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Reynosa, Alejandra; Romaní, Aloia; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa Ma.; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Garrote, Gil; Ruiz, Héctor A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave heating pretreatment for lignocellulosic material. • Fundament of lignocellulosic material fractionation using microwave irradiation. • Energy consumption in microwave pretreatments and microwave reactors description. • Microwave heating as pretreatment in a biorefinery concept. - Abstract: The development of a feasible biorefinery is in need of alternative technologies to improve lignocellulosic biomass conversion by the suitable use of energy. Microwave heating processing (MHP) is emerging as promising unconventional pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs). MHP applied as pretreatment induces LCMs breakdown through the molecular collision caused by the dielectric polarization. Polar particles movement generates a quick heating consequently the temperatures and times of process are lower. In this way, MHP has positioned as green technology in comparison with other types of heating. Microwave technology represents an excellent option to obtain susceptible substrates to enzymatic saccharification and subsequently in the production of bioethanol and high-added compounds. However, it is still necessary to study the dielectric properties of materials, and conduct economic studies to achieve development in pilot and industrial scale. This work aims to provide an overview of recent progress and alternative configurations for combining the application of microwave technology on the pretreatment of LCMs in terms of biorefinery.

  2. Mathematical model of solid food pasteurization by ohmic heating: influence of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurization of a solid food undergoing ohmic heating has been analysed by means of a mathematical model, involving the simultaneous solution of Laplace's equation, which describes the distribution of electrical potential within a food, the heat transfer equation, using a source term involving the displacement of electrical potential, the kinetics of inactivation of microorganisms likely to be contaminating the product. In the model, thermophysical and electrical properties as function of temperature are used. Previous works have shown the occurrence of heat loss from food products to the external environment during ohmic heating. The current model predicts that, when temperature gradients are established in the proximity of the outer ohmic cell surface, more cold areas are present at junctions of electrodes with lateral sample surface. For these reasons, colder external shells are the critical areas to be monitored, instead of internal points (typically geometrical center) as in classical pure conductive heat transfer. Analysis is carried out in order to understand the influence of pasteurisation process parameters on this temperature distribution. A successful model helps to improve understanding of these processing phenomenon, which in turn will help to reduce the magnitude of the temperature differential within the product and ultimately provide a more uniformly pasteurized product.

  3. Effect of preservation of the C-6 spinous process and its paraspinal muscular attachment on the prevention of postoperative axial neck pain in C3-6 laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Eiji; Ueta, Takayoshi; Maeda, Takeshi; Yugué, Itaru; Kawano, Osamu; Shiba, Keiichiro

    2015-03-01

    Axial neck pain after C3-6 laminoplasty has been reported to be significantly lesser than that after C3-7 laminoplasty because of the preservation of the C-7 spinous process and the attachment of nuchal muscles such as the trapezius and rhomboideus minor, which are connected to the scapula. The C-6 spinous process is the second longest spinous process after that of C-7, and it serves as an attachment point for these muscles. The effect of preserving the C-6 spinous process and its muscular attachment, in addition to preservation of the C-7 spinous process, on the prevention of axial neck pain is not well understood. The purpose of the current study was to clarify whether preservation of the paraspinal muscles of the C-6 spinous process reduces postoperative axial neck pain compared to that after using nonpreservation techniques. The authors studied 60 patients who underwent C3-6 double-door laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy or cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament; the minimum follow-up period was 1 year. Twenty-five patients underwent a C-6 paraspinal muscle preservation technique, and 35 underwent a C-6 nonpreservation technique. A visual analog scale (VAS) and VAS grading (Grades I-IV) were used to assess axial neck pain 1-3 months after surgery and at the final follow-up examination. Axial neck pain was classified as being 1 of 5 types, and its location was divided into 5 areas. The potential correlation between the C-6/C-7 spinous process length ratio and axial neck pain was examined. The mean VAS scores (± SD) for axial neck pain were comparable between the C6-preservation group and the C6-nonpreservation group in both the early and late postoperative stages (4.1 ± 3.1 vs 4.0 ± 3.2 and 3.8 ± 2.9 vs 3.6 ± 3.0, respectively). The distribution of VAS grades was comparable in the 2 groups in both postoperative stages. Stiffness was the most prevalent complaint in both groups (64.0% and 54

  4. Heat transfer enhanced microwave process for stabilization of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    The objectve of this CRADA is to combine a polymer process for encapsulation of liquid radioactive waste slurry developed by Monolith Technology, Inc. (MTI), with an in-drum microwave process for drying radioactive wastes developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), for the purpose of achieving a fast, cost-effectve commercial process for solidification of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Tests performed so far show a four-fold increase in process throughput due to the direct microwave heating of the polymer/slurry mixture, compared to conventional edge-heating of the mixer. We measured a steady-state throughput of 33 ml/min for 1.4 kW of absorbed microwave power. The final waste form is a solid monolith with no free liquids and no free particulates

  5. Isoflavone profile in soymilk as affected by soybean variety, grinding, and heat-processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chang, Sam K C; Liu, Zhisheng

    2015-05-01

    Isoflavones impart health benefits and their overall content and profile in foods are greatly influenced at each step during processing. In this study, 2 soybean varieties (Prosoy and black soybean) were processed with 3 different grinding (ambient, cold, and hot grinding) and heating methods (traditional stove cooking, 1-phase UHT, and 2-phase UHT) for soymilk making. The results showed after cold, ambient, and hot grinding, the total isoflavones were 3917, 5013, and 5949 nmol/g for Prosoy; the total isoflavones were 4073, 3966, and 4284 nmol/g for black soybean. Grinding could significantly increase isoflavone extraction. The grinding process had a destructive effect on isoflavones and this effect varied with grinding temperature. Different heating methods had different effects on different isoflavone forms. Two soybean varieties showed distinct patterns with respect to the change of isoflavone profile during processing. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Design of reactor protection systems for HTR plants generating electric power and process heat problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craemer, B.; Dahm, H.; Spillekothen, H.G.

    1982-06-01

    The design basis of the reactor protection system (RPS) for HTR plants generating process heat and electric power is briefly described and some particularities of process heat plants are indicated. Some particularly important or exacting technical measuring positions for the RPS of a process heat HTR with 500 MWsub(th) power (PNP 500) are described and current R + D work explained. It is demonstrated that a particularly simple RPS can be realized in an HTR with modular design. (author)

  7. Lowering of thermal stress in food preservation by reduction of the thermal resistance of microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1981-01-01

    Preservation of foodstuffs by heat treatment is a high-energy process the intensity of which is widely determined by the high thermoresistance of microbes and spores. However, tests revealed that germ numbers can be reduced and heat sensitivity of the spores can be increased by radiation treatment of the food additives. Thus the heat load of the products and the energy consumption could be reduced. (author)

  8. Decontamination of hospital wastes by the combined action of ionising radiation and heat - the thermorad process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icre, P.; Rocquigny, H. de

    1995-01-01

    The Thermorad process is used for decontaminating hospital wastes at the hospital as they are collected from the different departments. The process utilises the combined microbiological effects of ionising radiation (5 kGy) and dry heat (60 o C). The treatment unit, which is compact and of small size, contains a cobalt 60 source of under 100,000 curies and has an annual treatment capacity of 5000 m 3 . (author)

  9. The study of thermal processes in control systems of heat consumption of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsynaeva, E.; A, Tsynaeva

    2017-11-01

    The article discusses the main thermal processes in the automated control systems for heat consumption (ACSHC) of buildings, schematic diagrams of these systems, mathematical models used for description of thermal processes in ACSHC. Conducted verification represented by mathematical models. It was found that the efficiency of the operation of ACSHC depend from the external and internal factors. Numerical study of dynamic modes of operation of ACSHC.

  10. Process of producing fuels from slates or bituminous shales. [distillation at incandescent heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppenbauer, M

    1902-07-31

    A process of producing a fuel from slates or bituminous shales by saturating or impregnating them after preliminary distillation with the vapors of tars, resins, oils, etc., is given. The process is characterized by the bituminous shale being submitted in the form of fragments to distillation at incandescent heat to make the shale porous and able to absorb the vapors of the substances already mentioned.

  11. Influence of Prolonged Storage Process, Pasteurization, and Heat Treatment on Biologically-active Human Milk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Chin Chang

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status.

