WorldWideScience

Sample records for heat flux model

  1. Validating modeled turbulent heat fluxes across large freshwater surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, B. M.; Fujisaki-Manome, A.; Gronewold, A.; Anderson, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Blanken, P.; Spence, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Xiao, C.; Charusambot, U.

    2017-12-01

    Turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat are important physical processes that influence the energy and water budgets of the Great Lakes. Validation and improvement of bulk flux algorithms to simulate these turbulent heat fluxes are critical for accurate prediction of hydrodynamics, water levels, weather, and climate over the region. Here we consider five heat flux algorithms from several model systems; the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model, the Weather Research and Forecasting model, and the Large Lake Thermodynamics Model, which are used in research and operational environments and concentrate on different aspects of the Great Lakes' physical system, but interface at the lake surface. The heat flux algorithms were isolated from each model and driven by meteorological data from over-lake stations in the Great Lakes Evaporation Network. The simulation results were compared with eddy covariance flux measurements at the same stations. All models show the capacity to the seasonal cycle of the turbulent heat fluxes. Overall, the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment algorithm in FVCOM has the best agreement with eddy covariance measurements. Simulations with the other four algorithms are overall improved by updating the parameterization of roughness length scales of temperature and humidity. Agreement between modelled and observed fluxes notably varied with geographical locations of the stations. For example, at the Long Point station in Lake Erie, observed fluxes are likely influenced by the upwind land surface while the simulations do not take account of the land surface influence, and therefore the agreement is worse in general.

  2. A simple heat transfer model for a heat flux plate under transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, L.; Dale, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Heat flux plates are used for measuring rates of heat transfer through surfaces under steady state and transient conditions. Their usual construction is to have a resistive layer bounded by thermopiles and an exterior layer for protection. If properly designed and constructed a linear relationship between the thermopile generated voltage and heat flux results and calibration under steady state conditions is straight forward. Under transient conditions however the voltage output from a heat flux plate cannot instantaneously follow the heat flux because of the thermal capacitance of the plate and the resulting time lag. In order to properly interpret the output of a heat flux plate used under transient conditions a simple heat transfer model was constructed and tested. (author)

  3. Evaluation of empirical heat transfer models using TFG heat flux sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cuyper, T.; Broekaert, S.; Chana, K.; De Paepe, M.; Verhelst, S.

    2017-01-01

    Thermodynamic engine cycle models are used to support the development of the internal combustion engine (ICE) in a cost and time effective manner. The sub model which describes the in-cylinder heat transfer from the working gases to the combustion chamber walls plays an important role in the accuracy of these simulation tools. The heat transfer affects the power output, engine efficiency and emissions of the engine. The most common heat transfer models in engine research are the models of Annand and Woschni. These models provide an instantaneous spatial averaged heat flux. In this research, prototype thin film gauge (TFG) heat flux sensors are used to capture the transient in-cylinder heat flux behavior within a production spark ignition (SI) engine as they are small, robust and able to capture the highly transient temperature swings. An inlet valve and two different zones of the cylinder head are instrumented with multiple TFG sensors. The heat flux traces are used to calculate the convection coefficient which includes all information of the convective heat transfer phenomena inside the combustion chamber. The implementation of TFG sensors inside the combustion chamber and the signal processing technique are discussed. The heat transfer measurements are used to analyze the spatial variation in heat flux under motored and fired operation. Spatial variation in peak heat flux was observed even under motored operation. Under fired operation the observed spatial variation is mainly driven by the flame propagation. Next, the paper evaluates the models of Annand and Woschni. These models fail to predict the total heat loss even with calibration of the models coefficients using a reference motored operating condition. The effect of engine speed and inlet pressure is analyzed under motored operation after calibration of the models. The models are able to predict the trend in peak heat flux value for a varying engine speed and inlet pressure. Next, the accuracy of the

  4. Transectional heat transfer in thermoregulating bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) - a 2D heat flux model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Jess; Musyl, Michael; Brill, Richard; Malte, Hans

    2009-11-01

    We developed a 2D heat flux model to elucidate routes and rates of heat transfer within bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe 1839 in both steady-state and time-dependent settings. In modeling the former situation, we adjusted the efficiencies of heat conservation in the red and the white muscle so as to make the output of the model agree as closely as possible with observed cross-sectional isotherms. In modeling the latter situation, we applied the heat exchanger efficiencies from the steady-state model to predict the distribution of temperature and heat fluxes in bigeye tuna during their extensive daily vertical excursions. The simulations yielded a close match to the data recorded in free-swimming fish and strongly point to the importance of the heat-producing and heat-conserving properties of the white muscle. The best correspondence between model output and observed data was obtained when the countercurrent heat exchangers in the blood flow pathways to the red and white muscle retained 99% and 96% (respectively) of the heat produced in these tissues. Our model confirms that the ability of bigeye tuna to maintain elevated muscle temperatures during their extensive daily vertical movements depends on their ability to rapidly modulate heating and cooling rates. This study shows that the differential cooling and heating rates could be fully accounted for by a mechanism where blood flow to the swimming muscles is either exclusively through the heat exchangers or completely shunted around them, depending on the ambient temperature relative to the body temperature. Our results therefore strongly suggest that such a mechanism is involved in the extensive physiological thermoregulatory abilities of endothermic bigeye tuna.

  5. Modeling of a heat sink and high heat flux vapor chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadnjal, Aleksander

    An increasing demand for a higher heat flux removal capability within a smaller volume for high power electronics led us to focus on a novel cold plate design. A high heat flux evaporator and micro channel heat sink are the main components of a cold plate which is capable of removing couple of 100 W/cm2. In order to describe performance of such porous media device a proper modeling has to be addressed. A universal approach based on the volume average theory (VAT) to transport phenomena in porous media is shown. An approach on how to treat the closure for momentum and energy equations is addressed and a proper definition for friction factors and heat transfer coefficients are discussed. A numerical scheme using a solution to Navier-Stokes equations over a representative elementary volume (REV) and the use of VAT is developed to show how to compute friction factors and heat transfer coefficients. The calculation show good agreement with the experimental data. For the heat transfer coefficient closure, a proper average for both fluid and solid is investigated. Different types of heating are also investigated in order to determine how it influences the heat transfer coefficient. A higher heat fluxes in small area condensers led us to the micro channels in contrast to the classical heat fin design. A micro channel can have various shapes to enhance heat transfer, but the shape that will lead to a higher heat flux removal with a moderate pumping power needs to be determined. The standard micro-channel terminology is usually used for channels with a simple cross section, e.g. square, round, triangle, etc., but here the micro channel cross section is going to be expanded to describe more complicated and interconnected micro scale channel cross sections. The micro channel geometries explored are pin fins (in-line and staggered) and sintered porous micro channels. The problem solved here is a conjugate problem involving two heat transfer mechanisms; (1) porous media

  6. GEM-CEDAR Challenge: Poynting Flux at DMSP and Modeled Joule Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastaetter, Lutz; Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Kilcommons, Liam M.; Knipp, Delores J.; Codrescu, Mihail; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Emery, Barbara; Weimer, Daniel R.; Cosgrove, Russell; hide

    2016-01-01

    Poynting flux into the ionosphere measures the electromagnetic energy coming from the magnetosphere. This energy flux can vary greatly between quiet times and geomagnetic active times. As part of the Geospace Environment Modeling-coupling energetics and dynamics of atmospheric regions modeling challenge, physics-based models of the 3-D ionosphere and ionospheric electrodynamics solvers of magnetosphere models that specify Joule heat and empirical models specifying Poynting flux were run for six geomagnetic storm events of varying intensity. We compared model results with Poynting flux values along the DMSP-15 satellite track computed from ion drift meter and magnetic field observations. Although being a different quantity, Joule heat can in practice be correlated to incoming Poynting flux because the energy is dissipated primarily in high latitudes where Poynting flux is being deposited. Within the physics-based model group, we find mixed results with some models overestimating Joule heat and some models agreeing better with observed Poynting flux rates as integrated over auroral passes. In contrast, empirical models tend to underestimate integrated Poynting flux values. Modeled Joule heat or Poynting flux patterns often resemble the observed Poynting flux patterns on a large scale, but amplitudes can differ by a factor of 2 or larger due to the highly localized nature of observed Poynting flux deposition that is not captured by the models. In addition, the positioning of modeled patterns appear to be randomly shifted against the observed Poynting flux energy input. This study is the first to compare Poynting flux and Joule heat in a large variety of models of the ionosphere.

  7. Prediction of transient maximum heat flux based on a simple liquid layer evaporation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, A.; Kataoka, I.

    1981-01-01

    A model of liquid layer evaporation with considerable supply of liquid has been formulated to predict burnout characteristics (maximum heat flux, life, etc.) during an increase of the power. The analytical description of the model is built upon the visual and photographic observations of the boiling configuration at near peak heat flux reported by other investigators. The prediction compares very favourably with water data presently available. It is suggested from the work reported here that the maximum heat flux occurs because of a balance between the consumption of the liquid film on the heated surface and the supply of liquid. Thickness of the liquid film is also very important. (author)

  8. Evapotranspiration and heat fluxes over a patchy forest - studied using modelling and measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Dellwik, Ebba; Boegh, Eva

    using these parameters without a proper interpretation in mesoscale or global circulation models can results in serious bias of estimates of modelled evapotranspiration or heat fluxes from given area. Since representative measurements focused on heterogeneous effects are scarce numerical modelling can...... and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest (Klaassen et al. 2002, Theor. Appl. Climatol. 72, 231-243). Because such flux measurements are very often used for calibration of forest parameters or model constants, further......, Ecological. Appl. 18, 1454-1459). In the present work, we apply the SCADIS with enhanced turbulence closure including buoyancy for investigation of the spatial distribution of latent and sensible heat vertical fluxes over patchy forested terrain in Denmark during selected days in the summer period. A closer...

  9. Heat flux microsensor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

  10. A new heat flux model for the Antarctic Peninsula incorporating spatially variable upper crustal radiogenic heat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Johnson, A.; Halpin, J.; Whittaker, J. M.; Graham, F. S.; Watson, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present recently published findings (Burton-Johnson et al., 2017) on the variability of Antarctic sub-glacial heat flux and the impact from upper crustal geology. Our new method reveals that the upper crust contributes up to 70% of the Antarctic Peninsula's subglacial heat flux, and that heat flux values are more variable at smaller spatial resolutions than geophysical methods can resolve. Results indicate a higher heat flux on the east and south of the Peninsula (mean 81 mWm-2) where silicic rocks predominate, than on the west and north (mean 67 mWm-2) where volcanic arc and quartzose sediments are dominant. Whilst the data supports the contribution of HPE-enriched granitic rocks to high heat flux values, sedimentary rocks can be of comparative importance dependent on their provenance and petrography. Models of subglacial heat flux must utilize a heterogeneous upper crust with variable radioactive heat production if they are to accurately predict basal conditions of the ice sheet. Our new methodology and dataset facilitate improved numerical model simulations of ice sheet dynamics. The most significant challenge faced remains accurate determination of crustal structure, particularly the depths of the HPE-enriched sedimentary basins and the sub-glacial geology away from exposed outcrops. Continuing research (particularly detailed geophysical interpretation) will better constrain these unknowns and the effect of upper crustal geology on the Antarctic ice sheet. Burton-Johnson, A., Halpin, J.A., Whittaker, J.M., Graham, F.S., and Watson, S.J., 2017, A new heat flux model for the Antarctic Peninsula incorporating spatially variable upper crustal radiogenic heat production: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 44, doi: 10.1002/2017GL073596.

  11. Evapotranspiration and heat fluxes over a small forest - a study using modelling and measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Dellwik, Ebba; Boegh, Eva

    2013-01-01

    are very often used for calibration of forest parameters or model constants, further use of these parameters without a proper interpretation in mesoscale or global circulation models can result in serious bias of estimates of modelled evapotranspiration or heat fluxes from the given area. In the present...... work, we apply the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model SCADIS with enhanced turbulence closure including buoyancy for investigation of the spatial distribution of latent and sensible heat vertical fluxes over patchy forested terrain in Denmark during selected days in the summer period. The approach...

  12. Prediction of strongly-heated gas flows in a vertical tube using explicit algebraic stress/heat-flux models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seong Gu; Park, Seung O.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides the assessment of prediction performance of explicit algebraic stress and heat-flux models under conditions of mixed convective gas flows in a strongly-heated vertical tube. Two explicit algebraic stress models and four algebraic heat-flux models are selected for assessment. Eight combinations of explicit algebraic stress and heat-flux models are used in predicting the flows experimentally studied by Shehata and McEligot (IJHMT 41(1998) p.4333) in which property variation was significant. Among the various model combinations, the Wallin and Johansson (JFM 403(2000) p. 89) explicit algebraic stress model-Abe, Kondo, and Nagano (IJHFF 17(1996) p. 228) algebraic heat-flux model combination is found to perform best. We also found that the dimensionless wall distance y + should be calculated based on the local property rather than the property at the wall for property-variation flows. When the buoyancy or the property variation effects are so strong that the flow may relaminarize, the choice of the basic platform two-equation model is a most important factor in improving the predictions

  13. Study of the Relap5/mod3.2 wall heat flux partitioning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari, S.; Hassan, Y.A.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of the subcooled boiling model adapted in RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been assessed in detail for low-pressure conditions and it has been found that the void fraction profile is under-predicted. In general, any subcooled boiling model is composed of individual sub-models that account for the different physical mechanism that govern the overall process, as the wall vapor generation, interfacial shear and condensation etc. The wall heat flux partitioning model is one of the important sub-models that is a constituent of any subcooled boiling model. The function of this model is to apportion the wall heat flux to the different components (as the single/two phase fluid or bubble), as the case may be, in a two-phase flow-boiling scenario adjacent to a heated wall. The ''pumping factor'' approach is generally followed by most of the wall heat flux partitioning models, for partitioning the wall heat flux. In this work, the wall heat flux partitioning model of RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code is studied; in particular, the ''pumping factor'' formulation in the present code version is assessed for its performance under low-pressure conditions. In addition, three different ''pumping factor'' formulations available in the literature have been introduced into the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. Simulations of two low-pressure subcooled flow boiling experiments were performed with the refined code versions to determine the appropriate pumping factor to be used under these conditions. (author)

  14. A theoretical critical heat flux model for low-pressure, low-mass-flux, and low-steam quality conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weihsiao Ho; Kuanchywan Tu; Baushei Pei; Chinjang Chang

    1993-01-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) is the maximum heat flux just before a boiling crisis; its importance as a measurement of nuclear reactor power capability design as well as in the safety of reactors has been recognized. With emphasis on CHF behavior under subcooled and low-quality (i.e., 2 ·s), an improved model that uses the sublayer dry out theory has been developed. Based on experimental observations of CHF, the model assumes that CHF under such conditions is of the departure from nucleate boiling type. Based on the postulation that CHF is triggered by Helmholtz instability in the sublayer steam-liquid system, the model was developed by a simple energy balance of liquid sublayer evaporation as the vapor blanket tends to disturb the balance between the buoyancy force and the drag force exerted upon it. The model is compared with the well-known Biasi et al. correlation as well as the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited lookup table against 102 uniformly heated round tube CHF data and 34 nonuniformly heated round tube CHF data. The comparison shows that the model provides better accuracy and a reasonable agreement between the predicted values and experimental CHF data

  15. Sabots, Obturator and Gas-In-Launch Tube Techniques for Heat Flux Models in Ballistic Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Wilder, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    For thermal protection system (heat shield) design for space vehicle entry into earth and other planetary atmospheres, it is essential to know the augmentation of the heat flux due to vehicle surface roughness. At the NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) ballistic range, a campaign of heat flux studies on rough models, using infrared camera techniques, has been initiated. Several phenomena can interfere with obtaining good heat flux data when using this measuring technique. These include leakage of the hot drive gas in the gun barrel through joints in the sabot (model carrier) to create spurious thermal imprints on the model forebody, deposition of sabot material on the model forebody, thereby changing the thermal properties of the model surface and unknown in-barrel heating of the model. This report presents developments in launch techniques to greatly reduce or eliminate these problems. The techniques include the use of obturator cups behind the launch package, enclosed versus open front sabot designs and the use of hydrogen gas in the launch tube. Attention also had to be paid to the problem of the obturator drafting behind the model and impacting the model. Of the techniques presented, the obturator cups and hydrogen in the launch tube were successful when properly implemented

  16. Monitoring the latent and sensible heat fluxes in vineyard by applying the energy balance model METRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González-Piqueras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the energy fluxes over vineyard applying the one source energy balance model METRIC (Allen et al., 2007b are shown in this work. This model is considered operaive because it uses an internalized calibration method derived from the selection of two extreme pixels in the scene, from the minimum ET values such as the bare soil to a maximum that corresponds to full cover active vegetation. The model provides the maps of net radiation (Rn, soil heat flux (G, sensible heat (H, latent heat (LE, evapotranspiration (ET and crop coefficient (Kc. The flux values have been validated with a flux tower installed in the plot, providing a RMSE for instantaneous fluxes of 43 W m2, 33 W m2, 55 W m2 y 40 W m2 on Rn, G, H and LE. In relative terms are 8%, 29%, 21% and 20% respectively. The RMSE at daily scale for the ET is 0.58 mm day-1, with a value in the crop coefficient for the mid stage of 0.42±0.08. These results allow considering the model adequate for crop monitoring and irrigation purposes in vineyard. The values obtained have been compared to other studies over vineyard and with alternative energy balance models showing similar results.

  17. Study of Heat Flux Threshold and Perturbation Effect on Transport Barrier Formation Based on Bifurcation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatthong, B.; Onjun, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Sarazin, Y.; Strugarek, A.; Picha, R.; Poolyarat, N.

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Formation of transport barrier in fusion plasma is studied using a simple one-field bistable S-curve bifurcation model. This model is characterized by an S-line with two stable branches corresponding to the low (L) and high (H) confinement modes, connected by an unstable branch. Assumptions used in this model are such that the reduction in anomalous transport is caused by v E velocity shear effect and also this velocity shear is proportional to pressure gradient. In this study, analytical and numerical approaches are used to obtain necessary conditions for transport barrier formation, i.e. the ratio of anomalous over neoclassical coefficients and heat flux thresholds which must be exceeded. Several profiles of heat sources are considered in this work including constant, Gaussian, and hyperbolic tangent forms. Moreover, the effect of perturbation in heat flux is investigated with respect to transport barrier formation

  18. Effects of the Cattaneo–Christov heat flux model on peristalsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tanveer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the influence of newly-developed Cattaneo–Christov heat flux model on peristalsis. Analysis has been carried out in a two-dimensional planner channel with wall properties and the Soret effect. An incompressible viscous fluid fills the space inside the channel. The relevant mathematical modeling is developed and a perturbation technique is employed to obtain a series form of solutions about small wave numbers. Expressions of velocity, temperature, concentration and heat transfer are treated graphically, corresponding to elasticity parameters, relaxation time and Prandtl numbers specifically. The graphical results are found distinctive that offers challenging role for further research on the topic. Further, the results of Fourier’s law can be verified when the relaxation time of the Cattaneo–Christov heat flux model is considered absent or concepts of large wavelength and small Reynolds numbers are applied.

  19. The steady-state modeling and optimization of a refrigeration system for high heat flux removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Rongliang; Zhang Tiejun; Catano, Juan; Wen, John T.; Michna, Gregory J.; Peles, Yoav; Jensen, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Steady-state modeling and optimization of a refrigeration system for high heat flux removal, such as electronics cooling, is studied. The refrigeration cycle proposed consists of multiple evaporators, liquid accumulator, compressor, condenser and expansion valves. To obtain more efficient heat transfer and higher critical heat flux (CHF), the evaporators operate with two-phase flow only. This unique operating condition necessitates the inclusion of a liquid accumulator with integrated heater for the safe operation of the compressor. Due to the projected incorporation of microchannels into the system to enhance the heat transfer in heat sinks, the momentum balance equation, rarely seen in previous vapor compression cycle heat exchangers modeling efforts, is utilized in addition to the mass and energy balance equations to capture the expected significant microchannel pressure drop witnessed in previous experimental investigations. Using the steady-state model developed, a parametric study is performed to study the effect of various external inputs on the system performance. The Pareto optimization is applied to find the optimal system operating conditions for given heat loads such that the system coefficient of performance (COP) is optimized while satisfying the CHF and other system operation constraints. Initial validation efforts show the good agreement between the experimental data and model predictions.

  20. Evaluation of Latent Heat Flux Fields from Satellites and Models during SEMAPHORE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourras, Denis; Liu, W. Timothy; Eymard, Laurence; Tang, Wenqing

    2003-02-01

    Latent heat fluxes were derived from satellite observations in the region of Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphère, Propriétés des Hétérogénéités Océaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE), which was conducted near the Azores islands in the North Atlantic Ocean in autumn of 1993. The satellite fluxes were compared with output fields of two atmospheric circulation models and in situ measurements. The rms error of the instantaneous satellite fluxes is between 35 and 40 W m-2 and the bias is 60-85 W m-2. The large bias is mainly attributed to a bias in satellite-derived atmospheric humidity and is related to the particular shape of the vertical humidity profiles during SEMAPHORE. The bias in humidity implies that the range of estimated fluxes is smaller than the range of ship fluxes, by 34%-38%. The rms errors for fluxes from models are 30-35 W m-2, and the biases are smaller than the biases in satellite fluxes (14-18 W m-2). Two case studies suggest that the satellites detect horizontal gradients of wind speed and specific humidity if the magnitude of the gradients exceeds a detection threshold, which is 1.27 g kg-1 (100 km)-1 for specific humidity and between 0.35 and 0.82 m s-1 (30 km)-1 for wind speed. In contrast, the accuracy of the spatial gradients of bulk variables from models always varies as a function of the location and number of assimilated observations. A comparison between monthly fluxes from satellites and models reveals that satellite-derived flux anomaly fields are consistent with reanalyzed fields, whereas operational model products lack part of the mesoscale structures present in the satellite fields.

  1. An improved mechanistic critical heat flux model for subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Based on the bubble coalescence adjacent to the heated wall as a flow structure for CHF condition, Chang and Lee developed a mechanistic critical heat flux (CHF) model for subcooled flow boiling. In this paper, improvements of Chang-Lee model are implemented with more solid theoretical bases for subcooled and low-quality flow boiling in tubes. Nedderman-Shearer`s equations for the skin friction factor and universal velocity profile models are employed. Slip effect of movable bubbly layer is implemented to improve the predictability of low mass flow. Also, mechanistic subcooled flow boiling model is used to predict the flow quality and void fraction. The performance of the present model is verified using the KAIST CHF database of water in uniformly heated tubes. It is found that the present model can give a satisfactory agreement with experimental data within less than 9% RMS error. 9 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  2. An improved mechanistic critical heat flux model for subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Based on the bubble coalescence adjacent to the heated wall as a flow structure for CHF condition, Chang and Lee developed a mechanistic critical heat flux (CHF) model for subcooled flow boiling. In this paper, improvements of Chang-Lee model are implemented with more solid theoretical bases for subcooled and low-quality flow boiling in tubes. Nedderman-Shearer`s equations for the skin friction factor and universal velocity profile models are employed. Slip effect of movable bubbly layer is implemented to improve the predictability of low mass flow. Also, mechanistic subcooled flow boiling model is used to predict the flow quality and void fraction. The performance of the present model is verified using the KAIST CHF database of water in uniformly heated tubes. It is found that the present model can give a satisfactory agreement with experimental data within less than 9% RMS error. 9 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  3. Simplified model for determining local heat flux boundary conditions for slagging wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingzhi Li; Anders Brink; Mikko Hupa [Aabo Akademi University, Turku (Finland). Process Chemistry Centre

    2009-07-15

    In this work, two models for calculating heat transfer through a cooled vertical wall covered with a running slag layer are investigated. The first one relies on a discretization of the velocity equation, and the second one relies on an analytical solution. The aim is to find a model that can be used for calculating local heat flux boundary conditions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of such processes. Two different cases where molten deposits exist are investigated: the black liquor recovery boiler and the coal gasifier. The results show that a model relying on discretization of the velocity equation is more flexible in handling different temperature-viscosity relations. Nevertheless, a model relying on an analytical solution is the one fast enough for a potential use as a CFD submodel. Furthermore, the influence of simplifications to the heat balance in the model is investigated. It is found that simplification of the heat balance can be applied when the radiation heat flux is dominant in the balance. 9 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Critical heat flux measurements in small-diameter tubes using R12 as model fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Menzel, T.

    1987-01-01

    Results of critical heat flux measurements are reported for vertical upflow of Refrigerant 12 at high mass fluxes and high pressures in small diameter tubes. The data are transformed into water data using a scaling law, which is verified by means of a new analysis. An error estimation includes the error of the scaling law. Special phenomena ('limiting quality', 'upstream boiling crisis') are explained by theoretical models. The applicability of existing correlations is checked and a new CHF-table for small diameter tubes is presented. With 41 figs., 12 tabs [de

  5. An intercomparison between the surface heat flux feedback in five coupled models, COADS and the NCEP reanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankignoul, C.; Kestenare, E. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Institute Pierre-Simon Laplace, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Dynamique et de Climatologie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Botzet, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Carril, A.F. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Drange, H. [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Pardaens, A. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office (United Kingdom); Terray, L.; Sutton, R. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-01

    The surface heat flux feedback is estimated in the Atlantic and the extra-tropical Indo-Pacific, using monthly heat flux and sea surface temperature anomaly data from control simulations with five global climate models, and it is compared to estimates derived from COADS and the NCEP reanalysis. In all data sets, the heat flux feedback is negative nearly everywhere and damps the sea surface temperature anomalies. At extra-tropical latitudes, it is strongly dominated by the turbulent fluxes. The radiative feedback can be positive or negative, depending on location and season, but it remains small, except in some models in the tropical Atlantic. The negative heat flux feedback is strong in the mid-latitude storm tracks, exceeding 40 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1} at place, but in the Northern Hemisphere it is substantially underestimated in several models. The negative feedback weakens at high latitudes, although the models do not reproduce the weak positive feedback found in NCEP in the northern North Atlantic. The main differences are found in the tropical Atlantic where the heat flux feedback is weakly negative in some models, as in the observations, and strongly negative in others where it can exceed 30 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1} at large scales, in part because of a strong contribution of the radiative fluxes, in particular during spring. A comparison between models with similar atmospheric or oceanic components suggests that the atmospheric model is primarily responsible for the heat flux feedback differences at extra-tropical latitudes. In the tropical Atlantic, the ocean behavior plays an equal role. The differences in heat flux feedback in the tropical Atlantic are reflected in the sea surface temperature anomaly persistence, which is too small in models where the heat flux damping is large. A good representation of the heat flux feedback is thus required to simulate climate variability realistically. (orig.)

  6. Comparing convective heat fluxes derived from thermodynamics to a radiative-convective model and GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Chirag; Renner, Maik; Kleidon, Axel

    2015-04-01

    The convective transport of heat and moisture plays a key role in the climate system, but the transport is typically parameterized in models. Here, we aim at the simplest possible physical representation and treat convective heat fluxes as the result of a heat engine. We combine the well-known Carnot limit of this heat engine with the energy balances of the surface-atmosphere system that describe how the temperature difference is affected by convective heat transport, yielding a maximum power limit of convection. This results in a simple analytic expression for convective strength that depends primarily on surface solar absorption. We compare this expression with an idealized grey atmosphere radiative-convective (RC) model as well as Global Circulation Model (GCM) simulations at the grid scale. We find that our simple expression as well as the RC model can explain much of the geographic variation of the GCM output, resulting in strong linear correlations among the three approaches. The RC model, however, shows a lower bias than our simple expression. We identify the use of the prescribed convective adjustment in RC-like models as the reason for the lower bias. The strength of our model lies in its ability to capture the geographic variation of convective strength with a parameter-free expression. On the other hand, the comparison with the RC model indicates a method for improving the formulation of radiative transfer in our simple approach. We also find that the latent heat fluxes compare very well among the approaches, as well as their sensitivity to surface warming. What our comparison suggests is that the strength of convection and their sensitivity in the climatic mean can be estimated relatively robustly by rather simple approaches.

