WorldWideScience

Sample records for heat load protection

  1. Analytical study of the heat loss attenuation by clothing on thermal manikins under radiative heat loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, E.A. den; Havenith, G.

    2010-01-01

    For wearers of protective clothing in radiation environments there are no quantitative guidelines available for the effect of a radiative heat load on heat exchange. Under the European Union funded project ThermProtect an analytical effort was defined to address the issue of radiative heat load

  2. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... load calculations. 3280.508 Section 3280.508 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of the...

  3. Beam heat load in superconducting wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Casalbuoni, S.

    2013-04-22

    The beam heat load is a fundamental input parameter for the design of superconducting wigglers since it is needed to specify the cooling power. In this presentation I will review the possible beam heat load sources and the measurements of beam heat load performed and planned onto the cold vacuum chambers installed at different synchrotron light sources.

  4. APS high heat load monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  5. Protect Yourself from Heat Stress

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-19

    Heat stress can be a major concern for indoor and outdoor workers, especially during the hot summer months. Learn how to identify the symptoms and protect yourself from heat stress.  Created: 7/19/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 7/19/2016.

  6. Load Management in District Heating Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Wang, Stephen Jia

    2015-01-01

    Smooth operation of district heating system will avoid installation of expensive peak heat boilers, improve plant partial load performance, increase the system redundancy for further network expansion and improve its resilience to ensure security of supply during severe heating seasons. The peak...

  7. Heat loads in hypersonic vehicle design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschel, E.H. [Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Heat loads are the major issue in high-speed vehicle design. Heat loads prediction capabilities need to be improved with regard to the materials and structure concept, and the aerodynamic and propulsion performance. Surface radiation cooling is the basic means to reduce heat loads on high-speed vehicles. Strong couplings can exist with the aerodynamic performance of vehicles, the structure and materials design, and flow-physics and thermochemical phenomena. Qualitative knowledge is available to interpret (computation) results and flight data, and to give the designer insight into related disciplinary and interdisciplinary vehicle design problems. Flow-physics and thermo-chemical models in prediction tools are inadequate. Heat loads and the related surface-temperature effects pose very important and challenging research and development problems. (orig.)

  8. Heat-load simulator for heat sink design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, A. M.; Vaughn, T. J.

    1968-01-01

    Heat-load simulator is fabricated from 1/4-inch aluminum plate with a contact surface equal in dimensions and configuration to those of the electronic installation. The method controls thermal output to simulate actual electronic component thermal output.

  9. Heat Load Estimator for Smoothing Pulsed Heat Loads on Supercritical Helium Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, C.; Lagier, B.; Rousset, B.; Bonnay, P.; Michel, F.

    Superconducting magnets for fusion are subjected to large variations of heat loads due to cycling operation of tokamaks. The cryogenic system shall operate smoothly to extract the pulsed heat loads by circulating supercritical helium into the coils and structures. However the value of the total heat loads and its temporal variation are not known before the plasma scenario starts. A real-time heat load estimator is of interest for the process control of the cryogenic system in order to anticipate the arrival of pulsed heat loads to the refrigerator and finally to optimize the operation of the cryogenic system. The large variation of the thermal loads affects the physical parameters of the supercritical helium loop (pressure, temperature, mass flow) so those signals can be used for calculating instantaneously the loads deposited into the loop. The methodology and algorithm are addressed in the article for estimating the heat load deposition before it reaches the refrigerator. The CEA patented process control has been implemented in a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and has been successfully validated on the HELIOS test facility at CEA Grenoble. This heat load estimator is complementary to pulsed load smoothing strategies providing an estimation of the optimized refrigeration power. It can also effectively improve the process control during the transient between different operating modes by adjusting the refrigeration power to the need. This way, the heat load estimator participates to the safe operation of the cryogenic system.

  10. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Odukomaiya, Adewale [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  11. Protect Your Heart in the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More Protect Your Heart in the Heat Updated:Jul 5,2017 Whatever brings you outside — ... might need to take special precautions in the heat, according to Gerald Fletcher, M.D., professor of ...

  12. High heat load test of molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, T. (Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan)); Fujine, M.; Noguchi, H. (Daido Steel Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)); Yagi, Y.; Hirano, Y.; Shimizu, H. (Electrotechnical Lab., Umezono, Tsukuba (Japan)); Akiba, M.; Araki, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)); Kubota, Y.; Miyahara, A. (National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-03-01

    Three different types of molybdenum, powder metallurgical polycrystalline (PM-Mo), and as-forged polycrystalline and single crystalline of highly purified electron-beam-melted Mo (AFEB-Mo and SCEB-Mo), have been subjected to high heat load test with neutral beam injection (NBI) stands at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). These materials have also been tested as a movable limiter in a reversed field pinch machine (RFP:TPE-1RM15) in Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL). The results are summarized as follows. The SCEB-Mo shows the least damage with slight local melting after a very high heat load of 260 MW/m[sup 2] for 250 ms with NBI, while for the PM-Mo the whole irradiated area melt with many craters due to impurity gas evaporation under less heat load (200 ms). All movable limiter heads of the RFP are severely damaged with partial melting. The appearance of the SCEB-Mo limiter after melting is not good and shows the crystalline cleavage. However, SEM observation of the microstructure opposes the surface appearance. In the SCEB-Mo, appreciable recrystallization is not observed and hence no crack is seen to go into the bulk except the crystalline cleavage. In the PM-Mo, on the other hand, the resolidification to columnar grains as well as the recrystallization is apparent, and the cracks not only go along the columnar grains but also separate the recrystallized region from the matrix. In the AFEB-Mo, a slight grain growth occurs and several cracks enter deep along the grain boundaries. Thus the SCEB-Mo is a very nice plasma-facing material if used under the critical heat load for melting. (orig.).

  13. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  14. Covering of heating load of object by using ground heat as a renewable energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čenejac Aleksandra R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational use of energy, improving energy performance of buildings and use of renewable energy sources are the most important measures for reducing consumption of non-renewable primary energy (solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, environmental protection and for the future sustainable development of mankind. In the total primary energy consumption great part is related to building industry, for heating spaces in which people stay and live. Renewable energy sources (RES present natural resources and they are one of the alternatives that allow obtaining heat for heating buildings, and by that they provide a significant contribution to the energy balance of a country. This paper analyzes the participation of ground source as RES, when the vertical (the probe in the ground and horizontal (registry in the ground heat exchangers are used for covering heating load of the building.

  15. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Super-insulated homes offer many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. During the winter of 2013/2014, CARB monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for super insulated homes.

  16. STUDY ON HEAT DYNAMIC LOADING OF RUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Igumenova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies on heat buildup in tire rubber surface scan method samples using a thermal imaging camera. Investigated the exothermic chemical reaction mechanical destruction rubber when loading designs permanent cyclic stretching with deformation of the working zone 50%. Percentage of deformation of the working zone was chosen on the basis of the actual data on the stretch-compression zone "Rusk" tires, which is the maximum level difference of deformation during run-in. Experiment plan provided for periodic relaxation samples of at least 72 hours for more accurate simulation of operation process of structural products. Created and processed data on temperature changes in samples for bar and line profile for rubber compounds with the introduction of nanomodifiers (fulleren technical carbon in comparison with the control sample without him. The data obtained reflect the nature of heat depending on the composition of the compound. Identified common patterns of thermal nature of physico-chemical process mechanical destruction rubbers. For rubber with nanomodifikatorom there has been an increase in the temperature interval reaction from a minimum to a maximum 2 degrees that is also linked to the rise in the average temperature of the reaction on the histogram also at 2-3 degrees of deformation under the same conditions and the level of cyclic loading. However, the temperature in the control sample that is associated with the beginning of the formation of hardened rubber structures, economies of Mallinz-Petrikeev, occurs with delay twice compared with modified Fullerenes. Measurement of physic-mechanical indicators selected in the course of testing of samples showed the beginning of formation of structure with increased strength of samples in the sample temperature zone that corresponds to the thermal effect of èndotermičeskomu recombination reactions of macromolecules.

  17. Heat stress protection in abnormally hot environments.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available operational protocol for emergency work where environmental heat loads exceed the upper limits for routine work. In this respect ‘routine work’ includes all practices and procedures specifically covered by COMRO User Guide no 22 of 1991....

  18. Static Heat Loads in the LHC Arc Cryostats: Final Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Parma, V

    2010-01-01

    This note presents the final assessment of the static heat loads in the LHC arc cryostats, using different experimental methods during the first commissioning period in 2007. This assessment further develops and completes previous estimates made during the commissioning of sector 7_8 [1]. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the internal energy balance during natural as well as powered warm-ups of the helium baths in different subsector. The helium inventory is calculated from the internal energy balance during powered warm-ups and matched with previous assessments. Furthermore, heat loads to the thermal shield are estimated from the non-isothermal cooling of the supercritical helium in line E. The comparison of measured heat loads with previous estimates and with budgeted values is then presented, while their correlation with some important parameters like insulation vacuum pressure and some heat ...

  19. Short-term heat load forecasting for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for forecasting the load for space heating in a single-family house. The forecasting model is built using data from sixteen houses located in Sønderborg, Denmark, combined with local climate measurements and weather forecasts. Every hour the hourly heat load for each...... and uncertainty of the weather forecasts for longer horizons, especially for solar radiation....

  20. Using a Cold Radiometer to Measure Heat Loads and Survey Heat Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  1. Load Prediction in District Heating Systems; Lastprognoser foer fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvarnstroem, Johan; Dotzauer, Erik; Gollvik, Lena; Andersson, Cari

    2007-12-15

    To produce heat and power is costly. Therefore it is important for the district heating companies to plan and optimize the production. The principal procedure is to first construct a prediction of the heat demand, and then, given the demand prediction, plan the production. Due to the complexity of the problem, the need for mathematical models is obvious. The common way to predict the heat demand is to use one single load curve for the whole district heating network. This has obvious drawbacks. With only one curve it is difficult to consider e.g. restrictions in distribution capacity and the dynamics in the network. The standard approach is also to base the predictions on delivered heat from the production plants. During the last few years it has become more common to measure the load directly at the consumer sites. This gives new opportunities for the construction of load predictions. Another type of information that is not exploited today is the fact that the consumption patterns differ for different categories of consumers. For example, the load profiles for a residential house and an office diverge. An alternative approach is then to consider this in the load prediction algorithm. The aim with current project is to investigate alternative methods for prediction of district heating demand. Focus is on how to exploit measurements from the consumer sites. Also the possibility to make predictions using physical models is discussed. Numerical results based on data from the district heating systems in Stockholm owned by Fortum are presented

  2. Cooling Load Estimation in the Building Based On Heat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairani; Sulistyo, S.; Widyawan

    2017-05-01

    Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the largest source of energy consumption. In this research, we discuss cooling load in the room by considering the different heat source and the number of occupancy. Energy cooling load is affected by external and internal heat sources. External cooling load in this discussion include convection outdoor/exterior using the DOE-2 algorithm, calculation of heat using Thermal Analysis Research Program (TARP), and Conduction Transfer Function (CTF). The internal cooling load is calculated based on the activity of the occupants in the office, a number of occupants, heat gain from lighting, and heat gain from electrics equipment. Weather data used is Surakarta weather and design day used is Jakarta design day. We use the ASHRAE standard for building materials and the metabolic of occupants while on the activity. The results show that the number of occupancies have an influence of cooling load. A large number of occupancy will cause the cooling load is great as well.

  3. Interaction of adhered metallic dust with transient plasma heat loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratynskaia, S.; Tolias, P.; I. Bykov,; Rudakov, D.; de Angeli, M.; Vignitchouk, L.; Ripamonti, D.; Riva, G.; Bardin, S.; van der Meiden, H.; Vernimmen, J.; Bystrov, K.; De Temmerman, G.

    2016-01-01

    The first study of the interaction of metallic dust (tungsten, aluminum) adhered on tungsten substrates with transient plasma heat loads is presented. Experiments were carried out in the Pilot-PSI linear device with transient heat fluxes up to 550 MW m −2 and in the DIII-D divertor tokamak. The

  4. Fuel rod crud deposition: effects of heat load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Facundo

    1999-05-15

    Anomalous diameter changes have been observed on the fuel rods of the in-pile test assembly IFA-585. These diameter changes are described in the HWR-407 [1], where it is suggested that crud deposition is their cause. The present report continues the study of the causes of crud deposition on the fuel rods, by analysing its dependence with the heat load. It is observed that crud deposition is less favoured on the cladding at axial positions of pellet-pellet interfaces, and that this is directly correlated with the fact that heat flux is lower at pellet-pellet interfaces. A finite element model is built to analyse the heat flux on the cladding at the surroundings of pellet-pellet interfaces. Also, an empirical formula is derived for the dependence of crud deposition rate with heat loading, taking into account the differences in heat flux on the surroundings of pellet-pellet interfaces (author) (ml)

  5. Startup analysis for a high temperature gas loaded heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockol, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    A model for the rapid startup of a high-temperature gas-loaded heat pipe is presented. A two-dimensional diffusion analysis is used to determine the rate of energy transport by the vapor between the hot and cold zones of the pipe. The vapor transport rate is then incorporated in a simple thermal model of the startup of a radiation-cooled heat pipe. Numerical results for an argon-lithium system show that radial diffusion to the cold wall can produce large vapor flow rates during a rapid startup. The results also show that startup is not initiated until the vapor pressure p sub v in the hot zone reaches a precise value proportional to the initial gas pressure p sub i. Through proper choice of p sub i, startup can be delayed until p sub v is large enough to support a heat-transfer rate sufficient to overcome a thermal load on the heat pipe.

  6. Particle loading rates for HVAC filters, heat exchangers, and ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, M S; Siegel, J A

    2008-06-01

    The rate at which airborne particulate matter deposits onto heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components is important from both indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy perspectives. This modeling study predicts size-resolved particle mass loading rates for residential and commercial filters, heat exchangers (i.e. coils), and supply and return ducts. A parametric analysis evaluated the impact of different outdoor particle distributions, indoor emission sources, HVAC airflows, filtration efficiencies, coils, and duct system complexities. The median predicted residential and commercial loading rates were 2.97 and 130 g/m(2) month for the filter loading rates, 0.756 and 4.35 g/m(2) month for the coil loading rates, 0.0051 and 1.00 g/month for the supply duct loading rates, and 0.262 g/month for the commercial return duct loading rates. Loading rates are more dependent on outdoor particle distributions, indoor sources, HVAC operation strategy, and filtration than other considered parameters. The results presented herein, once validated, can be used to estimate filter changing and coil cleaning schedules, energy implications of filter and coil loading, and IAQ impacts associated with deposited particles. The results in this paper suggest important factors that lead to particle deposition on HVAC components in residential and commercial buildings. This knowledge informs the development and comparison of control strategies to limit particle deposition. The predicted mass loading rates allow for the assessment of pressure drop and indoor air quality consequences that result from particle mass loading onto HVAC system components.

  7. Transient characteristics of a grooved water heat pipe with variable heat load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jong Hoon

    1990-01-01

    The transient characteristics of a grooved water heat pipe were studied by using variable heat load. First, the effects of the property variations of the working fluid with temperature were investigated by operating the water heat pipe at several different temperatures. The experimental results show that, even for the same heat input profile and heat pipe configuration, the heat pipe transports more heat at higher temperature within the tested temperature range. Adequate liquid return to the evaporator due to decreasing viscosity of the working fluid permits continuous vaporization of water without dry-out. Second, rewetting of the evaporator was studied after the evaporator had experienced dry-out. To rewet the evaporator, the elevation of the condenser end was the most effective way. Without elevating the condenser end, rewetting is not straight-forward even with power turned off unless the heat pipe is kept at isothermal condition for sufficiently long time.

  8. Cellular level loading and heating of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalambur, Venkat S; Longmire, Ellen K; Bischof, John C

    2007-11-20

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) hold promise for a variety of biomedical applications due to their properties of visualization using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), heating with radio frequency (rf), and movement in an external magnetic field. In this study, the cellular loading (uptake) mechanism of dextran- and surfactant-coated iron oxide NPs by malignant prostate tumor cells (LNCaP-Pro5) has been studied, and the feasibility of traditional rf treatment and a new laser heating method was evaluated. The kinetics of cell loading was quantified using magnetophoresis and a colorimetric assay. The results showed that loading of surfactant-coated iron oxide NPs with LNCaP-Pro5 was saturable with time (at 24 h) and extracellular concentration (11 pg Fe/cell at 0.5 mg Fe/mL), indicating that the particles are taken up by an "adsorptive endocytosis" pathway. Dextran-coated NPs, however, were taken up less efficiently (1 pg Fe/cell at 0.5 mg Fe/mL). Loading did not saturate with concentration suggesting uptake by fluid-phase endocytosis. Magnetophoresis suggests that NP-loaded cells can be held using external magnetic fields in microcirculatory flow velocities in vivo or in an appropriately designed extracorporeal circuit. Loaded cells were heated using traditional rf (260A, 357 kHz) and a new laser method (532 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 0.03 J/pulse, 20 pulse/s). Iron oxide in water was found to absorb sufficiently strongly at 532 nm such that heating of individual NPs and thus loaded cells (1 pg Fe/cell) was effective (10 pg Fe/cell) and longer duration (30 min) when compared to laser to accomplish cell destruction (50% viability at 10 pg Fe/cell). Scaling calculations show that the pulsed laser method can lead to single-cell (loaded with NPs) treatments (200 degrees C temperature change at the surface of an individual NP) unlike traditional rf heating methods which can be used only for bulk tissue level treatments. In a mixture of normal and NP-loaded

  9. Increased use of district heating in industrial processes - Impacts on heat load duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difs, Kristina; Danestig, Maria; Trygg, Louise [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    Current knowledge of the potential for an increased use of industrial district heating (DH) due to conversions of industrial processes to DH is limited. In this paper, a Method for Heat Load Analysis (MeHLA) for exploring industrial DH conversions has been developed. This method can be a helpful tool for analyzing the impact different industrial processes have on the local DH system, when processes that utilize electricity and other fuels, convert to utilizing DH. Heat loads for different types of industries and processes are analyzed according to characteristics such as temperature levels and time-dependency. MeHLA has been used to analyze 34 Swedish industries and the method demonstrates how conversion of industrial processes to DH can result in heat load duration curves that are less outdoor temperature-dependent and more evenly distributed over the year. An evenly distributed heat load curve can result in increased annual operating time for base load DH plants such as cogeneration plants, leading to increased electricity generation. In addition to the positive effects for the DH load duration curve, the conversions to DH can also lead to an 11% reduction in the use of electricity, a 40% reduction in the use of fossil fuels and a total energy end-use saving of 6% in the studied industries. Converting the industrial processes to DH will also lead to a potential reduction of the global carbon dioxide emissions by 112,000 tonnes per year. (author)

  10. Heat stress in chemical protective clothing: Porosity and vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Hartog, E.A. den; Martini, S.

    2011-01-01

    Heat strain in chemical protective clothing is an important factor in industrial and military practice. Various improvements to the clothing to alleviate strain while maintaining protection have been attempted. More recently, selectively permeable membranes have been introduced to improve

  11. Dynamic Loading of Carrara Marble in a Heated State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen; Li, Zhihuan; Kang, Hyeong Min; Teh, Cee Ing

    2017-06-01

    Useable land is a finite space, and with a growing global population, countries have been exploring the use of underground space as a strategic resource to sustain the growth of their society and economy. However, the effects of impact loading on rocks that have been heated, and hence the integrity of the underground structure, are still not fully understood and has not been included in current design standards. Such scenarios include traffic accidents and explosions during an underground fire. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the dynamic load capacity of Carrara marble at elevated temperatures. Dynamic uniaxial compression tests are performed on Carrara marble held at various temperatures using a split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) setup with varying input force. A customized oven is included in the SHPB setup to allow for testing of the marble specimens in a heated state. After the loading test, a three-wave analysis is performed to obtain the dynamic stress-strain curve of the specimen under loading. The fragments of the failed specimens were also collected and dry-sieved to obtain the particle size distribution. The results reveal that the peak stress of specimens that have been heated is negatively correlated with the heating temperature. However, the energy absorbed by the specimens at peak stress at all temperatures is similar, indicating that a significant amount of energy is dissipated via plastic deformation. Generally, fragment size is also found to show a negative correlation with heating temperature and loading pressure. However, in some cases this relationship does not hold true, probably due to the occurrence of stress shadowing. Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics has been found to be generally applicable to specimens tested at low temperatures; but at higher temperatures, Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics will give a more accurate prediction. Another contribution of this study is to show that other than the peak stress of the

  12. Beam heat load investigations with a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics in a synchrotron light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutta, Robert

    2016-04-22

    The beam heat load is a crucial input parameter for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices. To understand the discrepancies between the predicted heat load of an electron beam to a cold bore and the heat load observed in superconducting devices, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics has been built. Extensive beam heat load measurements were performed at the Diamond light source. They are analysed systematically and combined with complementary impedance bench measurements.

  13. Workshop on high heat load x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop on High Heat Load X-Ray Optics'' was held at Argonne National Laboratory on August 3--5, 1989. The object of this workshop was to discuss recent advances in the art of cooling x-ray optics subject to high heat loads from synchrotron beams. The cooling of the first optical element in the intense photon beams that will be produced in the next generation of synchrotron sources is recognized as one of the major challenges that must be faced before one will be able to use these very intense beams in future synchrotron experiments. Considerable advances have been made in this art during the last few years, but much work remains to be done before the heating problem can be said to be completely solved. Special emphasis was placed on recent cooling experiments and detailed finite element'' and finite difference'' calculations comparing experiment with theory and extending theory to optimize performance.

  14. Series load induction heating inverter state estimator using Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelitzky T.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available LQR and H2 controllers require access to the states of the controlled system. The method based on description function with Fourier series results in a model with immeasurable states. For this reason, we proposed a Kalman filter based state estimator, which not only filters the input signals, but also computes the unobservable states of the system. The algorithm of the filter was implemented in LabVIEW v8.6 and tested on recorded data obtained from a 10-40 kHz series load frequency controlled induction heating inverter.

  15. The predictive protective control of the heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevriva, Pavel; Filipova, Blanka; Vilimec, Ladislav

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the predictive control applied to flexible cogeneration energy system FES. FES was designed and developed by the VITKOVICE POWER ENGINEERING joint-stock company and represents a new solution of decentralized cogeneration energy sources. In FES, the heating medium is flue gas generated by combustion of a solid fuel. The heated medium is power gas, which is a gas mixture of air and water steam. Power gas is superheated in the main heat exchanger and led to gas turbines. To protect the main heat exchanger against damage by overheating, the novel predictive protective control based on the mathematical model of exchanger was developed. The paper describes the principle, the design and the simulation of the predictive protective method applied to main heat exchanger of FES.

  16. Heat strain in personal protective clothing: Challenges and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to

  17. Heat strain in protective clothing - challenges and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Kiekens, P.; Jayaraman, S.

    2012-01-01

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to

  18. Adaptive Voltage Stability Protection Based on Load Identification Using Phasor Measurement Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Bak, Claus Leth; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    with respect to load characteristics was evaluated. Based on different load characteristics, different control and protection schemes were implemented, i.e. shunt capacitor connection, on-load tap changer blocking and load shedding. The results showed that load-based adaptive voltage control and protection...

  19. Simulating tokamak PFC performance using simultaneous dual beam particle loading with pulsed heat loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Gregory; Gonderman, Sean; Tripathi, Jitendra; Ray, Tyler; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    The performance of plasma facing components (PFCs) in a fusion device are expected to change due to high flux particle loading during operation. Tungsten (W) is a promising PFC candidate material, due to its high melting point, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium retention. However, ion irradiation of D and He have each shown to diminish the thermal strength of W. This work investigates the synergistic effect between ion species, using dual beam irradiation, on the thermal response of W during ELM-like pulsed heat loading. Experiments studied three different loading conditions: laser, laser + He+, and laser + He+ + D+. 100 eV He+ and D+ exposures used a flux of 3.0-3.5 x 1020 m-2 s-1. ELM-like loading was applied using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at an energy density of 0.38-1.51 MJ m-2 (3600 1 ms pulses at 1 Hz). SEM imaging revealed that laser + He+ loading at 0.76 MJ m-2 caused surface melting, inhibiting fuzz formation. Increasing the laser fluence decreased grain size and increased surface pore density. Thermally-enhanced migration of trapped gases appear to reflect resultant molten morphology. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation PIRE project.

  20. Protective effect of measured physical oxidative stress load spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Galimova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The immobilization stress is accompanied by disturbances of quantitative and qualitative ejaculate characteristics, the imbalance between pro- and antioxidant systems in sperm and elevated biomarker of oxidative DNA damage-8-hydroxy-2΄-deoxyguanosine. The dosed physical load leads to normalization of semen parameters and free radical homeostasis in sperm. The greatest protective effect has pre-training, which contributes to early recovery of the studied parameters.

  1. Baghouse heat exchanger saves fuel, protects equipment, warms workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krout, B.; Kilheffer, J.

    1984-03-01

    A heat exchanger system designed to cool 900/sup 0/F exhaust air from a rotary kiln has also proven that it can provide large annual fuel savings, protect equipment from freezing and increase employee comfort. The system uses two plate-type heat exchangers and a fiber glass baghouse utilizing reverse air cleaning. The heat exchangers were designed to lower the kiln exhaust temperature from 900/sup 0/F to 500/sup 0/F prior to entering the baghouse. A bleed-in damper in the ductwork ensures that gases entering the heat exchanger do not exceed 900/sup 0/F. The units have a heat-transfer surface of 14,786 ft/sup 2/, design inlet volume of 120,000 ACFM and design outlet volume of 84,000 ACFM. The heat exchanger has a built-in cleaning mechanism which operates on a timer and limits the build-up of deposits on the heat exchanger surfaces.

  2. Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Schunk, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    An active thermal control system architecture has been modified to include a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) inboard of the radiator. Rather than using a radiator bypass valve a regenerative heat exchanger is placed inboard of the radiators. A regenerator cold side bypass valve is used to set the return temperature. During operation, the regenerator bypass flow is varied, mixing cold radiator return fluid and warm regenerator outlet fluid to maintain the system setpoint. At the lowest heat load for stable operation, the bypass flow is closed off, sending all of the flow through the regenerator. This lowers the radiator inlet temperature well below the system set-point while maintaining full flow through the radiators. By using a regenerator bypass flow control to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load to avoid radiator freezing can be reduced by more than half compared to a radiator bypass system.

  3. Calculation of heat sink around cracks formed under pulsed heat load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareva, G. G.; Arakcheev, A. S.; Kandaurov, I. V.; Kasatov, A. A.; Kurkuchekov, V. V.; Maksimova, A. G.; Popov, V. A.; Shoshin, A. A.; Snytnikov, A. V.; Trunev, Yu A.; Vasilyev, A. A.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.

    2017-10-01

    The experimental and numerical simulations of the conditions causing the intensive erosion and expected to be realized infusion reactor were carried out. The influence of relevant pulsed heat loads to tungsten was simulated using a powerful electron beam source in BINP. The mechanical destruction, melting and splashing of the material were observed. The laboratory experiments are accompanied by computational ones. Computational experiment allowed to quantitatively describe the overheating near the cracks, caused by parallel to surface cracks.

  4. Extreme heat awareness and protective behaviors in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathryn; Wheeler, Katherine; Charles-Guzman, Kizzy; Ahmed, Munerah; Blum, Micheline; Gregory, Katherine; Graber, Nathan; Clark, Nancy; Matte, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Heat waves can be lethal and routinely prompt public warnings about the dangers of heat. With climate change, extreme heat events will become more frequent and intense. However, little is known about public awareness of heat warnings or behaviors during hot weather. Awareness of heat warnings, prevention behaviors, and air conditioning (AC) prevalence and use in New York City were assessed using quantitative and qualitative methods. A random sample telephone survey was conducted in September 2011 among 719 adults and follow-up focus groups were held in winter 2012 among seniors and potential senior caregivers. During summer 2011, 79 % of adults heard or saw a heat warning. Of the 24 % who were seniors or in fair or poor health, 34 % did not own AC or never/rarely used it on hot days. Of this subgroup, 30 % were unaware of warnings, and 49 % stay home during hot weather. Reasons for not using AC during hot weather include disliking AC (29 %), not feeling hot (19 %), and a preference for fans (18 %). Seniors in the focus groups did not perceive themselves to be at risk, and often did not identify AC as an important health protection strategy. While heat warnings are received by most New Yorkers, AC cost, risk perception problems, and a preference for staying home leave many at risk during heat waves. Improving AC access and risk communications will help better protect the most vulnerable during heat waves.

  5. An analysis of representative heating load lines for residential HSPF ratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report describes an analysis to investigate representative heating loads for single-family detached homes using current EnergyPlus simulations (DOE 2014a). Hourly delivered load results are used to determine binned load lines using US Department of Energy (DOE) residential prototype building models (DOE 2014b) developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The selected residential single-family prototype buildings are based on the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC 2006) in the DOE climate regions. The resulting load lines are compared with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Standard 210/240 (AHRI 2008) minimum and maximum design heating requirement (DHR) load lines of the heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF) ratings procedure for each region. The results indicate that a heating load line closer to the maximum DHR load line, and with a lower zero load ambient temperature, is more representative of heating loads predicted for EnergyPlus prototype residential buildings than the minimum DHR load line presently used to determine HSPF ratings. An alternative heating load line equation was developed and compared to binned load lines obtained from the EnergyPlus simulation results. The effect on HSPF of the alternative heating load line was evaluated for single-speed and two-capacity heat pumps, and an average HSPF reduction of 16% was found. The alternative heating load line relationship is tied to the rated cooling capacity of the heat pump based on EnergyPlus autosizing, which is more representative of the house load characteristics than the rated heating capacity. The alternative heating load line equation was found to be independent of climate for the six DOE climate regions investigated, provided an adjustable zero load ambient temperature is used. For Region IV, the default DOE climate region used for HSPF ratings, the higher load line results in an ~28

  6. Study on heat under dynamic loading of rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Igumenova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies on heat buildup in tire rubber surface scan method samples using a thermal imaging camera. Investigated the exothermic chemical reaction mechanical destruction rubber when loading designs permanent cyclic stretching with deformation of the working zone 50%. Percentage of deformation of the working zone was chosen on the basis of the actual data on the stretch-compression zone "Rusk" tires, which is the maximum level difference of deformation during run-in. Experiment plan provided for periodic relaxation samples of at least 72 hours for more accurate simulation of operation process of structural products. Created and processed data on temperature changes in samples for bar and line profile for rubber compounds with the introduction of nanomodificator (fullerene-containing technical carbon in comparison with the control sample without him. The data obtained reflect the nature of heat depending on the composition of the compound. Identified common patterns of thermal nature of physicochemical process mechanical destruction rubbers. For rubber with nanomodifikatorom there has been an increase in the temperature interval reaction from a minimum to a maximum 2 degrees that is also linked to the rise in the average temperature of the reaction on the histogram also at 2-3 degrees of deformation under the same conditions and the level of cyclic loading. However, the temperature in the control sample that is associated with the beginning of the formation of hardened rubber structures, economies of Mallinza-Petrikeeva, occurs with delay twice compared with modified Fullerenes. Measurement of physic-mechanical indicators selected in the course of testing of samples showed the beginning of formation of structure with increased strength of samples in the sample temperature zone that corresponds to the thermal effect of èndotermičeskomu recombination reactions of macromolecules.

  7. Heat Strain in Personal Protective Clothing: Challenges and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, T. M.; Daanen, H. A. M.

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to physical exhaustion and the cessation of work. The tolerance time depends on three main factors: (1) the initial core temperature that may be reduced by heat acclimation and pre-cooling, (2) the final core temperature, which can be increased due to physical training, and (3) the rate of change in body core temperature, which is dependent on the thermal environment, work rate and individual factors like body composition. Methods to reduce heat strain in protective clothing include: (1) increasing clothing permeability for air, (2) adjusting pacing strategy, including work/rest schedules, (3) physical training, and (4) cooling interventions.

  8. Covering of heating load of object by using ground heat as a renewable energy source

    OpenAIRE

    Čenejac Aleksandra R.; Bjelaković Radivoje M.; Anđelković Aleksandar S.; Đaković Damir D.

    2012-01-01

    Rational use of energy, improving energy performance of buildings and use of renewable energy sources are the most important measures for reducing consumption of non-renewable primary energy (solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels), environmental protection and for the future sustainable development of mankind. In the total primary energy consumption great part is related to building industry, for heating spaces in which people stay and live. Renewable energy sou...

  9. Cluster analysis of residential heat load profiles and the role of technical and household characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2016-01-01

    of the temporality of the energy demand is needed. This paper contributes to this by focusing on the daily load profiles of energy demand for heating of Danish dwellings with heat pumps. Based on hourly recordings from 139 dwellings and employing cluster and regression analysis, the paper explores patterns...... (typologies) in daily heating load profiles and how these relate to socio-economic and technical characteristics of the included households. The study shows that the load profiles vary according to the external load conditions. Two main clusters were identified for both weekdays and weekends and across load...

  10. Heat Transfer Analysis of Thermal Protection Structures for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chen; Wang, Zhijin; Hou, Tianjiao

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to develop an analytical approach to study the heat transfer problem of thermal protection systems (TPS) for hypersonic vehicles. Laplace transform and integral method are used to describe the temperature distribution through the TPS subject to aerodynamic heating during flight. Time-dependent incident heat flux is also taken into account. Two different cases with heat flux and radiation boundary conditions are studied and discussed. The results are compared with those obtained by finite element analyses and show a good agreement. Although temperature profiles of such problems can be readily accessed via numerical simulations, analytical solutions give a greater insight into the physical essence of the heat transfer problem. Furthermore, with the analytical approach, rapid thermal analyses and even thermal optimization can be achieved during the preliminary TPS design.

  11. Protection of actin from heat denaturation by various phallotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, J X; Schäfer, A J; Faulstich, H; Wieland, T

    1976-08-01

    Phallotoxins protect F-actin from heat denaturation at a temperature of 70 degrees C for 3 min. This has been shown by difference spectroscopy. G-actin is not protected from heat denaturation by phalloidin. Among the various phallopeptides investigated, 4 toxic ones showed the same protecting ability, whereas non-toxic seco-compounds has no effect. The non-toxic (S)-phalloidinsulfoxide A exhibited only a partial protecting activity, corresponding to an affinity for F-actin of about one tenth of that of the toxic peptides. Evidence for this was obtained from the easy displacement of the sulfoxide A from F-actin by phalloidin as well as by a spectroscopic dilution titration.

  12. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and the Influence of Room Height and Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Vilsbøll, Rasmus W; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse ceiling (inlet) ventilation is an air distribution system that supplies air from the entire ceiling surface, giving a low supply velocity. The flow pattern in the room is controlled by the heat sources. The system generates high mixing flow and the air velocities in the room are expected...... to be not much influenced by the flow rate to the room but dependent on the heat load. Previous studies have shown that diffuse ceiling ventilation has an ability to remove large heat loads without compromising the indoor climate. However, recent experiments indicate that the maximum accepted heat load decreases...... with a large room height and it decreases in connection with certain heat load distributions. Room geometries and heat load distributions that are optimal for diffuse ceiling ventilation are discussed. A simplified design procedure is introduced....

  13. Heat transfer issues in high-heat-load synchrotron x-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Mills, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, a short description of the synchrotron radiation x-ray sources and the associated power loads is given, followed by a brief description of typical synchrotron components and their heat load. It is emphasized that the design goals for most of these components is to limit (a) temperature, (b) stresses, or (c) strains in the system. Each design calls for a different geometry, material selection, and cooling scheme. Cooling schemes that have been utilized so far are primarily single phase and include simple macrochannel cooling, microchannel cooling, contact cooling, pin-post cooling, porous-flow cooling, jet cooling, etc. Water, liquid metals, and various cryogenic coolants have been used. Because the trend in x-ray beam development is towards brighter (i.e., more powerful) beams and assuming that no radical changes in the design of x-ray generating machines occurs in the next few years, it is fair to state that the utilization of various effective cooling schemes and, in particular, two-phase flow (e.g., subcooled boiling) warrants further investigation. This, however, requires a thorough examination of stability and reliability of two-phase flows for high-heat-flux components operating in ultrahigh vacuum with stringent reliability requirements.

  14. Beam heat load and pressure rise in a cold vacuum chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Casalbuoni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The beam heat load and the pressure in the vacuum chamber of the cold bore superconducting undulator installed at ANKA (ANgstrom source KArlsruhe have been monitored for almost two years. Possible sources of the observed heat load could be synchrotron radiation from upstream magnets, image currents, electron and ion bombardment. In this paper, the various possible contributions to the heat load are discussed and compared with experimental results. The dynamic pressure increases nonlinearly with the average beam current. The current where it assumes a maximum varies both with the bunch intensity and with the initial vacuum pressure. A correlation between the heat load and the dynamic pressure has been observed. This study suggests that electron bombardment could explain the beam heat load and pressure rise observed for a bunch length of 10 mm.

  15. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  16. Flexible pressure sensors for smart protective clothing against impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Bo; Shu, Lin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The development of smart protective clothing will facilitate the quick detection of injuries from contact sports, traffic collisions and other accidents. To obtain real-time information like spatial and temporal pressure distributions on the clothing, flexible pressure sensor arrays are required. Based on a resistive fabric strain sensor we demonstrate all flexible, resistive pressure sensors with a large workable pressure range (0-8 MPa), a high sensitivity (1 MPa-1) and an excellent repeatability (lowest non-repeatability ±2.4% from 0.8 to 8 MPa) that can be inexpensively fabricated using fabric strain sensors and biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The pressure sensitivity is tunable by using elastomers with different elasticities or by the pre-strain control of fabric strain sensors. Finite element simulation further confirms the sensor design. The simple structure, large workable pressure range, high sensitivity, high flexibility, facile fabrication and low cost of these pressure sensors make them promising candidates for smart protective clothing against impact loading.

  17. Thermoregulatory responses to acute heat loads in the FOK rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, N.; Shido, O.; Furuyama, F.; Sakurada, S.; Nishino, H.

    FOK is an inbred rat strain with a genotypic adaptation to hot environments. The present study investigated the mechanism of the high heat tolerance of the FOK rat. Male FOK and WKAH rats were used. They were loosely restrained and placed individually in a direct calorimeter with an ambient temperature of 24°C. Their hypothalamic temperature, evaporative and nonevaporative heat loss and heat production were measured. After thermal equilibrium had been attained, the rats were warmed for 30 min with a chronically implanted intraperitoneal electric heater(internal heating). At least 90 min after the heating, the jacket water temperature surrounding the calorimeter chamber was gradually raised from 24°C to 36°C in 80 min (external warming). During the internal heating, changes in the thermoregulatory parameters did not differ between the groups. During the external warming, the evaporative heat loss of the FOK rat was significantly greater than that of the WKAH rat, while changes in nonevaporative heat loss and heat production did not differ between the groups. The results suggest that in the FOK rat, the improved heat tolerance is attributable to an enhanced evaporative heat loss response, but not to a facilitation of nonevaporative heat loss or of metabolic depression.

  18. Heat exchange during encapsulation in a Chemical-Warfare Agent Protective Patient Wrap in four hot environments. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, L.A.; Kolka, M.A.; Allan, A.E.; Santee, W.R.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine safe encapsulation time limits in four hot environments including a simulated solar heat load and thereby generate an equation predicting safe time limits for hot environments. Eight male subjects were studied during encapsulation in a Chemical Warfare Agent Protective Patient Wrap in each of four environments. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature air temperature and dew point temperature within the wrap and wrap temperature were measured every minute. Metabolic rate was measured during encapsulation by partitional calorimetry. The data shows that safe encapsulation time is severely limited in Hot/Dry and Hot/Wet environments when a solar heat load is included.

  19. Simulation of Heat Transfer and Electromagnetic Fields of Protected Microcomputers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Lakatos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of collaboration between Department of mechatronics and electronics at University of Žilina and VÚVT Engineering a.s. Žilina in area of heat transfer simulations and disturbing electromagnetic radiation simulations in computer construction. The simulations results were used in development of protected microcomputer prototypes in frame of applied research at both of workplaces.

  20. Effects of ventilation behaviour on indoor heat load based on test reference years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfelder, Madeleine; Koppe, Christina; Pfafferott, Jens; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Since 2003, most European countries established heat health warning systems to alert the population to heat load. Heat health warning systems are based on predicted meteorological conditions outdoors. But the majority of the European population spends a substantial amount of time indoors, and indoor thermal conditions can differ substantially from outdoor conditions. The German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) extended the existing heat health warning system (HHWS) with a thermal building simulation model to consider heat load indoors. In this study, the thermal building simulation model is used to simulate a standardized building representing a modern nursing home, because elderly and sick people are most sensitive to heat stress. Different types of natural ventilation were simulated. Based on current and future test reference years, changes in the future heat load indoors were analyzed. Results show differences between the various ventilation options and the possibility to minimize the thermal heat stress during summer by using an appropriate ventilation method. Nighttime ventilation for indoor thermal comfort is most important. A fully opened window at nighttime and the 2-h ventilation in the morning and evening are more sufficient to avoid heat stress than a tilted window at nighttime and the 1-h ventilation in the morning and the evening. Especially the ventilation in the morning seems to be effective to keep the heat load indoors low. Comparing the results for the current and the future test reference years, an increase of heat stress on all ventilation types can be recognized.

  1. Material erosion and erosion products under plasma heat loads typical for ITER hard disruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronov, V. E-mail: vsafr@rico.ttk.ru; Arkhipov, N.; Bakhtin, V.; Kurkin, S.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Toporkov, D.; Vasenin, S.; Wuerz, H.; Zhitlukhin, A

    2001-03-01

    Plasma/material interaction has been studied in disruption simulation experiments. Candidate divertor materials were exposed to heat loads expected for tokamak-reactor disruptions. It is shown that sudden evaporation of a thin material layer produces a cloud of vapor plasma, which acts as a thermal shield protecting the surface from further excessive evaporation. In terms of evaporation reduction a shielding factor is above 100. Formation and physical properties of the shielding layer are analyzed. Target plasma converts the incoming energy flux into photon radiation. Radiation from target plasma is so intensive that it may cause erosion of nearby components. Surface damages result not solely from atomic vaporization but also from melt layer splashing for metals and brittle destruction for carbon-based materials. Erosion products are emitted as droplets (metal) and grains (carbon-based material). Melt layer splashing results in greater surface damages than vaporization. A contribution of brittle destruction to net erosion is under investigation now.

  2. Radiant heat transfer network in the simulated protective clothing ; System under high heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukazawa, T.; Hartog, E.A. den; Daanen, H.A.M.; Penders-van Elk, N.; Tochihara, Y.; Havenith, G.

    2005-01-01

    A radiant network model was developed for design of the protective clothing system against solar and infrared radiative heat flux. A one-dimensional model was employed in the present study, because the aim of this study was to obtain precise temperature distribution through the system with use of a

  3. Heating load of buildings. Room heat from decentralized renewable electricity; Heizlast von Gebaeuden. Raumwaerme aus dezentral erneuerbarem Strom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Frank

    2013-10-15

    If one would like to get the heating load of a building by using peripheral generated electrical energy from photovoltaics or small wind power, one must deal with both the specific building, as well as the heating load, the heating temperature limit and the differentiation of specific heating period for the building. Here, a ground source heat pump with an intelligent energy storage system seems to be the first choice. [German] Moechte man mit dezentral erzeugter elektrischer Energie aus Photovoltaik oder Kleinst-Windkraft die Heizlast eines Gebaeudes besorgen, muss man sich sowohl mit dem spezifischen Gebaeude, als auch mit der Heizlast, der Heizgrenztemperatur und der Differenzierung der spezifischen Heizperiode fuer das Gebaeude auseinandersetzen. Dabei scheint eine erdgekoppelte Waermepumpe mit einem intelligenten Speichersystem die erste Wahl.

  4. Heat exchange during encapsulation in a chemical warfare agent protective patient wrap in four hot environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, L.A.; Kolka, M.A.; Allan, A.E.; Santee, W.R.

    1988-04-01

    Tolerable encapsulation time in a Chemical Warfare Agent Protective Patient Wrap (dry insulative value = 1.44 clo; permeability index = 0.25) was determined in four hot environments including a simulated solar heat load (1152 W.m-2) for eight males. Mean body temperature (Tb), evaporative heat loss (EHL), dry heat gain (R + C), metabolic rate (M), and net heat flow (Msk) were measured or calculated from the heat balance equation. The ambient temperature (Ta) ranged from 54.7 degrees C (I) to 35.7 degrees C (IV) and the relative humidity ranged from 17% (I) to 63% (IV). EHL ranged from 173.5 W.m-2 (IV) to 277.8 W.m-2 (I) at min 30 of encapsulation. R + C ranged from -129 W.m-2 (IV) to -230 W.m-2 (I) at that time and Tb averaged 37.6(+/- 0.3) degrees C (IV) and 38.1(+/- 0.2) degrees C (I). The average time of encapsulation ranged from 61.8(+/- 0.2) degrees C (I). The average time of encapsulation ranged from 61.8(+/- 13.2) min (IV) to 38.4(+/- 5.0) min (I). A multiple linear regression equation to predict tolerable encapsulation was developed. These data show that tolerable encapsulation is severely limited in hot environments which have a marked solar heat load. A preliminary study (n = 2) indicated that encapsulation time in 54.7 degrees C/17%rh could be extended by some 23 min by covering the WRAP with wetted towels, thereby decreasing body heat storage by enhancing EHL from the surface of the WRAP.

  5. Numerical modeling of transient heat transfer in microsystem of protective clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Min-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat protective clothing is always being treated as a main personal protective equipment to shield robust flame injection and high temperature, therefore, it is significant and essential to investigate transient heat transfer and heat insulation ability of heat protective clothing. In this paper, a novel co-operative model composed of heat protective clothing, air gap, and test sensor was established under the convection and radiation heat source, and the temperature and heat flux were numerically solved by finite element method. The results showed an acceptable agreement between the experimental data and numerical prediction.

  6. Development of a real-time system for ITER first wall heat load control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Himank; de Vries, Peter; Gribov, Yuri; Pitts, Richard; Snipes, Joseph; Zabeo, Luca

    2017-10-01

    The steady state heat flux on the ITER first wall (FW) panels are limited by the heat removal capacity of the water cooling system. In case of off-normal events (e.g. plasma displacement during H-L transitions), the heat loads are predicted to exceed the design limits (2-4.7 MW/m2). Intense heat loads are predicted on the FW, even well before the burning plasma phase. Thus, a real-time (RT) FW heat load control system is mandatory from early plasma operation of the ITER tokamak. A heat load estimator based on the RT equilibrium reconstruction has been developed for the plasma control system (PCS). A scheme, estimating the energy state for prescribed gaps defined as the distance between the last closed flux surface (LCFS)/separatrix and the FW is presented. The RT energy state is determined by the product of a weighted function of gap distance and the power crossing the plasma boundary. In addition, a heat load estimator assuming a simplified FW geometry and parallel heat transport model in the scrape-off layer (SOL), benchmarked against a full 3-D magnetic field line tracer is also presented.

  7. 29 CFR 1915.51 - Ventilation and protection in welding, cutting and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation and protection in welding, cutting and heating... Welding, Cutting and Heating § 1915.51 Ventilation and protection in welding, cutting and heating. (a) The... dust or dirt from clothing, or for cleaning the work area. (c) Welding, cutting and heating in confined...

  8. Proposed Measures to Protect Temporary Roofs from Unwanted Heat Gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar S. Asfour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the uncompleted multi-storey residential buildings located in hot climates. This construction pattern is common in the case of incremental housing, where additional floors are added to the building as housing needs grow. Top roofs in these buildings are usually left without thermal insulation until the rest of upper floors are erected. This causes higher thermal discomfort in the top flats compared to the lower ones. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate thermal effect of some proposed temporary measures that are intended to protect these roofs from unwanted heat gains until the rest of storeys are constructed. This has been carried out using thermal modelling to find out the effect of these measures on the amount of heat transfer through the roof in both summer and winter times. The analysis showed that it is possible to achieve competent thermal protection of the top roof compared to the layered thermal insulation using simple, cost-effective, and reversible measures. Among the examined measures, covering the roof with white foldable sheets and the use of pergolas have been found to be the most effective measures. In both cases, a reduction of 38% in conductive heat transfer through the top roof in summer was observed compared to the unprotected modelling case.

  9. Effects of laboratory heating, cyclic pore pressure, and cyclic loading on fracture properties of asphalt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This study involved the identification and evaluation of laboratory conditioning methods and testing protocols considering heat oxidation, moisture, and load that more effectively simulate asphalt mixture aging in the field, and thereby help to prope...

  10. Pushing high-heat-load optics to the limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P. B.

    1999-11-08

    A cryogenically cooled silicon monochromator and a water-cooled diamond monochromator have been tested under twice the standard power load conditions at the Advanced Photon Source. Both monochromators performed satisfactorily under these extreme power loads (several hundred watts of incident power and up to 300 W/mm{sup 2} of incident normal peak power density). The experimental data and the parameters derived to predict the performance limits of the cryogenic silicon monochromator are presented.

  11. Data-Driven Machine-Learning Model in District Heating System for Heat Load Prediction: A Comparison Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisnik Dalipi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our data-driven supervised machine-learning (ML model to predict heat load for buildings in a district heating system (DHS. Even though ML has been used as an approach to heat load prediction in literature, it is hard to select an approach that will qualify as a solution for our case as existing solutions are quite problem specific. For that reason, we compared and evaluated three ML algorithms within a framework on operational data from a DH system in order to generate the required prediction model. The algorithms examined are Support Vector Regression (SVR, Partial Least Square (PLS, and random forest (RF. We use the data collected from buildings at several locations for a period of 29 weeks. Concerning the accuracy of predicting the heat load, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms using mean absolute error (MAE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, and correlation coefficient. In order to determine which algorithm had the best accuracy, we conducted performance comparison among these ML algorithms. The comparison of the algorithms indicates that, for DH heat load prediction, SVR method presented in this paper is the most efficient one out of the three also compared to other methods found in the literature.

  12. Characterisation of local ICRF heat loads on the JET ILW

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, P; Colas, L; Arnoux, G; Bobkov, V; Corre, Y; Devaux, S; Gardarein, J-L; Gauthier, E; Graham, M; Lerche, E; Mayoral, M-L; Monakhov, I; Rimini, F; Sirinelli, A; Van Eester, D; contributors, JET EFDA

    2013-01-01

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced heat-fluxes are commonly observed on some plasma facing components close to the antennas. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat flux to the JET ICRF antennas. Using Infra-Red thermography and thermal models of the tiles, heat-fluxes were evaluated from the surface temperature increase during the RF phase of L-mode plasmas. The maximum observed heat-flux intensity was ~ 4.5 MW/m2 when operating with -{\\pi}/2 current drive strap phasing at power level of 2MW per antenna and with a 4 cm distance between the plasma and the outer limiters. Heat-fluxes are reduced when using dipole strap phasing. The fraction of ICRF power deposited on the antenna limiters or septa was in the range 2-10% for dipole phasing and 10-20% with +/-{\\pi}/2 phasing.

  13. Online short-term forecast of greenhouse heat load using a weather forecast service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogler-Finck, P. J.C.; Bacher, P.; Madsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    the performance of recursive least squares for predicting the heat load of individual greenhouses in an online manner. Predictor inputs (weekly curves terms and weather forecast inputs) are selected in an automated manner using a forward selection approach. Historical load measurements from 5 Danish greenhouses...... with different operational characteristics were used, together with weather measurements and a weather forecast service. It was found that these predictors of reduced complexity and computational load performed well at capturing recurring load profiles, but not fast frequency random changes. Overall, the root......In some district heating systems, greenhouses represent a significant share of the total load, and can lead to operational challenges. Short term load forecast of such consumers has a strong potential to contribute to the improvement of the overall system efficiency. This work investigates...

  14. Effect of Physical Load on Aerobic Exercise Performance during Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenefick, Robert W; Heavens, Kristen R; Luippold, Adam J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Schwartz, Steven A; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of increasing external loads on 5-km treadmill time trial (TT) performance in 20°C and 40°C environmental conditions and to construct an ecologically relevant performance prediction decision aid. Twenty-six male and four female volunteers (age, 23.5 ± 6.9 yr; weight, 76.0 ± 8.9 kg; height, 1.75 ± 0.07 m; V˙O2peak, 50.7 ± 4.5 mL·kg·min) participated in a counterbalanced, mixed-model design, with each subject assigned to a load group (20%, 30%, or 50% body mass (BM); n = 10 per group). Volunteers performed three, self-paced 5-km familiarization TT (treadmill) without external load. Each volunteer then performed a 5-km TT in each environment with loads of either 20% (n = 10), 30% (n = 10), or 50% (n = 10) of BM. 1) Loads of (20%, 30%, and 50% of BM) impaired 5-km TT performance compared with that when unloaded (P load were load (P load itself (P load resulted in a substantial penalty such that continuous work was not sustainable for all of the volunteers. Relative to prediction models using fixed or constant workload exercise trials, an ecologically valid decision aid was developed from self-paced data, in which pace (km·h) can be predicted for individual levels of heat, load, or heat + load in combination.

  15. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer in Fire-Protective Coatings Deformable upon Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinsky, V. P.; Garashchenko, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical studies of heat transfer in fire-protective coatings deformable (intumescent) upon heating have been conducted. The optimum combination of the computation-scheme parameters providing stability, convergence and satisfactory accuracy of solutions has been determined. An effect of basic characteristics of materials in real range of their change that made it possible to estimate the degree of influence of properties on the fire-protective efficiency of coatings and the level of warm-up (flame resistance) of structures to be protected with them has been studied. The possibility of using developed models and techniques to estimate and provide the required level of fire safety of polymer-based materials (in particular, elastomers and structures and products on their basis) is considered. The results of estimating the mass rate of evolving gaseous thermal-decomposition products that determine, in a considerable extent, the material combustibility have been presented. The numerical analysis results have demonstrated the potentiality of reducing the combustibility of such materials and increasing limits of their fire resistance at the expense of organizing the intumescence of a material upon heating by means of modification of their initial formulations as well as with the aid of an additional layer made of the intumescent coating compatible with an elastomer.

  16. Long-duration heat load measurement approach by novel apparatus design and highly efficient algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanwei; Yi, Fajun; Meng, Songhe; Zhuo, Lijun; Pan, Weizhen

    2017-11-01

    Improving the surface heat load measurement technique for vehicles in aerodynamic heating environments is imperative, regarding aspects of both the apparatus design and identification efficiency. A simple novel apparatus is designed for heat load identification, taking into account the lessons learned from several aerodynamic heating measurement devices. An inverse finite difference scheme (invFDM) for the apparatus is studied to identify its surface heat flux from the interior temperature measurements with high efficiency. A weighted piecewise regression filter is also proposed for temperature measurement prefiltering. Preliminary verification of the invFDM scheme and the filter is accomplished via numerical simulation experiments. Three specific pieces of apparatus have been concretely designed and fabricated using different sensing materials. The aerodynamic heating process is simulated by an inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel facility. The identification of surface temperature and heat flux from the temperature measurements is performed by invFDM. The results validate the high efficiency, reliability and feasibility of heat load measurements with different heat flux levels utilizing the designed apparatus and proposed method.

  17. Online short-term heat load forecasting for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for forecasting the load for heating in a single-family house. Both space and hot tap water heating are forecasted. The forecasting model is built using data from sixteen houses in Sønderborg, Denmark, combined with local climate measurements and weather forecasts...... variations in the heat load signal (predominant only for some houses), peaks presumably from showers, shifts in resident behavior, and uncertainty of the weather forecasts for longer horizons, especially for the solar radiation........ Every hour the hourly heat load for each house the following two days is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models and the climate inputs used are: ambient temperature, global radiation, and wind speed. A computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme is used...