  12. Selection of process conditions by risk assessment for apple juice pasteurization by UV-heat treatments at moderate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayán, E; Torres, J A; Alvarez, I; Condón, S

    2014-02-01

    The effect of bactericidal UV-C treatments (254 nm) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 suspended in apple juice increased synergistically with temperature up to a threshold value. The optimum UV-C treatment temperature was 55 °C, yielding a 58.9% synergistic lethal effect. Under these treatment conditions, the UV-heat (UV-H55 °C) lethal variability achieving 5-log reductions had a logistic distribution (α = 37.92, β = 1.10). Using this distribution, UV-H55 °C doses to achieve the required juice safety goal with 95, 99, and 99.9% confidence were 41.17, 42.97, and 46.00 J/ml, respectively, i.e., doses higher than the 37.58 J/ml estimated by a deterministic procedure. The public health impact of these results is that the larger UV-H55 °C dose required for achieving 5-log reductions with 95, 99, and 99.9% confidence would reduce the probability of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children by 76.3, 88.6, and 96.9%, respectively. This study illustrates the importance of including the effect of data variability when selecting operational parameters for novel and conventional preservation processes to achieve high food safety standards with the desired confidence level.

  13. Edge preserving smoothing and segmentation of 4-D images via transversely isotropic scale-space processing and fingerprint analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutter, Bryan W.; Algazi, V. Ralph; Gullberg, Grant T; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2004-01-01

    Enhancements are described for an approach that unifies edge preserving smoothing with segmentation of time sequences of volumetric images, based on differential edge detection at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Potential applications of these 4-D methods include segmentation of respiratory gated positron emission tomography (PET) transmission images to improve accuracy of attenuation correction for imaging heart and lung lesions, and segmentation of dynamic cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images to facilitate unbiased estimation of time-activity curves and kinetic parameters for left ventricular volumes of interest. Improved segmentation of lung surfaces in simulated respiratory gated cardiac PET transmission images is achieved with a 4-D edge detection operator composed of edge preserving 1-D operators applied in various spatial and temporal directions. Smoothing along the axis of a 1-D operator is driven by structure separation seen in the scale-space fingerprint, rather than by image contrast. Spurious noise structures are reduced with use of small-scale isotropic smoothing in directions transverse to the 1-D operator axis. Analytic expressions are obtained for directional derivatives of the smoothed, edge preserved image, and the expressions are used to compose a 4-D operator that detects edges as zero-crossings in the second derivative in the direction of the image intensity gradient. Additional improvement in segmentation is anticipated with use of multiscale transversely isotropic smoothing and a novel interpolation method that improves the behavior of the directional derivatives. The interpolation method is demonstrated on a simulated 1-D edge and incorporation of the method into the 4-D algorithm is described

  14. 3D numerical modeling of coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment with malice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwong Peeteenut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a multi-method Malice package for three dimension coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment by an algorithm weakly coupled with the Migen package integral method defining the electromagnetic model and the Flux-Expert package finite element method defining the thermal model. The integral method is well suited to inductive systems undergoing sinusoidal excitation at midrange or high frequency. The unknowns of both models are current density, scalar potential and temperature. Joule power in the electromagnetic model is generated by Eddy currents. It becomes the heat source in the thermal model.

  15. Process of heat-treating fuels of a bituminous nature, such as shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, S V

    1927-11-25

    A process is described of heat treating any kind of material of a bituminous nature usable as fuel, like shale, mineral coal, peat, etc., whereby the fuel undergoes in a retort or the like a distillation for recovering from it the total amount or the greatest part of gaseous or vaporous distillation products. The warm distillation residue is burned, characterized by the retorts, containing the fuel going through, being wholly or partly surrounded by materials to be heated. These materials and the warm distillation residue resulting from the distillation during the burning are moved forward independently one of the other.

  16. An inspection to the hyperbolic heat conduction problem in processed meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Kuo-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a hyperbolic heat conduction problem in processed meat with the non-homogenous initial temperature. This problem is related to an experimental study for the exploration of thermal wave behavior in biological tissue. Because the fundamental solution of the hyperbolic heat conduction model is difficult to be obtained, a modified numerical scheme is extended to solve the problem. The present results deviate from that in the literature and depict that the reliability of the experimentally measured properties presented in the literature is doubtful.

  17. Steam generators and waste heat boilers for process and plant engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ganapathy, V

    2014-01-01

    Incorporates Worked-Out Real-World ProblemsSteam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers focuses on the thermal design and performance aspects of steam generators, HRSGs and fire tube, water tube waste heat boilers including air heaters, and condensing economizers. Over 120 real-life problems are fully worked out which will help plant engineers in evaluating new boilers or making modifications to existing boiler components without assistance from boiler suppliers. The book examines recent trends and developments in boiler design and technology and presents novel idea

  18. Study the effect of heat processing on the vitamin C of some fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema .

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic Acid also known as Vitamin C. Vitamin C is very essential for growth and maintenance of the human body. It is necessary for the normal formation of the protein collagen, which is an important constituent of skin and connective tissue. The deficiency of vitamin C causes will be known as disease “Scurvy”. Vitamin C is present in all citrus fruits, gooseberry (Aonala, tomato, apple, pine, pineapple, grapes and other foods. The vitamin C is very sensitive to heat light air and strong alkali. In this paper, we study the effect of heat processing on the vitamin C of Citrus Limon, Ananas Cosmosus, Psidium Guajana, Vitis Vinifera.

  19. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  20. Cyclic process for producing methane in a tubular reactor with effective heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-Lee

    1986-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  1. Processing summary report: Fabrication of cesium and strontium heat and radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, L.K. Jr.; Surma, J.E.; Allen, R.P.

    1989-02-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), has produced 30 isotopic heat sources (canisters) for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) to be used as part of a repository testing program in the Asse Salt Mine. PNL program work involved the filling, closure, and decontamination of the 30 canisters. The canisters were fabricated (filled) in three separate processing campaigns using the radioactive liquid-fed ceramic melter to produce a borosilicate glass. Within the borosilicate glass matrix radiochemical constituents ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) were immobilized to yield a product with a predetermined decay heat and surface radiation exposure rate

  2. Cleanliness of Ti-bearing Al-killed ultra-low-carbon steel during different heating processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-long; Bao, Yan-ping; Wang, Min

    2017-12-01

    During the production of Ti-bearing Al-killed ultra-low-carbon (ULC) steel, two different heating processes were used when the converter tapping temperature or the molten steel temperature in the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus (RH) process was low: heating by Al addition during the RH decarburization process and final deoxidation at the end of the RH decarburization process (process-I), and increasing the oxygen content at the end of RH decarburization, heating and final deoxidation by one-time Al addition (process-II). Temperature increases of 10°C by different processes were studied; the results showed that the two heating processes could achieve the same heating effect. The T.[O] content in the slab and the refining process was better controlled by process-I than by process-II. Statistical analysis of inclusions showed that the numbers of inclusions in the slab obtained by process-I were substantially less than those in the slab obtained by process-II. For process-I, the Al2O3 inclusions produced by Al added to induce heating were substantially removed at the end of decarburization. The amounts of inclusions were substantially greater for process-II than for process-I at different refining stages because of the higher dissolved oxygen concentration in process-II. Industrial test results showed that process-I was more beneficial for improving the cleanliness of molten steel.

  3. Rapid thermal process by RF heating of nano-graphene layer/silicon substrate structure: Heat explosion theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinder, M.; Pelleg, J.; Meerovich, V.; Sokolovsky, V.

    2018-03-01

    RF heating kinetics of a nano-graphene layer/silicon substrate structure is analyzed theoretically as a function of the thickness and sheet resistance of the graphene layer, the dimensions and thermal parameters of the structure, as well as of cooling conditions and of the amplitude and frequency of the applied RF magnetic field. It is shown that two regimes of the heating can be realized. The first one is characterized by heating of the structure up to a finite temperature determined by equilibrium between the dissipated loss power caused by induced eddy-currents and the heat transfer to environment. The second regime corresponds to a fast unlimited temperature increase (heat explosion). The criterions of realization of these regimes are presented in the analytical form. Using the criterions and literature data, it is shown the possibility of the heat explosion regime for a graphene layer/silicon substrate structure at RF heating.