  7. Critical heat flux evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banner, D.

    1995-01-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is of importance for nuclear safety and represents the major limiting factors for reactor cores. Critical heat flux is caused by a sharp reduction in the heat transfer coefficient located at the outer surface of fuel rods. Safety requires that this phenomenon also called the boiling crisis should be precluded under nominal or incidental conditions (Class I and II events). CHF evaluation in reactor cores is basically a two-step approach. Fuel assemblies are first tested in experimental loops in order to determine CHF limits under various flow conditions. Then, core thermal-hydraulic calculations are performed for safety evaluation. The paper will go into more details about the boiling crisis in order to pinpoint complexity and lack of fundamental understanding in many areas. Experimental test sections needed to collect data over wide thermal-hydraulic and geometric ranges are described CHF safety margin evaluation in reactors cores is discussed by presenting how uncertainties are mentioned. From basic considerations to current concerns, the following topics are discussed; knowledge of the boiling crisis, CHF predictors, and advances thermal-hydraulic codes. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs

  8. Prediction of turbulent heat transfer with surface blowing using a non-linear algebraic heat flux model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, F.; Younis, B.A.; Bellettre, J.; Lallemand, A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper reports on the prediction of the effects of blowing on the evolution of the thermal and velocity fields in a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer developing over a porous surface. Closure of the time-averaged equations governing the transport of momentum and thermal energy is achieved using a complete Reynolds-stress transport model for the turbulent stresses and a non-linear, algebraic and explicit model for the turbulent heat fluxes. The latter model accounts explicitly for the dependence of the turbulent heat fluxes on the gradients of mean velocity. Results are reported for the case of a heated boundary layer which is first developed into equilibrium over a smooth impervious wall before encountering a porous section through which cooler fluid is continuously injected. Comparisons are made with LDA measurements for an injection rate of 1%. The reduction of the wall shear stress with increase in injection rate is obtained in the calculations, and the computed rates of heat transfer between the hot flow and the wall are found to agree well with the published data

  9. A new mechanistic model of critical heat flux in forced-convection subcooled boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alajbegovic, A.; Kurul, N.; Podowski, M.Z.; Drew, D.A.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Because of its practical importance and various industrial applications, the process of subcooled flow boiling has attracted a lot of attention in the research community in the past. However, the existing models are primarily phenomenological and are based on correlating experimental data rather than on a first-principle analysis of the governing physical phenomena. Even though the mechanisms leading to critical heat flux (CHF) are very complex, the recent progress in the understanding of local phenomena of multiphase flow and heat transfer, combined with the development of mathematical models and advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods, makes analytical predictions of CHF quite feasible. Various mechanisms leading to CHF in subcooled boiling have been investigated. A new model for the predictions of the onset of CHF has been developed. This new model has been coupled with the overall boiling channel model, numerically implemented in the CFX 4 computer code, tested and validated against the experimental data of Hino and Ueda. The predicted critical heat flux for various channel operating conditions shows good agreement with the measurements using the aforementioned closure laws for the various local phenomena governing nucleation and bubble departure from the wall. The observed differences are consistent with typical uncertainties associated with CHF data

  10. Phenomenological modeling of critical heat flux: The GRAMP code and its validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Chandraker, D.K.; Hewitt, G.F.; Vijayan, P.K.; Walker, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Assessment of CHF limits is vital for LWR optimization and safety analysis. ► Phenomenological modeling is a valuable adjunct to pure empiricism. ► It is based on empirical representations of the (several, competing) phenomena. ► Phenomenological modeling codes making ‘aggregate’ predictions need careful assessment against experiments. ► The physical and mathematical basis of a phenomenological modeling code GRAMP is presented. ► The GRAMP code is assessed against measurements from BARC (India) and Harwell (UK), and the Look Up Tables. - Abstract: Reliable knowledge of the critical heat flux is vital for the design of light water reactors, for both safety and optimization. The use of wholly empirical correlations, or equivalently “Look Up Tables”, can be very effective, but is generally less so in more complex cases, and in particular cases where the heat flux is axially non-uniform. Phenomenological models are in principle more able to take into account of a wider range of conditions, with a less comprehensive coverage of experimental measurements. These models themselves are in part based upon empirical correlations, albeit of the more fundamental individual phenomena occurring, rather than the aggregate behaviour, and as such they too require experimental validation. In this paper we present the basis of a general-purpose phenomenological code, GRAMP, and then use two independent ‘direct’ sets of measurement, from BARC in India and from Harwell in the United Kingdom, and the large dataset embodied in the Look Up Tables, to perform a validation exercise on it. Very good agreement between predictions and experimental measurements is observed, adding to the confidence with which the phenomenological model can be used. Remaining important uncertainties in the phenomenological modeling of CHF, namely the importance of the initial entrained fraction on entry to annular flow, and the influence of the heat flux on entrainment rate

  11. A Bayesian analysis of sensible heat flux estimation: Quantifying uncertainty in meteorological forcing to improve model prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Ershadi, Ali; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    The influence of uncertainty in land surface temperature, air temperature, and wind speed on the estimation of sensible heat flux is analyzed using a Bayesian inference technique applied to the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model

  12. Evaluated experimental database on critical heat flux in WWER FA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonov, S.; Sergeev, V.; Volkov, S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the description of the evaluated experimental database on critical heat flux in WWER FA models of new designs. This database was developed on the basis of the experimental data obtained in the years of 2009-2012. In the course of its development, the database was reviewed in terms of completeness of the information about the experiments and its compliance with the requirements of Rostekhnadzor regulatory documents. The description of the experimental FA model characteristics and experimental conditions was specified. Besides, the experimental data were statistically processed with the aim to reject incorrect ones and the sets of experimental data on critical heat fluxes (CHF) were compared for different FA models. As a result, for the fi rst time, the evaluated database on CHF in FA models of new designs was developed, that was complemented with analysis functions, and its main purpose is to be used in the process of development, verification and upgrading of calculation techniques. The developed database incorporates the data of 4183 experimental conditions obtained in 53 WWER FA models of various designs. Keywords: WWER reactor, fuel assembly, CHF, evaluated experimental data, database, statistical analysis. (author)

  13. On Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model for Carreau fluid flow over a slendering sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim; Khan, Masood

    The underlying intentions of this article are to investigate the impact of non-Fourier heat flux model on the stagnation-point flow of non-Newtonian Carreau fluid. In this study, the innovative Cattaneo-Christov constitutive model is introduced to study the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The flow is impelled by a slendering surface which is of the variable thickness. In the model, the physical mechanism responsible for homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions are further taken into account. Also, the diffusion coefficients of the reactant and auto catalyst are considered to be equal. The governing non-linear partial differential equations consisting of the momentum, energy and concentration equations are reduced to the coupled ordinary differential equations by means of local similarity transformations. The transformed ODEs are tackled numerically by employing an effective shooting algorithm along with the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg scheme. The physical characteristics of the fluid velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are illuminated with the variation of numerous governing factors and are presented graphically. For instance, our result indicates that the temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness are lower in case of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model when compared to classical Fourier's heat model. Meanwhile, the rate of heat transfer is significantly improved by a high wall thickness parameter and an opposite influence is found due to the thermal relaxation parameter. We further noticed that a higher value of homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction parameter corresponds to a deceleration in the concentration field and it shows an inverse relation for the Schmidt number. A correlation with accessible results for specific cases is found with fabulous consent.

  14. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  15. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variation in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling

  16. MHD effects and heat transfer for the UCM fluid along with Joule heating and thermal radiation using Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, S., E-mail: sajidshah313@yahoo.com; Hussain, S.; Sagheer, M. [Department of Mathematics, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-08-15

    Present study examines the numerical analysis of MHD flow of Maxwell fluid with thermal radiation and Joule heating by considering the recently developed Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model which explains the time relaxation characteristics for the heat flux. The objective is to analyze the governing parameters such as viscoelastic fluid parameter, Magnetic parameter, Eckert and Prandtl number’s impact on the velocity and temperature profiles through graphs and tables. Suitable similarity transformations have been used to reduce the formulated PDEs into a system of coupled non-linear ODEs. Shooting technique has been invoked for finding the numerical solutions of the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles. Additionally, the MATLAB built-in routine bvp4c has also been used to verify and strengthen the results obtained by shooting method. From some special cases of the present work, a comparison with the previously published results has been presented.

  17. Progress towards modeling tokamak boundary plasma turbulence and understanding its role in setting divertor heat flux widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Xu, X. Q.; Xia, T. Y.; Li, N. M.; Porkolab, M.; Edlund, E.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J.; Hughes, J. W.; Ye, M. Y.; Wan, Y. X.

    2018-05-01

    The heat flux distributions on divertor targets in H-mode plasmas are serious concerns for future devices. We seek to simulate the tokamak boundary plasma turbulence and heat transport in the edge localized mode-suppressed regimes. The improved BOUT++ model shows that not only Ip but also the radial electric field Er plays an important role on the turbulence behavior and sets the heat flux width. Instead of calculating Er from the pressure gradient term (diamagnetic Er), it is calculated from the plasma transport equations with the sheath potential in the scrape-off layer and the plasma density and temperature profiles inside the separatrix from the experiment. The simulation results with the new Er model have better agreement with the experiment than using the diamagnetic Er model: (1) The electromagnetic turbulence in enhanced Dα H-mode shows the characteristics of quasi-coherent modes (QCMs) and broadband turbulence. The mode spectra are in agreement with the phase contrast imaging data and almost has no change in comparison to the cases which use the diamagnetic Er model; (2) the self-consistent boundary Er is needed for the turbulence simulations to get the consistent heat flux width with the experiment; (3) the frequencies of the QCMs are proportional to Er, while the divertor heat flux widths are inversely proportional to Er; and (4) the BOUT++ turbulence simulations yield a similar heat flux width to the experimental Eich scaling law and the prediction from the Goldston heuristic drift model.

  18. Two-dimensional modeling of water and heat fluxes in green roof substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, F. I.; Sandoval, V. P.

    2016-12-01

    Due to public concern towards sustainable development, greenhouse gas emissions and energy efficiency, green roofs have become popular in the last years. Green roofs integrate vegetation into infrastructures to reach additional benefits that minimize negative impacts of the urbanization. A properly designed green roof can reduce environmental pollution, noise levels, energetic requirements or surface runoff. The correct performance of green roofs depends on site-specific conditions and on each component of the roof. The substrate and the vegetation layers strongly influence water and heat fluxes on a green roof. The substrate is an artificial media that has an improved performance compared to natural soils as it provides critical resources for vegetation survival: water, nutrients, and a growing media. Hence, it is important to study the effects of substrate properties on green roof performance. The objective of this work is to investigate how the thermal and hydraulic properties affect the behavior of a green roof through numerical modeling. The substrates that were investigated are composed by: crushed bricks and organic soil (S1); peat with perlite (S2); crushed bricks (S3); mineral soil with tree leaves (S4); and a mixture of topsoil and mineral soil (S5). The numerical model utilizes summer-arid meteorological information to evaluate the performance of each substrate. Results show that the area below the water retention curve helps to define the substrate that retains more water. In addition, the non-linearity of the water retention curve can increment the water needed to irrigate the roof. The heat propagation through the roof depends strongly on the hydraulic behavior, meaning that a combination of a substrate with low thermal conductivity and more porosity can reduce the heat fluxes across the roof. Therefore, it can minimize the energy consumed of an air-conditioner system.

  19. Modelling and observation of heat losses from buildings : The impact of geometric detail on 3D heat flux modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, D.; Pietrzyk, P.; Donkers, S.; Liem, V.; van Oostveen, J.; Montazeri, S.; Boeters, R.; Colin, J.; Kastendeuch, P.; Nerry, F.; Menenti, M.; Gorte, B.G.H.; Verbree, E.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of 3D geometry complexity on the accuracy of simulating radiative, convective and conductive fluxes in an urban canyon was explored. The research involved the collection of meteorological data in an urban canyon in the city of Strasbourg, France, for input into a 3D model called LASER/F,

  20. Analysis of the Onset of Flow Instability in rectangular heated channel using drift flux model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hadjen, H.; Balistrou, M.; Hamidouche, T.; Bousbia-Salah, A.

    2005-01-01

    Two-phase flow excursion (Ledinegg) instability in boiling channels is of great concern in the design and operation of numerous practical systems especially in Research Reactors. Such instability can lead to significant reduction in channel flow, thereby causing premature burnout of the heated channel before the CHF point. The present work focuses on a simulation of pressure drop in forced convection boiling in vertical narrow and parallel uniformly heated channels. The objective is to determine the point of Onset of Flow Instability (OFI) by varying input flow rate. The axial void distribution is also provided. The numerical model is based on the finite difference method which transforms the partial differential conservation equation of mass, momentum and energy, in algebraic equations. Closure relationships based upon the drift flux model and other constitutive equations are considered to determine the channel pressure drop under steady state boiling conditions. The model validation is performed by confronting the calculations with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory thermal Hydraulic Test Loop (THTL) experimental data set. Further verification of this model is performed by code- to code verification using the results of RELAP5/Mod 3.2 code. (author)

  1. Flow regimes and mechanistic modeling of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Jean-Marie

    Thermal performance of heat flux controlled boiling heat exchangers are usually limited by the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) above which the heat transfer degrades quickly, possibly leading to heater overheating and destruction. In an effort to better understand the phenomena, a literature review of CHF experimental visualizations under subcooled flow boiling conditions was performed and systematically analyzed. Three major types of CHF flow regimes were identified (bubbly, vapor clot and slug flow regime) and a CHF flow regime map was developed, based on a dimensional analysis of the phenomena and available data. It was found that for similar geometric characteristics and pressure, a Weber number (We)/thermodynamic quality (x) map can be used to predict the CHF flow regime. Based on the experimental observations and the review of the available CHF mechanistic models under subcooled flow boiling conditions, hypothetical CHF mechanisms were selected for each CHF flow regime, all based on a concept of wall dry spot overheating, rewetting prevention and subsequent dry spot spreading. It is postulated that a high local wall superheat occurs locally in a dry area of the heated wall, due to a cyclical event inherent to the considered CHF two-phase flow regime, preventing rewetting (Leidenfrost effect). The selected modeling concept has the potential to span the CHF conditions from highly subcooled bubbly flow to early stage of annular flow. A numerical model using a two-dimensional transient thermal analysis of the heater undergoing nucleation was developed to mechanistically predict CHF in the case of a bubbly flow regime. In this type of CHF two-phase flow regime, the high local wall superheat occurs underneath a nucleating bubble at the time of bubble departure. The model simulates the spatial and temporal heater temperature variations during nucleation at the wall, accounting for the stochastic nature of the boiling phenomena. The model has also the potential to evaluate

  2. High heat flux facility GLADIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Boeswirth, B.; Boscary, J.; McNeely, P.

    2007-01-01

    The new ion beam facility GLADIS started the operation at IPP Garching. The facility is equipped with two individual 1.1 MW power ion sources for testing actively cooled plasma facing components under high heat fluxes. Each ion source generates heat loads between 3 and 55 MW/m 2 with a beam diameter of 70 mm at the target position. These parameters allow effective testing from probes to large components up to 2 m length. The high heat flux allows the target to be installed inclined to the beam and thus increases the heated surface length up to 200 mm for a heat flux of 15 MW/m 2 in the standard operating regime. Thus the facility has the potential capability for testing of full scale ITER divertor targets. Heat load tests on the WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series divertor targets have been successfully started. These tests will validate the design and manufacturing for the production of 950 elements

  3. Geothermal modelling and geoneutrino flux prediction at JUNO with local heat production data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Y.; Wipperfurth, S. A.; McDonough, W. F.; Sramek, O.; Roskovec, B.; He, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geoneutrinos are mostly electron antineutrinos created from natural radioactive decays in the Earth's interior. Measurement of a geoneutrino flux at near surface detector can lead to a better understanding of the composition of the Earth, inform about chemical layering in the mantle, define the power driving mantle convection and plate tectonics, and reveal the energy supplying the geodynamo. JUNO (Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory) is a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector currently under construction with an expected start date in 2020. Due to its enormous mass, JUNO will detect about 400 geoneutrinos per year, making it an ideal tool to study the Earth. JUNO is located on the passive continental margin of South China, where there is an extensive continental shelf. The continental crust surrounding the JUNO detector is between 26 and 32 km thick and represents the transition between the southern Eurasian continental plate and oceanic plate of the South China Sea.We seek to predict the geoneutrino flux at JUNO prior to data taking and announcement of the particle physics measurement. To do so requires a detail survey of the local lithosphere, as it contributes about 50% of the signal. Previous estimates of the geoneutrino signal at JUNO utilized global crustal models, with no local constraints. Regionally, the area is characterized by extensive lateral and vertical variations in lithology and dominated by Mesozoic granite intrusions, with an average heat production of 6.29 μW/m3. Consequently, at 3 times greater heat production than the globally average upper crust, these granites will generate a higher than average geoneutrino flux at JUNO. To better define the U and Th concentrations in the upper crust, we collected some 300 samples within 50 km of JUNO. By combining chemical data obtained from these samples with data for crustal structures defined by local geophysical studies, we will construct a detailed 3D geothermal model of the region. Our

  4. Validation of effective momentum and heat flux models for stratification and mixing in a water pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Li; Villanueva, W.; Kudinov, P. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    The pressure suppression pool is the most important feature of the pressure suppression system in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) that acts primarily as a passive heat sink during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or when the reactor is isolated from the main heat sink. The steam injection into the pool through the blowdown pipes can lead to short term dynamic phenomena and long term thermal transient in the pool. The development of thermal stratification or mixing in the pool is a transient phenomenon that can influence the pool's pressure suppression capacity. Different condensation regimes depending on the pool's bulk temperature and steam flow rates determine the onset of thermal stratification or erosion of stratified layers. Previously, we have proposed to model the effect of steam injection on the mixing and stratification with the Effective Heat Source (EHS) and the Effective Momentum Source (EMS) models. The EHS model is used to provide thermal effect of steam injection on the pool, preserving heat and mass balance. The EMS model is used to simulate momentum induced by steam injection in different flow regimes. The EMS model is based on the combination of (i) synthetic jet theory, which predicts effective momentum if amplitude and frequency of flow oscillations in the pipe are given, and (ii) model proposed by Aya and Nariai for prediction of the amplitude and frequency of oscillations at a given pool temperature and steam mass flux. The complete EHS/EMS models only require the steam mass flux, initial pool bulk temperature, and design-specific parameters, to predict thermal stratification and mixing in a pressure suppression pool. In this work we use EHS/EMS models implemented in containment thermal hydraulic code GOTHIC. The PPOOLEX experiments (Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland) are utilized to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC's physical models and numerical schemes, (b) propose necessary improvements in GOTHIC sub-grid scale

  5. Constraining the heat flux between Enceladus’ tiger stripes: numerical modeling of funiscular plains formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael T.; McKinnon, William B; Schenk, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft’s Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has observed at least 5 GW of thermal emission at Enceladus’ south pole. The vast majority of this emission is localized on the four long, parallel, evenly-spaced fractures dubbed tiger stripes. However, the thermal emission from regions between the tiger stripes has not been determined. These spatially localized regions have a unique morphology consisting of short-wavelength (∼1 km) ridges and troughs with topographic amplitudes of ∼100 m, and a generally ropy appearance that has led to them being referred to as “funiscular terrain.” Previous analysis pursued the hypothesis that the funiscular terrain formed via thin-skinned folding, analogous to that occurring on a pahoehoe flow top (Barr, A.C., Preuss, L.J. [2010]. Icarus 208, 499–503). Here we use finite element modeling of lithospheric shortening to further explore this hypothesis. Our best-case simulations reproduce funiscular-like morphologies, although our simulated fold wavelengths after 10% shortening are 30% longer than those observed. Reproducing short-wavelength folds requires high effective surface temperatures (∼185 K), an ice lithosphere (or high-viscosity layer) with a low thermal conductivity (one-half to one-third that of intact ice or lower), and very high heat fluxes (perhaps as great as 400 mW m−2). These conditions are driven by the requirement that the high-viscosity layer remain extremely thin (≲200 m). Whereas the required conditions are extreme, they can be met if a layer of fine grained plume material 1–10 m thick, or a highly fractured ice layer >50 m thick insulates the surface, and the lithosphere is fractured throughout as well. The source of the necessary heat flux (a factor of two greater than previous estimates) is less obvious. We also present evidence for an unusual color/spectral character of the ropy terrain, possibly related to its unique surface texture. Our simulations demonstrate

  6. Assessment of a non-uniform heat flux correction model to predicting CHF in PWR rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dae-Hyun, Hwang; Sung-Quun, Zee

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows. The prediction of CHF (critical heat flux) has been, in most cases, based on the empirical correlation. For PWR fuel assemblies the local parameter correlation requires the local thermal-hydraulic conditions usually calculated by a subchannel analysis code. The cross-sectional averaged fluid conditions of the subchannel, however, are not sufficient for determining CHF, especially for the cases of non-uniform axial heat flux distributions. Many investigators have studied the effect of the upstream heat flux on the CHF. In terms of the upstream memory effect, two different approaches have been considered as the limiting cases. The 'local conditions' hypothesis assumes that there is a unique relationship between the CHF and the local thermal-hydraulic conditions, and consequently there is no memory effect. In the 'overall power' hypothesis, on the other hand, it is assumed that the total power which can be fed into the tube with nonuniform heating will be the same as that for a uniformly heated tube of the same heated length with the same inlet conditions. Thus the CHF is totally influenced by the upstream heat flux distribution. In view of some experimental investigations such as the DeBortoli's test, it revealed that the two approaches are inadequate in general. It means that the local critical heat flux may be affected to some extent by the heat flux distribution upstream of the CHF location. Some correction-factor models have been suggested to take into account the upstream memory effect. Typically, Tong devised a correction factor on the basis of the heat balance of the superheated liquid layer that is spread underneath a highly viscous bubbly layer along the heated surface. His physical model suggested that the fluid enthalpy obtained from an energy balance of the superheated liquid layer is a representative quantity for the onset of DNB (departure nucleate boiling). A theoretically based correction factor model has been proposed by the

  7. Anthropogenic Heat Flux in South African Cities: Initial estimates from the LUCY model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachi, Yerdashin R

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHF) from buildings, transport and people are an essential component of the urban climate within cities. Presently limited information on the AHF in South African cities exists. This study quantifies the AHF in South...

  8. Heat flux limiting sleeves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William G.

    1985-01-01

    A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

  9. An analytic model of pool boiling critical heat flux on an immerged downward facing curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hui; Pan, Liang-ming; Wu, Yao; Chen, De-qi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin liquid film and supplement of liquid contribute to the CHF. • CHF increases from the bottom to the upper of the lowerhead. • Evaporation of thin liquid film is dominant nearby bottom region. • The subcooling has significant effects on the CHF. - Abstract: In this paper, an analytical model of the critical heat flux (CHF) on the downward facing curved surface for pool boiling has been proposed, which hypothesizes that the CHF on the downward facing curved is composed of two parts, i.e. the evaporation of the thin liquid film underneath the elongated bubble adhering to the lower head outer surface and the depletion of supplement of liquid due to the relative motion of vapor bubbles along with the downward facing curved. The former adopts the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability analysis of vapor–liquid interface of the vapor jets which penetrating in the thin liquid film. When the heat flux closing to the CHF point, the vapor–liquid interface becomes highly distorted, which block liquid to feed the thin liquid film and the thin liquid film will dry out gradually. While the latter considers that the vapor bubbles move along with the downward facing curved surface, and the liquid in two-phase boundary layer enter the liquid film that will be exhausted when the CHF occurs. Based on the aforementioned mechanism and the energy balance between the thin liquid film evaporation and water feeding, and taking the subcooling of the bulk water into account, the mathematic model about the downward facing curved surface CHF has been proposed. The CHF of the downward facing curved surface for pool boiling increases along with the downward facing orientation except in the vicinity of bottom center region, because in this region the vapor bubble almost stagnates and the evaporation of the thin liquid film is dominant. In addition, the subcooling has significant effect on the CHF. Comparing the result of this model with the published experimental results show

  10. Soil heat flux calculation for sunlit and shaded surfaces under row crops: 1 - Model Development and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil heat flux at the surface (G0) is strongly influenced by whether the soil is shaded or sunlit, and therefore can have large spatial variability for incomplete vegetation cover, such as across the interrows of row crops. Most practical soil-plant-atmosphere energy balance models calculate G0 as a...

  11. The effect of the advanced drift-flux model of ASSERT-PV on critical heat flux, flow and void distributions in CANDU bundle subchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouda, N.; Rao, Y.F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Presentation of the “advanced” drift-flux model of the subchannel code ASSERT-PV. • Study the effect of the drift-flux model of ASSERT on CHF and flow distribution. • Quantify model component effects with flow, quality and dryout power measurements. - Abstract: This paper studies the effect of the drift flux model of the subchannel code ASSERT-PV on critical heat flux (CHF), void fraction and flow distribution across fuel bundles. Numerical experiments and comparison against measurements were performed to examine the trends and relative behaviour of the different components of the model under various flow conditions. The drift flux model of ASSERT-PV is composed of three components: (a) the lateral component or diversion cross-flow, caused by pressure difference between connected subchannels, (b) the turbulent diffusion component or the turbulent mixing through gaps of subchannels, caused by instantaneous turbulent fluctuations or flow oscillations, and (c) the void drift component that occurs due to the two-phase tendency toward a preferred distribution. This study shows that the drift flux model has a significant impact on CHF, void fraction and flow distribution predictions. The lateral component of the drift flux model has a stronger effect on CHF predictions than the axial component, especially for horizontal flow. Predictions of CHF, void fraction and flow distributions are most sensitive to the turbulent diffusion component of the model, followed by the void drift component. Buoyancy drift can be significant, but it does not have as much influence on CHF and flow distribution as the turbulent diffusion and void drift.

  12. Kinetic modeling of divertor heat load fluxes in the Alcator C-Mod and DIII-D tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Park, G. Y. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, C. S.; Ku, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Brunner, D.; Hughes, J. W.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The guiding-center kinetic neoclassical transport code, XGC0 [Chang et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2649 (2004)], is used to compute the heat fluxes and the heat-load width in the outer divertor plates of Alcator C-Mod and DIII-D tokamaks. The dependence of the width of heat-load fluxes on neoclassical effects, neutral collisions, and anomalous transport is investigated using the XGC0 code. The XGC0 code includes realistic X-point geometry, a neutral source model, the effects of collisions, and a diffusion model for anomalous transport. It is observed that the width of the XGC0 neoclassical heat-load is approximately inversely proportional to the total plasma current I{sub p.} The scaling of the width of the divertor heat-load with plasma current is examined for an Alcator C-Mod discharge and four DIII-D discharges. The scaling of the divertor heat-load width with plasma current is found to be weaker in the Alcator C-Mod discharge compared to scaling found in the DIII-D discharges. The effect of neutral collisions on the 1/I{sub p} scaling of heat-load width is shown not to be significant. Although inclusion of poloidally uniform anomalous transport results in a deviation from the 1/I{sub p} scaling, the inclusion of the anomalous transport that is driven by ballooning-type instabilities results in recovering the neoclassical 1/I{sub p} scaling. The Bohm or gyro-Bohm scalings of anomalous transport do not strongly affect the dependence of the heat-load width on plasma current. The inclusion of anomalous transport, in general, results in widening the width of neoclassical divertor heat-load and enhances the neoclassical heat-load fluxes on the divertor plates. Understanding heat transport in the tokamak scrape-off layer plasmas is important for strengthening the basis for predicting divertor conditions in ITER.

  13. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  14. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  15. Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux Model for MHD Three-Dimensional Flow of Maxwell Fluid over a Stretching Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubab, Khansa; Mustafa, M

    2016-01-01

    This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM). It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here.

  16. Local rectification of heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, M.; Cui, Y. Y.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Simón, M. A.; Muga, J. G.

    2017-09-01

    We present a chain-of-atoms model where heat is rectified, with different fluxes from the hot to the cold baths located at the chain boundaries when the temperature bias is reversed. The chain is homogeneous except for boundary effects and a local modification of the interactions at one site, the “impurity”. The rectification mechanism is due here to the localized impurity, the only asymmetrical element of the structure, apart from the externally imposed temperature bias, and does not rely on putting in contact different materials or other known mechanisms such as grading or long-range interactions. The effect survives if all interaction forces are linear except the ones for the impurity.