  18. Thermally determining flow and/or heat load distribution in parallel paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2017-08-01

    A method including obtaining calibration data for at least one sub-component in a heat transfer assembly, wherein the calibration data comprises at least one indication of coolant flow rate through the sub-component for a given surface temperature delta of the sub-component and a given heat load into said sub-component, determining a measured heat load into the sub-component, determining a measured surface temperature delta of the sub-component, and determining a coolant flow distribution in a first flow path comprising the sub-component from the calibration data according to the measured heat load and the measured surface temperature delta of the sub-component.

  19. Thermally determining flow and/or heat load distribution in parallel paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2016-12-13

    A method including obtaining calibration data for at least one sub-component in a heat transfer assembly, wherein the calibration data comprises at least one indication of coolant flow rate through the sub-component for a given surface temperature delta of the sub-component and a given heat load into said sub-component, determining a measured heat load into the sub-component, determining a measured surface temperature delta of the sub-component, and determining a coolant flow distribution in a first flow path comprising the sub-component from the calibration data according to the measured heat load and the measured surface temperature delta of the sub-component.

  20. Experimental study of plasma energy transfer and material erosion under ELM-like heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E., E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.u [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Makhlaj, V.A.; Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tereshin, V.I.; Aksenov, N.N.; Bandura, A.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-06-15

    Main features of plasma-surface interaction and energy transfer to tokamak plasma facing components are studied at different heat loads in ELM simulation experiments with the plasma gun QSPA Kh-50. Repetitive plasma exposures of tungsten, graphite and different combined W-C targets were performed at the pulse duration of 0.25 ms and the heat loads varied in the range 0.2-2.5 MJ/m{sup 2}. The onset of vapor shield in front of the surface was investigated. The evaporation is immediately followed by a saturation of surface heat load if further increasing the impact energy. The presence of graphite essentially decreases the heat flux to the nearby tungsten surface, which is due to the carbon vapor shield. Droplet splashing at the tungsten surface and formation of hot spots on the graphite surface are discussed.

  1. Experimental study of plasma energy transfer and material erosion under ELM-like heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkusha, I. E.; Makhlaj, V. A.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Landman, I.; Tereshin, V. I.; Aksenov, N. N.; Bandura, A. N.

    2009-06-01

    Main features of plasma-surface interaction and energy transfer to tokamak plasma facing components are studied at different heat loads in ELM simulation experiments with the plasma gun QSPA Kh-50. Repetitive plasma exposures of tungsten, graphite and different combined W-C targets were performed at the pulse duration of 0.25 ms and the heat loads varied in the range 0.2-2.5 MJ/m 2. The onset of vapor shield in front of the surface was investigated. The evaporation is immediately followed by a saturation of surface heat load if further increasing the impact energy. The presence of graphite essentially decreases the heat flux to the nearby tungsten surface, which is due to the carbon vapor shield. Droplet splashing at the tungsten surface and formation of hot spots on the graphite surface are discussed.

  2. Optimum load distribution between heat sources based on the Cournot model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkovskii, A. V.; Stennikov, V. A.; Khamisov, O. V.

    2015-08-01

    One of the widespread models of the heat supply of consumers, which is represented in the "Single buyer" format, is considered. The methodological base proposed for its description and investigation presents the use of principles of the theory of games, basic propositions of microeconomics, and models and methods of the theory of hydraulic circuits. The original mathematical model of the heat supply system operating under conditions of the "Single buyer" organizational structure provides the derivation of a solution satisfying the market Nash equilibrium. The distinctive feature of the developed mathematical model is that, along with problems solved traditionally within the bounds of bilateral relations of heat energy sources-heat consumer, it considers a network component with its inherent physicotechnical properties of the heat network and business factors connected with costs of the production and transportation of heat energy. This approach gives the possibility to determine optimum levels of load of heat energy sources. These levels provide the given heat energy demand of consumers subject to the maximum profit earning of heat energy sources and the fulfillment of conditions for formation of minimum heat network costs for a specified time. The practical realization of the search of market equilibrium is considered by the example of a heat supply system with two heat energy sources operating on integrated heat networks. The mathematical approach to the solution search is represented in the graphical form and illustrates computations based on the stepwise iteration procedure for optimization of levels of loading of heat energy sources (groping procedure by Cournot) with the corresponding computation of the heat energy price for consumers.

  3. Comfort air temperature influence on heating and cooling loads of a residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, C.; Șoriga, I.; Gheorghian, A. T.; Stanciu, D.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the thermal behavior and energy loads of a two-level residential building designed for a family of four, two adults and two students, for different inside comfort levels reflected by the interior air temperature. Results are intended to emphasize the different thermal behavior of building elements and their contribution to the building's external load. The most important contributors to the building thermal loss are determined. Daily heating and cooling loads are computed for 12 months simulation in Bucharest (44.25°N latitude) in clear sky conditions. The most important aspects regarding sizing of thermal energy systems are emphasized, such as the reference months for maximum cooling and heating loads and these loads’ values. Annual maximum loads are encountered in February and August, respectively, so these months should be taken as reference for sizing thermal building systems, in Bucharest, under clear sky conditions.

  4. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF HEAT PUMP STATION GAS COOLER AT THE WIDE RANGE OF HEAT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is examined the structure the of control system of gas cooler of heat pump station, which uses the carbon dioxide as the working fluid in the transctitical thermodynamical cycle. It is analiyed the structure of the complex: heat pump station – district heating system.

  5. Heat shock factor 1 promotes TERRA transcription and telomere protection upon heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskas, Sivan; Decottignies, Anabelle; Dufour, Solenne; Pezet, Mylène; Verdel, André; Vourc'h, Claire; Faure, Virginie

    2017-06-20

    In response to metabolic or environmental stress, cells activate powerful defense mechanisms to prevent the formation and accumulation of toxic protein aggregates. The main orchestrator of this cellular response is HSF1 (heat shock factor 1), a transcription factor involved in the up-regulation of protein-coding genes with protective roles. It has become very clear that HSF1 has a broader function than initially expected. Indeed, our previous work demonstrated that, upon stress, HSF1 activates the transcription of a non-coding RNA, named Satellite III, at pericentromeric heterochromatin. Here, we observe that the function of HSF1 extends to telomeres and identify subtelomeric DNA as a new genomic target of HSF1. We show that the binding of HSF1 to subtelomeric regions plays an essential role in the upregulation of non-coding TElomeric Repeat containing RNA (TERRA) transcription upon heat shock. Importantly, our data show that telomere integrity is impacted by heat shock and that telomeric DNA damages are markedly enhanced in HSF1 deficient cells. Altogether, our findings reveal a new direct and essential function of HSF1 in the transcriptional activation of TERRA and in telomere protection upon stress. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. 29 CFR 1926.353 - Ventilation and protection in welding, cutting, and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation and protection in welding, cutting, and heating... Welding and Cutting § 1926.353 Ventilation and protection in welding, cutting, and heating. (a) Mechanical... the work area. (b) Welding, cutting, and heating in confined spaces. (1) Except as provided in...

  7. Modeling of pulsed heat load in a cryogenic SHe loop using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoldi Richard, L.; Bonifetto, R.; Carli, S.; Grand Blanc, M.; Zanino, R.

    2013-10-01

    The pulsed heat load to the cryoplant is an important issue in the design and operation of tokamaks adopting superconducting (SC) magnets for the magnetic confinement, as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The smoothing of the heat load during plasma operation is being addressed by experiments, e.g. in the HELIOS facility at CEA Grenoble, and simulations. The assessment of the operation of the cryoplant mainly requires the knowledge of the evolution of the heat load to the liquid helium (LHe) baths that are used as interfaces/buffers between the magnets cooling loops and the cryoplant itself. In this paper, an innovative approach based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is presented, leading to a simplified but fast model of the transient heat load from the magnets to the LHe baths. An ANN model is developed for the HELIOS loop and the resulting network is trained using detailed transient simulations performed with the 4C code, which was previously extensively validated against experimental data from HELIOS. The predictive capability of the (simplified) ANN model is then demonstrated by considering another, independent dataset, not used during the ANN training, and comparing the evolution of the heat load to the LHe bath computed by the ANNs with that obtained from the (detailed) 4C model.

  8. Heat Loads Due to Small Penetrations in Multilayer Insulation Blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Heckle, K. W.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    The main penetrations (supports and piping) through multilayer insulation systems for cryogenic tanks have been previously addressed by heat flow measurements. Smaller penetrations due to fasteners and attachments are now experimentally investigated. The use of small pins or plastic garment tag fasteners to each the handling and construction of multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets goes back many years. While it has long been understood that penetrations and other discontinuities degrade the performance of the MLI blanket, quantification of this degradation has generally been lumped into gross performance multipliers (often called degradation factors or scale factors). Small penetrations contribute both solid conduction and radiation heat transfer paths through the blanket. The conduction is down the stem of the structural element itself while the radiation is through the hole formed during installation of the pin or fastener. Analytical models were developed in conjunction with MLI perforation theory and Fouriers Law. Results of the analytical models are compared to experimental testing performed on a 10 layer MLI blanket with approximately 50 small plastic pins penetrating the test specimen. The pins were installed at 76-mm spacing inches in both directions to minimize the compounding of thermal effects due to localized compression or lateral heat transfer. The testing was performed using a liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimeter (Cryostat-100) with the standard boundary temperatures of 293 K and 78 K. Results show that the added radiation through the holes is much more significant than the conduction down the fastener. The results are shown to be in agreement with radiation theory for perforated films.

  9. Erosion of newly developed CFCs and Be under disruption heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Akiba, M.; Araki, M.; Dairaku, M.; Sato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Yokoyama, K.; Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Bolt, H.; Roedig, M.

    1996-10-01

    An evaluation of the erosion under disruption heat loads is very important to the lifetime prediction of divertor armour tiles of next fusion devices such as ITER. In particular, erosion data on CFCs (carbon fiber reinforced composites) and beryllium (Be) as the armour materials is urgently required in the ITER design. For CFCs, high heat flux experiments on the newly developed CFCs with high thermal conductivity have been performed under the heat flux of around 800-2000 MW/m 2 and the pulse length of 2-5 ms in JAERI electron beam irradiation systems (JEBIS). As a result, the weight losses of B 4C doped CFCs after heating were almost same to those of the non doped CFC up to 5 wt% boron content. For Be, we have carried out our first disruption experiments on S65/C grade Be specimens in the Juelich divertor test facility in hot cells (JUDITH) facility as a frame work of the J—EU collaboration. The heating conditions were heat loads of 1250-5000 MW/m 2 for 2-8 ms, and the heated area was 3 × 3 mm 2. As a result, the protuberances of the heated area of Be were observed under the lower heat flux.

  10. Optimal Solutions for Load Sharing between Units of a Combined Heat and Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchinnikov P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the optimization method of load division between combined heat and power plant units. The method used the power unit division into functioning parts and the differential-exergy method. This method allowed presenting the unit as a structural diagram where exergetic subsystems are fuel supply, steam generator, turbine, generator and electrical equipment, water supply and regeneration, heat supply to the consumer. The differential-exergy method was based on a combination of exergy analysis and optimization method of economic efficiency criteria using uncertain Lagrange multipliers. The use of the exergy function of goal allowed avoiding the problem of division of fuel costs for each type of product that was important at optimization. The optimization criterion, its parameters and limitations were developed as well. These parameters can extend traditional technical and economic analysis of the combined heat and power plants operating mode, as they take into account thermodynamically rigorous division of fuel costs between heat and electric power at their complex production on the combined heat and power plants. The use of the differential-exergy method in optimizing the load distribution of the power units of the combined heat and power plants makes possible obtaining of fuel savings of 1.5 to 3%. It has been shown that if the parameters of power units deteriorate, the application of the method makes it possible to have the best performance of the power plant when it is compared with functioning of combined heat and power units at proportional loading.

  11. Simulation of electron-cloud heat load for the cold arcs of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, Humberto; Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The heat load due to the electron cloud in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) cold arcs is a concern for its performance near and beyond nominal beam current. We report the results of simulation studies, which examine the electron-cloud induced heat load for different values of low-energy electron reflectivity and secondary emission yield at injection energy, as well as at beam energies of 4 TeV and 7 TeV, for two different bunch spacing: 25 ns and 50 ns. Benchmarking the simulations against heat-load observations at different beam energies and bunch spacings allows an estimate of the secondary emission yield in the cold arcs of the LHC and of its evolution as a function of time.

  12. A Si/Glass Bulk-Micromachined Cryogenic Heat Exchanger for High Heat Loads: Fabrication, Test, and Application Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weibin; White, Michael J; Nellis, Gregory F; Klein, Sanford A; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports on a micromachined Si/glass stack recuperative heat exchanger with in situ temperature sensors. Numerous high-conductivity silicon plates with integrated platinum resistance temperature detectors (Pt RTDs) are stacked, alternating with low-conductivity Pyrex spacers. The device has a 1 x 1-cm(2) footprint and a length of up to 3.5 cm. It is intended for use in Joule-Thomson (J-T) coolers and can sustain pressure exceeding 1 MPa. Tests at cold-end inlet temperatures of 237 K-252 K show that the heat exchanger effectiveness is 0.9 with 0.039-g/s helium mass flow rate. The integrated Pt RTDs present a linear response of 0.26%-0.30%/K over an operational range of 205 K-296 K but remain usable at lower temperatures. In self-cooling tests with ethane as the working fluid, a J-T system with the heat exchanger drops 76.1 K below the inlet temperature, achieving 218.7 K for a pressure of 835.8 kPa. The system reaches 200 K in transient state; further cooling is limited by impurities that freeze within the flow stream. In J-T self-cooling tests with an external heat load, the system reaches 239 K while providing 1 W of cooling. In all cases, there is an additional parasitic heat load estimated at 300-500 mW.

  13. A Si/Glass Bulk-Micromachined Cryogenic Heat Exchanger for High Heat Loads: Fabrication, Test, and Application Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weibin; White, Michael J.; Nellis, Gregory F.; Klein, Sanford A.; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a micromachined Si/glass stack recuperative heat exchanger with in situ temperature sensors. Numerous high-conductivity silicon plates with integrated platinum resistance temperature detectors (Pt RTDs) are stacked, alternating with low-conductivity Pyrex spacers. The device has a 1 × 1-cm2 footprint and a length of up to 3.5 cm. It is intended for use in Joule–Thomson (J–T) coolers and can sustain pressure exceeding 1 MPa. Tests at cold-end inlet temperatures of 237 K–252 K show that the heat exchanger effectiveness is 0.9 with 0.039-g/s helium mass flow rate. The integrated Pt RTDs present a linear response of 0.26%–0.30%/K over an operational range of 205 K–296 K but remain usable at lower temperatures. In self-cooling tests with ethane as the working fluid, a J–T system with the heat exchanger drops 76.1 K below the inlet temperature, achieving 218.7 K for a pressure of 835.8 kPa. The system reaches 200 K in transient state; further cooling is limited by impurities that freeze within the flow stream. In J–T self-cooling tests with an external heat load, the system reaches 239 K while providing 1 W of cooling. In all cases, there is an additional parasitic heat load estimated at 300–500 mW. PMID:20490284

  14. Protection of Buried Pipe under Repeated Loading by Geocell Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Omid; Joz Darabi, N.; Moghaddas Tafreshi, S. N.; Mašek, Bohuslav

    2017-12-01

    With increase in cities’ population and development of urbane life, passing buried pipelines near ground’s surface is inevitable in urban areas, roads, subways and highways. This paper presents the results of three-dimensional full scale model tests on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe with diameter of 250 mm in geocell reinforced soil, subjected to repeated loading to simulate the vehicle loads. The effect of geocell’s pocket size (55*55 mm and 110*110 mm) and embedment depth of buried pipe (1.5 and 2 times pipe diameter) in improving the behaviour of buried pipes was investigated. The geocell’s height of 100 mm was used in all tests. The repeated load of 800 kPa was applied on circular loading plate with diameter of 250 mm. The results show that the pipe displacement, soil surface settlement and transferred pressure on the pipe’s crown has been influenced significantly upon the use of geocells. For example, the vertical diametric strain (VDS) and soil surface settlement (SSS), in a way that using a geocell with pocket size of 110*110 mm reduces by 27% and 43%, respectively, compared with the unreinforced one. Meanwhile, by increasing buried depth of pipe from 1.5D to 2D, the use of geocell of 110*110 mm delivers about 50% reduction in SSS and VDS, compared with the unreinforced soil.

  15. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory; Adelman, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-03-24

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  16. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason Aaron; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory J.; Yeakel, Skip; Adelman, Steven; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-04-05

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  17. Simulation of Be armour cracking under ITER-like transient heat loads

    OpenAIRE

    Pestchanyi, S.; B. Spilker; Bazylev, B

    2016-01-01

    Simulation of beryllium cracking under action of multiple severe surface heatings has been performed using the PEGASUS-3D code and verified by experiments in the JUDITH 1 facility. Analysis of the results has revealed beryllium thermo conductivity degradation under action of repetitive pulsed heat load due to accumulation of the cracks in the surface layer. Thermo conductivity degradation is found to be at least 4 times after 100 pulses in JUDITH 1 facility. An analytical model for the Be cra...

  18. Design of fishtail divetor for heat load control during long-pulse operation on EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Dong; Huang, Yi Yun; Yao, Da Mao; Xiao, Bin Jia; Wu, Jie Feng; Qian, Jin Ping; Zhuang, Hui Dong; Zhang, Yang; EAST Team

    2017-10-01

    A new divertor concept, FishTail Divertor (FTD), is proposed and designed on EAST tokamak. The basic idea is to design and install an active coil near the strike point under the low divertor target. Applying the AC-current in this coil, the strike point along the radial and poloidal direction can be moved like a swing of fishtail by the additional alternating magnetic field. As a result, the wetted area of the heat flux is spread out, and thereby the averaged heat load is reduced. The heat flux on the divertor target has been simulated by using ANSYS combined with EFIT. It shows that the heat load on the carbon surface of the divertor can be reduced by a factor of 2/3 by applying this fishtail swing. Based on the simulations and preliminary engineering design, it is found that FTD has following advantages compare with other divertor concepts, such as the Snowflake divertor, X-divertor, Super-X divertor, and X-point target divertor: (1) Uniform distribution of the heat flux on the divertor plate; (2) Reliable control of heat load on the divertor plate; (3) Little effect on the plasma shape and X-point location; (4) Feasibility from the engineering and technology point of view.

  19. Results of high heat flux tests of tungsten divertor targets under plasma heat loads expected in ITER and tokamaks (review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budaev, V. P., E-mail: budaev@mail.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Heat loads on the tungsten divertor targets in the ITER and the tokamak power reactors reach ~10MW m{sup −2} in the steady state of DT discharges, increasing to ~0.6–3.5 GW m{sup −2} under disruptions and ELMs. The results of high heat flux tests (HHFTs) of tungsten under such transient plasma heat loads are reviewed in the paper. The main attention is paid to description of the surface microstructure, recrystallization, and the morphology of the cracks on the target. Effects of melting, cracking of tungsten, drop erosion of the surface, and formation of corrugated and porous layers are observed. Production of submicron-sized tungsten dust and the effects of the inhomogeneous surface of tungsten on the plasma–wall interaction are discussed. In conclusion, the necessity of further HHFTs and investigations of the durability of tungsten under high pulsed plasma loads on the ITER divertor plates, including disruptions and ELMs, is stressed.

  20. Beam heat load due to geometrical and resistive wall impedance in COLDDIAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalbuoni, S.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Spataro, B.

    2012-11-01

    One of the still open issues for the development of superconductive insertion devices is the understanding of the heat intake from the electron beam. With the aim of measuring the beam heat load to a cold bore and the hope to gain a deeper understanding in the underlying mechanisms, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) was built. It is equipped with the following instrumentation: retarding field analyzers to measure the electron flux, temperature sensors to measure the beam heat load, pressure gauges, and mass spectrometers to measure the gas content. Possible beam heat load sources are: synchrotron radiation, wakefield effects due to geometrical and resistive wall impedance and electron/ion bombardment. The flexibility of the engineering design will allow the installation of the cryostat in different synchrotron light sources. COLDDIAG was first installed in the Diamond Light Source (DLS) in 2011. Due to a mechanical failure of the thermal transition of the cold liner, the cryostat had to be removed after one week of operation. After having implemented design changes in the thermal liner transition, COLDDIAG has been reinstalled in the DLS at the end of August 2012. In order to understand the beam heat load mechanism it is important to compare the measured COLDDIAG parameters with theoretical expectations. In this paper we report on the analytical and numerical computation of the COLDDIAG beam heat load due to coupling impedances deriving from unavoidable step transitions, ports used for pumping and diagnostics, surface roughness, and resistive wall. The results might have an important impact on future technological solutions to be applied to cold bore devices.

  1. Simulation of Be armour cracking under ITER-like transient heat loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pestchanyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of beryllium cracking under action of multiple severe surface heatings has been performed using the PEGASUS-3D code and verified by experiments in the JUDITH 1 facility. Analysis of the results has revealed beryllium thermo conductivity degradation under action of repetitive pulsed heat load due to accumulation of the cracks in the surface layer. Thermo conductivity degradation is found to be at least 4 times after 100 pulses in JUDITH 1 facility. An analytical model for the Be cracking threshold under action of arbitrary heat pulses has been developed.

  2. Influence of resonant magnetic perturbations on transient heat load deposition and fast ion losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rack, Michael Thomas

    2014-07-11

    Thermonuclear fusion is the energy conversion process which keeps the sun shining. For the last six decades, researchers have been investigating the physics involved in order to enable the usage of this energy supply on Earth. The most promising candidates for fusion power plants are based on magnetic confinement of plasma to provide the ideal conditions for efficient thermonuclear fusion in well controlled surroundings. One important aspect is the control of instabilities that occur in the edge region of the plasma and lead to an ejection of huge amounts of energy. Magnetic perturbation fields which are resonant in the plasma edge are found to modify the plasma favourably and reduce the impact of these instabilities. This dissertation focuses on the effects of resonant magnetic perturbation fields on the ejected energy as well as on the drawbacks of these perturbation fields. The transient energy ejection which is triggered by the instabilities causes extreme heat loads on the wall components in fusion devices. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how resonant magnetic perturbation fields affect the heat load deposition. Furthermore, the impact of resonant magnetic perturbation fields on the confinement of fast ions is an important aspect as fast ions are still required to be well confined in order to avoid additional wall loads and increase the fusion efficiency. Recent upgrades on the Joint European Torus allow for a detailed study of the heat load deposition profiles caused by transient events. Throughout this work, the new features are used for the study of the modifications of the transient heat load depositions that occur if resonant magnetic perturbation fields are applied. This leads to a further understanding of the processes involved during the plasma edge instabilities. Additionally, an alternative method using lower hybrid waves for applying resonant magnetic perturbations is investigated. Furthermore, a new diagnostic, capable of detecting fast ion

  3. Fast heating and cooling in nanoimprint using a spring-loaded adapter in a preheated press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schift, Helmut; Bellini, Sandro; Gobrecht, Jens

    2007-01-01

    By using a spring-loaded adapter, instant heating and cooling of wafer-type substrates was implemented in standard hot embossing equipment. This was possible by using the well-known concept of a clamped stack of stamp and substrate, pre-assembled in an alignment fixture. A number of thermoplastic...

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings team monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  5. Analysis of the beam induced heat loads on the LHC arc beam screens during Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Iadarola, Giovanni; Dijkstal, Philipp; Mether, Lotta; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    During Run 2 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been routinely operated with 25 ns bunch spacing. In these conditions large heat loads have been measured on the beam screens of the superconducting magnets, together with other observations indicating that an electron cloud develops in the beam chambers. The analysis of these heat loads has revealed several interesting features allowing to pinpoint peculiar characteristics of the observed beam-induced heating. This document describes the main findings of this analysis including the evolution taking place during the run, the observed dependence on the beam conditions and the results from special tests and dedicated instrumentation. The differences observed in the behavior of the eight LHC arcs are also discussed.

  6. 9 CFR 91.22 - Protection from heat of boilers and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Protection from heat of boilers and engines. No animals shall be stowed along the alleyways leading to the... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection from heat of boilers and engines. 91.22 Section 91.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...

  7. Review Article: Heat stress and the role of protective clothing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The body heat exchange, environmental stress and protective clothing becomes stressful in military service too. The use of microporous material and ventilation of garment significantly improve heat exchange, hence reducing physiological strain and improving tolerance to the heat. Moisture absorption ...

  8. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour under ITER transient heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylev, B.; Janeschitz, G.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Loarte, A.

    2009-04-01

    The beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall in the ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting and melt motion erosion, which determines the lifetime of the plasma facing components. Melting thresholds and melt layer depth of the Be armour under transient loads are estimated for different temperatures of the bulk Be and different shapes of transient loads. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the Lorentz force are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of FW under radiative loads arising during mitigated disruptions is numerically simulated.

  9. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  10. A review of heat transfer phenomena and the impact of moisture on firefighters' clothing and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Aude; Bedek, Gauthier; Salaün, Fabien; Dupont, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Protective clothing with high insulation properties helps to keep the wearer safe from flames and other types of hazards. Such protection presents some drawbacks since it hinders movement and decreases comfort, in particular due to heat stress. In fact, sweating causes the accumulation of moisture which directly influences firefighters' performance, decreasing protection due to the increase in radiant heat flux. Vaporisation and condensation of hot moisture also induces skin burn. To evaluate the heat protection of protective clothing, Henrique's equation is used to predict the time leading to second-degree burn. The influence of moisture on protection is complex, i.e., at low radiant heat flux, an increase in moisture content increases protection, and also changes thermal properties. Better understanding of heat and mass transfer in protective clothing is required to develop enhanced protection and to prevent burn injuries. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of heat and mass transfer inside firefighters' protective clothing to enhance safety. The focus is on the influence of moisture content and the prevention of steam burn.

  11. Modeling of fracture of protective concrete structures under impact loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radchenko, P. A., E-mail: radchenko@live.ru; Batuev, S. P.; Radchenko, A. V.; Plevkov, V. S. [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    This paper presents results of numerical simulation of interaction between a Boeing 747-400 aircraft and the protective shell of a nuclear power plant. The shell is presented as a complex multilayered cellular structure consisting of layers of concrete and fiber concrete bonded with steel trusses. Numerical simulation was performed three-dimensionally using the original algorithm and software taking into account algorithms for building grids of complex geometric objects and parallel computations. Dynamics of the stress-strain state and fracture of the structure were studied. Destruction is described using a two-stage model that allows taking into account anisotropy of elastic and strength properties of concrete and fiber concrete. It is shown that wave processes initiate destruction of the cellular shell structure; cells start to destruct in an unloading wave originating after the compression wave arrival at free cell surfaces.

  12. Optimal trajectory and heat load analysis of different shape lifting reentry vehicles for medium range application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tauqeer ul Islam Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to compute the optimal burn-out conditions and control requirements that would result in maximum down-range/cross-range performance of a waverider type hypersonic boost-glide (HBG vehicle within the medium and intermediate ranges, and compare its performance with the performances of wing-body and lifting-body vehicles vis-à-vis the g-load and the integrated heat load experienced by vehicles for the medium-sized launch vehicle under study. Trajectory optimization studies were carried out by considering the heat rate and dynamic pressure constraints. The trajectory optimization problem is modeled as a nonlinear, multiphase, constraint optimal control problem and is solved using a hp-adaptive pseudospectral method. Detail modeling aspects of mass, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics for the launch and glide vehicles have been discussed. It was found that the optimal burn-out angles for waverider and wing-body configurations are approximately 5° and 14.8°, respectively, for maximum down-range performance under the constraint heat rate environment. The down-range and cross-range performance of HBG waverider configuration is nearly 1.3 and 2 times that of wing-body configuration respectively. The integrated heat load experienced by the HBG waverider was found to be approximately an order of magnitude higher than that of a lifting-body configuration and 5 times that of a wing-body configuration. The footprints and corresponding heat loads and control requirements for the three types of glide vehicles are discussed for the medium range launch vehicle under consideration.

  13. Kinetic modeling of divertor heat load fluxes in the Alcator C-Mod and DIII-D tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Park, G. Y. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, C. S.; Ku, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Brunner, D.; Hughes, J. W.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The guiding-center kinetic neoclassical transport code, XGC0 [Chang et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2649 (2004)], is used to compute the heat fluxes and the heat-load width in the outer divertor plates of Alcator C-Mod and DIII-D tokamaks. The dependence of the width of heat-load fluxes on neoclassical effects, neutral collisions, and anomalous transport is investigated using the XGC0 code. The XGC0 code includes realistic X-point geometry, a neutral source model, the effects of collisions, and a diffusion model for anomalous transport. It is observed that the width of the XGC0 neoclassical heat-load is approximately inversely proportional to the total plasma current I{sub p.} The scaling of the width of the divertor heat-load with plasma current is examined for an Alcator C-Mod discharge and four DIII-D discharges. The scaling of the divertor heat-load width with plasma current is found to be weaker in the Alcator C-Mod discharge compared to scaling found in the DIII-D discharges. The effect of neutral collisions on the 1/I{sub p} scaling of heat-load width is shown not to be significant. Although inclusion of poloidally uniform anomalous transport results in a deviation from the 1/I{sub p} scaling, the inclusion of the anomalous transport that is driven by ballooning-type instabilities results in recovering the neoclassical 1/I{sub p} scaling. The Bohm or gyro-Bohm scalings of anomalous transport do not strongly affect the dependence of the heat-load width on plasma current. The inclusion of anomalous transport, in general, results in widening the width of neoclassical divertor heat-load and enhances the neoclassical heat-load fluxes on the divertor plates. Understanding heat transport in the tokamak scrape-off layer plasmas is important for strengthening the basis for predicting divertor conditions in ITER.

  14. Numerical simulation of shock absorbers heat load for semi-active vehicle suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demić Miroslav D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modelling, has a significant role during to the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first design stages, when relevant parameters are to be defined. Shock absorber, as an executive part of a semi-active suspension system, is exposed to thermal loads which can lead to its damage and degradation of characteristics. Therefore, this paper attempts to analyze a conversion of mechanical work into heat energy by use of a method of dynamic simulation. The issue of heat dissipation from the shock absorber has not been taken into consideration.

  15. Experimental study on moisture transfer through firefighters' protective fabrics in radiant heat exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of absorbed moisture on thermal protective performance of fire-fighters’ clothing materials under radiant heat flux conditions were analyzed in this paper. A thermal protective performance tester and temperature sensor were used to measure the temperature variations for the facecloth side of four kinds of commonly used flame retardant fabrics in several radiant heat exposures, which varied in moisture content. Experimental results showed that, all of the temperature profiles of these four kinds of moistened fabrics under different radiant heat flux conditions presented the same variation trend. The addition of moisture had a positive influence on the thermal protective performance during the constant temperature period when heat radiation time was more than 60 seconds. As the heat radiation time increased beyond 500 seconds, the thermal protective performance of moistened fabrics became worse than that of dried fabrics in general.

  16. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  17. An Optimal Control Approach for an Overall Cryogenic Plant Under Pulsed Heat Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez Palacin, Luis; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique; Maekawa, Ryuji; Chalifour, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the optimal management of a cryogenic plant composed by parallel refrigeration plants, which provide supercritical helium to pulsed heat loads. First, a data reconciliation approach is proposed to estimate precisely the refrigerator variables necessary to deduce the efficiency of each refrigerator. Second, taking into account these efficiencies, an optimal operation of the system is proposed and studied. Finally, while minimizing the power consumption of the refrigerators, the control system maintains stable operation of the cryoplant under pulsed heat loads. The management of the refrigerators is carried out by an upper control layer, which balances the relative production of cooling power in each refrigerator. In addition, this upper control layer deals with the mitigation of malfunctions and faults in the system. The proposed approach has been validated using a dynamic model of the cryoplant developed with EcosimPro software, based on first principles (mass and energy balances) and the...

  18. Tungsten erosion under plasma heat loads typical for ITER type I Elms and disruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Bandura, A.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Byrka, O.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I.S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Makhlaj, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Marchenko, A.K. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Solyakov, D.G. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Tereshin, V.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Trubchaninov, S.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Tsarenko, A.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2005-03-01

    The behavior of pure sintered tungsten under repetitive plasma heat loads of {approx}1 MJ/m{sup 2} (which is relevant to ITER ELMs) and 25 MJ/m{sup 2} (ITER disruptions) is studied with the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. The ELM relevant heat loads have resulted in formation of two kinds of crack networks, with typical sizes of 10-20 {mu}m and {approx}1 mm, at the surface. Tungsten preheating to 600 deg. C indicates that fine intergranular cracks are probably caused by thermal stresses during fast resolidification of the melt, whereas large cracks are the result of ductile-to-brittle transition. For several hundreds of ELM-like exposures, causing surface melting, the melt motion does not dominate the profile of the melt spot. The disruption relevant experiments demonstrated that melt motion became the main factor of tungsten damage.

  19. Tungsten erosion under plasma heat loads typical for ITER type I ELMs and disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkusha, I. E.; Bandura, A. N.; Byrka, O. V.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Landman, I. S.; Makhlaj, V. A.; Marchenko, A. K.; Solyakov, D. G.; Tereshin, V. I.; Trubchaninov, S. A.; Tsarenko, A. V.

    2005-03-01

    The behavior of pure sintered tungsten under repetitive plasma heat loads of ˜1 MJ/m 2 (which is relevant to ITER ELMs) and 25 MJ/m 2 (ITER disruptions) is studied with the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. The ELM relevant heat loads have resulted in formation of two kinds of crack networks, with typical sizes of 10-20 μm and ˜1 mm, at the surface. Tungsten preheating to 600 °C indicates that fine intergranular cracks are probably caused by thermal stresses during fast resolidification of the melt, whereas large cracks are the result of ductile-to-brittle transition. For several hundreds of ELM-like exposures, causing surface melting, the melt motion does not dominate the profile of the melt spot. The disruption relevant experiments demonstrated that melt motion became the main factor of tungsten damage.

  20. The Grudis technology for low heating load density district heating systems; Grudis-tekniken foer vaermegles fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinko, Heimo [ZW Energiteknik AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    The main intention of this report is to collect information about plastic pipe distribution systems in operation for about ten years or more. Plastic pipe systems means insulated, flexible heat distribution pipes where the medium pipe is made of a polymeric material, usually PEX. In early systems built in Sweden in the late 1980s, these pipes were often used together with a special system connection, called GRUDIS in which the heat distribution medium was tap-water. The tap-water system of buildings was directly connected to the distribution system. Alternative ways to distribute heat was f. i. in four-pipe systems, with separate circuits for hot tap water and radiator water or two-pipe systems with separate heat exchangers for both hot tap water and radiators. Results from some four-pipe systems are also included in the report. A second goal for this report was therefore also to investigate, if this GRUDIS-connection should be used today for heat distribution in areas with low heating load density, such as areas with detached houses. The report is supplemented by an overview about the Danish experiences with plastic pipe systems. In Denmark plastic pipe systems are making up about 50 % of the installed pipes. An important result of the investigation is that plastic pipe systems in operation since 15 years do not exhibit an abnormal high failure rate. Failures did occur in pipes installed in 1980s leading to pipe breaks, but these failures were due to an erroneous production process. Breaks due to pipes that have reached their technical live margin were not reported. A slightly higher failure rate is reported from fittings and joints. This holds mainly for older types of fittings and for some types of screw connections. It is not evident from the collected experience if the GRUDIS-connection itself represents an advantageous solution today. The connection was mostly invented because of the lack of oxygen barriers in plastic pipes in the 1980s. Today direct radiator

  1. The Droplets Condensate Centering in the Vapour Channel of Short Low Temperature Heat Pipes at High Heat Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryakov, A. V.; Shakshin, S. L.; Alekseev, A. P.

    2017-11-01

    The results of experimental studies of the process of condensate microdroplets centering contained in the moving moist vapour in the vapour channel of short heat pipes (HPs) for large thermal loads are presented. A vapour channel formed by capillary-porous insert in the form of the inner Laval-liked nozzle along the entire length of the HP. In the upper cover forming a condensation surface in the HP, on the diametrical line are installed capacitive sensors, forming three capacitors located at different distances from the longitudinal axis of the vapour channel. With increasing heat load and the boil beginning in the evaporator a large amount of moist vapour in the vapour channel of HP occur the pressure pulsation with frequency of 400-500 Hz and amplitude up to 1·104Pa. These pulsations affect the moving of the inertial droplets subsystem of the vapour and due to the heterogeneity of the velocity profile around the particle flow in the vapour channel at the diameter of microdroplets occurs transverse force, called the Saffman force and shear microdroplets to the center of vapour channel. Using installed in the top cover capacitors we can record the radial displacement of the condensable microdroplets.

  2. Design and implementation of a multiaxial loading capability during heating on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benafan, O., E-mail: othmane.benafan@nasa.gov [NASA Glenn Research Center, Structures and Materials Division, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Padula, S. A. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Structures and Materials Division, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Skorpenske, H. D.; An, K. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Vaidyanathan, R. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A gripping capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during multiaxial loading and heating on the VULCAN engineering materials diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed capability allowed for the acquisition of neutron spectra during tension, compression, torsion, and/or complex loading paths at elevated temperatures. The design consisted of age-hardened, Inconel{sup ®} 718 grips with direct attachment to the existing MTS load frame having axial and torsional capacities of 100 kN and 400 N·m, respectively. Internal cooling passages were incorporated into the gripping system for fast cooling rates during high temperature experiments up to ~1000 K. The specimen mounting couplers combined a threaded and hexed end-connection for ease of sample installation/removal without introducing any unwanted loads. Instrumentation of this capability is documented in this work along with various performance parameters. The gripping system was utilized to investigate deformation in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes (e.g., isothermal, isobaric, and cyclic), and preliminary results are presented. The measurements facilitated the quantification of the texture, internal strain, and phase fraction evolution in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes.

  3. Transient modelling of heat loading of phase change material for energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asyraf W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the development of solar energy is getting advance from time to time, the concentration solar technology also get the similar attention from the researchers all around the globe. This technology concentrate a large amount of energy into main spot. To collect all the available energy harvest from the solar panel, a thermal energy storage is required to convert the heat energy to one of the purpose such as electrical energy. With the idea of energy storage application that can be narrow down to commercial application such as cooking stove. Using latent heat type energy storage seem to be appropriate with the usage of phase change material (PCM that can release and absorb heat energy at nearly constant temperature by changing its state. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3 and potassium nitrate (KNO3 was selected to use as PCM in this project. This paper focus on the heat loading process and the melting process of the PCM in the energy storage using a computer simulation. The model of the energy storage was created as solid three dimensional modelling using computer aided software and the geometry size of it depend on how much it can apply to boil 1 kg of water in cooking application. The materials used in the tank, heat exchanger and the heat transfer fluid are stainless steel, copper and XCELTHERM MK1, respectively. The analysis was performed using a commercial simulation software in a transient state. The simulation run on different value of velocity but kept controlled under laminar state only, then the relationship of velocity and heat distribution was studied and the melting process of the PCM also has been analyzed. On the effect of heat transfer fluid velocity, the higher the velocity resulted in higher the rate of heat transfer. The comparison between the melting percentages of the PCMs under test conditions show that NaNO3 melts quite faster than KNO3.

  4. Development of a Novel, Lightweight, Protective Structure to Resist Impulsive, Dynamic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Kinematic, with concrete properties based on laboratory tests of the Fortacrete® Armor Panels. Modeling the flexural response of the panels and how...DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL, LIGHTWEIGHT , PROTECTIVE STRUCTURE TO RESIST IMPULSIVE, DYNAMIC LOADS Donald H. Nelson, PE, William F. Heard, PE...This paper discusses the development of a novel, lightweight protective structure and presents results of an analytical and experimental study of

  5. Value Stream Mapping for Evaluation of Load Scheduling Possibilities in a District Heating Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raivo Melsas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a solution for load scheduling by implementing value stream mapping, which is a straightforward enough for production management. Decision makers in the industry should have a clear understanding about positive effect from load scheduling and its effect to production outcome and process availability. Value stream mapping is a well-known process optimization tool from lean production philosophy. The aim of value stream mapping is to shorten the lead time of industrial processes and to reduce the intermediate stock amounts. By complementing value stream map with process energy intensity and energy stored in intermediate stocks, we can promote load scheduling possibilities. Our methodology provides a tool that is understandable and traceable for industry-minded decision makers. Finally, we present a real life test example for the new methodology, which is based on the production process of a district heating plant.

  6. Current Status and Performance Tests of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sukkwon; Jin, Hyunggon; Shin, Kyuin; Choi, Boguen; Lee, Eohwak; Yoon, Jaesung; Lee, Dongwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duckhoi; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A commissioning test has been scheduled to establish the installation and preliminary performance experiments of the copper hypervapotron mockups. And a qualification test will be performed to evaluate the CuCrZr duct liner in the ITER neutral beam injection facility and the ITER first wall small-scale mockups of the semi-prototype, at up to 1.5 and 5 MW/m{sup 2} high heat flux. Also, this system will be used to test other PFCs for ITER and materials for tokamak reactors. Korean high heat flux test facility(KoHLT-EB; Korea Heat Load Test facility - Electron Beam) by using an electron beam system has been constructed in KAERI to perform the qualification test for ITER blanket FW semi-prototype mockups, hypervapotron cooling devices in fusion devices, and other ITER plasma facing components. The commissioning and performance tests with the supplier of e-gun system have been performed on November 2012. The high heat flux test for hypervapotron cooling device and calorimetry were performed to measure the surface heat flux, the temperature profile and cooling performance. Korean high heat flux test facility for the plasma facing components of nuclear fusion machines will be constructed to evaluate the performance of each component. This facility for the plasma facing materials will be equipped with an electron beam system with a 60 kV acceleration gun.

  7. Buoyancy effects in vertical rectangular duct with coplanar magnetic field and single sided heat load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostichev, P. I.; Poddubnyi, I. I.; Razuvanov, N. G.

    2017-11-01

    In some DEMO blanket designs liquid metal flows in vertical ducts of rectangular cross-section between ceramic breeder units providing their cooling. Heat exchange in these conditions is governed by the influence of magnetic field (coplanar) and by buoyancy effects that depend on the flow orientation to the gravity vector (downward and upward flow). Magnetohydrodynamic and heat transfer of liquid metal in vertical rectangular ducts is not well researched. Experimental study of buoyancy effects in rectangular duct with coplanar magnetic field for one-sided heat load and downward and upward flowsis presented in this paper. The detail research with has been done on mercury MHD close loop with using of the probe technique allow to discover several advantageous and disadvantageous effects. The intensive impact of buoyancy force has been observed in a few regime of downward flow which has been laminarized by magnetic field. Due to the development in the flow of the secondary large-scale vortices heat transfer improved and the temperature fluctuations of the abnormally high intensity have been fixed. On the contrary, in the upward flow the buoyancy force stabilized the flow which lead to decreasing of the turbulence heat transfer ratio and, consequently, deterioration of heat transfer.

  8. Mitigation of divertor heat loads by strike point sweeping in high power JET discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silburn, S. A.; Matthews, G. F.; Challis, C. D.; Frigione, D.; Graves, J. P.; Mantsinen, M. J.; Belonohy, E.; Hobirk, J.; Iglesias, D.; Keeling, D. L.; King, D.; Kirov, K.; Lennholm, M.; Lomas, P. J.; Moradi, S.; Sips, A. C. C.; Tsalas, M.; Contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    Deliberate periodic movement (sweeping) of the high heat flux divertor strike lines in tokamak plasmas can be used to manage the heat fluxes experienced by exhaust handling plasma facing components, by spreading the heat loads over a larger surface area. Sweeping has recently been adopted as a routine part of the main high performance plasma configurations used on JET, and has enabled pulses with 30 MW plasma heating power and 10 MW radiation to run for 5 s without overheating the divertor tiles. We present analysis of the effectiveness of sweeping for divertor temperature control on JET, using infrared camera data and comparison with a simple 2D heat diffusion model. Around 50% reduction in tile temperature rise is obtained with 5.4 cm sweeping compared to the un-swept case, and the temperature reduction is found to scale slower than linearly with sweeping amplitude in both experiments and modelling. Compatibility of sweeping with high fusion performance is demonstrated, and effects of sweeping on the edge-localised mode behaviour of the plasma are reported and discussed. The prospects of using sweeping in future JET experiments with up to 40 MW heating power are investigated using a model validated against existing experimental data.

  9. Exposure of CFC-materials to high transient heat loads in the TEXTOR tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T.; Boedo, J.; Bolt, H.; Duwe, R.; Finken, K. H.; Gray, D.; Hassanein, A.

    1997-02-01

    Transient high heat flux events like ELMs, vertical displacement events and disruptions can cause the thermal ablation of plasma facing material. Until now experimental work in this field had been carried out by exposing material specimens to heat loads by electron or laser beam or by tests in pulsed plasma accelerators. In the present work carbon specimens were directly exposed to intense plasma fluxes in the TEXTOR tokamak. The exposure was performed with a fast probe allowing the insertion of the material over a distance of 9 cm into the edge plasma for a duration of 80 ms. The results of in-situ diagnostic measurements and of the post-experiment examination of the specimens are compared with a reference experiment by electron beam and with numerical analyses. Results indicated that the heat flux to the probe surfaces and the probe erosion is much lower than expected.

  10. Colloid volume loading does not mitigate decreases in central blood volume during simulated hemorrhage while heat stressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crandall, Craig G; Wilson, Thad E; Marving, Jens

    2012-01-01

    intravenous colloid volume loading (11 ml/kg). Relative changes in torso and regional blood volumes were determined by gamma camera imaging with technetium-99m labeled erythrocytes. Heat stress reduced blood volume in all regions (ranging from 7 to 16%), while subsequent volume loading returned those values......±5%, all P0.05 relative to heat stress alone). These data suggest that blood volume loading during passive heat stress (via 11 ml/kg of a colloid solution) normalizes regional blood volumes in the torso, but does not mitigate the reduction in central blood volume during a simulated hemorrhagic challenge...

  11. EPB standard EN ISO 52016: calculation of the building’s energy needs for heating and cooling, internal temperatures and heating and cooling load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, H.A.L. van; Spiekman, M.E.; Hoes-van Oeffelen, E.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    EN ISO 52016-1 presents a coherent set of calculation methods at different levels of detail, for the (sensible) energy needs for the space heating and cooling and (latent) energy needs (de)humidification of a building and/or internal temperatures and heating and/or cooling loads, including the

  12. Analysis of Leaf Heat Balance Affected by Operation of a Frost Protective Fan in Tea Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KIMURA, Kensuke; MARUO, Kyosuke; OOKI, Takahiro; NAKAZONO, Kentaro; MATSUO, Kiyoshi; KITANO, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    .... The method for quantifying the thermal effect brought by operation of frost protection methods was newly developed based on analysis of leaf heat balance, where leaf boundary layer conductance...

  13. Mathematical simulation of hydrocarbon fuel conversion in heat-protection elements of hypersonic aircrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranov, A. L.; Korabel'nikov, A. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a mathematical model of hydrocarbon fuel conversion in a thermochemical reactor as an element of heat protection of a hypersonic aircraft. The application of this model has made it possible to enrich information obtained in experimental studies.

  14. Heat gain from thermal radiation through protective clothing with different insulation, reflectivity and vapour permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröde, P.; Kuklane, K.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Griefahn, B.; Holmér, I.; Meinander, H.; Nocker, W.; Richards, M.; Havenith, G.

    2010-01-01

    The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were

  15. A Study of Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Protective Load Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Due to the smaller inertia feature of a Wind Turbine (WT) involved Distributed Generation System (DGS), the WT’s induction generator are more vulnerable to frequency and voltage disturbances. Therefore the study investigates the DGS characteristics respectively from power plants, i.e. WTs and load...... a fast protective load control strategy to such a DGS is studied. In order to implement such a strategy a communication system associated with a DGS is configured. With this strategy a precise and prompt load shedding operation can be performed to ensure the stability of a DGS and WTs. The impacts...... of load characteristics are analyzed and utilized in the fast control strategy. Subsequently a case study is presented to demonstrate the theoretical investigations and analyses....

  16. Tungsten joining with copper alloy and its high heat load performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Lian, Youyun; Chen, Lei; Cheng, Zengkui; Chen, Jiming; Duan, Xuru; Song, Jioupeng; Yu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    W-CuCrZr joining technology by using low activation Cu-Mn filler metal was developed at Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP) for the manufacturing of divertor components of fusion experiment devices. In addition, a fast W coating technology by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was also developed and CVD-W/CuCrZr and CVD-W/C mockups with a W coating thickness of 2 mm were prepared. In order to assess their high heat flux (HHF) performances, a 60 kW Electron-beam Material testing Scenario (EMS-60) equipped with a 150 keV electron beam welding gun was constructed at SWIP. Experimental results indicated that brazed W/CuCrZr mockups can withstand 8 MW/m2 heat flux for 1000 cycles without visible damages and CVD-W/CuCrZr mockups with W-Cu gradient interface can survive 1000 cycles under 11 MW/m2 heat flux. An ultrasonic inspection method for non-destructive tests (NDT) of brazed W/CuCrZr mockups was established and 2 mm defect can be detected. Infinite element analysis and heat load tests indicated that 5 mm defect had less noticeable influence on the heat transfer.

  17. Enhancement of active corrosion protection via combination of inhibitor-loaded nanocontainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedim, J; Poznyak, S K; Kuznetsova, A; Raps, D; Hack, T; Zheludkevich, M L; Ferreira, M G S

    2010-05-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanocontainers loaded with different corrosion inhibitors (vanadate, phosphate, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate) and the characterization of the resulting pigments by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The anticorrosion activity of these nanocontainers with respect to aluminum alloy AA2024 was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The bare metallic substrates were immersed in dispersions of nanocontainers in sodium chloride solution and tested to understand the inhibition mechanisms and efficiency. The nanocontainers were also incorporated into commercial coatings used for aeronautical applications to study the active corrosion protection properties in systems of industrial relevance. The results show that an enhancement of the active protection effect can be reached when nanocontainers loaded with different inhibitors are combined in the same protective coating system.

  18. Steady internal flow and aerodynamic loads analysis of shuttle thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, D. H.; Alexander, W., Jr.; Ivey, G. W., Jr.; Kerr, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model for calculation of ascent steady state tile loading was developed and validated with wind tunnel data. The analytical model is described and results are given. Results are given for loading due to shocks and skin friction. The analysis included calculation of internal flow (porous media flow and channel flow) to obtain pressures and integration of the pressures to obtain forces and moments on an insulation tile. A heat transfer program was modified by using analogies between heat transfer and fluid flow so that it could be used for internal flow calculation. The type of insulation tile considered was undensified reusable surface insulation (RSI) without gap fillers, and the location studied was the lower surface of the orbiter. Force and moment results are reported for parameter variations on surface pressure distribution, gap sizes, insulation permeability, and tile thickness.

  19. Risk Assessment of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Strategies in Low-Load Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    "Modern, energy efficient homes conforming to the Zero Energy Ready Home standard face the challenge of meeting high customer expectations for comfort. Traditional heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) sizing and control strategies may be insufficient to adequately condition each zone due to unique load patterns in each room caused by a number of factors. These factors include solar heat gains, occupant-related gains, and gains associated with appliances and electronics. Because of shrinking shell loads, these intermittent factors are having an increasingly significant impact on the thermal load in each zone. Consequently, occupant comfort can be compromised. To evaluate the impact of climate and house geometry, as well as HVAC system and control strategies on comfort conditions, IBACOS analyzed the results of 99 TRNSYS multiple-zone simulations. The results of this analysis indicate that for simple-geometry and single-story plans, a single zone and thermostat can adequately condition the entire house. Demanding house geometry and houses with multiple stories require the consideration of multiple thermostats and multiple zones.

  20. Cryogenic Heat Load and Refrigeration Capacity Management at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Claudet, S; Serio, L; Tavian, L; Van Weelderen, R; Wagner, U

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a 26.7 km high-energy proton and ion collider based on several thousand high-field superconducting magnets operating in superfluid helium below 2 K, now under commissioning at CERN. After a decade of development of the key technologies, the project was approved for construction in 1994 and the industrial procurement for the cryogenic system launched in 1997, concurrently with the completion of the R&D program. This imposed to base the sizing of the refrigeration plants on estimated and partially measured values of static and dynamic heat loads, with adequate uncertainty and overcapacity coefficients to cope with unknowns in machine configuration and in physical processes at work. With the cryogenic commissioning of the complete machine, full-scale static heat loads could be measured, thus confirming the correctness of the estimates and the validity of the approach, and safeguarding excess refrigeration capacity for absorbing the beam-induced dynamic loads. The metho...

  1. TOKES studies of the thermal quench heat load reduction in mitigated ITER disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pestchanyi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Disruption mitigation by massive gas injection (MGI of Ne gas has been simulated using the 3D TOKES code that includes the injectors of the Disruption Mitigation System (DMS as it will be implemented in ITER. The simulations have been done using a quasi-3D approach, which gives an upper limit for the radiation heat load (notwithstanding possible asymmetries in radial heat flux associated with MHD. The heating of the first wall from the radiation flash has been assessed with respect to injection quantity, the number of injectors, and their location for an H-mode ITER discharge with 280MJ of thermal energy. Simulations for the maximum quantity of Ne (8kPam3 have shown that wall melting can be avoided by using solely the three injectors in the upper ports, whereas shallow melting occurred when the midplane injector had been added. With all four injectors, melting had been avoided for a smaller neon quantity of 250Pam3 that provides still a sufficient radiation level for thermal load mitigation.

  2. In-situ imaging of tungsten surface modification under ITER-like transient heat loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Vasilyev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research on behavior of rolled tungsten plates under intense transient heat loads generated by a powerful (a total power of up to 7 MW long-pulse (0.1–0.3ms electron beam with full irradiation area of 2 cm2 was carried out. Imaging of the sample by the fast CCD cameras in the NIR range and with illumination by the 532nm continuous-wave laser was applied for in-situ surface diagnostics during exposure. In these experiments tungsten plates were exposed to heat loads 0.5–1MJ/m2 with a heat flux factor (Fhf close to and above the melting threshold of tungsten at initial room temperature. Crack formation and crack propagation under the surface layer were observed during multiple exposures. Overheated areas with excessive temperature over surrounding surface of about 500K were found on severely damaged samples more than 5ms after beam ending. The application of laser illumination enables to detect areas of intense tungsten melting near crack edges and crack intersections.

  3. Modelling reduction of urban heat load in Vienna by modifying surface properties of roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žuvela-Aloise, Maja; Andre, Konrad; Schwaiger, Hannes; Bird, David Neil; Gallaun, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    The study examines the potential of urban roofs to reduce the urban heat island (UHI) effect by changing their reflectivity and implementing vegetation (green roofs) using the example of the City of Vienna. The urban modelling simulations are performed based on high-resolution orography and land use data, climatological observations, surface albedo values from satellite imagery and registry of the green roof potential in Vienna. The modelling results show that a moderate increase in reflectivity of roofs (up to 0.45) reduces the mean summer temperatures in the densely built-up environment by approximately 0.25 °C. Applying high reflectivity materials (roof albedo up to 0.7) leads to average cooling in densely built-up area of approximately 0.5 °C. The green roofs yield a heat load reduction in similar order of magnitude as the high reflectivity materials. However, only 45 % of roof area in Vienna is suitable for greening and the green roof potential mostly applies to industrial areas in city outskirts and is therefore not sufficient for substantial reduction of the UHI effect, particularly in the city centre which has the highest heat load. The strongest cooling effect can be achieved by combining the green roofs with high reflectivity materials. In this case, using 50 or 100 % of the green roof potential and applying high reflectivity materials on the remaining surfaces have a similar cooling effect.