  4. Retrieving latent heating vertical structure from cloud and precipitation Profiles—Part I: Warm rain processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Qilong; Li, Rui; Wu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Yunfei

    2013-01-01

    An exploratory study on physical based latent heat (LH) retrieval algorithm is conducted by parameterizing the physical linkages of hydrometeor profiles of cloud and precipitation to the major processes related to the phase change of atmospheric water. Specifically, rain events are segregated into three rain types: warm, convective, and stratiform, based on their dynamical and thermodynamical characteristics. As the first of the series, only the warm rain LH algorithm is presented and evaluated here. The major microphysical processes of condensation and evaporation for warm rain are parameterized through traditional rain growth theory, with the aid of Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) simulations. The evaluation or the self-consistency tests indicate that the physical based retrievals capture the fundamental LH processes associated with the warm rain life cycle. There is no significant systematic bias in terms of convection strength, illustrated by the month-long CRM simulation as the mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) experience from initial, mature, to decay stages. The overall monthly-mean LH comparison showed that the total LH, as well as condensation heating and evaporation cooling components, agree with the CRM simulation. -- Highlights: ► An exploratory study on physics-based warm rain latent heat retrieval algorithm. ► Utilize the full information of the vertical structures of cloud and rainfall. ► Directly link water mass measurements to latent heat at instantaneous pixel level. ► Applicable at various stages of cloud system life cycle

  5. Characterization and Processing Behavior of Heated Aluminum-Polycarbonate Composite Build Plates for the FDM Additive Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri L. Messimer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most essential components of the fused deposition modeling (FDM additive manufacturing (AM process is the build plate, the surface upon which the part is constructed. These are typically made from aluminum or glass, but there are clear disadvantages to both and restrictions on which materials can be processed on them successfully. This study examined the suitability of heated aluminum-polycarbonate (AL-PC composite print beds for FDM, looking particularly at the mechanical properties, thermal behavior, deformation behavior, bonding strength with deposited material, printing quality, and range of material usability. Theoretical examination and physical experiments were performed for each of these areas; the results were compared to similar experiments done using heated aluminum and aluminum-glass print beds. Ten distinct materials (ABS, PLA, PET, HIPS, PC, TPU, PVA, nylon, metal PLA, and carbon-fiber PLA were tested for printing performance. The use of a heated AL-PC print bed was found to be a practical option for most of the materials, particularly ABS and TPU, which are often challenging to process using traditional print bed types. Generally, the results were found to be equivalent to or superior to tempered glass and superior to standard aluminum build plates in terms of printing capability.

  6. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin F.; Madsen, Claus; Olsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) concept allows for a high efficiency of a heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept consists of two water storage tanks, one charged and one discharged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process, while the discharged tank...... is charging. The charging of the tank is done by recirculating water through the condenser and thereby gradually heating the water. The modelling of the system is described in Part I [1]. In this part, Part II, an experimental test setup of the tank system is reported, the results are presented and further...... modelling of the heat pump and tank system is performed (in continuation of Part I). The modelling is extended to include the system performance with different natural refrigerants and the influence of different types of compressors....

  7. Use of miniature magnetic sensors for real-time control of the induction heating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Anthony E.; Kelley, John Bruce; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2002-01-01

    A method of monitoring the process of induction heating a workpiece. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can also be used to measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  8. Magnetization process of heat assisted magnetic recording by micro-magnetic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiiki, Kazuo; Motojima, Hisanori

    2010-01-01

    Magnetization reversal in a uniform magnetic field and one bit recording process by a thin film head in the heat assisted magnetic recording system of TbFeCo medium are studied by using the micro-magnetic simulation and the heat equation. The Landau-Lifsitz-Gilbert equation is solved for magnetic parameters at temperatures as the time goes by. It is found that magnetization proceeds as a progressive wave, although this behaviour may not limit the recording speed. The recording bit is expanded by the thermal fluctuation. The expansion can be suppressed as the medium thickness increases, because the thermal fluctuation is small in the thick medium. So the control of the medium thickness is important very much to achieve a high-density heat-assisted recording.

  9. Some technological aspects of combined processing of meat by heat and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, S.Yu.; Nomenotskaya, N.F.; Mozul', M.Ya.

    1974-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of ionizing radiation to prolong the storage life of meat and meat products. Irradiating raw meat with doses of 0.4-0.6 Mrad increased storage life up to two months at low above-zero C temperatures. The difficulty of inhibiting autolytic processes during storage of irradiated raw meat led to searches for combined methods of meat treatment. A series of experiments was staged with pre-irradiation heating of meat up to 75, 77, and 80 0 C in order to see how cathepsin activity is affected by the duration and temperature of heating in the case of combined treatment. To increase the resistance of meat products to microbial damage, tests were carried out in which meat was exposed to short-term but intensive heat by immersing it in hot (130-160 0 C) vegetable oil (frying grease). The results are presented in the form of tables and diagrams. (E.T.)

  10. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2016-01-19

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5

  11. Heat treatment of processing sludge of ornamental rocks: application as pozzolan in cement matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Uliana

    Full Text Available The sector of ornamental rocks produces significant volume of waste during the sawing of the blocks and demand to find ways to recycle, given its environmental impact. Considering the possibilities of use of industrial by-products as mineral admixtures, aiming at sustainable development in the construction industry, this paper aims to study the performance of the processing sludge of ornamental rocks and grinding after heat treatment, based on their potential application as partial substitute for cement. The residue was characterized, cast and milled to produce glassy material. Was analyzed the mechanical performance and pozzolanic activity with partial replacement of cement by waste in natural condition and after heat treatment in mortars for comparison. The results were promising, so it was possible to verify that after heat treatment, the treated waste is presented as a material with pozzolanic characteristics.

  12. Application of a CCA-treated wood waste decontamination process to other copper-based preservative-treated wood after disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janin, Amelie, E-mail: amelie.janin@ete.inrs.ca [University of Toronto, Faculty of Forestry, 33, Willcocks St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3B3 (Canada); Coudert, Lucie, E-mail: lucie.coudert@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Riche, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.riche@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Mercier, Guy, E-mail: guy_mercier@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Cooper, Paul, E-mail: p.cooper@utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Faculty of Forestry, 33, Willcocks St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3B3 (Canada); Blais, Jean-Francois, E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} This paper describes a process for the metal removal from treated (CA-, ACQ- or MCQ-) wood wastes. {yields} This sulfuric acid leaching process is simple and economic. {yields} The remediated wood could be recycled in the industry. - Abstract: Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood was widely used until 2004 for residential and industrial applications. Since 2004, CCA was replaced by alternative copper preservatives such as alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ), for residential applications due to health concerns. Treated wood waste disposal is becoming an issue. Previous studies identified a chemical process for decontaminating CCA-treated wood waste based on sulfuric acid leaching. The potential application of this process to wood treated with the copper-based preservatives (alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ)) is investigated here. Three consecutive leaching steps with 0.1 M sulfuric acid at 75 deg, C for 2 h were successful for all the types of treated wood and achieved more than 98% copper solubilisation. The different acidic leachates produced were successively treated by coagulation using ferric chloride and precipitation (pH = 7) using sodium hydroxide. Between 94 and 99% of copper in leachates could be recovered by electrodeposition after 90 min using 2 A electrical current. Thus, the process previously developed for CCA-treated wood waste decontamination could be efficiently applied for CA-, ACQ- or MCQ-treated wood.

  13. Analysis of an optimal resorption cogeneration using mass and heat recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yiji; Wang, Yaodong; Bao, Huashan; Yuan, Ye; Wang, Liwei; Roskilly, Anthony Paul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Resorption cogeneration for electricity and refrigeration generation. • Mass and heat recovery to further improve the performance. • The first and second law analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimised resorption cogeneration using mass and heat recovery to improve the performance of a novel resorption cogeneration fist proposed by Wang et al. This system combines ammonia-resorption technology and expansion machine into one loop, which is able to generate refrigeration and electricity from low-grade heat sources such as solar energy and industrial waste heat. Two sets of resorption cycle are designed to overcome the intermittent performance of the chemisorption and produce continuous/simultaneous refrigeration and electricity. In this paper, twelve resorption working pairs of salt complex candidates are analysed by the first law analysis using Engineering Equation Solver (EES). The optimal resorption working pairs from the twelve candidates under the driven temperature from 100 °C to 300 °C are identified. By applying heat/mass recovery, the coefficient of performance (COP) improvement is increased by 38% when the high temperature salt (HTS) is NiCl 2 and by 35% when the HTS is MnCl 2 . On the other hand, the energy efficiency of electricity has also been improved from 8% to 12% with the help of heat/mass recovery. The second law analysis has also been applied to investigate the exergy utilisation and identify the key components/processes. The highest second law efficiency is achieved as high as 41% by the resorption working pair BaCl 2 –MnCl 2 under the heat source temperature at 110 °C.