  17. Application of two-equation turbulence models to turbulent gas flow heated by a high heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    Heat transfer in heated turbulent gas flow is analyzed using two-equation turbulence models. Four kinds of two-equation models are examined; that is, k-epsilon model by Jones-Launder, k-w model by Wilcox-Traci, k-kL model by Rotta, k-ω model by Saffman-Wilcox. The results are compared with more than ten experiments by seven authors. The k-kL model proposed originally by Rotta and modified by the present author is found to give relatively the best results. It well predicts the decrease in the heat transfer coefficient found in the heated turbulent gas flow; however, it fails to predict the laminarization due to a strong heating. (author)

  18. High Flux Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    maximum jet velocity (6.36 m/s), and maximum number of jets (nine). Wadsworth and Mudawar [49] describe the use of a single slotted nozzle to provide...H00503 (ASME), pp. 121-128, 1989. 40 49. D. C. Wadsworth and I. Mudawar , "Cooling of a Multichip Electronic Module by Means of Confined Two-Dimensional...Jets of Dielectric Liquid," HTD-Vol. 111, Heat Transfer in Electrglif, Book No. H00503 (ASME), pp. 79-87, 1989. 50. D.C. Wadsworth and I. Mudawar

  19. Assessment of fluid-to-fluid modelling of critical heat flux in horizontal 37-element bundle flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Fluid-to-fluid modelling laws of critical heat flux (CHF) available in the literature were reviewed. The applicability of the fluid-to-fluid modelling laws was assessed using available data ranging from low to high mass fluxes in horizontal 37-element bundles simulating a CANDU fuel string. Correlations consisting of dimensionless similarity groups were derived using modelling fluid data (Freon-12) to predict water CHF data in horizontal 37-element bundles with uniform and non-uniform axial-heat flux distribution (AFD). The results showed that at mass fluxes higher than ∼4,000 kg/m 2 s (water equivalent value), the vertical fluid-to-fluid modelling laws of Ahmad (1973) and Katto (1979) predict water CHF in horizontal 37-element bundles with non-uniform AFD with average errors of 1.4% and 3.0% and RMS errors of 5.9% and 6.1%, respectively. The Francois and Berthoud (2003) fluid-to-fluid modelling law predicts CHF in non-uniformly heated 37-element bundles in the horizontal orientation with an average error of 0.6% and an RMS error of 10.4% over the available range of 2,000 to 6,200 kg/m 2 s. (author)

  20. Heat flux solarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartarelli, A.; Vera, S.; Cyrulies, E. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Univ. Nac. de Gral. Sarmiento (IDH, UNGS), Los Polvorines (Argentina); Echarri, R. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Univ. Nac. de Gral. Sarmiento (IDH, UNGS), Los Polvorines (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Samson, I. [INTEC (Instituto Tecnologico Santo Domingo), Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)

    2010-12-15

    The solarimeter presented in this work is easy to assemble. It is calibrated and its performance is validated by means of Hottel's method. Finally, the curves obtained with this solarimeter are compared to the ones obtained with a commercial solarimeter. This device is based on the evaluation of the heat flow in a metal rod. In consequence, measurements are not affected by ambient temperature variations. On the other hand, there is a linear relationship between the temperatures measured at the rod ends and the incident radiation, as can be concluded both from the theory of its operation and the calibration lines obtained. The results obtained from the global irradiance measurements in the area of Los Polvorines (Buenos Aires Province), together with a preliminary evaluation of the solarimeter's response time, are presented in this work. (author)

  1. Numerical modeling and validation of helium jet impingement cooling of high heat flux divertor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncar, Bostjan; Simonovski, Igor; Norajitra, Prachai

    2009-01-01

    Numerical analyses of jet impingement cooling presented in this paper were performed as a part of helium-cooled divertor studies for post-ITER generation of fusion reactors. The cooling ability of divertor cooled by multiple helium jets was analysed. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics and temperature distributions in the solid structures were predicted for the reference geometry of one cooling finger. To assess numerical errors, different meshes (hexagonal, tetra, tetra-prism) and discretisation schemes were used. The temperatures in the solid structures decrease with finer mesh and higher order discretisation and converge towards finite values. Numerical simulations were validated against high heat flux experiments, performed at Efremov Institute, St. Petersburg. The predicted design parameters show reasonable agreement with measured data. The calculated maximum thimble temperature was below the tile-thimble brazing temperature, indicating good heat removal capability of reference divertor design. (author)

  2. A Bayesian analysis of sensible heat flux estimation: Quantifying uncertainty in meteorological forcing to improve model prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Ershadi, Ali

    2013-05-01

    The influence of uncertainty in land surface temperature, air temperature, and wind speed on the estimation of sensible heat flux is analyzed using a Bayesian inference technique applied to the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model. The Bayesian approach allows for an explicit quantification of the uncertainties in input variables: a source of error generally ignored in surface heat flux estimation. An application using field measurements from the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 is presented. The spatial variability of selected input meteorological variables in a multitower site is used to formulate the prior estimates for the sampling uncertainties, and the likelihood function is formulated assuming Gaussian errors in the SEBS model. Land surface temperature, air temperature, and wind speed were estimated by sampling their posterior distribution using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Results verify that Bayesian-inferred air temperature and wind speed were generally consistent with those observed at the towers, suggesting that local observations of these variables were spatially representative. Uncertainties in the land surface temperature appear to have the strongest effect on the estimated sensible heat flux, with Bayesian-inferred values differing by up to ±5°C from the observed data. These differences suggest that the footprint of the in situ measured land surface temperature is not representative of the larger-scale variability. As such, these measurements should be used with caution in the calculation of surface heat fluxes and highlight the importance of capturing the spatial variability in the land surface temperature: particularly, for remote sensing retrieval algorithms that use this variable for flux estimation.

  3. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a spiral flow in an asymmetrical heated tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscary, J.; Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance

    1997-03-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author)

  4. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a asymmetrically heated tube helicoidal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscary, J.

    1995-10-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author). 198 refs., 126 figs., 21 tabs

  5. Heat flux driven ion turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.

    1998-01-01

    This work is an analysis of an ion turbulence in a tokamak in the case where the thermal flux is fixed and the temperature profile is allowed to fluctuate. The system exhibits some features of Self-Organized Critical systems. In particular, avalanches are observed. Also the frequency spectrum of the thermal flux exhibits a structure similar to the one of a sand pile automaton, including a 1/f behavior. However, the time average temperature profile is found to be supercritical, i.e. the temperature gradient stays above the critical value. Moreover, the heat diffusivity is lower for a turbulence calculated at fixed flux than a fixed temperature gradient, with the same time average temperature. This behavior is attributed to a stabilizing effect of avalanches. (author)

  6. Sensitivity analysis of the Gupta and Park chemical models on the heat flux by DSMC and CFD codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsa, Luigi; Festa, Giandomenico; Zuppardi, Gennaro

    2012-11-01

    The present study is the logical continuation of a former paper by the first author in which the influence of the chemical models by Gupta and by Park on the computation of heat flux on the Orion and EXPERT capsules was evaluated. Tests were carried out by the direct simulation Monte Carlo code DS2V and by the computational fluiddynamic (CFD) code H3NS. DS2V implements the Gupta model, while H3NS implements the Park model. In order to compare the effects of the chemical models, the Park model was implemented also in DS2V. The results showed that DS2V and H3NS compute a different composition both in the flow field and on the surface, even using the same chemical model (Park). Furthermore DS2V computes, by the two chemical models, different compositions in the flow field but the same composition on the surface, therefore the same heat flux. In the present study, in order to evaluate the influence of these chemical models also in a CFD code, the Gupta and the Park models have been implemented in FLUENT. Tests by DS2V and by FLUENT, have been carried out for the EXPERT capsule at the altitude of 70 km and with velocity of 5000 m/s. The capsule experiences a hypersonic, continuum low density regime. Due to the energy level of the flow, the vibration equation, lacking in the original version of FLUENT, has been implemented. The results of the heat flux computation verify that FLUENT is quite sensitive to the Gupta and to the Park chemical models. In fact, at the stagnation point, the percentage difference between the models is about 13%. On the opposite the DS2V results by the two models are practically equivalent.

  7. Numerical simulation of a fractional model of temperature distribution and heat flux in the semi infinite solid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Choudhary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fractional model for the computation of temperature and heat flux distribution in a semi-infinite solid is discussed which is subjected to spatially decomposing, time-dependent laser source. The apt dimensionless parameters are identified and the reduced temperature and heat flux as a function of these parameters are presented in a numerical form. Some special cases of practical interest are also discussed. The solution is derived by the application of the Laplace transform, the Fourier sine transform and their derivatives. Also, we developed an alternative solution of it by using the Sumudu transform, the Fourier transform and their derivatives. These results are received in compact and graceful forms in terms of the generalized Mittag-Leffler function, which are suitable for numerical computation.

  8. Progress towards modeling tokamak boundary plasma turbulence and understanding its role in setting divertor heat flux widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    2017-10-01

    QCMs (quasi-coherent modes) are well characterized in the edge of Alcator C-Mod, when operating in the Enhanced Dα (EDA) H-mode, a promising alternative regime for ELM (edge localized modes) suppressed operation. To improve the understanding of the physics behind the QCMs, three typical C-Mod EDA H-Mode discharges are simulated by BOUT + + using a six-field two-fluid model (based on the Braginskii equations). The simulated characteristics of the frequency versus wave number spectra of the modes is in reasonable agreement with phase contrast imaging data. The key simulation results are: 1) Linear spectrum analysis and the nonlinear phase relationship indicate the dominance of resistive-ballooning modes and drift-Alfven wave instabilities; 2) QCMs originate inside the separatrix; (3) magnetic flutter causes the mode spreading into the SOL; 4) the boundary electric field Er changes the turbulent characteristics of the QCMs and controls edge transport and the divertor heat flux width; 5) the magnitude of the divertor heat flux depends on the physics models, such as sources and sinks, sheath boundary conditions, and parallel heat flux limiting coefficient. The BOUT + + simulations have also been performed for inter-ELM periods of DIII-D and EAST discharges, and similar quasi-coherent modes have been found. The parallel electron heat fluxes projected onto the target from these BOUT + + simulations follow the experimental heat flux width scaling, in particular the inverse dependence of the width on the poloidal magnetic field with an outlier. Further turbulence statistics analysis shows that the blobs are generated near the pedestal peak gradient region inside the separatrix and contribute to the transport of the particle and heat in the SOL region. To understand the Goldston heuristic drift-based model, results will also be presented from self-consistent transport simulations with the electric and magnetic drifts in BOUT + + and with the sheath potential included in the

  9. Numerical model for swirl flow cooling in high-heat-flux particle beam targets and the design of a swirl-flow-based plasma limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Foster, C.A.

    1984-11-01

    An unsteady, two-dimensional heat conduction code has been used to study the performance of swirl-flow-based neutral particle beam targets. The model includes the effects of two-phase heat transfer and asymmetric heating of tubular elements. The calorimeter installed in the Medium Energy Test Facility, which has been subjected to 30-s neutral beam pulses with incident heat flux intensities of greater than or equal to 5 kW/cm 2 , has been modeled. The numerical results indicate that local heat fluxes in excess of 7 kW/cm 2 occur at the water-cooled surface on the side exposed to the beam. This exceeds critical heat flux limits for uniformly heated tubes wih straight flow by approximately a factor of 5. The design of a plasma limiter based on swirl flow heat transfer is presented

  10. Thermal hydraulic test for reactor safety system - Critical heat flux experiment and development of prediction models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Heung; Baek, Won Pil; Yang, Soo Hyung; No, Chang Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To acquire CHF data through the experiments and develop prediction models, research was conducted. Final objectives of research are as follows: 1) Production of tube CHF data for low and middle pressure and mass flux and Flow Boiling Visualization. 2) Modification and suggestion of tube CHF prediction models. 3) Development of fuel bundle CHF prediction methodology base on tube CHF prediction models. The major results of research are as follows: 1) Production of the CHF data for low and middle pressure and mass flux. - Acquisition of CHF data (764) for low and middle pressure and flow conditions - Analysis of CHF trends based on the CHF data - Assessment of existing CHF prediction methods with the CHF data 2) Modification and suggestion of tube CHF prediction models. - Development of a unified CHF model applicable for a wide parametric range - Development of a threshold length correlation - Improvement of CHF look-up table using the threshold length correlation 3) Development of fuel bundle CHF prediction methodology base on tube CHF prediction models. - Development of bundle CHF prediction methodology using correction factor. 11 refs., 134 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  11. Simulation of Lake Surface Heat Fluxes by the Canadian Small Lake Model: Offline Performance Assessment for Future Coupling with a Regional Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernica, P.; Guerrero, J. L.; MacKay, M.; Wheater, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Lakes strongly influence local and regional climate especially in regions where they are abundant. Development of a lake model for the purpose of integration within a regional climate model is therefore a subject of scientific interest. Of particular importance are the heat flux predictions provided by the lake model since they function as key forcings in a fully coupled atmosphere-land-lake system. The first step towards a coupled model is to validate and characterize the accuracy of the lake model over a range of conditions and to identify limitations. In this work, validation results from offline tests of the Canadian Small Lake Model; a deterministic, computationally efficient, 1D integral model, are presented. Heat fluxes (sensible and latent) and surface water temperatures simulated by the model are compared with in situ observations from two lakes; Landing Lake (NWT, Canada) and L239 (ELA, Canada) for the 2007-2009 period. Sensitivity analysis is performed to identify key parameters important for heat flux predictions. The results demonstrate the ability of the 1-D lake model to reproduce both diurnal and seasonal variations in heat fluxes and surface temperatures for the open water period. These results, in context of regional climate modelling are also discussed.

  12. Comparative Assessment of Two Vegetation Fractional Cover Estimating Methods and Their Impacts on Modeling Urban Latent Heat Flux Using Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying vegetation fractional cover (VFC and assessing its role in heat fluxes modeling using medium resolution remotely sensed data has received less attention than it deserves in heterogeneous urban regions. This study examined two approaches (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI-derived and Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA-derived methods that are commonly used to map VFC based on Landsat imagery, in modeling surface heat fluxes in urban landscape. For this purpose, two different heat flux models, Two-source energy balance (TSEB model and Pixel Component Arranging and Comparing Algorithm (PCACA model, were adopted for model evaluation and analysis. A comparative analysis of the NDVI-derived and MESMA-derived VFCs showed that the latter achieved more accurate estimates in complex urban regions. When the two sources of VFCs were used as inputs to both TSEB and PCACA models, MESMA-derived urban VFC produced more accurate urban heat fluxes (Bowen ratio and latent heat flux relative to NDVI-derived urban VFC. Moreover, our study demonstrated that Landsat imagery-retrieved VFC exhibited greater uncertainty in obtaining urban heat fluxes for the TSEB model than for the PCACA model.

  13. Flow regime transition and heat transfer model at low mass flux condition in a post-dryout region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Yong

    1996-02-01

    The post-dryout flow regime transition criterion from inverted annular flow (IAF) to agitated inverted annular flow (AIAF) is suggested based on the hyperbolicity breaking concept. The hyperbolicity breaking represents a bifurcation point where a sudden flow transition occurs. The hyperbolicity breaking concept is applied to describe the flow regime transition from IAF to AIAF by the growth of disturbance on liquid core surface. The resultant correlation has the similar form to Takenaka's empirical one. To validate the proposed model, it is applied to predict Takenake's experimental results using R-113 refrigerant with four different tube diameters of 3, 5, 7 and 10 mm. The proposed model gives accurate predictions for the tube diameters of 7 and 10 mm. As the tube diameter decreases, the differences between the predictions and the experimental results slightly increase. The flow regime transition from AIAF to dispersed flow (DF) is described by the drift flux model. It is shown that the transition criterion can be well predicted if the droplet sizes in dispersed flow are evaluated appropriately. Existing mechanistic post-dryout models result in fairly good predictions when the mass flux is high or when the film dryout occurs. However, the predictions by these models become poor at low mass flux at which the flow regime before dryout is believed to be churn-turbulent. This is because the constitutive relations and/or the imposed assumptions used in the models become erroneous at low mass flux. The droplet size predicted by the correlation used in the model becomes unrealistically large. In addition, the single phase vapor heat transfer correlation becomes invalid at low mass flux condition. To develop a mechanistic post-dryout model which is available at low mass flux condition, the entrainment mechanisms and the entrained droplet sizes with relation to the flow regimes are investigated. Through the analysis of many experimental post-dryout data, it is shown that

  14. Burnout heat flux in natural flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, M.M.; Darwish, M.A.; Mahmoud, S.I.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty runs of experiments were conducted to determine the critical heat flux for natural flow boiling with water flowing upwards through annuli of centrally heated stainless steel tube. The test section has concentric heated tube of 14mm diameter and heated lengthes of 15 and 25 cm. The outside surface of the annulus was formed by various glass tubes of 17.25, 20 and 25.9mm diameter. System pressure is atmospheric. Inlet subcooling varied from 18 to 5 0 C. Obtained critical heat flux varied from 24.46 to 62.9 watts/cm 2 . A number of parameters having dominant influence on the critical heat flux and hydrodynamic instability (flow and pressure oscillations) preceeding the burnout have been studied. These parameters are mass flow rate, mass velocity, throttling, channel geometry (diameters ratio, length to diameter ratio, and test section length), and inlet subcooling. Flow regimes before and at the moments of burnout were observed, discussed, and compared with the existing physical model of burnout

  15. A dry-spot model of critical heat flux and transition boiling in pool and subcooled forced convection boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Sang Jun

    1998-02-01

    A new dry-spot model for critical heat flux (CHF) is proposed. The new concept for dry area formation based on Poisson distribution of active nucleation sites and the critical active site number is introduced. The model is based on the boiling phenomena observed in nucleate boiling such as Poisson distribution of active nucleation sites and formation of dry spots on the heating surface. It is hypothesized that when the number of bubbles surrounding one bubble exceeds a critical number, the surrounding bubbles restrict the feed of liquid to the microlayer under the bubble. Then a dry spot of vapor will form on the heated surface. As the surface temperature is raised, more and more bubbles will have a population of surrounding active sites over the critical number. Consequently, the number of the spots will increase and the size of dry areas will increase due to merger of several dry spots. If this trend continues, the number of effective sites for heat transport through the wall will diminish, and CHF and transition boiling occur. The model is applicable to pool and subcooled forced convection boiling conditions, based on the common mechanism that CHF and transition boiling are caused by the accumulation and coalescences of dry spots. It is shown that CHF and heat flux in transition boiling can be determined without any empirical parameter based on information on the boiling parameters such as active site density and bubble diameter, etc., in nucleate boiling. It is also shown that the present model well represents actual phenomena on CHF and transition boiling and explains the mechanism on how parameters such as flow modes (pool or flow) and surface wettability influence CHF and transition boiling. Validation of the present model for CHF and transition boiling is achieved without any tuning parameter always present in earlier models. It is achieved by comparing the predictions of CHF and heat flux in transition boiling using measured boiling parameters in nucleate

  16. On Cattaneo–Christov heat flux model for Carreau fluid flow over a slendering sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim

    Full Text Available The underlying intentions of this article are to investigate the impact of non-Fourier heat flux model on the stagnation-point flow of non-Newtonian Carreau fluid. In this study, the innovative Cattaneo–Christov constitutive model is introduced to study the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The flow is impelled by a slendering surface which is of the variable thickness. In the model, the physical mechanism responsible for homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions are further taken into account. Also, the diffusion coefficients of the reactant and auto catalyst are considered to be equal. The governing non-linear partial differential equations consisting of the momentum, energy and concentration equations are reduced to the coupled ordinary differential equations by means of local similarity transformations. The transformed ODEs are tackled numerically by employing an effective shooting algorithm along with the Runge–Kutta Fehlberg scheme. The physical characteristics of the fluid velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are illuminated with the variation of numerous governing factors and are presented graphically. For instance, our result indicates that the temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness are lower in case of Cattaneo–Christov heat flux model when compared to classical Fourier’s heat model. Meanwhile, the rate of heat transfer is significantly improved by a high wall thickness parameter and an opposite influence is found due to the thermal relaxation parameter. We further noticed that a higher value of homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction parameter corresponds to a deceleration in the concentration field and it shows an inverse relation for the Schmidt number. A correlation with accessible results for specific cases is found with fabulous consent. Keywords: Cattaneo–Christov model, Carreau fluid, Slendering sheet, Homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions, Runge–Kutta method

  17. Improvements in Sensible Heat-Flux Parametrization in the High-Resolution Regional Model (HRM) Through the Modified Treatment of the Roughness Length for Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anurose, T. J.; Subrahamanyam, D. Bala

    2013-06-01

    We discuss the impact of the differential treatment of the roughness lengths for momentum and heat (z_{0m} and z_{0h}) in the flux parametrization scheme of the high-resolution regional model (HRM) for a heterogeneous terrain centred around Thiruvananthapuram, India (8.5°N, 76.9°E). The magnitudes of sensible heat flux ( H) obtained from HRM simulations using the original parametrization scheme differed drastically from the concurrent in situ observations. With a view to improving the performance of this parametrization scheme, two distinct modifications are incorporated: (1) In the first method, a constant value of 100 is assigned to the z_{0m}/z_{0h} ratio; (2) and in the second approach, this ratio is treated as a function of time. Both these modifications in the HRM model showed significant improvements in the H simulations for Thiruvananthapuram and its adjoining regions. Results obtained from the present study provide a first-ever comparison of H simulations using the modified parametrization scheme in the HRM model with in situ observations for the Indian coastal region, and suggest a differential treatment of z_{0m} and z_{0h} in the flux parametrization scheme.

  18. Aspects of developed heat and mass flux models on 3D flow of Eyring-Powell fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tanzila; Nadeem, S.

    The variable thermal conductivity impacts and generalized Fourier's and Fick's laws over an exponentially stretching surface are reported in this paper. Another heat flux idea involving mystery of heat conduction is exploited which is not quite the same as the usual literature. Such idea has been utilized as a part of perspective of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux theory. The characteristic of temperature and concentration relaxation features are described. Other than this, chemical reactions are additionally considered. To solve the system of six highly non-linear coupled differential equations, a numerical technique bvp4c is adopted. The skin friction coefficient for three dimensional Eyring-Powell fluid model is calculated. From the present analysis we observe that the temperature and concentration profiles declines for higher values of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters. Also, for higher values of strength of reaction parameters, the concentration profile decreases. Current effort for three dimensional Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions over an exponentially stretching surface does not yet exist in the literature.

  19. Aspects of developed heat and mass flux models on 3D flow of Eyring-Powell fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzila Hayat

    Full Text Available The variable thermal conductivity impacts and generalized Fourier’s and Fick’s laws over an exponentially stretching surface are reported in this paper. Another heat flux idea involving mystery of heat conduction is exploited which is not quite the same as the usual literature. Such idea has been utilized as a part of perspective of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux theory. The characteristic of temperature and concentration relaxation features are described. Other than this, chemical reactions are additionally considered.To solve the system of six highly non-linear coupled differential equations, a numerical technique bvp4c is adopted. The skin friction coefficient for three dimensional Eyring-Powell fluid model is calculated. From the present analysis we observe that the temperature and concentration profiles declines for higher values of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters. Also, for higher values of strength of reaction parameters, the concentration profile decreases. Current effort for three dimensional Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions over an exponentially stretching surface does not yet exist in the literature. Keywords: Three dimensional flow, Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion, Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions, Variable thermal conductivity, Exponentially stretching surface

  20. Rotating Arc Jet Test Model: Time-Accurate Trajectory Heat Flux Replication in a Ground Test Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Bernard; Grinstead, Jay; Dyakonov, Artem; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2011-01-01

    Though arc jet testing has been the proven method employed for development testing and certification of TPS and TPS instrumentation, the operational aspects of arc jets limit testing to selected, but constant, conditions. Flight, on the other hand, produces timevarying entry conditions in which the heat flux increases, peaks, and recedes as a vehicle descends through an atmosphere. As a result, we are unable to "test as we fly." Attempts to replicate the time-dependent aerothermal environment of atmospheric entry by varying the arc jet facility operating conditions during a test have proven to be difficult, expensive, and only partially successful. A promising alternative is to rotate the test model exposed to a constant-condition arc jet flow to yield a time-varying test condition at a point on a test article (Fig. 1). The model shape and rotation rate can be engineered so that the heat flux at a point on the model replicates the predicted profile for a particular point on a flight vehicle. This simple concept will enable, for example, calibration of the TPS sensors on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) aeroshell for anticipated flight environments.

  1. The Analytical Objective Hysteresis Model (AnOHM v1.0: methodology to determine bulk storage heat flux coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The net storage heat flux (ΔQS is important in the urban surface energy balance (SEB but its determination remains a significant challenge. The hysteresis pattern of the diurnal relation between the ΔQS and net all-wave radiation (Q∗ has been captured in the Objective Hysteresis Model (OHM parameterization of ΔQS. Although successfully used in urban areas, the limited availability of coefficients for OHM hampers its application. To facilitate use, and enhance physical interpretations of the OHM coefficients, an analytical solution of the one-dimensional advection–diffusion equation of coupled heat and liquid water transport in conjunction with the SEB is conducted, allowing development of AnOHM (Analytical Objective Hysteresis Model. A sensitivity test of AnOHM to surface properties and hydrometeorological forcing is presented using a stochastic approach (subset simulation. The sensitivity test suggests that the albedo, Bowen ratio and bulk transfer coefficient, solar radiation and wind speed are most critical. AnOHM, driven by local meteorological conditions at five sites with different land use, is shown to simulate the ΔQS flux well (RMSE values of ∼ 30 W m−2. The intra-annual dynamics of OHM coefficients are explored. AnOHM offers significant potential to enhance modelling of the surface energy balance over a wider range of conditions and land covers.

  2. Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S.C.; Torn, M.S.; Fischer, M.L.; Billesbach, D.P.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-08-15

    Characterizing net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) of CO{sub 2} and sensible and latent heat fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes is difficult, yet critical given expected changes in climate and land use. We report here a measurement and modeling study designed to improve our understanding of surface to atmosphere gas exchanges under very heterogeneous land cover in the mostly agricultural U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP). We combined three years of site-level, eddy covariance measurements in several of the dominant land cover types with regional-scale climate data from the distributed Mesonet stations and Next Generation Weather Radar precipitation measurements to calibrate a land surface model of trace gas and energy exchanges (isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM)). Yearly variations in vegetation cover distributions were estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index and compared to regional and subregional vegetation cover type estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture census. We first applied ISOLSM at a 250 m spatial scale to account for vegetation cover type and leaf area variations that occur on hundred meter scales. Because of computational constraints, we developed a subsampling scheme within 10 km 'macrocells' to perform these high-resolution simulations. We estimate that the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility SGP region net CO{sub 2} exchange with the local atmosphere was -240, -340, and -270 gC m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (positive toward the atmosphere) in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, with large seasonal variations. We also performed simulations using two scaling approaches at resolutions of 10, 30, 60, and 90 km. The scaling approach applied in current land surface models led to regional NEE biases of up to 50 and 20% in weekly and annual estimates, respectively. An important factor in causing these biases was the complex leaf area index (LAI) distribution

  3. Effective Momentum and heat flux models for simulation of stratification and mixing in a large pool of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Li; Villanueva, W.; Kudinov, P.

    2012-06-01

    Performance of a boiling water reactor (BWR) containment is mostly determined by reliable operation of pressure suppression pool which serves as a heat sink to cool and condense steam released from the core vessel. Thermal stratification in the pool can significantly impede the pool's pressure suppression capacity. A source of momentum is required in order to break stratification and mix the pool. It is important to have reliable prediction of transient development of stratification and mixing in the pool in different regimes of steam injection. Previously, we have proposed to model the effect of steam injection on the mixing and stratification with the Effective Heat Source (EHS) and the Effective Momentum Source (EMS) models. The EHS model is used to provide thermal effect of steam injection on the pool, preserving heat and mass balance. The EMS model is used to simulate momentum induced by steam injection in different flow regimes. The EMS model is based on the combination of (1) synthetic jet theory, which predicts effective momentum if amplitude and frequency of flow oscillations in the pipe are given, and (2) model proposed by Aya and Nariai for prediction of the amplitude and frequency of oscillations at a given pool temperature and steam mass flux. The complete EHS/EMS models only require the steam mass flux, initial pool bulk temperature, and design-specific parameters, to predict thermal stratification and mixing in a pressure suppression pool. In this work we use EHS/EMS models implemented in containment thermal hydraulic code GOTHIC. The POOLEX/PPOOLEX experiments (Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland) are utilized, to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC's physical models and numerical schemes, (b) propose necessary improvements in GOTHIC sub-grid scale modeling, and (c) validate our proposed models. Specifically the data from POOLEX STB-21 and PPOOLEX STR-03 and STR-04 tests are used for validation of the EHS and EMS models in this work. We

  4. Effective Momentum and heat flux models for simulation of stratification and mixing in a large pool of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Li; Villanueva, W.; Kudinov, P. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    Performance of a boiling water reactor (BWR) containment is mostly determined by reliable operation of pressure suppression pool which serves as a heat sink to cool and condense steam released from the core vessel. Thermal stratification in the pool can significantly impede the pool's pressure suppression capacity. A source of momentum is required in order to break stratification and mix the pool. It is important to have reliable prediction of transient development of stratification and mixing in the pool in different regimes of steam injection. Previously, we have proposed to model the effect of steam injection on the mixing and stratification with the Effective Heat Source (EHS) and the Effective Momentum Source (EMS) models. The EHS model is used to provide thermal effect of steam injection on the pool, preserving heat and mass balance. The EMS model is used to simulate momentum induced by steam injection in different flow regimes. The EMS model is based on the combination of (1) synthetic jet theory, which predicts effective momentum if amplitude and frequency of flow oscillations in the pipe are given, and (2) model proposed by Aya and Nariai for prediction of the amplitude and frequency of oscillations at a given pool temperature and steam mass flux. The complete EHS/EMS models only require the steam mass flux, initial pool bulk temperature, and design-specific parameters, to predict thermal stratification and mixing in a pressure suppression pool. In this work we use EHS/EMS models implemented in containment thermal hydraulic code GOTHIC. The POOLEX/PPOOLEX experiments (Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland) are utilized, to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC's physical models and numerical schemes, (b) propose necessary improvements in GOTHIC sub-grid scale modeling, and (c) validate our proposed models. Specifically the data from POOLEX STB-21 and PPOOLEX STR-03 and STR-04 tests are used for validation of the EHS and EMS models in this

  5. Fast heat flux modulation at the nanoscale

    OpenAIRE

    van Zwol, P. J.; Joulain, K.; Abdallah, P. Ben; Greffet, J. J.; Chevrier, J.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new concept for electrically controlled heat flux modulation. A flux contrast larger than 10 dB is expected with switching time on the order of tens of nanoseconds. Heat flux modulation is based on the interplay between radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale and phase change materials. Such large contrasts are not obtainable in solids, or in far field. As such this opens up new horizons for temperature modulation and actuation at the nanoscale.