  4. Recrystallization and grain growth induced by ELMs-like transient heat loads in deformed tungsten samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslova, A.; El-Atwani, O.; Sagapuram, D.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2014-11-01

    Tungsten has been chosen as the main candidate for plasma facing components (PFCs) due to its superior properties under extreme operating conditions in future nuclear fusion reactors such as ITER. One of the serious issues for PFCs is the high heat load during transient events such as ELMs and disruption in the reactor. Recrystallization and grain size growth in PFC materials caused by transients are undesirable changes in the material, since the isotropic microstructure developed after recrystallization exhibits a higher ductile-to-brittle transition temperature which increases with the grain size, a lower thermal shock fatigue resistance, a lower mechanical strength, and an increased surface roughening. The current work was focused on careful determination of the threshold parameters for surface recrystallization, grain growth rate, and thermal shock fatigue resistance under ELM-like transient heat events. Transient heat loads were simulated using long pulse laser beams for two different grades of ultrafine-grained tungsten. It was observed that cold rolled tungsten demonstrated better power handling capabilities and higher thermal stress fatigue resistance compared to severely deformed tungsten. Higher recrystallization threshold, slower grain growth, and lower degree of surface roughening were observed in the cold rolled tungsten.

  5. Occupational heat stress assessment and protective strategies in the context of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Östergren, Per-Olof; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2017-04-01

    Global warming will unquestionably increase the impact of heat on individuals who work in already hot workplaces in hot climate areas. The increasing prevalence of this environmental health risk requires the improvement of assessment methods linked to meteorological data. Such new methods will help to reveal the size of the problem and design appropriate interventions at individual, workplace and societal level. The evaluation of occupational heat stress requires measurement of four thermal climate factors (air temperature, humidity, air velocity and heat radiation); available weather station data may serve this purpose. However, the use of meteorological data for occupational heat stress assessment is limited because weather stations do not traditionally and directly measure some important climate factors, e.g. solar radiation. In addition, local workplace environmental conditions such as local heat sources, metabolic heat production within the human body, and clothing properties, all affect the exchange of heat between the body and the environment. A robust occupational heat stress index should properly address all these factors. This article reviews and highlights a number of selected heat stress indices, indicating their advantages and disadvantages in relation to meteorological data, local workplace environments, body heat production and the use of protective clothing. These heat stress and heat strain indices include Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, Discomfort Index, Predicted Heat Strain index, and Universal Thermal Climate Index. In some cases, individuals may be monitored for heat strain through physiological measurements and medical supervision prior to and during exposure. Relevant protective and preventive strategies for alleviating heat strain are also reviewed and proposed.

  6. Fitness-related differences in the rate of whole-body evaporative heat loss in exercising men are heat-load dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Dallon T; Notley, Sean R; Louie, Jeffrey C; Poirier, Martin P; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Aerobic fitness modulates heat loss, but the heat-load threshold at which fitness-related differences in heat loss occur in young healthy men remains unclear. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate using direct calorimetry that aerobic fitness modulates heat loss in a heat-load-dependent manner, with fitness-related differences occurring between young men who have low and high fitness when the heat load is ∼≥500 W. Although aerobic fitness has been known for some time to modulate heat loss, our findings define the precise heat-load threshold at which fitness-related differences occur. The effect of aerobic fitness (defined as rate of peak oxygen consumption) on heat loss during exercise is thought to be related to the level of heat stress. However, it remains unclear at what combined exercise and environmental (net) heat-load threshold these fitness-related differences occur. To identify this, we assessed whole-body heat exchange (dry and evaporative) by direct calorimetry in young (22 ± 3 years) men matched for physical characteristics with low (Low-fit; 39.8 ± 2.5 ml O2  kg-1  min-1 ), moderate (Mod-fit; 50.9 ± 1.2 ml O2  kg-1  min-1 ) and high aerobic fitness (High-fit; 62.0 ± 4.4 ml O2  kg-1  min-1 ; each n = 8), during three 30 min bouts of cycling in dry heat (40°C, 12% relative humidity) at increasing rates of metabolic heat production of 300 (Ex1), 400 (Ex2) and 500 W (Ex3), each followed by a 15 min recovery period. Each group was exposed to a similar net heat load (metabolic plus ∼100 W dry heat gain; P = 0.83) during each exercise bout [∼400 (Ex1), ∼500 (Ex2) and ∼600 W (Ex3); P fit (Ex2, 466 ± 21 W; Ex3, 557 ± 26 W) compared with the Low-fit group (Ex2, 439 ± 22 W; Ex3, 511 ± 20 W) during Ex2 and Ex3 (P ≤ 0.03). Conversely, evaporative heat loss for the Mod-fit group did not differ from either the High-fit or Low

  7. Numerical Simulation of Pulsation Flow in the Vapour Channel of Short Low Temperature Heat Pipes at High Heat Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryakov, A. V.; Konkin, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of pulsations in the Laval-liked vapour channel of short low-temperature range heat pipes (HPs) are presented. The numerical results confirmed the experimentally obtained increase of the frequency of pulsations in the vapour channel of short HPs with increasing overheat of the porous evaporator relative to the boiling point of the working fluid. The occurrence of pressure pulsations inside the vapour channel in a short HPs is a complex phenomenon associated with the boiling beginning in the capillary-porous evaporator at high heat loads, and appearance the excess amount of vapour above it, leading to the increase in pressure P to a value at which the boiling point TB of the working fluid becomes higher than the evaporator temperature Tev. Vapour clot spreads through the vapour channel and condense, and then a rarefaction wave return from condenser in the evaporator, the boiling in which is resumed and the next cycle of the pulsations is repeated. Numerical simulation was performed using finite element method implemented in the commercial program ANSYS Multiphisics 14.5 in the two-dimensional setting of axis symmetric moist vapour flow with third kind boundary conditions.

  8. Impact of Groundwater Flow and Energy Load on Multiple Borehole Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, S Emad; Schincariol, Robert A; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of array configuration, that is, number, layout, and spacing, on the performance of multiple borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) is generally known under the assumption of fully conductive transport. The effect of groundwater flow on BHE performance is also well established, but most commonly for single BHEs. In multiple-BHE systems the effect of groundwater advection can be more complicated due to the induced thermal interference between the boreholes. To ascertain the influence of groundwater flow and borehole arrangement, this study investigates single- and multi-BHE systems of various configurations. Moreover, the influence of energy load balance is also examined. The results from corresponding cases with and without groundwater flow as well as balanced and unbalanced energy loads are cross-compared. The groundwater flux value, 10(-7) m/s, is chosen based on the findings of previous studies on groundwater flow interaction with BHEs and thermal response tests. It is observed that multi-BHE systems with balanced loads are less sensitive to array configuration attributes and groundwater flow, in the long-term. Conversely, multi-BHE systems with unbalanced loads are influenced by borehole array configuration as well as groundwater flow; these effects become more pronounced with time, unlike when the load is balanced. Groundwater flow has more influence on stabilizing loop temperatures, compared to array characteristics. Although borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems have a balanced energy load function, preliminary investigation on their efficiency shows a negative impact by groundwater which is due to their dependency on high temperature gradients between the boreholes and surroundings. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Decentralized Coordination of Load Shedding and Plant Protection Considering High Share of RESs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates the average Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF) following islanding and/or cascading event/s using inflection points of frequency profile. Moreover, a frequency collapse barrier scheme is set up by tuning the frequency set points of Load Shedding (LS) relays as a dynamic...... variable using voltage drop data coordinated with plant protection scheme. A frequency anti stalling scheme is developed to interrupt more load feeders in case of frequency stall between consecutive set points. This time-based approach adjusts the time delay of the relay stages to disconnect the feeders...

  10. Heat load and deuterium plasma effects on SPS and WSP tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilémová Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten is a prime choice for armor material in future nuclear fusion devices. For the realization of fusion, it is necessary to address issues related to the plasma–armor interactions. In this work, several types of tungsten material were studied, i.e. tungsten prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS and by water stabilized plasma spraying (WSP technique. An intended surface porosity was created in the samples to model hydrogen/helium bubbles. The samples were subjected to a laser heat loading and a radiation loading of deuterium plasma to simulate edge plasma conditions of a nuclear fusion device (power density of 108 W/cm2 and 107 W/cm2, respectively, in the pulse intervals up to 200 ns. Thermally induced changes in the morphology and the damage to the studied surfaces are described. Possible consequences for the fusion device operation are pointed out.

  11. Stochastic clustering of material surface under high-heat plasma load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaev, Viacheslav P.

    2017-11-01

    The results of a study of a surface formed by high-temperature plasma loads on various materials such as tungsten, carbon and stainless steel are presented. High-temperature plasma irradiation leads to an inhomogeneous stochastic clustering of the surface with self-similar granularity - fractality on the scale from nanoscale to macroscales. Cauliflower-like structure of tungsten and carbon materials are formed under high heat plasma load in fusion devices. The statistical characteristics of hierarchical granularity and scale invariance are estimated. They differ qualitatively from the roughness of the ordinary Brownian surface, which is possibly due to the universal mechanisms of stochastic clustering of material surface under the influence of high-temperature plasma.

  12. Investigation of damages induced by ITER-relevant heat loads during massive gas injections on Beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Spilker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Massive gas injections (MGIs will be used in ITER to mitigate the strong damaging effect of full performance plasma disruptions on the plasma facing components. The MGI method transforms the stored plasma energy to radiation that is spread across the vacuum vessel with poloidal and toroidal asymmetries. This work investigated the impact of MGI like heat loading on the first wall armor material beryllium. ITER-relevant power densities of 90-260MWm−2in combination with pulse durations of 5-10ms were exerted onto the S-65 grade beryllium specimens in the electron beam facility JUDITH 1. All tested loading conditions led to noticeable surface morphology changes and in the expected worst case scenario, a crater with thermally induced cracks with a depth of up to ∼340µm formed in the loaded area. The level of destruction in the loaded area was strongly dependent on the pulse number but also on the formation of beryllium oxide. The cyclic melting of beryllium could lead to an armor thinning mechanism under the presence of melt motion driving forces such as surface tension, magnetic forces, and plasma pressure.

  13. Optimal control of a fuel cell/wind/PV/grid hybrid system with thermal heat pump load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sichilalu, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal energy management strategy for a grid-tied photovoltaic–wind-fuel cell hybrid power supply system. The hybrid system meets the load demand consisting of an electrical load and a heat pump water heater supplying thermal...

  14. Self-castellation of tungsten monoblock under high heat flux loading and impact of material properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Panayotis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the full-tungsten divertor qualification program at ITER Organization, macro-cracks, so called self-castellation were found in a fraction of tungsten monoblocks during cyclic high heat flux loading at 20MW/m2. The number of monoblocks with macro-cracks varied with the tungsten products used as armour material. In order to understand correlation between the macro-crack appearance and W properties, an activity to characterize W monoblock materials was launched at the IO. The outcome highlighted that the higher the recrystallization resistance, the lower the number of cracks detected during high heat flux tests. Thermo-mechanical finite element modelling demonstrated that the maximum surface temperature ranges from 1800 °C to 2200 °C and in this range recrystallization of tungsten occurred. Furthermore, it indicated that loss of strength due to recrystallization is responsible for the development of macro-cracks in the tungsten monoblock.

  15. Simultaneous optimization of the cavity heat load and trip rates in linacs using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balša Terzić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based optimization is used to simultaneously minimize two competing objectives guiding the operation of the Jefferson Lab’s Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility linacs: cavity heat load and radio frequency cavity trip rates. The results represent a significant improvement to the standard linac energy management tool and thereby could lead to a more efficient Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility configuration. This study also serves as a proof of principle of how a genetic algorithm can be used for optimizing other linac-based machines.

  16. Temperature calculations of heat loads in rotating target wheels exposed to high beam currents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J. P.; Gabor, R.; Neubauer, J.

    2000-11-29

    In heavy-ion physics, high beam currents can eventually melt or destroy the target. Tightly focused beams on stationary targets of modest melting point will exhibit short lifetimes. Defocused or wobbled beams are employed to enhance target survival. Rotating targets using large diameter wheels can help overcome target melting and allow for higher beam currents to be used in experiments. The purpose of the calculations in this work is to try and predict the safe maximum beam currents which produce heat loads below the melting point of the target material.

  17. Electron temperature and heat load measurements in the COMPASS divertor using the new system of probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Jiří; Seidl, Jakub; Horáček, Jan; Komm, Michael; Eich, T.; Pánek, Radomír; Cavalier, J.; Devitre, A.; Peterka, Matěj; Vondráček, Petr; Stöckel, Jan; Šesták, David; Grover, Ondřej; Bílková, Petra; Böhm, Petr; Varju, Jozef; Havránek, Aleš; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Lovell, J.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Mitošinková, Klára; Dejarnac, Renaud; Hron, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 116017. ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14228S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : COMPASS * divertor * heat load * ELM * electron temperature * Ball-pen probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa7e09

  18. Sex difference in the heat shock response to high external load resistance training in older humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njemini, Rose; Forti, Louis Nuvagah; Mets, Tony; Van Roie, Evelien; Coudyzer, Walter; Beyer, Ingo; Delecluse, Christophe; Bautmans, Ivan

    2017-07-01

    Literature reports on the effects of resistance training on heat shock protein70 (Hsp70) adaptation in older subjects are scarce. Moreover, the optimum training load required to obtain a beneficial adaptation profile is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training at various external loads on extracellular Hsp70 (eHsp70) resting levels in older humans. Fifty-six community-dwelling older (68±5years) volunteers were randomized to 12weeks of resistance training (3×/week) at either high-resistance (HIGH, 8 males, 10 females, 2×10-15 repetitions at 80% 1RM), low resistance (LOW, 9 Males, 10 Females, 1×80-100 repetitions at 20% 1RM), or mixed low resistance (LOW+, 9 Males, 10 Females, 1×60 repetitions at 20% 1RM followed by 1×10-20 repetitions at 40% 1RM). Serum was available from 48 out of the 56 participants at baseline and after 12weeks for determination of eHsp70. Mid-thigh muscle volume (computed tomography), muscle strength (1RM & Biodex dynamometer) and physical functioning (including 6min walk distance [6MWD]) were assessed. There was a sex-related dichotomy in the heat shock response to high external load training. We observed a significant decrease in eHsp70 concentration in the HIGH group for female, but not male, subjects. At baseline, men had a larger muscle volume, leg press and leg extension 1RM compared to women (all ptraining at high external load decreases the resting levels of eHsp70 in older females. Whether this reflects a better health status requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of Unsteady Tip and Endwall Heat Transfer in a Highly Loaded Transonic Turbine Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, vane-rotor shock interactions and heat transfer on the rotor blade of a highly loaded transonic turbine stage were simulated. The geometry consists of a high pressure turbine vane and downstream rotor blade. This study focuses on the physics of flow and heat transfer in the rotor tip, casing and hub regions. The simulation was performed using the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) code MSU-TURBO. A low Reynolds number k-epsilon model was utilized to model turbulence. The rotor blade in question has a tip gap height of 2.1 percent of the blade height. The Reynolds number of the flow is approximately 3x10(exp 6) per meter. Unsteadiness was observed at the tip surface that results in intermittent "hot spots". It is demonstrated that unsteadiness in the tip gap is governed by inviscid effects due to high speed flow and is not strongly dependent on pressure ratio across the tip gap contrary to published observations that have primarily dealt with subsonic tip flows. The high relative Mach numbers in the tip gap lead to a choking of the leakage flow that translates to a relative attenuation of losses at higher loading. The efficacy of new tip geometry is discussed to minimize heat flux at the tip while maintaining choked conditions. In addition, an explanation is provided that shows the mechanism behind the rise in stagnation temperature on the casing to values above the absolute total temperature at the inlet. It is concluded that even in steady mode, work transfer to the near tip fluid occurs due to relative shearing by the casing. This is believed to be the first such explanation of the work transfer phenomenon in the open literature. The difference in pattern between steady and time-averaged heat flux at the hub is also explained.

  20. Heat Exchange in “Human body - Thermal protection - Environment” System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromova, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    This article is devoted to the issues of simulation and calculation of thermal processes in the system called “Human body – Thermal protection - Environment” under low temperature conditions. It considers internal heat sources and convective heat transfer between calculated elements. Overall this is important for the Heat Transfer Theory. The article introduces complex heat transfer calculation method and local thermophysical parameters calculation method in the system called «Human body – Thermal protection – Environment», considering passive and active thermal protections, thermophysical and geometric properties of calculated elements in a wide range of environmental parameters (water, air). It also includes research on the influence that thermal resistance of modern materials, used in special protective clothes development, has on heat transfer in the system “Human body – Thermal protection – Environment”. Analysis of the obtained results allows adding of the computer research data to experiments and optimizing of individual life-support system elements, which are intended to protect human body from exposure to external factors.

  1. Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events Caused by Load Flow Transferring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun

    2013-01-01

    Load flow transferring after an initial contingency is regarded as one of the main reasons of causing unexpected cascading trips. A multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper to predict the load flow transferring from the point of view of impedance relays......, and prevent the unexpected relay operations accordingly. The variations of node injections during the post fault transient period will be also considered in the prediction algorithm. The power system of Eastern Denmark modeled in real time digital simulator (RTDS) will be used to demonstrate the proposed...... strategy. The simulation results indicate this strategy can successfully predict and prevent the unexpected relay operation caused by load flow transferring....

  2. Technical Solution for Protection of Heat Pump Evaporators Against Freezing the Moisture Condensed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the study of the processes of formation and freezing of condensate in heat exchangers using ambientair heat and is prepared according to the results of experimental investigations. The aim of this work has been set to elaboratean energy-independent technical solution for protection of heat-exchange equipment against freezing the moisture condensed on the heat-exchange surfaces while using the low-potential heat of ambient air in heat pump systems. The investigations have shown that at the temperatures of ambient air close to 0°C when using the «traditional» way of defrostation, which means the reverse mode of operation of heat pump, an intensive formation of ice is observed at the bottom part of evaporator (if not provided with tray heater. This effect is provoked by downward flow of thawed water and it’s freezing in the lower part of the heat-exchanger due to the fact that the tray and housing of heat pump have a temperature below zero. Thereafter, while the defrostation mode has been periodically used, the ice coat would be going to continue its growth, and by time significant area of evaporator could appear to be covered with ice. The results of the investigations presented in the article could be applied both to air-source heat pumps and to ventilation air heat recuperators.

  3. Acetylsalicylic acid provides cerebrovascular protection from oxidant damage in salt-loaded stroke-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Niwa, Atsuko; Tabuchi, Masaki; Ooshima, Kana; Higashino, Hideaki

    2008-03-26

    Inflammatory processes may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Recent reports revealed that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) has anti-oxidative properties and elicits nitric oxide release by a direct activation of the endothelial NO synthase. The present study was designed to determine whether low-dose aspirin might prevent cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded SHRSP by protecting oxidative damage. Nine-week-old SHRSP were fed a 0.4% NaCl or a 4% NaCl diet with or without treatment by naproxen (20 mg/kg/day), salicylic acid (5 mg/kg/day), or aspirin (5 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure, blood brain barrier impairment, mortality, and the parameters of cerebrovascular inflammation and damage were compared among them. High salt intake in SHRSP significantly increased blood brain barrier impairment and early mortality, which were suppressed by treatment with aspirin independent of changes in blood pressure. Salt loading significantly increased superoxide production in basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly suppressed by treatment with aspirin. Salt loading also significantly decreased NOS activity in the basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly improved by treatment with aspirin. At 5 weeks after salt loading, macrophage accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity at the stroke-negative area in cerebral cortex of SHRSP were significantly reduced by treatment with aspirin. These results suggest that low-dose aspirin may exert protective effects against cerebrovascular inflammation and damage by salt loading through down-regulation of superoxide production and induction of nitric oxide synthesis.

  4. Surface cracking of tungsten-vanadium alloys under transient heat loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameel Arshad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate high heat load performance of tungsten-vanadium (W-V alloys as a potential candidate for plasma facing materials of fusion devices, the target materials with three different V concentrations (1, 5 and 10 wt% are exposed to thermal shock loading. The alloys are fabricated by cold isostatic pressing and subsequently sintered in a vacuum furnace. Thereafter, they are exposed to different high heat flux densities ranging from 340 to 675 MW/m2 for single shot of 5 ms duration in an intense electron beam test facility. The alloys with lowest V concentration (1 wt% are highly damaged in form of seriously cracking. The ones with intermediate V content (5 wt% has shown comparatively better performance than both highest and lowest V contents alloys. The results indicate that improved mechanical properties and reduced thermal conductivity due to V addition comprehensively affect the cracking behavior of W-V alloy under transient thermal shock.

  5. Heat Load Measurements on a Large Superconducting Magnet An Application of a Void Fraction Meter

    CERN Document Server

    Pengo, R; Junker, S; Passardi, Giorgio; ten Kate, H H J

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the two major experiments of the LHC project at CERN using cryogenics. The superconducting magnet system of ATLAS is composed of the Barrel Toroid (BT), two End Caps Toroids and the Central Solenoid. The BT is formed of 8 race-track superconducting dipoles, each one 25 m long and 5 m wide. A reduced scale prototype (named B0) of one of the 8 dipoles, about one third of the length, has been constructed and tested in a dedicated cryogenic facility at CERN. To simulate the final thermal and hydraulic operating conditions, the B0 was cooled by a forced flow of 4.5 K saturated liquid helium provided by a centrifugal pump of 80 g/s nominal capacity. Both static and dynamic heat loads, generated by the induced currents on the B0 casing during a slow dump or a ramp up, have been measured to verify the expected thermal budget of the entire BT. The instrument used for the heat load measurements was a Void Fraction Meter (VFM) installed on the magnet return line. The instrument constructed at CERN was ca...

  6. High heat loading properties of vacuum plasma spray tungsten coatings on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, K.; Hotta, T.; Araki, K.; Miyamoto, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Nakamura, K.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M.; Nagasaka, T.; Kasada, R.; Kimura, A.

    2013-07-01

    High density W coatings on reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (RAF/M) have been produced by Vacuum Plasma Spraying technique (VPS) and heat flux experiments on them have been carried out to evaluate their possibility as a plasma-facing armor in a fusion device. In addition, quantitative analyses of temperature profile and thermal stress have been carried out using the finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate its thermal properties. No cracks or exfoliation has been formed by steady state and cyclic heat loading experiments under heat loading at 700 °C of surface temperature. In addition, stress distribution and maximum stress between interface of VPS-W and RAF/M have been obtained by FEA. On the other hand, exfoliation has occurred at interlayer of VPS-W coatings near the interface between VPS-W and RAF/M at 1300 °C of surface temperature by cyclic heat loading.

  7. Heat gain from thermal radiation through protective clothing with different insulation, reflectivity and vapour permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröde, Peter; Kuklane, Kalev; Candas, Victor; Den Hartog, Emiel A; Griefahn, Barbara; Holmér, Ingvar; Meinander, Harriet; Nocker, Wolfgang; Richards, Mark; Havenith, George

    2010-01-01

    The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were considered. Garments with different outer materials and colours and additionally an aluminised reflective suit were combined with different number and types of dry and pre-wetted underwear layers. Under radiant stress, whole body heat loss decreased, i.e., heat gain occurred compared to the reference. This heat gain increased with radiation intensity, and decreased with air velocity and clothing insulation. Except for the reflective outer layer that showed only minimal heat gain over the whole range of radiation intensities, the influence of the outer garments' material and colour was small with dry clothing. Wetting the underclothing for simulating sweat accumulation, however, caused differing effects with higher heat gain in less permeable garments.

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOD LACTATE AND HYPERVENTILATION DURING HIGH-INTENSITY CONSTANT-LOAD EXERCISE IN HEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chiba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hyperventilation and increase in blood lactate during high-intensity constant-load exercise in heat and normal conditions. Seven male volunteers exercised for 10 min on a cycle ergometer at 80%·VO2max in heat (40ºC, 50%relative humidity: HT and normal conditions (20ºC, 50% relative humidity: CON. Oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, ventilation, blood lactate and blood electrolytes (K , Na , Cl− were measured in HT and CON. We found that ventilation was significantly higher during exercise in HT compared with CON (p<0.05 and RER tends to be higher in HT than in CON. Blood lactate was significantly higher at 3 min during exercise in HT compared with CON (5.96 ± 0.57 mEq·l-1 5.00 ± 0.28 mEq·l-1, p<0.05. Change in strong ion difference [∆SID = (∆K ∆Na − (∆Cl− ∆La−], which affects ∆HCO3− in blood significantly, was lower at 5 min during exercise in HT compared with in CON (p<0.05. These results suggest that hyperventilation during exercise in heat would induce lower HCO3− in blood and consequently would result in an increase in blood lactate at an earlier time during high-intensity exercise in heat. It was concluded that hyperventilation during short-term high-intensity exercise in heat is temporarily associated with an increase in blood lactate.

  9. Evaluation of coated columbian alloy heat shields for space shuttle thermal protection system application. Volume 1: Phase 1 - Environmental criteria and material characterization, October 1970 - March 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    The studies presented are directed toward establishing criteria for a niobium alloy thermal protection system for the space shuttle. Evaluation of three niobium alloys and two silicon coatings for heat shield configurations culminated in the selection of two coating/substrate combinations for environmental criteria and material characterization tests. Specimens were exposed to boost and reentry temperatures, pressure, and loads simulating a space shuttle orbiter flight profile.

  10. An Analysis on the Moisture and Thermal Protective Performance of Firefighter Clothing Based on Different Layer Combinations and Effect of Washing on Heat Protection and Vapour Transfer Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Atalay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabric assemblies for firefighting clothing have been tested for heat protection and comfort. The constituent materials and fabric structures have been specifically selected and tailored for firefighters’ clothing. In order to do this, four types of outer shell fabrics, four types of moisture barrier fabrics, and four types of heat barriers with different weights and material compositions were used to make a multilayered fabric assembly. Heat transfer (flame, heat transfer (radiant, and water vapour resistance tests were conducted according to the latest EN469 test standard which also recommends washing tests. These tests reveal that material content and material brand have considerable effect on the required performance levels of heat protection. In addition, while washing tests have improved water vapor transfer properties, they have a deteriorating effect on heat protection performance. Considering heat protection and moisture comfort properties, the optimal assemblies are thereby identified.

  11. Specific Aspects Regarding Coupled Numerical Modeling of Inverter and Load Equipments in an Induction Heating Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu MICH-VANCEA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The most propitious projection of inductiveelectrothermic installation requires a deep study ofcoupled electrothermic and circuits problems; thereforethe present paper follows the same line. Research inspecific literature have emphasized that induction heatinghas a much higher efficiency if the supply of the charge(inductor – piece is done at frequencies other thatindustrial one. [1]. Due to material alter depending ontemperature and, implicitly, the variation of the electricalparameters of the heating installation it is necessary totackle the projection of these inductive electrothermicinstallation projected through coupled numericalmodeling of the inverter circuit and of the heatingthrough induction process. The paper presents thenumerical modeling of the continuous current –alternating current conversion bridge (inverter withelements of static switch – over, the type of commandsignal (PWM of elements of static switch of power, thenumerical modeling of the heating throughelectromagnetic induction process and aspects ofcorrelation regarding the functioning/ working of theinstallation depending on the parameters of the load. Theparameters get modified due to material alter dependingon temperature during the heating process.

  12. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group; German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group; Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group; Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  13. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  14. Optimization of thermoelectric cooling regimes for heat-loaded elements taking into account the thermal resistance of the heat-spreading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, E. N.

    2017-09-01

    A mathematical model has been proposed for analyzing and optimizing thermoelectric cooling regimes for heat-loaded elements of engineering and electronic devices. The model based on analytic relations employs the working characteristics of thermoelectric modules as the initial data and makes it possible to determine the temperature regime and the optimal values of the feed current for the modules taking into account the thermal resistance of the heat-spreading system.

  15. INDUSTRIAL CARBON DIOXIDE HEAT PUMP STATION WITH EVAPORATORS WORKING AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURE LEVELS AND AT VARIABLE LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The block diagram of an industrial carbon dioxide heat pump working in a supercritical cycle, with two evaporators included in parallel working at different temperature levels (mainly for wine-making factories is developed. Heat pump is intended for simultaneous production of heat and cold and works at variable thermal loading. It is shown, how an ejector inclusion in the heat pump scheme provides growth of its thermal efficiency. The way of construction of the hydraulic scheme and a control system provides full controllability of the thermal pump.

  16. Heat strain imposed by personal protective ensembles: quantitative analysis using a thermoregulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Gonzalez, Julio A; Santee, William R; Blanchard, Laurie A; Hoyt, Reed W

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of personal protective equipment (PPE) and specific PPE layers, defined as thermal/evaporative resistances and the mass, on heat strain during physical activity. A stepwise thermal manikin testing and modeling approach was used to analyze a PPE ensemble with four layers: uniform, ballistic protection, chemical protective clothing, and mask and gloves. The PPE was tested on a thermal manikin, starting with the uniform, then adding an additional layer in each step. Wearing PPE increases the metabolic rates [Formula: see text], thus [Formula: see text] were adjusted according to the mass of each of four configurations. A human thermoregulatory model was used to predict endurance time for each configuration at fixed [Formula: see text] and at its mass adjusted [Formula: see text]. Reductions in endurance time due to resistances, and due to mass, were separately determined using predicted results. Fractional contributions of PPE's thermal/evaporative resistances by layer show that the ballistic protection and the chemical protective clothing layers contribute about 20 %, respectively. Wearing the ballistic protection over the uniform reduced endurance time from 146 to 75 min, with 31 min of the decrement due to the additional resistances of the ballistic protection, and 40 min due to increased [Formula: see text] associated with the additional mass. Effects of mass on heat strain are of a similar magnitude relative to effects of increased resistances. Reducing resistances and mass can both significantly alleviate heat strain.

  17. Heat strain imposed by personal protective ensembles: quantitative analysis using a thermoregulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Gonzalez, Julio A.; Santee, William R.; Blanchard, Laurie A.; Hoyt, Reed W.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of personal protective equipment (PPE) and specific PPE layers, defined as thermal/evaporative resistances and the mass, on heat strain during physical activity. A stepwise thermal manikin testing and modeling approach was used to analyze a PPE ensemble with four layers: uniform, ballistic protection, chemical protective clothing, and mask and gloves. The PPE was tested on a thermal manikin, starting with the uniform, then adding an additional layer in each step. Wearing PPE increases the metabolic rates (dot{M}) , thus dot{M} were adjusted according to the mass of each of four configurations. A human thermoregulatory model was used to predict endurance time for each configuration at fixed dot{M} and at its mass adjusted dot{M} . Reductions in endurance time due to resistances, and due to mass, were separately determined using predicted results. Fractional contributions of PPE's thermal/evaporative resistances by layer show that the ballistic protection and the chemical protective clothing layers contribute about 20 %, respectively. Wearing the ballistic protection over the uniform reduced endurance time from 146 to 75 min, with 31 min of the decrement due to the additional resistances of the ballistic protection, and 40 min due to increased dot{M} associated with the additional mass. Effects of mass on heat strain are of a similar magnitude relative to effects of increased resistances. Reducing resistances and mass can both significantly alleviate heat strain.

  18. On mechanism of non-heating sterilization using the underwater shock wave loading and gas formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Takemoto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field where the thermal sterilization can’t be applied, the establishment of the sterilization technology with non-heating is strongly requested. The sterilization by pressurizing is one of the sterilization technology. Especially, the underwater shock wave causes scarcely heat in pressurizing because the pressurizing time is extremely short. That is, it is thought that the underwater shock wave enables non-heating sterilization that originates only in pressure. Hence, in this research, the underwater shock wave loading caused by explosive was used for non-heating sterilization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the budding yeast was used for experiments. S. cerevisiae starts fermentation by feeding the glucose, and causes CO2 within its body. There is the great density difference between cells of S. cerevisiae and the gas, hence, the acoustic impedance is different on the underwater shock wave transmission. Therefore, a strong reflected wave is caused on the boundary of the cell and the gas, and a remarkable expansion is caused. Fermented S. cerevisiae are sterilized by this phenomenon, and showed high sterilization rates. The sterilization rate by the underwater shock wave was low for not giving the glucose, that is, S. cerevisiae that had not fermented. The sterilization rate that had been done on three conditions was as follows in the order of higher. 1 Fermenting S. cerevisiae, high pressure. 2 Fermenting S. cerevisiae, low pressure. 3 Non-fermenting S. cerevisiae, high pressure. The detonation fuse was used in this experiment. There was an interesting phenomenon, that is, the sterilization rate was high at the side of detonation beginning, and it was decreased toward the direction. It is thought that this is related to a constant angle of the shock wave caused from the detonation fuse. A corresponding result to the phenomenon was gotten by the numerical analysis between the progress of the detonation and the change of pressure.

  19. Reducing heat stress under thermal insulation in protective clothing: microclimate cooling by a 'physiological' method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glitz, K J; Seibel, U; Rohde, U; Gorges, W; Witzki, A; Piekarski, C; Leyk, D

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress caused by protective clothing limits work time. Performance improvement of a microclimate cooling method that enhances evaporative and to a minor extent convective heat loss was tested. Ten male volunteers in protective overalls completed a work-rest schedule (130 min; treadmill: 3 × 30 min, 3 km/h, 5% incline) with or without an additional air-diffusing garment (climatic chamber: 25°C, 50% RH, 0.2 m/s wind). Heat loss was supported by ventilating the garment with dry air (600 l/min, ≪5% RH, 25°C). Ventilation leads (M ± SD, n = 10, ventilated vs. non-ventilated) to substantial strain reduction (max. HR: 123 ± 12 b/min vs. 149 ± 24 b/min) by thermal relief (max. core temperature: 37.8 ± 0.3°C vs. 38.4 ± 0.4°C, max. mean skin temperature: 34.7 ± 0.8°C vs. 37.1 ± 0.3°C) and offers essential extensions in performance and work time under thermal insulation. Heat stress caused by protective clothing limits work time. Performance can be improved by a microclimate cooling method that supports evaporative and to a minor extent convective heat loss. Sweat evaporation is the most effective thermoregulatory mechanism for heat dissipation and can be enhanced by insufflating dry air into clothing.

  20. Cross protection by heat and cold shock to lethal temperatures in Clostridium perfringens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Santos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A heat shock pre-treatment of Clostridium perfringens provides protection against lethality from subsequent exposure to cold shock and vice versa. Heat shocked cells were more cold tolerant (one log reduction in 65 min than control cells (one log reduction in 34 min. On the other hand, cold-shocked cells were more thermotolerant (D55= 17 min than the control (D55= 6.5 min. The addition of chloramphenicol (an inhibitor of protein synthesis in the experiments indicates that synthesis of new proteins was necessary for cross protection between both treatments.

  1. Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger with Bypass Setpoint Temperature Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.

    2008-01-01

    Spacecraft radiators are sized for their maximum heat load in their warmest thermal environment, but must operate at reduced heat loads and in colder environments. For systems where the radiator environment can be colder than the working fluid freezing temperature, radiator freezing becomes an issue. Radiator freezing has not been a major issue for the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) active thermal control systems (ATCSs) because they operate in environments that are warm relative to the freezing point of their external coolants (Freon-21 and ammonia, respectively). For a vehicle that lands at the Lunar South Pole, the design thermal environment is 215K, but the radiator working fluid must also be kept from freezing during the 0 K sink of transit. A radiator bypass flow control design such as those used on the Space Shuttle and ISS requires more than 30% of the design heat load to avoid radiator freezing during transit - even with a very low freezing point working fluid. By changing the traditional ATCS architecture to include a regenerating heat exchanger inboard of the radiator and by using a regenerator bypass flow control valve to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load can be reduced by more than half. This gives the spacecraft much more flexibility in design and operation. The present work describes the regenerator bypass ATCS setpoint control methodology. It includes analytical results comparing the performance of this system to the traditional radiator bypass system. Finally, a summary of the advantages of the regenerator bypass system are presented.

  2. Performance of W/Cu FGM based plasma facing components under high heat load test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhang-Jian; Song, Shu-Xiang; Du, Juan; Zhong, Zhi-Hong; Ge, Chang-Chun

    2007-06-01

    Three different methods, plasma spraying, infiltration-welding method and resistance sintering under ultra-high pressure, have been developed to fabricate W/Cu FGM based plasma facing components. SEM analysis showed that good grading composition of all FGM samples had been obtained. Water quenching and electron, or laser beam test facilities have been utilized to investigate and compare thermal shock behavior and performance under high heat load. It is found that the grading at the interface between W and Cu is very effective for the reduction of thermal stress. W/Cu FGM fabricated by infiltration-welding method has the best thermal shock resistance among these three kinds of W/Cu FGM.

  3. Damage behavior of REE-doped W-based material exposed to high-flux transient heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Luo, Lai–Ma, E-mail: luolaima@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Material and Processing Engineering of Anhui Province, Hefei 230009 (China); Lin, Jin–shan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zan, Xiang; Zhu, Xiao–yong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Material and Processing Engineering of Anhui Province, Hefei 230009 (China); Xu, Qiu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka-Fu 590-0494 (Japan); Wu, Yu–Cheng, E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Material and Processing Engineering of Anhui Province, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Pure W and W-Lu alloys were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) technology. The performance and relevant damage mechanism of W-(0%, 2%, 5%, 10%) Lu alloys under transient heat loads were investigated using a laser beam heat load test to simulate the transient events in future nuclear fusion reactors. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the morphologies of the damaged surfaces and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to conduct composition analysis. Damages to the surface such as cracks, pits, melting layers, Lu-rich droplets, and thermal ablation were observed. A mass of dense fuzz-like nanoparticles formed on the outer region of the laser-exposed area. Recrystallization, grain growth, increased surface roughness, and material erosion were also observed. W-Lu samples with low Lu content demonstrated better thermal performance than pure W, and the degree of damage significantly deteriorated under repetitive transient heat loads.

  4. Thermal models of buildings. Determination of temperatures, heating and cooling loads. Theories, models and computer programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellblad, K.

    1998-05-01

    The need to estimate indoor temperatures, heating or cooling load and energy requirements for buildings arises in many stages of a buildings life cycle, e.g. at the early layout stage, during the design of a building and for energy retrofitting planning. Other purposes are to meet the authorities requirements given in building codes. All these situations require good calculation methods. The main purpose of this report is to present the authors work with problems related to thermal models and calculation methods for determination of temperatures and heating or cooling loads in buildings. Thus the major part of the report deals with treatment of solar radiation in glazing systems, shading of solar and sky radiation and the computer program JULOTTA used to simulate the thermal behavior of rooms and buildings. Other parts of thermal models of buildings are more briefly discussed and included in order to give an overview of existing problems and available solutions. A brief presentation of how thermal models can be built up is also given and it is a hope that the report can be useful as an introduction to this part of building physics as well as during development of calculation methods and computer programs. The report may also serve as a help for the users of energy related programs. Independent of which method or program a user choose to work with it is his or her own responsibility to understand the limits of the tool, else wrong conclusions may be drawn from the results 52 refs, 22 figs, 4 tabs

  5. A Policy Switching Approach to Consolidating Load Shedding and Islanding Protection Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, Rich; Fern, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there have been many improvements in the reliability of critical infrastructure systems. Despite these improvements, the power systems industry has seen relatively small advances in this regard. For instance, power quality deficiencies, a high number of localized contingencies, and large cascading outages are still too widespread. Though progress has been made in improving generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure, remedial action schemes (RAS) remain non-standardized and are often not uniformly implemented across different utilities, ISOs, and RTOs. Traditionally, load shedding and islanding have been successful protection measures in restraining propagation of contingencies and large cascading outages. This paper proposes a novel, algorithmic approach to selecting RAS policies to optimize the operation of the power network during and after a contingency. Specifically, we use policy-switching to consolidate traditional load shedding and islanding schemes. In order to model and...

  6. Performance of the JT-60SA cryogenic system under pulsed heat loads during acceptance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, C.; Bonne, F.; Roussel, P.; Lamaison, V.; Girard, S.; Fejoz, P.; Goncalves, R.; Vallet, J. C.; Legrand, J.; Fabre, Y.; Pudys, V.; Wanner, M.; Cardella, A.; Di Pietro, E.; Kamiya, K.; Natsume, K.; Ohtsu, K.; Oishi, M.; Honda, A.; Kashiwa, Y.; Kizu, K.

    2017-12-01

    The JT-60SA cryogenic system a superconducting tokamak currently under assembly at Naka, Japan. After one year of commissioning, the acceptance tests were successfully completed in October 2016 in close collaboration with Air Liquide Advanced Technologies (ALaT), the French atomic and alternative energies commission (CEA), Fusion for Energy (F4E) and the Quantum Radiological Science and Technology (QST). The cryogenic system has several cryogenic users at various temperatures: the superconducting magnets at 4.4 K, the current leads at 50 K, the thermal shields at 80 K and the divertor cryo-pumps at 3.7 K. The cryogenic system has an equivalent refrigeration power of about 9.5 kW at 4.5 K, with peak loads caused by the nuclear heating, the eddy currents in the structures and the AC losses in the magnets during cyclic plasma operation. The main results of the acceptance tests will be reported, with emphasis on the management of the challenging pulsed load operation using a liquid helium volume of 7 m3 as a thermal damper.

  7. Thermal Energy Storage for Building Load Management: Application to Electrically Heated Floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thieblemont

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In cold climates, electrical power demand for space conditioning becomes a critical issue for utility companies during certain periods of the day. Shifting a portion or all of it to off-peak periods can help reduce peak demand and reduce stress on the electrical grid. Sensible thermal energy storage (TES systems, and particularly electrically heated floors (EHF, can store thermal energy in buildings during the off-peak periods and release it during the peak periods while maintaining occupants’ thermal comfort. However, choosing the type of storage system and/or its configuration may be difficult. In this paper, the performance of an EHF for load management is studied. First, a methodology is developed to integrate EHF in TRNSYS program in order to investigate the impact of floor assembly on the EHF performance. Then, the thermal comfort (TC of the night-running EHF is studied. Finally, indicators are defined, allowing the comparison of different EHF. Results show that an EHF is able to shift 84% of building loads to the night while maintaining acceptable TC in cold climate. Moreover, this system is able to provide savings for the customer and supplier if there is a significant difference between off-peak and peak period electricity prices.

  8. α-Tocopherol-loaded niosome prepared by heating method and its release behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Ladan; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Bostan, Aram

    2017-04-15

    α-Tocopherol-loaded niosome was developed using modified heating method. The influence of surfactants (Span60 and Tween60) in different mole ratios, presence or absence of cholesterol (Chol) and dicetyl phosphate (DCP) as well as different concentration of α-tocopherol (α-TOC) on mean size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency (EE) was evaluated. The results showed that α-TOC loaded niosomes exhibited a small mean size (73.85±0.6-186±0.58nm), narrow size distribution and high EE (61.13±0.52-98.92±0.92). By decreasing the HLB, the EE and stability of the niosomes increased. The DCP and Chol improved the physicochemical properties of niosomes. 3:1 mole ratio of Span 60:Tween 60, 4mg/ml of α-TOC and 25:12.5:2.5 mole ratio of surfactant:Chol:DCP was the optimum formulation in the encapsulation of α-TOC applying niosome system. The niosomes had sustained release profile in the simulated gastric and intestinal fluid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MIC mitigation in a 100 MW district heating peak load unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, B H; Lorenzen, J; Kjellerup, B V; Odum, S; Nielsen, P H; Frølund, B

    2004-01-01

    During inspection of AISI316 stainless steel plate heat exchangers in a district heating peak load unit, localised corrosion attacks along with indications of microbiological activity were found on the boiler side beneath patches of sturdy black deposits. Bacteria and sulphide were detected within black deposits. Thorough investigation of the boiler system revealed several incidents of localised corrosion on low alloy steel along with deposits of organic matter and bacteria primarily in places with stagnant water or places operating at a low flow rate. A relatively large amount of bacteria was detected within the system, primarily in deposits and around corrosion sites. The observations suggested the combination of deposits and bacterial activity, being the major reason for the observed corrosion. Prior to the investigation, the boiler system had operated with cat-/anion-exchanged, de-aerated water for 3 years, during which the water fulfilled strict chemical limits set to minimise corrosion. Based on these findings, the system has been modified in order to minimise the risk of microbiologically influenced corrosion and a monitoring program for fouling and corrosion has been established.

  10. Effect of pH on subunit association and heat protection of soybean alpha-galactosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J. E.; Sarikaya, A.; Herrmann, K. M.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Soybeans contain the enzyme alpha-galactosidase, which hydrolyzes alpha-1, 6 linkages in stachyose and raffinose to give sucrose and galactose. We have found that galactose, a competitive product inhibitor of alpha-galactosidase, strongly promotes the heat stability of the tetrameric form of the enzyme at pH 4.0 and at temperatures of up to 70 degrees C for 60 min. Stachyose and raffinose also protect alpha-galactosidase from denaturation at pH 4.0 although to a lesser extent. Glucose and mannose have little effect. At pH 7.0 the enzyme is a monomer, and galactose has no effect on the heat stability of the enzyme. In the absence of heat protection of the enzyme by added sugars, a series deactivation mechanism was found to describe the deactivation data. In comparison, a unimolecular, non-first order deactivation model applies at pH 4.0, where heat protection effects were observed. At a temperature above 60 degrees C, simple deactivation is a suitable model. The results suggest that alpha-galactosidase conformation and heat stability are directly related.

  11. Estimation of surface heat flux for ablation and charring of thermal protection material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei-qi; He, Kai-feng; Zhou, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Ablation of the thermal protection material of the reentry hypersonic flight vehicle is a complex physical and chemical process. To estimate the surface heat flux from internal temperature measurement is much more complex than the conventional inverse heat conduction problem case. In the paper, by utilizing a two-layer pyrogeneration-plane ablation model to model the ablation and charring of the material, modifying the finite control volume method to suit for the numerical simulation of the heat conduction equation with variable-geometry, the CGM along with the associated adjoint problem is developed to estimate the surface heat flux. This estimation method is verified with a numerical example at first, the results show that the estimation method is feasible and robust. The larger is the measurement noise, the greater is the deviation of the estimated result from the exact value, and the measurement noise of ablated surface position has a significant and more direct influence on the estimated result of surface heat flux. Furthermore, the estimation method is used to analyze the experimental data of ablation of blunt Carbon-phenolic material Narmco4028 in an arc-heater. It is shown that the estimated surface heat flux agrees with the heating power value of the arc-heater, and the estimation method is basically effective and potential to treat the engineering heat conduction problem with ablation.

  12. 49 CFR 237.73 - Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-dimension loads. 237.73 Section 237.73 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Bridges § 237.73 Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads. (a) Each track owner... exceed the capacity or dimensions of its bridges. (b) The instructions regarding weight shall be...

  13. Revised Heating Load Line Analysis: Addendum to ORNL/TM-2015/281

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The original heating load line analysis of ORNL TM-2015/281 was modified to incorporate two adjustments of (1) removing mechanical ventilation and (2) resizing the heat pump units based on new criteria. This resulted in a lowering of the HLL slope factor from the originally rounded 1.3 level to 1.15 in DOE Region IV and V while leaving unchanged the zero-load ambient at a rounded value of 55 F. For the other four DOE regions, the zero-load ambients dropped by 1 to 2 F from those found earlier and the rounded HLL slope factors ranged from 1.05 to 1.3. The average rounded HLL slope factor over all six DOE regions is 1.15. Effects of the revised slope factor on rated HSPFs (Region IV) for single- and two-capacity units dropped from 16% in the original work to 12.6% in this report. For VS units, the HSPF reductions of 14 to 25% in the original report were lowered to a range of 9 to 21%. As in the original report, for VS units that do not limit minimum speed operation below 47 F ambient, the average HSPF reduction for the cases evaluated is approximately the same as for single- and two-capacity units. For VS units that do limit minimum speed operation below 47 F ambient, the lower 1.15 slope factor of this report generally results in small overpredictions of rated HSPF by 1 to 3% compared to functional HSPF. An exception is minimum-speed-limited VS units where the minimum speed COP at 47 F is higher than that at 62 F; one such unit was found to have an HSPF overprediction of over 14% with the 1.15 HLL slope factor level. For such VS exception cases, a default HSPF penalty should be considered. For the more typical VS units that limit minimum speed operation, use of a 1.15 slope factor for rated HSPF was found to still acceptably limit the HSPF error. If slope factors lower than 1.15 are used for HSPF ratings, some means should be considered to appropriately derate the HSPFs for VS units which limit minimum speed operation below 47 F ambient.

  14. Effect of heat-setting on UV protection and antibacterial properties of cotton/spandex fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, M. N.; Talukder, M. E.; Shafiq, F.; Hasan, K. M. F.; Taher, M. A.; Meraz, M. M.; Cai, Y.; Lin, Lina

    2018-01-01

    An unexampled approach for simultaneous heat setting process with optimized condition at C3 (140°C, 45 s) and functional finishing, i.e. UV protection and antibacterial properties of cotton/spandex fabric were studied in this research. Experimental results disclosed that, ameliorative antibacterial efficacy and perdurable UV protection of heat-treated cotton/spandex fabrics with best sample A3 among all samples was achieved and mechanical properties also improved as the temperature rose from 120 to 140°C. In addition, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection and antibacterial properties are becoming increasingly necessary for human health, and textiles play an important role and this report will be appurtenant to meet regular demand.

  15. Enhancement of urban heat load through social inequalities on an example of a fictional city King's Landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žuvela-Aloise, M

    2017-03-01

    The numerical model MUKLIMO_3 is used to simulate the urban climate of an imaginary city as an illustrative example to demonstrate that the residential areas with deprived socio-economic conditions can exhibit an enhanced heat load at night, and thus more disadvantageous environmental conditions, compared with the areas of higher socio-economic status. The urban climate modelling simulations differentiate between orographic, natural landscape, building and social effects, where social differences are introduced by selection of location, building type and amount of vegetation. The model results show that the increase of heat load can be found in the areas inhabited by the poor population as a combined effect of natural and anthropogenic factors. The unfavourable location in the city and the building type, consisting of high density, low housing with high fraction of pavement and small amount of vegetation contribute to the formation of excessive heat load. This abstract example shows that the enhancement of urban heat load can be linked to the concept of a socially stratified city and is independent of the historical development of any specific city.

  16. Enhancement of urban heat load through social inequalities on an example of a fictional city King's Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žuvela-Aloise, M.

    2017-03-01

    The numerical model MUKLIMO_3 is used to simulate the urban climate of an imaginary city as an illustrative example to demonstrate that the residential areas with deprived socio-economic conditions can exhibit an enhanced heat load at night, and thus more disadvantageous environmental conditions, compared with the areas of higher socio-economic status. The urban climate modelling simulations differentiate between orographic, natural landscape, building and social effects, where social differences are introduced by selection of location, building type and amount of vegetation. The model results show that the increase of heat load can be found in the areas inhabited by the poor population as a combined effect of natural and anthropogenic factors. The unfavourable location in the city and the building type, consisting of high density, low housing with high fraction of pavement and small amount of vegetation contribute to the formation of excessive heat load. This abstract example shows that the enhancement of urban heat load can be linked to the concept of a socially stratified city and is independent of the historical development of any specific city.

  17. Material ejection and surface morphology changes during transient heat loading of tungsten as plasma-facing component in fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslova, A.; El-Atwani, O.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effect of edge-localized mode like transient heat events on pristine samples for two different grades of deformed tungsten with ultrafine and nanocrystalline grains as potential candidates for plasma-facing components. Pulses from a laser beam with durations ∼1 ms and operating in the near infrared wavelength were used for simulating transient heat loading in fusion devices. We specifically focused on investigating and analysis of different mechanisms for material removal from the sample surface under repetitive transient heat loads. Several techniques were applied for analysing different mechanisms leading to material removal from the W surface under repetitive transient heat loads which include witness plates for collected ejected material, and subsequent analysis using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, visible imaging using fast-gated camera, and evaluating thermal emission from the particles using optical emission spectroscopy. Our results show a significantly improved performance of polycrystalline cold-rolled tungsten compared to tungsten produced using an orthogonal machining process under repetitive transient loads for a wide range of the power densities.

  18. Potential Remedies for the High Synchrotron-Radiation-Induced Heat Load for Future Highest-Energy-Proton Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084568; Baglin, Vincent; Schaefers, Franz

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new method for handling the high synchrotron radiation (SR) induced heat load of future circular hadron colliders (like FCC-hh). FCC-hh are dominated by the production of SR, which causes a significant heat load on the accelerator walls. Removal of such a heat load in the cold part of the machine, as done in the Large Hadron Collider, will require more than 100 MW of electrical power and a major cooling system. We studied a totally different approach, identifying an accelerator beam screen whose illuminated surface is able to forward reflect most of the photons impinging onto it. Such a reflecting beam screen will transport a significant part of this heat load outside the cold dipoles. Then, in room temperature sections, it could be more efficiently dissipated. Here we will analyze the proposed solution and address its full compatibility with all other aspects an accelerator beam screen must fulfill to keep under control beam instabilities as caused by electron cloud formation, impedance, dynamic...

  19. Mathematical of Two-Dimensional Dynamic Distribution of Thermal and Production Loads Between Heat Electropower Station Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyaev L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional dynamic programming algorithm for distribution of loads between the controlled heat electropower station (HES extractions is developed. Main recurrent correlations of sequential optimization process by using modified Bellman criterion are presented. Results of program complex implementation are shown.

  20. Host immunity in the protective response to vaccination with heat-killed Burkholderia mallei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paessler Slobodan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed initial cell, cytokine and complement depletion studies to investigate the possible role of these effectors in response to vaccination with heat-killed Burkholderia mallei in a susceptible BALB/c mouse model of infection. Results While protection with heat-killed bacilli did not result in sterilizing immunity, limited protection was afforded against an otherwise lethal infection and provided insight into potential host protective mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that mice depleted of either B cells, TNF-α or IFN-γ exhibited decreased survival rates, indicating a role for these effectors in obtaining partial protection from a lethal challenge by the intraperitoneal route. Additionally, complement depletion had no effect on immunoglobulin production when compared to non-complement depleted controls infected intranasally. Conclusion The data provide a basis for future studies of protection via vaccination using either subunit or whole-organism vaccine preparations from lethal infection in the experimental BALB/c mouse model. The results of this study demonstrate participation of B220+ cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α in protection following HK vaccination.

  1. Errors in macromolecular synthesis after stress : a study of the possible protective role of the small heat shock proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Vinader, L.

    2006-01-01

    The general goal of this thesis was to gain insight in what small heat shock proteins (sHsps) do with respect to macromolecular synthesis during a stressful situation in the cell. It is known that after a non-lethal heat shock, cells are better protected against a subsequent more severe heat shock,

  2. Experimental investigation of heat transport and divertor loads of fusion plasmas in all metal ASDEX upgrade and JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglin, Bernhard A.

    2014-04-28

    This work presents divertor heat load studies conducted at two of the largest tokamaks currently in operation, ASDEX Upgrade and the Joint European Torus (JET). A commonly agreed empirical scaling for the power fall-off length in H-mode obtained in carbon devices is validated in JET with the ILW. Bohm and Gyro-Bohm like models are identified as possible candidates describing the divertor broadening. Quantities for the assessment of the thermal load induced by transient heat loads are defined. JET with the ILW exhibits an on average longer ELM duration as compared to the carbon wall. For identical pedestal conditions the ELM durations in both cases are found to be the same within error bars. The energy fluency is found to depend mainly on the pedestal pressure with a weak dependence on the relative loss in stored energy. This is noteworthy since the current extrapolation to ITER assumes a linear dependence on the relative ELM size.