  14. Investigation of heat flux processes governing the increase of groundwater temperatures beneath cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, P.; Menberg, K.; Zhu, K.; Blum, P.

    2012-12-01

    In the subsurface of many cities there are widespread and persistent thermal anomalies. These so-called subsurface urban heat islands (UHIs), which also stimulate warming of urban aquifers, are triggered by various processes. Possible heat sources are basements of buildings, leakage of sewage systems, buried district heating networks, re-injection of cooling water and solar irradiation on paved surfaces. In the current study, the reported groundwater temperatures in several Central European cities, such as Berlin, Cologne (Germany) and Zurich (Switzerland) are compared. Available data sets are supplemented by temperature measurements and depth profiles in observation wells. Trend analyses are conducted with time series of groundwater temperatures, and three-dimensional groundwater temperature maps are provided. In all investigated cities, pronounced positive temperature anomalies are present. The distribution of groundwater temperatures appears to be spatially and temporally highly variable. Apparently, the increased heat input into the urban subsurface is controlled by very local and site-specific parameters. In the long-run, the combination of various heat sources results in an extensive temperature increase. In many cases, the maximum temperature elevation is found close to the city center. Regional groundwater temperature differences between the city center and the rural background are up to 5 °C, with local hot spots of even more pronounced anomalies. Particular heat sources, like cooling water injections or case-specific underground constructions, can cause local temperatures > 20 °C in the subsurface. Examination of the long-term variations in isotherm maps shows that temperatures have increased by about 1 °C in the city, as well as in the rural background areas over the last decades. This increase could be reproduced with trend analysis of temperature data gathered from several groundwater wells. Comparison between groundwater and air temperatures in the

  15. Whole-genome transcriptional analysis of Escherichia coli during heat inactivation processes related to industrial cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernec, A; Robichaud-Rincon, P; Saucier, L

    2013-08-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 was grown to the stationary phase, for maximum physiological resistance, in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at 37°C. Cells were then heated at 58°C or 60°C to reach a process lethality value \\[\\mathbf{\\left(}{{\\mathit{F}}^{\\mathit{o}}}_{\\mathbf{70}}^{\\mathbf{10}}\\mathbf{\\right)} \\] of 2 or 3 or to a core temperature of 71°C (control industrial cooking temperature). Growth recovery and cell membrane integrity were evaluated immediately after heating, and a global transcription analysis was performed using gene expression microarrays. Only cells heated at 58°C with F(o) = 2 were still able to grow on liquid or solid BHI broth after heat treatment. However, their transcriptome did not differ from that of bacteria heated at 58°C with F(o) = 3 (P value for the false discovery rate [P-FDR] > 0.01), where no growth recovery was observed posttreatment. Genome-wide transcriptomic data obtained at 71°C were distinct from those of the other treatments without growth recovery. Quantification of heat shock gene expression by real-time PCR revealed that dnaK and groEL mRNA levels decreased significantly above 60°C to reach levels similar to those of control cells at 37°C (P citE, glyS, oppB, and asd, whose expression was upregulated at 71°C, may be worth investigating as good biomarkers for accurately determining the efficiency of heat treatments, especially when cells are too injured to be enumerated using growth media.

  16. Coal gasification coal by steam using process heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, K.H. van; Juentgen, H.; Peters, W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines the coal gasification process using a high-temperature nuclear reactor as a source of the process heat needed. Compared to conventional gasification processes coal is saved by 30-40%, coal-specific emissions are reduced and better economics of gas production are achieved. The introductory chapter deals with motives, aims and tasks of the development, followed by an explanation of the status of investigations, whereby especially the results of a semi-technical pilot plant operated by Bergbau-Forschung are given. Furthermore, construction details of a full-scale commercial gasifier are discussed, including the development of suitable alloys for the heat exchanger. Moreover problems of safety, licensing and economics of future plants have been investigated. (orig.) [de

  17. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Laurus nobilis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils from Morocco and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity acting alone or in combined processes for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrat, Lamia; Espina, Laura; Bakkali, Mohammed; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael; Laglaoui, Amin

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Laurus nobilis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils (EOs). This is the first report of the synergistic antimicrobial effect of these EOs in combination with physical food preservation treatments. EOs obtained by steam distillation from aerial parts of Laurus nobilis and Myrtus communis were analysed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compounds were 1,8-cineole and 2-carene (L. nobilis EO); and myrtenyl acetate, 1,8-cineole and α-pinene (M. communis EO). L. nobilis EO showed higher antioxidant activity than M. communis EO in three complementary antioxidant tests. Although antimicrobial activity tests demonstrated the effectiveness of L. nobilis EO and the lack of bactericidal effect of M. communis EO, synergistic lethal effects were observed when combining each EO (0.2 µL mL(-1)) with mild heat (54°C for 10 min) or high hydrostatic pressure (175-400 MPa for 20 min). In contrast, combination of EOs with pulsed electric fields (30 kV cm(-1) for 25 pulses) showed no additional effects. This study shows the great potential of these EOs in combined treatments with mild heat and high hydrostatic pressure to obtain a higher inactivation of foodborne pathogens, which might help in the design of safe processes applied at low intensity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Incorporation of radiolabeled whey proteins into casein micelles by heat processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, B.; Richardson, T.

    1989-01-01

    Skim milk was heated at .70, 95, and 140 degree C to simulate the processes of pasteurization, forewarming, and UHT sterilization, and the specific interactions between α-lactalbumin or β-lactoglobulin and the caseins studied using tracer amounts of added 14 C-labeled whey protein. Radioactivities of the whey and of the washed casein pellets from renneted skim milk were measured and the extent of the interaction estimated. Upon heating skim milk at 70 degree C for 45 s, less than 2% β-lactoglobulin and less than .3% α-lactalbumin were incorporated into the curd. Heating at 95 degree C for .5 to 20 min resulted in 58 to 85% of the β-lactoglobulin and 8 to 55% of the α-lactalbumin becoming associated with the curd. Heating at 140 degree C for 2 and 4 s caused 43 and 54% of the β-lactoglobulin and 9 and 12% of the α-lactalbumin, respectively, to be bound to the curd fraction. The radiolabeling technique is very sensitive and useful for tracing low levels of interaction between whey proteins and casein in heated milk systems

  19. Effect of ohmic heating processing conditions on color stability of fungal pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Machado, Diederich; Morales-Oyervides, Lourdes; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Aguilar, Cristóbal; Méndez-Zavala, Alejandro; Raso, Javier; Montañez, Julio

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of ohmic heating processing conditions on the color stability of a red pigment extract produced by Penicillium purpurogenum GH2 suspended in a buffer solution (pH 6) and in a beverage model system (pH 4). Color stability of pigmented extract was evaluated in the range of 60-90 ℃. The degradation pattern of pigments was well described by the first-order (fractional conversion) and Bigelow model. Degradation rate constants ranged between 0.009 and 0.088 min -1 in systems evaluated. Significant differences in the rate constant values of the ohmic heating-treated samples in comparison with conventional thermal treatment suggested a possible effect of the oscillating electric field generated during ohmic heating. The thermodynamic analysis also indicated differences in the color degradation mechanism during ohmic heating specifically when the pigment was suspended in the beverage model system. In general, red pigments produced by P. purpurogenum GH2 presented good thermal stability under the range of the evaluated experimental conditions, showing potential future applications in pasteurized food matrices using ohmic heating treatment.

  20. Quality of mango nectar processed by high-pressure homogenization with optimized heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Franchi, Mark Alexandrow; de Massaguer, Pilar Rodriguez; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2011-03-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) with heat shock on Aspergillus niger, vitamin C, and color of mango nectar. The nectar was processed at 200 MPa followed by heat shock, which was optimized by response surface methodology by using mango nectar ratio (45 to 70), heat time (10 to 20), and temperature (60 to 85 °C) as variables. The color of mango nectar and vitamin C retention were evaluated at the optimized treatments, that is, 200 MPa + 61.5 °C/20 min or 73.5 °C/10 min. The mathematical model indicates that heat shock time and temperature showed a positive effect in the mould inactivation, whereas increasing ratio resulted in a protective effect on A. niger. The optimized treatments did not increase the retention of vitamin C, but had positive effect for the nectar color, in particular for samples treated at 200 MPa + 61.5 °C/20 min. The results obtained in this study show that the conidia can be inactivated by applying HPH with heat shock, particularly to apply HPH as an option to pasteurize fruit nectar for industries.