  6. Heat Flux Inhibition by Whistlers: Experimental Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Heat flux in weakly magnetized collisionless plasma is, according to theoretical predictions, limited by whistler turbulence that is generated by heat flux instabilities near threshold. Observations of solar wind electrons by Gary and coworkers appear to confirm the limit on heat flux as being roughly the product of the magnetic energy density and the electron thermal velocity, in agreement with prediction (Pistinner and Eichler 1998)

  7. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

  8. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Del Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-01-01

    H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts

  9. ANthropogenic heat FLUX estimation from Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmong, C.S.B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Del Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mi, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2017-01-01

    The H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the

  10. The flow of magnetohydrodynamic Maxwell nanofluid over a cylinder with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, C. S. K.; Sanjeevi, P.; Raju, M. C.; Ibrahim, S. M.; Lorenzini, G.; Lorenzini, E.

    2017-11-01

    A theoretical analysis is performed for studying the flow and heat and mass transfer characteristics of Maxwell fluid over a cylinder with Cattaneo-Christov and non-uniform heat source/sink. The Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters also considered into account. Numerical solutions are carried out by using Runge-Kutta-based shooting technique. The effects of various governing parameters on the flow and temperature profiles are demonstrated graphically. We also computed the friction factor coefficient, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers for the permeable and impermeable flow over a cylinder cases. It is found that the rising values of Biot number, non-uniform heat source/sink and thermophoresis parameters reduce the rate of heat transfer. It is also found that the friction factor coefficient is high in impermeable flow over a cylinder case when compared with the permeable flow over a cylinder case.

  11. Techniques for measurement of heat flux in furnace waterwalls of boilers and prediction of heat flux – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, G.; Chandrasekhara Rao, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat flux measurement techniques applicable to boiler water wall are elaborated. • Applications involving heat flux measurement in boiler water wall are discussed. • Appropriate technique for usage in high ash Indian coal fired boilers is required. • Usage of chordal thermocouple is suggested for large scale heat flux measurements. - Abstract: Computation of metal temperatures in a furnace waterwall of a boiler is necessary for the proper selection of tube material and thickness. An adequate knowledge of the heat flux distribution in the furnace walls is a prerequisite for the computation of metal temperatures. Hence, the measurement of heat flux in a boiler waterwall is necessary to arrive at an optimum furnace design, especially for high ash Indian coal fired boilers. Also, a thoroughly validated furnace model will result in a considerable reduction of the quantum of experimentation to be carried out. In view of the above mentioned scenario, this paper reviews the research work carried out by various researchers by experimentation and numerical simulation in the below mentioned areas: (i) furnace modeling and heat flux prediction, (ii) heat flux measurement techniques and (iii) applications of heat flux measurements.

  12. Assessment and simulation of global terrestrial latent heat flux by synthesis of CMIP5 climate models and surface eddy covariance observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunjun Yao; Shunlin Liang; Xianglan Li; Shaomin Liu; Jiquan Chen; Xiaotong Zhang; Kun Jia; Bo Jiang; Xianhong Xie; Simon Munier; Meng Liu; Jian Yu; Anders Lindroth; Andrej Varlagin; Antonio Raschi; Asko Noormets; Casimiro Pio; Georg Wohlfahrt; Ge Sun; Jean-Christophe Domec; Leonardo Montagnani; Magnus Lund; Moors Eddy; Peter D. Blanken; Thomas Grunwald; Sebastian Wolf; Vincenzo Magliulo

    2016-01-01

    The latent heat flux (LE) between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere is a major driver of the globalhydrological cycle. In this study, we evaluated LE simulations by 45 general circulation models (GCMs)in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) by a comparison...

  13. High heat flux cooling for accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, I.; Nagler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerator targets, both for radioisotope production and for high neutron flux sources generate very high thermal power in the target material which absorbs the particles beam. Generally, the geometric size of the targets is very small and the power density is high. The design of these targets requires dealing with very high heat fluxes and very efficient heat removal techniques in order to preserve the integrity of the target. Normal heat fluxes from these targets are in the order of 1 kw/cm 2 and may reach levels of an order of magnitude higher

  14. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a spiral flow in an asymmetrical heated tube; Transfert thermique et flux critique dans un ecoulement helicoidal en tube chauffe asymetriquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere; [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1997-03-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author) 197 refs.

  15. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a asymmetrically heated tube helicoidal flow; Transfert thermique et flux critique dans un ecoulement helicoidal en tube chauffe asymetriquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J

    1995-10-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author). 198 refs., 126 figs., 21 tabs.

  16. Assessment of capability of models for prediction of pressure drop and dryout heat flux in a heat generating particulate debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.P.; Nayak, A.K.; Rashid, M.; Kulenovic, R.

    2009-01-01

    During a severe accident in a light water reactor, the core can melt and be relocated to the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel. There it can form a particulate debris bed due to the possible presence of water. This bed, if not quenched in time, can lead to the failure of the pressure vessel because of the insufficient heat removal of decay heat in the debris bed. Therefore, addressing the issue of coolability behaviour of heat generating particulate debris bed is of prime importance in the framework of severe accident management strategies, particularly in case of above mentioned late phase scenario of an accident. In order to investigate the coolability behaviour of particulate debris bed, experiments were carried out at IKE test facility 'DEBRIS' on particle beds of irregularly shaped particles mixed with spheres under top- and bottom-flooding condition. The pressure drop and dryout heat flux (DHF) were measured for top- and bottom-flooding conditions. For top-flooding conditions, it was found that the pressure gradients are all smaller than the hydrostatic pressure gradient of water, indicating an important role of the counter-current interfacial shear stress of the two-phase flow. For bottom-flooding with a relatively high liquid inflow velocity, the pressure gradient increases consistently with the vapour velocity and the fluid-particle drags become important. Also, with additional forced liquid inflow from the bottom, the DHF increases dramatically. In all the cases, it was found that the DHF is significantly larger with bottom-flooding condition compared to top-flooding condition. Different models such as Lipinski, Reed, Tung and Dhir, Hu and Theophanous, and Schulenberg and Mueller have been used to predict the pressure drop characteristics and the DHF of heat generating particulate debris beds. Comparison is made among above mentioned models and experimental results for DHF and pressure drop characteristics. Considering the overall trend in

  17. Heat flux microsensor measurements and calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, James P.; Hager, Jon M.; Onishi, Shinzo; Diller, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    A new thin-film heat flux gage has been fabricated specifically for severe high temperature operation using platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium for the thermocouple elements. Radiation calibrations of this gage were performed at the AEDC facility over the available heat flux range (approx. 1.0 - 1,000 W/cu cm). The gage output was linear with heat flux with a slight increase in sensitivity with increasing surface temperature. Survivability of gages was demonstrated in quench tests from 500 C into liquid nitrogen. Successful operation of gages to surface temperatures of 750 C has been achieved. No additional cooling of the gages is required because the gages are always at the same temperature as the substrate material. A video of oxyacetylene flame tests with real-time heat flux and temperature output is available.

  18. Study of heat flux deposition in the Tore Supra Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    2009-02-01

    Accurate measurements of heat loads on internal tokamak components is essential for protection of the device during steady state operation. The optimisation of experimental scenarios also requires an in depth understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the heat flux deposition on the walls. The objective of this study is a detailed characterisation of the heat flux to plasma facing components (PFC) of the Tore Supra tokamak. The power deposited onto Tore Supra PFCs is calculated using an inverse method, which is applied to both the temperature maps measured by infrared thermography and to the enthalpy signals from calorimetry. The derived experimental heat flux maps calculated on the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) are then compared with theoretical heat flux density distributions from a standard SOL-model. They are two experimental observations that are not consistent with the model: significant heat flux outside the theoretical wetted area, and heat load peaking close to the tangency point between the TPL and the last closed field surface (LCFS). An experimental analysis for several discharges with variable security factors q is made. In the area consistent with the theoretical predictions, this parametric study shows a clear dependence between the heat flux length λ q (estimated in the SOL (scrape-off layer) from the IR measurements) and the magnetic configuration. We observe that the spreading of heat fluxes on the component is compensated by a reduction of the power decay length λ q in the SOL when q decreases. On the other hand, in the area where the derived experimental heat loads are not consistent with the theoretical predictions, we observe that the spreading of heat fluxes outside the theoretical boundary increases when q decreases, and is thus not counterbalanced. (author)

  19. Data bank of critical heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balino, J.L.; Ruival, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    More than 13.000 measurements of critical heat flux are classified in a data bank. From each experiment the following information can be obtained: cooling medium (light water, freon 12 or freon 21), geometry of the test section and thermalhydraulic parameters. The data management is performed by a computer program called CHFTRAT. A brief study of the influence of different parameters in the critical heat flux is presented, as an example of how to use the program. (M.E.L.) [es

  20. Increased heat fluxes near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W; van Breugel, PB; Moors, EJ; Nieveen, JP

    2002-01-01

    Observations of sensible and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest. The enhancement averages to 56 W m(-2), or 16% of the net radiation, at fetches less than 400 m, equivalent to fetch to height ratios less

  1. Increased heat fluxes near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.; Breugel, van P.B.; Moors, E.J.; Nieveen, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Observations of sensible and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest. The enhancement averages to 56 W mm2, or 16 f the net radiation, at fetches less than 400 m, equivalent to fetch to height ratios less than

  2. Comparison of observed and modeled surface fluxes of heat for the Volta river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burose, D.; Moene, A.F.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Land-surface processes and their modeling play an important role in planetary boundary modeling, due to their role of providing the surface boundary conditions to the atmosphere. In particular, processes regarding clouds and precipitation are strongly influenced by land-surface processes. To get a

  3. Geothermal flux and basal melt rate in the Dome C region inferred from radar reflectivity and heat modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Olivier; Ritz, Catherine; Parrenin, Frédéric; Urbini, Stefano; Frezzotti, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    Basal melt rate is the most important physical quantity to be evaluated when looking for an old-ice drilling site, and it depends to a great extent on the geothermal flux (GF), which is poorly known under the East Antarctic ice sheet. Given that wet bedrock has higher reflectivity than dry bedrock, the wetness of the ice-bed interface can be assessed using radar echoes from the bedrock. But, since basal conditions depend on heat transfer forced by climate but lagged by the thick ice, the basal ice may currently be frozen whereas in the past it was generally melting. For that reason, the risk of bias between present and past conditions has to be evaluated. The objective of this study is to assess which locations in the Dome C area could have been protected from basal melting at any time in the past, which requires evaluating GF. We used an inverse approach to retrieve GF from radar-inferred distribution of wet and dry beds. A 1-D heat model is run over the last 800 ka to constrain the value of GF by assessing a critical ice thickness, i.e. the minimum ice thickness that would allow the present local distribution of basal melting. A regional map of the GF was then inferred over a 80 km × 130 km area, with a N-S gradient and with values ranging from 48 to 60 mW m-2. The forward model was then emulated by a polynomial function to compute a time-averaged value of the spatially variable basal melt rate over the region. Three main subregions appear to be free of basal melting, two because of a thin overlying ice and one, north of Dome C, because of a low GF.

  4. Geothermal flux and basal melt rate in the Dome C region inferred from radar reflectivity and heat modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Passalacqua

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Basal melt rate is the most important physical quantity to be evaluated when looking for an old-ice drilling site, and it depends to a great extent on the geothermal flux (GF, which is poorly known under the East Antarctic ice sheet. Given that wet bedrock has higher reflectivity than dry bedrock, the wetness of the ice–bed interface can be assessed using radar echoes from the bedrock. But, since basal conditions depend on heat transfer forced by climate but lagged by the thick ice, the basal ice may currently be frozen whereas in the past it was generally melting. For that reason, the risk of bias between present and past conditions has to be evaluated. The objective of this study is to assess which locations in the Dome C area could have been protected from basal melting at any time in the past, which requires evaluating GF. We used an inverse approach to retrieve GF from radar-inferred distribution of wet and dry beds. A 1-D heat model is run over the last 800 ka to constrain the value of GF by assessing a critical ice thickness, i.e. the minimum ice thickness that would allow the present local distribution of basal melting. A regional map of the GF was then inferred over a 80 km  ×  130 km area, with a N–S gradient and with values ranging from 48 to 60 mW m−2. The forward model was then emulated by a polynomial function to compute a time-averaged value of the spatially variable basal melt rate over the region. Three main subregions appear to be free of basal melting, two because of a thin overlying ice and one, north of Dome C, because of a low GF.

  5. Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.

  6. Geothermal heat flux in the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica: New insights from temperature measurements, depth to the bottom of the magnetic source estimation, and thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadek, R.; Gohl, K.; Diehl, A.; Kaul, N.

    2017-07-01

    Focused research on the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, which drain the West Antarctic Ice Shelf (WAIS) into the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE), revealed strong signs of instability in recent decades that result from variety of reasons, such as inflow of warmer ocean currents and reverse bedrock topography, and has been established as the Marine Ice Sheet Instability hypothesis. Geothermal heat flux (GHF) is a poorly constrained parameter in Antarctica and suspected to affect basal conditions of ice sheets, i.e., basal melting and subglacial hydrology. Thermomechanical models demonstrate the influential boundary condition of geothermal heat flux for (paleo) ice sheet stability. Due to a complex tectonic and magmatic history of West Antarctica, the region is suspected to exhibit strong heterogeneous geothermal heat flux variations. We present an approach to investigate ranges of realistic heat fluxes in the ASE by different methods, discuss direct observations, and 3-D numerical models that incorporate boundary conditions derived from various geophysical studies, including our new Depth to the Bottom of the Magnetic Source (DBMS) estimates. Our in situ temperature measurements at 26 sites in the ASE more than triples the number of direct GHF observations in West Antarctica. We demonstrate by our numerical 3-D models that GHF spatially varies from 68 up to 110 mW m-2.

  7. Numerical prediction of heat-flux to massive calorimeters engulfed in regulatory fires with the cask analysis fire environment (CAFE) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, Jorman A.; Suo-Antitla, Ahti; Kramer M, Alex; Greiner, Miles

    2000-01-01

    Recent observations show that the thermal boundary conditions within large-scale fires are significantly affected by the presence of thermally massive objects. These objects cool the soot and gas near their surfaces, and these effects reduce the incoming radiant heat-flux to values lower than the levels expected from simple σT fire 4 models. They also affect the flow and temperature fields in the fire far from their surfaces. The Cask Analysis Fire Environment (CAFE) code has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to provide an enhanced fire boundary condition for the design of radioactive material packages. CAFE is a set of computer subroutines that use computational fluid mechanics methods to predict convective heat transfer and mixing. It also includes models for fuel and oxygen transport, chemical reaction, and participating-media radiation heat transfer. This code uses two-dimensional computational models so that it has reasonably short turnaround times on standard workstations and is well suited for design and risk studies. In this paper, CAFE is coupled with a commercial finite-element program to model a large cylindrical calorimeter fully engulfed in a pool fire. The time-dependent heat-flux to the calorimeter and the calorimeter surface temperature are determined for several locations around the calorimeter circumference. The variation of heat-flux with location is determined for calorimeters with different diameters and wall thickness, and the observed effects discussed

  8. Characterization of local heat fluxes around ICRF antennas on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campergue, A.-L. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, F77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Jacquet, P.; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Sirinelli, A. [Euratom/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electronics, Torino (Italy); Colas, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced power deposition on Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) close to the antennas can occur. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat fluxes on the protection of the JET ICRF antennas, using Infra-Red (IR) thermography measurement. The measured heat flux patterns along the poloidal limiters surrounding powered antennas were compared to predictions from a simple RF sheath rectification model. The RF electric field, parallel to the static magnetic field in front of the antenna, was evaluated using the TOPICA code, integrating a 3D flattened model of the JET A2 antennas. The poloidal density variation in front of the limiters was obtained from the mapping of the Li-beam or edge reflectometry measurements using the flux surface geometry provided by EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. In many cases, this simple model can well explain the position of the maximum heat flux on the different protection limiters and the heat-flux magnitude, confirming that the parallel RF electric field and the electron plasma density in front of the antenna are the main driving parameters for ICRF-induced local heat fluxes.

  9. High heat flux device of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides an equipments for high heat flux device (divertor) of a thermonuclear device, which absorbs thermal deformation during operation, has a high installation accuracy, and sufficiently withstands for thermal stresses. Namely, a heat sink member is joined to a structural base. Armour tiles are joined on the heat sink member. Cooling pipes are disposed between the heat sink member and the armour tiles. With such a constitution, the heat sink member using a highly heat conductive material having ductility, such as oxygen free copper, the cooling pipes using a material having excellent high temperature resistance and excellent elongation, such as aluminum-dispersed reinforced copper, and the armour tiles are completely joined on the structural base. Therefore, when thermal deformation tends to cause in the high heat flux device such as a divertor, cooling pipes cause no plastic deformation because of their high temperature resistance, but the heat sink member such as a oxygen free copper causes plastic deformation to absorb thermal deformation. As a result, the high heat flux device such as a divertor causes no deformation. (I.S.)

  10. A method for sensible heat flux model parameterization based on radiometric surface temperature and environmental factors without involving the parameter KB-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Qifeng; Wu, Bingfang; Yan, Nana; Zhu, Weiwei; Xing, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Sensible heat flux is a key component of land-atmosphere interaction. In most parameterizations it is calculated with surface-air temperature differences and total aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer (Rae) that is related to the KB-1 parameter. Suitable values are hard to obtain since KB-1 is related both to canopy characteristics and environmental conditions. In this paper, a parameterize method for sensible heat flux over vegetated surfaces (maize field and grass land in the Heihe river basin of northwest China) was proposed based on the radiometric surface temperature, surface resistance (Rs) and vapor pressures (saturated and actual) at the surface and the atmosphere above the canopy. A biophysics-based surface resistance model was revised to compute surface resistance with several environmental factors. The total aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer is directly calculated by combining the biophysics-based surface resistance and vapor pressures. One merit of this method is that the calculation of KB-1 can be avoided. The method provides a new way to estimate sensible heat flux over vegetated surfaces and its performance compares well to the LAS measured sensible heat and other empirical or semi-empirical KB-1 based estimations.

  11. Divertor heat flux mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experimenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Maingi, R.; Gates, D. A.; Menard, J. E.; Paul, S. F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Boedo, J. A.; Bush, C. E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Leblanc, B. P.; Mueller, D.; NSTX Team

    2009-02-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6MWm-2to0.5-2MWm-2 in small-ELM 0.8-1.0MA, 4-6MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of the outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.

  12. Simulation of boiling flow in evaporator of separate type heat pipe with low heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Y.W.; Wang, Wen; Zhuan, Rui; Yi, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A boiling flow model in a separate type heat pipe with 65 mm diameter tube. • Nucleate boiling is the dominant mechanism in large pipes at low mass and heat flux. • The two-phase heat transfer coefficient is less sensitive to the total mass flux. - Abstract: The separate type heat pipe heat exchanger is considered to be a potential selection for developing passive cooling spent fuel pool – for the passive pressurized water reactor. This paper simulates the boiling flow behavior in the evaporator of separate type heat pipe, consisting of a bundle of tubes of inner diameter 65 mm. It displays two-phase characteristic in the evaporation section of the heat pipe working in low heat flux. In this study, the two-phase flow model in the evaporation section of the separate type heat pipe is presented. The volume of fluid (VOF) model is used to consider the interaction between the ammonia gas and liquid. The flow patterns and flow behaviors are studied and the agitated bubbly flow, churn bubbly flow are obtained, the slug bubble is likely to break into churn slug or churn froth flow. In addition, study on the heat transfer coefficients indicates that the nucleate boiling is the dominant mechanism in large pipes at low mass and heat flux, with the heat transfer coefficient being less sensitive to the total mass flux

  13. A study on the development of advanced models to predict the critical heat flux for water and liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum

    1994-02-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon in the two-phase convective flows has been an important issue in the fields of design and safety analysis of light water reactor (LWR) as well as sodium cooled liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Especially in the LWR application many physical aspects of the CHF phenomenon are understood and reliable correlations and mechanistic models to predict the CHF condition have been proposed. However, there are few correlations and models which are applicable to liquid metals. Compared with water, liquid metals show a divergent picture for boiling pattern. Therefore, the CHF conditions obtained from investigations with water cannot be applied to liquid metals. In this work a mechanistic model to predict the CHF of water and a correlation for liquid metals are developed. First, a mechanistic model to predict the CHF in flow boiling at low quality was developed based on the liquid sublayer dryout mechanism. In this approach the CHF is assumed to occur when a vapor blanket isolates the liquid sublayer from bulk liquid and then the liquid entering the sublayer falls short of balancing the rate of sublayer dryout by vaporization. Therefore, the vapor blanket velocity is the key parameter. In this work the vapor blanket velocity is theoretically determined based on mass, energy, and momentum balance and finally the mechanistic model to predict the CHF in flow boiling at low quality is developed. The accuracy of the present model is evaluated by comparing model predictions with the experimental data and tabular data of look-up tables. The predictions of the present model agree well with extensive CHF data. In the latter part a correlation to predict the CHF for liquid metals is developed based on the flow excursion mechanism. By using Baroczy two-phase frictional pressure drop correlation and Ledinegg instability criterion, the relationship between the CHF of liquid metals and the principal parameters is derived and finally the

  14. Diameter effect on critical heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, A.; Cheng, S.C.; Groeneveld, D.C.; Shan, J.Q.

    2009-01-01

    The critical heat flux look-up table (CHF LUT) is widely used to predict CHF for various applications, including design and safety analysis of nuclear reactors. Using the CHF LUT for round tubes having inside diameters different from the reference 8 mm involves conversion of CHF to 8 mm. Different authors [Becker, K.M., 1965. An Analytical and Experimental Study of Burnout Conditions in Vertical Round Ducts, Aktiebolaget Atomenergie Report AE 177, Sweden; Boltenko, E.A., et al., 1989. Effect of tube diameter on CHF at various two phase flow regimes, Report IPE-1989; Biasi, L., Clerici, G.C., Garriba, S., Sala, R., Tozzi, A., 1967. Studies on Burnout, Part 3, Energia Nucleare, vol. 14, pp. 530-536; Groeneveld, D.C., Cheng, S.C., Doan, T., 1986. AECL-UO critical heat flux look-up table. Heat Transfer Eng., 7, 46-62; Groeneveld et al., 1996; Hall, D.D., Mudawar, I., 2000. Critical heat flux for water flow in tubes - II subcooled CHF correlations. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43, 2605-2640; Wong, W.C., 1996. Effect of tube diameter on critical heat flux, MaSC dissertation, Ottawa Carleton Institute for Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Ottawa] have proposed several types of correlations or factors to describe the diameter effect on CHF. The present work describes the derivation of new diameter correction factor and compares it with several existing prediction methods

  15. The transient transpiration heat flux meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, N.; Calisto, H.; Afgan, N.; Leontiev, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    A new heat flux measurement principle, based on the transient response of a transpiration radiometer, is proposed. The measurement principle of current transpiration radiometers is based on a steady-state temperature measurement in a porous element. Since it may typically take several seconds to reach these conditions, there are obvious benefits in reducing the instrument response time. This can be achieved through the analysis of its transient response in order to predict the incident heat flux. In addition, the proposed methodology enables the separate measurement of the radiative and convective components of incident heat fluxes, without compromising the known advantages of transpiration radiometers. The availability of such an instrument may enable the development of advanced monitoring, diagnostic and control systems for thermal equipment

  16. Structures for handling high heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The divertor is recognized as one of the main performance limiting components for ITER. This paper reviews the critical issues for structures that are designed to withstand heat fluxes >5 MW/m 2 . High velocity, sub-cooled water with twisted tape inserts for enhanced heat transfer provides a critical heat flux limit of 40-60 MW/m 2 . Uncertainties in physics and engineering heat flux peaking factors require that the design heat flux not exceed 10 MW/m 2 to maintain an adequate burnout safety margin. Armor tiles and heat sink materials must have a well matched thermal expansion coefficient to minimize stresses. The divertor lifetime from sputtering erosion is highly uncertain. The number of disruptions specified for ITER must be reduced to achieve a credible design. In-situ plasma spray repair with thick metallic coatings may reduce the problems of erosion. Runaway electrons in ITER have the potential to melt actively cooled components in a single event. A water leak is a serious accident because of steam reactions with hot carbon, beryllium, or tungsten that can mobilize large amounts of tritium and radioactive elements. If the plasma does not shutdown immediately, the divertor can melt in 1-10 s after a loss of coolant accident. Very high reliability of carbon tile braze joints will be required to achieve adequate safety and performance goals. Most of these critical issues will be addressed in the near future by operation of the Tore Supra pump limiters and the JET pumped divertor. An accurate understanding of the power flow out of edge of a DT burning plasma is essential to successful design of high heat flux components. (orig.)

  17. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described. PMID:25386758

  18. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Maria Carlomagno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.

  19. Predicting critical heat flux in slug flow regime of uniformly heated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical computation code (PWR-DNBP) has been developed to predict Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of forced convective flow of water in a vertical heated channel. The code was based on the liquid sub-layer model, with the assumption that CHF occurred when the liquid film thickness between the heated surface and vapour ...

  20. Prediction of critical heat flux using ANFIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaferanlouei, Salman, E-mail: zaferanlouei@gmail.co [Nuclear Engineering and Physics Department, Faculty of Nuclear Engineering, Center of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rostamifard, Dariush; Setayeshi, Saeed [Nuclear Engineering and Physics Department, Faculty of Nuclear Engineering, Center of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The prediction of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is essential for water cooled nuclear reactors since it is an important parameter for the economic efficiency and safety of nuclear power plants. Therefore, in this study using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), a new flexible tool is developed to predict CHF. The process of training and testing in this model is done by using a set of available published field data. The CHF values predicted by the ANFIS model are acceptable compared with the other prediction methods. We improve the ANN model that is proposed by to avoid overfitting. The obtained new ANN test errors are compared with ANFIS model test errors, subsequently. It is found that the ANFIS model with root mean square (RMS) test errors of 4.79%, 5.04% and 11.39%, in fixed inlet conditions and local conditions and fixed outlet conditions, respectively, has superior performance in predicting the CHF than the test error obtained from MLP Neural Network in fixed inlet and outlet conditions, however, ANFIS also has acceptable result to predict CHF in fixed local conditions.

  1. Prediction of critical heat flux using ANFIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaferanlouei, Salman; Rostamifard, Dariush; Setayeshi, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is essential for water cooled nuclear reactors since it is an important parameter for the economic efficiency and safety of nuclear power plants. Therefore, in this study using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), a new flexible tool is developed to predict CHF. The process of training and testing in this model is done by using a set of available published field data. The CHF values predicted by the ANFIS model are acceptable compared with the other prediction methods. We improve the ANN model that is proposed by to avoid overfitting. The obtained new ANN test errors are compared with ANFIS model test errors, subsequently. It is found that the ANFIS model with root mean square (RMS) test errors of 4.79%, 5.04% and 11.39%, in fixed inlet conditions and local conditions and fixed outlet conditions, respectively, has superior performance in predicting the CHF than the test error obtained from MLP Neural Network in fixed inlet and outlet conditions, however, ANFIS also has acceptable result to predict CHF in fixed local conditions.

  2. Sensors for Metering Heat Flux Area Density and Metrological Equipment for the Heat Flux Density Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, D. O.

    2018-04-01

    The demand in measuring and studies of heat conduction of various media is very urgent now. This article considers the problem of heat conduction monitoring and measurement in various media and materials in any industries and branches of science as well as metrological support of the heat flux measurement equipment. The main study objects are both the sensors manufactured and facilities onto which these sensors will be installed: different cladding structures of the buildings, awnings, rocket fairings, boiler units, internal combustion engines. The Company develops and manufactures different types of heat flux sensors: thermocouple, thin-film, heterogeneous gradient as well as metrological equipment for the gauging calibration of the heat flux density measurement. The calibration shall be performed using both referencing method in the unit and by fixed setting of the heat flux in the unit. To manufacture heterogeneous heat flux gradient sensors (HHFGS) the Company developed and designed a number of units: diffusion welding unit, HHFGS cutting unit. Rather good quality HHFGS prototypes were obtained. At this stage the factory tests on the equipment for the heat flux density measurement equipment are planned. A high-sensitivity heat flux sensor was produced, now it is tested at the Construction Physics Research Institute (Moscow). It became possible to create thin-film heat flux sensors with the sensitivity not worse than that of the sensors manufactured by Captec Company (France). The Company has sufficient premises to supply the market with a wide range of sensors, to master new sensor manufacture technologies which will enable their application range.

  3. Poloidal and toroidal heat flux distribution in the CCT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Dhir, V.K.; Taylor, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma heat flux to the Faraday shield panels of the UCLA Continuous Current Tokamak (CCT) has been measured calorimetrically in order to identify the dominant parameters affecting the spatial distribution of heat deposition. Three heating methods were investigated: audio frequency discharge cleaning, RF heating, and AC ohmic. Significant poloidal asymmetry is present in the heat flux distribution. On the average, the outer panels received 25-30% greater heat flux than the inner ones, with the ratio of maximum to minimum values attaining a difference of more than a factor of 2. As a diagnostic experiment the current to a selected toroidal field coil was reduced in order to locally deflect the toroidal field lines outward in a ripple-like fashion. Greatly enhanced heat deposition (up to a factor of 4) was observed at this location on the outside Faraday panels. The enhancement was greatest for conditions of low toroidal field and low neutral pressure, leading to low plasma densities, for which Coulomb collisions are the smallest. An exponential model based on a heat flux e-folding length describes the experimentally found localization of thermal energy quite adequately. (orig.)

  4. Prediction of critical heat flux in vertical pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, S.; Healzer, J.M.; Abdollahian, D.