  3. Hybrid power system intelligent operation and protection involving distributed architectures and pulsed loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed

    Efficient and reliable techniques for power delivery and utilization are needed to account for the increased penetration of renewable energy sources in electric power systems. Such methods are also required for current and future demands of plug-in electric vehicles and high-power electronic loads. Distributed control and optimal power network architectures will lead to viable solutions to the energy management issue with high level of reliability and security. This dissertation is aimed at developing and verifying new techniques for distributed control by deploying DC microgrids, involving distributed renewable generation and energy storage, through the operating AC power system. To achieve the findings of this dissertation, an energy system architecture was developed involving AC and DC networks, both with distributed generations and demands. The various components of the DC microgrid were designed and built including DC-DC converters, voltage source inverters (VSI) and AC-DC rectifiers featuring novel designs developed by the candidate. New control techniques were developed and implemented to maximize the operating range of the power conditioning units used for integrating renewable energy into the DC bus. The control and operation of the DC microgrids in the hybrid AC/DC system involve intelligent energy management. Real-time energy management algorithms were developed and experimentally verified. These algorithms are based on intelligent decision-making elements along with an optimization process. This was aimed at enhancing the overall performance of the power system and mitigating the effect of heavy non-linear loads with variable intensity and duration. The developed algorithms were also used for managing the charging/discharging process of plug-in electric vehicle emulators. The protection of the proposed hybrid AC/DC power system was studied. Fault analysis and protection scheme and coordination, in addition to ideas on how to retrofit currently available

  4. Transient Stability Improvement for Combined Heat and Power System Using Load Shedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze and improve the transient stability of an industrial combined heat and power (CHP system in a high-tech science park in Taiwan. The CHP system installed two 161 kV/161 kV high-impendence transformers to connect with Taipower System (TPS for both decreasing the short-circuit fault current and increasing the fault critical clearing time. The transient stabilities of three types of operation modes in CHP units, 3G1S, 2G1S, and 1G1S, are analyzed. Under the 3G1S operation mode, the system frequency is immediately restored to 60 Hz after tie line tripping with the TPS. Under the 1G1S and 2G1S operation modes, the system frequencies will continuously decrease and eventually become unstable. A novel transient stability improvement approach using load shedding technique based on the change in frequency is proposed to improve the transient stability.

  5. Qualification and post-mortem characterization of tungsten mock-ups exposed to cyclic high heat flux loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintsuk, G., E-mail: g.pintsuk@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Euratom Association, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Bobin-Vastra, I.; Constans, S. [AREVA NP PTCMI-F, Centre Technique, Fusion, F-71200 Le Creusot (France); Gavila, P. [Fusion for Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Rödig, M. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Euratom Association, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Riccardi, B. [Fusion for Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • We characterize tungsten mono-block components after exposure to ITER relevant heat loads. • We qualify the manufacturing technology, i.e., hot isostatic pressing and hot radial pressing, and repair technologies. • We determine the microstructural influences, i.e., rod vs. plate material, on the damage evolution. • Needle like microstructures increase the risk of deep crack formation due to a limited fracture strength. -- Abstract: In order to evaluate the option to start the ITER operation with a full tungsten (W) divertor, high heat flux tests were performed in the electron beam facility FE200, Le Creusot, France. Thereby, in total eight small-scale and three medium-scale monoblock mock-ups produced with different manufacturing technologies and different tungsten grades were exposed to cyclic steady state heat loads. The applied power density ranges from 10 to 20 MW/m{sup 2} with a maximum of 1000 cycles at each particular loading step. Finally, on a reduced number of tiles, critical heat flux tests in the range of 30 MW/m{sup 2} were performed. Besides macroscopic and microscopic images of the loaded surface areas, detailed metallographic analyses were performed in order to characterize the occurring damages, i.e., crack formation, recrystallization, and melting. Thereby, the different joining technologies, i.e., hot radial pressing (HRP) vs. hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of tungsten to the Cu-based cooling tube, were qualified showing a higher stability and reproducibility of the HIP technology also as repair technology. Finally, the material response at the loaded top surface was found to be depending on the material grade, microstructural orientation, and recrystallization state of the material. These damages might be triggered by the application of thermal shock loads during electron beam surface scanning and not by the steady state heat load only. However, the superposition of thermal fatigue loads and thermal shocks as also expected

  6. Protective Effectiveness of Porous Shields Under the Influence of High-Speed Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramshonkov E.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerical simulations of a compact steel impactor with the aluminum porous shields under high-speed shock loading are presented. The porosity of barrier varies in wide range provided that its mass stays the same, but the impactor has always equal (identical mass. Here presented the final assessment of the barrier perforation speed depending on its porosity and initial shock speed. The range of initial impact speed varies from 1 to 10 km/s. Physical phenomena such as: destruction, melting, vaporization of a interacting objects are taken into account. The analysis of a shield porosity estimation disclosed that the protection effectiveness of porous shield reveals at the initial impact speed grater then 1.5 km/s, and it increases when initial impact speed growth.

  7. Study of heat sink thermal protection systems for hypersonic research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahl, W. A.; Edwards, C. L. W.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using a single metallic heat sink thermal protection system (TPS) over a projected flight test program for a hypersonic research vehicle was studied using transient thermal analyses and mission performance calculations. Four materials, aluminum, titanium, Lockalloy, and beryllium, as well as several combinations, were evaluated. Influence of trajectory parameters were considered on TPS and mission performance for both the clean vehicle configuration as well as with an experimental scramjet mounted. From this study it was concluded that a metallic heat sink TPS can be effectively employed for a hypersonic research airplane flight envelope which includes dash missions in excess of Mach 8 and 60 seconds of cruise at Mach numbers greater than 6. For best heat sink TPS match over the flight envelope, Lockalloy and titanium appear to be the most promising candidates

  8. On the influence of the urban heat island on the cooling load of a school building in Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagiorgas, H. S.; Mihalakakou, G.

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigates the effect of the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, measured in the Greater Athens Area (GAA), on the energy consumption of a typical modern school building. The energy performance of the selected building has been calculated using an accurate, extensively validated, transient simulation model for 17 different sites of the GAA, for the summer period. Calculations showed that the urban heat island phenomenon affects remarkably the thermal behavior of the school building, as suburban areas presented much lower cooling loads. The cooling load values fluctuated between 3304.3 kWh for the rural stations and 14,585.1 kWh for the central stations (for the year 2011) or between 3206.5 kWh and 14,208.3 kWh (for the year 2012), respectively. Moreover, the mean monthly cooling load values varied between 0.4-2 kWh/m2 for the rural stations and 4-6.9 kWh/m2 for the central stations, for the selected time period. Furthermore, a neural network model was designed and developed in order to quantify the contribution of various meteorological parameters (such as the mean daily air temperature values, the mean daily solar radiation values, the average wind speed and the urban heat island intensity) to the energy consumption of the building and it was found that the urban heat island intensity is the predominant parameter, influencing remarkably the energy consumption of the typical school building.

  9. Preliminary study on heat load using calorimetric measurement during long-pulse high-performance discharges on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. K.; Hamada, N.; Hanada, K.; Gao, X.; Liu, H. Q.; Yu, Y. W.; Qian, J. P.; Yang, L.; Xu, T. J.; Jie, Y. X.; Yao, Y.; Wang, S. S.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, Z. D.; Li, G. S.; EAST Team

    2017-04-01

    Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) aims to demonstrate steady-state advanced high-performance H-mode plasmas with an ITER-like configuration, plasma control and heating schemes. The plasma-facing components in EAST are actively cooled, providing good conditions for researching long-pulse and high-energy discharges. A long-pulse high-performance plasma discharge (#59892 discharge) of up to 103 s with a core electron temperature of up to 4.5 keV was sustained with an injected energy exceeding 0.22 GJ in the 2015-2016 experimental campaign. A calorimetric measurement utilizing the temperature increment of cooling water is carried out to calculate the heat load on the strike point region of the lower divertor during long-pulse discharges in EAST. For the long-pulse and high-energy discharges, the comparison of the measurement results for the heat load measured by divertor Langmuir probes and the calorimetry diagnostic indicates that most of the heat load is delivered to the divertor panels as plasma, not radiation, and charge exchange neutrals. The ratio of the heat load on the strike point region of the lower divertor to the total injected energy is on average 42.5% per discharge with the lower single null divertor configuration. If the radiated energy loss measured by the fast bolometer diagnostic is taken into consideration, the ratio is found to be 61.6%. The experimental results and the analysis of the physics involved in these discharges are reported and discussed.

  10. Influence of Initial Moisture Content on Heat and Moisture Transfer in Firefighters’ Protective Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for heat and moisture transfer through firefighters’ protective clothing (FPC during radiation exposure. The model, which accounts for air gaps in the FPC as well as heat transfer through human skin, investigates the effect of different initial moisture contents on the thermal insulation performance of FPC. Temperature, water vapor density, and the volume fraction of liquid water profiles were monitored during the simulation, and the heat quantity absorbed by water evaporation was calculated. Then the maximum durations of heat before the wearer acquires first- and second-degree burns were calculated based on the bioheat transfer equation and the Henriques equation. The results show that both the moisture weight in each layer and the total moisture weight increase linearly within a given environmental humidity level. The initial moisture content in FPC samples significantly influenced the maximum water vapor density. The first- and second-degree burn injury time increase 16 sec and 18 sec when the RH increases from 0% to 90%. The total quantity of heat accounted for by water evaporation was about 10% when the relative humidity (RH is 80%. Finally, a linear relationship was identified between initial moisture content and the human skin burn injury time before suffering first- and second-degree burn injuries.

  11. Influence of Initial Moisture Content on Heat and Moisture Transfer in Firefighters' Protective Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongmei; He, Song

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model for heat and moisture transfer through firefighters' protective clothing (FPC) during radiation exposure. The model, which accounts for air gaps in the FPC as well as heat transfer through human skin, investigates the effect of different initial moisture contents on the thermal insulation performance of FPC. Temperature, water vapor density, and the volume fraction of liquid water profiles were monitored during the simulation, and the heat quantity absorbed by water evaporation was calculated. Then the maximum durations of heat before the wearer acquires first- and second-degree burns were calculated based on the bioheat transfer equation and the Henriques equation. The results show that both the moisture weight in each layer and the total moisture weight increase linearly within a given environmental humidity level. The initial moisture content in FPC samples significantly influenced the maximum water vapor density. The first- and second-degree burn injury time increase 16 sec and 18 sec when the RH increases from 0% to 90%. The total quantity of heat accounted for by water evaporation was about 10% when the relative humidity (RH) is 80%. Finally, a linear relationship was identified between initial moisture content and the human skin burn injury time before suffering first- and second-degree burn injuries.

  12. Comprehensive analysis of heat generation and efficient measurement of fractional thermal loading in a solid-state laser medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. T.; Zhang, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of heat generation in a solid-state laser medium. The fractional thermal loadings are different for different physical processes in a laser medium, including the fluorescence process, stimulated emission, energy transfer up-conversion and excited-state absorption. Applying this theoretical analysis in a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1342 nm, and using a simple and efficient method to measure the thermal loading of the solid-state laser medium presented, the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretically calculated results.

  13. submitter Numerical study of plasma generation process and internal antenna heat loadings in J-PARC RF negative ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, T; Mochizuki, S; Mattei, S; Lettry, J; Hatayama, A; Ueno, A; Oguri, H; Ohkoshi, K; Ikegami, K; Takagi, A; Asano, H; Naito, F

    2016-01-01

    A numerical model of plasma transport and electromagnetic field in the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) radio frequency ion source has been developed to understand the relation between antenna coil heat loadings and plasma production/transport processes. From the calculation, the local plasma density increase is observed in the region close to the antenna coil. Electrons are magnetized by the magnetic field line with absolute magnetic flux density 30-120 Gauss which leads to high local ionization rate. The results suggest that modification of magnetic configuration can be made to reduce plasma heat flux onto the antenna.

  14. A comparison on the heat load of HTS current leads with respect to uniform and non-uniform cross-sectional areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Hak; Nam, Seok Ho; Lee, Je Yull; Song, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Hae Ryong; Baek, Geon Woo; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyoung Ku [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Current lead is a device that connects the power supply and superconducting magnets. High temperature superconductor (HTS) has lower thermal conductivity and higher current density than normal metal. For these reasons, the heat load can be reduced by replacing the normal metal of the current lead with the HTS. Conventional HTS current lead has same cross-sectional area in the axial direction. However, this is over-designed at the cold-end (4.2 K) in terms of current. The heat load can be reduced by reducing this part because the heat load is proportional to the cross-sectional area. Therefore, in this paper, heat load was calculated from the heat diffusion equation of HTS current leads with uniform and non-uniform cross-sectional areas. The cross-sectional area of the warm-end (65K) is designed considering burnout time when cooling system failure occurs. In cold-end, Joule heat and heat load due to current conduction occurs at the same time, so the cross-sectional area where the sum of the two heat is minimum is obtained. As a result of simulation, current leads for KSTAR TF coils with uniform and non-uniform cross-sectional areas were designed, and it was confirmed that the non-uniform cross-sectional areas could further reduce the heat load.

  15. Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiratsuka, Junichi, E-mail: hiratsuka.junichi@jaea.go.jp; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Miyamoto, Kenji [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ∼16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.

  16. Comparison of the Performance of Chilled Beam with Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply: Impact of Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    The impact of heat load strength and positioning on the indoor environment generated by diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with radial swirl jet was studied and compared. An office room with two persons and a meeting room with six persons were simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3...... temperature was controlled at 24 °C. The quality of the generated indoor environment as defined in ISO standard 7730 (2005) was assessed based on comprehensive physical measurements. The systems created Category A thermal environment in cooling situations at heat load of 50 W∙m−2 and 78 W∙m−2 (office room...

  17. Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Miyamoto, Kenji; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ∼16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.

  18. Operator dermal exposure and protection provided by personal protective equipment and working coveralls during mixing/loading, application and sprayer cleaning in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenin, Isabelle; Bouneb, Françoise; Mercier, Thierry

    2017-06-01

    The efficiency of a working coverall combined with personal protective equipment to protect operators against dermal exposure to plant protection products under field conditions was studied. Operators wore a non-certified water-repellent finish polyester/cotton coverall plus a certified gown during the mixing/loading and the cleaning phases. Insecticide foliar application to a vineyard was selected as the exposure scenario. The overall dermal residue levels measured in this study were in the range of data recently collected in Europe. The water-repellent finish working coverall reduced body exposure by a factor of approximately 95%. Wearing a Category III Type 3 partial body gown during mixing/loading and cleaning of the application equipment led to a further protective effect of 98.7%. The combination of a water-repellent finish working coverall and partial body protection during specific tasks provided satisfactory levels of protection and can be considered as suitable protection for the conditions of use studied.

  19. An In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and lighting, appliance, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs) through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and LAMELs.

  20. Effect of Enhanced Air Temperature (extreme heat, and Load of Non-Linear Against the Use of Electric Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Wijaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usage Electric power is very easy to do, because the infrastructure for connecting  already available and widely sold. Consumption electric power is not accompanied by the ability to recognize electric power. The average increase of electricity power in Bali in extreme weather reaches 10% in years 2014, so that Bali suffered power shortages and PLN as the manager of electric power to perform scheduling on of electric power usage. Scheduling is done because many people use electric power as the load  of fan and Air Conditioner exceeding the previous time. Load of fan, air conditioning, and computers including non-linear loads which can add heat on the conductor of electricity. Non-linear load and hot weather can lead to heat on conductor so  insulation damaged  and cause electrical short circuit. Data of electric power obtained through questionnaires, surveys, measurement and retrieve data from various parties. Fires that occurred in 2014, namely 109 events, 44 is  event caused by an electric short circuit (approximately 40%. Decrease power factors can cause losses of electricity and hot. Heat can cause and adds heat on the  conductor electric. The analysis showed  understanding electric power of the average  is 27,700 with value between 20 to 40. So an understanding of the electrical power away from the understand so that many errors because of the act own. Installation tool ELCB very necessary but very necessary provide counseling   of electricity to the community.

  1. Improving the Chest Protection of Elderly Occupants in Frontal Crashes Using SMART Load Limiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Karthikeyan; Frampton, Richard; Bartlett, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether varying the seat belt load limiter (SBL) according to crash and occupant characteristics could have real-world injury reduction benefits in frontal impacts and, if so, to quantify those benefits. Real-world UK accident data were used to identify the target population of vehicle occupants and frontal crash scenarios where improved chest protection could be most beneficial. Generic baseline driver and front passenger numerical models using a 50th percentile dummy were developed with MADYMO software. Simulations were performed where the load limiter threshold was varied in selected frontal impact scenarios. For each SBL setting, restraint performance, dummy kinematics, and injury outcome were studied in 5 different frontal impact types. Thoracic injury predictions were converted into injury probability values using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ age-dependent thoracic risk curves developed and validated based on a methodology proposed by Laituri et al. (2005). Real-world benefit was quantified using the predicted AIS 2+ risk and assuming that an appropriate adaptive system was fitted to all the cars in a real-world sample of recent frontal crashes involving European passenger cars. From the accident data sample the chest was the most frequently injured body region at an AIS 2+ level in frontal impacts (7% of front seat occupants). The proportion of older vehicle front seat occupants (>64 years) with AIS 2+ injury was also greater than the proportion of younger occupants. Additionally, older occupants were more likely to sustain seat belt-induced serious chest injury in low- and moderate-speed frontal crashes. In both front seating positions, the low SBL provided the best chest injury protection, without increasing the risk to other body regions. In severe impacts, the low SBL allowed the driver to move dangerously close to the steering wheel. Compared to the driver side, greater ride-down space on the passenger side gave a higher potential for

  2. Application of powerful quasi-steady-state plasma accelerators for simulation of ITER transient heat loads on divertor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tereshin, V I [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Bandura, A N [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Byrka, O V [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Chebotarev, V V [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Garkusha, I E [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Landman, I [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Makhlaj, V A [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Neklyudov, I M [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Solyakov, D G [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Tsarenko, A V [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine)

    2007-05-15

    The paper presents the investigations of high power plasma interaction with material surfaces under conditions simulating the ITER disruptions and type I ELMs. Different materials were exposed to plasma with repetitive pulses of 250 {mu}s duration, the ion energy of up to 0.6 keV, and the heat loads varying in the 0.5-25 MJ m{sup -2} range. The plasma energy transfer to the material surface versus impact load has been analysed. The fraction of plasma energy that is absorbed by the target surface is rapidly decreased with the achievement of the evaporation onset for exposed targets. The distributions of evaporated material in front of the target surface and the thickness of the shielding layer are found to be strongly dependent on the target atomic mass. The surface analysis of tungsten targets exposed to quasi-steady-state plasma accelerators plasma streams is presented together with measurements of the melting onset load and evaporation threshold, and also of erosion patterns with increasing heat load and the number of plasma pulses.

  3. Application of powerful quasi-steady-state plasma accelerators for simulation of ITER transient heat loads on divertor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshin, V. I.; Bandura, A. N.; Byrka, O. V.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Garkusha, I. E.; Landman, I.; Makhlaj, V. A.; Neklyudov, I. M.; Solyakov, D. G.; Tsarenko, A. V.

    2007-05-01

    The paper presents the investigations of high power plasma interaction with material surfaces under conditions simulating the ITER disruptions and type I ELMs. Different materials were exposed to plasma with repetitive pulses of 250 µs duration, the ion energy of up to 0.6 keV, and the heat loads varying in the 0.5-25 MJ m-2 range. The plasma energy transfer to the material surface versus impact load has been analysed. The fraction of plasma energy that is absorbed by the target surface is rapidly decreased with the achievement of the evaporation onset for exposed targets. The distributions of evaporated material in front of the target surface and the thickness of the shielding layer are found to be strongly dependent on the target atomic mass. The surface analysis of tungsten targets exposed to quasi-steady-state plasma accelerators plasma streams is presented together with measurements of the melting onset load and evaporation threshold, and also of erosion patterns with increasing heat load and the number of plasma pulses.

  4. Influence of metal frame on heat protection properties of a polystyrene concrete wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetkov Nikolay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of novel thermal-efficient building materials and technologies that allow increasing the level of thermal protection of external envelope structures and reducing the time for construction are of practical interest and represent a relevant task in the conditions of rapidly changing and increasing requirements to energy efficiency of buildings. This research aims at simulating the process of spatial heat transfer in a multilayer non-uniform structure of an external cast-in-place framed wall produced from polystyrene concrete with a stay-in-place formwork. Based on the physico-mathematical model developed with the use of ANSYS and COMSOL software complexes, parametric analysis of the impact of various factors on thermal behavior of the external wall was performed with the account of heat-stressed frame elements. The nature of temperature fields distribution in a polystyrene concrete structure was defined, and its thermal protection properties were investigated. The impact of a metal frame on thermal protection properties of a wall was found to be insignificant.

  5. The effects of mixing air distribution and heat load arrangement on the performance of ceiling radiant panels under cooling mode of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    arrangement and air distribution generated in a room by linear slot diffuser, radial multi-nozzle diffuser and radial swirl induction unit on the cooling power of radiant panels was compared. The impact on the thermal environment was also studied. Measurements were carried out without and with supply air...... 5% to 17% depending on the air distribution method and the heat load arrangement. The most significant effect of the heat load arrangement occured when heat loads are located unevenly and their convection flow turns or weakens the supply air jet flushing the radiant panels....

  6. A contribution to the investigation of the heat load of shock absorbers of semi-active suspensions in motor vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav D. Demić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modeling, has a significant role during the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first stages of vehicle design, when relevant vehicle parameters are to be defined. Shock absorbers as executive parts of vehicle semi-active suspension systems suffer thermal loads, which may result in damage and degradation of ther characteristics. Therefore,this paper shows an attempt to analyze converting of mechanical work into heat by using the dynamic simulation method. Introduction Shock absorbers are integral elements of semi-active suspension systems for vehicles (hereinafter SASS. They directly affect the active vehicle safety. The role of shock absorbers is to absorb mechanical vibrations transferred from the road and to ensure the safety of passengers in a vehicle. The kinetic energy of vehicle vibrations transforms into mechanical work or heat in shock absorbers. In practice, in the first stage of vehicle development, the shock absorber parameters are chosen from the condition of damping vibrations of vehicles, but their thermal shock loads should be also taken into account. Motor vehicles have complex dynamic characteristics manifested by spatial movement, parameters change during operation, a number of disturbing influences, backlash, friction, hysteresis, etc. The above-mentioned dynamic phenomena, especially vibration, lead to fatigue of driver and users, reduce the life of the vehicle and its systems, etc. The main objective of the system is to reduce the reliance of the above-mentioned negative effects, improving the vehicle behavior on the road and allow the exploitation of vehicles in a wide range of service conditions. Classical systems cannot satisfiy these conditions, so there was a need to introduce new suspension systems with controlled characteristics (briefly called "semi-active", or "active" systems. Oscillatory model of vehicle The differential equations of vibratory motion of

  7. Use of Body Armor Protection Levels with Squad Automatic Weapon Fighting Load Impacts Soldier Performance, Mobility, and Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    2010). “The Effect of a Tiered Body Armour System on Soldier Physical Mobility.” Research Online – University of Wollongong. Perry, C. J., Kiriella...TECHNICAL REPORT AD ________________ NATICK/TR-15/020 USE OF BODY ARMOR...2012- July 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE USE OF BODY ARMOR PROTECTION LEVELS WITH SQUAD AUTOMATIC WEAPON FIGHTING LOAD IMPACTS SOLDIER PERFORMANCE

  8. Design Considerations for Fusible Heat Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Sheth, Rubik B.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally radiator designs are based off a passive or flow through design depending on vehicle requirements. For cyclical heat loads, a novel idea of combining a full flow through radiator to a phase change material is currently being investigated. The flow through radiator can be designed for an average heat load while the phase change material can be used as a source of supplemental heat rejections when vehicle heat loads go above the average load. Furthermore, by using water as the phase change material, harmful radiation protection can be provided to the crew. This paper discusses numerous trades conducted to understand the most optimal fusible heat sink design for a particular heat load. Trades include configuration concepts, amount of phase change needed for supplemental heat rejection, and the form of interstitial material needed for optimal performance. These trades were used to culminate to a fusible heat sink design. The paper will discuss design parameters taken into account to develop an engineering development unit.

  9. Low-cost multi-vehicle air temperature measurements for heat load assessment in local-scale climate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Weyss, Gernot; Aloise, Giulliano; Mifka, Boris; Löffelmann, Philemon; Hollosi, Brigitta; Nemec, Johana; Vucetic, Visnja

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years there has been a strong interest in exploring the potential of low-cost measurement devices as alternative source of meteorological monitoring data, especially in the urban areas where high-density observations become crucial for appropriate heat load assessment. One of the simple, but efficient approaches for gathering large amount of spatial data is through mobile measurement campaigns in which the sensors are attached to driving vehicles. However, non-standardized data collecting procedure, instrument quality, their response-time and design, variable device ventilation and radiation protection influence the reliability of the gathered data. We investigate what accuracy can be expected from the data collected through low-cost mobile measurements and whether the achieved quality of the data is sufficient for validation of the state-of-the-art local-scale climate models. We tested 5 types of temperature sensors and data loggers: Maxim iButton, Lascar EL-USB-2-LCD+ and Onset HOBO UX100-003 as market available devices and self-designed solar powered Arduino-based data loggers combined with the AOSONG AM2315 and Sensirion SHT21 temperature and humidity sensors. The devices were calibrated and tested in stationary mode at the Austrian Weather Service showing accuracy between 0.1°C and 0.8°C, which was mostly within the device specification range. In mobile mode, the best response-time was found for self-designed device with Arduino-based data logger and Sensirion SHT21 sensor. However, the device lacks the mechanical robustness and should be further improved for broad-range applications. We organized 4 measurement tours: two taking place in urban environment (Vienna, Austria in July 2011 and July 2013) and two in countryside with complex terrain of Mid-Adriatic islands (Hvar and Korcula, Croatia in August 2013). Measurements were taken on clear-sky, dry and hot days. We combined multiple devices attached to bicycle and cars with different

  10. The protective effects of Trolox-loaded chitosan nanoparticles against hypoxia-mediated cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Libo; Miao, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Yanli; Jia, Hongying; Liu, Ke; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidants have potentials to treat hypoxia-mediated oxidative stress related diseases. However, their therapeutic efficacy is restricted due to its poor cellular uptake efficiency and poor cell membrane permeability. To resolve these issues, we prepare the hydroxyethylated chitosan nanoparticles as drug carriers for the delivery of 6-hydroxy-2, 5, 7, 8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox), which was considered as a model compound. The experiment on cellular uptake and subcellular localization of Trolox-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Trolox-CSNPs) indicate that Trolox-CSNPs enter the cells via the caveolae-mediated endocytosis pathway and traffic with endosomes. Furthermore, compared with Trolox, Trolox-CSNPs exert a higher protective effect against the hypoxia-mediated oxidative stress. Molecular basis of apoptosis study reveals that Trolox-CSNPs can directly block the mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway through up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting the activation of Bax, Caspase-3 expression. In conclusion, the hydroxyethylated chitosan is a promising drug nanocarrier to deliver antioxidants for the treatment of hypoxia-mediated disease. From the clinical editor: Antioxidants are potentially beneficial in oxidative stress-related diseases, although cellular uptake of most antioxidants is suboptimal. In this study, hydroxyethylated chitosan nanoparticles are demonstrated as promising drug carriers in a Trolox-model system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Scorpion Venom Heat-Resistant Peptide Protects Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans from β-Amyloid Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Xi; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Li, Shao; Zhao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Our previous studies found SVHRP could enhance neurogenesis and inhibit microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in vivo. Here, we use the transgenic CL4176, CL2006, and CL2355 strains of Caenorhabditis elegans which express the human Aβ1-42 to investigate the effects and the possible mechanisms of SVHRP mediated protection against Aβ toxicity in vivo. The results showed that SVHRP-fed worms displayed remarkably decreased paralysis, less abundant toxic Aβ oligomers, reduced Aβ plaque deposition with respect to untreated animals. SVHRP also suppressed neuronal Aβ expression-induced defects in chemotaxis behavior and attenuated levels of ROS in the transgenic C. elegans. Taken together, these results suggest SVHRP could protect against Aβ-induced toxicity in C. elegans. Further studies need to be conducted in murine models and humans to analyze the effectiveness of the peptide. PMID:27507947

  12. Scorpion Venom Heat-Resistant Peptide Protects Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans from β- Amyloid Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Gang Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Our previous studies found SVHRP could enhance neurogenesis and inhibit microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in vivo. Here, we use the transgenic CL4176, CL2006 and CL2355 strains of Caenorhabditis elegans which express the human Aβ1–42 to investigate the effects and the possible mechanisms of SVHRP mediated protection against Aβ toxicity in vivo. The results showed that SVHRP-fed worms displayed remarkably decreased paralysis, less abundant toxic Aβ oligomers, reduced Aβ plaque deposition with respect to untreated animals. SVHRP also suppressed neuronal Aβ expression-induced defects in chemotaxis behavior and attenuated levels of ROS in the transgenic C. elegans. Taken together, these results suggest SVHRP could protect against Aβ-induced toxicity in C. elegans. Further studies need to be conducted in murine models and humans to analyze the effectiveness of the peptide.

  13. The Reusable Load Cell with Protection Applied for Online Monitoring of Overhead Transmission Lines Based on Fiber Bragg Grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guoming; Mao, Naiqiang; Li, Yabo; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Hongyang; Li, Chengrong

    2016-06-21

    Heavy ice coating of high-voltage overhead transmission lines may lead to conductor breakage and tower collapse causing the unexpected interrupt of power supply. The optical load cell applied in ice monitoring systems is immune to electromagnetic interference and has no need of a power supply on site. Therefore, it has become a hot research topic in China and other countries. In this paper, to solve the problem of eccentric load in measurement, we adopt the shearing structure with additional grooves to improve the strain distribution and acquire good repeatability. Then, the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a permanent weldable package are mounted onto the front/rear groove of the elastic element by spot welding, the direction deviation of FBGs is 90° from each other to achieve temperature compensation without an extra FBG. After that, protection parts are designed to guarantee high sensitivity for a light load condition and industrial safety under a heavy load up to 65 kN. The results of tension experiments indicate that the sensitivity and resolution of the load cell is 0.1285 pm/N and 7.782 N in the conventional measuring range (0-10 kN). Heavy load tension experiments prove that the protection structure works and the sensitivity and resolution are not changed after several high load (65 kN) cycles. In addition, the experiment shows that the resolution of the sensor is 87.79 N in the large load range, allowing the parameter to be used in heavy icing monitoring.

  14. The Reusable Load Cell with Protection Applied for Online Monitoring of Overhead Transmission Lines Based on Fiber Bragg Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy ice coating of high–voltage overhead transmission lines may lead to conductor breakage and tower collapse causing the unexpected interrupt of power supply. The optical load cell applied in ice monitoring systems is immune to electromagnetic interference and has no need of a power supply on site. Therefore, it has become a hot research topic in China and other countries. In this paper, to solve the problem of eccentric load in measurement, we adopt the shearing structure with additional grooves to improve the strain distribution and acquire good repeatability. Then, the fiber Bragg grating (FBG with a permanent weldable package are mounted onto the front/rear groove of the elastic element by spot welding, the direction deviation of FBGs is 90° from each other to achieve temperature compensation without an extra FBG. After that, protection parts are designed to guarantee high sensitivity for a light load condition and industrial safety under a heavy load up to 65 kN. The results of tension experiments indicate that the sensitivity and resolution of the load cell is 0.1285 pm/N and 7.782 N in the conventional measuring range (0–10 kN. Heavy load tension experiments prove that the protection structure works and the sensitivity and resolution are not changed after several high load (65 kN cycles. In addition, the experiment shows that the resolution of the sensor is 87.79 N in the large load range, allowing the parameter to be used in heavy icing monitoring.

  15. Pre-natal heat load affects bacterial levels and innate immunity in neonatal calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat stress suppresses immunity, making animals more susceptible to bacterial infections. Additionally, field observations suggest that calves have greater morbidity and mortality when they are born after a heat event. However, scientific evidence is still lacking, limiting the development of target...

  16. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  17. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Wei; Liu, Fu-Chao; Wang, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  18. Influence of Cooling to Heating Load Ratio on Optimal Supply Water and Air Temperatures in an Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi

    In planning an air conditioning system, supply water and air temperatures are important factors from the viewpoint of energy saving and cost reduction. For example, lower temperature supply water and air for space cooling reduce the coefficient of performance of a refrigeration machine, and increase the thickness of heat insulation material. However, they enable larger temperature differences, and reduce equipment sizes and power demand. It is also an important subject to evaluate the effect of the supply water and air temperatures on energy saving and cost reduction on the annual basis by considering not only cooling but also heating loads. The purposes of this paper are to propose an optimal planning method for an air conditioning system with large temperature difference, and to analyze the effect of supply water and air temperatures on the long-term economics through a numerical study for an office building. As a result, it is shown that the proposed method effectively determines supply water and air temperatures, and the influence of the cooling to heating load ratio on the long-term economics is clarified.

  19. Thermal–stress analysis on the crack formation of tungsten during fusion relevant transient heat loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the future fusion devices, ELMs-induced transient heat flux may lead to the surface cracking of tungsten (W based plasma-facing materials (PFMs. In theory, the cracking is related to the material fracture toughness and the thermal stress-strain caused by transient heat flux. In this paper, a finite element model was successfully built to realize a theoretical semi infinite space. The temperature and stress-strain distribution as well as evolution of W during a single heating-cooling cycle of transient heat flux were simulated and analyzed. It showed that the generation of plastic deformation during the brittle temperature range between room temperature and DBTT (ductile to brittle transition temperature, ∼400 °C caused the cracking of W during the cooling phase. The cracking threshold for W under transient heat flux was successfully obtained by finite element analysis, to some extent, in consistent with the similar experimental results. Both the heat flux factors (FHF = P·t0.5 and the maximum surface temperatures at cracking thresholds were almost invariant for the transient heat fluxes with different pulse widths and temporal distributions. This method not only identified the theoretical conclusion but also obtained the detail values for W with actual temperature-dependent properties.

  20. [Stenting of subtotal conclusion of internal carotid artery and comparing the cerebral embolic load of proximal balloon protection device with distal filter protection device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-wei; Ji, Xun-ming; Li, Shen-mao; Zhu, Feng-shui; Chen, Yan-fei; Ye, Ming; Jiao, Li-qun

    2013-07-16

    To study the safety, efficacy and perioperative complications of endovascular therapy in the treatment of subtotal conclusion of internal carotid artery(ICA) in patients. To compare the cerebral embolic load of proximal balloon protection device versus distal filter protection device during the operation. Review all the operations of stenting for subtotal conclusion of ICA in Xuanwu hospital. New cerebral infarction after stenting was assessed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Count the number of new ischemic lesions of every patient. 35 patients with subtotal conclusion of ICA received endovascular stenting. Proximal protective device was used for 21 patients. Distal protective device was used for 14 patients. All procedures succeeded. 32 patients received the cerebral MRI 1 week before and within 48 hours after the operation. Compared with filter protection(n = 14), proximal balloon device(n = 18) resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of new cerebral infarction (6/18 vs 10/14, P = 0.03). The number of new cerebral ischemic lesions were significant reduced by proximal balloon device (1/18 vs 4/14, P = 0.0006) . There were no serious cardiovascular events in 35 patients during the operation and the following up 3 months. 3 patients had restenosis which was demonstrated by ultrasound of ICA at 3 months after stenting. Endovascular stenting may be a safe and valid method for the treatment of subtotal occlusion of ICA. For the stenting of subtotal occlusion of ICA, proximal balloon protection device as compared with filter protection may reduce the embolic load to the brain more effectively. The stenting of subtotal occlusion of ICA still needs the randomized trails to confirm the safety and validity.

  1. Oral Vaccination with Heat Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis Activates the Complement System to Protect against Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Joseba M.; Aranaz, Alicia; Sevilla, Iker; Villar, Margarita; Boadella, Mariana; Galindo, Ruth C.; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; Moreno-Cid, Juan A.; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G.; Alberdi, Pilar; Santos, Gracia; Ballesteros, Cristina; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Gortazar, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV). Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar. PMID:24842853

  2. The Effect of Thermal Mass on Annual Heat Load and Thermal Comfort in Cold Climate Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Vanessa; Kotol, Martin; Grunau, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Thermal mass in building construction refers to a building material's ability to absorb and release heat based on changing environmental conditions. In building design, materials with high thermal mass used in climates with a diurnal temperature swing around the interior set-point temperature have...... been shown to reduce the annual heating demand. However, few studies exist regarding the effects of thermal mass in cold climates. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of high thermal mass on the annual heat demand and thermal comfort in a typical Alaskan residence using energy...... that while increased thermal mass does have advantages in all climates, such as a decrease in summer overheating, it is not an effective strategy for decreasing annual heat demand in typical residential buildings in Alaska. (C) 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers....

  3. Vehicle Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Model with Integrated Thermal Load Leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    advantages that make them particularly attractive for mobile applications including being lightweight , solid- state, and passive. This has the potential for...recovery from automobile engine. Energy. 2010;35:1447–1454. 14 12. Ceraianu MO, Gontean A. Parasitic elements modelling in thermoelectric...JP, Sampath S. Heat transfer modeling and geometry optimization of TEG for automobile applications. Proceedings of the ASME Summer Heat Transfer

  4. Impact of Urban Heat Island under the Hanoi Master Plan 2030 on Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hoang Hai Nam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the influence of urban heat island (UHI under the Hanoi Master Plan 2030 on the energy consumption for space cooling in residential buildings. The weather conditions under the current and future status (master plan condition simulated in the previous study (Trihamdani et al., 2014 were used and cooling loads in all the residential buildings in Hanoi over the hottest month were estimated under the simulated current and future conditions by using the building simulation program, TRNSYS (v17. Three most typical housing types in the city were selected for the simulation. The cooling loads of respective housing types were obtained in each of the districts in Hanoi. The results show that the total cooling loads over June 2010 is approximately 683 Terajoule (TJ under the current status, but it is predicted to increase to 903 TJ under the master plan condition. The increment is largely due to the increase in number of households (203 TJ or 92%, but partially due to the increase in urban temperature, i.e. UHI effect (17 TJ or 8%. The increments in new built-up areas were found to be larger than those in existing built-up areas. The cooling load in apartment is approximately half of that in detached house, which is approximately half of that in row house. Moreover, it was seen that although sensible cooling loads increased with the increase in outdoor temperature, the latent cooling loads decreased due to the decrease in absolute humidity and the increase in air temperature.

  5. Divertor heat load in ASDEX Upgrade L-mode in presence of external magnetic perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faitsch, M.; Sieglin, B.; Eich, T.; Herrmann, A.; Suttrop, W.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-09-01

    Power exhaust is one of the major challenges for a future fusion device. Applying a non-axisymmetric external magnetic perturbation is one technique that is studied in order to mitigate or suppress large edge localized modes which accompany the high confinement regime in tokamaks. The external magnetic perturbation induces breaking in the axisymmetry of a tokamak and leads to a 2D heat flux pattern on the divertor target. The 2D heat flux pattern at the outer divertor target is studied on ASDEX Upgrade in stationary L-mode discharges. The amplitude of the 2D characteristic of the heat flux depends on the alignment between the field lines at the edge and the vacuum response of the applied magnetic perturbation spectrum. The 2D characteristic reduces with increasing density. The increasing divertor broadening, S, with increasing density is proposed as the main actuator. This is supported by a generic model using field line tracing and the vacuum field approach that is in quantitative agreement with the measured heat flux. The perturbed heat flux, averaged over a full toroidal rotation of the magnetic perturbation, is identical to the non-perturbed heat flux without magnetic perturbation. The transport qualifiers, power fall-off length {λ }q and divertor broadening, S, are the same within the uncertainty compared to the unperturbed reference. No additional cross field transport is observed.

  6. Priming the prophenoloxidase system of Artemia franciscana by heat shock proteins protects against Vibrio campbellii challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Kartik; Ranjan, Jayant; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Macrae, Thomas H; Bossier, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Like other invertebrates, the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana relies solely on innate immunity, which by definition lacks adaptive characteristics, to combat against invading pathogens. One of the innate mechanisms is melanisation of bacteria mediated by the activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system. The 70 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70) derived from either prokaryote (Escherichia coli) or eukaryote (Artemia), well conserved and immune-dominant molecules, protect Artemia against Vibrio campbellii. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these proteins protect Artemia against Vibrio campbellii infection are unknown. Here we demonstrated that feeding gnotobiotically grown Artemia with either Artemia Hsp70 or the E. coli Hsp70 equivalent DnaK, each overproduced in E. coli, followed by V. campbellii challenge enhanced the proPO system, at both mRNA and protein activity levels. Additionally, the Artemia fed with these proteins survived well in a Vibrio challenge assay. These results indicated that Hsp70s derived from either prokaryotic or eukaryotic sources generate protective immunity in the crustacean Artemia against V. campbellii infection by priming the proPO system. This is apparently the first in vivo report on priming activity of Hsp70 in an invertebrate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of the RF cavity heat load and trip rates for CEBAF at 12 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Yves R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Freyberger, Arne P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Terzic, Balsa P. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at JLab has 200 RF cavities in the north linac and the south linac respectively after the 12 GeV upgrade. The purpose of this work is to simultaneously optimize the heat load and the trip rate for the cavities and to reconstruct the pareto-optimal front in a timely manner when some of the cavities are turned down. By choosing an efficient optimizer and strategically creating the initial gradients, the pareto-optimal front for no more than 15 cavities down can be re-established within 20 seconds.

  8. Beam-induced heat loads on the beam screens of the inner triplets for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Skripka, Galina; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    The expected heat load induced on the beam screens has been evaluated for the triplet assemblies in the four experimental Insertion Regions (IRs) of the HL-LHC. The contribution from electron cloud effects has been estimated using PyECLOUD macroparticle simulations. The presence of a surface treatment for the reduction of the Secondary Electron Yield has been taken into account. The contribution from the impedance of the beam screen has been evaluated taking into account the impact of the temperature and of the magnetic field on the resistivity of the surface.

  9. The updated algorithm of the Energy Consumption Program (ECP): A computer model simulating heating and cooling energy loads in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Strain, D. M.; Chai, V. W.; Higgins, S.

    1979-01-01

    The energy Comsumption Computer Program was developed to simulate building heating and cooling loads and compute thermal and electric energy consumption and cost. This article reports on the new additional algorithms and modifications made in an effort to widen the areas of application. The program structure was rewritten accordingly to refine and advance the building model and to further reduce the processing time and cost. The program is noted for its very low cost and ease of use compared to other available codes. The accuracy of computations is not sacrificed however, since the results are expected to lie within + or - 10% of actual energy meter readings.

  10. Load Prediction in District Heating Systems with Regard to Scenarios and Uncertainties in Weather; Lastprognoser foer fjaerrvaerme med haensyn till scenarier och osaekerheter i vaedret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedberg, Martin; Koppers, Gijs [Meteopolaris AB, Nacka (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    The report shows, by means of load calculations on ensemble weather forecasts and subsequent production planning, that by a better optimization of the operation of district heating plants the costs of production of heat and electricity can be reduced. During a fifth of the time the saving potential is 5% or more.

  11. Critical loads as a policy tool for protecting ecosystems from the effects of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas A. Burns; Tamara Blett; Richard Haeuber; Linda H. Pardo

    2008-01-01

    Framing the effects of air pollutants on ecosystems in terms of a "critical load" provides a meaningful approach for research scientists to communicate policy-relevant science to air-quality policy makers and natural resource managers. A critical-loads approach has been widely used to shape air-pollutant control policy in Europe since the 1980s, yet has only...

  12. Heat pumps: impact of the partial load operation on the efficiency; Pompes a chaleur: impact du fonctionnement a charge partielle sur le rendement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, J. [Climastar, 35 - Vitre (France)

    2002-10-01

    On site measurements have permitted to demonstrate the energy loss generated by the rise of rate of heat pumps. The aim of this article is to propose a method for the calculation of the effective power a heat pump with respect to the duration of the operation cycle. The effective power varies with the thermal inertia of the heat emitter, with the regulation, with the size of the pump and with its load ratio. (J.S.)

  13. Evaluation of antioxidants stability by thermal analysis and its protective effect in heated edible vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seme Youssef Reda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, through the use of thermal analysis techniques, the thermal stabilities of some antioxidants were investigated, in order to evaluate their resistance to thermal oxidation in oils, by heating canola vegetable oil, and to suggest that antioxidants would be more appropriate to increase the resistance of vegetable oils in the thermal degradation process in frying. The techniques used were: Thermal Gravimetric (TG and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC analyses, as well as an allusion to a possible protective action of the vegetable oils, based on the thermal oxidation of canola vegetable oil in the laboratory under constant heating at 180 ºC/8 hours for 10 days. The studied antioxidants were: ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, citric acid, sodium erythorbate, BHT (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHA (2, 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol, TBHQ (tertiary butyl hydroquinone, PG (propyl gallate - described as antioxidants by ANVISA and the FDA; and also the phytic acid antioxidant and the SAIB (sucrose acetate isobutyrate additive, which is used in the food industry, in order to test its behavior as an antioxidant in vegetable oil. The following antioxidants: citric acid, sodium erythorbate, BHA, BHT, TBHQ and sorbic acid decompose at temperatures below 180 ºC, and therefore, have little protective action in vegetable oils undergoing frying processes. The antioxidants below: phytic acid, ascorbic acid and PG, are the most resistant and begin their decomposition processes at temperatures between 180 and 200 ºC. The thermal analytical techniques have also shown that the SAIB antioxidant is the most resistant to oxidative action, and it can be a useful choice in the thermal decomposition prevention of edible oils, improving stability regarding oxidative processes.

  14. Thermal protection performance of magnetohydrodynamic heat shield system based on multipolar magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Li; Jun, Liu; Weiqiang, Liu

    2017-07-01

    In order to cover the shortage of dipole magnetic field in the magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) heat shield system, physical model of a multipolar magnetic field with central and peripheral solenoids is constructed. By employing the governing equations of three dimensional thermochemical nonequilibrium flow with electromagnetic source terms based on the low magneto-Reynolds assumption, the flow control performance of the dipole and multipolar magnetic fields are numerically simulated. To make the results comparable, two groups of cases are designed by first assuming equal stagnation magnetic induction strength and secondly assuming equal ampere-turns. Results show that, the five-magnet system, whose central polar orientation is the same with the peripheral ones, have stronger work capability and better shock control and thermal protection performance. Moreover, the five-solenoid systems are the best when the ampere-turns of the central solenoid are twice and fourth of the peripheral ones under those two circumstances respectively. Compared with the dipole magnetic field, the stagnation non-catalytic heat fluxes are decreased by a factor of 47.5% and 34.0% respectively.

  15. The protective role of small heat shock proteins in cardiac diseases: key role in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu; Van Marion, Denise M S; Wiersma, Marit; Zhang, Deli; Brundel, Bianca J J M

    2017-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common tachyarrhythmia which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. AF usually progresses from a self-terminating paroxysmal to persistent disease. It has been recognized that AF progression is driven by structural remodeling of cardiomyocytes, which results in electrical and contractile dysfunction of the atria. We recently showed that structural remodeling is rooted in derailment of proteostasis, i.e., homeostasis of protein production, function, and degradation. Since heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in maintaining a healthy proteostasis, the role of HSPs was investigated in AF. It was found that especially small heat shock protein (HSPB) levels get exhausted in atrial tissue of patients with persistent AF and that genetic or pharmacological induction of HSPB protects against cardiomyocyte remodeling in experimental models for AF. In this review, we provide an overview of HSPBs as a potential therapeutic target for normalizing proteostasis and suppressing the substrates for AF progression in experimental and clinical AF and discuss HSP activators as a promising therapy to prevent AF onset and progression.

  16. Ebola Response: Modeling the Risk of Heat Stress from Personal Protective Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Adam W.; Gonzalez, Julio A.; Xu, Xiaojiang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A significant number of healthcare workers have responded to aid in the relief and containment of the 2013 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. Healthcare workers are required to wear personal protective clothing (PPC) to impede the transmission of the virus; however, the impermeable design and the hot humid environment lead to risk of heat stress. Objective Provide healthcare workers quantitative modeling and analysis to aid in the prevention of heat stress while wearing PPC in West Africa. Methods A sweating thermal manikin was used to measure the thermal (Rct) and evaporative resistance (Ret) of the five currently used levels of PPC for healthcare workers in the West Africa EVD response. Mathematical methods of predicting the rise in core body temperature (Tc) in response to clothing, activity, and environment was used to simulate different responses to PPC levels, individual body sizes, and two hot humid conditions: morning/evening (air temperature: 25°C, relative humidity: 40%, mean radiant temperature: 35°C, wind velocity: 1 m/s) and mid-day (30°C, 60%, 70°C, 1 m/s). Results Nearly still air (0.4 m/s) measures of Rct ranged from 0.18 to 0.26 m2 K/W and Ret ranged from 25.53 to 340.26 m2 Pa/W. Conclusion Biophysical assessments and modeling in this study provide quantitative guidance for prevention of heat stress of healthcare workers wearing PPC responding to the EVD outbreak in West Africa. PMID:26575389

  17. Ebola Response: Modeling the Risk of Heat Stress from Personal Protective Clothing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Potter

    Full Text Available A significant number of healthcare workers have responded to aid in the relief and containment of the 2013 Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak in West Africa. Healthcare workers are required to wear personal protective clothing (PPC to impede the transmission of the virus; however, the impermeable design and the hot humid environment lead to risk of heat stress.Provide healthcare workers quantitative modeling and analysis to aid in the prevention of heat stress while wearing PPC in West Africa.A sweating thermal manikin was used to measure the thermal (Rct and evaporative resistance (Ret of the five currently used levels of PPC for healthcare workers in the West Africa EVD response. Mathematical methods of predicting the rise in core body temperature (Tc in response to clothing, activity, and environment was used to simulate different responses to PPC levels, individual body sizes, and two hot humid conditions: morning/evening (air temperature: 25°C, relative humidity: 40%, mean radiant temperature: 35°C, wind velocity: 1 m/s and mid-day (30°C, 60%, 70°C, 1 m/s.Nearly still air (0.4 m/s measures of Rct ranged from 0.18 to 0.26 m2 K/W and Ret ranged from 25.53 to 340.26 m2 Pa/W.Biophysical assessments and modeling in this study provide quantitative guidance for prevention of heat stress of healthcare workers wearing PPC responding to the EVD outbreak in West Africa.

  18. Effects of heat load gradient occurring in moulding on characterization and ripening of Grana Padano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrino, L; Battelli, G; Resmini, P; Ferranti, P; Barone, F; Addeo, F

    1997-01-01

    A centripetal temperature gradient takes place in Grana Padano (GP) during moulding because of the slow heat transfer within the cheese and the fast cooling of the outer part. This gradient, in combination with the low pH value, induces a centripetal inactivation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP).

  19. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System

    OpenAIRE

    Fu-Wei Liu; Fu-Chao Liu; Yu-Ren Wang; Hsin-I Tsai; Huang-Ping Yu

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in hu...

  20. Preparation of calcium chloride-loaded solid lipid particles and heat-triggered calcium ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Huangying; Kim, Jin-Chul [Kangwon National University, Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    CaCl{sub 2}-loaded solid lipid particles (SLPs) were prepared by a melt/emulsification/solidification method. CaCl{sub 2} microparticles (1-5 μm) could be obtained in a mortar with aid of the dispersant (Tween 80/Span80 (35/65, w/w)) when the ratio of CaCl{sub 2} to dispersant was 2 : 0.1 (w/w). SLP was prepared by dispersing 0.42 g of micronized CaCl{sub 2} particles in 2 g of molten PBSA, emulsifying the mixture at 85 .deg. C in 40 ml of Tween 20 solution (0.5% w/v), and quenching the emulsion in an ice bath. The diameter of CaCl{sub 2}-loaded SLP was 10-150 μm. The unenveloped CaCl{sub 2} could be removed by dialysis and the specific loading of CaCl{sub 2} in SLP was 0.036mg/mg. An EDS spectrum of CaCl{sub 2}-loaded SLP, which was dialyzed, showed that the unenveloped CaCl{sub 2} was completely removed. Any excipients (dispersant, Tween 20, CaCl{sub 2}) had little effect on the melting point of SLPs. No appreciable amount of Ca2+ was released in 20-50 .deg. C for 22 h. But the release degree at 60 .deg. C was significant (about 2.3%) during the same period. The matrix of the lipid particle was in a liquid state at 60 .deg. C, so CaCl{sub 2} particles could move freely and contact the surrounding water, leading to the release. At 70 .deg. C, the release degree at a given time was a few times higher than that obtained at 60 .deg. C.

  1. Feeding truncated heat shock protein 70s protect Artemia franciscana against virulent Vibrio campbellii challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Kartik; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Shihao, Li; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The 70 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70s) are highly conserved in evolution, leading to striking similarities in structure and composition between eukaryotic Hsp70s and their homologs in prokaryotes. The eukaryotic Hsp70 like the DnaK (Escherichia coli equivalent Hsp70) protein, consist of three functionally distinct domains: an N-terminal 44-kDa ATPase portion, an 18-kDa peptide-binding domain and a C-terminal 10-kDa fragment. Previously, the amino acid sequence of eukaryotic (the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana) Hsp70 and DnaK proteins were shown to share a high degree of homology, particularly in the peptide-binding domain (59.6%, the putative innate immunity-activating portion) compared to the N-terminal ATPase (48.8%) and the C-terminal lid domains (19.4%). Next to this remarkable conservation, these proteins have been shown to generate protective immunity in Artemia against pathogenic Vibrio campbellii. This study, aimed to unravel the Vibrio-protective domain of Hsp70s in vivo, demonstrated that gnotobiotically cultured Artemia fed with recombinant C-terminal fragment (containing the conserved peptide binding domain) of Artemia Hsp70 or DnaK protein were well protected against subsequent Vibrio challenge. In addition, the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, at both mRNA and protein activity levels, was also markedly induced by these truncated proteins, suggesting epitope(s) responsible for priming the proPO system and presumably other immune-related genes, consequently boosting Artemia survival upon challenge with V. campbellii, might be located within this conserved region of the peptide binding domain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Small, acid-soluble proteins bound to DNA protect Bacillus subtilis spores from killing by dry heat.

    OpenAIRE

    Setlow, B; Setlow, P

    1995-01-01

    Dry Bacillus subtilis spores lacking their two major DNA-binding proteins (small, acid-soluble proteins [SASP] alpha and beta) were much more sensitive to dry heat than were wild-type spores. Survivors of dry heat treatment of both wild-type and mutant spores exhibited a high frequency of mutations, and the DNA from the heated spores had increased numbers of single-strand breaks. These data indicate that SASP alpha and beta provide significant protection to spore DNA against the damaging effe...

  3. Refined experimental methodology for assessing the heat dissipated in cyclically loaded materials at low stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquin, François; Pierron, Fabrice

    2007-03-01

    The present study is aimed at studying the heat generated in steel specimens cyclically tested at stresses lower than their macroscopic elastic limit, in the objective of detecting the onset of microplasticity. First, the data processing procedure is presented to calculate heat sources and thermal energy levels from temperature maps. Then, a sensitivity study is performed to establish the smallest energy value that can be detected above noise. Finally, results are presented for a cold rolled low carbon steel material. It is shown that two main mechanisms of dissipation are present, the first one corresponding to viscoelastic effects and the second one associated to microplasticity. To cite this article: F. Maquin, F. Pierron, C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).