  1. Modeling studies for multiphase fluid and heat flow processes in nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.

    1988-07-01

    Multiphase fluid and heat flow plays an important role in many problems relating to the disposal of nuclear wastes in geologic media. Examples include boiling and condensation processes near heat-generating wastes, flow of water and formation gas in partially saturated formations, evolution of a free gas phase from waste package corrosion in initially water-saturated environments, and redistribution (dissolution, transport, and precipitation) of rock minerals in non-isothermal flow fields. Such processes may strongly impact upon waste package and repository design considerations and performance. This paper summarizes important physical phenomena occurring in multiphase and nonisothermal flows, as well as techniques for their mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. Illustrative applications are given for a number of specific fluid and heat flow problems, including: thermohydrologic conditions near heat-generating waste packages in the unsaturated zone; repository-wide convection effects in the unsaturated zone; effects of quartz dissolution and precipitation for disposal in the saturated zone; and gas pressurization and flow corrosion of low-level waste packages. 34 refs; 7 figs; 2 tabs

  2. Modeling studies of multiphase fluid and heat flow processes in nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.

    1989-01-01

    Multiphase fluid and heat flow plays an important role in many problems relating to the disposal of nuclear wastes in geologic media. Examples include boiling and condensation processes near heat-generating wastes, flow of water and formation gas in partially saturated formations, evolution of a free gas phase from waste package corrosion in initially water-saturated environments, and redistribution (dissolution, transport and precipitation) of rock minerals in non-isothermal flow fields. Such processes may strongly impact upon waste package and repository design considerations and performance. This paper summarizes important physical phenomena occurring in multiphase and nonisothermal flows, as well as techniques for their mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. Illustrative applications are given for a number of specific fluid and heat flow problems, including: thermohydrologic conditions near heat-generating waste packages in the unsaturated zone; repositorywide convection effects in the unsaturated zone; effects of quartz dissolution and precipitation for disposal in the saturated zone; and gas pressurization and flow effects from corrosion of low-level waste packages

  3. Leaching and heating process as alternative to produce fish protein powder from Kilka (Clupeonella cultiventris caspia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAVEH RAHMANIFARAH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rahmanifarah K, Shabanpour B, Shaviklo AR, Aalami M. 2014. Leaching and heating process as alternative to produce fish protein powder from Kilka (Clupeonella cultiventris caspia. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 1-6. The effect of protein extraction procedures (leached mince and heated suspension on selected properties of fish protein powder (proximate composition, pH, color, density, viscosity, fat adsorption, emulsifying capacity, emulsifying stability, foaming capacity, foaming stability, WBC, protein solubility in water, hygroscopicity, Trichloroacetic acid (TCA-soluble peptides and free sulfhydryl groups was investigated. Results showed that Fish protein powder (FPP produced by leaching mince (LM have higher protein, moisture, ash, pH, L*, viscosity, emulsion capacity, emulsion stability, foam capacity, foam stability, water binding capacity (WBC, protein solubility, hygroscopicity, TCA soluble peptides and free sulfhydryl group content than heated suspension (HS (P0.05. Overall, it was observed that high temperature during heating of suspension in HS method makes possible protein denaturation and aggregation. Consequently, based on functional, chemical and physical properties, extraction of fish protein by leaching process was found to be suitable for the production of fish protein powder.

  4. Probing the heat sources during thermal runaway process by thermal analysis of different battery chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siqi; Wang, Li; Feng, Xuning; He, Xiangming

    2018-02-01

    Safety issue is very important for the lithium ion battery used in electric vehicle or other applications. This paper probes the heat sources in the thermal runaway processes of lithium ion batteries composed of different chemistries using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The adiabatic thermal runaway features for the 4 types of commercial lithium ion batteries are tested using ARC, whereas the reaction characteristics of the component materials, including the cathode, the anode and the separator, inside the 4 types of batteries are measured using DSC. The peaks and valleys of the critical component reactions measured by DSC can match the fluctuations in the temperature rise rate measured by ARC, therefore the relevance between the DSC curves and the ARC curves is utilized to probe the heat source in the thermal runaway process and reveal the thermal runaway mechanisms. The results and analysis indicate that internal short circuit is not the only way to thermal runaway, but can lead to extra electrical heat, which is comparable with the heat released by chemical reactions. The analytical approach of the thermal runaway mechanisms in this paper can guide the safety design of commercial lithium ion batteries.

  5. Calorimetric analysis of heating and cooling process of nodular cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bińczyk F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of investigations of the thermal effects which take place during heating and cooling of samples of the nodular graphite cast iron taken from the stepped test casting of the wall thicknesses amounting to 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm. For investigations, a differential scanning calorimeter, type Multi HTC S60, was used. During heating, three endothermic effects related with pearlite decomposition, phase transformation α → γ, and carbon dissolution in austenite were observed on a DSC diagram. During cooling, two exothermic effects related with phase transformation γ→ α and pearlite formation were observed to consecutively take place on a DSC diagram. The values of the enthalpy of these processes differ and depend on the initial microstructure of the examined samples. The metallic matrix in 5 mm sample after the process of heating and cooling changes totally in favour of ferrite. The same effect, though less advanced in intensity, takes place in 10 mm sample, while in 15 and 20 mm samples the matrix constitution remains unchanged. The higher is the content of ferrite in samples, the stronger is the endothermic effect of the α → γ transformation and the weaker is the endothermic effect related with carbon dissolution in austenite. The total of the endothermic effects (heating is reduced, while that of the exothermic effects (cooling increases along with the increasing thickness of walls in a stepped test casting, from which samples for the investigations were taken.

  6. Modeling of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in the Laser Multilayered Cladding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanrong; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2010-12-01

    The current work examines the heat-and-mass transfer process in the laser multilayered cladding of H13 tool steel powder by numerical modeling and experimental validation. A multiphase transient model is developed to investigate the evolution of the temperature field and flow velocity of the liquid phase in the molten pool. The solid region of the substrate and solidified clad, the liquid region of the melted clad material, and the gas region of the surrounding air are included. In this model, a level-set method is used to track the free surface motion of the molten pool with the powder material feeding and scanning of the laser beam. An enthalpy-porosity approach is applied to deal with the solidification and melting that occurs in the cladding process. Moreover, the laser heat input and heat losses from the forced convection and heat radiation that occurs on the top surface of the deposited layer are incorporated into the source term of the governing equations. The effects of the laser power, scanning speed, and powder-feed rate on the dilution and height of the multilayered clad are investigated based on the numerical model and experimental measurements. The results show that an increase of the laser power and powder feed rate, or a reduction of the scanning speed, can increase the clad height and directly influence the remelted depth of each layer of deposition. The numerical results have a qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements.

  7. Influence of prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment on biologically-active human milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jih-Chin; Chen, Chao-Huei; Fang, Li-Jung; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Wang, Teh-Ming

    2013-12-01

    The bioactive proteins in human milk may be influenced by prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of these procedures. Three forms of human milk - freshly expressed, frozen at -20°C for a prolonged duration, and pasteurized milk - were collected from 14 healthy lactating mothers and a milk bank. The concentrations of major bioactive proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and leptin) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Changes in these proteins by heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C for 30 minutes were further evaluated. The mean concentrations of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A were significantly reduced by 66% and 25.9%, respectively, in pasteurized milk compared with those in freshly-expressed milk. Heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C did not cause significant changes in lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A, but there was an apparent increase in lysozyme (p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in leptin level among these three forms of milk prior to (p = 0.153) or after heat treatment (p = 0.053). Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Optimization of a Gas Switching Combustion process through advanced heat management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloete, Schalk; Zaabout, Abdelghafour; Romano, Matteo C.; Chiesa, Paolo; Lozza, Giovanni; Gallucci, Fausto; Sint Annaland, Martin van; Amini, Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • GSC is a promising new reactor concept for power production with cost effective CO 2 capture. • The standalone fluidized bed reactors employed will allow for easy process scale-up. • The GSC simple configuration achieves higher efficiencies than conventional solutions. • Further increases in efficiency can be achieved via advanced heat management. • The 41.9% maximum efficiency is in line with other CLC–IGCC configurations. - Abstract: Gas Switching Combustion (GSC) is a promising new process concept for energy efficient power production with integrated CO 2 capture. In comparison to conventional Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) carried out in interconnected fluidized beds, the GSC concept will be substantially easier to design and scale up, especially for pressurized conditions. One potential drawback of the GSC concept is the gradual temperature variation over the transient process cycle, which leads to a drop in electric efficiency of the plant. This article investigates heat management strategies to mitigate this issue both through simulations and experiments. Simulation studies of the GSC concept integrated into an IGCC power plant show that heat management using a nitrogen recycle stream can increase plant efficiency by 3 percentage points to 41.6% while maintaining CO 2 capture ratios close to 90%. Reactive multiphase flow simulations of the GSC reactor also showed that heat management can eliminate fuel slip problems. In addition, the GSC concept offers the potential to remove the need for a nitrogen recycle stream by implementing a concentrated air injection that extracts heat while only a small percentage of oxygen reacts. Experiments have shown that, similar to nitrogen recycle, this strategy reduces transient temperature variations across the cycle and therefore merits further investigation.