    1981-01-01

    A previously developed semi-empirical model for adiabatic two-phase annular flow ix extended to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) in a vertical pipe. The model exhibits a sharply declining curve of CHF versus steam quality (X) at low X, and is relatively independent of the heat flux distribution. In this region, vaporization of the liquid film controls. At high X, net deposition upon the liquid film becomes important and CHF versus X flattens considerably. In this zone, CHF is dependent upon the heat flux distribution. Model predictions are compared to test data and an empirical correlation. The agreement is generally good if one employs previously reported mass transfer coefficients. (orig.)

  5. The impact of in-canopy wind profile formulations on heat flux estimation in an open orchard using the remote sensing-based two-source model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cammalleri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For open orchard and vineyard canopies containing significant fractions of exposed soil (>50%, typical of Mediterranean agricultural regions, the energy balance of the vegetation elements is strongly influenced by heat exchange with the bare soil/substrate. For these agricultural systems a "two-source" approach, where radiation and turbulent exchange between the soil and canopy elements are explicitly modelled, appears to be the only suitable methodology for reliably assessing energy fluxes. In strongly clumped canopies, the effective wind speed profile inside and below the canopy layer can strongly influence the partitioning of energy fluxes between the soil and vegetation components. To assess the impact of in-canopy wind profile on model flux estimates, an analysis of three different formulations is presented, including algorithms from Goudriaan (1977, Massman (1987 and Lalic et al. (2003. The in-canopy wind profile formulations are applied to the thermal-based two-source energy balance (TSEB model developed by Norman et al. (1995 and modified by Kustas and Norman (1999. High resolution airborne remote sensing images, collected over an agricultural area located in the western part of Sicily (Italy comprised primarily of vineyards, olive and citrus orchards, are used to derive all the input parameters needed to apply the TSEB. The images were acquired from June to October 2008 and include a relatively wide range of meteorological and soil moisture conditions. A preliminary sensitivity analysis of the three wind profile algorithms highlights the dependence of wind speed just above the soil/substrate to leaf area index and canopy height over the typical range of canopy properties encountered in these agricultural areas. It is found that differences among the models in wind just above the soil surface are most significant under sparse and medium fractional cover conditions (15–50%. The TSEB model heat flux estimates are compared with micro

  6. Analysis of heat transfer under high heat flux nucleate boiling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Dinh, N. [3145 Burlington Laboratories, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Analysis was performed for a heater infrared thermometric imaging temperature data obtained from high heat flux pool boiling and liquid film boiling experiments BETA. With the OpenFOAM solver, heat flux distribution towards the coolant was obtained by solving transient heat conduction of heater substrate given the heater surface temperature data as boundary condition. The so-obtained heat flux data was used to validate them against the state-of-art wall boiling model developed by D. R. Shaver (2015) with the assumption of micro-layer hydrodynamics. Good agreement was found between the model prediction and data for conditions away from the critical heat flux (CHF). However, the data indicate a different heat transfer pattern under CHF, which is not captured by the current model. Experimental data strengthen the notion of burnout caused by the irreversible hot spot due to failure of rewetting. The observation forms a basis for a detailed modeling of micro-layer hydrodynamics under high heat flux.

  7. Analysis of heat transfer under high heat flux nucleate boiling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Dinh, N.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis was performed for a heater infrared thermometric imaging temperature data obtained from high heat flux pool boiling and liquid film boiling experiments BETA. With the OpenFOAM solver, heat flux distribution towards the coolant was obtained by solving transient heat conduction of heater substrate given the heater surface temperature data as boundary condition. The so-obtained heat flux data was used to validate them against the state-of-art wall boiling model developed by D. R. Shaver (2015) with the assumption of micro-layer hydrodynamics. Good agreement was found between the model prediction and data for conditions away from the critical heat flux (CHF). However, the data indicate a different heat transfer pattern under CHF, which is not captured by the current model. Experimental data strengthen the notion of burnout caused by the irreversible hot spot due to failure of rewetting. The observation forms a basis for a detailed modeling of micro-layer hydrodynamics under high heat flux.

  8. Dual Phase Lag Model of Melting Process in Domain of Metal Film Subjected to an External Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochnacki B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heating process in the domain of thin metal film subjected to a strong laser pulse are discussed. The mathematical model of the process considered is based on the dual-phase-lag equation (DPLE which results from the generalized form of the Fourier law. This approach is, first of all, used in the case of micro-scale heat transfer problems (the extremely short duration, extreme temperature gradients and very small geometrical dimensions of the domain considered. The external heating (a laser action is substituted by the introduction of internal heat source to the DPLE. To model the melting process in domain of pure metal (chromium the approach basing on the artificial mushy zone introduction is used and the main goal of investigation is the verification of influence of the artificial mushy zone ‘width’ on the results of melting modeling. At the stage of numerical modeling the author’s version of the Control Volume Method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations and conclusions are presented.

  9. A Remote Sensing-based Characterization of the Urban Heat Island and its Implications for Modeled Estimates of Urban Biogenic Carbon Fluxes in Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Friedl, M. A.; Hutyra, L.; Hardiman, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Urban land use occupies a small but critical proportion of global land area for the carbon cycle, and in the coming decades, urban land area is expected to nearly double. Conversion of natural land cover to urban land cover imposes myriad ecological effects, including increased land surface and air temperatures via the urban heat island effect. In this study, we characterize the seasonal and spatial characteristics of the urban heat island over Boston, MA and estimate its consequences on biogenic carbon fluxes with a remote sensing-based model. Using a 12-year time series of emissivity- and atmospherically-corrected land surface temperatures from Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery, we find a high degree of spatial heterogeneity and consistent seasonal patterns in the thermal properties of Boston, controlled mainly by variations in vegetative cover. Field measurements of surface air temperature across an urbanization gradient show season- and vegetation-dependent patterns consistent with those observed in the Landsat data. With a fused data set that combines surface air temperature, MODIS, and Landsat observations, we modify and run the Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (VPRM) to explore 1) how elevated temperatures affect diurnal and seasonal patterns of hourly urban biogenic carbon fluxes in Massachusetts in 2013 and 2014 and 2) to what extent these fluxes follow spatial patterns found in the urban heat island. Model modifications simulate the ecological effects of urbanization, including empirical adjustments to reanalysis-driven air temperatures (up to 5 K) and ecosystem respiration reduced by impervious surface area. Model results reveal spatio-temporal patterns consistent with strong land use and vegetation cover controls on biogenic carbon fluxes, with non-trivial biogenic annual net ecosystem exchange occurring in urban and suburban areas (up to -2.5 MgC/ha/yr). We specifically consider the feedbacks between Boston's urban heat island and landscape

  10. Infrared Camera Diagnostic for Heat Flux Measurements on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Mastrovito; R. Maingi; H.W. Kugel; A.L. Roquemore

    2003-01-01

    An infrared imaging system has been installed on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to measure the surface temperatures on the lower divertor and center stack. The imaging system is based on an Indigo Alpha 160 x 128 microbolometer camera with 12 bits/pixel operating in the 7-13 (micro)m range with a 30 Hz frame rate and a dynamic temperature range of 0-700 degrees C. From these data and knowledge of graphite thermal properties, the heat flux is derived with a classic one-dimensional conduction model. Preliminary results of heat flux scaling are reported

  11. Heat flux anomalies in Antarctica revealed from satellite magnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Cathrine Fox; Purucker, Michael E.; Olsen, Nils

    2005-01-01

    a method that uses satellite magnetic data to estimate the heat flux underneath the Antarctic ice sheet. We found that the heat flux underneath the ice sheet varies from 40 to 185 megawatts per square meter and that areas of high heat flux coincide with known current volcanism and some areas known to have...

  12. Heat Flux of a Transferred Arc Driven by a Transverse Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Matsumoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical consideration of a magnetically driven arc was performed to elucidate the variation of heat flux with an imposed DC magnetic field. Experiments were conducted to confirm the validity of the theoretical model. The heat flux decreased concomitantly with increased imposed magnetic flux density. Theoretical predictions agreed with experimental results.

  13. Critical heat flux, post dry-out and their augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, G.P.; Mariani, A.

    1999-01-01

    The report shows the state of art review on the critical heat flux and the post-dryout heat transfer. The work, which is a merge of original researches carried out at the Institute of Thermal Fluid Dynamic of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and a thorough review of the recent literature, is divided in four chapters: critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling; critical heat flux in saturated flow boiling; post-dryout heat transfer; enhancement of critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer [it

  14. Mathematical Model for Localised and Surface Heat Flux of the Human Body Obtained from Measurements Performed with a Calorimetry Minisensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of the direct and local measurements of the heat power dissipated by the surface of the human body, using a calorimetry minisensor, is directly related to the calibration rigor of the sensor and the correct interpretation of the experimental results. For this, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the body’s local heat dissipation. When the sensor is placed on the surface of the human body, the body reacts until a steady state is reached. We propose a mathematical model that represents the rate of heat flow at a given location on the surface of a human body by the sum of a series of exponentials: W(t) = A0 + ∑Aiexp(−t/τi). In this way, transient and steady states of heat dissipation can be interpreted. This hypothesis has been tested by simulating the operation of the sensor. At the steady state, the power detected in the measurement area (4 cm2) varies depending on the sensor’s thermostat temperature, as well as the physical state of the subject. For instance, for a thermostat temperature of 24 °C, this power can vary between 100–250 mW in a healthy adult. In the transient state, two exponentials are sufficient to represent this dissipation, with 3 and 70 s being the mean values of its time constants. PMID:29182567

  15. Mathematical Model for Localised and Surface Heat Flux of the Human Body Obtained from Measurements Performed with a Calorimetry Minisensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Miriam; Rodríguez de Rivera, Manuel

    2017-11-28

    The accuracy of the direct and local measurements of the heat power dissipated by the surface of the human body, using a calorimetry minisensor, is directly related to the calibration rigor of the sensor and the correct interpretation of the experimental results. For this, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the body's local heat dissipation. When the sensor is placed on the surface of the human body, the body reacts until a steady state is reached. We propose a mathematical model that represents the rate of heat flow at a given location on the surface of a human body by the sum of a series of exponentials: W ( t ) = A ₀ + ∑A i exp( -t / τ i ). In this way, transient and steady states of heat dissipation can be interpreted. This hypothesis has been tested by simulating the operation of the sensor. At the steady state, the power detected in the measurement area (4 cm²) varies depending on the sensor's thermostat temperature, as well as the physical state of the subject. For instance, for a thermostat temperature of 24 °C, this power can vary between 100-250 mW in a healthy adult. In the transient state, two exponentials are sufficient to represent this dissipation, with 3 and 70 s being the mean values of its time constants.

  16. Consideration of critical heat flux margin prediction by subcooled or low quality critical heat flux correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejzlar, P.; Todreas, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The accurate prediction of the critical heat flux (CHF) margin which is a key design parameter in a variety of cooling and heating systems is of high importance. These margins are, for the low quality region, typically expressed in terms of critical heat flux ratios using the direct substitution method. Using a simple example of a heated tube, it is shown that CHF correlations of a certain type often used to predict CHF margins, expressed in this manner, may yield different results, strongly dependent on the correlation in use. It is argued that the application of the heat balance method to such correlations, which leads to expressing the CHF margins in terms of the critical power ratio, may be more appropriate. (orig.)

  17. Numerical prediction of dryout heat flux in vertical uniformly heated round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Tomio; Kotani, Akio; Kataoka, Isao; Naito, Masanori

    2003-01-01

    Dryout heat fluxes in vertical uniformly heated round tubes were predicted using a film flow model. The correlations adopted in the present analysis were summarized as follows: (1) Entrainment rate and deposition rate were evaluated by the correlations whose validity was confirmed in wide range of thermal-hydraulic conditions. (2) In addition to the droplet entrainment due to interfacial shear force, the entrainment resulting from the boiling in liquid film was considered. (3) The vapor quality at the onset of annular flow was evaluated by the correlation based on the measurement of minimum droplet flowrate. (4) It was postulated that the droplet flowrate at the starting point of annular flow was to be approximated by that in equilibrium state. (5) The onset of critical heat flux condition was determined by the complete disappearance of liquid film. Though several assumptions were used in the present model, all the correlations adopted here were based on experimental data or considerations of the physical processes in annular flow. The resulting model required no parameters that should be adjusted from the measured data of critical heat flux. A number of experimental data of critical heat flux in forced flow of water in vertical uniformly heated round tubes were used to test the basic performance of the model. The comparisons between the calculated and measured critical heat fluxes showed that the predicted results by the present model agree with the experimental data fairly well if the flow pattern at burnout is considered annular flow. The predictive capability was not deteriorated even in the cases of small diameter tube, short length tube as well as low vapor quality at the onset of critical heat flux condition. (author)

  18. A comparison of critical heat flux in tubes and bilaterally heated annuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerffer, S.; Groeneveld, D.C.; Cheng, S.C. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    This paper examines the critical heat flux (CHF) behaviour for annular flow in bilaterally heated annuli and compares it to that in tubes and unilaterally heated annuli. It was found that the differences in CHF between bilaterally and unilaterally heated annuli or tubes strongly depend on pressure and quality. the CHF in bilaterally heated annuli can be predicted by tube CHF prediction methods for the simultaneous CHF occurrence at both surfaces, and the following flow conditions: pressure 7-10 MPa, mass flux 0.5-4.0 Mg/m{sup 2}s and critical quality 0.23-0.9. The effect on CHF of the outer-to-inner surface heat flux ratio, was also examined. The prediction of CHF for bilaterally heated annuli was based on the droplet-diffusion model proposed by Kirillov and Smogalev. While their model refers only to CHF occurrence at the inner surface, we extended it to cases where CHF occurs at the outer surface, and simultaneously at both surfaces, thus covering all cases of CHF occurrence in bilaterally heated annuli. From the annuli CHF data of Becker and Letzter, we derived empirical functions required by the model. the proposed equations provide good accuracy for the CHF data used in this study. Moreover, the equations can predict conditions at which CHF occurs simultaneously at both surfaces. Also, this method can be used for cases with only one heated surface.

  19. Spatial resolution of subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Susanne; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    Urban heat islands in the subsurface contain large quantities of energy in the form of elevated groundwater temperatures caused by anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHFS) into the subsurface. Hence, the objective of this study is to exemplarily quantify these AHFS and the generated thermal powers in two German cities, Karlsruhe and Cologne. A two-dimensional (2D) statistical analytical model of the vertical subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes across the unsaturated zone was developed. The model consists of a so-called Local Monte Carlo approach that introduces a spatial representation of the following sources of AHFS: (1) elevated ground surface temperatures, (2) basements, (3) sewage systems, (4) sewage leakage, (5) subway tunnels, and (6) district heating networks. The results show that district heating networks induce the largest local AHFS with values larger than 60 W/m2 and one order of magnitude higher than the other evaluated heat sources. Only sewage pipes and basements reaching into the groundwater cause equally high heat fluxes, with maximal values of 40.37 W/m2 and 13.60 W/m2, respectively. While dominating locally, the district heating network is rather insignificant for the citywide energy budget in both urban subsurfaces. Heat from buildings (1.51 ± 1.36 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.31 ± 0.14 PJ/a in Cologne) and elevated GST (0.34 ± 0.10 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.42 ± 0.13 PJ/a in Cologne) are dominant contributors to the anthropogenic thermal power of the urban aquifer. In Karlsruhe, buildings are the source of 70% of the annual heat transported into the groundwater, which is mainly caused by basements reaching into the groundwater. A variance analysis confirms these findings: basement depth is the most influential factor to citywide thermal power in the studied cities with high groundwater levels. The spatial distribution of fluxes, however, is mostly influenced by the prevailing thermal gradient across the unsaturated zone. A relatively cold groundwater

  20. EU Development of High Heat Flux Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J.; Lorenzetto, P.; Majerus, P.; Merola, M.; Pitzer, D.; Roedig, M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of plasma facing components for next step fusion devices in Europe is strongly focused to ITER. Here a wide spectrum of different design options for the divertor target and the first wall have been investigated with tungsten, CFC, and beryllium armor. Electron beam simulation experiments have been used to determine the performance of high heat flux components under ITER specific thermal loads. Beside thermal fatigue loads with power density levels up to 20 MWm -2 , off-normal events are a serious concern for the lifetime of plasma facing components. These phenomena are expected to occur on a time scale of a few milliseconds (plasma disruptions) or several hundred milliseconds (vertical displacement events) and have been identified as a major source for the production of neutron activated metallic or tritium enriched carbon dust which is of serious importance from a safety point of view.The irradiation induced material degradation is another critical concern for future D-T-burning fusion devices. In ITER the integrated neutron fluence to the first wall and the divertor armour will remain in the order of 1 dpa and 0.7 dpa, respectively. This value is low compared to future commercial fusion reactors; nevertheless, a nonnegligible degradation of the materials has been detected, both for mechanical and thermal properties, in particular for the thermal conductivity of carbon based materials. Beside the degradation of individual material properties, the high heat flux performance of actively cooled plasma facing components has been investigated under ITER specific thermal and neutron loads

  1. Coupling of latent heat flux and the greenhouse effect by large-scale tropical/subtropical dynamics diagnosed in a set of observations and model simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershunov, A. [Climate Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093-0224 (United States); Roca, R. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2004-03-01

    Coupled variability of the greenhouse effect (GH) and latent heat flux (LHF) over the tropical - subtropical oceans is described, summarized and compared in observations and a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM). Coupled seasonal and interannual modes account for much of the total variability in both GH and LHF. In both observations and model, seasonal coupled variability is locally 180 out-of-phase throughout the tropics. Moisture is brought into convergent/convective regions from remote source areas located partly in the opposite, non-convective hemisphere. On interannual time scales, the tropical Pacific GH in the ENSO region of largest interannual variance is 180 out of phase with local LHF in observations but in phase in the model. A local source of moisture is thus present in the model on interannual time scales while in observations, moisture is mostly advected from remote source regions. The latent cooling and radiative heating of the surface as manifested in the interplay of LHF and GH is an important determinant of the current climate. Moreover, the hydrodynamic processes involved in the GH-LHF interplay determine in large part the climate response to external perturbations mainly through influencing the water vapor feedback but also through their intimate connection to the hydrological cycle. The diagnostic process proposed here can be performed on other CGCMs. Similarly, it should be repeated using a number of observational latent heat flux datasets to account for the variability in the different satellite retrievals. A realistic CGCM could be used to further study these coupled dynamics in natural and anthropogenically altered climate conditions. (orig.)

  2. Dynamic ignition regime of condensed system by radiate heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, V A; Zolotorev, N N; Korotkikh, A G; Kuznetsov, V T

    2017-01-01

    The main ignition characteristics of high-energy materials are the ignition time and critical heat flux allowing evaluation of the critical conditions for ignition, fire and explosive safety for the test solid propellants. The ignition process is typically studied in stationary conditions of heat input at constant temperature of the heating surface, environment or the radiate heat flux on the sample surface. In real conditions, ignition is usually effected at variable time-dependent values of the heat flux. In this case, the heated layer is formed on the sample surface in dynamic conditions and significantly depends on the heat flux change, i.e. increasing or decreasing falling heat flux in the reaction period of the propellant sample. This paper presents a method for measuring the ignition characteristics of a high-energy material sample in initiation of the dynamic radiant heat flux, which includes the measurement of the ignition time when exposed to a sample time varying radiant heat flux given intensity. In case of pyroxyline containing 1 wt. % of soot, it is shown that the ignition times are reduced by 20–50 % depending on the initial value of the radiant flux density in initiation by increasing or decreasing radiant heat flux compared with the stationary conditions of heat supply in the same ambient conditions. (paper)

  3. Evaluation of upward heat flux in ex-vessel molten core heat transfer using MELCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.Y.; Park, J.H.; Kim, S.D.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, H.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to share experiences of MELCOR application to resolve the molten corium-concrete interaction (MCCI) issue in the Korea Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). In the evaluation of concrete erosion, the heat transfer modeling from the molten corium internal to the corium pool surface is very important and uncertain. MELCOR employs Kutateladze or Greene's bubble-enhanced heat transfer model for the internal heat transfer. The phenomenological uncertainty is so large that the model provides several model parameters in addition to the phenomenological model for user flexibility. However, the model parameters do not work on Kutateladze correlation at the top of the molten layer. From our experience, a code modification is suggested to match the upward heat flux with the experimental results. In this analysis, minor modification was carried out to calculate heat flux from the top molten layer to corium surface, and efforts were made to find out the best value of the model parameter based on upward heat flux of MACE test M1B. Discussion also includes its application to KNGR. (author)

  4. Prediction of radiant heat flux from horizontal propane jet fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Kuibin; Liu, Jiaoyan; Jiang, Juncheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Line source model for the radiant heat flux from horizontal jet fire is proposed. • A review on the difference between horizontal and vertical jet fires is conducted. • Effects of lift-off distance and flame shape are discussed for the line source model. • Line source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system. - Abstract: Jet fires are often reported to occur in process industry with lots of hazardous heat energy released. A line source model describing the flame emissive power and subsequent heat flux radiated from a horizontal propane jet fire is evaluated through a testing against experimental fire data and comparison against other models. By a review on the jet flame behavior, the correlations of the lift-off distance, flame length and radiative fraction are proposed to close the line source model in theory. It is found that the fuel jet direction holds a considerable effect on the flame behavior by comparison between horizontal and vertical jet fires. Results indicate that the lift-off distance and the flame shape influence the model prediction to some extent. Comparison of model predictions against data collected in the near field and predictions from the point source model and multipoint source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system.

  5. Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors: Design and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors: Design and Methodology: (1) Heat flux is one of a number of parameters, together with pressure, temperature, flow, etc. of interest to engine designers and fluid dynamists, (2) The measurement of heat flux is of interest in directly determining the cooling requirements of hot section blades and vanes, and (3)In addition, if the surface and gas temperatures are known, the measurement of heat flux provides a value for the convective heat transfer coefficient that can be compared with the value provided by CFD codes.

  6. Using a thermalhydraulics system code to estimate heat transfer coefficients for a critical heat flux experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statham, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    RELAP5/SCDAPSIM MOD 3.4 is used to predict wall temperature before and after critical heat flux (CHF) is reached in a vertical, uniformly heated tube using light water as the working fluid. The heated test section is modeled as a 1 m long Inconel 600 tube having an OD of 6.35 mm and ID of 4.57 mm with a 0.5 m long unheated development length at the inlet. Simulations are performed at pressures of 0.5 to 2.0 MPa with mass fluxes from 500 to 2000 kg m -2 s -1 and inlet qualities ranging from -0.2 to 0. Loss of flow simulations are performed with flow reduction rates of 10, 20, 50, and 100 kg m -2 s -2 . Inlet mass flux at CHF was nominally independent of rate in the model; this may or may not be realistic. (author)

  7. A Comparison of the Diel Cycle of Modeled and Measured Latent Heat Flux During the Warm Season in a Colorado Subalpine Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Sean P.; Swenson, Sean C.; Wieder, William R.; Lawrence, David M.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Knowles, John F.; Blanken, Peter D.

    2018-03-01

    Precipitation changes the physiological characteristics of an ecosystem. Because land-surface models are often used to project changes in the hydrological cycle, modeling the effect of precipitation on the latent heat flux λE is an important aspect of land-surface models. Here we contrast conditionally sampled diel composites of the eddy-covariance fluxes from the Niwot Ridge Subalpine Forest AmeriFlux tower with the Community Land Model (CLM, version 4.5). With respect to measured λE during the warm season: for the day following above-average precipitation, λE was enhanced at midday by ≈40 W m-2 (relative to dry conditions), and nocturnal λE increased from ≈10 W m-2 in dry conditions to over 20 W m-2 in wet conditions. With default settings, CLM4.5 did not successfully model these changes. By increasing the amount of time that rainwater was retained by the canopy/needles, CLM was able to match the observed midday increase in λE on a dry day following a wet day. Stable nighttime conditions were problematic for CLM4.5. Nocturnal CLM λE had only a small (≈3 W m-2) increase during wet conditions, CLM nocturnal friction velocity u∗ was smaller than observed u∗, and CLM canopy air temperature was 2°C less than those measured at the site. Using observed u∗ as input to CLM increased λE; however, this caused CLM λE to be increased during both wet and dry periods. We suggest that sloped topography and the ever-present drainage flow enhanced nocturnal u∗ and λE. Such phenomena would not be properly captured by topographically blind land-surface models, such as CLM.

  8. Heat flux from magmatic hydrothermal systems related to availability of fluid recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M. C.; Rowland, J.V.; Chiodini, G.; Rissmann, C.F.; Bloomberg, S.; Hernandez, P.A.; Mazot, A.; Viveiros, F.; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Magmatic hydrothermal systems are of increasing interest as a renewable energy source. Surface heat flux indicates system resource potential, and can be inferred from soil CO2 flux measurements and fumarole gas chemistry. Here we compile and reanalyze results from previous CO2 flux surveys worldwide to compare heat flux from a variety of magma-hydrothermal areas. We infer that availability of water to recharge magmatic hydrothermal systems is correlated with heat flux. Recharge availability is in turn governed by permeability, structure, lithology, rainfall, topography, and perhaps unsurprisingly, proximity to a large supply of water such as the ocean. The relationship between recharge and heat flux interpreted by this study is consistent with recent numerical modeling that relates hydrothermal system heat output to rainfall catchment area. This result highlights the importance of recharge as a consideration when evaluating hydrothermal systems for electricity generation, and the utility of CO2 flux as a resource evaluation tool.

  9. Understanding of flux-limited behaviors of heat transport in nonlinear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yangyu, E-mail: yangyuhguo@gmail.com [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics and CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jou, David, E-mail: david.jou@uab.es [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Wang, Moran, E-mail: mrwang@tsinghua.edu [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics and CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The classical Fourier's law of heat transport breaks down in highly nonequilibrium situations as in nanoscale heat transport, where nonlinear effects become important. The present work is aimed at exploring the flux-limited behaviors based on a categorization of existing nonlinear heat transport models in terms of their theoretical foundations. Different saturation heat fluxes are obtained, whereas the same qualitative variation trend of heat flux versus exerted temperature gradient is got in diverse nonlinear models. The phonon hydrodynamic model is proposed to act as a standard to evaluate other heat flux limiters because of its more rigorous physical foundation. A deeper knowledge is thus achieved about the phenomenological generalized heat transport models. The present work provides deeper understanding and accurate modeling of nonlocal and nonlinear heat transport beyond the diffusive limit. - Highlights: • Exploring flux-limited behaviors based on a categorization of existing nonlinear heat transport models. • Proposing phonon hydrodynamic model as a standard to evaluate heat flux limiters. • Providing accurate modeling of nonlocal and nonlinear heat transport beyond the diffusive limit.

  10. Heat in the Barents Sea: transport, storage, and surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Smedsrud

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A column model is set up for the Barents Sea to explore sensitivity of surface fluxes and heat storage from varying ocean heat transport. Mean monthly ocean transport and atmospheric forcing are synthesised and force the simulations. Results show that by using updated ocean transports of heat and freshwater the vertical mean hydrographic seasonal cycle can be reproduced fairly well.

    Our results indicate that the ~70 TW of heat transported to the Barents Sea by ocean currents is lost in the southern Barents Sea as latent, sensible, and long wave radiation, each contributing 23–39 TW to the total heat loss. Solar radiation adds 26 TW in the south, as there is no significant ice production.

    The northern Barents Sea receives little ocean heat transport. This leads to a mixed layer at the freezing point during winter and significant ice production. There is little net surface heat loss annually in the north. The balance is achieved by a heat loss through long wave radiation all year, removing most of the summer solar heating.

    During the last decade the Barents Sea has experienced an atmospheric warming and an increased ocean heat transport. The Barents Sea responds to such large changes by adjusting temperature and heat loss. Decreasing the ocean heat transport below 50 TW starts a transition towards Arctic conditions. The heat loss in the Barents Sea depend on the effective area for cooling, and an increased heat transport leads to a spreading of warm water further north.

  11. Further comparisons of critical heat flux correlations for vertical tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govan, A.H.