  4. L-band AlGaN/GaN Power Amplifier with Protection Against Load Mismatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, M. van; Bent, G. van der; Houwen, E.H. van der; Chowdhary, A.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state power amplifiers need protection at the output to handle high reflections due to mismatch. Normally this is implemented by using a ferrite-based isolator. These are however large and bulky components. This paper presents a Gallium-Nitride power amplifier module with automatic protection

  5. In Situ Microparticles Loaded with S-Nitrosoglutathione Protect from Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Parent

    Full Text Available Treatment of stroke, especially during the first hours or days, is still lacking. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, a cerebroprotective agent with short life time, may help if administered early with a sustain delivery while avoiding intensive reduction in blood pressure. We developed in situ forming implants (biocompatible biodegradable copolymer and microparticles (same polymer and solvent emulsified with an external oily phase of GSNO to lengthen its effects and allow cerebroprotection after a single subcutaneous administration to Wistar rats. Arterial pressure was recorded for 3 days (telemetry, n = 14, whole-blood platelet aggregation up to 13 days (aggregometry, n = 58, and neurological score, cerebral infarct size and edema volume for 2 days after obstruction of the middle cerebral artery by autologous blood clots (n = 30. GSNO-loaded formulations (30 mg/kg induced a slighter and longer hypotension (-10 vs. -56 ± 6 mmHg mean arterial pressure, 18 h vs. 40 min than free GSNO at the same dose. The change in pulse pressure (-50% lasted even up to 42 h for microparticles. GSNO-loaded formulations (30 mg/kg prevented the transient 24 h hyper-aggregability observed with free GSNO and 7.5 mg/kg-loaded formulations. When injected 2 h after stroke, GSNO-loaded microparticles (30 mg/kg reduced neurological score at 24 (-62% and 48 h (-75% vs. empty microparticles and free GSNO 7.5 mg/kg and, compared to free GSNO, divided infarct size by 10 and edema volume by 8 at 48 h. Corresponding implants reduced infarct size and edema volume by 2.5 to 3 times. The longer (at least 2 days but slight effects on arterial pressures show sustained delivery of GSNO-loaded formulations (30 mg/kg, which prevent transient platelet hyper-responsiveness and afford cerebroprotection against the consequences of stroke. In conclusion, in situ GSNO-loaded formulations are promising candidates for the treatment of stroke.

  6. Heat loads of transparent construction elements and sun shading systems; Waermelasten transparenter Bauteile und Sonnenschutzsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H.; Binder, B.; Vonbank, R.

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a test system installed at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA) in Duebendorf, Switzerland, for the investigation of heat gain by glazing elements often used in modern architecture and the efficiency of shading elements. The two climatically controlled test cells for the measurement of the thermal characteristics of facade elements and shading systems are described and the results of measurements made using various types of glazing and shading systems - including external and internal lamellas, blinds and extendible fabric sunshades - are presented. The results are analysed and interpreted in a comprehensive appendix.

  7. Thermal protection system gap heating rates of the Rockwell International flat plate heat transfer model (OH2A/OH2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T. F.; Lockman, W. K.; Grifall, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Heat transfer data for the Rockwell International Flat Plate Thermocouple Model are presented. The model simulated the Space Shuttle Vehicle Thermal Protection System. Data were recorded for locations in and around various size gaps for various gap orientation configurations. The test was conducted at Mach 5.1 for free-stream Reynolds number per foot values from 500,000 to 1,500,000.

  8. Electron temperature and heat load measurements in the COMPASS divertor using the new system of probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, J.; Seidl, J.; Horacek, J.; Komm, M.; Eich, T.; Panek, R.; Cavalier, J.; Devitre, A.; Peterka, M.; Vondracek, P.; Stöckel, J.; Sestak, D.; Grover, O.; Bilkova, P.; Böhm, P.; Varju, J.; Havranek, A.; Weinzettl, V.; Lovell, J.; Dimitrova, M.; Mitosinkova, K.; Dejarnac, R.; Hron, M.; The COMPASS Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-11-01

    A new system of probes was recently installed in the divertor of tokamak COMPASS in order to investigate the ELM energy density with high spatial and temporal resolution. The new system consists of two arrays of rooftop-shaped Langmuir probes (LPs) used to measure the floating potential or the ion saturation current density and one array of Ball-pen probes (BPPs) used to measure the plasma potential with a spatial resolution of ~3.5 mm. The combination of floating BPPs and LPs yields the electron temperature with microsecond temporal resolution. We report on the design of the new divertor probe arrays and first results of electron temperature profile measurements in ELMy H-mode and L-mode. We also present comparative measurements of the parallel heat flux using the new probe arrays and fast infrared termography (IR) data during L-mode with excellent agreement between both techniques using a heat power transmission coefficient γ  =  7. The ELM energy density {{\\varepsilon }\\parallel } was measured during a set of NBI assisted ELMy H-mode discharges. The peak values of {{\\varepsilon }\\parallel } were compared with those predicted by model and with experimental data from JET, AUG and MAST with a good agreement.

  9. Mitigation Systems for Confined Blast Loading - Crew Protection in Armored Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    sword . While mitigation materials provide critical protection, the mitigation mechanism itself adds weight, thereby decreasing vehicle mobility and...Effects of Tungsten Alloy Property Variations on Penetrator Performance for Spaced Armors.” Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials

  10. Influence of Column Axial Load and Heat Affected Zone on the Strength of Aluminium Column Web in Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco De Matteis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The component method for aluminium joints has been recently introduced in some codes and guidelines. Nevertheless, it is still in need of some development and improvement, as in some cases it was obtained by adapting the existing formulations that are valid for steel. The current paper presents the main outcomes of a parametric analysis carried out by means of finite element (FE numerical models for determining the influence of both column axial load and heat affected zone—in the case of welded details—on the structural response of the column web in a tension component. The proposed study integrates previous research carried out by the authors, where the influence of the assumed alloy was investigated and interpreted by corrective parameters expressed as a function of both the material strain hardening and ductility.

  11. High-heat-load monochromator options for the RIXS beamline at the APS with the MBA lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zunping, E-mail: zpliu@anl.gov; Gog, Thomas, E-mail: gog@aps.anl.gov; Stoupin, Stanislav A.; Upton, Mary H.; Ding, Yang; Kim, Jung-Ho; Casa, Diego M.; Said, Ayman H.; Carter, Jason A.; Navrotski, Gary [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    With the MBA lattice for APS-Upgrade, tuning curves of 2.6 cm period undulators meet the source requirements for the RIXS beamline. The high-heat-load monochromator (HHLM) is the first optical white beam component. There are four options for the HHLM such as diamond monochromators with refrigerant of either water or liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}), and silicon monochromators of either direct or indirect cooling system. Their performances are evaluated at energy 11.215 keV (Ir L-III edge). The cryo-cooled diamond monochromator has similar performance as the water-cooled diamond monochromator because GaIn of the Cu-GaIn-diamond interface becomes solid. The cryo-cooled silicon monochromators perform better, not only in terms of surface slope error due to thermal deformation, but also in terms of thermal capacity.

  12. Estimation of the dust production rate from the tungsten armour after repetitive ELM-like heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestchanyi, S.; Garkusha, I.; Makhlaj, V.; Landman, I.

    2011-12-01

    Experimental simulations for the erosion rate of tungsten targets under ITER edge-localized mode (ELM)-like surface heat loads of 0.75 MJ m-2 causing surface melting and of 0.45 MJ m-2 without melting have been performed in the QSPA-Kh50 plasma accelerator. Analytical considerations allow us to conclude that for both energy deposition values the erosion mechanism is solid dust ejection during surface cracking under the action of thermo-stress. Tungsten influx into the ITER containment of NW~5×1018 W per medium size ELM of 0.75 MJ m-2 and 0.25 ms time duration has been estimated. The radiation cooling power of Prad=150-300 MW due to such influx of tungsten is intolerable: it should cool the ITER core to 1 keV within a few seconds.

  13. Simulations of electron-cloud heat load for the cold arcs of the CERN Large Hadron Collider and its high-luminosity upgrade scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, H; Zimmermann, F

    2012-01-01

    The heat load generated by an electron cloud in the cold arcs of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a concern for operation near and beyond nominal beam current. We report the results of simulation studies, with updated secondary- emission models, which examine the severity of the electron heat load over a range of possible operation parameters, both for the nominal LHC and for various luminosity-upgrade scenarios, such as the so-called ‘‘full crab crossing’’ and ‘‘early separation’’ schemes, the ‘‘large Piwinski angle’’ scheme, and a variant of the latter providing ‘‘compatibility’’ with the (upgraded) LHCb experiment. The variable parameters considered are the maximum secondary-emission yield, the number of particles per bunch, and the spacing between bunches. In addition, the dependence of the heat load on the longitudinal bunch profile is investigated.

  14. Simulations of electron-cloud heat load for the cold arcs of the CERN Large Hadron Collider and its high-luminosity upgrade scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Maury Cuna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The heat load generated by an electron cloud in the cold arcs of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC is a concern for operation near and beyond nominal beam current. We report the results of simulation studies, with updated secondary-emission models, which examine the severity of the electron heat load over a range of possible operation parameters, both for the nominal LHC and for various luminosity-upgrade scenarios, such as the so-called “full crab crossing” and “early separation” schemes, the “large Piwinski angle” scheme, and a variant of the latter providing “compatibility” with the (upgraded LHCb experiment. The variable parameters considered are the maximum secondary-emission yield, the number of particles per bunch, and the spacing between bunches. In addition, the dependence of the heat load on the longitudinal bunch profile is investigated.

  15. Evaluating Moisture Control of Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps in Mechanically Ventilated, Low-Load Homes in Climate Zone 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Eric [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center; Withers, Chuck [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center; McIlvaine, Janet [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center; Chasar, Dave [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center; Beal, David [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center

    2018-02-07

    The well-sealed, highly insulated building enclosures constructed by today's home building industry coupled with efficient lighting and appliances are achieving significantly reduced heating and cooling loads. These low-load homes can present a challenge when selecting appropriate space-conditioning equipment. Conventional, fixed-capacity heating and cooling equipment is often oversized for small homes, causing increased first costs and operating costs. Even if fixed-capacity equipment can be properly specified for peak loads, it remains oversized for use during much of the year. During these part-load cooling hours, oversized equipment meets the target dry-bulb temperatures very quickly, often without sufficient opportunity for moisture control. The problem becomes more acute for high-performance houses in humid climates when meeting ASHRAE Standard 62.2 recommendations for wholehouse mechanical ventilation.

  16. Comparative study of beam losses and heat loads reduction methods in MITICA beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, E., E-mail: emanuele.sartori@igi.cnr.it; Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Sonato, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/a, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    In negative ion electrostatic accelerators a considerable fraction of extracted ions is lost by collision processes causing efficiency loss and heat deposition over the components. Stripping is proportional to the local density of gas, which is steadily injected in the plasma source; its pumping from the extraction and acceleration stages is a key functionality for the prototype of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector, and it can be simulated with the 3D code AVOCADO. Different geometric solutions were tested aiming at the reduction of the gas density. The parameter space considered is limited by constraints given by optics, aiming, voltage holding, beam uniformity, and mechanical feasibility. The guidelines of the optimization process are presented together with the proposed solutions and the results of numerical simulations.

  17. Investigation of Some Transparent Metal Oxides as Damp Heat Protective Coating for CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Zaaunbrecher, B.; To, B.; Perkins, J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the protective effectiveness of some transparent metal oxides (TMO) on CIGS solar cell coupons against damp heat (DH) exposure at 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH). Sputter-deposited bilayer ZnO (BZO) with up to 0.5-um Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer and 0.2-um bilayer InZnO were used as 'inherent' part of device structure on CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG. Sputter-deposited 0.2-um ZnSnO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) 0.1-um Al2O3 were used as overcoat on typical BZO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG solar cells. The results were all negative -- all TMO-coated CIGS cells exhibited substantial degradation in DH. Combining the optical photographs, PL and EL imaging, SEM surface micro-morphology, coupled with XRD, I-V and QE measurements, the causes of the device degradations are attributed to hydrolytic corrosion, flaking, micro-cracking, and delamination induced by the DH moisture. Mechanical stress and decrease in crystallinity (grain size effect) could be additional degrading factors for thicker AZO grown on CdS/CIGS.

  18. A software system used for load distribution at a combined heat and power plant with the complex mix of the equipment and complex schemes of heat and electric power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarch'yan, V. A.; Chernyaev, A. N.; Andryushin, A. V.; Pechenkin, S. P.; Lisitsa, V. I.; Logvinov, E. I.; Molchanov, A. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    The authors describe various approaches to construction of an algorithm for the solution of the problem of load distribution at a combined heat and power (CHP) plant with the complex mix of the equipment and complex schemes of heat and electrical energy supply on the basis of which the software system has been developed. Methods of obtaining energy characteristics of the equipment used for solving the problem of load distribution were studied. The results of the implementation of the software system for load distribution at the CHP-23 plant belonging to OAO Mosenergo are given. Realization of recommendations on maintaining an operational mode of the equipment with due regard for its optimal loading makes it possible to obtain fuel savings of up to 1%.

  19. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  20. Reducing Structural Weight and Increasing Protection in Simple Structures Subjected to Blast Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-12

    compression measured in the spring, which is determined from the governing equations shown in Appendix A. In the LS-DYNA model, a single spring- mass - damper ...like a solid when experiencing a large shear load, such as an impulse of high pressure but of short duration from a blast, and returns to liquid ... mass model with a single degree of freedom (DOF) representing the upper torso of the occupant (Appendix A) is mounted directly in the middle of the

  1. Effect of Protective Devices on Brain Trauma Mechanics Under Idealized Shock Wave Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-29

    outside may be due to the jet wind effect. As the RED head is loaded due to the traversing shockwave, it springs back due to the energy stored in the...05001-001 Submitted to: Dr. Larry Russell, Ph.D. Army Research Office Marina Carboni/Michael Maffeo NATICK ARO/NATICK Final Report on... energy in the anterior of the head. Gathering the peak minimum and maximum values from the first 5ms, the shock tube data better approximates the free

  2. Blast Loading and Response of Underground Concrete-Arch Protective Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-06-05

    2.4 Concrete Design Mix per Cubic Yard ------------------------------- 25 2.5 Concrete Strengh Characteristics --------------------------------- 29...voltage for each channel was supplied designed and fabricated by NCEL. They consisted of by three CEC Type 2-I05A oscillator- power bupplies an 8-inch-long...10f.A power system similar to the BRL gage was used to spring su.)plies and t) drive the three power supplies from a load the wire. Figure C.3 shows a

  3. Variability in Heat Strain in Fully Encapsulated Impermeable Suits in Different Climates and at Different Work Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DenHartog, Emiel A; Rubenstein, Candace D; Deaton, A Shawn; Bogerd, Cornelis Peter

    2017-03-01

    A major concern for responders to hazardous materials (HazMat) incidents is the heat strain that is caused by fully encapsulated impermeable (NFPA 1991) suits. In a research project, funded by the US Department of Defense, the thermal strain experienced when wearing these suits was studied. Forty human subjects between the ages of 25 and 50 participated in a protocol approved by the local ethical committee. Six different fully encapsulated impermeable HazMat suits were evaluated in three climates: moderate (24°C, 50% RH, 20°C WBGT), warm-wet (32°C, 60% RH, 30°C WBGT), and hot-dry (45°C, 20% RH, 37°C WBGT, 200 W m-2 radiant load) and at three walking speeds: 2.5, 4, and 5.5 km h-1. The medium speed, 4 km h-1, was tested in all three climates and the other two walking speeds were only tested in the moderate climate. Prior to the test a submaximal exercise test in normal clothing was performed to determine a relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption (pretest). In total, 163 exposures were measured. Tolerance time ranged from as low as 20 min in the hot-dry condition to 60 min (the maximum) in the moderate climate, especially common at the lowest walking speed. Between the six difference suits limited differences were found, a two-layered aluminized suit exhibited significant shorter tolerance times in the moderate climate, but no other major significant differences were found for the other climates or workloads. An important characteristic of the overall dataset is the large variability between the subjects. Although the average responses seem suitable to be predicted, the variability in the warmer strain conditions ranged from 20 min up to 60 min. The work load in these encapsulated impermeable suits was also significantly higher than working in normal clothing and higher than predicted by the Pandolf equation. Heart rate showed a very strong correlation to body core temperature and was in many cases the limiting factor. Setting the heart rate

  4. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-04: Radiation Heat Load On the MR System of the Elekta Atlantic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towe, S; Roberts, D [Elekta Limited, Crawley, West Sussex (United Kingdom); Overweg, J [Philips Innovative Technologies, Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Van Lanen, E [Philips Healthcare, Latham, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The Elekta Atlantic system combines a digital linear accelerator system with a 1.5T Philips MRI machine.This study aimed to assess the energy deposited within the cryostat system when the radiation beam passes through the cryostat. The cryocooler on the magnet has a cooling capacity which is about 1 Watt in excess of the cryogenic heat leak into the magnet’s cold mass. A pressure-controlled heater inside the magnet balances the excess refrigeration power such that the helium pressure in the tank is kept slightly above ambient air pressure. If radiation power is deposited in the cold mass then this heater will need less power to maintain pressure equilibrium and if the radiation heat load exceeds the excess cryocooler capacity the pressure will rise. Methods: An in-house CAD based Monte Carlo code based on Penelope was used to model the entire MR-Linac system to quantify the heat load on the magnet’s cold mass. These results were then compared to experimental results obtained from an Elekta Atlantic system installed in UMC-Utrecht. Results: For a field size of 25 cm x 22 cm and a dose rate of 107 mu.min-1, the energy deposited by the radiation beam led to a reduction in heater power from 1.16 to 0.73 W. Simulations predicted a reduction to 0.69 W which is in good agreement. For the worst case field size (largest) and maximum dose rate the cryostat cooler capacity was exceeded. This resulted in a pressure rise within the system but was such that continuous irradiation for over 12 hours would be required before the magnet would start blowing off helium. Conclusion: The study concluded that the Atlantic system does not have to be duty cycle restricted, even for the worst case non-clinical scenario and that there are no adverse effects on the MR system. Stephen Towe and David Roberts Both work for Elekta; Ezra Van Lanen works for Philips Healthcare; Johan Overweg works for Philips Innovative Technologies.

  5. Impact of heat stress on conception rate of dairy cows in the moderate climate considering different temperature-humidity index thresholds, periods relative to breeding, and heat load indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, L K; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to investigate the relationship between temperature-humidity index (THI) and conception rate (CR) of lactating dairy cows, to estimate a threshold for this relationship, and to identify periods of exposure to heat stress relative to breeding in an area of moderate climate. In addition, we compared three different heat load indices related to CR: mean THI, maximum THI, and number of hours above the mean THI threshold. The THI threshold for the influence of heat stress on CR was 73. It was statistically chosen based on the observed relationship between the mean THI at the day of breeding and the resulting CR. Negative effects of heat stress, however, were already apparent at lower levels of THI, and 1 hour of mean THI of 73 or more decreased the CR significantly. The CR of lactating dairy cows was negatively affected by heat stress both before and after the day of breeding. The greatest negative impact of heat stress on CR was observed 21 to 1 day before breeding. When the mean THI was 73 or more in this period, CR decreased from 31% to 12%. Compared with the average maximum THI and the total number of hours above a threshold of more than or 9 hours, the mean THI was the most sensitive heat load index relating to CR. These results indicate that the CR of dairy cows raised in the moderate climates is highly affected by heat stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Model of the heat load under dynamic abrasive processing of food material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Аlеksееv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern stage of the improvement food production is conditioned by tense fight for their cost-performance that is defined in significant measure by maximum efficiency of the use agricultural cheese. At the same time problems with disadvantage ecological condition, accompanying life our society, require from taken person of the food different influences on recovery of the organism. For decision of this problem to researchers most different countries unite their own efforts on decision of the touched questions. The improvement and development technology must rest in study existing. In base of the studies can lie the mathematical product models of the feeding and corresponding to processes created in different exploratory organization. The development qualitative, claimed, competitive products – a purpose of each modern producer, choosing for itself most idle time, effective and economic justified way of the decision given problems. Modern prospecting in theories and practical person of the checking quality and analysis allow to use in principal new methods at determination of the possible negative changes to product of the feeding happened in them, in particular, under heat processing. The given methods, except traditional touch component, take into account else and complex of the analytical models of the models, for positioning undesirable warm-up mode for processing the product in target group of the consumers (for instance for integer medical-preventive feeding.

  7. Protective effect of energy metabolism regulators in alteration of gravitation load under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazina, N K; Larina, I M; Khazanov, V A; Shenkman, B S; Tsapok, P I; Zaitsev, V B; Khorobrykh, V G; Veselova, O M; Tret'yakov, V S

    2006-10-01

    Mitochondrial substrate-based preparations corrected disorders, caused by long-term exposure to abnormal gravitation vector in head-down tilt (hanging) test in rats. The preparations produced systemic and polyorgan protective effects consisting in correction of the blood prooxidant/antioxidant balance, energy metabolism in musculus soleus, and minimization of morphological changes in the liver and kidneys.

  8. Large heat storage tank for load management nd implementation of ambient heat. District heating networks based on combined heat and power; Grosswaermespeicher zum Lastmanagement und zur Einbindung von Umweltenergie. Auf KWK basierende Fernwaermenetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Sebastian; Rhein, Martin; Ruehling, Karin [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    2013-06-15

    The district heating based on combined heat and power is a transitional technology on the way to the supply of Germany with renewable energy. In the next years, this transitional technology can only be maintained and expanded when marketability is given. Therefore an appropriate combination has to be found from investment measures. Together with new aspects in the management strategy, these investment measures should significantly improve the marketability. The investment measures also aims to enable a primary energetic, appropriate combination of natural gas-based combined heat and power, renewable energy sources (solar thermal energy, ambient heat) and heat pump technology.

  9. ‘‘Cool’’ governance of a ‘‘hot’’ climate issue: public and private responsibilities for the protection of vulnerable citizens against extreme heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, H.L.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345727002; Driessen, P.P.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069081417; Runhaar, H.A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141942673

    In cities in temperate climate zones, the elderly, disabled and socially deprived are most vulnerable to extreme heat, as witnessed by increased mortality rates during heat waves in Europe and North America. Many cities, however, lag behind in the protection of vulnerable citizens against heat

  10. Thermosensitive block copolymer [(PNIPAM)-b-(Glycine)] thin film as protective layer for drug loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amgoth, Chander; Joshi, Suman

    2017-10-01

    Synthesis and characterization of [(PNIPAM)-b-(Gly)] and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MP-SiO2 NPs) were carried out separately and used to develop [(PNIPAM)-b-(Gly)]-(MP-SiO2 NPs). The synthesized MP-SiO2 NPs were meso porous in nature. The size of SiO2 NPs is in the range of ~180–250 nm (in diameter) with an average pore size of 2.8 nm within the particles. Interestingly, these mesoporous SiO2 NPs were loaded with anticancer drug (ITM-imatinib mesylate) fallow by the incubation for 24 h at RT. However, ITM loaded MP-SiO2 NPs were capped or covered with synthesized [(PNIPAM)-b-(Gly)] thin film. Here, thin film acts as protective layer for drug loaded MP-SiO2 NPs, with that leakage of drug molecules throughout its transport pathway can be avoided. Significantly, thermosensitive [(PNIPAM)-b-(Gly)] polymer thin film depletes at body temperature (~37 °C) and drug molecules come out from the pores of SiO2 NPs. However, developed [(PNIPAM)-b-(Gly)]-(MP-SiO2 NPs) is compatible and used for cell inhibition studies. After 24 h treatment, drug ITM released from [(PNIPAM)-b-(Gly)]-(MP-SiO2 NPs) shows significant (>90%) inhibition on leukemia blood cancer (K562) cells.

  11. The C-terminal region of alpha-crystallin: involvement in protection against heat-induced denaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, L.; Emmons, T.; Horwitz, J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the alpha-crystallins can protect other proteins against heat-induced denaturation and aggregation. To determine the possible involvement of the C-terminal region in this activity, the alpha-crystallins were subjected to limited tryptic digestion, and the amount of cleavage from the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the alpha-A and alpha-B crystallin chains was assessed using antisera specific for these regions. Limited tryptic digestion resulted in cleavage only from the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin. This trypsin-treated alpha-A crystallin preparation showed a decreased ability to protect proteins from heat-induced aggregation using an in vitro assay. Together, these results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin is important for its ability to protect against heat-induced aggregation, which is consistent with the hypothesis that post-translational changes that are known to occur at the C-terminal region may have significant effects on the ability of alpha-A crystallin to protect against protein denaturation in vivo.

  12. Heat

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to make heat by rubbing your hands together? Why does an ice cube melt when you hold it? In this title, students will conduct experiments to help them understand what heat is. Kids will also investigate concepts such as which materials are good at conducting heat and which are the best insulators. Using everyday items that can easily be found around the house, students will transform into scientists as they carry out step-by-step experiments to answer interesting questions. Along the way, children will pick up important scientific skills. Heat includes seven experiments with detailed, age-appropriate instructions, surprising facts and background information, a "conclusions" section to pull all the concepts in the book together, and a glossary of science words. Colorful, dynamic designs and images truly put the FUN into FUN-damental Experiments.

  13. Calcium channel blockers, more than diuretics, enhance vascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers in salt-loaded hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichiro Yamamoto

    Full Text Available The combination therapy of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB with a calcium channel blocker (CCB or with a diuretic is favorably recommended for the treatment of hypertension. However, the difference between these two combination therapies is unclear. The present work was undertaken to examine the possible difference between the two combination therapies in vascular protection. Salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP were divided into 6 groups, and they were orally administered (1 vehicle, (2 olmesartan, an ARB, (3 azelnidipine, a CCB, (4 hydrochlorothiazide, a diuretic, (5 olmesartan combined with azelnidipine, or (6 olmesartan combined with hydrochlorothiazide. Olmesartan combined with either azelnidipine or hydrochlorothiazide ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction and remodeling in SHRSP more than did monotherapy with either agent. However, despite a comparable blood pressure lowering effect between the two treatments, azelnidipine enhanced the amelioration of vascular endothelial dysfunction and remodeling by olmesartan to a greater extent than did hydrochlorothiazide in salt-loaded SHRSP. The increased enhancement by azelnidipine of olmesartan-induced vascular protection than by hydrochlorothiazide was associated with a greater amelioration of vascular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase activation, superoxide, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and with a greater activation of the Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS pathway. These results provided the first evidence that a CCB potentiates the vascular protective effects of an ARB in salt-sensitive hypertension, compared with a diuretic, and provided a novel rationale explaining the benefit of the combination therapy with an ARB and a CCB.

  14. Building America Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings, Ithaca, New York; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, CARB monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  15. Effect of various doses of injected selenium on performance and physiological responses of sheep to heat load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhidary, I A; Shini, S; Al Jassim, R A M; Gaughan, J B

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various doses of injected Se on the physiological responses of sheep to heat load. Fifteen 9-mo-old Australian Merino wethers (mean BW = 27.2 ± 2.1 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 0 (control), 0.5, and 5 mg of Se, which was administered as a subcutaneous sodium selenate injection (5 mg/mL Se) on d 1, 8, and 15 of exposure to heat stress. The animals were housed individually in an environmental chamber and exposed to high temperature from 0700 to 1800 h (maximum = 38°C; minimum = 24°C) and to thermoneutral temperature from 1800 to 0700 h (maximum = 24°C; minimum = 20°C) for 21 d. Rectal temperature (RT) and respiration rate (RR) were measured daily at 0800, 1200, and 1600 h. Feed intake was measured daily, and sheep were weighed on d 1, 8, 15, and 21. Blood samples were collected on d 1 and 21. The 5 mg Se treatment decreased RT by 0.3°C (P = 0.02) and BW loss by 4.5% (P 0.05) between treatments in RR and DMI, serum concentrations of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, and NEFA or in blood hematology variables. The findings of this study have important implications for the sheep industry. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the dynamics of Se on productivity and health during hot conditions.

  16. Ostα depletion protects liver from oral bile acid load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Carol J; Velazquez, Heino; Mennone, Albert; Ballatori, Nazzareno; Boyer, James L

    2011-09-01

    Bile acid homeostasis is tightly maintained through interactions between the liver, intestine, and kidney. During cholestasis, the liver is incapable of properly clearing bile acids from the circulation, and alternative excretory pathways are utilized. In obstructive cholestasis, urinary elimination is often increased, and this pathway is further enhanced after bile duct ligation in mice that are genetically deficient in the heteromeric, basolateral organic solute transporter alpha-beta (Ostα-Ostβ). In this study, we examined renal and intestinal function in Ostα-deficient and wild-type mice in a model of bile acid overload. After 1% cholic acid feeding, Ostα-deficient mice had significantly lower serum ALT levels compared with wild-type controls, indicating partial protection from liver injury. Urinary clearance of bile acids, but not clearance of [(3)H]inulin, was significantly higher in cholic acid-fed Ostα-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice but was not sufficient to account for the protection. Fecal excretion of bile acids over the 5 days of cholic acid feeding was responsible for almost all of the bile acid loss in Ostα-deficient mice, suggesting that intestinal losses of bile acids accounted for the protection from liver injury. Thus fecal loss of bile acids after bile acid overload reduced the need for the kidney to filter and excrete the excess bile acids. In conclusion, Ostα-deficient mice efficiently eliminate excess bile acids via the feces. Inhibition of intestinal bile acid absorption might be an effective therapeutic target in early stages of cholestasis when bile acids are still excreted into bile.

  17. Computational evaluation of some lower limbs protective systems under explosive loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas J.P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Different types of protective equipment for human lower limb, such as boots and gaiters, have been developed in order to reduce the injury caused by blast antipersonnel-mines. Damage is mainly studied by the energy transmitted to the extremity that has stepped on the mine; nonetheless, side effects that may affect adjacent limbs cannot be left aside. This study is divided into three stages due to the complexity in modeling the different phenomena related to the problem. The first stage is the study of the energy transmitted when a mine is activated. Different results are gathered according to the variation of parameters such as: deep of burial, standoff between ground and protective equipment, explosive mass, energy absorbing material placed between the ground and the protected limb, and computational issues like the distance of the boundary conditions and the discretization level. The second stage is the base and first approximation to the modeling and evaluation of lower limb behavior. It includes the interaction of the detonation products and a lower limb that is placed in a mechanical measuring device. The energy transferred to the mechanical device is correlated to the damage caused by the explosion products in an attempt to validate previously experimental data. Finally, in the third stage, the side effect on the lower contiguous leg is assessed: pressure and temperature measures are taken at different distances according to the human pace in order to evaluate the worst-case scenario. The first and third stages propose different material arrangements or configurations to reduce the energy transmitted to the mechanical device and to mitigate damage caused to the contiguous limb respectively. All the three stages are simulated using two-dimensional (2D hydrocode Ansys AUTODYN ® and material previously reported in literature.

  18. Methods of Evaluating Protective Clothing Relative to Heat and Cold Stress: Thermal Manikin, Biomedical Modeling, and Human Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    1996. pp. 419–438. 47. O’Brien, C., A.J. Young, and M.N. Sawka: Hypohydration and thermoregulation in cold air. J. Appl. Physiol. 84:185–189 (1998...code) 2011 Journal Article-Journal of Occup and Env Hygiene Methods of Evaluating Protective Clothing Relative to Heat and cold Stress: Thermal...hazard assessment, thermal strain, thermoregulation Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified 12 Catherine O’Brien 508-233-5973 Reset Journal

  19. Heat-killed Lactobacillus gasseri TMC0356 protects mice against influenza virus infection by stimulating gut and respiratory immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Manabu; He, Fang; Kubota, Akira; Yoda, Kazutoyo; Miyazawa, Kenji; Hiramatsu, Masaru

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated whether heat-killed Lactobacillus protects host animal against influenza virus infection and stimulates their immunity. Heat-killed Lactobacillus gasseri TMC0356 was orally administered to BALB/c mice for 19 days; the mice were intranasally infected with Flu A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) on day 14, and clinical symptoms were monitored. After 6 days, the mice were sacrificed, and pulmonary virus titres were determined. Splenic activation of natural killer (NK) cells and the mRNA expression of cytokines and other immune molecules in the lung and Peyer's patch (PP) were analysed. Clinical symptom scores of mice orally fed TMC0356 ameliorated significantly (P < 0.01); their pulmonary virus titres decreased significantly compared with those of control mice (P < 0.05); their mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-12, IL-15 and IL-21 in PP and the pulmonary mRNA expression of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-12a, IL-12rbl, IL-2rb and perforin 1 increased significantly (P < 0.05). Oral administration of heat-killed lactobacilli may protect against influenza virus infection by stimulating local and systemic immune responses. Cellular components of lactobacilli may be pivotal in protecting against viral infection by enhancing gut and respiratory immune responses. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hsp70 protects mitotic cells against heat-induced centrosome damage and division abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, HMJ; Kampinga, HH; Sibon, OCM

    The effect of heat shock on centrosomes has been mainly studied in interphase cells. Centrosomes play a key role in proper segregation of DNA during mitosis. However, the direct effect and consequences of heat shock on mitotic cells and a possible cellular defense system against proteotoxic stress

  1. Improved structural strength and lifetime of monoblock divertor targets by using doped tungsten alloys under cyclic high heat flux loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, S.; Guan, W. H.; Hattori, T.; James, K.; Hasegawa, A.

    2017-12-01

    The divertor is one of the most important components of a fusion reactor, which performs the function of the removal of waste material from fusion plasma. Because the divertor is subjected to cyclic high heat flux loading up to about 20 MW m-2 induced by the plasma, the plasma facing material of the divertor should exhibit good thermo-mechanical properties. In this work, the possibility of improving the structural strength and the lifetime of fusion reactor divertors by using K-doped W and K-doped W-3%Re as plasma facing material instead of ordinary pure W was evaluated by thermo-mechanical finite element analysis (FEA). These materials have been developed for divertor applications in Japan and show higher recrystallization temperature and strength than pure W. The results of the present study indicated that K-doped W and K-doped W-3%Re render lower applied strain to the divertor and longer fatigue life of the plasma facing material. The evaluation results regarding the macro-crack formation life based on the FEA analyses indicated the possibility of an extension of the fatigue life by using K-doped W and K-doped W-3%Re.

  2. Influence of ambient air temperature on the cooling/heating load of a single cell protein jacketed fermenter operating on cheese whey under continuous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, A E; Mahmoud, N S

    2002-01-01

    The heat generated by mixing and lactose metabolism, during the continuous production of single cell protein from cheese whey lactose using a jacketed fermenter with running cooling water, was calculated using a heat balance equation. The technique quantified the heat produced in and lost from the fermentation unit. Most of the heat generated by mixing in the cell-free system (97.47%) was lost with exhaust gas, while a very small amount (2.53%) was lost through the fermenter lid, wall, and bottom. The heat generated by mixing was significant (26.31% of the total heat generated in the fermentation system with an active yeast population present) and, therefore, cannot be ignored in heat balance calculations. About 19.71% of the total heat generated in the reactor was lost through the coolant at an ambient temperature of 22 +/- 0.5 degrees C, showing the need for a cooling system. A yeast population size of 986 million cells/mL and a lactose removal efficiency of 95.6% were observed. About 72.5% and 27.5% of the lactose consumed were used for growth and respiration, respectively. A yield of 0.66 g of cells/g of lactose was achieved. The heat released by unit biomass was 7.05 kJ/g of cells. The results showed the significant impact of ambient air temperature on the cooling load. The heat to be removed from the medium by the cooling system varied from 3.46 to 281.56 kJ/h when the temperature increased from 16 to 30 degrees C. A heating system is needed to maintain the medium temperature at 34 degrees C when the ambient air temperature is below 16 degrees C.

  3. Simulation and Analysis of Temperature Distribution and Material Properties Change of a Thermal Heat sink Undergoing Thermal Loading in a Mobile Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, A.; Lim, C. S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper is aimed at studying the thermal distribution and its associated effects on a thermal heat sink of a mobile computer (laptop). Possible thermal effects are investigated using Finite-Element Method with the help of a FEM software (Ansys Workbench 14). Physical changes of the structure such as temperature change and deformation are measured and are used as the basis for comparison between models of heat sinks. This paper also attempts to study the effect of thermal loading on the materials found in a heat sink hardware in terms of stresses that may arise due to physical restraints in the hardware as well as provide an optimized solution to reduce its form factor in order to be comparable to an Ultrabook class heat-sink. An optimized solution is made based on a cylindrical fin concept.

  4. Lipocalin 2 regulation by thermal stresses: Protective role of Lcn2/NGAL against cold and heat stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi, E-mail: roudkenar@ibto.ir [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Halabian, Raheleh [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourani, Mohammad Reza [Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masroori, Nasser [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Majid [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikogoftar, Mahin; Rouhbakhsh, Mehdi; Bahmani, Parisa [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian [Department of Molecular Biology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-11-01

    Environmental temperature variations are the most common stresses experienced by a wide range of organisms. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2/NGAL) is expressed in various normal and pathologic conditions. However, its precise functions have not been fully determined. Here we report the induction of Lcn2 by thermal stresses in vivo, and its role following exposure to cold and heat stresses in vitro. Induction of Lcn2 in liver, heart and kidney was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry following exposure of mice to heat and cold stresses. When CHO and HEK293T cells overexpressing NGAL were exposed to cold stress, cell proliferation was higher compared to controls. Down-regulatrion of NGAL by siRNA in A549 cells resulted in less proliferation when exposed to cold stress compared to control cells. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were lower in the NGAL overexpressing CHO and HEK293T cells, but were higher in the siRNA-transfected A549 cells compared to controls, indicating that NGAL protects cells against cold stress. Following exposure of the cells to heat stress, ectopic expression of NGAL protected cells while addition of exogenous recombinant NGAL to the cell culture medium exacerbated the toxicity of heat stress specially when there was low or no endogenous expression of NGAL. It had a dual effect on apoptosis following heat stress. NGAL also increased the expression of HO-1. Lcn2/NGAL may have the potential to improve cell proliferation and preservation particularly to prevent cold ischemia injury of transplanted organs or for treatment of some cancers by hyperthermia.

  5. Recession-Tolerant Heat Flux Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I project will develop a suite of diagnostic sensors using Direct Write technology to measure temperature, surface recession depth, and heat flux of an...

  6. Mount Protects Thin-Walled Glass or Ceramic Tubes from Large Thermal and Vibration Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Michael; Schmidt, Stephen; Marsh. James; Dahya, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The design allows for the low-stress mounting of fragile objects, like thin walled glass, by using particular ways of compensating, isolating, or releasing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) differences between the mounted object and the mount itself. This mount profile is lower than true full kinematic mounting. Also, this approach enables accurate positioning of the component for electrical and optical interfaces. It avoids the higher and unpredictable stress issues that often result from potting the object. The mount has been built and tested to space-flight specifications, and has been used for fiber-optic, optical, and electrical interfaces for a spaceflight mission. This mount design is often metal and is slightly larger than the object to be mounted. The objects are optical or optical/electrical, and optical and/or electrical interfaces are required from the top and bottom. This requires the mount to be open at both ends, and for the object s position to be controlled. Thin inside inserts at the top and bottom contact the housing at defined lips, or edges, and hold the fragile object in the mount. The inserts can be customized to mimic the outer surface of the object, which further reduces stress. The inserts have the opposite CTE of the housing material, partially compensating for the CTE difference that causes thermal stress. A spring washer is inserted at one end to compensate for more CTE difference and to hold the object against the location edge of the mount for any optical position requirements. The spring also ensures that any fiber-optic or optic interface, which often requires some pressure to ensure a good interface, does not overstress the fragile object. The insert thickness, material, and spring washer size can be traded against each other to optimize the mount and stresses for various thermal and vibration load ranges and other mounting requirements. The alternate design uses two separate, unique features to reduce stress and hold the

  7. Protective immunity by oral immunization with heat-killed Shigella strains in a guinea pig colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Soumik; Koley, Hemanta; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Chakrabarti, Manoj Kumar; Shinoda, Sumio; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2013-11-01

    The protective efficacy of and immune response to heat-killed cells of monovalent and hexavalent mixtures of six serogroups/serotypes of Shigella strains (Shigella dysenteriae 1, Shigella flexneri 2a, S. flexneri 3a, S. flexneri 6, Shigella boydii 4, and Shigella sonnei) were examined in a guinea pig colitis model. A monovalent or hexavalent mixture containing 1 × 10(7) of each serogroup/serotype of heat-killed Shigella cells was administered orally on Days 0, 7, 14 and 21. On Day 28, the immunized animals were challenged rectally with 1 × 10(9) live virulent cells of each of the six Shigella serogroups/serotypes. In all immunized groups, significant levels of protection were observed after these challenges. The serum titers of IgG and IgA against the lipopolysaccharide of each of the six Shigella serogroups/serotypes increased exponential during the course of immunization. High IgA titers against the lipopolysaccharide of each of the six Shigella serogroups/serotypes were also observed in intestinal lavage fluid from all immunized animals. These data indicate that a hexavalent mixture of heat-killed cells of the six Shigella serogroups/serotypes studied would be a possible broad-spectrum candidate vaccine against shigellosis. © 2013 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Generation of Domestic Hot Water, Space Heating and Driving Pattern Profiles for Integration Analysis of Active Loads in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Pigazo, Alberto; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    at household level. Despite of the well-known flexible service that this kind of loads can provide, their flexibility is highly dependent of the domestic hot water and space heating demand and the driving habits of each user. This paper presents two methodologies employed to randomly generate thermal power...... demand and electric vehicle driving profiles, to be used for power grid calculations. The generated thermal profiles relied on a statistical analysis made from real domestic hot water and space heating data from 25 households of a typical Danish residential area. The driving profiles instead were formed...

  9. 13000 A current lead with 1.5 W heat load to 4.5 K for the large hadron collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Good, J A; Martini, L

    2000-01-01

    Cryogenic Ltd. and ENEL S.p.A. have collaborated on the design and construction of prototype current leads for the large hadron collider project at CERN, Geneva. This delivers a current of 13 kA into a 4.5 K liquid helium bath with a total heat load of 1.5 W. These leads transport the current via a resistive heat exchanger cooled by helium gas in the high-temperature region, and below 50 K via self-cooled high-temperature superconductor. (3 refs).

  10. 13000 A current lead with 1.5 W heat load to 4.5 K for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Good, J A; Martini, L

    2000-01-01

    Cryogenic Ltd. and ENEL S.p.A. have collaborated on the design and construction of prototype current leads for the Large Hadron Collider project at CERN, Geneva. The aim is to deliver a direct current of 13 kA into a 4.5 K liquid helium bath with a total heat load of less than 1.5 W. These hybrid leads transport the current via a resistive heat exchanger cooled by a separate source of helium gas in the high temperature region, and below 50 K via self-cooled high temperature superconductor. (8 refs).

  11. Forced convection mass deposition and heat transfer onto a cylinder sheathed by protective garments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambesi, D.; Kleijn, C.R.; Hartog, E.A. den; Bouma, R.H.B.; Brasser, P.

    2014-01-01

    In chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear protective clothing, a layer of activated carbon material in between two textile layers provides protection against hazardous gases. A cylinder in cross flow, sheathed by such material, is generally used to experimentally test the garment

  12. Forced convection mass deposition and heat transfer onto a cylinder sheathed by protective garments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambesi, D.; Kleijn, C.R.; Den Hartog, E.A.; Bouma, R.H.B.; Brasser, P.

    2013-01-01

    In chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear protective clothing, a layer of activated carbon material in between two textile layers provides protection against hazardous gases. A cylinder in cross flow, sheathed by such material, is generally used to experimentally test the garment

  13. Immediate placement and functional loading of implants on canine with fixed partial denture for a patient having canine protected occlusion: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun-Won; Ahn, Seung-Geun; Leem, Dae-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Conventional implant protocols required a load-free healing period of three to six months between placement and functional loading of the implants. Many efforts have been made to minimize the duration of treatment time. Several literatures have documented immediate function with provisional or definitive prosthesis within a week of the placement in response to these demands. In addition, immediate implant placement has advantages such as shortened treatment time and preservation of soft tissue architectures. This article presents immediate implant placement into fresh extraction sockets followed by functional immediate loading with provisional prosthesis on canine and premolars for a patient having canine protected occlusion. PMID:22439101

  14. Protective effects of ulinastatin on cardiac dysfunction in mice with heat stroke and its mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-jing JI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the effects of ulinastatin (UTI on cardiac dysfunction in mice with heat stroke and its possible mechanism. Methods 20 mice were divided into four groups randomly: room temperature plus normal saline (Sham+NS, room temperature plus UTI (Sham+UTI, heat stress plus normal saline (HS+NS, heat stress plus UTI (HS+UTI, 5 each. 105U/kg UTI was delivered by intraperitoneal injection before the onset of the heat stress. Room temperature groups were housed at room temperature (23.0±0.5℃, while heat stress groups were kept in an incubator at 36.5±0.5℃ and humidity of 65.0%±2.0%. The rectal temperature (Tr reaching 42℃ was taken as severe heat stroke, and the time in two heat stress groups was recorded. The mice were transferred to the room temperature (23.0±0.5℃ for natural cooling after the heat stroke onset. 6 hours after the treatment, cardiac output (CO was ultrasonographically detected, the myocardium was separated for histopathological examination and the expression of total p38 and phosphorylated p38 (p-p38 was determined by Western blotting. Results The time to reach 42℃ in HS+UTI group was significantly prolonged (P=0.044. Compared with the Sham+NS group, the CO in HS+NS and HS+UTI group decreased significantly (P=0.017, and the score of myocardial inflammation (P<0.001 and p-p38/p38 ratio (P<0.001 increased. The CO was significantly higher in HS+UTI group than in HS+NS group (P=0.030, and the score of myocardial inflammation (P<0.001 and p-p38/p38 ratio (P=0.001 were significantly lower. Conclusion Ulinastatin might improve the cardiac function in mice with heat stroke by decreasing the p-p38 and alleviating the inflammation response. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.04.04

  15. Impact of heating on sensory properties of French Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) blue cheeses. Relationships with physicochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bord, Cécile; Guerinon, Delphine; Lebecque, Annick

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the impact of heating on the sensory properties of blue-veined cheeses in order to characterise their sensory properties and to identify their specific sensory typology associated with physicochemical parameters. Sensory profiles were performed on a selection of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheeses representing the four blue-veined cheese categories produced in the Massif Central (Fourme d'Ambert, Fourme de Montbrison, Bleu d'Auvergne and Bleu des Causses). At the same time, physicochemical parameters were measured in these cheeses. The relationship between these two sets of data was investigated. Four types of blue-veined cheeses displayed significantly different behaviour after heating and it is possible to discriminate these cheese categories through specific sensory attributes. Fourme d'Ambert and Bleu d'Auvergne exhibited useful culinary properties: they presented good meltability, stretchability and a weak oiling-off. However, basic tastes (salty, bitter and sour) are also sensory attributes which can distinguish heated blue cheeses. The relationship between the sensory and physicochemical data indicated a correlation suggesting that some of these sensory properties may be explained by certain physicochemical parameters of heated cheeses. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, G.D.; Ryan, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it simulated the smoldering of natural duff, generating temperatures that killed the cambium. The four treatments tested were uninjured tree, heat-injured tree, heat-injured tree treated with verbenone, and heat-injured tree treated with verbenone plus ipsdienol. Treatments were replicated 20 times. Mountain pine beetles were attracted into treatment blocks by placing mountain pine beetle tree baits on metal posts 3 to 5 meters from treated trees. Fisher's Extract Test showed that treatment and beetle infestation were not independent (P < 0.015). Check treatments contained more unattacked and mass-attacked trees, whereas pheromone treatments contained more unsuccessfully attacked trees.

  17. Simple models of district heating systems for load and demand side management and operational optimisation; Simple modeller for fjernvarmesystemer med henblik pae belastningsudjaevning og driftsoptimering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Larsen, H.V. [Risoe National Lab., System Analysis Dept., Roskilde (DK)

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this research project has been to further develop and test simple (aggregated) models of district heating (DH) systems for simulation and operational optimization, and to investigate the influence of Load Management and Demand Side Management (DMS) on the total operational costs. The work is based on physical-mathematical modelling and simulation of DH systems, and is a continuation of previous EFP-96 work. In the present EFP-2001 project the goals have been to improve the Danish method of aggregation by addressing the problem of aggregation of pressure losses, and to test the methods on a much larger data set than in the EFP-1996 project. In order to verify the models it is crucial to have good data at disposal. Full information on the heat loads and temperatures not only at the DH plant but also at every consumer (building) is needed, and therefore only a few DH systems in Denmark can supply such data. (BA)

  18. Effect on the load size on the efficiency of microwave heating under stop flow and continuous flow conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, N.G.; Rebrov, E.V.; Esveld, D.C.; Eränen, K.; Benaskar, F.; Meuldijk, Jan; Mikkola, J.P.; Hessel, V.; Hulshof, L.A.; Murzin, D.Y.; Schouten, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    A novel heating efficiency analysis of the microwave heated stop-flow (i.e. stagnant
    liquid) and continuous-flow reactors has been presented. The thermal losses to the surrounding
    air by natural convection have been taken into account for heating efficiency calculation of
    the microwave

  19. Protective effect of a hydrogel containing Achyrocline satureioides extract-loaded nanoemulsion against UV-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrin, L A; Bidone, J; Bortolin, R C; Moresco, K; Moreira, J C; Teixeira, H F

    2016-10-01

    Achyrocline satureioides is a medicinal plant widely used in South America that exhibits a well-documented antioxidant activity. Such activity has been related to their main aglycone flavonoids quercetin, luteolin, and 3-O-methylquercetin (3MQ). This study addresses the development of antioxidant hydrogels containing an A. satureioides extract-loaded nanoemulsions aimed at topical application. The systems investigated were A. satureioides extract-loaded nanoemulsions (ASNE) obtained by spontaneous emulsification procedure formulated in semisolid hydrogels composed of Carbopol® Ultrez 20 (HASNE). Hydrogels exhibit a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. A higher release of 3MQ from ASNE (3.61μg/cm(2)/h) was observed when compared with HASNE (2.83μg/cm(2)/h). Different parameters that may have an influence on the retention of flavonoids into the skin were investigated by using a Franz-type diffusion cells. Indeed, the amount of formulation applied on donor compartment was found to play a crucial role. At the optimized conditions, retention of approximately 2μg/cm(2) of flavonoids was detected into the skin. A higher retention of 3MQ was detected (approximately 1.0μg/cm(2)) in comparison with the other flavonoids. Finally, a protection the porcine ear skin by formulations, against oxidative stress generated by UVA/UVB light was demonstrated by means of TBARS, protein carbonylation, and protein thiol content assays. The overall results showed the potential of the formulations developed in this study for the prevention of oxidative stress on the skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of the Safe Electrical Load on Spiral Bulbs Heated by Capacitors Applied to Multiple Start-Ups of Open Gas Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldayev Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed for the automated calculation of the safe electrical load on spiral bulbs warmed by capacitors for the multiple start-ups of open gas generators under water. An energy criterion was proposed that would, for spiral bulbs with known dimensions and thermal properties, allow the selection of the type of pulsed power supply providing wire heating required for dibasic solid fuel (DSF ignition, and maintaining its operative state.

  1. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV from acute heat stress. Eleven bacterial strains were included, belonging to Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and Bifidobacterium longum. HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1 and GII.4 strains to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. The NoV-binding abilities of the bacteria correlated well with their HBGA expression profiles. Two HBGA expressing E.coli (LMG8223 and LFMFP861, both GI.1 and GII.4 binders and one non-HBGA expressing E.coli (ATCC8739, neither GI.1 nor GII.4 binder were selected for the heat treatment test with NoV VLPs. Compared with the same cell numbers of non-HBGA expressing E.coli, the presence of HBGA-expressing E.coli could always maintain higher antigen integrity, as well as mucin-binding ability of NoV VLPs of both GI.1 and GII.4 after heat-treatment at 90°C for 2 min. These results indicate that HBGA-expressing bacteria may protect NoVs during the food processing treatments, thereby facilitating their transmission.

  2. Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM): Heat Shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environ­ment Technology (HEEET) project seeks to mature a game changing Woven Ther­mal Protection System (TPS) technology to...

  3. Impact of a Protective Vest and Spacer Garment on Exercise-Heat Strain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2008-01-01

    ...). Volunteers wore the US Army battle dress uniform (trial B), B + protective vest (trial P), and B + P + spacer garment (trial S). Biophysical clothing properties were determined and found similar to many law enforcement, industry, and sports ensembles...

  4. An Evaluation of Heat Strain Monitoring Methods for Workers in Encapsulating, Impermeable Protective Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    LIST OF TABLES Table Page I Estimation of Energy Expenditure from AIHA Ergonomie Guides for Moderate Work at A Hazardous Waste Site 44... Ergonomie Guide. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 32:560 (1971). 3. Ramsey, J.D. Heat Stress Standard: OSHA’s Advisory Committee

  5. Heat killed multi-serotype Shigella immunogens induced humoral immunity and protection against heterologous challenge in rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Sinha, Ritam; Mitra, Soma; Barman, Soumik; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Shinoda, Sumio; Chakrabarti, M K; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-11-01

    Recently we have shown the homologous protective efficacy of heat killed multi-serotype Shigella (HKMS) immunogens in a guinea pig colitis model. In our present study, we have advanced our research by immunizing rabbits with a reduced number of oral doses and evaluating the host's adaptive immune responses. The duration of immunogenicity and subsequently protective efficacy was determined against wild type heterologous Shigella strains in a rabbit luminal model. After three successive oral immunizations with HKMS immunogens, serum and lymphocyte supernatant antibody titer against the heterologous shigellae were reciprocally increased and remained at an elevated level up to 180 days. Serogroup and serotype specific O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide and immunogenic proteins of heterologous challenge strains were detected by immunoblot assay. Up-regulation of IL-12p35, IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA expression was detected in immunized rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after stimulation with HKMS in vitro. HKMS-specific plasma cell response was confirmed by production of a relatively higher level of HKMS-specific IgG in immunized PBMC supernatant compared to control group. Furthermore, the immunized groups of rabbits exhibited complete protection against wild type heterologous shigellae challenge. Thus HKMS immunogens induced humoral and Th1-mediated adaptive immunity and provided complete protection in a rabbit model. These immunogens could be a broad spectrum non-living vaccine candidate for human use in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. General Procedure for Protective Cooling and Equipment Evaluations Relative to Heat and Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    for HA sessions is typically physical training uniform (T-shirt, shorts, socks and sneakers ) so that volunteers are comfortable, sweat evaporation is...Approximate work loads are estimated using prediction models. As volunteers exercise at these levels, expired air samples are collected using open...Preliminary Measurements phase, but is also collected at least once during each experimental trial to ensure consistency among tests or to detect any

  7. Armor plate protection for the Doublet III vacuum vessel for neutral beam heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleraine, A.P.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Pipkins, J.F.

    1979-10-01

    The design of vacuum vessel armor plate for neutral beam systems presents a number of challenges to the engineer. Heat fluxes of several hundred watts/cm/sup 2/ must be handled on a routine basis during normal plasma operations, and a factor of ten increase in these fluxes can occur during plasma disruptions. At the present time, a graphite tile system appears to be the best candidate for such a situation. Heat fluxes in excess of 4 kW/cm/sup 2/ can be routinely sustained and the material sputtered or evaporated from the surface has a low atomic number. The system proposed for Doublet III will provide valuable data for the designers of future fusion reactors and will also provide proof-of-principle demonstrations for such machines as TFTR and JET.

  8. Conceptual design of a latent heat thermal energy storage subsystem for a saturated steam solar receiver and load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilauro, G. F.; Rice, R. E.