  9. Comparison of Electromagnetic and Marangoni Forces on Thin Coatings during Rapid Heating Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, T.; Opitz, T.; Rybakov, A.; Baake, E.

    2018-05-01

    The present paper is dedicated to the investigation of Marangoni and Lorentz forces in a rapid heating process. During the melting of aluminum-silicon (AlSi) layer on the bor-manganese steel 22MnB5, the liquid AlSi is shifting from the middle to the side and leaves dry spots on the steel due to a combination of both forces. In order to solve this process design issue, the impact of each force in the process will be evaluated. Evaluation is carried out using experimental data and numerical simulation.

  10. Heat integration options based on pinch and exergy analyses of a thermosolar and heat pump in a fish tinning industrial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quijera, José Antonio; García, Araceli; Alriols, María González; Labidi, Jalel

    2013-01-01

    Thermosolar technology is being inserted gradually in industrial activities. In order to reach high energy efficiency, thermosolar can be linked to heat pump technology, combining more efficient conventional and renewable energy support for processes. Their integration in complex processes can be improved systematically through well established analytical tools, like pinch and exergy analyses. This work presents a methodological procedure for the analysis of different options of heat integration of a solar thermal and heat pump technologies in a tuna fish tinning process. The plant is located in a climatic zone where diffuse irradiation contributes more energy to the process than beam irradiation does. Pinch and exergy analyses are applied in the context of a low and middle temperatures, where the process demands big amounts of hot water and middle pressure steam. In order to recover internal heat, pinch analysis allows to understand the complexity of the heat exchange network of the process and to define thermal tendency objectives for energy optimization. Exergy analysis quantifies the variation that the quality of energy undergoes while it is used in the process according to the different way of integration. Both analytical tools, in combination with economical variables, provide a powerful methodological procedure finding the most favourable heat integration and, by this, they help in the technological decision making and in the design phase. - Highlights: ► Integration of solar thermal energy in batch canning process was assessed. ► Pinch and exergy analyses were used to determine the optimal energy supply configuration. ► Combination of heat pump and solar thermal energy improves the energy efficiency and reduces fossil fuel consumption

  11. The process behind the project 'houses without heating system' in Goeteborg, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). The Tema Inst., Dept. of Technology and Social Change

    2003-07-01

    In the outskirts of Goeteborg, Sweden, twenty terrace houses were constructed throughout 2001. The spectacular thing about these houses is that no traditional heating systems were installed. The commercial's catch phrase is: 'Houses without heating systems'. Following this project from the beginning and through the whole process, including the long planning procedure (between 1997-1999), the professional actors (the initiator, the building proprietor, the contractor and the researchers), come into focus. This is a unique project in Sweden and has not yet had any follow-up developments. The evaluation, mainly including measurements, is being conducted by a research Inst. and will be finalised in 2003. The theoretical approach is as described in socio-technical system and focuses on social and technical components. The point of departure for the study is the social subsystem and the process behind the project which is important in understanding the final outcome. The study focuses on how and why this project was conducted. Initially, one person's ideas, inspired by building projects abroad were crucial. These ideas were then spread to a network constituting of researchers, the building proprietor, the contractor and the builders, and other consultants. The process can be described as a social innovation since a new concept for heating in buildings is introduced by focusing on the planning process and new participating actors.

  12. Sensitivity of Austempering Heat Treatment of Ductile Irons to Changes in Process Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardo, A. D.; Dardati, P. M.; Godoy, L. A.; Celentano, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is frequently obtained by means of a three-step austempering heat treatment. The parameters of this process play a crucial role on the microstructure of the final product. This paper considers the influence of some process parameters (i.e., the initial microstructure of ductile iron and the thermal cycle) on key features of the heat treatment (such as minimum required time for austenitization and austempering and microstructure of the final product). A computational simulation of the austempering heat treatment is reported in this work, which accounts for a coupled thermo-metallurgical behavior in terms of the evolution of temperature at the scale of the part being investigated (the macroscale) and the evolution of phases at the scale of microconstituents (the microscale). The paper focuses on the sensitivity of the process by looking at a sensitivity index and scatter plots. The sensitivity indices are determined by using a technique based on the variance of the output. The results of this study indicate that both the initial microstructure and the thermal cycle parameters play a key role in the production of ADI. This work also provides a guideline to help selecting values of the appropriate process parameters to obtain parts with a required microstructural characteristic.

  13. Solar feasibility study for site-specific industrial-process-heat applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, O.L.

    1980-03-18

    This study addresses the technical feasibility of solar energy in industrial process heat (IPH) applications in Mid-America. The study was one of two contracted efforts covering the MASEC 12-state region comprised of: Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin. The results of our study are encouraging to the potential future role of solar energy in supplying process heat to a varied range of industries and applications. We identified and developed Case Study documentation of twenty feasible solar IPH applications covering eight major SIC groups within the Mid-American region. The geographical distribution of these applications for the existing range of solar insolation levels are shown and the characteristics of the applications are summarized. The results of the study include process identification, analysis of process heat requirements, selection of preliminary solar system characteristics, and estimation of system performance and cost. These are included in each of the 20 Case Studies. The body of the report is divided into two primary discussion sections dealing with the Study Methodology employed in the effort and the Follow-On Potential of the identified applications with regard to possible demonstration projects. The 20 applications are rated with respect to their relative overall viability and procedures are discussed for possible demonstration project embarkment. Also, a possible extension of this present feasibility study for late-comer industrial firms expressing interest appears worthy of consideration.

  14. Sensitivity of Austempering Heat Treatment of Ductile Irons to Changes in Process Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardo, A. D.; Dardati, P. M.; Godoy, L. A.; Celentano, D. J.

    2018-06-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is frequently obtained by means of a three-step austempering heat treatment. The parameters of this process play a crucial role on the microstructure of the final product. This paper considers the influence of some process parameters ( i.e., the initial microstructure of ductile iron and the thermal cycle) on key features of the heat treatment (such as minimum required time for austenitization and austempering and microstructure of the final product). A computational simulation of the austempering heat treatment is reported in this work, which accounts for a coupled thermo-metallurgical behavior in terms of the evolution of temperature at the scale of the part being investigated (the macroscale) and the evolution of phases at the scale of microconstituents (the microscale). The paper focuses on the sensitivity of the process by looking at a sensitivity index and scatter plots. The sensitivity indices are determined by using a technique based on the variance of the output. The results of this study indicate that both the initial microstructure and the thermal cycle parameters play a key role in the production of ADI. This work also provides a guideline to help selecting values of the appropriate process parameters to obtain parts with a required microstructural characteristic.

  15. Development program for the high-temperature nuclear process heat system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiacoletti, R.J.