    1986-11-01

    An earlier report by Govan (1984, AERE-R11298), described a data-bank of critical heat flux measurements in vertical upflow in tubes, and compared the predictions of the Harwell Annular Flow Model with two previously reported correlations. In this report two further correlations, those of Biasi [1967, Studies on burnout, Part 3] and Zuber [1961, Int. Devel. Heat Transfer, Part 2, PB230-236]/ Griffith,[1977, Nucl. Safety vol 18, no3] have been tested. These two correlations are used extensively in reactor design. Overall comparisons are given between all the correlations tested so far. (author)

  12. Temperature and heat flux scaling laws for isoviscous, infinite Prandtl number mixed heating convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, Kenny; Deschamps, Frederic

    2018-04-01

    Thermal evolution of terrestrial planets is controlled by heat transfer through their silicate mantles. A suitable framework for modelling this heat transport is a system including bottom heating (from the core) and internal heating, e.g., generated by secular cooling or by the decay of radioactive isotopes. The mechanism of heat transfer depends on the physical properties of the system. In systems where convection is able to operate, two different regimes are possible depending on the relative amount of bottom and internal heating. For moderate internal heating rates, the system is composed of active hot upwellings and cold downwellings. For large internal heating rates, the bottom heat flux becomes negative and the system is only composed of active cold downwellings. Here, we build theoretical scaling laws for both convective regimes following the approach of Vilella & Kaminski (2017), which links the surface heat flux and the temperature jump across both the top and bottom thermal boundary layer (TBL) to the Rayleigh number and the dimensionless internal heating rate. Theoretical predictions are then verified against numerical simulations performed in 2D and 3D-Cartesian geometry, and covering a large range of the parameter space. Our theoretical scaling laws are more successful in predicting the thermal structure of systems with large internal heating rates than that of systems with no or moderate internal heating. The differences between moderate and large internal heating rates are interpreted as differences in the mechanisms generating thermal instabilities. We identified three mechanisms: conductive growth of the TBL, instability impacting, and TBL erosion, the last two being present only for moderate internal heating rates, in which hot plumes are generated at the bottom of the system and are able to reach the surface. Finally, we apply our scaling laws to the evolution of the early Earth, proposing a new model for the cooling of the primordial magma ocean

  13. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  14. Turbulent transport regimes and the SOL heat flux width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks, and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. Simulation and theory results using reduced edge/SOL turbulence models have produced SOL widths and scalings in reasonable accord with experiments in many cases. In this work, we attempt to qualitatively and conceptually understand various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport in establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. Recent SOLT turbulence code results are employed to understand the roles of these considerations and to develop analytical scalings. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with older results reviewed in. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the heuristic drift mechanism is considered, together with implications for future experiments. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER54392.

  15. Numerical prediction of critical heat flux in nuclear fuel rod bundles with advanced three-fluid multidimensional porous media based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran Stosic; Vladimir Stevanovic

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The modern design of nuclear fuel rod bundles for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) is characterised with increased number of rods in the bundle, introduced part-length fuel rods and a water channel positioned along the bundle asymmetrically in regard to the centre of the bundle cross section. Such design causes significant spatial differences of volumetric heat flux, steam void fraction distribution, mass flux rate and other thermal-hydraulic parameters important for efficient cooling of nuclear fuel rods during normal steady-state and transient conditions. The prediction of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) under these complex thermal-hydraulic conditions is of the prime importance for the safe and economic BWR operation. An efficient numerical method for the CHF prediction is developed based on the porous medium concept and multi-fluid two-phase flow models. Fuel rod bundle is observed as a porous medium with a two-phase flow through it. Coolant flow from the bundle entrance to the exit is characterised with the subsequent change of one-phase and several two-phase flow patterns. One fluid (one-phase) model is used for the prediction of liquid heating up in the bundle entrance region. Two-fluid modelling approach is applied to the bubbly and churn-turbulent vapour and liquid flows. Three-fluid modelling approach is applied to the annular flow pattern: liquid film on the rods wall, steam flow and droplets entrained in the steam stream. Every fluid stream in applied multi-fluid models is described with the mass, momentum and energy balance equations. Closure laws for the prediction of interfacial transfer processes are stated with the special emphasis on the prediction of the steam-water interface drag force, through the interface drag coefficient, and droplets entrainment and deposition rates for three-fluid annular flow model. The model implies non-equilibrium thermal and flow conditions. A new mechanistic approach for the CHF prediction

  16. Non-destructive testing of high heat flux components of fusion devices by infrared thermography: modeling and signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cismondi, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    In Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) the joint of the CFC armour material onto the metallic CuCrZr heat sink needs to be significant defects free. Detection of material flaws is a major issue of the PFCs acceptance protocol. A Non-Destructive Technique (NDT) based upon active infrared thermography allows testing PFCs on SATIR tests bed in Cadarache. Up to now defect detection was based on the comparison of the surface temperature evolution of the inspected component with that of a supposed 'defect-free' one (used as a reference element). This work deals with improvement of thermal signal processing coming from SATIR. In particular the contributions of the thermal modelling and statistical signal processing converge in this work. As for thermal modelling, the identification of a sensitive parameter to defect presence allows improving the quantitative estimation of defect Otherwise Finite Element (FE) modeling of SATIR allows calculating the so called deterministic numerical tile. Statistical approach via the Monte Carlo technique extends the numerical tile concept to the numerical population concept. As for signal processing, traditional statistical treatments allow a better localization of the bond defect processing thermo-signal by itself, without utilising a reference signal. Moreover the problem of detection and classification of random signals can be solved by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio. Two filters maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio are optimized: the stochastic matched filter aims at detects detection and the constrained stochastic matched filter aims at defects classification. Performances are quantified and methods are compared via the ROC curves. (author)

  17. Critical heat flux in subcooled and low quality boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroti, L.

    1976-06-01

    A semi-empirical relationship for critical heat flux prediction in a light water cooled power reactor core is developed. The method of developing this relationship is the extension of the analysis of pool boiling crisis for forced convective boiling. In the calculations the energy conservation equation is used together with additional condition for the crisis. Assuming that in the vicinity of the crisis the heat is transported only by the latent heat of the vapour this condition for the crisis can be characterized by the maximum departure velocity of the vapour. Because only flow boiling crisis associating with bubbling at the heating surface is considered the model could be applied only for low quality boiling crisis. The calculated results are compared to the available experimental ones. (Sz.N.Z.)

  18. Calculation of heat fluxes induced by radio frequency heating on the actively cooled protections of ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) and lower hybrid (LH) antennas in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritz, G., E-mail: Guillaume.ritz@gmail.com [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Corre, Y., E-mail: Yann.corre@cea.fr [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Rault, M.; Missirlian, M. [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Portafaix, C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Martinez, A.; Ekedahl, A.; Colas, L.; Guilhem, D.; Salami, M.; Loarer, T. [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The heat flux generated by radiofrequency (RF) heating was calculated using Tore Supra's heating antennas. ► The highest heat flux value, generated by ions accelerated in RF-rectified sheath potentials, was 5 MW/m{sup 2}. ► The heat flux on the limiters of antennas was in the same order of magnitude as that on the toroidal pumping limiter. -- Abstract: Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are recognized as important auxiliary heating and current drive methods for present and next step fusion devices. However, these radio frequency (RF) systems generate a heat flux up to several MW/m{sup 2} on the RF antennas during plasma operation. This paper focuses on the determination of the heat flux deposited on the lateral protections of the RF antennas in Tore Supra. The heat flux was calculated by finite element method (FEM) using a model of the lateral protection. The FEM calculation was based on surface temperature measurements using infrared cameras monitoring the RF antennas. The heat flux related to the acceleration of electrons in front of the LHCD grills (LHCD active) and to the acceleration of ions in RF-rectified sheath potentials (ICRH active) were calculated. Complementary results on the heat flux related to fast ions (ICRH active with a relatively low magnetic field) are also reported in this paper.

  19. Surface wettability effects on critical heat flux of boiling heat transfer using nanoparticle coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Chin-Chi

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of surface wettability on pool boiling heat transfer. Nano-silica particle coatings were used to vary the wettability of the copper surface from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic by modifying surface topography and chemistry. Experimental results show that critical heat flux (CHF) values are higher in the hydrophilic region. Conversely, CHF values are lower in the hydrophobic region. The experimental CHF data of the modified surface do not fit the classical models. Therefore, this study proposes a simple model to build the nexus between the surface wettability and the growth of bubbles on the heating surface. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat over a sub-arctic landscape during late winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Hasager, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    flux is determined in two ways, both based on blending height theory. One is a parameterised method, the other represents a numerical solution of an aggregation model. The regional sensible heat flux is determined from the theory of mixed-layer growth. At near neutral conditions the regional momentum......Based on measurements at Sodankyla Meteorological Observatory the regional (aggregated) momentum and sensible heat fluxes are estimated for two days over a site in Finnish Lapland during late winter. The forest covers 49% of the area. The study shows that the forest dominates and controls...... the regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat in different ways. The regional momentum flux is found to be 10-20% smaller than the measured momentum flux over the forest, and the regional sensible heat flux is estimated to be 30-50% of the values measured over a coniferous forest. The regional momentum...

  1. Hyperbolic heat conduction, effective temperature, and third law for nonequilibrium systems with heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, S. L.

    2018-02-01

    Some analogies between different nonequilibrium heat conduction models, particularly random walk, the discrete variable model, and the Boltzmann transport equation with the single relaxation time approximation, have been discussed. We show that, under an assumption of a finite value of the heat carrier velocity, these models lead to the hyperbolic heat conduction equation and the modified Fourier law with relaxation term. Corresponding effective temperature and entropy have been introduced and analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the effective temperature, defined as a geometric mean of the kinetic temperatures of the heat carriers moving in opposite directions, acts as a criterion for thermalization and is a nonlinear function of the kinetic temperature and heat flux. It is shown that, under highly nonequilibrium conditions when the heat flux tends to its maximum possible value, the effective temperature, heat capacity, and local entropy go to zero even at a nonzero equilibrium temperature. This provides a possible generalization of the third law to nonequilibrium situations. Analogies and differences between the proposed effective temperature and some other definitions of a temperature in nonequilibrium state, particularly for active systems, disordered semiconductors under electric field, and adiabatic gas flow, have been shown and discussed. Illustrative examples of the behavior of the effective temperature and entropy during nonequilibrium heat conduction in a monatomic gas and a strong shockwave have been analyzed.

  2. Comparison of heat flux measurement techniques during the DIII-D metal ring campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. L.; Nygren, R. E.; Unterberg, E. A.; Watkins, J. G.; Makowski, M. A.; Moser, A.; Rudakov, D. L.; Buchenauer, D.

    2017-12-01

    The heat fluxes expected in the ITER divertor raise concerns about the damage tolerances of tungsten, especially due to thermal transients caused by edge localized modes (ELMs) as well as frequent temperature cycling from high to low extremes. Therefore we are motivated to understand the heat flux conditions that can cause not only enhanced erosion but also bulk thermo-mechanical damage to a tungsten divertor. For the metal ring campaign in DIII-D, tungsten-coated TZM tile inserts were installed making two toroidal arrays of metal tile inserts in the lower divertor. This study examines the deposited heat flux on these rings with embedded thermocouples (TCs) sampling at 10 kHz and compares them to Langmuir probe (LP) and infrared thermography (IRTV) heat flux measurements. We see agreement of the TC, LP, and IRTV data within 20% of the heat flux averaged over the entire discharge, and that all three diagnostics suggest parallel heat flux at the OSP location increases linearly with input heating power. The TC and LP heat flux time traces during the discharge trend together during large changes to the average heat flux. By subtracting the LP measured inter-ELM heat flux from TC data, using a rectangular ELM energy pulse shape, and taking the relative size and duration of each ELM from {{D}}α measurements, we extract the ELM heat fluxes from TC data. This over-estimates the IRTV measured ELM heat fluxes by a factor of 1.9, and could be due to the simplicity of the TC heat flux model and the assumed ELM energy pulse shape. ELM heat fluxes deposited on the inserts are used to model tungsten erosion in this campaign. These TC ELM heat flux estimates are used in addition to IRTV, especially in cases where the IRTV view to the metal ring is obstructed. We observe that some metal inserts were deformed due to exposed leading edges. The thermal conditions on these inserts are investigated with the thermal modeling code ABAQUS using our heat flux measurements when these edges

  3. Towards the geophysical regime in numerical dynamo models: studies of rapidly-rotating convection driven dynamos with low Pm and constant heat flux boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheyko, A.A.; Finlay, Chris; Marti, P.

    We present a set of numerical dynamo models with the convection strength varied by a factor of 30 and the ratio of magnetic to viscous diffusivities by a factor of 20 at rapid rotation rates (E =nu/(2 Omega d^2 ) = 10-6 and 10-7 ) using a heat flux outer BC. This regime has been little explored...... on the structure of the dynamos and how this changes in relation to the selection of control parameters, a comparison with the proposed rotating convection and dynamo scaling laws, energy spectra of steady solutions and inner core rotation rates. Magnetic field on the CMB. E=2.959*10-7, Ra=6591.0, Pm=0.05, Pr=1....

  4. Critical heat flux, post dry-out and their augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, G.P.; Mariani, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1999-07-01

    The report shows the state of art review on the critical heat flux and the post-dryout heat transfer. The work, which is a merge of original researches carried out at the Institute of Thermal Fluid Dynamic of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and a thorough review of the recent literature, is divided in four chapters: critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling; critical heat flux in saturated flow boiling; post-dryout heat transfer; enhancement of critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer. [Italian] Si passa in rassegna lo stato dell'arte sulla crisi termica e sullo scambio termico post-crisi, che compendia studi tradizionali condotti dall'ENEA. Il rapporto e' suddiviso in quattro parti: crisi termica in ebollizione sottoraffreddata; crisi termica in ebollizione satura; scambio termico dopo la crisi termica; incremento del flusso termico critico e dello scambio termico post-crisi.

  5. Critical heat flux, post dry-out and their augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, G P; Mariani, A [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1999-07-01

    The report shows the state of art review on the critical heat flux and the post-dryout heat transfer. The work, which is a merge of original researches carried out at the Institute of Thermal Fluid Dynamic of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and a thorough review of the recent literature, is divided in four chapters: critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling; critical heat flux in saturated flow boiling; post-dryout heat transfer; enhancement of critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer. [Italian] Si passa in rassegna lo stato dell'arte sulla crisi termica e sullo scambio termico post-crisi, che compendia studi tradizionali condotti dall'ENEA. Il rapporto e' suddiviso in quattro parti: crisi termica in ebollizione sottoraffreddata; crisi termica in ebollizione satura; scambio termico dopo la crisi termica; incremento del flusso termico critico e dello scambio termico post-crisi.

  6. Miniaturized heat flux sensor for high enthalpy plasma flow characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardarein, Jean-Laurent; Battaglia, Jean-Luc; Lohlec, Stefan; Jullien, Pierre; Van Ootegemd, Bruno; Couzie, Jacques; Lasserre, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    An improved miniaturized heat flux sensor is presented aiming at measuring extreme heat fluxes of plasma wind tunnel flows. The sensor concept is based on an in-depth thermocouple measurement with a miniaturized design and an advanced calibration approach. Moreover, a better spatial estimation of the heat flux profile along the flow cross section is realized with this improved small sensor design. Based on the linearity assumption, the heat flux is determined using the impulse response of the sensor relating the heat flux to the temperature of the embedded thermocouple. The non-integer system identification (NISI) procedure is applied that allows a calculation of the impulse response from transient calibration measurements with a known heat flux of a laser source. The results show that the new sensor leads to radially highly resolved heat flux measurement for a flow with only a few centimetres in diameter, the so far not understood non-symmetric heat flux profiles do not occur with the new sensor design. It is shown that this former effect is not a physical effect of the flow, but a drawback of the classical sensor design. (authors)

  7. Solar wind heat flux regulation by the whistler instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.; Feldman, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper studies the role of the whistler instability in the regulation of the solar wind heat flux near 1 AU. A comparison of linear and second-order theory with experimental results provides strong evidence that the whistler may at times contribute to the limitation of this heat flux

  8. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  9. Development of heat flux sensors for turbine airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, Marcia A.; Strange, Richard R.

    1985-10-01

    The objectives of this program are to develop heat flux sensors suitable for installation in hot section airfoils of advanced aircraft turbine engines and to experimentally verify the operation of these heat flux sensors in a cylinder in a cross flow experiment. Embedded thermocouple and Gardon gauge sensors were developed and fabricated into both blades and vanes. These were then calibrated using a quartz lamp bank heat source and finally subjected to thermal cycle and thermal soak testing. These sensors were also fabricated into cylindrical test pieces and tested in a burner exhaust to verify heat flux measurements produced by these sensors. The results of the cylinder in cross flow tests are given.

  10. Development of heat flux sensors for turbine airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, Marcia A.; Strange, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to develop heat flux sensors suitable for installation in hot section airfoils of advanced aircraft turbine engines and to experimentally verify the operation of these heat flux sensors in a cylinder in a cross flow experiment. Embedded thermocouple and Gardon gauge sensors were developed and fabricated into both blades and vanes. These were then calibrated using a quartz lamp bank heat source and finally subjected to thermal cycle and thermal soak testing. These sensors were also fabricated into cylindrical test pieces and tested in a burner exhaust to verify heat flux measurements produced by these sensors. The results of the cylinder in cross flow tests are given.

  11. A technical basis for the flux corrected local conditions critical heat flux correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxat, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The so-called 'flux-corrected' local conditions CHF correlation was developed at Ontario Hydro in the 1980's and was demonstrated to successfully correlate the Onset of Intermittent Dryout (OID) CHF data for 37-element fuel with a downstream-skewed axial heat flux distribution. However, because the heat flux correction factor appeared to be an ad-hoc, albeit a successful modifying factor in the correlation, there was reluctance to accept the correlation more generally. This paper presents a thermalhydraulic basis, derived from two-phase flow considerations, that supports the appropriateness of the heat flux correction as a local effects modifying factor. (author)

  12. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns

  13. Skeleton tables of burnout heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, P.L.; Bobkov, V.P.; Boltenko, Eh.A.; Vinogradov, V.N.; Katan, I.B.; Smogalev, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    New methods of generating and arranging new reference data on critical thermal flux density during steam and water mixture flow in vertical round fubes are discussed. The modern requirements to such data include the assessment of data reliability and error, internal agreement, validation by physical and mathematical models, verification using a large amount of experimental results. The available reference data feature a number of drawbacks: they are not accurate enough and are limited by the parameters; other data feature a significant spread in values at the neighbouring values of parameters, discrepancy with the experimental results, not always substantiated extrapolations. A new version of skeleton tables, which are free from a major part of above disadvantages, is proposed

  14. Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Turbulent Gas Flow in Microtube with Constant Heat Flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chungpyo; Matsushita, Shinichi; Ueno, Ichiro; Asako, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Local friction factors for turbulent gas flows in circular microtubes with constant wall heat flux were obtained numerically. The numerical methodology is based on arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian method to solve two-dimensional compressible momentum and energy equations. The Lam-Bremhorst's Low-Reynolds number turbulence model was employed to calculate eddy viscosity coefficient and turbulence energy. The simulations were performed for a wide flow range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers with different constant wall heat fluxes. The stagnation pressure was chosen in such a way that the outlet Mach number ranged from 0.07 to 1.0. Both Darcy friction factor and Fanning friction factor were locally obtained. The result shows that the obtained both friction factors were evaluated as a function of Reynolds number on the Moody chart. The values of Darcy friction factor differ from Blasius correlation due to the compressibility effects but the values of Fanning friction factor almost coincide with Blasius correlation. The wall heat flux varied from 100 to 10000 W/m 2 . The wall and bulk temperatures with positive heat flux are compared with those of incompressible flow. The result shows that the Nusselt number of turbulent gas flow is different from that of incompressible flow.

  15. Effect of axial heat flux distribution on CHF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol

    2000-10-01

    Previous investigations for the effect of axial heat flux distributions on CHF and the prediction methods are reviewed and summarized. A total of 856 CHF data in a tube with a non-uniform axial heat flux distribution has been compiled from the articles and analyzed using the 1995 Groeneveld look-up table. The results showed that two representative correction factors, K5 of the look-up table and Tongs F factor, can be applied to describe the axial heat flux distribution effect on CHF. However, they overpredict slightly the measured CHF, depending on the quality and flux peak shape. Hence, a corrected K5 factor, which accounts for the axial heat flux distribution effect is suggested to correct these trends. It predicted the CHF power for the compiled data with an average error of 1.5% and a standard deviation of 10.3%, and also provides a reasonable prediction of CHF locations.

  16. Grey relevant analysis of sodium critical heat flux in annular channel and the establishing of grey model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Su Guanghui; Liao Yixiang; Zhang Weizhong; Qiu Suizheng; Jia Dounan

    1999-12-01

    Using grey systems theory and experimental data obtained from sodium boiling test loop in China, grey mutual analysis is done to some parameters influencing sodium CHF. The results of CHF are predicted by using GM (1,1) model. The GM(1,h) model is made up for creating CHF model. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data

  17. Solar Flux Deposition And Heating Rates In Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2009-09-01

    We discuss here the solar downward net flux in the 0.25 - 2.5 µm range in the atmosphere of Jupiter and the associated heating rates under a number of vertical cloud structure scenarios focusing in the effect of clouds and hazes. Our numerical model is based in the doubling-adding technique to solve the radiative transfer equation and it includes gas absorption by CH4, NH3 and H2, in addition to Rayleigh scattering by a mixture of H2 plus He. Four paradigmatic Jovian regions have been considered (hot-spots, belts, zones and Polar Regions). The hot-spots are the most transparent regions with downward net fluxes of 2.5±0.5 Wm-2 at the 6 bar level. The maximum solar heating is 0.04±0.01 K/day and occurs above 1 bar. Belts and zones characterization result in a maximum net downward flux of 0.5 Wm-2 at 2 bar and 0.015 Wm-2 at 6 bar. Heating is concentrated in the stratospheric and tropospheric hazes. Finally, Polar Regions are also explored and the results point to a considerable stratospheric heating of 0.04±0.02 K/day. In all, these calculations suggest that the role of the direct solar forcing in the Jovian atmospheric dynamics is limited to the upper 1 - 2 bar of the atmosphere except in the hot-spot areas. Acknowledgments: This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  18. Bayesian inferences of the thermal properties of a wall using temperature and heat flux measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Iglesias, Marco; Sawlan, Zaid A; Scavino, Marco; Tempone, Raul; Wood, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    and heat flux over extended time periods. The one-dimensional heat equation with unknown Dirichlet boundary conditions is used to model the heat transfer process through the wall. In Ruggeri et al. (2017), it was assessed the uncertainty about the thermal

  19. On the Partitioning of Wall Heat Flux in Subcooled Flow Boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, In-Cheol; Hoang, Nhan Hien; Euh, Dong-Jin; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    This region has been treated successfully by two-fluid model coupled with a population balance model or interfacial area transport equation (IATE). The second region is near-wall heat transfer which has been commonly described by a wall heat flux partitioning model coupled with models of nucleation site density (NSD), bubble departure diameter and bubble release frequency. Since the phase change process in the near-wall heat transfer is really complex, comprising different heat transfer mechanisms, bubble dynamics, bubble nucleation and thermal response of heated surface, the modeling of the second region is still a great challenge despite intensive efforts. Numerous models and correlations have been proposed to aim for computing the near-wall heat transfer. The models of nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter and bubble release frequency are used to quantify these components. The models closely related to each other. The heat flux partitioning model controls the wall and liquid temperatures. Then, it turns to control the boiling parameters, i.e. nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter and bubble release frequency. In this study, the partitioning of wall heat flux is taken into account. The existing issues occurred with previous models of the heat flux partitioning are pointed out and then a new model which considers the heat transfer caused by evaporation of superheated liquid at bubble boundary and the actual period of transient conduction term is formulated. The new model is then validated with a collected experimental database. This paper presented a new heat flux partitioning model in which the heat transfer by evaporation of the superheated liquid at the bubble boundary and the active period of the transient conduction were considered. The new model was validated with the experimental data of the subcooled flow boiling of water obtained by Phillips

  20. Measurement of Critical Heat Flux Using the Transient Inverse Heat Conduction Method in Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeung Chan

    2016-01-01

    A study on the measurement of critical heat flux using the transient inverse heat conduction method in spray cooling was performed. The inverse heat conduction method estimates the surface heat flux or temperature using a measured interior temperature history. The effects of the measuring time interval and location of temperature measurement on the measurement of critical heat flux were primarily investigated. The following results were obtained. The estimated critical heat flux decreased as the time interval of temperature measurement increased. Meanwhile, the effect of measurement location on critical heat flux was not significant. It was also found, from the experimental results, that the critical superheat increased as the measurement location of thermocouple neared the heat transfer surface.

  1. Measurement of Critical Heat Flux Using the Transient Inverse Heat Conduction Method in Spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeung Chan [Andong Nat’l Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A study on the measurement of critical heat flux using the transient inverse heat conduction method in spray cooling was performed. The inverse heat conduction method estimates the surface heat flux or temperature using a measured interior temperature history. The effects of the measuring time interval and location of temperature measurement on the measurement of critical heat flux were primarily investigated. The following results were obtained. The estimated critical heat flux decreased as the time interval of temperature measurement increased. Meanwhile, the effect of measurement location on critical heat flux was not significant. It was also found, from the experimental results, that the critical superheat increased as the measurement location of thermocouple neared the heat transfer surface.

  2. Ultrahigh Flux Thin Film Boiling Heat Transfer Through Nanoporous Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyang; Chen, Renkun

    2018-05-09

    Phase change heat transfer is fundamentally important for thermal energy conversion and management, such as in electronics with power density over 1 kW/cm 2 . The critical heat flux (CHF) of phase change heat transfer, either evaporation or boiling, is limited by vapor flux from the liquid-vapor interface, known as the upper limit of heat flux. This limit could in theory be greater than 1 kW/cm 2 on a planar surface, but its experimental realization has remained elusive. Here, we utilized nanoporous membranes to realize a new "thin film boiling" regime that resulted in an unprecedentedly high CHF of over 1.2 kW/cm 2 on a planar surface, which is within a factor of 4 of the theoretical limit, and can be increased to a higher value if mechanical strength of the membranes can be improved (demonstrated with 1.85 kW/cm 2 CHF in this work). The liquid supply is achieved through a simple nanoporous membrane that supports the liquid film where its thickness automatically decreases as heat flux increases. The thin film configuration reduces the conductive thermal resistance, leads to high frequency bubble departure, and provides separate liquid-vapor pathways, therefore significantly enhances the heat transfer. Our work provides a new nanostructuring approach to achieve ultrahigh heat flux in phase change heat transfer and will benefit both theoretical understanding and application in thermal management of high power devices of boiling heat transfer.

  3. E × B shear pattern formation by radial propagation of heat flux waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuga, Y., E-mail: kosuga@riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); IAS and RIAM, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); CASS and CMTFO, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Dif-Pradalier, G. [CEA, IRFM, Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gürcan, Ö. D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2014-05-15

    A novel theory to describe the formation of E×B flow patterns by radially propagating heat flux waves is presented. A model for heat avalanche dynamics is extended to include a finite delay time between the instantaneous heat flux and the mean flux, based on an analogy between heat avalanche dynamics and traffic flow dynamics. The response time introduced here is an analogue of the drivers' response time in traffic dynamics. The microscopic foundation for the time delay is the time for mixing of the phase space density. The inclusion of the finite response time changes the model equation for avalanche dynamics from Burgers equation to a nonlinear telegraph equation. Based on the telegraph equation, the formation of heat flux jams is predicted. The growth rate and typical interval of jams are calculated. The connection of the jam interval to the typical step size of the E×B staircase is discussed.

  4. Dry-out heat fluxes of falling film and low-mass flux upward-flow in heated tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Ueda, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Teruyuki; Miyota, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    Dry-out heat fluxes were investigated experimentally for a film flow falling down on the inner surface of vertical heated-tubes and for a low mass flux forced-upward flow in the tubes using R 113. This work followed the study on those for a two-phase natural circulation system. For the falling film boiling, flow state observation tests were also performed, where dry-patches appearing and disappearing repeatedly were observed near the exit end of the heated section at the dry-out heat flux conditions. Relation between the dry-out heat flux and the liquid film flow rate is analyzed. The dry-out heat fluxes of the low mass flux upflow are expressed well by the correlation proposed in the previous work. The relation for the falling film boiling shows a similar trend to that for the upflow boiling, however, the dry-out heat fluxes of the falling film are much lower, approximately one third, than those of the upward flow. (author)

  5. The Influence of Heat Flux Boundary Heterogeneity on Heat Transport in Earth's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. J.; Mound, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Rotating convection in planetary systems can be subjected to large lateral variations in heat flux from above; for example, due to the interaction between the metallic cores of terrestrial planets and their overlying silicate mantles. The boundary anomalies can significantly reorganise the pattern of convection and influence global diagnostics such as the Nusselt number. We have conducted a suite of numerical simulations of rotating convection in a spherical shell geometry comparing convection with homogeneous boundary conditions to that with two patterns of heat flux variation at the outer boundary: one hemispheric pattern, and one derived from seismic tomographic imaging of Earth's lower mantle. We consider Ekman numbers down to 10-6 and flux-based Rayleigh numbers up to 800 times critical. The heterogeneous boundary conditions tend to increase the Nusselt number relative to the equivalent homogeneous case by altering both the flow and temperature fields, particularly near the top of the convecting region. The enhancement in Nusselt number tends to increase as the amplitude and wavelength of the boundary heterogeneity is increased and as the system becomes more supercritical. In our suite of models, the increase in Nusselt number can be as large as 25%. The slope of the Nusselt-Rayleigh scaling also changes when boundary heterogeneity is included, which has implications when extrapolating to planetary conditions. Additionally, regions of effective thermal stratification can develop when strongly heterogeneous heat flux conditions are applied at the outer boundary.

  6. Methodology for estimation of time-dependent surface heat flux due to cryogen spray cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnell, James W; Torres, Jorge H; Anvari, Bahman

    2002-01-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is an effective technique to protect the epidermis during cutaneous laser therapies. Spraying a cryogen onto the skin surface creates a time-varying heat flux, effectively cooling the skin during and following the cryogen spurt. In previous studies mathematical models were developed to predict the human skin temperature profiles during the cryogen spraying time. However, no studies have accounted for the additional cooling due to residual cryogen left on the skin surface following the spurt termination. We formulate and solve an inverse heat conduction (IHC) problem to predict the time-varying surface heat flux both during and following a cryogen spurt. The IHC formulation uses measured temperature profiles from within a medium to estimate the surface heat flux. We implement a one-dimensional sequential function specification method (SFSM) to estimate the surface heat flux from internal temperatures measured within an in vitro model in response to a cryogen spurt. Solution accuracy and experimental errors are examined using simulated temperature data. Heat flux following spurt termination appears substantial; however, it is less than that during the spraying time. The estimated time-varying heat flux can subsequently be used in forward heat conduction models to estimate temperature profiles in skin during and following a cryogen spurt and predict appropriate timing for onset of the laser pulse.