    1982-02-01

    The conceptual design of a tube intensive latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem which utilized a eutectic mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate as the phase change material (PCM) was developed. The charging and discharging of the unit is accomplished by the same serpentine tube bundle heat exchanger in which heat transfer is augmented by aluminum channels acting as fins. Every tenth channel is made of steel to provide tube support.

  9. Exploiting heat treatment effects on SMAs macro and microscopic properties in developing fire protection devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlacu, L.; Cimpoeşu, N.; Bujoreanu, L. G.; Lohan, N. M.

    2017-08-01

    Ni-Ti shape memory alloys (SMAs) are intelligent alloys which demonstrate unique properties, such as shape memory effect, two-way shape memory effect, super-elasticity and vibration damping which, accompanied by good processability, excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility as well as fair wear resistance and cyclic stability, enabled the development of important industrial applications (such as sensors, actuators, fasteners, couplings and valves), medical applications (such as stents, bone implants, orthodontic archwires, minimal invasive surgical equipment) as well as environmental health and safety devices (anti-seismic dampers, fire safety devices). The phase transitions in Ni-Ti SMAs are strongly influenced by processing methods, chemical compositions and thermomechanical history. This paper presents a study of the effects of heat treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of commercial Ni-Ti shape memory alloy (SMA). The experimental work involved subjecting a SMA rod to heat-treatment consisting in heating up to 500°C, 10 minutes-maintaining and water quenching. Mechanical properties were highlighted by microhardness tests while thermal characteristics were emphasized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The presence of chemical composition fluctuations was checked by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy performed with an EDAX Bruker analyzer.

  10. Protective Effects of Salidroside on Mitochondrial Functions against Exertional Heat Stroke-Induced Organ Damage in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exertional heat stroke (EHS results in a constellation of systemic inflammatory responses resulting in multiorgan failure and an extremely high mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of salidroside on EHS by improving mitochondrial functions in the rat model. Liver and heart mitochondria were observed by transmission electron microscopy and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm was detected by a fluorescent probe. Intramitochondrial free Ca2+ concentration, mitochondrial respiratory control ratio (RCR, reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and malondialdehyde (MDA activity were detected by the corresponding kits. RT-PCR was performed to estimate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α and manganese form of SOD (MnSOD mRNA expression. The results demonstrated that salidroside was able to relieve EHS damage by reducing the swelling of mitochondria, ROS levels, and MDA activity, as well as increasing ΔΨm, RCR, free Ca2+ concentration, SOD, PGC-1α, and MnSOD mRNA levels. In conclusion, salidroside has protective effects on mitochondrial functions against exertional heat stroke-induced organ damage in the rat.

  11. A method for load management in low voltage grids. Application from e-mobility to heat storage; Verfahren zum Lastmanagement in Niederspannungsnetzen. Anwendung von E-Mobility bis Waermespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Tobias; Schegner, Peter [TU Dresden (Germany). IEEH; Hable, Matthias [ENSO NETZ GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    With the expected charging characteristic of e-mobility a considerable load peak during the night is expected. The paper describes the application of a modified maximal rectangle algorithm to determine the optimal starting times for charging to realise a flat load curve. The load characteristic of e-mobility is similar to heat storage. This allows to use the currently widely spread heat storage devices as example for developing and testing methods for optimized load management in low voltage networks. It is shown that the developed optimization algorithm finds solutions close to the global optimum even in large networks ({approx} 25000 devices) with low requirements of calculation time (< 1 min). (orig.)

  12. Application of Heat-Transfer Calculations and Computational Fluid Mechanics to the Design of Protective Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherunova, I.; Kornev, N.; Jacobi, G.; Treshchun, I.; Gross, A.; Turnow, J.; Schreier, S.; Paschen, M.

    2014-07-01

    Three examples of use of computational fluid dynamics for designing clothing protecting a human body from high and low temperatures with an incident air fl ow and without it are presented. The internal thermodynamics of a human body and the interaction of it with the surroundings were investigated. The inner and outer problems were considered separately with their own boundary conditions.

  13. How low can the low heating load density district heating be? Environmental aspects on low heating load density district heating of the present generation compared to a domestic oil burner; Hur vaermegles kan den vaermeglesa fjaerrvaermen vara? Miljoeaspekter paa vaermegles fjaerrvaerme med dagens teknik jaemfoerd med villaoljepanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeling, Morgan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Environmental Science

    2005-07-01

    In Sweden we can see an increase of district heating networks in residential areas with low heat density. For the customer the economy is normally the most important argument when deciding to choose district heating. For many customers, however, arguments regarding environmental friendliness are important complimentary arguments. When district heating systems are built with decreased heat density, the environmental impacts from use of district heating will increase, depending on such as increased need of pipes and increased heat losses from the distribution system. The purpose of this study is to investigate if there is a limit, a lowest heat density when it is not any longer beneficial to build district heating when district heating replaces local oil furnace heating. Life cycle inventory data for district heating distribution systems in areas with low heat density has been compared with the use of oil furnaces. The environmental impacts are categorized into Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrofication Potential and Use of Finite Resources. To enhance the assessment three single point indicators have also been used: EcoIndicator99, EPS and ExternE. The economics of using district heating in areas with low heat density has not been regarded in this study. A model comparing the space heating of a single family home with an oil furnace or with district heating has been created. The home has an annual heat need of 20 MWh. The district heating distribution network is characterized by its linear heat density. The linear heat density is a rough description of a district heating network, and thus also the results from the model will be general. Still it can give us a general idea of the environmental limit for district heating in areas with low heat density. An assessment of all results indicate that with the type of technology used at present it is not environmentally beneficial to use district heating with lower linear heat density than 0,2 MWh/m. At

  14. Two-shell structured PMAA@CeO2nanocontainers loaded with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole for corrosion protection of damaged epoxy coated AA 2024-T3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaskas, A C; Hashimoto, T; Curioni, M; Thompson, G E

    2017-05-04

    In this work, novel two-shell structured inhibitor-loaded poly(methacrylic acid)@cerium oxide (PMAA@CeO 2 ) nanocontainers were synthesised and characterized. The purpose of the nanocontainers is to increase the corrosion protection provided by an epoxy coating applied to an aerospace alloy (AA 2024-T3). The (PMAA@CeO 2 ) nanocontainers with diameters of 550 nm were synthesised by a four-step process with the method of distillation precipitation polymerization for the synthesis of the inner PMAA layer, and the sol-gel method for the development of the outer CeO 2 layer. The loaded nanocontainers were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The corrosion protection properties of the epoxy coated AA 2024-T3 with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2-MBT) loaded PMAA@CeO 2 nanocontainers were evaluated with and without artificial scribes by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results indicated that the epoxy coating containing the 2-MBT-loaded nanocontainers provided enhanced protection of the AA 2024-T3 substrate.

  15. Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis. The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

  16. Effects of in situ dual ion beam (He+ and D+) irradiation with simultaneous pulsed heat loading on surface morphology evolution of tungsten–tantalum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonderman, S.; Tripathi, J. K.; Sinclair, G.; Novakowski, T. J.; Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.

    2018-02-01

    The strong thermal and mechanical properties of tungsten (W) are well suited for the harsh fusion environment. However, increasing interest in using tungsten as plasma-facing components (PFCs) has revealed several key issues. These potential roadblocks necessitate more investigation of W and other alternative W based materials exposed to realistic fusion conditions. In this work, W and tungsten–tantalum (W–Ta) alloys were exposed to single (He+) and dual (He+  +  D+) ion irradiations with simultaneous pulsed heat loading to elucidate PFCs response under more realistic conditions. Laser only exposer revealed significantly more damage in W–Ta samples as compared to pure W samples. This was due to the difference in the mechanical properties of the two different materials. Further erosion studies were conducted to evaluate the material degradation due to transient heat loading in both the presence and absence of He+ and/or D+ ions. We concluded that erosion of PFC materials was significantly enhanced due to the presence of ion irradiation. This is important as it demonstrates that there are key synergistic effects resulting from more realistic fusion loading conditions that need to be considered when evaluating the response of plasma facing materials.

  17. Deuterium retention in tungsten under combined high cycle ELM-like heat loads and steady-state plasma exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Huber

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions at power densities close to the threshold for damaging. It is shown that blisters are not mainly responsible for the pronounced increase of the D retention.

  18. Development, verification and validation of an FPGA-based core heat removal protection system for a PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yichun, E-mail: ycwu@xmu.edu.cn [College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Shui, Xuanxuan, E-mail: 807001564@qq.com [College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Cai, Yuanfeng, E-mail: 1056303902@qq.com [College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Zhou, Junyi, E-mail: 1032133755@qq.com [College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Wu, Zhiqiang, E-mail: npic_wu@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Reactor System Design Technology, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zheng, Jianxiang, E-mail: zwu@xmu.edu.cn [College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • An example on life cycle development process and V&V on FPGA-based I&C is presented. • Software standards and guidelines are used in FPGA-based NPP I&C system logic V&V. • Diversified FPGA design and verification languages and tools are utilized. • An NPP operation principle simulator is used to simulate operation scenarios. - Abstract: To reach high confidence and ensure reliability of nuclear FPGA-based safety system, life cycle processes of discipline specification and implementation of design as well as regulations verification and validation (V&V) are needed. A specific example on how to conduct life cycle development process and V&V on FPGA-based core heat removal (CHR) protection system for CPR1000 pressure water reactor (PWR) is presented in this paper. Using the existing standards and guidelines for life cycle development and V&V, a simplified FPGA-based CHR protection system for PWR has been designed, implemented, verified and validated. Diversified verification and simulation languages and tools are used by the independent design team and the V&V team. In the system acceptance testing V&V phase, a CPR1000 NPP operation principle simulator (OPS) model is utilized to simulate normal and abnormal operation scenarios, and provide input data to the under-test FPGA-based CHR protection system and a verified C code CHR function module. The evaluation results are applied to validate the under-test FPGA-based CHR protection system. The OPS model operation outputs also provide reasonable references for the tests. Using an OPS model in the system acceptance testing V&V is cost-effective and high-efficient. A dedicated OPS, as a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) item, would contribute as an important tool in the V&V process of NPP I&C systems, including FPGA-based and microprocessor-based systems.

  19. Cyclic electron flow may provide some protection against PSII photoinhibition in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essemine, Jemaa; Xiao, Yi; Qu, Mingnan; Mi, Hualing; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2017-04-01

    Previously we have shown that a quick down-regulation in PSI activity compares to that of PSII following short-term heat stress for two rice groups including C4023 and Q4149, studied herein. These accessions were identified to have different natural capacities in driving cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI; i.e., low CEF (lcef) and high CEF (hcef) for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these two lines have different mechanisms of protecting photosystem II from photodamage under heat stress. We observed a stepwise alteration in the shape of Chl a fluorescence induction (OJIP) with increasing temperature treatment. The effect of 44°C treatment on the damping in Chl a fluorescence was more pronounced in C4023 than in Q4149. Likewise, we noted a disruption in the I-step, a decline in the Fv due to a strong damping in the Fm, and a slight increase in the F0. Normalized data demonstrated that the I-step seems more susceptible to 44°C in C4023 than in Q4149. We also measured the redox states of plastocyanin (PC) and P700 by monitoring the transmission changes at 820nm (I820), and observed a disturbance in the oxidation/reduction kinetics of PC and P700. The decline in the amplitude of their oxidation was shown to be about 29% and 13% for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The electropotential component (Δφ) of ms-DLE appeared more sensitive to temperature stress than the chemical component (ΔpH), and the impact of heat was more evident and drastic in C4023 than in Q4149. Under heat stress, we noticed a concomitant decline in the primary photochemistry of PSII as well as in both the membrane energization process and the lumen protonation for both accessions, and it is evident that heat affects these parameters more in C4023 than in Q4149. All these data suggest that higher CET can confer higher photoprotection to PSII in rice lines, which can be a desirable trait during rice breeding, especially in the context of a "warming

  20. Beam induced heat loads on the beam-screens of the twin-bore magnets in the IRs of the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Iadarola, Giovanni; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The expected heat load induced on the beam screens has been evaluated for all the twin-bore magnets in the Insertion Regions (IRs) of the HL-LHC. The contribution from the impedance of the beam screen has been evaluated taking into account the presence of a longitudinal weld in the beam screen and the impact of the temperature and of the magnetic field on the resistivity of the surface. The contribution coming from electron cloud effects has been evaluated for different values of the Secondary Electron Yield of the surface based PyECLOUD build-up simulations.

  1. Motion of a ballistic missile angularly misaligned with the flight path upon entering the atmosphere and its effect upon aerodynamic heating, aerodynamic loads, and miss distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Julian H

    1957-01-01

    An analysis is given of the oscillating motion of a ballistic missile which upon entering the atmosphere is angularly misaligned with respect to the flight path. The history of the motion for some example missiles is discussed from the point of view of the effect of the motion on the aerodynamic heating and loading. The miss distance at the target due to misalignment and to small accidental trim angles is treated. The stability problem is also discussed for the case where the missile is tumbling prior to atmospheric entry.

  2. Warm preconditioning protects against acute heat-induced respiratory dysfunction and delays bleaching in a symbiotic sea anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Thomas D; Warner, Mark E

    2017-03-15

    Preconditioning to non-stressful warming can protect some symbiotic cnidarians against the high temperature-induced collapse of their mutualistic endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.), a process known as bleaching. Here, we sought to determine whether such preconditioning is underpinned by differential regulation of aerobic respiration. We quantified in vivo metabolism and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity in the naturally symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida preconditioned to 30°C for >7 weeks as well as anemones kept at 26°C. Preconditioning resulted in increased Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity and holobiont (host+symbiont) respiration rates. Biomass-normalised activities of host respiratory enzymes [citrate synthase and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) complexes I and IV] were higher in preconditioned animals, suggesting that increased holobiont respiration may have been due to host mitochondrial biogenesis and/or enlargement. Subsequent acute heating of preconditioned and 'thermally naive' animals to 33°C induced dramatic increases in host mETC complex I and Symbiodinium mETC complex II activities only in thermally naive E. pallida These changes were not reflected in the activities of other respiratory enzymes. Furthermore, bleaching in preconditioned E. pallida (defined as the significant loss of symbionts) was delayed by several days relative to the thermally naive group. These findings suggest that changes to mitochondrial biogenesis and/or function in symbiotic cnidarians during warm preconditioning might play a protective role during periods of exposure to stressful heating. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Exertional thermal strain, protective clothing and auxiliary cooling in dry heat: evidence for physiological but not cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Joanne N; Patterson, Mark J; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2012-10-01

    Individuals exposed to extreme heat may experience reduced physiological and cognitive performance, even during very light work. This can have disastrous effects on the operational capability of aircrew, but such impairment could be prevented by auxiliary cooling devices. This hypothesis was tested under very hot-dry conditions, in which eight males performed 2 h of low-intensity exercise (~30 W) in three trials, whilst wearing biological and chemical protective clothing: temperate (control: 20°C, 30% relative humidity) and two hot-dry trials (48°C, 20% relative humidity), one without (experimental) and one with liquid cooling (water at 15°C). Physiological strain and six cognitive functions were evaluated (MiniCog Rapid Assessment Battery), and participants drank to sustain hydration state. Maximal core temperatures averaged 37.0°C (±0.1) in the control trial, and were significantly elevated in the experimental trial (38.9°C ± 0.3; P cooling reduced maximal core temperatures (37.3°C ± 0.1; P 0.05). However, despite inducing profound hyperthermia and volitional fatigue, no cognitive degradation was evident in the heat (P > 0.05). Since extensive dehydration was prevented, it appears that thermal strain in the absence of dehydration may have minimal impact upon cognitive function, at least as evaluated within this experiment.

  4. Dual Heat Pulse, Dual Layer Thermal Protection System Sizing Analysis and Trade Studies for Human Mars Entry Descent and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Mary Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been recently updating design reference missions for the human exploration of Mars and evaluating the technology investments required to do so. The first of these started in January 2007 and developed the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA5). As part of DRA5, Thermal Protection System (TPS) sizing analysis was performed on a mid L/D rigid aeroshell undergoing a dual heat pulse (aerocapture and atmospheric entry) trajectory. The DRA5 TPS subteam determined that using traditional monolithic ablator systems would be mass expensive. They proposed a new dual-layer TPS concept utilizing an ablator atop a low thermal conductivity insulative substrate to address the issue. Using existing thermal response models for an ablator and insulative tile, preliminary hand analysis of the dual layer concept at a few key heating points indicated that the concept showed potential to reduce TPS masses and warranted further study. In FY09, the followon Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) project continued by focusing on Exploration-class cargo or crewed missions requiring 10 to 50 metric tons of landed payload. The TPS subteam advanced the preliminary dual-layer TPS analysis by developing a new process and updated TPS sizing code to rapidly evaluate mass-optimized, full body sizing for a dual layer TPS that is capable of dual heat pulse performance. This paper describes the process and presents the results of the EDL-SA FY09 dual-layer TPS analyses on the rigid mid L/D aeroshell. Additionally, several trade studies were conducted with the sizing code to evaluate the impact of various design factors, assumptions and margins.

  5. Rugged microelectronic module package supports circuitry on heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. L.

    1966-01-01

    Rugged module package for thin film hybrid microcircuits incorporated a rigid, thermally conductive support structure, which serves as a heat sink, and a lead wire block in which T-shaped electrical connectors are potted. It protects the circuitry from shock and vibration loads, dissipates internal heat, and simplifies electrical connections between adjacent modules.

  6. Encapsulation of Biological and Chemical Agents for Plant Nutrition and Protection: Chitosan/Alginate Microcapsules Loaded with Copper Cations and Trichoderma viride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceković, Marko; Jalšenjak, Nenad; Topolovec-Pintarić, Snježana; Đermić, Edyta; Bujan, Marija; Jurić, Slaven

    2016-11-02

    Novel chitosan/alginate microcapsules simultaneously loaded with copper cations and Trichoderma viride have been prepared and characterized. Information about the intermolecular interactions between biopolymers and bioactive agents was obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Encapsulation of T. viride spores and the presence of copper cations in the same compartment does not inhibit their activity. Microcapsule loading capacity and efficiency as well as swelling behavior and release depend on both the size of the microcapsule and bioactive agents. The in vitro copper cation release profile was fitted to a Korsmeyer-Peppas empirical model. Fickian diffusion was found to be a rate-controlling mechanism of release from smaller microcapsules, whereas anomalous transport kinetics controlled release from larger microcapsules. The T. viride spore release profile exhibited exponential release over the initial lag time. The results obtained opened perspectives for the future use of chitosan/alginate microcapsules simultaneously loaded with biological and chemical agents in plant nutrition and protection.

  7. EMF protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia-induced injury via heat shock protein 70 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinhong; Tong, Jie; Yu, Liying; Zhang, Jianbao

    2016-03-25

    Intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)i) overload induced by chronic hypoxia alters Ca(2+)i homeostasis, whereas ameliorating calcium homeostasis is believed to be responsible for cardioprotection. We hypothesize that cardioprotection by electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure may restore Ca(2+)i homeostasis altered by hypoxia insults. Cardiomyocytes isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to chronic hypoxia (1% O2, 5% CO2, 37 °C). We observed that cardiomyocytes injury and hypertrophy were alleviated in hypoxic cardiomyocytes exposed with EMF preconditioning. Compared with hypoxic cardiomyocytes, the diastolic [Ca(2+)]i was decreased, the amplitude of Ca(2+)i oscillations was recovered when cardiomyocytes exposed with EMF. In addition, we also found that EMF exposure significantly increased heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA expression in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. However, treatment with HSP70 blocker KNK437, almost completely inhibited the EMF induced-cardioprotection and the beneficial effects of Ca(2+) oscillation in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that EMF preconditioning ameliorates Ca(2+)i homeostasis through activating HSP70, thereby producing the cardioprotective effect and reduction in hypoxic cardiomyocytes damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A dose-response evaluation of rumen-protected niacin in thermoneutral or heat-stressed lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungruang, S; Collier, J L; Rhoads, R P; Baumgard, L H; de Veth, M J; Collier, R J

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-four multiparous high-producing dairy cows (40.0±1.4kg/d) were used in a factorial design to evaluate effects of 2 environments [thermoneutral (TN) and heat stress (HS)] and a dose range of dietary rumen-protected niacin (RPN; 0, 4, 8, or 12g/d) on body temperature, sweating rate, feed intake, water intake, production parameters, and blood niacin concentrations. Temperature-humidity index values during TN never exceeded 68 (stress threshold), whereas temperature-humidity index values during HS were above 68 for 24h/d. The HS environment increased hair coat and skin, rectal, and vaginal temperatures; respiration rate; skin and hair coat evaporative heat loss; and water intake and decreased DMI (3.5kg/d), milk yield (4.1kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (2.7kg/d), and milk protein yield (181.7g/d). Sweating rate increased during HS (12.7g/m(2) per h) compared with TN, but this increase was only 10% of that reported in summer-acclimated cattle. Niacin supplementation did not affect sweating rate, dry-matter intake, or milk yield in either environment. Rumen-protected niacin increased plasma and milk niacin concentrations in a linear manner. Heat stress reduced niacin concentration in whole blood (7.86 vs. 6.89μg/mL) but not in milk. Reduced blood niacin concentration was partially corrected by dietary RPN. An interaction existed between dietary RPN and environment; dietary RPN linearly increased water intake in both environments, but the increase was greater during HS conditions. Increasing dietary RPN did not influence skin temperatures. During TN, supplementing 12g/d of RPN increased hair coat (unshaved skin; 30.3 vs. 31.3°C at 1600h) but not shaved skin (32.8 vs. 32.9°C at 1600h) temperature when compared with 0g/d at all time points, whereas the maximum temperature (18°C) of the room was lower than skin temperature. These data suggest that dietary RPN increased water intake during both TN and HS and hair coat temperature during TN; however, core body

  9. Heat shock protein 70 protects PC12 cells against ischemia-hypoxia/reoxygenation by maintaining intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 maintains Ca2+ homeostasis in PC12 cells, which may protect against apoptosis; however, the mechanisms of neuroprotection are unclear. Therefore, in this study, we examined Ca2+ levels in PC12 cells transfected with an exogenous lentiviral HSP70 gene expression construct, and we subsequently subjected the cells to ischemia-hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. HSP70 overexpression increased neuronal viability and ATPase activity, and it decreased cellular reactive oxygen species levels and intracellular Ca2+ concentration after hypoxia/reoxygenation. HSP70 overexpression enhanced the protein and mRNA expression levels of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA, but it decreased the protein and mRNA levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R, thereby leading to decreased intracellular Ca2+ concentration after ischemia-hypoxia/reoxygenation. These results suggest that exogenous HSP70 protects against ischemia-hypoxia/reoxygenation injury, at least in part, by maintaining cellular Ca2+ homeostasis, by upregulating SERCA expression and by downregulating IP3R expression.

  10. Heat shock preconditioning protects against ER stress-induced apoptosis through the regulation of the BH3-only protein BIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mild heat shock (HS preconditioning and acquisition of thermotolerance protects cells against a variety of cytotoxic agents that otherwise induce apoptosis. Here we tested whether there is a molecular link between HS preconditioning and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced apoptosis. ER stress results from a loss of ER lumen homeostasis, culminating in an accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of unfolded protein response (UPR. Unresolved, ER stress leads to activation of BH3-only proteins, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, caspase activation and apoptotic cell death. HS preconditioning (1 h at 42 °C induced a rapid increase in HSPA1 (HSP70 levels which remained elevated for at least 48 h post-HS. HS preconditioning significantly reduced BAX, caspase activation and apoptosis in cell cultures treated with the ER stress-inducing agents thapsigargin (TG and tunicamycin (TM. HS-mediated protection was found to be due to regulation of the BH3-only protein BIM. Further, overexpression of HSPA1 could not mimic the effect of HS on BIM expression, suggesting that other HS factors may play a role in inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis by regulating BIM.

  11. Design of high heat load white-beam slits for wiggler/undulator beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, D.; Tcheskidov, V.; Nian, T.; Haeffner, D.R.; Alp, E.E.; Ryding, D.; Collins, J.; Li, Y.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-12-01

    A set of horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source wiggler/undulator beamlines at Argonne National Laboratory. While this slit set can handle the high heat flux from on e APS undulator source, it has large enough aperture to be compatible with a wiggler source also. A grazing-incidence, knife-edge configuration has been used in the design to eliminate downstream X-ray scattering. Enhanced heat transfer technology has been used in the water-cooling system. A unique stepping parallelogram driving structure provides precise vertical slit motion with large optical aperture. The full design detail is presented in this paper.

  12. Effects of fuel load and moisture content on fire behaviour and heating in masticated litter-dominated fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse K. Kreye; Leda N. Kobziar; Wayne C. Zipperer

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical fuels treatments are being used in fire-prone ecosystems where fuel loading poses a hazard, yetlittle research elucidating subsequent fire behaviour exists, especially in litter-dominated fuelbeds. To address this deficiency, we burned constructed fuelbeds from masticated sites in pine flatwoods forests in northern Florida...

  13. Manufacture of thick VPS W coatings on relatively large CuZrCr substrate and its steady high heat load performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Chunming, E-mail: denghans@126.com; Liu, Min; Yang, Zhenxiao; Deng, Changguang; Zhou, Kesong; Kuang, Ziqi; Zhang, Jifu

    2014-12-15

    W material is considered as one of potential Plasma Facing Materials (PFMs) for its high melting point, excellent stability at elevated temperature, good thermal conductivity, excellent anti-plasma sputtering and low Tritium retention. Functionally graded W/Cu coating was applied on CuCrZr substrate (250 mm × 120 mm × 30 mm) with compositionally gradient W/Cu as bond coat (0.4–0.6 mm) and 1.5 mm thick W coating as top coat via Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS) for continuous deposition of 5 h. Microstructure, chemical composition, porosity and adhesive strength for as sprayed thick W coating on the CuCrZr substrate were characterized by means of SEM, ICP-MS, Mercury Intrusion Porosimeter and tensile strength tester. The steady high heat load (HHL) performance for W/Cu functional gradient coating was evaluated by high energy electron beam. The results showed that thick VPS W coated CuCrZr substrate can withstand the steady high heat load at the electron beam power density of 9 MW/m{sup 2} for 1000 cycles.

  14. Manufacture of thick VPS W coatings on relatively large CuZrCr substrate and its steady high heat load performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chunming; Liu, Min; Yang, Zhenxiao; Deng, Changguang; Zhou, Kesong; Kuang, Ziqi; Zhang, Jifu

    2014-12-01

    W material is considered as one of potential Plasma Facing Materials (PFMs) for its high melting point, excellent stability at elevated temperature, good thermal conductivity, excellent anti-plasma sputtering and low Tritium retention. Functionally graded W/Cu coating was applied on CuCrZr substrate (250 mm × 120 mm × 30 mm) with compositionally gradient W/Cu as bond coat (0.4-0.6 mm) and 1.5 mm thick W coating as top coat via Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS) for continuous deposition of 5 h. Microstructure, chemical composition, porosity and adhesive strength for as sprayed thick W coating on the CuCrZr substrate were characterized by means of SEM, ICP-MS, Mercury Intrusion Porosimeter and tensile strength tester. The steady high heat load (HHL) performance for W/Cu functional gradient coating was evaluated by high energy electron beam. The results showed that thick VPS W coated CuCrZr substrate can withstand the steady high heat load at the electron beam power density of 9 MW/m2 for 1000 cycles.

  15. Impact of large beam-induced heat loads on the transient operation of the beam screens and the cryogenic plants of the Future Circular Collider (FCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Rodrigues, H.; Tavian, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) under study at CERN will produce 50-TeV high-energy proton beams. The high-energy particle beams are bent by 16-T superconducting dipole magnets operating at 1.9 K and distributed over a circumference of 80 km. The circulating beams induce 5 MW of dynamic heat loads by several processes such as synchrotron radiation, resistive dissipation of beam image currents and electron clouds. These beam-induced heat loads will be intercepted by beam screens operating between 40 and 60 K and induce transients during beam injection. Energy ramp-up and beam dumping on the distributed beam-screen cooling loops, the sector cryogenic plants and the dedicated circulators. Based on the current baseline parameters, numerical simulations of the fluid flow in the cryogenic distribution system during a beam operation cycle were performed. The effects of the thermal inertia of the headers on the helium flow temperature at the cryogenic plant inlet as well as the temperature gradient experienced by the beam screen has been assessed. Additionally, this work enabled a thorough exergetic analysis of different cryogenic plant configurations and laid the building-block for establishing design specification of cold and warm circulators.

  16. Control of Advanced Reactor-Coupled Heat Exchanger System: Incorporation of Reactor Dynamics in System Response to Load Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Skavdahl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative control schemes for an Advanced High Temperature Reactor system consisting of a reactor, an intermediate heat exchanger, and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX are presented in this paper. One scheme is designed to control the cold outlet temperature of the SHX (Tco and the hot outlet temperature of the intermediate heat exchanger (Tho2 by manipulating the hot-side flow rates of the heat exchangers (Fh/Fh2 responding to the flow rate and temperature disturbances. The flow rate disturbances typically require a larger manipulation of the flow rates than temperature disturbances. An alternate strategy examines the control of the cold outlet temperature of the SHX (Tco only, since this temperature provides the driving force for energy production in the power conversion unit or the process application. The control can be achieved by three options: (1 flow rate manipulation; (2 reactor power manipulation; or (3 a combination of the two. The first option has a quicker response but requires a large flow rate change. The second option is the slowest but does not involve any change in the flow rates of streams. The third option appears preferable as it has an intermediate response time and requires only a minimal flow rate change.

  17. Variability in heat strain in fully encapsulated impermeable suits in different climates and at different work loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, E.A. den; Rubenstein, C.D.; Deaton, A.S.; Bogerd, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    A major concern for responders to hazardous materials (HazMat) incidents is the heat strain that is caused by fully encapsulated impermeable (NFPA 1991) suits. In a research project, funded by the US Department of Defense, the thermal strain experienced when wearing these suits was studied. Forty

  18. Numerical Analysis of Joule Heating Behavior and Residual Compressive Stress around Crack Tip under High Electric Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Joule heating effect and residual compressive stress near the crack tip under the electro-thermo-structural coupling state. For the crack tip field, the compressive condition is important for retarding or stopping the crack growth.

  19. Nonlocal size dependency in nonlinear instability of axially loaded exponential shear deformable FG-CNT reinforced nanoshells under heat conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, S.; Fattahi, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    The present study deals with size-dependent nonlinear instability characteristics of functionally graded carbon nanotube (FG-CNT) reinforced composite shells at nanoscale subjected to axial compression combined with through-thickness heat conduction. To take size dependency into account, Eringen's nonlocal continuum elasticity is incorporated to a novel shear deformation shell theory including a refined exponential distribution for transverse shear strain. In addition to the uniform distribution (UD) of CNT reinforcements, three FG patterns are also considered, namely FG-A, FG-V and FG-X. Also, on the basis of polynomial series, the temperature variation due to the through-thickness heat conduction is estimated. Via a perturbation-based boundary layer-type solving procedure, explicit expressions for nonlocal equilibrium curves are proposed relevant to the prebuckling and postbuckling regimes of FG-CNT exponential shear deformable nanoshells with temperature-dependent and temperature-independent material properties. It is observed that by taking the nonlocality size effect into consideration, the influence of the through-thickness heat conduction on the nonlinear axial instability response of FG-CNT reinforced nanoshells becomes more significant.

  20. Pelleted bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells are better protected from the deleterious effects of arthroscopic heat shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthaman eKalamegam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The impact of arthroscopic temperature on joint tissues is poorly understood and it is not known how mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs respond to the effects of heat generated by the device during the process of arthroscopy assisted experimental cell-based therapy. In the present study, we isolated and phenotypically characterized human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs from osteoarthritis (OA patients, and evaluated the effect of arthroscopic heat on cell viability in suspension and pellet cultures.Methods: Primary cultures of hBMMSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirates of OA patients and cultured using DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and characterized for their stemness. hBMMSCs (1 x 106 cells cultured as single cell suspensions or cell pellets were exposed to an illuminated arthroscope for 10, 20 or 30 min. This was followed by analysis of cellular proliferation and heat shock related gene expression. Results: hBMMSCs were viable and exhibited population doubling, short spindle morphology, MSC related CD surface markers expression and tri-lineage differentiation into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation increased collagen production and alkaline phosphatase activity. Exposure of hBMMSCs to an illuminated arthroscope for 10, 20 or 30 min for 72 h decreased cell proliferation in cell suspensions (63.27% at 30 min and increased cell proliferation in cell pellets (62.86% at 10 min and 68.57% at 20 min. hBMMSCs exposed to 37C, 45C and 55C for 120 seconds demonstrated significant upregulation of BAX, P53, Cyclin A2, Cyclin E1, TNF-α, and HSP70 in cell suspensions compared to cell pellets. Conclusions: hBMMSC cell pellets are better protected from temperature alterations compared to cell suspensions. Transplantation of hBMMSCs as pellets rather than as cell suspensions to the cartilage defect site would therefore support their viability and may aid enhanced cartilage

  1. Potentials of the heat pump for the load mangement in the electricity market and for the grid integration of renewable energies; Potenziale der Waermepumpe zum Lastmanagement im Strommarkt und zur Netzintegration erneuerbarer Energien. BMWi Vorhaben Nr. 50/10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabe, Christian; Hasche, Bernhard; Offermann, Markus; Papaefthymiou, Georgios [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Seefeldt, Friedrich; Thamling, Nils; Dziomba, Henri [Prognos AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-10-31

    The draft of the energy plan of the Federal Government from 7th September, 2010 presents the renewable energies as a component of the future energy supply. It is also supposed with an increase of the market penetration of heat pumps in order to provide space heating. The increasing potential of demand must be used with the growing seasonal performance of power generation. However, there exist no investigations on the amount of the effective potential of heat pumps for load management. The structure and magnitude of costs and benefits are not clear. Possible barriers for developing the potential of heat pumps can be exploited. The contribution under consideration reports on these aspects.

  2. Human-derived physiological heat shock protein 27 complex protects brain after focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Teramoto

    Full Text Available Although challenging, neuroprotective therapies for ischemic stroke remain an interesting strategy for countering ischemic injury and suppressing brain tissue damage. Among potential neuroprotective molecules, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 is a strong cell death suppressor. To assess the neuroprotective effects of HSP27 in a mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we purified a "physiological" HSP27 (hHSP27 from normal human lymphocytes. hHSP27 differed from recombinant HSP27 in that it formed dimeric, tetrameric, and multimeric complexes, was phosphorylated, and contained small amounts of αβ-crystallin and HSP20. Mice received intravenous injections of hHSP27 following focal cerebral ischemia. Infarct volume, neurological deficit scores, physiological parameters, and immunohistochemical analyses were evaluated 24 h after reperfusion. Intravenous injections of hHSP27 1 h after reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size and improved neurological deficits. Injected hHSP27 was localized in neurons on the ischemic side of the brain. hHSP27 suppressed neuronal cell death resulting from cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses. Recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27, which was artificially expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and dephosphorylated hHSP27 did not have brain protective effects, suggesting that the phosphorylation of hHSP27 may be important for neuroprotection after ischemic insults. The present study suggests that hHSP27 with posttranslational modifications provided neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and that the protection was mediated through the inhibition of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Intravenously injected human HSP27 should be explored for the treatment of acute ischemic strokes.

  3. Antigens of Bordetella pertussis. IV. Effect of heat, merthiolate, and formaldehyde on histamine-sensitizing factor and protective activity of soluble extracts from Bordetella pertussi.s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, J; Hestekin, B M

    1966-06-01

    Munoz, J. (Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Mont.), and B. M. Hestekin. Antigens of Bordetella pertussis. IV. Effect of heat, Merthiolate, and formaldehyde on histamine-sensitizing factor and protective activity of soluble extracts from Bordetella pertussis. J. Bacteriol. 91:2175-2179. 1966.-Both histamine-sensitizing and protective activities of soluble preparations from Bordetella pertussis cells are destroyed by heating at 80 C for 0.5 hr. The histamine-sensitizing activity appeared to be more susceptible to inactivation by heat than the protective activity. Formaldehyde in a final concentration of 0.5% rapidly diminished the histamine-sensitizing ability of saline extract (SE) held at 37 C. The protective activity was clearly more resistant to inactivation by formaldehyde at similar temperature. The inactivating action of formaldehyde was slower when the concentration of SE was increased or when the mixture was kept at 2 to 5 C. Merthiolate in a final concentration of 1:10,000 had no demonstrable deleterious effects on either protective or histamine-sensitizing activity of SE.

  4. Protective efficacy of VP1-specific neutralizing antibody associated with a reduction of viral load and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human SCARB2-transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsuen-Wen; Lin, Yi-Wen; Ho, Hui-Min; Lin, Min-Han; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Chong, Pele; Sia, Charles; Chow, Yen-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus 16 (CVA16) in children have now become a severe public health issue in the Asian-Pacific region. Recently we have successfully developed transgenic mice expressing human scavenger receptor class B member 2 (hSCARB2, a receptor of EV71 and CVA16) as an animal model for evaluating the pathogenesis of enterovirus infections. In this study, hSCARB2-transgenic mice were used to investigate the efficacy conferred by a previously described EV71 neutralizing antibody, N3. A single injection of N3 effectively inhibited the HFMD-like skin scurfs in mice pre-infected with clinical isolate of EV71 E59 (B4 genotype) or prevented severe limb paralysis and death in mice pre-inoculated with 5746 (C2 genotype). This protection was correlated with remarkable reduction of viral loads in the brain, spinal cord and limb muscles. Accumulated viral loads and the associated pro-inflammatory cytokines were all reduced. The protective efficacy of N3 was not observed in animals challenged with CVA16. This could be due to dissimilarity sequences of the neutralizing epitope found in CVA16. These results indicate N3 could be useful in treating severe EV71 infections and the hSCARB2-transgenic mouse could be used to evaluate the protective efficacy of potential anti-enterovirus agent candidates.

  5. Protective efficacy of VP1-specific neutralizing antibody associated with a reduction of viral load and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human SCARB2-transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuen-Wen Chang

    Full Text Available Hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus 16 (CVA16 in children have now become a severe public health issue in the Asian-Pacific region. Recently we have successfully developed transgenic mice expressing human scavenger receptor class B member 2 (hSCARB2, a receptor of EV71 and CVA16 as an animal model for evaluating the pathogenesis of enterovirus infections. In this study, hSCARB2-transgenic mice were used to investigate the efficacy conferred by a previously described EV71 neutralizing antibody, N3. A single injection of N3 effectively inhibited the HFMD-like skin scurfs in mice pre-infected with clinical isolate of EV71 E59 (B4 genotype or prevented severe limb paralysis and death in mice pre-inoculated with 5746 (C2 genotype. This protection was correlated with remarkable reduction of viral loads in the brain, spinal cord and limb muscles. Accumulated viral loads and the associated pro-inflammatory cytokines were all reduced. The protective efficacy of N3 was not observed in animals challenged with CVA16. This could be due to dissimilarity sequences of the neutralizing epitope found in CVA16. These results indicate N3 could be useful in treating severe EV71 infections and the hSCARB2-transgenic mouse could be used to evaluate the protective efficacy of potential anti-enterovirus agent candidates.

  6. Stagnation Point Radiative Heating Relations for Venus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Michael E.; Palmer, Grant E.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.

    2012-01-01

    Improved analytic expressions for calculating the stagnation point radiative heating during entry into the atmosphere of Venus have been developed. These analytic expressions can be incorporated into entry trajectory simulation codes. Together with analytical expressions for convective heating at the stagnation point, the time-integrated total heat load at the stagnation point is used in determining the thickness of protective material required, and hence the mass of the fore body heatshield of uniform thickness.

  7. Heat Shock Protein A12B Protects Vascular Endothelial Cells Against Sepsis-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary endothelial injury is a critical process in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI during sepsis. Heat shock protein A12B (HSPA12B is mainly expressed in endothelial cells and protects against several harmful factors. However, the effects of HSPA12B in sepsis-induced ALI and its potential mechanisms of action remain unclear. Methods: For in vivo experiments, C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups (n=15: a sham operation group, a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP group, a HSPA12B siRNA-CLP group and a negative control (NC siRNA-CLP group. The mice were treated by nasal inhalation of 2-OMe-modified HSPA12B siRNA or NC siRNA. Sepsis was induced by CLP. Samples were harvested 24 and 48 hours post-CLP surgery. Pathological changes and scoring of lung tissue samples were monitored using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and IL-6 and myeloperoxidase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed by ELISA. Pulmonary edema was assessed using a wet-to-dry weight ratio. Neutrophils and alveolar macrophages were counted using flow cytometry. Pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining. Expression levels of MAPK family signaling molecules and caspase-3 were measured by Western blot analysis. In addition, 7-day survival was recorded. For in vitro experiments, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were pre-transfected with HSPA12B siRNA or pIRES2-EGFP-HSPA12B-Flag plasmid and treated with lipopolysaccharide; subsequently, the expression levels of MAPK family signaling molecules and caspase-3 were measured by Western blotting. Results: Nasal inhalation of nano-polymer-encapsulated HSPA12B siRNA specifically downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of HSPA12B in lung tissues. The administration of HSPA12B siRNA aggravated lung pathological injury, upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine (e

  8. Preliminary decay heat calculations for the fuel loaded irradiation loop device of the RMB multipurpose Brazilian reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campolina, Daniel; Costa, Antonio Carlos L. da; Andrade, Edison P., E-mail: campolina@cdtn.br, E-mail: aclp@cdtn.br, E-mail: epa@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SETRE/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Tecnologia de Reatores

    2017-07-01

    The structuring project of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) is responsible for meeting the capacity to develop and test materials and nuclear fuel for the Brazilian Nuclear Program. An irradiation test device (Loop) capable of performing fuel test for power reactor rods is being conceived for RMB reflector. In this work preliminary neutronic calculations have been carried out in order to determine parameters to the cooling system of the Loop basic design. The heat released as a result of radioactive decay of fuel samples was calculated using ORIGEN-ARP and it resulted less than 200 W after 1 hour of irradiation interruption. (author)

  9. 42 CFR 84.1152 - Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as... cubic meter and against radionuclides; minimum requirements. 84.1152 Section 84.1152 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH...

  10. Pressure waves in liquid mercury target from pulsed heat loads and the possible way controlling their effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, L.; Skala, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villingen (Switzerland)

    1996-06-01

    In ESS project liquid metals are selected as the main target for the pulsed spallation neutron source. Since the very high instantaneous energy is deposited on the heavy molten target in a very short period time, pressure waves are generated. They travel through the liquid and cause high stress in the container. Also, additional stress should be considered in the wall which is the result of direct heating of the target window. These dynamic processes were simulated with computational codes with the static response being analized first. The total resulting dynamic wall stress has been found to have exceeded the design stress for the selected container material. Adding a small amount of gas bubbles in the liquid could be a possible way to reduce the pressure waves.

  11. The protective effect of γ-aminobutyric acid on the development of immune function in chickens under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J; Chen, Z

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the development of immune function in chicks under heat stress (HS). One-day-old male Wenchang chicks were randomly divided into control (CK), HS and GABA+HS groups. The GABA+HS group was fed with 0.2 ml GABA solution (50 mg/kg) daily by oral gavage. The HS and GABA+HS groups were placed in 40 ± 0.5 °C environment for 2 h heat treatment from 13:00 each day. Blood samples were routinely taken at 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days respectively, and the contents of T and B lymphocyte subsets in the blood and tissue were analysed by flow cytometry after FITC/PE double staining; the plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-2, immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG and IgM were determined using ELISA. The thymus and the bursa of fabricius were also collected to analyse for organ index and observe for the changes in tissue microstructure. In addition, the chicks received primary and secondary immunizations with attenuated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine (LaSota strain) at 7 and 28 days respectively; conventional hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay was performed to monitor the titre changes in plasma antibody against ND virus in the birds. Our results indicated that the indices of both thymus and bursa of fabricius, the intactness of tissue structure and development, the plasma levels of IL-2, IgA, IgG and IgM, the titres of ND antibody, and the levels of B and T lymphocyte subsets in HS group were all significantly lower than those in CK group (p < 0.05). However, all above indices were significantly improved in GABA+HS group compared with those in HS group (p < 0.05). These results demonstrated that while HS seriously affected the development of immune function in Wenchang chicks, GABA effectively alleviated the damages of HS to the development of immune function in chicks. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Electricity use and load management in electricity heated one-family houses from customer and utility perspective; Effekten av effekten - Elanvaendning och laststyrning i elvaermda smaahus ur kund- och foeretagsperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin

    2004-11-01

    Until recently, the increase in electricity demand and peak power demand has been met by expansion of the electricity production. Today, due to the deregulation of the electricity market, the production capacity is decreasing. Therefore, there is a national interest in finding solutions to peak problems also on the demand side. In the studies described here (Study 1 and 2) ten households in electrically heated houses were examined. In 1999 the utility equipped their customers with a remote metering system (CustCom) that has an in-built load control component. In Study 1, the load pattern of ten households was examined by using energy diaries combined with frequent meter readings (every five minutes) of the load demand for heating, hot water service and domestic electricity use. Household members kept energy diaries over a four-day period in January 2004, noting time, activities and the use of household appliances that run on electricity. The analysis showed that the use of heat-producing household appliances, e.g. sauna, washing machine and dryer, appliances used for cooking, dishwasher and extra electric heaters, contribute to the household's highest peaks. Turning on the sauna and at the same time using the shower equates to a peak load of 7-9 kW. This, in addition to the use of electricity for heating and lighting along alongside electricity use for refrigerators and freezers, results in some households reaching their main fuse level (roughly 13,8 kW for a main fuse of 20 A). This means that the domestic use of electricity makes up a considerable part of the highest peak loads in a household, but the highest peaks occur together with the use of electricity for heating and hot water. In the second study, Study 2, the households participated in a load control experiment, in which the utility was able to turn on and switch off the heating and hot water systems remotely, using the CustCom system. Heating and water heaters were switched off for periods of 1

  13. Study on the impact of transition from 3-batch to 4-batch loading at Loviisa NPP on the long-term decay heat and activity inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Tuukka [Fortum Power and Heat Ltd., Fortum (Finland)

    2017-09-15

    The fuel economy of Loviisa NPP was improved by implementing a transition from 3-batch to 4-batch loading scheme between 2009 and 2013. Equilibrium cycle length as well as all process parameters were retained unchanged while the increase of fuel enrichment enabled to reduce the annual reload batch size from 102 to 84 assemblies. The fuel cycle transition obviously had an effect on the long-term decay heat and activity inventory. However, due to simultaneous change in several quantities the net effect over the relevant cooling time region is not self-evident. In this study the effect is analyzed properly, i. e. applying consistent calculation models and detailed description of assembly-wise irradiation histories. The study concludes that for the cooling time, foreseen typical prior to encapsulation of assemblies, the decay heat of discharge batch increases 2 - 3%. It is also concluded that, in order to maintain 100% filling degree of final disposal canisters, the cooling time prior to encapsulation needs to be prolonged by 10 - 15 years.

  14. Immobilization antigen vaccine adjuvanted by parasitic heat shock protein 70C confers high protection in fish against cryptocaryonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josepriya, T A; Chien, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Hsin-Yun; Huang, Han-Ning; Wu, Chang-Jer; Song, Yen-Ling

    2015-08-01

    The immobilization antigen (iAg) has been demonstrated as a protective immunogen against Cryptocaryon irritans infection. In this study, C-terminal domain of heat shock protein 70 cloned from C. irritans (Hsp70C) was tested for its immuno-stimulatory effects. The iAg and Hsp70C cDNAs were constructed independently in secretory forms and were encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. In the first immunization trial, grouper fingerlings orally intubated with iAg and iAg:Hsp70C presented 96% and 100% relative percent survival (RPS), respectively, after a lethal challenge. In the second trial, both iAg and iAg:Hsp70C groups showed 100% RPS and the skin trophont burden was significantly lowered. The iAg:Hsp70C still provides a significantly high protection of 51% RPS at 49 days post immunization, when an even more serious lethal infection occurs. RT-qPCR results showed that Hsp70C could up-regulate the expression of i) T cell markers: Cluster of Differentiation 8 alpha (CD8α) and CD4, ii) cytokine genes: Interferon gamma (IFNγ), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) and Interleukin 12 p40 (IL-12/P40), iii) antibody genes: Immunoglobulin M heavy chain (IgMH) and IgTH, and iv) major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I & MHC-II), in the spleen of iAg:Hsp70C group. Furthermore, significantly high levels of iAg-specific IgM was detected in skin mucus which efficiently immobilized live theronts in iAg- and iAg:Hsp70C-immunized fish at 5 weeks post immunization. Hsp70C significantly increased the number of nonspecific CD8(+) skin leucocytes which exerted cytotoxicity against theronts, although cytotoxic activity showed no difference among the various groups. Because of this complementary cooperation of cellular and humoral immune responses, Hsp70C enhances the efficacy of iAg vaccine and constrains C. irritans infection. In view of the severe loss caused by cryptocaryonosis, application of this parasitic vaccine in farmed and ornamental fish, is worthy to be considered. Copyright

  15. The development and testing of the thermal break divertor monoblock target design delivering 20 MW m‑2 heat load capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursdon, M.; Barrett, T.; Domptail, F.; Evans, Ll M.; Luzginova, N.; Greuner, N. H.; You, J.-H.; Li, M.; Richou, M.; Gallay, F.; Visca, E.

    2017-12-01

    The design and development of a novel plasma facing component (for fusion power plants) is described. The component uses the existing ‘monoblock’ construction which consists of a tungsten ‘block’ joined via a copper interlayer to a through CuCrZr cooling pipe. In the new concept the interlayer stiffness and conductivity properties are tuned so that stress in the principal structural element of the component (the cooling pipe) is reduced. Following initial trials with off-the-shelf materials, the concept was realized by machined features in an otherwise solid copper interlayer. The shape and distribution of the features were tuned by finite element analyses subject to ITER structural design criterion in-vessel components (SDC-IC) design rules. Proof of concept mock-ups were manufactured using a two stage brazing process verified by tomography and micrographic inspection. Full assemblies were inspected using ultrasound and thermographic (SATIR) test methods at ENEA and CEA respectively. High heat flux tests using IPP’s GLADIS facility showed that 200 cycles at 20 MW m‑2 and five cycles at 25 MW m‑2 could be sustained without apparent component damage. Further testing and component development is planned.

  16. Influence of heat and moisture exchanger respiratory load on transcutaneous oxygenation in laryngectomized individuals: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuur, J Karel; Muller, Sara H; Sinaasappel, Michiel; Hart, Guus A M; van Zandwijk, Nico; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2007-12-01

    High-resistance heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) have been reported to increase transcutaneous oxygenation (tcpO(2)) values in laryngectomized individuals and to negatively influence patient compliance. The goal of the present study was to validate earlier published results on short-term transcutaneous oxygenation changes by high-resistance HMEs. We conducted a randomized crossover study, monitoring the influence of an HME on tcpO(2) over a 2-hour time interval in 20 subjects. No evidence of an immediate HME effect (95% CI: -14.9-13.3 mm Hg, p = .91), or a time-dependent HME effect (95% CI: -.121 - .172 mm Hg/minute, p = .74), on tcpO(2) was found. After fitting the statistical model without time dependency, again no evidence of HME presence was seen (95% CI: -.5 mm Hg - 3.6 mm Hg, p = .15). In contrast to earlier suggestions, there is no evidence of increased tcpO(2) levels by high-resistance HMEs in laryngectomized individuals. Thus, using such HMEs has no added clinical value in this respect.

  17. Small heat shock proteins mediate cell-autonomous and -nonautonomous protection in a Drosophila model for environmental-stress-induced degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Kawasaki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell and tissue degeneration, and the development of degenerative diseases, are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that affect protein misfolding and proteotoxicity. To better understand the role of the environment in degeneration, we developed a genetic model for heat shock (HS-stress-induced degeneration in Drosophila. This model exhibits a unique combination of features that enhance genetic analysis of degeneration and protection mechanisms involving environmental stress. These include cell-type-specific failure of proteostasis and degeneration in response to global stress, cell-nonautonomous interactions within a simple and accessible network of susceptible cell types, and precise temporal control over the induction of degeneration. In wild-type flies, HS stress causes selective loss of the flight ability and degeneration of three susceptible cell types comprising the flight motor: muscle, motor neurons and associated glia. Other motor behaviors persist and, accordingly, the corresponding cell types controlling leg motor function are resistant to degeneration. Flight motor degeneration was preceded by a failure of muscle proteostasis characterized by diffuse ubiquitinated protein aggregates. Moreover, muscle-specific overexpression of a small heat shock protein (HSP, HSP23, promoted proteostasis and protected muscle from HS stress. Notably, neurons and glia were protected as well, indicating that a small HSP can mediate cell-nonautonomous protection. Cell-autonomous protection of muscle was characterized by a distinct distribution of ubiquitinated proteins, including perinuclear localization and clearance of protein aggregates associated with the perinuclear microtubule network. This network was severely disrupted in wild-type preparations prior to degeneration, suggesting that it serves an important role in muscle proteostasis and protection. Finally, studies of resistant leg muscles revealed that they sustain proteostasis and

  18. Small heat shock proteins mediate cell-autonomous and -nonautonomous protection in a Drosophila model for environmental-stress-induced degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Fumiko; Koonce, Noelle L; Guo, Linda; Fatima, Shahroz; Qiu, Catherine; Moon, Mackenzie T; Zheng, Yunzhen; Ordway, Richard W

    2016-09-01

    Cell and tissue degeneration, and the development of degenerative diseases, are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that affect protein misfolding and proteotoxicity. To better understand the role of the environment in degeneration, we developed a genetic model for heat shock (HS)-stress-induced degeneration in Drosophila This model exhibits a unique combination of features that enhance genetic analysis of degeneration and protection mechanisms involving environmental stress. These include cell-type-specific failure of proteostasis and degeneration in response to global stress, cell-nonautonomous interactions within a simple and accessible network of susceptible cell types, and precise temporal control over the induction of degeneration. In wild-type flies, HS stress causes selective loss of the flight ability and degeneration of three susceptible cell types comprising the flight motor: muscle, motor neurons and associated glia. Other motor behaviors persist and, accordingly, the corresponding cell types controlling leg motor function are resistant to degeneration. Flight motor degeneration was preceded by a failure of muscle proteostasis characterized by diffuse ubiquitinated protein aggregates. Moreover, muscle-specific overexpression of a small heat shock protein (HSP), HSP23, promoted proteostasis and protected muscle from HS stress. Notably, neurons and glia were protected as well, indicating that a small HSP can mediate cell-nonautonomous protection. Cell-autonomous protection of muscle was characterized by a distinct distribution of ubiquitinated proteins, including perinuclear localization and clearance of protein aggregates associated with the perinuclear microtubule network. This network was severely disrupted in wild-type preparations prior to degeneration, suggesting that it serves an important role in muscle proteostasis and protection. Finally, studies of resistant leg muscles revealed that they sustain proteostasis and the microtubule

  19. Serum and tissue nitrate levels in murine visceral leishmaniasis correlate with parasite load but not with host protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bories, C; Scherman, E; Bories, P N

    1997-01-01

    Nitrate levels were measured in serum and in organs from Lshs BALB/c and Lshr C3H/HeN mice during the acute phase (30 d) of infection by Leishmania donovani strain LV9. Serum nitrate levels increased rapidly in BALB/c mice from a baseline level (17 +/- 4 mumol/L) to a plateau (504 +/- 129 mumol/L) at 24 d and correlated with parasite loads in the liver (r = 0.817, P HeN mice, from 31 +/- 5 mumol/L to 86 +/- 5 mumol/L at 20 d. Liver nitrate content did not differ significantly between infected and control mice (1093 +/- 83 vs. 867 +/- 104 nmol), whereas the former had a higher spleen nitrate content (145 +/- 22 vs. 40 +/- 2 nmol, P HeN strain during the acute stage of infection by L. donovani. Tissue NO overproduction in organs infected by L. donovani was related to the progression of parasitic disease and contributed to high nitrate serum levels. It would be very interesting to extend this investigation to human disease with the aim of evaluating serum nitrate as a marker of parasite load in the follow-up of patients suffering from visceral leishmaniasis.