    1975-09-01

    A comprehensive development program plan for a high-temperature nuclear process heat system with a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor heat source is presented. The system would provide an interim substitute for fossil-fired sources and ultimately the vehicle for the production of substitute and synthetic fuels to replace petroleum and natural gas. The dwindling domestic reserves of petroleum and natural gas dictate major increases in the utilization of coal and nuclear sources to meet the national energy demand. The nuclear process heat system has significant potential in a unique combination of the two sources that is environmentally and economically attractive and technically sound: the production of synthetic fuels from coal. In the longer term, it could be the key component in hydrogen production from water processes that offer a substitute fuel and chemical feedstock free of dependence on fossil-fuel reserves. The proposed development program is threefold: a process studies program, a demonstration plant program, and a supportive research and development program. Optional development scenarios are presented and evaluated, and a selection is proposed and qualified. The interdependence of the three major program elements is examined, but particular emphasis is placed on the supportive research and development activities. A detailed description of proposed activities in the supportive research and development program with tentative costs and schedules is presented as an appendix with an assessment of current status and planning

  16. Dual Rate Adaptive Control for an Industrial Heat Supply Process Using Signal Compensation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Tianyou; Jia, Yao; Wang, Hong; Su, Chun-Yi

    2017-07-09

    The industrial heat supply process (HSP) is a highly nonlinear cascaded process which uses a steam valve opening as its control input, the steam flow-rate as its inner loop output and the supply water temperature as its outer loop output. The relationship between the heat exchange rate and the model parameters, such as steam density, entropy, and fouling correction factor and heat exchange efficiency are unknown and nonlinear. Moreover, these model parameters vary in line with steam pressure, ambient temperature and the residuals caused by the quality variations of the circulation water. When the steam pressure and the ambient temperature are of high values and are subjected to frequent external random disturbances, the supply water temperature and the steam flow-rate would interact with each other and fluctuate a lot. This is also true when the process exhibits unknown characteristic variations of the process dynamics caused by the unexpected changes of the heat exchange residuals. As a result, it is difficult to control the supply water temperature and the rates of changes of steam flow-rate well inside their targeted ranges. In this paper, a novel compensation signal based dual rate adaptive controller is developed by representing the unknown variations of dynamics as unmodeled dynamics. In the proposed controller design, such a compensation signal is constructed and added onto the control signal obtained from the linear deterministic model based feedback control design. Such a compensation signal aims at eliminating the unmodeled dynamics and the rate of changes of the currently sample unmodeled dynamics. A successful industrial application is carried out, where it has been shown that both the supply water temperature and the rate of the changes of the steam flow-rate can be controlled well inside their targeted ranges when the process is subjected to unknown variations of its dynamics.

  17. Development of radiation preservation technique in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongdi; Li Guixiang; Pang Mei

    1990-12-01

    The 60 Co radiation preservation technique which was used to preserve persimmons, green peppers and four varieties of apple was studied. Apples and persimmons were irradiated with 0.1 ∼ 0.7kGy and 0.1 ∼ 1.0kGy respectively, then they were stored under a constant environmental temperature. Green peppers were treated with heat, irradiated with low dose and stored at low temperature. After a certain time of storing, the results showed that the quality of irradiated groups was better than control group, and there was no difference of main nutrient components between the irradiated groups and the control group. Finally, the radiation processing does not cause radioactivity increasing and microelements decreasing in the food

  18. Volatile compounds and changes in flavour-related enzymes during cold storage of high-intensity pulsed electric field- and heat-processed tomato juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2010-08-15

    The effects of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) processing (35 kV cm(-1) for 1500 micros, using 4 micros bipolar pulses at 100 Hz) on the production of volatile compounds and flavour-related enzymes in tomato juice were investigated and compared with those of thermal processing (90 degrees C for 30 or 60 s). Tomato juice treated by HIPEF showed lower residual lipoxygenase (LOX) activity (70.2%) than juice heated at 90 degrees C for 60 s (80.1%) or 30 s (93.2%). In contrast, hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) was almost completely inactivated when the juice was subjected to 90 degrees C for 60 s, whereas roughly 50% of the control tomato juice was depleted after HIPEF treatment or thermal processing at 90 degrees C for 30 s. A slight decrease was observed in the initial LOX activity of treated and untreated samples during storage, whereas initial HPL activity was strongly affected over time. HIPEF-treated juice exhibited higher levels of compounds contributing to tomato aroma than untreated and heat-treated juices throughout storage. Thus HIPEF processing can preserve flavour quality and stability of tomato juice compared with conventional thermal treatments. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebilcox, G. J.; Lundberg, W. L.

    1981-03-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water is sent directly to factory drains and sewer systems without being recycled and in many cases the thermal energy contained by the waste streams also goes unreclaimed and is lost from further use. Waste heat recovery in canning facilities can be performed economically using systems that employ thermal energy storage (TES). A project was proposed in which a demonstration waste heat recovery system, including a TES feature, would be designed, installed and operated.

  20. High temperature corrosion in the service environments of a nuclear process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadakkers, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    In a nuclear process heat plant the heat-exchanging components fabricated from nickel- and Fe-Ni-based alloys are subjected to corrosive service environments at temperatures up to 950 0 C for service lives of up to 140 000 h. In this paper the corrosion behaviour of the high temperature alloys in the different service environments will be described. It is shown that the degree of protection provided by Cr 2 O 3 -based surface oxide scales against carburization and decarburization of the alloys is primarily determined not by the oxidation potential of the atmospheres but by a dynamic process involving, on the one hand, the oxidizing gas species and the metal and, on the other hand, the carbon in the alloy and the oxide scale. (orig.)

  1. The improving of the heat networks operating process under the conditions of the energy efficiency providing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinova Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the priorities it is important to highlight the modernization and improvement of energy efficiency of housing and communal services, as well as the transition to the principle of using the most efficient technologies used in reproduction (construction, creation of objects of municipal infrastructure and housing modernization. The main hypothesis of this study lies in the fact that in modern conditions the realization of the most important priorities of the state policy in the sphere of housing and communal services, is possible in the conditions of use of the most effective control technologies for the reproduction of thermal networks. It is possible to raise the level of information security Heat Distribution Company, and other market participants by improving business processes through the development of organizational and economic mechanism in the conditions of complex monitoring of heat network operation processes

  2. Model experiments on depressurisation accidents in nuclear process heat plants (HTGR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsching, G.; Wolf, G. [Internationale Atomreaktorbau G.m.b.H. (INTERATOM), Bergisch Gladbach (Germany, F.R.)

    1981-01-15

    The analysis of depressurisation accidents requires the use of digital computer programs to find out the dynamic loads acting on the plant structures. Because of the importance of such accidents in safety and licensing procedures of nuclear process heat plants, it is necessary to compare these computer results with suitable experiments to show the accuracy and the limits of the programs in question. For this purpose a series of depressurisation experiments has been started at INTERATOM on a small scale model of a primary loop of a nuclear process heat plant. Using the results of these experiments three different computer programs were tested with good success. The development of the experimental program and the estimation of the results was carried out in co-operation with KFA-Juelich and the Technische Hochschule Aachen.

  3. Skylab and solar exploration. [chromosphere-corona structure, energy production and heat transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the findings concerning solar structure, energy production, and heat transport obtained with the aid of the manned Skylab space station observatory launched on May 14, 1973. Among the topics discussed are the observation of thermonuclear fusion processes which cannot be simulated on earth, the observation of short-wave solar radiation not visible to observers on earth, and the investigation of energy-transport processes occurring in the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. An apparent paradox is noted in that the cooler chromosphere is heating the hotter corona, seemingly in defiance of the second law of thermodynamics, thus suggesting that a nonthermal mechanism underlies the energy transport. Understanding of this nonthermal mechanism is regarded as an indispensable prerequisite for future development of plasma systems for terrestrial applications.

  4. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2016-02-05

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  5. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Ng, Kim Choon; Thuw, Kyaw; Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  6. Model experiments on depressurisation accidents in nuclear process heat plants (HTGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsching, G.; Wolf, G.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of depressurisation accidents requires the use of digital computer programs to find out the dynamic loads acting on the plant structures. Because of the importance of such accidents in safety and licensing procedures of nuclear process heat plants, it is necessary to compare these computer results with suitable experiments to show the accuracy and the limits of the programs in question. For this purpose a series of depressurisation experiments has been started at INTERATOM on a small scale model of a primary loop of a nuclear process heat plant. Using the results of these experiments three different computer programs were tested with good success. The development of the experimental program and the estimation of the results was carried out in co-operation with KFA-Juelich and the Technische Hochschule Aachen

  7. Initial Investigation into the Potential of CSP Industrial Process Heat for the Southwest United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    After significant interest in the 1970s, but relatively few deployments, the use of solar technologies for thermal applications, including enhanced oil recovery (EOR), desalination, and industrial process heat (IPH), is again receiving global interest. In particular, the European Union (EU) has been a leader in the use, development, deployment, and tracking of Solar Industrial Process Heat (SIPH) plants. The objective of this study is to ascertain U.S. market potential of IPH for concentrating collector technologies that have been developed and promoted through the U.S. Department of Energy's Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program. For this study, the solar-thermal collector technologies of interest are parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) and linear Fresnel (LF) systems.