  7. Theoretical simulation of the dual-heat-flux method in deep body temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2010-01-01

    Deep body temperature reveals individual physiological states, and is important in patient monitoring and chronobiological studies. An innovative dual-heat-flux method has been shown experimentally to be competitive with the conventional zero-heat-flow method in its performance, in terms of measurement accuracy and step response to changes in the deep temperature. We have utilized a finite element method to model and simulate the dynamic process of a dual-heat-flux probe in deep body temperature measurements to validate the fundamental principles of the dual-heat-flux method theoretically, and to acquire a detailed quantitative description of the thermal profile of the dual-heat-flux probe. The simulation results show that the estimated deep body temperature is influenced by the ambient temperature (linearly, at a maximum rate of 0.03 °C/°C) and the blood perfusion rate. The corresponding depth of the estimated temperature in the skin and subcutaneous tissue layer is consistent when using the dual-heat-flux probe. Insights in improving the performance of the dual-heat-flux method were discussed for further studies of dual-heat-flux probes, taking into account structural and geometric considerations.

  8. Analytical modeling for heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, C.; Kaoui, B.; L'vov, V.S.; Procaccia, I.; Rudenko, O.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.; Toschi, F.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nanoparticles in sheared laminar flows of nanofluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles, the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles.

  9. ANL ITER high-heat-flux blanket-module heat transfer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasza, K.E.

    1992-02-01

    An Argonne National Laboratory facility for conducting tests on multilayered slab models of fusion blanket designs is being developed; some of its features are described. This facility will allow testing under prototypic high heat fluxes, high temperatures, thermal gradients, and variable mechanical loadings in a helium gas environment. Steady and transient heat flux tests are possible. Electrical heating by a two-sided, thin stainless steel (SS) plate electrical resistance heater and SS water-cooled cold panels placed symmetrically on both sides of the heater allow achievement of global one-dimensional heat transfer across blanket specimen layers sandwiched between the hot and cold plates. The heat transfer characteristics at interfaces, as well as macroscale and microscale thermomechanical interactions between layers, can be studied in support of the ITER engineering design effort. The engineering design of the test apparatus has shown that it is important to use multidimensional thermomechanical analysis of sandwich-type composites to adequately analyze heat transfer. This fact will also be true for the engineering design of ITER

  10. Simple models with ALICE fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Striet, J

    2000-01-01

    We introduce two simple models which feature an Alice electrodynamics phase. In a well defined sense the Alice flux solutions we obtain in these models obey first order equations similar to those of the Nielsen-Olesen fluxtube in the abelian higgs model in the Bogomol'nyi limit. Some numerical solutions are presented as well.

  11. Dryout heat flux experiments with deep heterogeneous particle bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, I.; Holmstroem, S.; Miettinen, J.; Lestinen, V.; Hyvaerinen, J.; Pankakoski, P.; Sjoevall, H.

    2006-01-01

    A test facility has been constructed at Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) to simulate as accurately as possible the ex-vessel core particle bed in the conditions of Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The STYX particle bed reproduces the anticipated depth of the bed and the size range of particles having irregular shape. The bed is immersed in water, creating top flooding conditions, and internally heated by an array of electrical resistance heating elements. Dryout tests have been successfully conducted at 0.1-0.7 MPa pressure for both uniformly mixed and stratified bed geometries. In all tests, including the stratified ones, the dry zone first formed near the bottom of the bed. The measured dryout heat fluxes increased with increasing pressure, from 232 kW/m 2 at near atmospheric pressure to 451 kW/m 2 at 0.7 MPa pressure. The data show some scatter even for the uniform bed. The tests with the stratified bed indicate a clear reduction of critical power due to the presence of a layer of small particles on top of the uniform bed. Comparison of data with various critical power (dryout heat flux) correlations for porous media shows that the most important parameter in the models is the effective particle diameter. Adiabatic debris bed flow resistance measurements were conducted to determine the most representative particle diameter. This diameter is close, but not equal, to the particle number-weighted average diameter of the bed material. With it, uniform bed data can be calculated to within an accuracy of 3-28% using Lipinski's 0-D model. In the stratified bed experiments, it appears that the top layer was partially fluidized, hence the measured critical power was significantly higher than calculated. Future experiments are being planned with denser top layer material to eliminate non-prototypic fluidization

  12. The validation of ocean surface heat fluxes in AMIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleckler, P.J.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    Recent intercomparisons of Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCMS) constrained with sea-surface temperatures have shown that while there are substantial differences among various models (with each other and available observations), overall the differences between them have been decreasing. The primary goal of AMIP is to enable a systematic intercomparison and validation of state-of-the- art AGCMs by supporting in-depth diagnosis of and interpretation of the model results. Official AMIP simulations are 10 years long, using monthly mean Sea-Surface Temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice conditions which are representative of the 1979--1988 decade. Some model properties are also dictated by the design of AMIP such as the solar constant, the atmospheric CO 2 concentration, and the approximate horizontal resolution. In this paper, some of the preliminary results of AMIP Subproject No. 5 will be summarized. The focus will be on the intercomparison and validation of ocean surface heat fluxes of the AMIP simulations available thus far

  13. Steady state and transient critical heat flux examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabados, L.

    1978-02-01

    In steady state conditions within the P.W.R. parameter range the critical heat flux correlations based on local parameters reproduce the experimental data with less deviations than those based on system parameters. The transient experiments were restricted for the case of power transients. A data processing method for critical heat flux measurements has been developed and the applicability of quasi steady state calculation has been verified. (D.P.)

  14. Analysis of high heat flux testing of mock-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salavy, J.-F.; Giancarli, L.; Merola, M.; Picard, F.; Roedig, M.

    2003-01-01

    ITER EU Home Team is performing a large R and D effort in support of the development of high heat flux components for ITER. In this framework, this paper describes the thermal analyses, the fatigue lifetime evaluation and the transient VDE with material melting related to the high heat flux thermo-mechanical tests performed in the JUDITH facility. It reports on several mock-ups representative of different proposed component designs based on Be, W and CFC as armour materials

  15. Electron heat flux instabilities in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.; Feldman, W.C.; Forslund, D.W.; Montgomery, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    There are at least three plasma instabilities associated with the electron heat flux in the solar wind. This letter reports the study of the unstable fast magnetosonic, Alfven and whistler modes via a computer code which solves the full electromagnetic, linear, Vlasov dispersion relation. Linear theory demonstrates that both the magnetosonic and Alfven instabilities are candidates for turbulent limitation of the heat flux in the solar wind at 1 A.U

  16. Steady-state nucleate pool boiling mechanism at low heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, L.E.G.

    1979-01-01

    Heat is transfered in the steady state to a horizontal cooper disc inmersed in water at saturation temperature. Levels of heat flux are controlled so that convection and the nucleate boiling can be observed. The value of heat flux is determined experimentally and high speed film is used to record bubble growth. In order to explain the phenomenon the oretical model is proposed in which part of the heat is transfered by free convection during nucleate boiling regime. Agreement between the experiments and the theoretical model is good. (Author) [pt

  17. Critical heat flux and transition boiling characteristics for a sodium-heated steam generator tube for LMFBR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, S.; Holmes, D.H.

    1977-04-01

    An experimental program was conducted to characterize critical heat flux (CHF) in a sodium-heated steam generator tube model at a proposed PLBR steam generator design pressure of 7.2 MPa. Water was circulated vertically upward in the tube and the heating sodium was flowing counter-current downward. The experimental ranges were: mass flux, 110 to 1490 kg/s.m/sup 2/ (0.08 to 1.10 10/sup 6/ lbm/h.ft/sup 2/); critical heat flux, 0.16 to 1.86 MW/m/sup 2/ (0.05 to 0.59 10/sup 6/ Btu/h.ft/sup 2/); and critical quality, 0.48 to 1.0. The CHF phenomenon for the experimental conditions is determined to be dryout as opposed to departure from nucleate boiling (DNB). The data are divided into high- and low-mass flux regions.

  18. Study on coal char ignition by radiant heat flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkikh, A. G.; Slyusarskiy, K. V.

    2017-11-01

    The study on coal char ignition by CO2-continuous laser was carried out. The coal char samples of T-grade bituminous coal and 2B-grade lignite were studied via CO2-laser ignition setup. Ignition delay times were determined at ambient condition in heat flux density range 90-200 W/cm2. The average ignition delay time value for lignite samples were 2 times lower while this difference is larger in high heat flux region and lower in low heat flux region. The kinetic constants for overall oxidation reaction were determined using analytic solution of simplified one-dimensional heat transfer equation with radiant heat transfer boundary condition. The activation energy for lignite char was found to be less than it is for bituminous coal char by approximately 20 %.

  19. Characterization of ion fluxes and heat fluxes for PMI relevant conditions on Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Clyde; Shaw, Guinevere; Biewer, Theodore; Rapp, Juergen

    2016-10-01

    Plasma characterization, in particular, particle flux and electron and ion temperature distributions nearest to an exposed target, are critical to quantifying Plasma Surface Interaction (PSI). In the Proto-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX), the ion fluxes and heat fluxes are derived from double Langmuir Probes (DLP) and Thomson Scattering in front of the target assuming Bohm conditions at the sheath entrance. Power fluxes derived from ne and Te measurements are compared to heat fluxes measured with IR thermography. The comparison will allow conclusions on the sheath heat transmission coefficient to be made experimentally. Different experimental conditions (low and high density plasmas (0.5 - 6 x 1019 m-3) with different magnetic configuration are compared. This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  20. Effect of heated length on the Critical Heat Flux of subcooled flow boiling. 2. Effective heated length under axially nonuniform heating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Yoshida, Takuya; Nariai, Hideki; Inasaka, Fujio

    1998-01-01

    Effect of heated length on the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of subcooled flow boiling with water was experimentally investigated by using direct current heated tube made of stainless steel a part of whose wall thickness was axially cut for realizing nonuniform heat flux condition. The higher enhancement of the CHF was derived for shorter tube length. The effective heated length was determined for the tube under axially nonuniform heat flux condition. When the lower heat flux part below the Net Vapor Generation (NVG) heat flux exists at the middle of tube length, then the effective heated length becomes the tube length downstream the lower heat flux parts. However, when the lower heat flux part is above the NVG, then the effective heated length is full tube length. (author)

  1. Anthropogenic Heat Flux Estimation from Space: Results of the second phase of the URBANFLUXES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2017-04-01

    The H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts of UEB fluxes on urban heat island and consequently on energy consumption in cities. In URBANFLUXES, the anthropogenic heat flux is estimated as a residual of UEB. Therefore, the rest UEB components, namely, the net all-wave radiation, the net change in heat storage and the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes are independently estimated from Earth Observation (EO), whereas the advection term is included in the error of the anthropogenic heat flux estimation from the UEB closure. The Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model is employed to improve the estimation of the net all-wave radiation balance, whereas the Element Surface Temperature Method (ESTM), adjusted to satellite observations is used to improve the estimation the estimation of the net change in heat storage. Furthermore the estimation of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes is based on the Aerodynamic Resistance Method (ARM). Based on these outcomes, QF is estimated by regressing the sum of the turbulent heat fluxes versus the available energy. In-situ flux measurements are used to evaluate URBANFLUXES outcomes, whereas uncertainties are specified and analyzed. URBANFLUXES is expected to prepare the ground for further innovative exploitation of EO in scientific activities (climate variability studies at local and regional scales) and future and emerging applications (sustainable urban planning, mitigation technologies) to benefit climate change mitigation/adaptation. This study presents the results of the second phase of the project and detailed information on URBANFLUXES is available at: http://urbanfluxes.eu

  2. Heat transfer for ultrahigh flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.; Lake, J.A.; Oh, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a uniquely designed nuclear reactor to supply neutrons for materials research is the focus of recent reactor design efforts. The biological, materials, and fundamental physics aspects of research require neutron fluxes much higher than present research and testing facilities can produce. The most advanced research using neutrons as probing detectors is being done in the High Flux Reactor at the Institut Laue Langeuin, France. The design of a reactor that can produce neutron fluxes of 1.0 x 10 16 n/cm 2 .s requires a relatively high power (300 MW range) and a small core volume (approximately 30 liters). This combination of power and volume leads to a high power density which places increased demands on thermal hydraulic margins

  3. Satellite-based Calibration of Heat Flux at the Ocean Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, C. N.; Dastugue, J. M.; May, J. C.; Rowley, C. D.; Smith, S. R.; Spence, P. L.; Gremes-Cordero, S.

    2016-02-01

    Model forecasts of upper ocean heat content and variability on diurnal to daily scales are highly dependent on estimates of heat flux through the air-sea interface. Satellite remote sensing is applied to not only inform the initial ocean state but also to mitigate errors in surface heat flux and model representations affecting the distribution of heat in the upper ocean. Traditional assimilation of sea surface temperature (SST) observations re-centers ocean models at the start of each forecast cycle. Subsequent evolution depends on estimates of surface heat fluxes and upper-ocean processes over the forecast period. The COFFEE project (Calibration of Ocean Forcing with satellite Flux Estimates) endeavors to correct ocean forecast bias through a responsive error partition among surface heat flux and ocean dynamics sources. A suite of experiments in the southern California Current demonstrates a range of COFFEE capabilities, showing the impact on forecast error relative to a baseline three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation using Navy operational global or regional atmospheric forcing. COFFEE addresses satellite-calibration of surface fluxes to estimate surface error covariances and links these to the ocean interior. Experiment cases combine different levels of flux calibration with different assimilation alternatives. The cases may use the original fluxes, apply full satellite corrections during the forecast period, or extend hindcast corrections into the forecast period. Assimilation is either baseline 3DVAR or standard strong-constraint 4DVAR, with work proceeding to add a 4DVAR expanded to include a weak constraint treatment of the surface flux errors. Covariance of flux errors is estimated from the recent time series of forecast and calibrated flux terms. While the California Current examples are shown, the approach is equally applicable to other regions. These approaches within a 3DVAR application are anticipated to be useful for global and larger

  4. Heat transfer in flow past a continuously moving porous flat plate with heat flux

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Sarma, Y.V.B.

    The analysis of the heat transfer in flow past a continuously moving semi-infinite plate in the presence of suction/ injection with heat flux has been presented. Similarity solutions have been derived and the resulting equations are integrated...

  5. Diamond Microchannel Heat Sink Designs For High Heat Flux Thermal Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corbin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    .... Many investigators have suggested the use of diamond heat spreaders to reduce flux levels at or near to its source, and some have suggested that diamond microchannel heat sinks ultimately may play...

  6. Size effects in non-linear heat conduction with flux-limited behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Nan; Cao, Bing-Yang

    2017-11-01

    Size effects are discussed for several non-linear heat conduction models with flux-limited behaviors, including the phonon hydrodynamic, Lagrange multiplier, hierarchy moment, nonlinear phonon hydrodynamic, tempered diffusion, thermon gas and generalized nonlinear models. For the phonon hydrodynamic, Lagrange multiplier and tempered diffusion models, heat flux will not exist in problems with sufficiently small scale. The existence of heat flux needs the sizes of heat conduction larger than their corresponding critical sizes, which are determined by the physical properties and boundary temperatures. The critical sizes can be regarded as the theoretical limits of the applicable ranges for these non-linear heat conduction models with flux-limited behaviors. For sufficiently small scale heat conduction, the phonon hydrodynamic and Lagrange multiplier models can also predict the theoretical possibility of violating the second law and multiplicity. Comparisons are also made between these non-Fourier models and non-linear Fourier heat conduction in the type of fast diffusion, which can also predict flux-limited behaviors.

  7. Institute for High Heat Flux Removal (IHHFR). Phases I, II, and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Ronald D. [Prairie View A& M Univ., TX (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The IHHFR focused on interdisciplinary applications as it relates to high heat flux engineering issues and problems which arise due to engineering systems being miniaturized, optimized, or requiring increased high heat flux performance. The work in the IHHFR focused on water as a coolant and includes: (1) the development, design, and construction of the high heat flux flow loop and facility; (2) test section development, design, and fabrication; and, (3) single-side heat flux experiments to produce 2-D boiling curves and 3-D conjugate heat transfer measurements for single-side heated test sections. This work provides data for comparisons with previously developed and new single-side heated correlations and approaches that address the single-side heated effect on heat transfer. In addition, this work includes the addition of single-side heated circular TS and a monoblock test section with a helical wire insert. Finally, the present work includes: (1) data base expansion for the monoblock with a helical wire insert (only for the latter geometry), (2) prediction and verification using finite element, (3) monoblock model and methodology development analyses, and (4) an alternate model development for a hypervapotron and related conjugate heat transfer controlling parameters.

  8. Using Gravity Inversion to Estimate Antarctic Geothermal Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kusznir, Nick J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil T.; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Purucker, Michael E.; (Sasha) Golynsky, A. V.; Rogozhina, Irina

    2014-05-01

    New modelling studies for Greenland have recently underlined the importance of GHF for long-term ice sheet behaviour (Petrunin et al. 2013). Revised determinations of top basement heat-flow for Antarctica and adjacent rifted continental margins using gravity inversion mapping of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning (Chappell & Kusznir 2008), using BedMap2 data have provided improved estimates of geothermal heat flux (GHF) in Antarctica where it is very poorly known. Continental lithosphere thinning and post-breakup residual thicknesses of continental crust determined from gravity inversion have been used to predict the preservation of continental crustal radiogenic heat productivity and the transient lithosphere heat-flow contribution within thermally equilibrating rifted continental and oceanic lithosphere. The sensitivity of present-day Antarctic top basement heat-flow to initial continental radiogenic heat productivity, continental rift and margin breakup age has been examined. Recognition of the East Antarctic Rift System (EARS), a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system that appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km (Ferraccioli et al. 2011) and is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system, highlights that crustal variability in interior Antarctica is much greater than previously assumed. GHF is also important to understand proposed ice accretion at the base of the EAIS in the GSM and its links to sub-ice hydrology (Bell et al. 2011). References Bell, R.E., Ferraccioli, F., Creyts, T.T., Braaten, D., Corr, H., Das, I., Damaske, D., Frearson, N., Jordan, T., Rose, K., Studinger, M. & Wolovick, M. 2011. Widespread persistent thickening of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet by freezing from the base. Science, 331 (6024), 1592-1595. Chappell, A.R. & Kusznir, N.J. 2008. Three-dimensional gravity inversion for Moho depth at rifted continental margins

  9. An iterative procedure for estimating areally averaged heat flux using planetary boundary layer mixed layer height and locally measured heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, R. L.; Gao, W.; Lesht, B. M.

    2000-04-04

    Measurements at the central facility of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) are intended to verify, improve, and develop parameterizations in radiative flux models that are subsequently used in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The reliability of this approach depends upon the representativeness of the local measurements at the central facility for the site as a whole or on how these measurements can be interpreted so as to accurately represent increasingly large scales. The variation of surface energy budget terms over the SGP CART site is extremely large. Surface layer measurements of the sensible heat flux (H) often vary by a factor of 2 or more at the CART site (Coulter et al. 1996). The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) effectively integrates the local inputs across large scales; because the mixed layer height (h) is principally driven by H, it can, in principal, be used for estimates of surface heat flux over scales on the order of tens of kilometers. By combining measurements of h from radiosondes or radar wind profiles with a one-dimensional model of mixed layer height, they are investigating the ability of diagnosing large-scale heat fluxes. The authors have developed a procedure using the model described by Boers et al. (1984) to investigate the effect of changes in surface sensible heat flux on the mixed layer height. The objective of the study is to invert the sense of the model.

  10. Critical heat flux in flow boiling in microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This Brief concerns the important problem of critical heat flux in flow boiling in microchannels. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to “Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” by the same author team, this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  11. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux; surface energy balance; Bowen's ratio; sensible and latent ... The energy storage term for the soil layer 0–0.05 m is calculated and the ground heat ... When a new method that accounts for both soil thermal conduction and soil ...

  12. Turbine blade and vane heat flux sensor development, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of heat flux sensors for gas turbine blades and vanes and the demonstration of heat transfer measurement methods are reported. The performance of the heat flux sensors was evaluated in a cylinder in cross flow experiment and compared with two other heat flux measurement methods, the slug calorimeter and a dynamic method based on fluctuating gas and surface temperature. Two cylinders, each instrumented with an embedded thermocouple sensor, a Gardon gauge, and a slug calorimeter, were fabricated. Each sensor type was calibrated using a quartz lamp bank facility. The instrumented cylinders were then tested in an atmospheric pressure combustor rig at conditions up to gas stream temperatures of 1700K and velocities to Mach 0.74. The test data are compared to other measurements and analytical prediction.

  13. Effect of a controlled burn on the thermophysical properties of a dry soil using a new model of soil heat flow and a new high temperature heat flux sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Massman; J. M. Frank

    2004-01-01

    Some fires can be beneficial to soils but, if a fire is sufficiently intense, soil can be irreversible altered. We measured soil temperatures and heat fluxes at several soil depths before, during, and after a controlled surface burn at Manitou Experimental Forest (southern Colorado, USA) to evaluate its effects on the soil's thermophysical properties (thermal...

  14. Estimating Antarctic Geothermal Heat Flux using Gravity Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kusznir, Nick J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil T.; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Purucker, Michael E.; Golynsky, A. V.; Sasha Rogozhina, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Geothermal heat flux (GHF) in Antarctica is very poorly known. We have determined (Vaughan et al. 2012) top basement heat-flow for Antarctica and adjacent rifted continental margins using gravity inversion mapping of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning (Chappell & Kusznir 2008). Continental lithosphere thinning and post-breakup residual thicknesses of continental crust determined from gravity inversion have been used to predict the preservation of continental crustal radiogenic heat productivity and the transient lithosphere heat-flow contribution within thermally equilibrating rifted continental and oceanic lithosphere. The sensitivity of present-day Antarctic top basement heat-flow to initial continental radiogenic heat productivity, continental rift and margin breakup age has been examined. Knowing GHF distribution for East Antarctica and the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) region in particular is critical because: 1) The GSM likely acted as key nucleation point for the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS); 2) the region may contain the oldest ice of the EAIS - a prime target for future ice core drilling; 3) GHF is important to understand proposed ice accretion at the base of the EAIS in the GSM and its links to sub-ice hydrology (Bell et al. 2011). An integrated multi-dataset-based GHF model for East Antarctica is planned that will resolve the wide range of estimates previously published using single datasets. The new map and existing GHF distribution estimates available for Antarctica will be evaluated using direct ice temperature measurements obtained from deep ice cores, estimates of GHF derived from subglacial lakes, and a thermodynamic ice-sheet model of the Antarctic Ice Sheet driven by past climate reconstructions and each of analysed heat flow maps, as has recently been done for the Greenland region (Rogozhina et al. 2012). References Bell, R.E., Ferraccioli, F., Creyts, T.T., Braaten, D., Corr, H., Das, I., Damaske, D., Frearson, N

  15. Icebase: A suborbital survey to map geothermal heat flux under an ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purucker, Michael E.; Connerney, John E. P.; Blakely, Richard J.; Bracken, Robert E.; Nowicki, Sophie; Le, Guan; Sabaka, Terence J.; Bonalsky, Todd M.; Kuang, Weijia; Ravat, Dhananjay; Ritz, Catherine; Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Gaina, Carmen; McEnroe, Suzanne; Lesur, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    NASA will solicit suborbital missions as part of its Earth Venture program element in the coming year. These missions are designed as complete PI-led investigations to conduct innovative hypothesis or scientific question-driven approaches to pressing questions in Earth System science. We propose to carry out a suborbital magnetic survey of Greenland using NASA's Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle to produce the first-ever map of the geothermal heat flux under an ice sheet. Better constraints on geothermal heat flux will reduce the uncertainty in future sea level rise, in turn allowing a more informed assessment of its impact on society. The geothermal heat flux depends on conditions such as mantle heat flux, and the tectonic history and heat production of the crust, all of which vary spatially. Underneath ice sheets, the geothermal heat flux influences the basal ice. Therefore heat flux is an important boundary condition in ice sheet modeling. Using magnetic data to constrain heat flux is possible because the magnetic properties of rocks are temperature dependent until they reach the Curie temperature. The technique has applications to understanding the response of Greenland ice sheet to climate forcing because the basal heat flux provides one of the boundary conditions. The technique also helps to locate the oldest ice. The oldest ice in Greenland should be found in areas of very low heat flux, and the identification of those areas is provided by this technique. Ice cores from the areas of oldest ice help to decipher past temperatures and CO2 contents. Our latest model of the geothermal heat flux under the Greenland ice sheet (http://websrv.cs.umt.edu/isis/index.php/Greenland_Basal_Heat_Flux) is based on low- resolution satellite observations collected by the CHAMP satellite between 2000 and 2010. Those observations will be enhanced by the upcoming Swarm gradient satellite mission, but the resolution will improve by less than a factor of two, from 400 km

  16. Scaling Flux Tower Observations of Sensible Heat Flux Using Weighted Area-to-Area Regression Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maogui Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensible heat flux (H plays an important role in characterizations of land surface water and heat balance. There are various types of H measurement methods that depend on observation scale, from local-area-scale eddy covariance (EC to regional-scale large aperture scintillometer (LAS and remote sensing (RS products. However, methods of converting one H scale to another to validate RS products are still open for question. A previous area-to-area regression kriging-based scaling method performed well in converting EC-scale H to LAS-scale H. However, the method does not consider the path-weighting function in the EC- to LAS-scale kriging with the regression residue, which inevitably brought about a bias estimation. In this study, a weighted area-to-area regression kriging (WATA RK model is proposed to convert EC-scale H to LAS-scale H. It involves path-weighting functions of EC and LAS source areas in both regression and area kriging stages. Results show that WATA RK outperforms traditional methods in most cases, improving estimation accuracy. The method is considered to provide an efficient validation of RS H flux products.

  17. Transient critical heat flux under flow coast-down in vertical annulus with non-uniform heat flux distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S.K.; Chun, S.Y.; Choi, K.Y.; Yang, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study on transient critical heat flux (CHF) under flow coast-down has been performed for water flow in a non-uniformly heated vertical annulus under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. The objectives of this study are to systematically investigate the effect of the flow transient on the CHF and to compare the transient CHF with steady state CHF. The transient CHF experiments have been performed for three kinds of flow transient modes based on the coast-down data of the Kori 3/4 nuclear power plant reactor coolant pump. Most of the CHFs occurred in the annular-mist flow regime. Thus, it means that the possible CHF mechanism might be the liquid film dryout in the annular-mist flow regime. For flow transient mode with the smallest flow reduction rate, the time-to-CHF is the largest. At the same inlet subcooling, system pressure and heat flux, the effect of the initial mass flux on the critical mass flux can be negligible. However, the effect of the initial mass flux on the time-to-CHF becomes large as the heat flux decreases. Usually, the critical mass flux is large for slow flow reduction. There is a pressure effect on the ratio of the transient CHF data to steady state CHF data. Some conventional correlations show relatively better CHF prediction results for high system pressure, high quality and slow transient modes than for low system pressure, low quality and fast transient modes. (author)

  18. Radiation budget, soil heat flux and latent heat flux at the forest floor in warm, temperate mixed forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, K.; Abe, T.; Araki, M.; Ito, H.

    1998-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the radiation budget and soil heat flux of a forest floor were measured in a mixed forest located in Kyoto, Japan. The basal area at breast height in the survey forest was about 15·82 m 2 ha −1 , for evergreen trees, and 12·46 m 2 ha −1 , for deciduous trees. The sky view factor was 16 and 22% at the survey site in the foliate and defoliate seasons, respectively. The small difference between the sky view factor in the two seasons was reflected in the seasonal change in the radiation budget of the forest floor. Namely, the net long-wave radiation changed rapidly in leafing and falling days, and the rate of net short-wave radiation was highest in April. The distinctive characteristic of the radiation budget was that the rates of available radiation in the daytime and at night were almost equal in September and October. Latent heat flux at the forest floor was estimated to be around 94 MJ m −2 annually, from our measurement with the simulation model. (author)

  19. Darcy-Forchheimer flow with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Haider, Farwa; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Here Darcy-Forchheimer flow of viscoelastic fluids has been analyzed in the presence of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. Results for two viscoelastic fluids are obtained and compared. A linear stretching surface has been used to generate the flow. Flow in porous media is characterized by considering the Darcy-Forchheimer model. Modified version of Fourier's law through Cattaneo-Christov heat flux is employed. Equal diffusion coefficients are employed for both reactants and auto catalyst. Optimal homotopy scheme is employed for solutions development of nonlinear problems. Solutions expressions of velocity, temperature and concentration fields are provided. Skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate are computed and analyzed. Here the temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness are lower for Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model in comparison to classical Fourier's law of heat conduction. Moreover, the homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions parameters have opposite behaviors for concentration field.