  20. Short-term forecasts of district heating load and outdoor temperature by use of on-line connected computers; Korttidsprognoser foer fjaerrvaermelast och utetemperatur med on-linekopplade datorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmstroem, B.; Ernfors, P.; Nilsson, Daniel; Vallgren, H. [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden). Institutionen foer Energiteknik

    1996-10-01

    In this report the available methods for forecasting weather and district heating load have been studied. A forecast method based on neural networks has been tested against the more common statistical methods. The accuracy of the weather forecasts from the SMHI (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute) has been estimated. In connection with these tests, the possibilities of improving the forecasts by using on-line connected computers has been analysed. The most important results from the study are: Energy company staff generally look upon the forecasting of district heating load as a problem of such a magnitude that computer support is needed. At the companies where computer calculated forecasts are in use, their accuracy is regarded as quite satisfactory; The interest in computer produced load forecasts among energy company staff is increasing; At present, a sufficient number of commercial suppliers of weather forecasts as well as load forecasts is available to fulfill the needs of energy companies; Forecasts based on neural networks did not attain any precision improvement in comparison to more traditional statistical methods. There may though be other types of neural networks, not tested in this study, that are possibly capable of improving the forecast precision; Forecasts of outdoor temperature and district heating load can be significantly improved through the use of on-line-connected computers supplied with instantaneous measurements of temperature and load. This study shows that a general reduction of the load prediction errors by approximately 15% is attainable. For short time horizons (less than 5 hours), more extensive load prediction error reductions can be reached. For the 1-hour time horizon, the possible reduction amounts to up to 50%. 21 refs, 4 figs, 7 appendices

  1. The experimental and theoretical investigations of damage development and distribution in double-forged tungsten under plasma irradiation-initiated extreme heat loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väli Berit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of extreme heat loads, as produced by a multiple pulses of non-homogeneous fl ow of slow plasma (0.1-1 keV and fast ions (100 keV, on double-forged tungsten (DFW was investigated. For generation of deuterium plasma and fast deuterons, plasma-focus devices PF-12 and PF-1000 are used. Depending on devices and conditions, the power flux density of plasma varied in a range of 107-1010 W/cm2 with pulse duration of 50-100 ns. Power flux density of fast ions was 1010-1012 W/cm2 at the pulse duration of 10-50 ns. To achieve the combined effect of different kind of plasmas, the samples were later irradiated with hydrogen plasma (105 W/cm2, 0.25 ms by a QSPA Kh-50 plasma generator. Surface modification was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and microroughness measurements. For estimation of damages in the bulk of material, an electrical conductivity method was used. Investigations showed that irradiation of DFW with multiple plasma pulses generated a mesh of micro- and macrocracks due to high heat load. A comparison with single forged tungsten (W and tungsten doped with 1% lanthanum-oxide (WL10 reveals the better crack-resistance of DFW. Also, sizes of cells formed between the cracks on the DFW’s surface were larger than in cases of W or WL10. Measurements of electrical conductivity indicated a layer of decreased conductivity, which reached up to 500 μm. It depended mainly on values of power flux density of fast ions, but not on the number of pulses. Thus, it may be concluded that bulk defects (weakening bonds between grains and crystals, dislocations, point-defects were generated due to mechanical shock wave, which was generated by the fast ions flux. Damages and erosion of materials under different combined radiation conditions have also been discussed.

  2. Plasma beads loaded with Candida albicans cytosolic proteins impart protection against the fungal infection in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ejaj; Fatima, Munazza T; Saleemuddin, M; Owais, M

    2012-11-06

    The development of a prophylactic vaccine against systemic candidiasis, employing Candida albicans cytosolic proteins (Cp) as antigen and fibrin cross-linked plasma beads as an antigen bearing dual delivery system is described. Groups of mice were administered either with free Cp, or Cp entrapped in plasma beads, Cp entrapped in liposomes or liposome encapsulated Cp further entrapped in plasma beads. Humoral immunity was studied by measuring the anti-Cp antibody titers in the sera of the immunized animals. Induction of cell-mediated immunity was assessed by delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), NO production, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules viz. CD80, CD86 on APCs on one hand and T-cells proliferation as well as induction of IFN-γ and IL-4 on the other. The efficacy of various vaccine formulations in protecting mice against a lethal challenge with C. albicans, was assessed by determining animal survival rate and fungal burden in the systemic circulation and vital organs. Among various Cp-based vaccines investigated, the preparation containing liposomized Cp entrapped in plasma beads imparted superior protection in the immunized mice as compared to other antigens delivery systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arc-jet test and analysis of Orbiter TPS inter-tile heating in high pressure gradient flow. [Thermal Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, W. C.; Battley, H. H.; Hale, W. M.; Gallegos, J. J.; Kimbrough, B. S.

    1978-01-01

    During entry of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, the convective heating within inter-tile gaps of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) material produces elevated tile sidewall temperatures in regions of high surface pressure gradient. Arc-jet tests have been conducted recently to obtain a measure of the gap heating down the TPS tile sidewalls at test conditions representative of Orbiter flight environments. The object of this paper is to present the gap heating correlations that were developed from a thermal analysis for 3-D curved and flat TPS tile segments. Predictions of gap sidewall temperature were obtained within 30 F of test data on both Wing Glove and Double Wedge models. Derived heating ratios were obtained for a range of test conditions (pressure, pressure gradient, enthalpy, boundary layer thickness, gap width, surface temperature, etc.). The results of the study, which showed that heating ratios varied with the pressure gradient times the square root of the surface pressure, are being used to provide an assessment of gap filler requirements on Orbiter forward fuselage/chine and wing glove regions.

  4. The Pandolf load carriage equation is a poor predictor of metabolic rate while wearing explosive ordnance disposal protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Aaron J E; Costello, Joseph T; Borg, David N; Stewart, Ian B

    2017-03-01

    This investigation aimed to quantify metabolic rate when wearing an explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) ensemble (~33kg) during standing and locomotion; and determine whether the Pandolf load carriage equation accurately predicts metabolic rate when wearing an EOD ensemble during standing and locomotion. Ten males completed 8 trials with metabolic rate measured through indirect calorimetry. Walking in EOD at 2.5, 4.0 and 5.5km·h-1 was significantly (p ensemble by 49% (127W), 65% (213W) and 78% (345W), respectively. Mean bias (95% limits of agreement) between predicted and measured metabolism during standing, 2.5, 4 and 5.5km·h-1 were 47W (19 to 75W); -111W (-172 to -49W); -122W (-189 to -54W) and -158W (-245 to -72W), respectively. The Pandolf equation significantly underestimated measured metabolic rate during locomotion. These findings have practical implications for EOD technicians during training and operation and should be considered when developing maximum workload duration models and work-rest schedules. Practitioner Summary: Using a rigorous methodological design we quantified metabolic rate of wearing EOD clothing during locomotion. For the first time we demonstrated that metabolic rate when wearing this ensemble is greater than that predicted by the Pandolf equation. These original findings have significant implications for EOD training and operation.

  5. CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M - a high heat load cask for transport and storage of vitrified high level waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossnacke, A.; Klein, K.; Kuehne, B. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH/GNB, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Within the German return programme for vitrified high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing at COGEMA and BNFL up to now 39 casks loaded with 28 containers each were transported back to Germany and are stored in the Interim Storage Facility Gorleben (TBL-G) for up to 40 years. For transport and storage in all but one case the GNB casks CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG have been used. This cask type is designed to accommodate 20 or 28 HLW containers with a total thermal power of 45 kW maximum. In the near future, among the high level waste, which has to be returned to Germany, there will be an increasing number of containers of which the heat capacity and radioactive inventory will exceed the technical limits of the CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG. Therefore GNB has started the development of a new cask generation, named CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M, meeting these future requirements. The CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M is especially developed for the transport of vitrified residues from France and Great Britain to Germany. It complies with the international regulations for type B packages according to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). It is thus guaranteed that even in case of any accident the cask body and the lid system remain functional and the safe confinement of the radioactive contents remains intact during transport. The CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M fulfills not only the requirements for transport but also the acceptance criteria of interim storage: radiation shielding, heat dissipation, safe confinement under both normal and hypothetical accident conditions. Storage buildings such as the TBL-G simply support the safety functions of the cask. The challenge for the development results from higher requirements of the technical specification, particularly related to fuel which is reprocessed. As a consequence of the reprocessing of fuel with increased enrichment and burn up, higher heat capacity and sophisticated shielding measures have to be

  6. Numerical study of the connection lengths for various magnetic configurations in Wendelstein 7-X to optimize the heat load on the divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Priyanjana; Hoelbe, Hauke; Sunn Pedersen, Thomas [Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Fusion has the potential to play an important role as a future energy resource. It has the capacity to produce large-scale clean energy. The two main confinement concepts are the tokamak and the stellarator. The W7-X machine is based on stellarator principle and is using special form of coils to achieve steady-state plasma confinement. Divertors are used in tokamaks and stellarator to control the exhaust of waste gases and impurities from the machine. The divertor concept of W7-X is a so-called island divertor. The island chain isolates the confinement core from regions where the plasma-wall interaction takes place. The area of the divertor that receives the main part of the heat loads, the so-called wetted area, increases with the distance along the magnetic field from the outboard midplane to the divertor target. The connection length is relatively short in tokamaks with conventional divertors. In the stellarator island divertor, the connection length can be varied significantly, which should allow for optimization of the wetted area. We present here a numerical study of the achievable connection lengths in various W7-X configurations and discuss the possibilities for running dedicated experiments to understand the physics of what sets the wetted area.

  7. Protective role of free and quercetin-loaded nanoemulsion against damage induced by intracerebral haemorrhage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galho, A. R.; Cordeiro, M. F.; Ribeiro, S. A.; Marques, M. S.; Antunes, M. F. D.; Luz, D. C.; Hädrich, G.; Muccillo-Baisch, A. L.; Barros, D. M.; Lima, J. V.; Dora, C. L.; Horn, A. P.

    2016-04-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a worldwide public health problem. Experimental studies have shown that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ICH and could represent a target for its treatment. However, the blood-brain barrier is an obstacle to be overcome, as it hampers the administration of compounds to the central nervous system. In this study, we compared the effects of a quercetin-loaded nanoemulsion (QU-N) with the free form of the drug (QU-SP) in a collagenase-induced ICH rat model. Quercetin (QU) is a polyphenol that has an antioxidant effect in vitro, but due to its high lipophilicity, it has low bioavailability in vivo. In this study, animals submitted or not to ICH were treated with a single intraperitoneal QU dose (free or nanoemulsion) of 30 mg kg-1. Motor assessment was evaluated by the open field, foot fault and beam walking behavioural tests. 72 h after surgery the haematoma size was evaluated and biochemical measurements were performed. Animals treated with QU-N had a significant improvement in the beam walking and open field tests. Also, QU-N was able to reduce the size of the haematoma, preserving the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), increasing GSH content, and the total antioxidant capacity. QU-SP recovered locomotor activity and increased the GSH content and the total antioxidant capacity. Thus, it can be observed that QU presented antioxidant activity in both formulations, but the incorporation into nanoemulsions increased its antioxidant effect, which was reflected in the improvement of the motor skills and in the haematoma size decrement. These results suggest that the nanoemulsion containing QU developed in this study could be promising for future studies on treatments for ICH.

  8. Differences in Susceptibility to Heat Stress along the Chicken Intestine and the Protective Effects of Galacto-Oligosaccharides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Varasteh

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures negatively affect the human well-being as well as animal welfare and production. The gastrointestinal tract is predominantly responsive to heat stress. The currently available information about the multifaceted response to heat stress within different parts of the intestine is limited, especially in avian species. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the heat stress-induced sequence of events in the intestines of chickens. Furthermore, the gut health-promoting effect of dietary galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS was investigated in these heat stress-exposed chickens. Chickens were fed a control diet or diet supplemented with 1% or 2.5% GOS (6 days prior to and during a temperature challenge for 5 days (38-39°C, 8h per day. The parameters measured in different parts of the intestines included the genes (qPCR HSF1, HSF3, HSP70, HSP90, E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-5, ZO-1, occludin, TLR-2, TLR-4, IL-6, IL-8, HO-1, HIF-1α and their associated proteins HSP70, HSP90 and pan-cadherin (western blots. In addition, IL-6 and IL-8 plasma concentrations were measured by ELISA. In the jejunum, HSF3, HSP70, HSP90, E-cadherin, claudin-5, ZO-1, TLR-4, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and HSP70 protein expression were increased after heat stress exposure and a more pronounced increase in gene expression was observed in ileum after heat stress exposure, and in addition HSF1, claudin-1 and HIF-1α mRNA levels were upregulated. Furthermore, the IL-8 plasma levels were decreased in chickens exposed to heat stress. Interestingly, the heat stress-related effects in the jejunum were prevented in chickens fed a GOS diet, while dietary GOS did not alter these effects in ileum. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the differences in susceptibility to heat stress along the intestine, where the most obvious modification in gene expression is observed in ileum, while dietary GOS only prevent the heat stress-related changes in jejunum.

  9. Could the heat sink effect of blood flow inside large vessels protect the vessel wall from thermal damage during RF-assisted surgical resection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Suárez, Ana; Trujillo, Macarena; Burdío, Fernando; Andaluz, Anna; Berjano, Enrique

    2014-08-01

    To assess by means of computer simulations whether the heat sink effect inside a large vessel (portal vein) could protect the vessel wall from thermal damage close to an internally cooled electrode during radiofrequency (RF)-assisted resection. First,in vivo experiments were conducted to validate the computational model by comparing the experimental and computational thermal lesion shapes created around the vessels. Computer simulations were then carried out to study the effect of different factors such as device-tissue contact, vessel position, and vessel-device distance on temperature distributions and thermal lesion shapes near a large vessel, specifically the portal vein. The geometries of thermal lesions around the vessels in the in vivo experiments were in agreement with the computer results. The thermal lesion shape created around the portal vein was significantly modified by the heat sink effect in all the cases considered. Thermal damage to the portal vein wall was inversely related to the vessel-device distance. It was also more pronounced when the device-tissue contact surface was reduced or when the vessel was parallel to the device or perpendicular to its distal end (blade zone), the vessel wall being damaged at distances less than 4.25 mm. The computational findings suggest that the heat sink effect could protect the portal vein wall for distances equal to or greater than 5 mm, regardless of its position and distance with respect to the RF-based device.

  10. Oleuropein aglycone protects transgenic C. elegans strains expressing Aβ42 by reducing plaque load and motor deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Diomede

    Full Text Available The presence of amyloid aggregates of the 42 amino acid peptide of amyloid beta (Aβ42 in the brain is the characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Amyloid beta (Aβ deposition is also found in muscle fibers of individuals affected by inclusion body myositis (sIBM, a rare muscular degenerative disease affecting people over 50. Both conditions are presently lacking an effective therapeutic treatment. There is increasing evidence to suggest that natural polyphenols may prevent the formation of toxic amyloid aggregates; this applies also to oleuropein aglycone (OLE, the most abundant polyphenol in extra virgin olive oil, previously shown to hinder amylin and Aβ aggregation. Here we evaluated the ability of OLE to interfere with Aβ proteotoxicity in vivo by using the transgenic CL2006 and CL4176 strains of Caenorhabditis elegans, simplified models of AD and of sIBM, which express human Aβ in the cytoplasm of body wall muscle cells. OLE-fed CL2006 worms displayed reduced Aβ plaque deposition, less abundant toxic Aβ oligomers, remarkably decreased paralysis and increased lifespan with respect to untreated animals. A protective effect was also observed in CL4176 worms but only when OLE was administered before the induction of the Aβ transgene expression. These effects were specific, dose-related, and not mediated by the known polyphenolic anti-oxidant activity, suggesting that, in this model organism, OLE interferes with the Aβ aggregation skipping the appearance of toxic species, as already shown in vitro for Aβ42.

  11. The effect of air permeability of chemical protective clothing material on clothing vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Vuister, R.; Wammes, L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems associated with Chemical Warfare Protective Clothing (CW) is the additional heat load created by the garments. For CW-overgarments, research in the direction of reducing material thickness and thus heat and vapour resistance have not resulted in major improvements. The

  12. Soluble rhesus lymphocryptovirus gp350 protects against infection and reduces viral loads in animals that become infected with virus after challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashihara, Junji; Hoshino, Yo; Bowman, J Jason; Krogmann, Tammy; Burbelo, Peter D; Coffield, V McNeil; Kamrud, Kurt; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2011-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human lymphocryptovirus that is associated with several malignancies. Elevated EBV DNA in the blood is observed in transplant recipients prior to, and at the time of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease; thus, a vaccine that either prevents EBV infection or lowers the viral load might reduce certain EBV malignancies. Two major approaches have been suggested for an EBV vaccine- immunization with either EBV glycoprotein 350 (gp350) or EBV latency proteins (e.g. EBV nuclear antigens [EBNAs]). No comparative trials, however, have been performed. Rhesus lymphocryptovirus (LCV) encodes a homolog for each gene in EBV and infection of monkeys reproduces the clinical, immunologic, and virologic features of both acute and latent EBV infection. We vaccinated rhesus monkeys at 0, 4 and 12 weeks with (a) soluble rhesus LCV gp350, (b) virus-like replicon particles (VRPs) expressing rhesus LCV gp350, (c) VRPs expressing rhesus LCV gp350, EBNA-3A, and EBNA-3B, or (d) PBS. Animals vaccinated with soluble gp350 produced higher levels of antibody to the glycoprotein than those vaccinated with VRPs expressing gp350. Animals vaccinated with VRPs expressing EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B developed LCV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell immunity to these proteins, while VRPs expressing gp350 did not induce detectable T cell immunity to gp350. After challenge with rhesus LCV, animals vaccinated with soluble rhesus LCV gp350 had the best level of protection against infection based on seroconversion, viral DNA, and viral RNA in the blood after challenge. Surprisingly, animals vaccinated with gp350 that became infected had the lowest LCV DNA loads in the blood at 23 months after challenge. These studies indicate that gp350 is critical for both protection against infection with rhesus LCV and for reducing the viral load in animals that become infected after challenge. Our results suggest that additional trials with soluble EBV gp350 alone, or in combination with other EBV

  13. Soluble rhesus lymphocryptovirus gp350 protects against infection and reduces viral loads in animals that become infected with virus after challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Sashihara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a human lymphocryptovirus that is associated with several malignancies. Elevated EBV DNA in the blood is observed in transplant recipients prior to, and at the time of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease; thus, a vaccine that either prevents EBV infection or lowers the viral load might reduce certain EBV malignancies. Two major approaches have been suggested for an EBV vaccine- immunization with either EBV glycoprotein 350 (gp350 or EBV latency proteins (e.g. EBV nuclear antigens [EBNAs]. No comparative trials, however, have been performed. Rhesus lymphocryptovirus (LCV encodes a homolog for each gene in EBV and infection of monkeys reproduces the clinical, immunologic, and virologic features of both acute and latent EBV infection. We vaccinated rhesus monkeys at 0, 4 and 12 weeks with (a soluble rhesus LCV gp350, (b virus-like replicon particles (VRPs expressing rhesus LCV gp350, (c VRPs expressing rhesus LCV gp350, EBNA-3A, and EBNA-3B, or (d PBS. Animals vaccinated with soluble gp350 produced higher levels of antibody to the glycoprotein than those vaccinated with VRPs expressing gp350. Animals vaccinated with VRPs expressing EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B developed LCV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell immunity to these proteins, while VRPs expressing gp350 did not induce detectable T cell immunity to gp350. After challenge with rhesus LCV, animals vaccinated with soluble rhesus LCV gp350 had the best level of protection against infection based on seroconversion, viral DNA, and viral RNA in the blood after challenge. Surprisingly, animals vaccinated with gp350 that became infected had the lowest LCV DNA loads in the blood at 23 months after challenge. These studies indicate that gp350 is critical for both protection against infection with rhesus LCV and for reducing the viral load in animals that become infected after challenge. Our results suggest that additional trials with soluble EBV gp350 alone, or in combination with

  14. Evaluation of 3-hydroxybutyrate as an enzyme-protective agent against heating and oxidative damage and its potential role in stress response of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) accumulating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obruca, Stanislav; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Samek, Ota; Marova, Ivana

    2016-02-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a common carbon- and energy-storage compound simultaneously produced and degraded into its monomer 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) by numerous bacteria and Archae in a metabolic pathway called the PHB cycle. We investigated 3HB as a chemical chaperone capable of protecting model enzymes, namely lipase and lysozyme, from adverse effects of high temperature and oxidation. Heat-mediated denaturation of lipase in the presence or absence of 3HB was monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealing a significant protective effect of 3HB which increased as its concentration rose. Furthermore, when compared at the same molar concentration, 3HB showed a greater protective effect than the well-known chemical chaperones trehalose and hydroxyectoine. The higher protective effect of 3HB was also confirmed when employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and lysozyme as a model enzyme. Furthermore, 3HB was capable of protecting lipase not only against thermal-mediated denaturation but also against oxidative damage by Cu(2+) and H2O2; its protection was higher than that of trehalose and comparable to that of hydroxyectoine. Taking into account that the PHB-producing strain Cupriavidus necator H16 reveals a 16.5-fold higher intracellular concentration than the PHB non-producing mutant C. necator PHB(-4), it might be expected that the functional PHB cycle might be responsible for maintaining a higher intracellular level of 3HB which, aside from other positive aspects of functional PHB metabolism, enhances stress resistance of bacterial strains capable of simultaneous PHB synthesis and mobilization. In addition, 3HB can be used in various applications and formulations as an efficient enzyme-stabilizing and enzyme-protecting additive.

  15. Heat pipe cooling system with sensible heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1988-01-01

    A heat pipe cooling system which employs a sensible heat sink is discussed. With this type of system, incident aerodynamic heat is transported via a heat pipe from the stagnation region to the heat sink and absorbed by raising the temperature of the heat sink material. The use of a sensible heat sink can be advantageous for situations where the total mission heat load is limited, as it is during re-entry, and a suitable radiation sink is not available.

  16. Development of a novel method for the exploration of the thermal response of superfluid helium cooled superconducting cables to pulse heat loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, Tiemo; Koettig, T.; van Weelderen, R.; Bremer, J.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Management of transient heat deposition in superconducting magnets and its extraction from the aforementioned is becoming increasingly important to bring high energy particle accelerator performance to higher beam energies and intensities. Precise knowledge of transient heat deposition phenomena in

  17. The small heat shock protein p26 aids development of encysting Artemia embryos, prevents spontaneous diapause termination and protects against stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M King

    Full Text Available Artemia franciscana embryos enter diapause as encysted gastrulae, a physiological state of metabolic dormancy and enhanced stress resistance. The objective of this study was to use RNAi to investigate the function of p26, an abundant, diapause-specific small heat shock protein, in the development and behavior of encysted Artemia embryos (cysts. RNAi methodology was developed where injection of Artemia females with dsRNA specifically eliminated p26 from cysts. p26 mRNA and protein knock down were, respectively, confirmed by RT-PCR and immuno-probing of western blots. ArHsp21 and ArHsp22, diapause-related small heat shock proteins in Artemia cysts sharing a conserved α-crystallin domain with p26, were unaffected by injection of females with dsRNA for p26, demonstrating the specificity of protein knock down. Elimination of p26 delayed cyst release from females demonstrating that this molecular chaperone influences the development of diapause-destined embryos. Although development was slowed the metabolic activities of cysts either containing or lacking p26 were similar. p26 inhibited diapause termination after prolonged incubation of cysts in sea water perhaps by a direct effect on termination or indirectly because p26 is necessary for the preservation of diapause maintenance. Cyst diapause was however, terminated by desiccation and freezing, a procedure leading to high mortality within cyst populations lacking p26 and indicating the protein is required for stress tolerance. Cysts lacking p26 were also less resistant to heat shock. This is the first in vivo study to show that knock down of a small heat shock protein slows the development of diapause-destined embryos, suggesting a role for p26 in the developmental process. The same small heat shock protein prevents spontaneous termination of diapause and provides stress protection to encysted embryos.

  18. The small heat shock protein p26 aids development of encysting Artemia embryos, prevents spontaneous diapause termination and protects against stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Allison M; MacRae, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    Artemia franciscana embryos enter diapause as encysted gastrulae, a physiological state of metabolic dormancy and enhanced stress resistance. The objective of this study was to use RNAi to investigate the function of p26, an abundant, diapause-specific small heat shock protein, in the development and behavior of encysted Artemia embryos (cysts). RNAi methodology was developed where injection of Artemia females with dsRNA specifically eliminated p26 from cysts. p26 mRNA and protein knock down were, respectively, confirmed by RT-PCR and immuno-probing of western blots. ArHsp21 and ArHsp22, diapause-related small heat shock proteins in Artemia cysts sharing a conserved α-crystallin domain with p26, were unaffected by injection of females with dsRNA for p26, demonstrating the specificity of protein knock down. Elimination of p26 delayed cyst release from females demonstrating that this molecular chaperone influences the development of diapause-destined embryos. Although development was slowed the metabolic activities of cysts either containing or lacking p26 were similar. p26 inhibited diapause termination after prolonged incubation of cysts in sea water perhaps by a direct effect on termination or indirectly because p26 is necessary for the preservation of diapause maintenance. Cyst diapause was however, terminated by desiccation and freezing, a procedure leading to high mortality within cyst populations lacking p26 and indicating the protein is required for stress tolerance. Cysts lacking p26 were also less resistant to heat shock. This is the first in vivo study to show that knock down of a small heat shock protein slows the development of diapause-destined embryos, suggesting a role for p26 in the developmental process. The same small heat shock protein prevents spontaneous termination of diapause and provides stress protection to encysted embryos.

  19. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U.; Hellmann, R. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W.; Wortmann, K.; Bregas, J. [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und

  20. Evaluation and use of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Clean Watersheds Needs Survey data to quantify nutrient loads to surface water, 1978–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2017-12-07

    Changes in municipal and industrial point-source discharges over time have been an important factor affecting nutrient trends in many of the Nation’s streams and rivers. This report documents how three U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) national datasets—the Permit Compliance System, the Integrated Compliance Information System, and the Clean Watersheds Needs Survey—were evaluated for use in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment project to assess the causes of nutrient trends. This report also describes how a database of total nitrogen load and total phosphorous load was generated for select wastewater treatment facilities in the United States based on information reported in the EPA Clean Watersheds Needs Survey. Nutrient loads were calculated for the years 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, and 2012 based on average nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations for reported treatment levels and on annual reported flow values.The EPA Permit Compliance System (PCS) and Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS), which monitor point-source facility discharges, together are the Nation’s most spatially comprehensive dataset for nutrients released to surface waters. However, datasets for many individual facilities are incomplete, the PCS/ICIS historical data date back only to 1989, and historical data are available for only a limited number of facilities. Additionally, inconsistencies in facility reporting make it difficult to track or identify changes in nutrient discharges over time. Previous efforts made by the U.S. Geological Survey to “fill in” gaps in the PCS/ICIS data were based on statistical methods—missing data were filled in through the use of a statistical model based on the Standard Industrial Classification code, size, and flow class of the facility and on seasonal nutrient discharges of similar facilities. This approach was used to estimate point-source loads for a single

  1. High performance protection circuit for power electronics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudoran, Cristian D.; Dǎdârlat, Dorin N.; Toşa, Nicoleta; Mişan, Ioan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present a high performance protection circuit designed for the power electronics applications where the load currents can increase rapidly and exceed the maximum allowed values, like in the case of high frequency induction heating inverters or high frequency plasma generators. The protection circuit is based on a microcontroller and can be adapted for use on single-phase or three-phase power systems. Its versatility comes from the fact that the circuit can communicate with the protected system, having the role of a "sensor" or it can interrupt the power supply for protection, in this case functioning as an external, independent protection circuit.

  2. High performance protection circuit for power electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudoran, Cristian D., E-mail: cristian.tudoran@itim-cj.ro; Dădârlat, Dorin N.; Toşa, Nicoleta; Mişan, Ioan [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, PO 5 Box 700, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    In this paper we present a high performance protection circuit designed for the power electronics applications where the load currents can increase rapidly and exceed the maximum allowed values, like in the case of high frequency induction heating inverters or high frequency plasma generators. The protection circuit is based on a microcontroller and can be adapted for use on single-phase or three-phase power systems. Its versatility comes from the fact that the circuit can communicate with the protected system, having the role of a “sensor” or it can interrupt the power supply for protection, in this case functioning as an external, independent protection circuit.

  3. A near infra-red video system as a protective diagnostic for electron cyclotron resonance heating operation in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preynas, M; Laqua, H P; Marsen, S; Reintrog, A; Corre, Y; Moncada, V; Travere, J-M

    2015-11-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator is a large nuclear fusion device based at Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Greifswald in Germany. The main plasma heating system for steady state operation in W7-X is electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). During operation, part of plama facing components will be directly heated by the non-absorbed power of 1 MW rf beams of ECRH. In order to avoid damages of such components made of graphite tiles during the first operational phase, a near infra-red video system has been developed as a protective diagnostic for safe and secure ECRH operation. Both the mechanical design housing the camera and the optical system are very flexible and respect the requirements of steady state operation. The full system including data acquisition and control system has been successfully tested in the vacuum vessel, including on-line visualization and data storage of the four cameras equipping the ECRH equatorial launchers of W7-X.

  4. A near infra-red video system as a protective diagnostic for electron cyclotron resonance heating operation in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preynas, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Reintrog, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Corre, Y.; Moncada, V.; Travere, J.-M. [IRFM, CEA-Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-11-15

    The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator is a large nuclear fusion device based at Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Greifswald in Germany. The main plasma heating system for steady state operation in W7-X is electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). During operation, part of plama facing components will be directly heated by the non-absorbed power of 1 MW rf beams of ECRH. In order to avoid damages of such components made of graphite tiles during the first operational phase, a near infra-red video system has been developed as a protective diagnostic for safe and secure ECRH operation. Both the mechanical design housing the camera and the optical system are very flexible and respect the requirements of steady state operation. The full system including data acquisition and control system has been successfully tested in the vacuum vessel, including on-line visualization and data storage of the four cameras equipping the ECRH equatorial launchers of W7-X.

  5. Intranasal Delivery of Cationic PLGA Nano/Microparticles- Loaded FMDV DNA Vaccine Encoding IL-6 Elicited Protective Immunity against FMDV Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Pan, Li; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Yonglu; Zhang, Zhongwang; Lü, Jianliang; Zhou, Peng; Fang, Yuzhen; Jiang, Shoutian

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal vaccination has been demonstrated to be an effective means of eliciting protective immunity against aerosol infections of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and various approaches have been used to improve mucosal response to this pathogen. In this study, cationic PLGA (poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) nano/microparticles were used as an intranasal delivery vehicle as a means administering FMDV DNA vaccine encoding the FMDV capsid protein and the bovine IL-6 gene as a means of enhancing mucosal and systemic immune responses in animals. Three eukaryotic expression plasmids with or without bovine IL-6 gene (pc-P12A3C, pc-IL2AP12A3C and pc-P12AIL3C) were generated. The two latter plasmids were designed with the IL-6 gene located either before or between the P12A and 3C genes, respectively, as a means of determining if the location of the IL-6 gene affected capsid assembly and the subsequent immune response. Guinea pigs and rats were intranasally vaccinated with the respective chitosan-coated PLGA nano/microparticles-loaded FMDV DNA vaccine formulations. Animals immunized with pc-P12AIL3C (followed by animals vaccinated with pc-P12A3C and pc-IL2AP12A3C) developed the highest levels of antigen-specific serum IgG and IgA antibody responses and the highest levels of sIgA (secretory IgA) present in mucosal tissues. However, the highest levels of neutralizing antibodies were generated in pc-IL2AP12A3C-immunized animals (followed by pc-P12AIL3C- and then in pc-P12A3C-immunized animals). pc-IL2AP12A3C-immunized animals also developed stronger cell mediated immune responses (followed by pc-P12AIL3C- and pc-P12A3C-immunized animals) as evidenced by antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and expression levels of IFN-γ by both CD4+ and CD8+ splenic T cells. The percentage of animals protected against FMDV challenge following immunizations with pc-IL2AP12A3C, pc-P12AIL3C or pc-P12A3C were 3/5, 1/5 and 0/5, respectively. These data suggested that intranasal delivery of cationic

  6. The heat-shock response co-inducer arimoclomol protects against retinal degeneration in rhodopsin retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, D A; Aguila, M; McCulley, C H; Bevilacqua, D; Mendes, H F; Athanasiou, D; Novoselov, S S; Kanuga, N; Munro, P M; Coffey, P J; Kalmar, B; Greensmith, L; Cheetham, M E

    2014-05-22

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited diseases that cause blindness due to the progressive death of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. There are currently no effective treatments for RP. Inherited mutations in rhodopsin, the light-sensing protein of rod photoreceptor cells, are the most common cause of autosomal-dominant RP. The majority of mutations in rhodopsin, including the common P23H substitution, lead to protein misfolding, which is a feature in many neurodegenerative disorders. Previous studies have shown that upregulating molecular chaperone expression can delay disease progression in models of neurodegeneration. Here, we have explored the potential of the heat-shock protein co-inducer arimoclomol to ameliorate rhodopsin RP. In a cell model of P23H rod opsin RP, arimoclomol reduced P23H rod opsin aggregation and improved viability of mutant rhodopsin-expressing cells. In P23H rhodopsin transgenic rat models, pharmacological potentiation of the stress response with arimoclomol improved electroretinogram responses and prolonged photoreceptor survival, as assessed by measuring outer nuclear layer thickness in the retina. Furthermore, treated animal retinae showed improved photoreceptor outer segment structure and reduced rhodopsin aggregation compared with vehicle-treated controls. The heat-shock response (HSR) was activated in P23H retinae, and this was enhanced with arimoclomol treatment. Furthermore, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is induced in P23H transgenic rats, was also enhanced in the retinae of arimoclomol-treated animals, suggesting that arimoclomol can potentiate the UPR as well as the HSR. These data suggest that pharmacological enhancement of cellular stress responses may be a potential treatment for rhodopsin RP and that arimoclomol could benefit diseases where ER stress is a factor.

  7. Protective and Heat Retention Effects of Thermo-sensitive Basement Membrane Extract (Matrigel) in Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation in an Experimental Animal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Song; Yang, Wei; Gong, Wei; Jiang, An-Na; Yan, Kun; Chen, Min-Hua

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the protective effect of using thermo-sensitive basement membrane extract (Matrigel) for hydrodissection to minimize thermal injury to nearby structures and to evaluate its heat sink effect on the ablation zone in radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the liver. First, the viscosity profile and heat sink effect of Matrigel were assessed during RFA in vitro and ex vivo. Fresh pig liver tissue was used, and the temperature changes in Matrigel and in 5% dextrose in water (D5W) during RFA were recorded. Then, the size of the ablation zone in the peripheral liver after RFA was measured. Second, in an in vivo study, 45 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups of 15 rats each (Matrigel, D5W and control). In the experimental groups, artificial ascites with 10 ml of Matrigel or D5W were injected using ultrasound guidance prior to RFA. The frequency of thermal injury to the nearby organs was compared among the three groups, with assessments of several locations: near the diaphragm, the abdominal wall and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Finally, the biological degradation of Matrigel by ultrasound was evaluated over 60 days. First, Matrigel produced a greater heat retention (less heat sink) effect than D5W during ex vivo ablation (63 ± 9 vs. 26 ± 6 °C at 1 min on the surface of the liver, P structures was found in 14 of 15 cases (93.3%) in the control group, 8 of 15 cases (53.3%) in the D5W group, and 1 of 15 cases (6.7%) in the Matrigel group. Significant differences in the thermal injury rates for nearby structures were detected among the three groups (P structures, especially in locations close to the GI tract, compared to conventional D5W. Additionally, Matrigel did not increase the heat sink effect on the ablation zone during ablation and was degraded over time in vivo.

  8. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  9. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  10. Heat shock protein-27 protects human bronchial epithelial cells against oxidative stress–mediated apoptosis: possible implication in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merendino, Anna M.; Paul, Catherine; Vignola, Antonio M.; Costa, Maria A.; Melis, Mario; Chiappara, Giuseppina; Izzo, V.; Bousquet, J.; Arrigo, André-Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Inflammation of the human bronchial epithelium, as observed in asthmatics, is characterized by the selective death of the columnar epithelial cells, which desquamate from the basal cells. Tissue repair initiates from basal cells that resist inflammation. Here, we have evaluated the extent of apoptosis as well as the Hsp27 level of expression in epithelial cells from bronchial biopsy samples taken from normal and asthmatic subjects. Hsp27 is a chaperone whose expression protects against oxidative stress. We report that in asthmatic subjects the basal epithelium cells express a high level of Hsp27 but no apoptotic morphology. In contrast, apoptotic columnar cells are devoid of Hsp27 expression. Moreover, we observed a decreased resistance to hydrogen peroxide–induced apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial 16–HBE cells when they were genetically modified to express reduced levels of Hsp27. PMID:12482203

  11. A novel method of utilization of hot dip galvanizing slag using the heat waste from itself for protection from radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mengge; Xue, Xiangxin; Kumar, Ashok; Yang, He; Sayyed, M I; Liu, Shan; Bu, Erjun

    2018-02-15

    A novel, unconventional, low cost, eco-friendly and effective shielding materials have been made utilizing the hot dip galvanizing slag using the heat waste from itself, thereby saving the natural resources and preventing the environmental pollution. SEM-EDS of shielding materials indicates that the other elements are distributed in Zn element. The mass attenuation properties of shielding materials were measured using a narrow beam geometrical setup at 0.662MeV, 1.17MeV and 1.33MeV. The half value thickness layer, effective atomic number, and electron density were used to analyze the shielding performance of the materials. The EBFs and EABFs for the prepared shielding materials were also studied with incident photon energy for penetration depths upto 40mfp. The shielding effectiveness has been compared with lead, iron, zinc, some standard shielding concretes, different glasses and some alloys. The shielding effectiveness of the prepared samples is almost found comparable to iron, zinc, selected alloys and glasses while better than some standard shielding concretes. In addition, it is also found that the bending strength of all shielding materials is more than 110MPa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. West Chester Work Center: solar space heating demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    This document reports on the construction stage of a solar space heating demonstration project. It describes an integrated system providing solar energy space heating for a 9982 sq. ft., newly built, one-story building. The building is located at 966 Matlack Street, West Goshen Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania. Functionally, the building consists of two sections: An Office and a Storeroom. The Office section is heated by solar-assisted water-to-air heat pump units. The Storeroom section is heated by an air-handling unit, containing a water-to-air coil. Solar energy is expected to provide 62% of the heating load, with the balance provided by a back-up electric boiler. The system includes 1900 active (2112 gross) square feet of flat-plate solar collectors, and a 6000 gallon above-ground indoor storage tank. Freeze protection is provided by a gravity drain-down scheme combined with nitrogen pressurization in a closed circuit.

  13. Host immunity in the protective response to nasal immunization with a pneumococcal antigen associated to live and heat-killed Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vintiñi Elisa O

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, available pneumococcal vaccines have failed to eradicate infections caused by S. pneumoniae. Search for effective vaccine continues and some serotype independent pneumococcal proteins are considered as candidates for the design of new vaccines, especially a mucosal vaccine, since pneumococci enter the body through mucosal surfaces. Selection of the appropriate adjuvant is important for mucosal vaccines, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB with immunostimulant properties are promissory candidates. In this work, we assessed the adjuvant effect of a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus casei (L. casei, when nasally administered with a pneumococcal antigen (pneumococcal protective protein A: PppA for the prevention of pneumococcal infection. Adjuvanticity of both live (LcV and heat-killed (LcM was evaluated and humoral and cellular antigen-specific immune response was assessed in mucosal and systemic compartments. The potential mechanisms induced by nasal immunization were discussed. Results Nasal immunization of young mice with PppA+LcV and PppA+LcM induced anti-PppA IgA and IgG antibodies in mucosal and systemic compartments and levels of these specific antibodies remained high even at day 45 after the 3rd Immunization (3rd I. These results were correlated with IL-4 induction by the mixture of antigen plus LcV and LcM. Also, PppA+Lc (V and M induced stimulation of Th1 and Th17 cells involved in the defence against pneumococci. The protection against pneumococcal respiratory challenge at day 30 after the 3rd I showed that PppA+LcV and PppA+LcM immunizations significantly reduced pathogen counts in nasal lavages while prventing their passage into lung and blood. Survival of mice immunized with the co-application of PppA plus LcV and LcM was significantly higher than in mice immunized with PppA alone and control mice when intraperitoneal challenge was performed. No significant differences between the treatments involving LcV and

  14. Ingestion of food pellets containing Escherichia coli overexpressing the heat-shock protein DnaK protects Penaeus vannamei (Boone) against Vibrio harveyi (Baumann) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnasamy, S; Noordin, N Mat; MacRae, T H; Bin Abdullah, M Ikhwanuddin; Bossier, P; Wahid, M E Bin Abdul; Noriaki, A; Sung, Y Y

    2016-05-01

    Feeding aquatic animals with bacterial encapsulated heat-shock proteins (Hsps) is potentially a new method to combat vibriosis, an important disease affecting aquatic animals used in aquaculture. Food pellets comprised of shrimp and containing Escherichia coli overexpressing either DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE, the prokaryotic equivalents of Hsp70-Hsp40-Hsp20, or only DnaK were fed to juveniles of the white leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei, and protection against pathogenic Vibrio harveyi was determined. Maintaining pellets at different temperatures for varying lengths of time reduced the number of live adhering E. coli, as did contact with sea water, demonstrating that storage and immersion adversely affected bacterial survival and attachment to pellets. Feeding P. vannamei with E. coli did not compromise their survival, indicating that the bacteria were not pathogenic to shrimp. Feeding P. vannamei with pellets containing bacteria overproducing DnaK (approximately 60 cells g(-1) pellets) boosted P. vannamei survival twofold against V. harveyi, suggesting that DnaK plays a role in Vibrio tolerance. Pellets containing DnaK were effective in providing protection to P. vannamei for up to 2 weeks before loss of viability and that DnaK encapsulated by these bacteria enhanced shrimp resistance against Vibrio infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Allicin protects spinal cord neurons from glutamate-induced oxidative stress through regulating the heat shock protein 70/inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Guang; Ren, Peng-Yu; Wang, Guo-Yu; Yao, Shu-Xin; He, Xi-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Allicin, the main biologically active compound derived from garlic, exerts a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities and is considered to have therapeutic potential in many neurological disorders. Using an in vitro spinal cord injury model induced by glutamate treatment, we sought to investigate the neuroprotective effects of allicin in primary cultured spinal cord neurons. We found that allicin treatment significantly attenuated glutamate-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, loss of cell viability and apoptotic neuronal death. This protection was associated with reduced oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, reduced lipid peroxidation and preservation of antioxidant enzyme activities. The results of western blot analysis showed that allicin decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), but had no effects on the expression of neuronal NOS (nNOS) following glutamate exposure. Moreover, allicin treatment significantly increased the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) at both mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of HSP70 by specific targeted small interfere RNA (siRNA) not only mitigated allicin-induced protective activity, but also partially nullified its effects on the regulation of iNOS. Collectively, these data demonstrate that allicin treatment may be an effective therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury, and that the potential underlying mechanism involves HSP70/iNOS pathway-mediated inhibition of oxidative stress.

  16. The application of vacuum heat and thermo-chemical treatment to improve strength of different heavily loaded machine parts and engineering instruments

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Smirnov; M. Yu. Semenov

    2014-01-01

    The paper was analyzes an application of vacuum equipment for heat and thermo-chemical treatment of aviation gear wheals, small bearings for aircraft equipment parts, and high strength stamps.The generalization of designed vacuum technologies of heat and thermo-chemical treatment results compared with traditional processes is accepted as objective of the paper.The practical use of vacuum processes (low pressure ones) has been first discussed in the specific context of the problem solution to ...

  17. Optimal usage of low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieper, Henrik; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study on the optimal usage of different low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps. The study is based on data for the Copenhagen region. The heat sources were prioritized based on the coefficient of performance calculated for each hour....... Groundwater, seawater and air heat sources were compared with each other as well as to a scenario consisting of a combination of these heat sources. In addition, base load and peak load units were included. Characteristic parameters were the coefficient of performance, the number of full load hours......% groundwater, 22% seawater and 0% air resulted in highest COP of 3.33 for the given heat demand. Furthermore, the implementation of rule based short term storage made peak units redundant. The variation in base load capacity showed that heat pumps utilizing the analyzed heat sources could perform very...

  18. Small heat-shock proteins, IbpAB, protect non-pathogenic Escherichia coli from killing by macrophage-derived reactive oxygen species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Goeser

    Full Text Available Many intracellular bacterial pathogens possess virulence factors that prevent detection and killing by macrophages. However, similar virulence factors in non-pathogenic bacteria are less well-characterized and may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease. We hypothesize that the small heat shock proteins IbpAB, which have previously been shown to reduce oxidative damage to proteins in vitro and be upregulated in luminal non-pathogenic Escherichia strain NC101 during experimental colitis in vivo, protect commensal E. coli from killing by macrophage-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS. Using real-time PCR, we measured ibpAB expression in commensal E. coli NC101 within wild-type (wt and ROS-deficient (gp91phox(-/- macrophages and in NC101 treated with the ROS generator paraquat. We also quantified survival of NC101 and isogenic mutants in wt and gp91phox(-/- macrophages using gentamicin protection assays. Similar assays were performed using a pathogenic E. coli strain O157:H7. We show that non-pathogenic E. coli NC101inside macrophages upregulate ibpAB within 2 hrs of phagocytosis in a ROS-dependent manner and that ibpAB protect E. coli from killing by macrophage-derived ROS. Moreover, we demonstrate that ROS-induced ibpAB expression is mediated by the small E. coli regulatory RNA, oxyS. IbpAB are not upregulated in pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and do not affect its survival within macrophages. Together, these findings indicate that ibpAB may be novel virulence factors for certain non-pathogenic E. coli strains.

  19. Induction of Protective Immunity to Cryptococcal Infection in Mice by a Heat-Killed, Chitosan-Deficient Strain of Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Upadhya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes fatal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals and is responsible for a large proportion of AIDS-related deaths. The fungal cell wall is an essential organelle which undergoes constant modification during various stages of growth and is critical for fungal pathogenesis. One critical component of the fungal cell wall is chitin, which in C. neoformans is predominantly deacetylated to chitosan. We previously reported that three chitin deacetylase (CDA genes have to be deleted to generate a chitosan-deficient C. neoformans strain. This cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain was avirulent in mice, as it was rapidly cleared from the lungs of infected mice. Here, we report that clearance of the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain was associated with sharply spiked concentrations of proinflammatory molecules that are known to be critical mediators of the orchestration of a protective Th1-type adaptive immune response. This was followed by the selective enrichment of the Th1-type T cell population in the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain-infected mouse lung. Importantly, this response resulted in the development of robust protective immunity to a subsequent lethal challenge with a virulent wild-type C. neoformans strain. Moreover, protective immunity was also induced in mice vaccinated with heat-killed cda1Δ2Δ3Δ cells and was effective in multiple mouse strains. The results presented here provide a strong framework to develop the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain as a potential vaccine candidate for C. neoformans infection.

  20. A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis secreting detoxified heat labile toxin enhances mucosal immunity and confers protection against wild-type challenge in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalsiamthara, Jonathan; Kamble, Nitin Machindra; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-06-04

    A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) capable of constitutively secreting detoxified double mutant Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (dmLT) was developed. The biologically adjuvanted strain was generated via transformation of a highly immunogenic SE JOL1087 with a plasmid encoding dmLT gene cassette; the resultant strain was designated JOL1641. A balanced-lethal host-vector system stably maintained the plasmid via auxotrophic host complementation with a plasmid encoded aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (asd) gene. Characterization by western blot assay revealed the dmLT subunit proteins in culture supernatants of JOL1641. For the investigation of adjuvanticity and protective efficacy, chickens were immunized via oral or intramuscular routes with PBS, JOL1087 and JOL1641. Birds immunized with JOL1641 showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in intestinal SIgA production at the 1(st) and 2(nd) weeks post-immunization via oral and intramuscular routes, respectively. Interestingly, while both strains showed significant splenic protection via intramuscular immunization, JOL1641 outperformed JOL1087 upon oral immunization. Oral immunization of birds with JOL1641 significantly reduced splenic bacterial counts. The reduction in bacterial counts may be correlated with an adjuvant effect of dmLT that increases SIgA secretion in the intestines of immunized birds. The inclusion of detoxified dmLT in the strain did not cause adverse reactions to birds, nor did it extend the period of bacterial fecal shedding. In conclusion, we report here that dmLT could be biologically incorporated in the secretion system of a live attenuated Salmonella-based vaccine, and that this construction is safe and could enhance mucosal immunity, and protect immunized birds against wild-type challenge.

  1. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  2. Ideal Heat Exchange System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    The requirements with which a heat exchange system should comply in order that at certain values of the total contact surface and heat load the entropy production in it should be minimal have been determined. It has been shown that this system can serve as a standard for real systems of irreversible heat exchange. We have found the conditions for physical realizability of a heat exchange system in which heat exchange occurs by a law linear with respect to the temperature difference between contacting flows. Analogous conditions are given without deriving for the case of heat exchange by the Fourier law.

  3. Temperature profiles of three types CNTs (SWCNT, MWCNT and MWCNT-COOH) loaded environmental matrices generated from a microwave induced heating quantification method

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Relationships of temperature and CNT mass (SWCNT, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH) were developed for three environmental matrices (sand, soil and sludge) spiked with known...

  4. Immediate placement and functional loading of implants on canine with fixed partial denture for a patient having canine protected occlusion: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jun-Won; Ahn, Seung-Geun; Leem, Dae-Ho; Seo, Jae-Min

    2012-01-01

    Conventional implant protocols required a load-free healing period of three to six months between placement and functional loading of the implants. Many efforts have been made to minimize the duration of treatment time. Several literatures have documented immediate function with provisional or definitive prosthesis within a week of the placement in response to these demands. In addition, immediate implant placement has advantages such as shortened treatment time and preservation of soft tissu...

  5. Numerical analysis of influence of heat load on temperature of battery surface with cooling by a two-phase closed thermosyphon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoshlykov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of thermal conditions of a two-phase closed thermosyphon using the software package ANSYS FLUENT has been carried out. Time dependence of temperature of heat source surface, which characterize the efficiency of thermosyphon at critical temperatures of batteries have been obtained.

  6. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  7. A Rhodiola rosea root extract protects skeletal muscle cells against chemically induced oxidative stress by modulating heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Santana, Aaron; Pérez-López, Verónica; Zubeldia, Jose María; Jiménez-del-Rio, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Rhodiola rosea is a perennial plant in the Crassulaceae family, recently postulated to exert its adaptogenic functions partially by modulating the expression of molecular factors such as heat shock proteins (HSP). The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of a Rhodiola rosea extract (Rhodiolife) in protecting murine skeletal muscle cells (C2 C12 myotubes) from chemically induced oxidative stress and to establish whether modulation of HSP70 expression is observed. C2 C12 cells treated with Rhodiolife did not experience any loss of viability (p > 0.05) at concentrations of 1-100 µg/mL for up to 24 h. In control cultures, viability decreased 25% following exposure to 2 mM H2 O2 (1 h). However, no significant decrease in viability in cells pre-treated with extract at concentrations as low as 1 µg/mL was observed. HSP70 mRNA levels were up-regulated two-fold in cell cultures treated with Rhodiolife (10 µg/mL), and expression was further enhanced by exposure to H2 O2 (six-fold, p < 0.05). HSP70 protein levels were maintained in pre-treated cell cultures compared to controls but was significantly lower (-50%) in cells lacking treatment exposed to H2 O2 . The present results indicate that Rhodiolife protects C2 C12 myotubes against peroxide-induced oxidative stress through the modulation of the molecular chaperone HSP70. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Lodging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2011-09-01

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are the loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. This report reviews methods to reduce MELs in lodging.

  9. The endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperone heat shock protein 47 protects the Golgi apparatus from the effects of O-glycosylation inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Shingo; Mizuno, Tatsunori; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Katayama, Taiichi; Tohyama, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is important for the transport of secretory cargo. Glycosylation is a major post-translational event. Recognition of O-glycans on proteins is necessary for glycoprotein trafficking. In this study, specific inhibition of O-glycosylation (Golgi stress) induced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident heat shock protein (HSP) 47 in NIH3T3 cells, although cell death was not induced by Golgi stress alone. When HSP47 expression was downregulated by siRNA, inhibition of O-glycosylation caused cell death. Three days after the induction of Golgi stress, the Golgi apparatus was disassembled, many vacuoles appeared near the Golgi apparatus and extended into the cytoplasm, the nuclei had split, and cell death assay-positive cells appeared. Six hours after the induction of Golgi stress, HSP47-knockdown cells exhibited increased cleavage of Golgi-resident caspase-2. Furthermore, activation of mitochondrial caspase-9 and ER-resident unfolded protein response (UPR)-related molecules and efflux of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm was observed in HSP47-knockdown cells 24 h after the induction of Golgi stress. These findings indicate that (i) the ER-resident chaperon HSP47 protected cells from Golgi stress, and (ii) Golgi stress-induced cell death caused by the inhibition of HSP47 expression resulted from caspase-2 activation in the Golgi apparatus, extending to the ER and mitochondria.

  10. The application of vacuum heat and thermo-chemical treatment to improve strength of different heavily loaded machine parts and engineering instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Smirnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper was analyzes an application of vacuum equipment for heat and thermo-chemical treatment of aviation gear wheals, small bearings for aircraft equipment parts, and high strength stamps.The generalization of designed vacuum technologies of heat and thermo-chemical treatment results compared with traditional processes is accepted as objective of the paper.The practical use of vacuum processes (low pressure ones has been first discussed in the specific context of the problem solution to design hardening technologies for critical parts from complex alloyed steels with exclusive operational properties. To solve this problem by traditional methods is impossible.The research techniques included the complex combination of experimental studies conducted using an industrial universal vacuum furnace of SECO/WARWICK S.A. company (Poland, and of metallographic exams and mechanic tests as well as of numerical simulations accomplished by original vacuum carburizing (nitrocarburizing models.The study objects were as follows:a steels containing chromium, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten and vanadium, which were used for gear wheals. In particular, a precipitation-hardening steel 13Kh3N3M2VFB was for the first time applied at carburized (nitrocarburized condition;b Steel 8Kh4V9F2, which was used for bearing rings;c Steel Kh12MF, which was used for stamps.The following operation properties are critical for gears: high contact fatigue endurance on the pitch circle; high bending fatigue endurance on the gears tooth-root; wear resistance on entire surface. Designing the technological operating conditions is complicated due to need to combine high values of all these properties, which stipulate the little-compatible requirements for physical and phase composition of the diffusion layers. Due to the advantages of thermo-chemical vacuum processes in oxygen-free atmosphere, namely technological flexibility and high reproducibility, the aperiodic cycles of

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPLEX-ALLOYED STEEL OF INCREASED HARDENABILITY, VISCOSITY AND HEAT-RESISTANCE FOR CUTTING PARTS OF HIGH-SPEED INSTRUMENT, OPERATING IN CONDITIONS OF HEATING UP AND DYNAMIC LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical aspects of development of the complex-alloyed steel compounds for cutting parts of high-speed instrument, particularly influence of alloying elements on its structure and characteristics are considered. It is shown that combined alloying of steel by carbon, chrome, silicon, manganese, vanadium and molybdenum in a certain proportion allows to reach the intended aim, achieving at the same time increase of solidity, impact elasticity and heat stability.