  8. Process and device for determining the effect of river water heating by waste heat on its temperature characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietzsch, L.; Kauer, H.; Lautersack, K.

    1979-01-01

    It is proposed to use measurements for determining the effect of heating river water by introducing waste heat from industrial plants or power-stations, instead of deriving the effect from calculations. A suitable method of measurement is proposed and discussed. (UWI) 891 HP/UWI 892 CKA [de

  9. Intelligent Integration between Human Simulated Intelligence and Expert Control Technology for the Combustion Process of Gas Heating Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to being poor in control quality of the combustion process of gas heating furnace, this paper explored a sort of strong robust control algorithm in order to improve the control quality of the combustion process of gas heating furnace. The paper analyzed the control puzzle in the complex combustion process of gas heating furnace, summarized the cybernetics characteristic of the complex combustion process, researched into control strategy of the uncertainty complex control process, discussed the control model of the complex process, presented a sort of intelligent integration between human-simulated intelligence and expert control technology, and constructed the control algorithm for the combustion process controlling of gas heating furnace. The simulation results showed that the control algorithm proposed in the paper is not only better in dynamic and steady quality of the combustion process, but also obvious in energy saving effect, feasible, and effective in control strategy.

  10. Effects of heat stress on dynamic absorption process, tissue distribution and utilization efficiency of vitamin C in broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guohua; Chen Guosheng; Cai Huiyi

    1998-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of heat stress on ascorbic acid nutritional physiology of broilers with radioisotope technology. 3 H-Vc was fed to broilers and then the blood, liver, kidney, breast muscle, and excreta were sampled to determine the dynamic absorption process, the tissue distribution and the utilization efficiency of vitamin C. The results indicated that the absorption, metabolism and mobilization of supplemented vitamin C in broilers with heat stress was faster than that in broilers without heat stress. However, the utilization efficiency of supplemented vitamin C in broilers with heat stress was not higher than that of broilers without heat stress

  11. Core-adjacent instrumentation systems for pebble bed reactors for process heat application - state of planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benninghofen, G.; Serafin, N.; Spillekothen, H.G.; Hecker, R.; Brixy, H.; Serpekian, T.

    1982-06-01

    Planning and theoretical/experimental development work for core surveillance instrumentation systems is being performed to meet requirements of pebble bed reactors for process heat application. Detailed and proved instrumentation concepts are now available for the core-adjacent instrumentation systems. The current work and the results of neutron flux measurements at high temperatures are described. Operation devices for long-term accurate gas outlet temperature measurements up to approximately 1423 deg. K will also be discussed. (author)

  12. Solar-Biomass hybrid system for process heat supply in medium scale hotels in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Abeywardana, Asela M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating and demonstrating the feasibility of using Concentrated Solar Thermal technology combined with biomass energy technology as a hybrid renewable energy system to supply the process heat requirements in small scale industries in Sri Lanka. Particularly, the focus was to apply the concept to the expanding hotel industry, for covering the thermal energy demand of a medium scale hotel. Solar modules utilize the rooftop area of the building to a valuable application. L...

  13. Mathematical Model for Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Processes in Plate Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvete B. Dimitrieska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the analytical solution of the system of equations which solve fluid flow and heat transfer processes, the elliptical and parabolic differential equations based on initial and boundary conditions is usually unfamiliar in a closed form. Numerical solution of equation system is necessarily obtained by discretization of equations. When system of equations relate to estimation of two dimensional stationary problems, the applicable method for estimation in basic two – dimensional form is recommended.

  14. Heat-processed ginseng saponin ameliorates the adenine-induced renal failure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Jin; Oh, Hyun-A; Choi, Hyuck Jai; Park, Jeong Hill; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Nam Jae

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the saponin of heat-processed ginseng (Sun ginseng, SG), we investigated the protective effect of SG total saponin fraction against adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. SG saponin significantly decreased the levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in the serum, but increased the urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine, indicating an improvement of renal function. SG saponin also inhibited adenine-induced kidney hypertrophy and edema. SG saponin red...

  15. Mode-conversion process and overdense-plasma heating in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, S.; Abe, H.

    1988-01-01

    Through a particle-simulation investigation, a new mode-conversion process, through which an incident fast extraordinary mode (fast X mode) is converted into an electron Bernstein mode (B mode) via a (slow extraordinary mode slow X mode), is discovered in plasmas whose maximum density exceeds the cutoff density of the slow X mode. The converted B mode is found to heat the electrons efficiently in an overdense plasma region, when the plasma has the optimum density gradient at the plasma surface

  16. Heat-radiation combination for control of mold infection in harvested fruits and processed cereal foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawdal-Desai, S.R.; Ghanekar, A.S.; Thomas, P.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1973-01-01

    A combination of mild heat and low dose irradiation was found to extend the shelf-life of fresh fruits and processed cereal foods by controlling mold infection. Chapaties (Indian unleavened bread) and bread slices packed in polycell pouches, subjected to 50 krad followed by dry heat (65 0 C) were free from mold and shelf-stable for 10 weeks at ambient temperature (28-32 0 C). Inoculated pack studies confirmed the efficiency of the treatment. No immediate changes in organoleptic attributes were discernible even after exposure to 100 krad. The quality deterioration in sliced bread stored for 2 1/2 months has been attributed to natural staling rather than radiation. Hot water dip (50 0 C for 5 min) followed by 150 krad irradiation extended the shelf-life of fresh figs by 3-4 days at 28-32 0 C and 8-10 days at 15 0 C. Regardless of the sequence of treatments, combination of heat and 100 krad extended the shelf-life of grapes both at ambinet and refrigerated storage. In mangoes, heat followed by 50 krad was effective in controlling anthracnose and stem-end rot whereas in bananas irradiated for delayed ripening, hot water treatment can be used as a supplementary process to control stem-end rot. Quality of combination treated fruits was comparable to normally ripened fruits. In vitro studies with fungal pathogens isolated from the above fruits and cereal foods revealed that the synergistic effect of heat-radiation combination depends on the sequence of treatments which varied with respect to different pathogens studied. Some biochemical aspects of combination treated fruits is discussed. (F.J.)

  17. Foodstuffs preservation by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains all the papers presented at the meeting on foodstuffs preservation by ionization. These papers deal especially with the food ionization process, its development and the view of the food industry on ionization. Refs and figs (F.M.)

  18. Preserving food with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.C

    1978-01-01

    Food irradiation is becoming an increasingly more important method of food preservataion. The irradiation process and its advangages are briefly described, and its use in the preservation of poultry and various kinds of fruits is discussed. Fruit export is hampered by restrictions due to infestation. Radiation disinfestation will therefore be of great advantage and may lead to a growth in export markets

  19. Influence of the heat losses and accumulated heat upon the evolution of the thermohydraulic processes in the transients as applied to the ISB-WWER integral test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gashenko, I.V.; Melikhov, O.I.; Shmal, I.I.; Kouznetsov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    The results of the calculational study using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 thermalhydraulic code performed on the influence of the heat losses to the ambient and the heat accumulated in the pipelines walls upon the evolution of the thermalhydraulic processes in the primary circuit of the integral test facility ISB-WWER when simulating the transients caused by the loss of the coolant are presented in the paper. (authors)

  20. Complete FDTD analysis of microwave heating processes in frequency-dependent and temperature dependent media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, F.; Jecko, B. [Univ. de Limoges (France). Inst. de Recherche en Communications Optiques et Microondes

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that the temperature rise in a material modifies its physical properties and, particularly, its dielectric permittivity. The dissipated electromagnetic power involved in microwave heating processes depending on {var_epsilon}({omega}), the electrical characteristics of the heated media must vary with the temperature to achieve realistic simulations. In this paper, the authors present a fast and accurate algorithm allowing, through a combined electromagnetic and thermal procedure, to take into account the influence of the temperature on the electrical properties of materials. First, the temperature dependence of the complex permittivity ruled by a Debye relaxation equation is investigated, and a realistic model is proposed and validated. Then, a frequency-dependent finite-differences time-domain ((FD){sup 2}TD) method is used to assess the instantaneous electromagnetic power lost by dielectric hysteresis. Within the same iteration, a time-scaled form of the heat transfer equation allows one to calculate the temperature distribution in the heated medium and then to correct the dielectric properties of the material using the proposed model. These new characteristics will be taken into account by the EM solver at the next iteration. This combined algorithm allows a significant reduction of computation time. An application to a microwave oven is proposed.