  12. Protecting Workers from Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needed. For more information: Occupational Safety and Health Administration www.osha.gov (800) 321-OSHA (6742) OSHA 3154 -06R 2017 Q C U A I R C D K TM • Modify work schedules and arrange frequent rest periods with water ...

  13. Study of heat exposure during Hajj (pilgrimage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noweir, Madbuli H; Bafail, Abdullah O; Jomoah, Ibrahim M

    2008-12-01

    Heat stress presents a main problem to Muslim Hajeej (pilgrims) during Hajj (pilgrimage) season, particularly in summer. Records of the Saudi Ministry of Health show close relation between heat casualties and climatic heat load through consequent Hajj seasons. The present study was conducted to evaluate the climatic heat load in Hajj locations during summer of 1995 as well as just before and during the Hajj season of 1997. Heat measurements including: T (a), T (w), T (g), WBGT, relative humidity and air velocity were conducted through July-September 1995, and on March/April 1997, in 10 Hajj locations at morning, noon, afternoon and night. The highest WBGTs were at Haram court, Ghazzah area and Muna housing area, followed by Arafat areas and Muzdalefah, and the lowest at Azizia area. However, all the WBGTs were considerably higher than the ACGIH-TLV for safe heat exposure, particularly during daytime; meanwhile, heat exposure considerably exceeded the ASHRAE comfort zone at all locations all times. The natural climatic condition is a major contributing factor to the overall heat load; moreover, potentiated by heat dissipated from Hajj activities, including Hajeej crowds, human activities, and the vehicles' masses exhaust. This situation is further synergized by some pilgrims' misbehavior (e.g. living in open sunny areas, using vehicles without roofs) and lack of awareness of the seriousness of heat exposure among them. An outline for a control strategy has been suggested based on planting open areas of Arafat and Muna, provision of air conditioned housing and tents in Muna, segregation of pedestrians from vehicles and their provision of shaded roads and rest areas, establishing more water spatters in Arafat and Muna, checking the performance of large vehicles before issuing their permits for operation during Hajj, providing vehicles parking isolated areas away from Hajeej tents, provision of ample amounts of quality drinking water in all Hajj locations, provision of

  14. Preliminary design of the summer thermic protection; Zur Vorbemessung des sommerlichen Waermeschutzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trogisch, A. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Dresden (Germany). Lehrgebiet Technische Gebaeudeausruestung

    1999-08-01

    A preliminary design of the summer heat load protection can be made according to DIN 4108 [1], according to [2] and on the basis of the work by Petzold, among other things the heat storage in the building (WBV) under summer conditions, can be shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine Vorbemessung des sommerlichen Waermeschutzes kann nach DIN 4108 [1] und nach [2] auf der Grundlage der Arbeiten von Petzold u.a. zum Waermebeharrungsvermoegen (WBV) unter sommerlichen Bedingungen vorgenommen werden. (orig.)

  15. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. (Zuojin Pill against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang QS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qiang-Song Wang,1,2,* Xiao-Ning Zhu,1,* Heng-Li Jiang,1,* Gui-Fang Wang,3 Yuan-Lu Cui1 1Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, 3Pharmacy Department, Baokang Hospital, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Zuojin Pill (ZJP, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the

  16. Pump Assisted Heat Pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Yoshiro; OSHIMA, Shigeto

    1987-01-01

    A labortory model of a pump assisted heat pipe has been fablicated and tested. An arterial heat pipe with axial grooves and a gear pump with a magnetic coupling have been developed for the model. The test has been carried out successfully. The reasonable thermal conductance has been obtained so far as the necessary working fluid flow rate is supplied. The necessary flow rate exceeds the theoretical one and the excess flow rate increases as the heat load increases.

  17. Comparison of the impact of six heat-load management strategies on thermal responses and milk production of feed-pad and pasture fed dairy cows in a subtropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, T. M.; Jonsson, N. N.; Mayer, D. G.; Gaughan, J. B.; Ehrlich, W. K.; McGowan, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to hot environments affects milk yield (MY) and milk composition of pasture and feed-pad fed dairy cows in subtropical regions. This study was undertaken during summer to compare MY and physiology of cows exposed to six heat-load management treatments. Seventy-eight Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked by season of calving, parity, milk yield, BW, and milk protein (%) and milk fat (%) measured in 2 weeks prior to the start of the study. Within blocks, cows were randomly allocated to one of the following treatments: open-sided iron roofed day pen adjacent to dairy (CID) + sprinklers (SP); CID only; non-shaded pen adjacent to dairy + SP (NSD + SP); open-sided shade cloth roofed day pen adjacent to dairy (SCD); NSD + sprinkler (sprinkler on for 45 min at 1100 h if mean respiration rate >80 breaths per minute (NSD + WSP) ); open-sided shade cloth roofed structure over feed bunk in paddock + 1 km walk to and from the dairy (SCP + WLK). Sprinklers for CID + SP and NSD + SP cycled 2 min on, 12 min off when ambient temperature >26°C. The highest milk yields were in the CID + SP and CID treatments (23.9 L cow-1 day-1), intermediate for NSD + SP, SCD and SCP + WLK (22.4 L cow-1 day-1), and lowest for NSD + WSP (21.3 L cow-1 day-1) ( P cows in CID + SP showed no decline in MY out to a THI break point value of 83.2, whereas the pooled MY of the other treatments declined when THI >80.7. A combination of iron roof shade plus water sprinkling throughout the day provided the most effective control of heat load.

  18. Potentials of district heating grids for climate protection up to the year 2020; Potenziale von Nah- und Fernwaermenetzen fuer den Klimaschutz bis zum Jahr 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischedick, Manfred; Schuewer, Dietmar; Venjakob, Johannes; Merten, Frank; Mitze, Dirk [Wuppertal Inst. fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH (Germany); Nast, Michael; Schillings, Christoph; Krewitt, Wolfram [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Bohnenschaefer, Werner; Lindner, Klaus [Institut fuer Energetik und Umwelt, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    District heat is one of Germany's traditional end use energy sources, with a connected capacity of about 57,000 MWth. The heat is distributed via 1,400 grids with a total length of about 19,000 km. The number of households supplied with district heat increased from 9.7 percent in 1993 to 13.7 percent in 2003. About 550 out of about 1,000 German utilities provide district heat to households. During the past few years, the connected capacity of district heating has been stagnating. This is the result of thermal insulation measures, dismantling and abandonment of supply grids, but also of changes on the demand side that can still be compensated by concentration and expansion potentials.

  19. Protective CD8+ T-cell responses to cytomegalovirus driven by rAAV/GFP/IE1 loading of dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalle-Donne Isabella

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies demonstrate that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-based antigen loading of dendritic cells (DCs generates in vitro, significant and rapid cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL responses against viral antigens. Methods We used the rAAV system to induce specific CTLs against CVM antigens for the development of cytomegalovirus HCMV gene therapy. As an extension of the versatility of the rAAV system, we incorporated immediate-early 1 (IE1, expressed in HCMV. Our rAAV vector induced a strong stimulation of CTLs directed against the HCMV antigen IE1. We then investigated the efficiency of the CTLs in killing IE1 targeted cells. Results A significant MHC Class I-restricted, anti-IE1-specific CTL killing was demonstrated against IE1 positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC after one, in vitro, stimulation. Conclusion In summary, single PBMC stimulation with rAAV/IE1 pulsed DCs induces strong antigen specific-CTL generation. CTLs were capable to lyse low doses of peptides pulsed into target cells. These data suggest that AAV-based antigen loading of DCs is highly effective for generating human CTL responses against HCMV antigens.

  20. Human α1-antitrypin binds to heat-shock protein gp96 and protects from endogenous gp96-mediated injury in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Chaim Lewis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular form of the abundant heat shock protein, gp96, is involved in human autoimmune pathologies. In patients with type 1 diabetes, circulating gp96 is found to be elevated, and is bound to the acute-phase protein, α1-antitrypsin (AAT. The two molecules also engage intracellularly during the physiological folding of AAT. AAT therapy promotes pancreatic islet survival in both transplantation and autoimmune diabetes models, and several clinical trials are currently examining AAT therapy for individuals with type 1 diabetes. However, its mechanism of action is yet unknown. Here, we examine whether the protective activity of AAT is related to binding of extracellular gp96. Primary mouse islets, macrophages and dendritic cells were added recombinant gp96 in the presence of clinical-grade human AAT (hAAT, GlassiaTM, Kamada Ltd, Israel. Islet function was evaluated by insulin release. The effect of hAAT on IL-1β/IFNγ-induced gp96 cell surface levels was also evaluated. In vivo, skin transplants were performed for examination of robust immune responses, and systemic inflammation was induced by cecal puncture. Endogenous gp96 was inhibited by gp96-inhibitory peptide (gp96i, Compugen Ltd., Israel in an allogeneic islet transplantation model. Our findings indicate that hAAT binds to gp96 and diminishes gp96-induced inflammatory responses; e.g., hAAT-treated gp96-stimulated islets released less pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β by 6.16-fold and TNFα by 2.69-fold and regained gp96-disrupted insulin release. hAAT reduced cell activation during both skin transplantation and systemic inflammation, as well as lowered inducible surface levels of gp96 on immune cells. Finally, inhibition of gp96 significantly improved immediate islet graft function. These results suggest that hAAT is a regulator of gp96-mediated inflammatory responses, an increasingly appreciated endogenous damage response with relevance to human pathologies that are exacerbated

  1. West Chester Work Center Solar Space Heating Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    An integrated system is described providing solar energy space heating for a 9982 sq ft, newly built, one-story building. Functionally, the building consists of two sections: an office and a storeroom. The office section is heated by solar-assisted water-to-air heat pump units. The storeroom section is heated by an air-handling unit, containing a water-to-air coil. The system design was based on solar energy providing 62% of the heating load, with the balance to be supplied by heat pump power and a back-up electric boiler. The system includes 1900 active (2112 gross) square feet of flat-plate solar collectors, and a 6000 gallon above-ground indoor storage tank. Freeze protection is provided by a gravity drain-down scheme combined with nitrogen pressurization in a closed circuit.

  2. Vaccination with heat-killed leishmania antigen or recombinant leishmanial protein and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induces long-term memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and protection against leishmania major infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Elizabeth G; Mendez, Susana; Shah, Javeed A; Wu, Chang-you; Kirman, Joanna R; Turon, Tara N; Davey, Dylan F; Davis, Heather; Klinman, Dennis M; Coler, Rhea N; Sacks, David L; Seder, Robert A

    2002-06-17

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) have potent effects on innate and adaptive cellular immune responses. In this report, the ability of CpG ODN to confer long-term immunity and protection when used as a vaccine adjuvant with a clinical grade of leishmanial antigen, autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM), or a recombinant leishmanial protein was studied. In two different mouse models of L. major infection, vaccination with ALM plus CpG ODN was able to control infection and markedly reduce lesion development in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 (B6) mice, respectively, up to 12 wk after immunization. Moreover, B6 mice immunized with ALM plus CpG ODNs were still protected against infectious challenge even 6 mo after vaccination. In terms of immune correlates of protection, ALM plus CpG ODN-vaccinated mice displayed L. major-specific T helper cell 1 and CD8+ responses. In addition, complete protection was markedly abrogated in mice depleted of CD8+ T cells at the time of vaccination. Similarly, mice vaccinated with a recombinant leishmanial protein plus CpG ODN also had long-term protection that was dependent on CD8+ T cells in vivo. Together, these data demonstrate that CpG ODN, when used as a vaccine adjuvant with either a recombinant protein or heat-killed leishmanial antigen, can induce long-term protection against an intracellular infection in a CD8-dependent manner.

  3. Protective effect of a recombinant VHSV-G vaccine using poly(I:C) loaded nanoparticles as an adjuvant in zebrafish (Danio rerio) infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliauskis, Arturas; Arnemo, Marianne; Speth, Martin; Lagos, Leidy; Rishovd, Anne-Lise; Estepa, Amparo; Griffiths, Gareth; Gjøen, Tor

    2016-08-01

    There is a constant need to increase the efficiency of vaccines in the aquaculture industry. Although several nano-based vaccine formulations have been reported, to the best of our knowledge so far only one of them have been implemented in the industry. Here we report on chitosan-poly(I:C) nanoparticles (NPs) that could be used as a non-specific adjuvant in antiviral vaccines in aquaculture. We have characterized the physical parameters of the NPs, studied the in vivo and in vitro bio-distribution of fluorescent NPs and verified NP uptake by zebrafish leucocytes. We used the zebrafish model to test the protective efficiency of the recombinant glycoprotein G (rgpG) of VHSV compared to inactivated whole virus (iV) against VHSV using NPs as an adjuvant in both formulations. In parallel we tested free poly(I:C) and rgpG (pICrgpG), and free chitosan and rgpG (CSrgpG) vaccine formulations. While the iV group (with NP adjuvant) provided the highest overall survival, all vaccine formulations with poly(I:C) provided a significant protection against VHSV; possibly through an early induction of an anti-viral state. Our results suggest that chitosan-poly(I:C) NPs are a promising adjuvant candidate for future vaccine formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attenuation of the bacterial load in blood by pretreatment with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor protects rats from fatal outcome and brain damage during Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christian T; Lundgren, Jens D; Lund, Søren Peter

    2004-01-01

    A model of pneumococcal meningitis in young adult rats receiving antibiotics once the infection was established was developed. The intent was to mimic clinical and histopathological features of pneumococcal meningitis in humans. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate whether medical...... of meningitis result in reduced risks of death and brain damage. This beneficial effect is most likely achieved through improved control of the systemic disease....... to the infection compared to that for untreated rats (P = 0.039 by the log rank test). The improved outcome was associated with reduced signs of cerebral cortical damage (P = 0.008). Furthermore, the beneficial effects of G-CSF were associated with reduced bacterial loads in the cerebrospinal fluid (median, 1.1 x...... postinfection did not alter the clinical or histological outcome relative to that for non-G-CSF-treated rats. The magnitude of bacteremia and pretreatment with G-CSF were found to be prognostic factors for both outcome and brain damage. In summary, elevated neutrophil levels prior to the development...

  5. Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2016-02-16

    Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.

  6. Heat-pipes-based first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, V. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, PO Box 788, Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation); Khripunov, V. [Russian Research Center `Kurchatov Institute`, Nuclear Fusion Institute, Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Antipenkov, A. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, PO Box 788, Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation); Ulianov, A. [State Enterprise `Krasnaya Zvezda`, Electrolytny pr-d., 1a, Moscow 115230 (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    Feasibilities of heat pipes application for the heat transfer out of plasma facing components in test and power fusion reactors are discussed. Based on the space technology and practice the ``hot`` ITER first wall with liquid metal and water heat pipes are proposed in two options: heat-pipes and vapor-chamber options. Other high heat loading in-vessel elements such as divertor target and limiter can be provided by effective and reliable heat pipe cooling systems. (orig.).

  7. [Clothing and heat disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsumoto, Yayoi

    2012-06-01

    The influence of the clothing material properties(like water absorbency and rapid dryness, water vapor absorption, water vapor permeability and air permeability) and the design factor of the clothing(like opening condition and fitting of clothing), which contributed to prevent heat disorder, was outlined. WBGT(wet-bulb globe temperature) is used to show a guideline for environmental limitation of activities to prevent heat disorder. As the safety function is more important than thermal comfort for some sportswear and protective clothing with high cover area, clothing itself increases the risk of heat disorder. WBGT is corrected by CAF (clothing adjustment factor) in wearing such kind of protective clothing.

  8. Variable Heat Rejection Loop Heat Pipe radiator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal control systems are sized for the maximum heat load in the warmest continuous environment. This design process results in a larger radiator surface area than...

  9. Heat pipes for industrial waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrigan, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Development work on the high temperature ceramic recuperator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described and involved material investigations, fabrication methods development, compatibility tests, heat pipe operation, and the modeling of application conditions based on current industrial usage. Solid ceramic heat pipes, ceramic coated refractory pipes, and high-temperature oxide protected metallic pipes are investigated. Economic studies of the use of heat pipe based recuperators in industrial furnaces are conducted and payback periods determined as a function of material, fabrication, and installation cost.

  10. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  11. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  12. Economical noise- and heat insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    All noise protection and heat insulations measures are interlinked. While noise abatement and insulation is primarily a task of health protection, the economically optimised heat insulation is rather a problem for financial mathematics. Parameters, influencing the heat insulation are subject to changes which will affect the profitability of heat insulation measures in turn. Several options for reducing the noise level are described and some standard values for material cost are supplied. Depending on the kind of noise different abatement methods are suitable which require materials with specific properties. Measures for heat insulation are described which to a great extent are identical will noise abatement measures.

  13. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschliman, Dave [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Lubbehusen, Mike [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  14. Nuclear energy and process heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozier, K.S

    1999-10-01

    Nuclear energy generated in fission reactors is a versatile commodity that can, in principle, satisfy any and all of mankind's energy needs through direct or indirect means. In addition to its dominant current use for electricity generation and, to a lesser degree, marine propulsion, nuclear energy can and has been used for process heat applications, such as space heating, industrial process heating and seawater desalination. Moreover, a wide variety of reactor designs has been employed to this end in a range of countries. From this spectrum of experience, two design approaches emerge for nuclear process heating (NPH): extracting a portion of the thermal energy from a nuclear power plant (NPP) (i.e., creating a combined heat and power, or CHP, plant) and transporting it to the user, or deploying dedicated nuclear heating plants (NHPs) in generally closer proximity to the thermal load. While the former approach is the basis for much of the current NPH experience, considerable recent interest exists for the latter, typically involving small, innovative reactor plants with enhanced and passive safety features. The high emphasis on inherent nuclear safety characteristics in these reactor designs reflects the need to avoid any requirement for evacuation of the public in the event of an accident, and the desire for sustained operation and investment protection at minimum cost. Since roughly 67% of mankind's primary energy usage is not in the form of electricity, a vast potential market for NPH systems exists, particularly at the low-to-moderate end-use temperatures required for residential space heating and several industrial applications. Although only About 0.5% of global nuclear energy production is presently used for NPH applications, an expanded role in the 21st century seems inevitable, in part, as a measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. While the technical aspects of many NPH applications are considered to be well proven, a

  15. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  16. Simplified Methodology for Calculating Building Heating Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    buildings; the Department of Statistics, Statistical Consulting Service, for their assistance and advice on statistical analysis; Edward J. Hull of the... Thorndike , Robert M., Correlational Procedures for Research, New York: Gardner Press, Inc., 1978. U.S. Department of Defense, Air Force Manual 88-29

  17. Preliminary Development of a Multifunctional Hot Structure Heat Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sandra P.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Armand, Sasan C.; Perino, Scott V

    2014-01-01

    Development of a Multifunctional Hot Structure Heat Shield concept has initiated with the goal to provide advanced technology with significant benefits compared to the current state of the art heat shield technology. The concept is unique in integrating the function of the thermal protection system with the primary load carrying structural component. An advanced carbon-carbon material system has been evaluated for the load carrying structure, which will be utilized on the outer surface of the heat shield, and thus will operate as a hot structure exposed to the severe aerodynamic heating associated with planetary entry. Flexible, highly efficient blanket insulation has been sized for use underneath the hot structure to maintain desired internal temperatures. The approach was to develop a preliminary design to demonstrate feasibility of the concept. The preliminary results indicate that the concept has the potential to save both mass and volume with significantly less recession compared to traditional heat shield designs, and thus provide potential to enable new planetary missions.

  18. Study of heat dissipation process from heat sink using lensless Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun; Shakher, Chandra

    2015-02-20

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations about the heat dissipation process of plate fin heat sink using digital holographic interferometry. Visual inspection of reconstructed phase difference maps of the air field around the heat sink with and without electric power in the load resistor provides qualitative information about the variation of temperature and the heat dissipation process. Quantitative information about the temperature distribution is obtained from the relationship between the digitally reconstructed phase difference map of ambient air and heated air. Experimental results are presented for different current and voltage in the load resistor to investigate the heat dissipation process. The effect of fin spacing on the heat dissipation performance of the heat sink is also investigated in the case of natural heat convection. From experimental data, heat transfer parameters, such as local heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficients, are also calculated.

  19. Energy efficiency ground-source energy system, Environmental Protection Law, article 'Heat and cold storage, value for money'; Energierendement bodemenergiesysteem, Wet milieubeheer, artikel 'WKO, waar voor je geld'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambregts, E.G.M.; Teunissen, P.O.M.; Beukenhorst, E.

    2013-01-15

    Upscaling of ground-source energy systems can contribute to heat and cold storage systems and thus reduce CO2 emission for the Amsterdam municipality. Based on the results of the project 'Heat and cold storage; Value for money' a proposal was made to the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment to include a regulation 'energy efficiency heat and cold storage' in the Environmental Protection Law [Dutch] In het kader van de CO2 doelstelling van Amsterdam om 40% CO2 te reduceren in 2025 t.o.v. van 1990 wordt de verdere opschaling van de techniek bodemenergiesysteem gezien als een techniek die in belangrijke mate kan bijdragen aan de pijler 'transitie duurzame warmte en koude'. Op landelijk en gemeentelijk niveau werd gesignaleerd dat (open) bodemenergiesystemen in de exploitatiefase veelal onvoldoende functioneerden. In dit rapport wordt op basis van de resultaten van het project 'WKO, waar voor je geld' een voorstel aan het Ministerie van I en M gedaan om een voorschrift 'energierendement wko' op te nemen in het Activiteitenbesluit Wet milieubeheer.

  20. Intelligent urban heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyrelund, A.

    2011-05-15

    In smart cities District heating is a precondition for large scale and cost effective integration of CHP and renewable energy for heating in urban areas. In particular, district heating systems combined with CHP, heat pumps, electric boilers and large thermal storages is important for efficient integration of fluctuating wind energy. In order to develop an intelligent and cost effective urban heating system it is important to integrate and optimize the total urban heating energy system including building envelope, heating installations, district heating networks, heat storages and renewable energy sources. Two examples: 1) the variable long term production cost is a basic parameter for the optimal building envelope. 2) efficient low temperature heating installations increases the efficiency of the district heating distribution network and all the low temperature heat sources. Besides, in districts with a cooling load, it is important to include the district cooling in the optimized energy system, both for production and end-use. In EU countries, the Renewable energy directive encourage all local authorities to plan for urban heating and cooling in order to provide the buildings with renewable energy for heating hot tap water and cooling via this infrastructure, whenever it is cost effective compared to individual solutions. Ramboll has in association with Aalborg University prepared an updated study of Heat Plan Denmark in 2010. The study demonstrates how the Danish Heating sector has reduced the fossil fuel consumption to 40% from 1980 to 2010 and how the sector can be independent of fossil fuels before 2030 in a cost effective way. The study concludes that it is necessary to optimize investments both at the supply and the demand side. It is estimated that an optimal combination could be 25 % additional heat demand reduction, further reduction of the return temperature in the building installations, expansion of district heating from 50 to 65 %, local heating up

  1. Genetic Fusions of Heat-Labile Toxoid (LT) and Heat-Stable Toxin b (STb) of Porcine Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Elicit Protective Anti-LT and Anti-STb Antibodies ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiping; Francis, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-associated diarrhea causes a substantial economic loss to swine producers worldwide. The majority of ETEC strains causing porcine diarrhea, especially postweaning diarrhea (PWD), produce heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin b (STb). LT is commonly used in vaccine development, but STb has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity. As a virulence factor in porcine diarrhea, STb needs to be included as an antigen for development of broad-spectrum vaccines. In this study, we used an LT toxoid (LTR192G [hereafter, LT192]) derived from porcine ETEC to carry a mature STb peptide for LT192-STb fusions to enhance STb immunogenicity for potential vaccine application. Anti-LT and anti-STb antibodies were detected in immunized rabbits and pigs. In addition, when challenged with an STb-positive ETEC strain, all 10 suckling piglets borne by immunized gilts remained healthy, whereas 7 out 9 piglets borne by unimmunized gilts developed moderate diarrhea. This study indicates that the LT192-STb fusion enhanced anti-STb immunogenicity and suggests the LT192-STb fusion antigen can be used in future vaccine development against porcine ETEC diarrhea. PMID:20505006

  2. Knowledge-Based System to Support Plug Load Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical plug loads comprise an increasingly larger share of building energy consumption as improvements have been made to Heating, Ventilation, and Air...

  3. Heat pipe radiator. [for spacecraft waste heat rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdling, B.; Alario, J.

    1973-01-01

    A 15,000 watt spacecraft waste heat rejection system utilizing heat pipe radiator panels was investigated. Of the several concepts initially identified, a series system was selected for more in-depth analysis. As a demonstration of system feasibility, a nominal 500 watt radiator panel was designed, built and tested. The panel, which is a module of the 15,000 watt system, consists of a variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) header, and six isothermalizer heat pipes attached to a radiating fin. The thermal load to the VCHP is supplied by a Freon-21 liquid loop via an integral heat exchanger. Descriptions of the results of the system studies and details of the radiator design are included along with the test results for both the heat pipe components and the assembled radiator panel. These results support the feasibility of using heat pipes in a spacecraft waste heat rejection system.

  4. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  5. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NEW OSHA- ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  6. Fiscal 1993 investigational report on heat pump heat storage technology; 1993 nendo heat pump chikunetsu gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This project is for an investigation into the heat pump (HP) use heat storage technology, with the aim of clarifying the present status of HP heat storage technology, the utilization status, and the developmental trend of technology and of contributing to the spread of heat energy effective use using HP heat storage technology and to the promotion of the technical development. Accordingly, the evaluation of the following was made: sensible heat (SH), latent heat (LH), chemical heat storage technology (CH), and heat storage technology (HS). Investigations were made on the sensible heat use heat storage technology of water, brine, stone, soil, etc. in terms of SH; the phase change sensible heat use heat storage technology of ice, hydrate salt, paraffins, etc. in terms of LH; hydration, hydroxide, 2-propanol pyrolysis, adsorption of silica gel, zeolite and water, and heat storage technology using metal hydride, etc. in terms of CH. In terms of HS, the following were studied and evaluated from the study results of the heat storage system in which HP is applied to the sensible heat and latent heat type heat storage technology: contribution to the power load levelling and the reduction of heat source capacity, heat recovery and the use of unused energy, improvement of the system efficiency by combining HP and heat storage technology. 24 refs., 242 figs., 56 tabs.

  7. Accumulation of Pol Mutations Selected by HLA-B*52:01-C*12:02 Protective Haplotype-Restricted Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Causes Low Plasma Viral Load Due to Low Viral Fitness of Mutant Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Hayato; Koyanagi, Madoka; Chikata, Takayuki; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Kuse, Nozomi; Sakai, Keiko; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2017-02-15

    HLA-B*52:01-C*12:02, which is the most abundant haplotype in Japan, has a protective effect on disease progression in HIV-1-infected Japanese individuals, whereas HLA-B*57 and -B*27 protective alleles are very rare in Japan. A previous study on HLA-associated polymorphisms demonstrated that the number of HLA-B*52:01-associated mutations at four Pol positions was inversely correlated with plasma viral load (pVL) in HLA-B*52:01-negative individuals, suggesting that the transmission of HIV-1 with these mutations could modulate the pVL in the population. However, it remains unknown whether these mutations were selected by HLA-B*52:01-restricted CTLs and also reduced viral fitness. In this study, we identified two HLA-B*52:01-restricted and one HLA-C*12:02-restricted novel cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes in Pol. Analysis using CTLs specific for these three epitopes demonstrated that these CTLs failed to recognize mutant epitopes or more weakly recognized cells infected with mutant viruses than wild-type virus, supporting the idea that these mutations were selected by the HLA-B*52:01- or HLA-C*12:02-restricted T cells. We further showed that these mutations reduced viral fitness, although the effect of each mutation was weak. The present study demonstrated that the accumulation of these Pol mutations selected by HLA-B*52:01- or HLA-C*12:02-restricted CTLs impaired viral replication capacity and thus reduced the pVL. The fitness cost imposed by the mutations partially accounted for the effect of the HLA-B*52:01-C*12:02 haplotype on clinical outcome, together with the effect of HLA-B*52:01-restricted CTLs on viral replication, which had been previously demonstrated. Numerous population-based studies identified HLA-associated HIV-1 mutations to predict HIV-1 escape mutations from cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). However, the majority of these HLA-associated mutations have not been identified as CTL escape mutations. Our previous population-based study showed that five

  8. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  9. Displacements of Metallic Thermal Protection System Panels During Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Blosser, Max L.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2006-01-01

    Bowing of metallic thermal protection systems for reentry of a previously proposed single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was studied. The outer layer of current metallic thermal protection system concepts typically consists of a honeycomb panel made of a high temperature nickel alloy. During portions of reentry when the thermal protection system is exposed to rapidly varying heating rates, a significant temperature gradient develops across the honeycomb panel thickness, resulting in bowing of the honeycomb panel. The deformations of the honeycomb panel increase the roughness of the outer mold line of the vehicle, which could possibly result in premature boundary layer transition, resulting in significantly higher downstream heating rates. The aerothermal loads and parameters for three locations on the centerline of the windward side of this vehicle were calculated using an engineering code. The transient temperature distributions through a metallic thermal protection system were obtained using 1-D finite volume thermal analysis, and the resulting displacements of the thermal protection system were calculated. The maximum deflection of the thermal protection system throughout the reentry trajectory was 6.4 mm. The maximum ratio of deflection to boundary layer thickness was 0.032. Based on previously developed distributed roughness correlations, it was concluded that these defections will not result in tripping the hypersonic boundary layer.

  10. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Matuska; Borivoj Sourek

    2017-01-01

    Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized loa...

  11. Study of heat flux deposition in the Tore Supra Tokamak; Etude des depots de chaleur dans le tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, S.

    2009-02-15

    Accurate measurements of heat loads on internal tokamak components is essential for protection of the device during steady state operation. The optimisation of experimental scenarios also requires an in depth understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the heat flux deposition on the walls. The objective of this study is a detailed characterisation of the heat flux to plasma facing components (PFC) of the Tore Supra tokamak. The power deposited onto Tore Supra PFCs is calculated using an inverse method, which is applied to both the temperature maps measured by infrared thermography and to the enthalpy signals from calorimetry. The derived experimental heat flux maps calculated on the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) are then compared with theoretical heat flux density distributions from a standard SOL-model. They are two experimental observations that are not consistent with the model: significant heat flux outside the theoretical wetted area, and heat load peaking close to the tangency point between the TPL and the last closed field surface (LCFS). An experimental analysis for several discharges with variable security factors q is made. In the area consistent with the theoretical predictions, this parametric study shows a clear dependence between the heat flux length lambda{sub q} (estimated in the SOL (scrape-off layer) from the IR measurements) and the magnetic configuration. We observe that the spreading of heat fluxes on the component is compensated by a reduction of the power decay length lambda{sub q} in the SOL when q decreases. On the other hand, in the area where the derived experimental heat loads are not consistent with the theoretical predictions, we observe that the spreading of heat fluxes outside the theoretical boundary increases when q decreases, and is thus not counterbalanced. (author)

  12. Damage Accumulation in Vertical Breakwaters due to Combined Impact Loading and Pulsating Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical wall breakwaters used to protect for example an harbour from large waves usually consist of large concrete caissons placed on the seabed. The wave loads can be divided in two types, pulsating and impact loads. For some types of breakwaters especially the impact wave loads can be very large...

  13. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  14. Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification for Steel Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariol Charles; Nicholas Deskevich; Vipin Varkey; Robert Voigt; Angela Wollenburg

    2004-04-29

    Heat treatment practices used by steel foundries have been carefully studied as part of comprehensive heat treatment procedure qualification development trials. These studies highlight the relationships between critical heat treatment process control parameters and heat treatment success. Foundry heat treatment trials to develop heat treatment procedure qualifications have shed light on the relationship between heat treatment theory and current practices. Furnace load time-temperature profiles in steel foundries exhibit significant differences depending on heat treatment equipment, furnace loading practice, and furnace maintenance. Time-temperature profiles of furnace control thermocouples can be very different from the time-temperature profiles observed at the center of casting loads in the furnace. Typical austenitization temperatures and holding times used by steel foundries far exceed what is required for transformation to austenite. Quenching and hardenability concepts were also investigated. Heat treatment procedure qualification (HTPQ) schema to demonstrate heat treatment success and to pre-qualify other alloys and section sizes requiring lesser hardenability have been developed. Tempering success is dependent on both tempering time and temperature. As such, furnace temperature uniformity and control of furnace loading during tempering is critical to obtain the desired mechanical properties. The ramp-up time in the furnace prior to the establishment of steady state heat treatment conditions contributes to the extent of heat treatment performed. This influence of ramp-up to temperature during tempering has been quantified.

  15. Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification for Steel Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Robert C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Charles, Mariol [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Deskevich, Nicholas [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Varkey, Vipin [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Wollenburg, Angela [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2004-10-15

    Heat treatment practices used by steel foundries have been carefully studied as part of comprehensive heat treatment procedure qualification development trials. These studies highlight the relationships between critical heat treatment process control parameters and heat treatment success. Foundry heat treatment trials to develop heat treatment procedure qualifications have shed light on the relationship between heat treatment theory and current practices. Furnace load time-temperature profiles in steel foundries exhibit significant differences depending on heat treatment equipment, furnace loading practice, and furnace maintenance. Time-temperature profiles of furnace control thermocouples can be very different from the time-temperature profiles observed at the center of casting loads in the furnace. Typical austenitization temperatures and holding times used by steel foundries far exceed what is required for transformation to austenite. Quenching and hardenability concepts were also investigated. Heat treatment procedure qualification (HTPQ) schema to demonstrate heat treatment success and to pre-qualify other alloys and section sizes requiring lesser hardenability have been developed. Tempering success is dependent on both tempering time and temperature. As such, furnace temperature uniformity and control of furnace loading during tempering is critical to obtain the desired mechanical properties. The ramp-up time in the furnace prior to the establishment of steady state heat treatment conditions contributes to the extent of heat treatment performed. This influence of ramp-up to temperature during tempering has been quantified.

  16. 29 CFR 1919.36 - Heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.36 Section 1919.36 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.36 Heat treatment. (a) The annealing of wrought iron gear required by this part shall be...

  17. Analyzing screen heat insulation and its effect on energy consumption while heating building envelopes in conditions of intermittent heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytchikov Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to screen heat insulation and its effect on energy consumption while heating building envelopes in conditions of intermittent heating. It also describes the non-stationary process of heat transfer through heat insulated outer walls. The authors introduce calculation results of specific energy consumption for heating insulated and non-insulted outer walls. The paper proves that energy consumption for heating insulated outer walls depends on the thickness of non-aerated air-space insulation The research shows positive effects of using thermal protection systems with screen thermal insulation in outer building envelopes in conditions of intermitten heating.

  18. Effects of the 2015 heat wave on benthic invertebrates in the Tabarca Marine Protected Area (southeast Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Portillo, Esther; Izquierdo-Muñoz, Andrés; Gago, Juan F; Rosselló-Mora, Ramon; Antón, Josefa; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso A

    2016-12-01

    In the late summer of 2015, extensive mortality of scleratinian corals, gorgonians, and sponges was observed in the Marine Protected Area of Tabarca (southeast Spain). Quantitative data indicated that at 25 m depth the sea fan Eunicella singularis was the most affected species (50% of colonies affected by partial mortality); while in shallow waters more than 40% of the endemic scleractinian coral Cladocora caespitosa population showed tissue lesions that affected more than 10% of their surfaces. Other affected species were the scleractinian corals Oculina patagonica and Phyllangia mouchezii, the sea fan Leptogorgia sarmentosa and the sponge Sarcotragus fasciculatus. This mortality event coincided with an abnormal rise in seawater temperature in this region. Microbiological analysis showed a higher abundance of culturable Vibrio species in invertebrates exhibiting tissue lesions, which indicated that these opportunistic pathogens could be a key factor in the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Solar thermal heating and cooling. A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenson, M.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliographic series cites and abstracts the literature and technical papers on the heating and cooling of buildings with solar thermal energy. Over 650 citations are arranged in the following categories: space heating and cooling systems; space heating and cooling models; building energy conservation; architectural considerations, thermal load computations; thermal load measurements, domestic hot water, solar and atmospheric radiation, swimming pools; and economics.

  20. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  1. Protection of sunflower seed and sunflower meal protein with malic acid and heat: effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Jorge Leonardo; Carro, Maria Dolores; Alvir, Maria Remedios; González, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Combined malic acid-heat treatments of protein supplements have been shown to reduce ruminal protein degradation, but there is no information on their possible influence on ruminal fermentation and methane emissions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the treatment of sunflower meal (SM) and sunflower seed (SS) with malic acid and subsequent drying at 150°C for 1 (MAL1) or 3 h (MAL3) on in vitro rumen fermentation and methane emission using ruminal fluid from sheep as inoculum. Compared with untreated samples, the MAL3 treatment reduced (P 0.05) total volatile fatty acid production for any feed. This treatment also increased (P methane production (by 15.5% and 11.3%, respectively) and ammonia-N concentrations (by 26.5% and 14.5%, respectively). The MAL1 treatment was effective in reducing both ammonia-N concentrations and methane emissions without depressing SS and SM fermentation, but more research is needed to formulate environmentally cleaner diets for ruminants. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Thermal loads identification technique for materials and structures in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alifenov, Oleg M.; Gejadze, Igor Yu.

    In experimental development of thermal protection materials and thermally stressed structures of flight vehicles the necessity arises to monitor the transient thermal loads and heat transfer parameters on the heated surfaces in real time. Usually, this is connected with control of heating intensity of the material specimens or structure samples during tests to simulate heat transfer rate time-dependencies predicted for a real flight, as well as temperature monitoring of the materials and structures in the most heated zones to avoid local overheating. The technique of aerothermo-dynamic parameter estimation is based on solving the corresponding inverse heat conduction problems (IHCPs) when the required parameters of external heat transfer are calculated from data of thermocouples imbedded in the thermal protection or structural materials. A new technique of high response has been developed that reconstructs transient heat fluxes at the surrace of structural members from solving an IHCP. An algorithm is suggested for solving a nonlinear IHCP based on the formation of an unknown heat flux as a sequence of point estimates obtained in the result of solving a nonlinear boundary-retrospective problem in the sliding local time interval, where the initial temperature distribution is also considered along with the boundary condition as an unknown function. The solution of nonlinear boundary-retrospective problem is reduced to a sequence of corresponding linear problems. The solution of a linear IHCP is recorded in the explicit form via a regularized operator of the inverse problem. A special rule for sampling of a regularization parameter value in case of short observation intervals and a rule for terminating the iterative process are suggested. The estimates of response time and accuracy for this technique as well as the fields of its practical application are given. The solution results of model problems solving and experimental data processing are presented.

  3. Integration of the heat and refrigeration sector into the electricity market model PowerFlex for the analysis of sector encompasing effects on the climate protection goals and EE integration. Scientific final report - actualized version; Einbindung des Waerme- und Kaeltesektors in das Strommarktmodell PowerFlex zur Analyse sektoruebergreifender Effekte auf Klimaschutzziele und EE-Integration. Wissenschaftlicher Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Matthias; Hesse, Tilman; Kenkmann, Tanja [Oeko-Institut e.V., Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg (Germany); and others

    2017-06-21

    The report covers the following issues: (i) Detailed description of the heat sector and its coupling to the electricity sector within the electricity market model PowerFlex: provate heat demand, derivation of heat load profiles, development of a technology and energy carrier mix, data inputs for the electricity market regulation. (ii) Creation of an empirically based data basis for the air conditioning of building, its coupling to the electricity system and derivation of recommendations: preparation of a representative empirical determination of the status quo and the factors that provoke private households to install air conditions, effective parameters for the development of energy demand for air conditioning of residential homes, preparation of a data input for the electricity market model - methodology and results. (iii) Preparation of generic renewable energy supply time series with different levels of fluctuation: Methodology of the renewable energy profile calculation, calculation of the supply profile for photovoltaics, calculation of the supply profile for onshore wind and offshore wind. (iv) Extension of the electricity market model PowerFlex to PowerFlex-heat and cold for the sector encompassing scenario analysis: extension of the module to cogeneration power plants, power-to-heat and power-to-gas for the detailed description of the heat sector, extension of the module for load management, scenarios and interpretation of the results.

  4. Heavy-Load Lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Oturai, Peter; Steele, Megan L

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite a paucity of evidence, prevention guidelines typically advise avoidance of heavy lifting in an effort to protect against breast cancer-related lymphedema. This study compared acute responses in arm swelling and related symptoms after low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among...... women at risk of lymphedema while receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy. METHODS: This is a randomized, cross-over equivalence trial. Women receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy for breast cancer who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection (n=21) participated in low- (60-65% 1...... repetition maximum (RM), two sets of 15-20 repetitions) and heavy-load (85-90% 1RM, three sets of 5-8 repetition) upper-extremity resistance exercise separated by a one-week wash-out period. Swelling was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, with breast cancer...

  5. FEM-DBEM approach to analyse crack scenarios in a baffle cooling pipe undergoing heat flux from the plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Citarella

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wendelstein 7-X is the world’s largest nuclear fusion experiment of stellarator type, in which a hydrogen plasma is confined by a magnet field generated with external superconducting coils, allowing the plasma to be heated up to the fusion temperature. The water-cooled Plasma Facing Components (PFC protect the Plasma Vessel (PV against radiative and convective heat from the plasma. After the assembly process of heat shields and baffles, several cracks were found in the braze and cooling pipes. Due to heat load cycles occurring during each Operational Phase (OP, thermal stresses are generated in the heat sinks, braze root and cooling pipes, capable to drive fatigue crack-growth and, possibly, a water leak through the pipe thickness. The aim of this study is to assess the most dangerous initial crack configurations in one of the most critical baffles by using numerical models based on a FEM-DBEM approach.

  6. Efficient loading of primary alcohols onto a solid phase using a trityl bromide linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold

    2008-01-01

    The Letter describes an improved, rapid and mild strategy for the loading of primary alcohols onto a polystyrene trityl resin via a highly reactive trityl bromide linker. This protocol facilitates an efficient resin loading even of acid-sensitive or heat-labile alcohols, which otherwise require...... expensive or non-commercial resin types. Secondary alcohols were only attached in moderate to low yields, while attempts to load a tertiary alcohol expectedly failed. Importantly, selective attachment of diols via a primary alcohol group in the presence of more hindered alcohol groups proved possible....... The effects of activation time and reagent excess as well as alcohol structure were investigated. This improved method provides a convenient access to O-linked resin-bound N-Fmoc-protected amino alcohols that may be employed in SPS of peptides with C-terminal alcohol functionalities. In the case...

  7. Trocador de calor e umidade: proteção contra infecções pulmonares? Estudo piloto Heat and moisture exchanger: protection against lung infections? Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alcoforado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um estudo bacteriológico comparativo entre os sistemas de umidificação aquoso aquecido (UAA e filtro trocador de calor e umidade (FTCU quanto à colonização bacteriana e a incidência de infecção respiratória em pacientes submetidos à ventilação mecânica (VM. Trata-se de uma pesquisa prospectiva, controlada e randomizada, na qual 15 pacientes internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI foram distribuídos em dois grupos. O primeiro fez uso de UAA (n=7 e o outro de FTCU (n=8. Foram coletadas amostras da secreção traqueal, condensado do circuito e FTCU na admissão do paciente, no quarto e oitavo dias, e realizada análise bacteriológica dos mesmos. Quanto às características antropométricas, não observou-se diferenças entre os grupos estudados. A prevalência de pneumonia associada à ventilação (PAV foi de 57,1% no UAA e 62,5% no FTCU. Ao realizar a análise bacteriológica quantitativa entre eles, não foram observadas variações, sugerindo não haver diferença na prevenção de PAV entre os sistemas de umidificação; porém a presença das mesmas bactérias na secreção traqueal e no condensado e ausência destas na membrana do FTCU podem indicar que a principal fonte de contaminação é o próprio paciente.The aim of this study was to conduct a bacteriological research comparing the aqueous heated humidification systems (HH and filter heat and moisture exchanger (FHME and to bacterial colonization and the incidence of respiratory infection in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. It is a prospective, controlled trial, in that 15 intensive care unit (ICU patients were divided into two groups. The first made use of HH (n=7 and the other, FHME (n=8. We collected samples of tracheal secretions, and condensate circuit FHME at admission in the fourth and eighth day and bacteriological analysis of the same place. Regarding the anthropometric characteristics, no differences

  8. Building physics: wood fiber plates - insulating materials as a heat storage system; Bauphysik: Holzfaserdaemmplatten - Daemmstoffe als Waermespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, G.

    2006-12-13

    A high heat storage cabability is very effectful due to summer heat behaviour. Advanced heat insulating materials with high heat capacities and raw densities enable the enhancement of heat storage without losses on thermal protection. (GL)

  9. Development of a silicone ablator for high-heat-flux and high-shear-rate condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. A.; Ramseyer, J. A.; Huntress, A.

    1972-01-01

    A silicone material was developed which gives suitable ablative protection in the high heat flux, high shear environments encountered in severe reentry applications, such as nose cones for ballistic vehicles and protection of leading edges or other critical areas of a vehicle. In addition, the ease of handling, low application cost, and room temperature cure make such a silicon material suitable nozzles for the large rockets necessary for vehicle launching. The development of this product is traced from the selection of suitable polymers through the choice of fillers and the finalization of filler loadings.

  10. Immunization with a Double-Mutant (R192G/L211A) of the Heat-Labile Enterotoxin of Escherichia coli Offers Partial Protection against Campylobacter jejuni in an Adult Mouse Intestinal Colonization Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, M John; Haridas, Shilpa; Ebenezer, Mathew; Raghupathy, Raj; Khan, Islam

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that antibodies to cholera toxin (CT) reacted with the major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs) from Campylobacter jejuni strains on Western blot. Further, oral immunization with CT significantly protected against challenge with C. jejuni in an adult mouse colonization model of infection. CT and the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are structurally and functionally related. LT and its mutants including the double-mutant LT (R192G/L211A) (dmLT), are powerful mucosal adjuvants. Unlike LT which is reactogenic, dmLT has been shown to be safe for human use. In the current study, we determined whether rabbit anti-dmLT antibodies reacted with MOMPs from C. jejuni strains and whether immunization with dmLT would afford protection against C. jejuni. On Western blot, the MOMPs from C. jejuni 48 (Penner serotype O:19), C. jejuni 75 (O:3) and C. jejuni 111 (O:1,44) were probed with rabbit antibodies to dmLT or LT-E112K (a non-toxic LT mutant), which showed a lack of reaction. Adult BALB/c mice were orally immunized with dmLT and orally challenged with C. jejuni 48 or 111. Protection from colonization with the challenge bacteria was studied by enumerating Campylobacter colonies in feces daily for 9 days. Vaccination produced robust serum and stool antibody responses to dmLT and no antibody responses to C. jejuni MOMP. Vaccinated mice showed reduced colonization and excretion of both challenge strains compared to control mice. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The protective efficacy of the dmLT vaccine varied from 9.1% to 54.5%. The lack of cross-reaction between the MOMP and dmLT suggests that protection is not mediated by cross-reacting antibodies, but may be due to activation of innate immunity. As dmLT is safe for humans, it could be incorporated into a C. jejuni vaccine to enhance its efficacy.

  11. Immunization with a Double-Mutant (R192G/L211A of the Heat-Labile Enterotoxin of Escherichia coli Offers Partial Protection against Campylobacter jejuni in an Adult Mouse Intestinal Colonization Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M John Albert

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that antibodies to cholera toxin (CT reacted with the major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs from Campylobacter jejuni strains on Western blot. Further, oral immunization with CT significantly protected against challenge with C. jejuni in an adult mouse colonization model of infection. CT and the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are structurally and functionally related. LT and its mutants including the double-mutant LT (R192G/L211A (dmLT, are powerful mucosal adjuvants. Unlike LT which is reactogenic, dmLT has been shown to be safe for human use. In the current study, we determined whether rabbit anti-dmLT antibodies reacted with MOMPs from C. jejuni strains and whether immunization with dmLT would afford protection against C. jejuni. On Western blot, the MOMPs from C. jejuni 48 (Penner serotype O:19, C. jejuni 75 (O:3 and C. jejuni 111 (O:1,44 were probed with rabbit antibodies to dmLT or LT-E112K (a non-toxic LT mutant, which showed a lack of reaction. Adult BALB/c mice were orally immunized with dmLT and orally challenged with C. jejuni 48 or 111. Protection from colonization with the challenge bacteria was studied by enumerating Campylobacter colonies in feces daily for 9 days. Vaccination produced robust serum and stool antibody responses to dmLT and no antibody responses to C. jejuni MOMP. Vaccinated mice showed reduced colonization and excretion of both challenge strains compared to control mice. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The protective efficacy of the dmLT vaccine varied from 9.1% to 54.5%. The lack of cross-reaction between the MOMP and dmLT suggests that protection is not mediated by cross-reacting antibodies, but may be due to activation of innate immunity. As dmLT is safe for humans, it could be incorporated into a C. jejuni vaccine to enhance its efficacy.

  12. Long-term protection against human papillomavirus e7-positive tumor by a single vaccination of adeno-associated virus vectors encoding a fusion protein of inactivated e7 of human papillomavirus 16/18 and heat shock protein 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqiao; Zhu, Tong; Ye, Xiaojing; Yang, Lin; Wang, Bing; Liang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Lina; Tsao, Yeou-Ping; Chen, Show-Li; Li, Juan; Xiao, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    We investigated a gene vaccine strategy against human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cancer and premalignant diseases, using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding the viral E7 oncoproteins as the tumor antigens from HPV serotypes 16 (HPV16) and 18 (HPV18). Genetically inactivated E7 proteins were fused with a heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) to minimize the risk of cell transformation and enhance immune responses. The fusion protein gene was packaged in AAV serotype 1 or 2 (AAV1 or 2) for efficient in vivo gene expression. Our results showed that after a single intramuscular injection, the AAV1 vector elicited stronger HPV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses and interferon-gamma secretion when compared with the AAV2 vector. Prophylactic immunization with AAV1 protected 100% of the mice from tumor growth for more than 1 year, whereas all the control mice immunized with either a LacZ vector or saline grew large tumors and died within 6 weeks after inoculation of E7-positive tumor cell line TC-1. In addition, this single-dose AAV1 vaccination completely protected the mice against second and third challenges with higher numbers of TC-1 cells. Despite lower CTL responses against the E7 antigens, AAV2 vector prophylactic immunization was also sufficient to protect 100% of the mice against the initial and second tumor challenges and 70% of the mice against the third challenge. In addition, therapeutic immunization with AAV1 after palpable tumor formation inhibited tumor growth and caused tumor regression in some mice. Thus, our studies support the potential of AAV vectors as a genetic vaccine for the prevention and treatment of HPV-induced malignancies.

  13. LT-IIb(T13I, a non-toxic type II heat-labile enterotoxin, augments the capacity of a ricin toxin subunit vaccine to evoke neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Greene

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a shortage of adjuvants that can be employed with protein subunit vaccines to enhance protection against biological threats. LT-IIb(T13I is an engineered nontoxic derivative of LT-IIb, a member of the type II subfamily of heat labile enterotoxins expressed by Escherichia coli, that possesses potent mucosal adjuvant properties. In this study we evaluated the capacity of LT-IIb(T13I to augment the potency of RiVax, a recombinant ricin toxin A subunit vaccine, when co-administered to mice via the intradermal (i.d. and intranasal (i.n. routes. We report that co-administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I by the i.d. route enhanced the levels of RiVax-specific serum IgG antibodies (Ab and elevated the ratio of ricin-neutralizing to non-neutralizing Ab, as compared to RiVax alone. Protection against a lethal ricin challenge was also augmented by LT-IIb(T13I. While local inflammatory responses elicited by LT-IIb(T13I were comparable to those elicited by aluminum salts (Imject®, LT-IIb(T13I was more effective than aluminum salts at augmenting production of RiVax-specific serum IgG. Finally, i.n. administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I also increased levels of RiVax-specific serum and mucosal Ab and enhanced protection against ricin challenge. Collectively, these data highlight the potential of LT-IIb(T13I as an effective next-generation i.d., or possibly i.n. adjuvant for enhancing the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines for biodefense.

  14. Reactive oxygen species generated by a heat shock protein (Hsp) inducing product contributes to Hsp70 production and Hsp70-mediated protective immunity in Artemia franciscana against pathogenic vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Kartik; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Linayati, Linayati; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

    2014-10-01

    The cytoprotective role of heat shock protein (Hsp70) described in a variety of animal disease models, including vibriosis in farmed aquatic animals, suggests that new protective strategies relying upon the use of compounds that selectively turn on Hsp genes could be developed. The product Tex-OE® (hereafter referred to as Hspi), an extract from the skin of the prickly pear fruit, Opuntia ficus indica, was previously shown to trigger Hsp70 synthesis in a non-stressful situation in a variety of animals, including in a gnotobiotically (germ-free) cultured brine shrimp Artemia franciscana model system. This model system offers great potential for carrying out high-throughput, live-animal screens of compounds that have health benefit effects. By using this model system, we aimed to disclose the underlying cause behind the induction of Hsp70 by Hspi in the shrimp host, and to determine whether the product affects the shrimp in inducing resistance towards pathogenic vibrios. We provide unequivocal evidences indicating that during the pretreatment period with Hspi, there is an initial release of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and/or superoxide anion), generated by the added product, in the rearing water and associated with the host. The reactive molecules generated are the triggering factors responsible for causing Hsp70 induction within Artemia. We have also shown that Hspi acts prophylactically at an optimum dose regimen to confer protection against pathogenic vibrios. This salutary effect was associated with upregulation of two important immune genes, prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase of the innate immune system. These findings suggest that inducers of stress protein (e.g. Hsp70) are potentially important modulator of immune responses and might be exploited to confer protection to cultured shrimp against Vibrio infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat... assure uniform heat transmission in manufactured homes, cavities in exterior walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo Value Zone 3 shall be...

  16. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  17. A sublimation heat engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary G; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; McHale, Glen; Sefiane, Khellil

    2015-03-03

    Heat engines are based on the physical realization of a thermodynamic cycle, most famously the liquid-vapour Rankine cycle used for steam engines. Here we present a sublimation heat engine, which can convert temperature differences into mechanical work via the Leidenfrost effect. Through controlled experiments, quantified by a hydrodynamic model, we show that levitating dry-ice blocks rotate on hot turbine-like surfaces at a rate controlled by the turbine geometry, temperature difference and solid material properties. The rotational motion of the dry-ice loads is converted into electric power by coupling to a magnetic coil system. We extend our concept to liquid loads, generalizing the realization of the new engine to both sublimation and the instantaneous vapourization of liquids. Our results support the feasibility of low-friction in situ energy harvesting from both liquids and ices. Our concept is potentially relevant in challenging situations such as deep drilling, outer space exploration or micro-mechanical manipulation.

  18. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  19. Load balancing multimodule switching power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.; Wester, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    Regulating system individually adjusts duty cycles of modules so that all share load equally, thus, protects individual modules and their components from overload and increases reliability and life expectancy. Converters are alternative to high-power, single unit systems.

  20. HEAT RECUPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat recovery is an effective method of shortening specific energy consumption. new constructions of recuperators for heating and cupola furnaces have been designed and successfully introduced. two-stage recuperator with computer control providing blast heating up to 600 °C and reducing fuel consumption by 30% is of special interest.