  20. Stretched flow of Oldroyd-B fluid with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hayat

    Full Text Available The objective of present attempt is to analyse the flow and heat transfer in the flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid over a non-linear stretching sheet having variable thickness. Characteristics of heat transfer are analyzed with temperature dependent thermal conductivity and heat source/sink. Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is considered rather than Fourier’s law of heat conduction in the present flow analysis. Thermal conductivity varies with temperature. Resulting partial differential equations through laws of conservation of mass, linear momentum and energy are converted into ordinary differential equations by suitable transformations. Convergent series solutions for the velocity and temperature distributions are developed and discussed. Keywords: Oldroyd-B fluid, Variable sheet thickness, Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model, Heat source/sink, Temperature dependent thermal conductivity

  1. Characteristics of heat flux and particle flux to the divertor in H-mode of JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itami, K.; Hosogane, N.; Asakura, N.; Kubo, H.; Tsuji, S.; Shimada, M.

    1995-01-01

    Heat flux and particle flux behavior in H-mode is studied in a comparative manner. It was confirmed that the multiple peak structure of heat flux during ELM activity has a role in reducing the average value of a peak heat flux at the divertor. In order to characterize heat and particle flux during ELM activity, the ELM part and the steady state part of heat flux and particle flux were determined and statistically analyzed. A large in-out asymmetry of peak ELM heat flux density was found. The asymmetry is almost unaffected by the ion grad-B drift direction. In-out asymmetry of both ELM and steady-state parts of the particle flux were found to be similar. ((orig.))

  2. Study on minimum heat-flux point during boiling heat transfer on horizontal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Shigefumi

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of boiling heat transfer are usually shown by the boiling curve of N-shape having the maximum and minimum points. As for the limiting heat flux point, that is, the maximum point, there have been many reports so far, as it is related to the physical burn of heat flux-controlling type heating surfaces. But though the minimum heat flux point is related to the quench point as the problems in steel heat treatment, the core safety of LWRs, the operational stability of superconducting magnets, the start-up characteristics of low temperature machinery, the condition of vapor explosion occurrence and so on, the systematic information has been limited. In this study, the effects of transient property and the heat conductivity of heating surfaces on the minimum heat flux condition in the pool boiling on horizontal planes were experimentally examined by using liquid nitrogen. The experimental apparatuses for steady boiling, for unsteady boiling with a copper heating surface, and for unsteady boiling with a heating surface other than copper were employed. The boiling curves obtained with these apparatuses and the minimum heat flux point condition are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  3. Measurements of Critical Heat Flux using Mass Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Hyun; Chung Bum Jin [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In a severe accident, the reactor vessel is heated by the decay heat from core melts and the outer surface of reactor vessel is cooled by the natural convection of water pool. When the heat flux increases, boiling will start. Further increase of the heat flux may result in the CHF, which is generated by the bubble combinations. The CHF means that the reactor vessel was separated with coolant and wall temperature is raised rapidly. It may damage the reactor vessel. Also the CHF indicates the maximum cooling capability of the system. Therefore, the CHF has been used as a criterion for the regulatory and licensing. Mechanism of hydrogen vapor bubbles generated and combined can be simulated water bubbles mechanism. And also the both heat and mass transfer mechanism of CHF can be identified in the same methods. Therefore, the CHF phenomena can be simulated enough by mass transfer.

  4. A constant heat flux plasma limiter for TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduszewski, P.

    1980-10-01

    In future large tokamak machines heat removal from the plasma is going to play an important role. In TEXTOR the total plasma power is expected to be in the range of 0.5-2.5 MW. Typical fractions of about 50% of this power have to be removed from the plasma by limiters. The power flux from the limiter scrape-off layer to the limiter surface decays rapidly with distance into the scrape-off layer resulting in a highly space-dependent heat load on the limiter. Therefore, limiters are shaped in a way to smooth of the heat load, and the ideal limiter shape should produce a constant heat flux over the whole limiter surface. The ideally shaped limiter offers a better chance to handle the high heat loads with the preferred materials like stainless steel (or inconel 625 as in the case of TEXTOR). (orig./GG)

  5. Linking lowermost mantle structure, core-mantle boundary heat flux and mantle plume formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Zhong, Shijie; Olson, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of Earth's lowermost mantle exert significant control on the formation of mantle plumes and the core-mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux. However, it is not clear if and how the variation of CMB heat flux and mantle plume activity are related. Here, we perform geodynamic model experiments that show how temporal variations in CMB heat flux and pulses of mantle plumes are related to morphologic changes of the thermochemical piles of large-scale compositional heterogeneities in Earth's lowermost mantle, represented by the large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). We find good correlation between the morphologic changes of the thermochemical piles and the time variation of CMB heat flux. The morphology of the thermochemical piles is significantly altered during the initiation and ascent of strong mantle plumes, and the changes in pile morphology cause variations in the local and the total CMB heat flux. Our modeling results indicate that plume-induced episodic variations of CMB heat flux link geomagnetic superchrons to pulses of surface volcanism, although the relative timing of these two phenomena remains problematic. We also find that the density distribution in thermochemical piles is heterogeneous, and that the piles are denser on average than the surrounding mantle when both thermal and chemical effects are included.

  6. Anomalies and other concerns related to the critical heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes various unusual trends in the critical heat flux (CHF) that have been observed experimentally in tubes. They include the following: Occurrence of a minimum in the CHF vs. quality (X) curve at high flows - leading to an initial upstream CHF occurrence in uniformly heated tubes. This phenomenon has been observed at high flows in both water and Freon. Occurrence of a limiting quality region on the CHF vs. X curve where the CHF drops by 30 - 90% for a nearly constant quality. This is thought to correspond to the boundary between the entrainment-controlled and the deposition-controlled region and causes problems for prediction methods of the form CHF=f(X). Impact of flow obstructions on the occurrence of upstream CHF and the limiting quality region. The additional mixing by grid spacers or bundle appendages results in a more homogeneous phase distribution, thus diminishing the effects of flow regime/heat transfer regime transitions responsible for the above unusual CHF trends. This will lead to a more gradually decreasing CHF vs. X curve. Absence of a CHF temperature excursion at high flows and high qualities - this is found to be caused by a change in slope of the transition boiling part of the boiling curve from a negative value (usual trend that results in a dryout temperature excursion) to a positive slope. Gradual disappearance of the sharp temperature excursion at CHF when increasing the pressure towards and beyond the critical pressure - no drastic change is observed in the shape of the axial temperature distribution of a heated tube experiencing CHF or heat transfer deterioration, when, for constant mass flux and inlet temperature, the pressure is gradually increased from subcritical to supercritical. CHF fluid-to-fluid modeling: differences in CHF behavior at certain conditions between refrigerants and water at equivalent conditions. The mechanisms responsible for these trends and the implications for predicting CHF for bundle geometries

  7. Flow-excursion-induced dryout at low-heat-flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Cazzoli, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    Flow-excursion-induced dryout at low-heat-flux natural-convection boiling, typical of liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, is addressed. Steady-state calculations indicate that low-quality boiling is possible up to the point of Ledinegg instability leading to flow excursion and subsequent dryout in agreement with experimental data. A flow-regime-dependent dryout heat flux relationship based upon saturated boiling criterion is also presented. Transient analysis indicates that premature flow excursion can not be ruled out and sodium boiling is highly transient dependent. Analysis of a high-heat-flux forced convection, loss-of-flow transient shows a significantly faster flow excursion leading to dryout in excellent agreement with parallel calculations using the two-dimensional THORAX code. 17 figures

  8. A Comparative Study for Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids with Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Mustafa, Meraj

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux in flows of viscoelastic fluids. Flow is generated by a linear stretching sheet. Influence of thermal relaxation time in the considered heat flux is seen. Mathematical formulation is presented for the boundary layer approach. Suitable transformations lead to a nonlinear differential system. Convergent series solutions of velocity and temperature are achieved. Impacts of various influential parameters on the velocity and temperature are sketched and discussed. Numerical computations are also performed for the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate. Our findings reveal that the temperature profile has an inverse relationship with the thermal relaxation parameter and the Prandtl number. Further the temperature profile and thermal boundary layer thickness are lower for Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model in comparison to the classical Fourier's law of heat conduction.

  9. Magnetic flux tubes and transport of heat in the convection zone of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruit, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis consists of five papers dealing with transport of heat in the solar convection zone on the one hand, and with the structure of magnetic flux tubes in the top of the convection zone on the other hand. These subjects are interrelated. For example, the heat flow in the convection zone is disturbed by the presence of magnetic flux tubes, while exchange of heat between a flux tube and the convection zone is important for the energy balance of such a tube. A major part of this thesis deals with the structure of small magnetic flux tubes. Such small tubes (diameters less than about 2'') carry most of the flux appearing at the solar surface. An attempt is made to construct models of the surface layers of such small tubes in sufficient detail to make a comparison with observations possible. Underlying these model calculations is the assumption that the magnetic elements at the solar surface are flux tubes in a roughly static equilibrium. The structure of such tubes is governed by their pressure equilibrium, exchange of heat with the surroundings, and transport of heat by some modified form of convection along the tube. The tube models calculated are compared with observations

  10. Modeling of the anthropogenic heat flux and its effect on regional meteorology and air quality over the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Xie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic heat (AH emissions from human activities caused by urbanization can affect the city environment. Based on the energy consumption and the gridded demographic data, the spatial distribution of AH emission over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region is estimated. Meanwhile, a new method for the AH parameterization is developed in the WRF/Chem model, which incorporates the gridded AH emission data with the seasonal and diurnal variations into the simulations. By running this upgraded WRF/Chem for 2 typical months in 2010, the impacts of AH on the meteorology and air quality over the YRD region are studied. The results show that the AH fluxes over the YRD have been growing in recent decades. In 2010, the annual-mean values of AH over Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang are 14.46, 2.61 and 1.63 W m−2, respectively, with the high value of 113.5 W m−2 occurring in the urban areas of Shanghai. These AH emissions can significantly change the urban heat island and urban-breeze circulations in the cities of the YRD region. In Shanghai, 2 m air temperature increases by 1.6 °C in January and 1.4 °C in July, the PBLH (planetary boundary layer height rises up by 140 m in January and 160 m in July, and 10 m wind speed is enhanced by 0.7 m s−1 in January and 0.5 m s−1 in July, with a higher increment at night. The enhanced vertical movement can transport more moisture to higher levels, which causes the decrease in water vapor at ground level and the increase in the upper PBL (planetary boundary layer, and thereby induces the accumulative precipitation to increase by 15–30 % over the megacities in July. The adding of AH can impact the spatial and vertical distributions of the simulated pollutants as well. The concentrations of primary air pollutants decrease near the surface and increase at the upper levels, due mainly to the increases in PBLH, surface wind speed and upward air vertical movement. But surface O3

  11. Modeling of the anthropogenic heat flux and its effect on regional meteorology and air quality over the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Liao, Jingbiao; Wang, Tijian; Zhu, Kuanguang; Zhuang, Bingliang; Han, Yong; Li, Mengmeng; Li, Shu

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic heat (AH) emissions from human activities caused by urbanization can affect the city environment. Based on the energy consumption and the gridded demographic data, the spatial distribution of AH emission over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is estimated. Meanwhile, a new method for the AH parameterization is developed in the WRF/Chem model, which incorporates the gridded AH emission data with the seasonal and diurnal variations into the simulations. By running this upgraded WRF/Chem for 2 typical months in 2010, the impacts of AH on the meteorology and air quality over the YRD region are studied. The results show that the AH fluxes over the YRD have been growing in recent decades. In 2010, the annual-mean values of AH over Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang are 14.46, 2.61 and 1.63 W m-2, respectively, with the high value of 113.5 W m-2 occurring in the urban areas of Shanghai. These AH emissions can significantly change the urban heat island and urban-breeze circulations in the cities of the YRD region. In Shanghai, 2 m air temperature increases by 1.6 °C in January and 1.4 °C in July, the PBLH (planetary boundary layer height) rises up by 140 m in January and 160 m in July, and 10 m wind speed is enhanced by 0.7 m s-1 in January and 0.5 m s-1 in July, with a higher increment at night. The enhanced vertical movement can transport more moisture to higher levels, which causes the decrease in water vapor at ground level and the increase in the upper PBL (planetary boundary layer), and thereby induces the accumulative precipitation to increase by 15-30 % over the megacities in July. The adding of AH can impact the spatial and vertical distributions of the simulated pollutants as well. The concentrations of primary air pollutants decrease near the surface and increase at the upper levels, due mainly to the increases in PBLH, surface wind speed and upward air vertical movement. But surface O3 concentrations increase in the urban areas, with maximum

  12. Study of dryout heat fluxes in beds of inductively heated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhir, V.K.; Catton, I.

    1977-02-01

    Experimental observations of the dryout heat fluxes for inductively heated particulate beds have been made. The data were obtained when steel and lead particles in the size distribution 295-787 microns were placed in a 4.7 cm diameter pyrex glass jar and inductively heated by passing radio frequency current through a 13.3 cm diameter multi-turn work coil encircling the jar. Distilled water, methanol and acetone were used as coolants in the experiments, while the bed height was varied from 1.0 to 8.9 cm. Different mechanisms for the dryout in deep and shallow beds have been identified. Dryout in shallow beds is believed to occur when the vapor velocity in the gas jets exceeds a certain critical velocity at which choking of the vapor occurs, leading to obstruction in the flow of the liquid toward the bed. However, deep beds dry out when gravitational force can no longer maintain a downward coolant flow rate necessary to dissipate the heat generated in the bed. The heat flux data of the investigation and that from two previous investigations made at Argonne Laboratory and at UCLA have been correlated with semi-theoretical correlations based on the proposed hydrodynamic models. The deep and shallow bed correlations are used to predict the bed height at which transition from deep to shallow bed would occur. An application of the study has been made to determine the maximum coolable depths of the core debris as a function of the particle size, bed porosity and decay heat

  13. Development of low flow critical heat flux correlation for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol; Chae, Hee Taek; Hang, Gee Yang.

    1997-07-01

    A low flow CHF correlation was developed for the safe operation of HANARO during the natural circulation cooling and the assessment of safety during the low flow condition of accident. The analytical model was applied to estimate the heat flux and the temperature distributions along the periphery of the fin at CHF conditions, and the predicted wall temperature at the sheath between the fins by the model agreed well with the measured one. The parametric trends of the CHF data for the finned geometry agreed with the general understanding from the previous studies for the unfinned annulus or tube geometries. It is revealed that the fin does not affect the CHF for low flow condition, although it increase the critical power due to larger heat transfer area. As the existing CHF correlation is proposed to predict the CHF for both finned and unfinned geometries at low flow and low pressure conditions. The developed correlation predicts the experimental CHF data with RMS errors of 13.7 %. (author). 19 refs., 3 tabs., 23 figs

  14. Development of low flow critical heat flux correlation for HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol; Chae, Hee Taek; Hang, Gee Yang

    1997-07-01

    A low flow CHF correlation was developed for the safe operation of HANARO during the natural circulation cooling and the assessment of safety during the low flow condition of accident. The analytical model was applied to estimate the heat flux and the temperature distributions along the periphery of the fin at CHF conditions, and the predicted wall temperature at the sheath between the fins by the model agreed well with the measured one. The parametric trends of the CHF data for the finned geometry agreed with the general understanding from the previous studies for the unfinned annulus or tube geometries. It is revealed that the fin does not affect the CHF for low flow condition, although it increase the critical power due to larger heat transfer area. As the existing CHF correlation is proposed to predict the CHF for both finned and unfinned geometries at low flow and low pressure conditions. The developed correlation predicts the experimental CHF data with RMS errors of 13.7 %. (author). 19 refs., 3 tabs., 23 figs.

  15. Review of the critical heat flux correlations for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Han, H. D.; Chang, W. P.; Kwon, Y. M.

    1999-09-01

    The CHF phenomenon in the two-phase convective flows has been an important issue in the fields of design and safety analysis of light water reactor (LWR) as well as sodium cooled liquid metal reactor (LMR). Especially in the LWR application, many physical aspects of the CHF phenomenon are understood and reliable correlations and mechanistic models to predict the CHF condition have been proposed over the past three decades. Most of the existing CHF correlations have been developed for light water reactor core applications. Compared with water, liquid metals show a divergent picture of boiling pattern. This can be attributed to the consequence that special CHF conditions obtained from investigations with water cannot be applied to liquid metals. Numerous liquid metal boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow studies have put emphasis on development of models and understanding of the mechanism for improving the CHF predictions. Thus far, no overall analytical solution method has been obtained and the reliable prediction method has remained empirical. The principal objectives of the present report are to review the state of the art in connection with liquid metal critical heat flux under low pressure and low flow conditions and to discuss the basic mechanisms. (author)

  16. Convective boundary layer flow and heat transfer in a nanofluid in the presence of second order slip, constant heat flux and zero nanoparticles flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M.M., E-mail: mansurdu@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36, PC 123 Al-Khod, Muscat (Oman); Al-Rashdi, Maryam H. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36, PC 123 Al-Khod, Muscat (Oman); Pop, I. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Convective boundary layer flow and heat transfer in a nanofluid is investigated. • Second order slip increases the rate of shear stress and decreases the rate of heat transfer in a nanofluid. • In nanofluid flow zero normal flux of the nanoparticles at the surface is realistic to apply. • Multiple solutions are identified for certain values of the parameter space. • The upper branch solution is found to be stable, hence physically realizable. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of the second order slip, constant heat flux, and zero normal flux of the nanoparticles due to thermophoresis on the convective boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics in a nanofluid using Buongiorno's model over a permeable shrinking sheet is studied theoretically. The nonlinear coupled similarity equations are solved using the function bvp4c using Matlab. Similarity solutions of the flow, heat transfer and nanoparticles volume fraction are presented graphically for several values of the model parameters. The results show that the application of second order slip at the interface is found to be increased the rate of shear stress and decreased the rate of heat transfer in a nanofluid, so need to be taken into account in nanofluid modeling. The results further indicate that multiple solutions exist for certain values of the parameter space. The stability analysis provides guarantee that the lower branch solution is unstable, while the upper branch solution is stable and physically realizable.

  17. High geothermal heat flux measured below the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew T; Mankoff, Kenneth D; Tulaczyk, Slawek M; Tyler, Scott W; Foley, Neil

    2015-07-01

    The geothermal heat flux is a critical thermal boundary condition that influences the melting, flow, and mass balance of ice sheets, but measurements of this parameter are difficult to make in ice-covered regions. We report the first direct measurement of geothermal heat flux into the base of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), below Subglacial Lake Whillans, determined from the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity of sediment under the lake. The heat flux at this site is 285 ± 80 mW/m(2), significantly higher than the continental and regional averages estimated for this site using regional geophysical and glaciological models. Independent temperature measurements in the ice indicate an upward heat flux through the WAIS of 105 ± 13 mW/m(2). The difference between these heat flux values could contribute to basal melting and/or be advected from Subglacial Lake Whillans by flowing water. The high geothermal heat flux may help to explain why ice streams and subglacial lakes are so abundant and dynamic in this region.

  18. High geothermal heat flux measured below the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew T.; Mankoff, Kenneth D.; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Tyler, Scott W.; Foley, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The geothermal heat flux is a critical thermal boundary condition that influences the melting, flow, and mass balance of ice sheets, but measurements of this parameter are difficult to make in ice-covered regions. We report the first direct measurement of geothermal heat flux into the base of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), below Subglacial Lake Whillans, determined from the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity of sediment under the lake. The heat flux at this site is 285 ± 80 mW/m2, significantly higher than the continental and regional averages estimated for this site using regional geophysical and glaciological models. Independent temperature measurements in the ice indicate an upward heat flux through the WAIS of 105 ± 13 mW/m2. The difference between these heat flux values could contribute to basal melting and/or be advected from Subglacial Lake Whillans by flowing water. The high geothermal heat flux may help to explain why ice streams and subglacial lakes are so abundant and dynamic in this region. PMID:26601210

  19. An inverse hyperbolic heat conduction problem in estimating surface heat flux by the conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.-H.; Wu, H.-H.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study an inverse hyperbolic heat conduction problem is solved by the conjugate gradient method (CGM) in estimating the unknown boundary heat flux based on the boundary temperature measurements. Results obtained in this inverse problem will be justified based on the numerical experiments where three different heat flux distributions are to be determined. Results show that the inverse solutions can always be obtained with any arbitrary initial guesses of the boundary heat flux. Moreover, the drawbacks of the previous study for this similar inverse problem, such as (1) the inverse solution has phase error and (2) the inverse solution is sensitive to measurement error, can be avoided in the present algorithm. Finally, it is concluded that accurate boundary heat flux can be estimated in this study

  20. On dryout heat flux and pressure drop of a submerged inductively heated bed flow from below

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, F.F.; Catton, I.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of dryout heat flux in a saturated porous medal with forced flow from below has been conducted using methanol as a coolant. The mass flux varied from 0 to 0.557 kg/m 2 sec. Particle sizes were 590-790 μm, 1.6 mm, 3.2 mm, and 4.8 mm. The dryout heat flux increases as the mass flux increases, and asymptotically goes to the total evaporation energy of the inlet flow. The pressure drop across the bed changed very rapidly near the dryout point due to the formation of dry zone

  1. Causes of Potential Urban Heat Island Space Using Heat flux Budget Under Urban Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y. J.; Lee, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    Raised concerns about possible contribution from urban heat island to global warming is about 30 percent. Therefore, mitigating urban heat island became one of major issues to solve among urban planners, urban designers, landscape architects, urban affair decision makers and etc. Urban heat island effect on a micro-scale is influenced by factors such as wind, water vapor and solar radiation. Urban heat island effect on a microscale is influenced by factors like wind, water vapor and solar radiation. These microscopic climates are also altered by factors affecting the heat content in space, like SVF and aspect ratio depending on the structural characteristics of various urban canyon components. Indicators of heat mitigation in urban design stage allows us to create a spatial structure considering the heat balance budget. The spatial characteristics affect thermal change by varying heat storage, emitting or absorbing the heat. The research defines characteristics of the space composed of the factors affecting the heat flux change as the potential urban heat island space. Potential urban heat island spaces are that having higher heat flux than periphery space. The study is to know the spatial characteristics that affects the subsequent temperature rise by the heat flux. As a research method, four types of potential heat island space regions were analyzed. I categorized the spatial types by comparing parameters' value of energy balance in day and night: 1) day severe areas, 2) day comfort areas, 3) night severe areas, 4) night comfort areas. I have looked at these four types of potential urban heat island areas from a microscopic perspective and investigated how various forms of heat influences on higher heat flux areas. This research was designed to investigate the heat indicators to be reflected in the design of urban canyon for heat mitigation. As a result, severe areas in daytime have high SVF rate, sensible heat is generated. Day comfort areas have shadow effect

  2. Design of an actively cooled plate calorimeter for the investigation of pool fire heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Nicolette, V.F.; Wix, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    For final qualification of shipping containers for transport of hazardous materials, thermal testing in accordance with regulations such as 10CFR71 must be completed. Such tests typically consist of 30 minute exposures with the container fully engulfed in flames from a large, open pool of JP4 jet engine fuel. Despite careful engineering analyses of the container, testing often reveals design problems that must be solved by modification and expensive retesting of the container. One source of this problem is the wide variation in surface heat flux to the container that occurs in pool fires. Average heat fluxes of 50 to 60 kW/m 2 are typical and close the values implied by the radiation model in 10CFR71, but peak fluxes up to 150 kW/m 2 are routinely observed in fires. Heat fluxes in pool fires have been shown to be a function of surface temperature of the container, height above the pool, surface orientation, wind, and other variables. If local variations in the surface heat flux to the container could be better predicted, design analyses would become more accurate, and fewer problems will be uncovered during testing. The objective of the calorimeter design described in this paper is to measure accurately pool fire heat fluxes under controlled conditions, and to provide data for calibration of improved analytical models of local flame-surface interactions

  3. Thermotronics: Towards Nanocircuits to Manage Radiative Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2017-02-01

    The control of electric currents in solids is at the origin of the modern electronics revolution that has driven our daily life since the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, to date, there is no thermal analogue for a control of heat flux. Here, we summarise the very last developments carried out in this direction to control heat exchanges by radiation both in near and far-field in complex architecture networks.

  4. Thermotronics. Towards nanocircuits to manage radiative heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Sherbrooke Univ., PQ; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2017-01-01

    The control of electric currents in solids is at the origin of the modern electronics revolution that has driven our daily life since the second half of 20 th century. Surprisingly, to date, there is no thermal analogue for a control of heat flux. Here, we summarise the very last developments carried out in this direction to control heat exchanges by radiation both in near and far-field in complex architecture networks.

  5. Thermotronics. Towards nanocircuits to manage radiative heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe [Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Palaiseau (France). Lab. Charles Fabry; Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Biehs, Svend-Age [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2017-05-01

    The control of electric currents in solids is at the origin of the modern electronics revolution that has driven our daily life since the second half of 20{sup th} century. Surprisingly, to date, there is no thermal analogue for a control of heat flux. Here, we summarise the very last developments carried out in this direction to control heat exchanges by radiation both in near and far-field in complex architecture networks.

  6. Estimation of transient heat flux density during the heat supply of a catalytic wall steam methane reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settar, Abdelhakim; Abboudi, Saïd; Madani, Brahim; Nebbali, Rachid

    2018-02-01

    Due to the endothermic nature of the steam methane reforming reaction, the process is often limited by the heat transfer behavior in the reactors. Poor thermal behavior sometimes leads to slow reaction kinetics, which is characterized by the presence of cold spots in the catalytic zones. Within this framework, the present work consists on a numerical investigation, in conjunction with an experimental one, on the one-dimensional heat transfer phenomenon during the heat supply of a catalytic-wall reactor, which is designed for hydrogen production. The studied reactor is inserted in an electric furnace where the heat requirement of the endothermic reaction is supplied by electric heating system. During the heat supply, an unknown heat flux density, received by the reactive flow, is estimated using inverse methods. In the basis of the catalytic-wall reactor model, an experimental setup is engineered in situ to measure the temperature distribution. Then after, the measurements are injected in the numerical heat flux estimation procedure, which is based on the Function Specification Method (FSM). The measured and estimated temperatures are confronted and the heat flux density which crosses the reactor wall is determined.

  7. Anomalies and other concerns related to the critical heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveld, D.C., E-mail: thermal@magma.ca [Researcher Emeritus, Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, Chalk River (Canada) and University of Ottawa, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ottawa (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    This paper summarizes various unusual trends in the critical heat flux (CHF) that have been observed experimentally in tubes or bundle subassemblies. They include the following: Bullet Occurrence of a minimum in the CHF vs. quality (X) curve at high flows - leading to an initial upstream CHF occurrence in uniformly heated channels. This phenomenon has been observed at high flows in both water and Freon. Bullet Occurrence of a limiting quality region on the CHF vs. X curve where the CHF drops by 30-90% for a nearly constant quality. This is thought to correspond to the boundary between the entrainment controlled and the deposition controlled region and causes problems for prediction methods of the form CHF = f(X). Bullet Impact of flow obstructions on the occurrence of upstream CHF and the limiting quality region. The additional mixing by grid spacers or bundle appendages results in a more homogeneous phase distribution, and diminishes the effects of flow regime/heat transfer regime transitions responsible for some of the unusual CHF trends, and results in a more gradually decreasing CHF vs. X curve. Bullet Absence of a CHF temperature excursion at high flows and high qualities - this is found to be caused by a change in slope of the transition boiling part of the boiling curve from a negative value (usual trend that results in a temperature excursion) to a positive slope. Bullet Gradual disappearance of the sharp temperature excursion at CHF when increasing the pressure towards and beyond the critical pressure - no drastic change is observed in the axial temperature distribution of a heated tube experiencing CHF when, for constant mass flux and inlet temperature, the pressure is gradually increased from subcritical to supercritical. Bullet CHF fluid-to-fluid modelling: differences in CHF trends at certain conditions between refrigerants and water at equivalent conditions. The mechanisms responsible for these trends and the implications for bundle geometries are

  8. Experimental assessment for instantaneous temperature and heat flux measurements under Diesel motored engine conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torregrosa, A.J.; Bermúdez, V.; Olmeda, P.; Fygueroa, O.

    2012-01-01

    Higlights: ► We measured in-cylinder wall heat fluxes. ► We examine the effects of different engine parameters. ► Increasing air mass flow increase heat fluxes. ► The effect of engine speed can be masked by the effect of volumetric efficiency. ► Differences among the different walls have been found. - Abstract: The main goal of this work is to validate an innovative experimental facility and to establish a methodology to evaluate the influence of some of the engine parameters on local engine heat transfer behaviour under motored steady-state conditions. Instantaneous temperature measurements have been performed in order to estimate heat fluxes on a modified Diesel single cylinder combustion chamber. This study was divided into two main parts. The first one was the design and setting on of an experimental bench to reproduce Diesel conditions and perform local-instantaneous temperature measurements along the walls of the combustion chamber by means of fast response thermocouples. The second one was the development of a procedure for temperature signal treatment and local heat flux calculation based on one-dimensional Fourier analysis. A thermodynamic diagnosis model has been employed to characterise the modified engine with the new designed chamber. As a result of the measured data coherent findings have been obtained in order to understand local behaviour of heat transfer in an internal combustion engine, and the influence of engine parameters on local instantaneous temperature and heat flux, have been analysed.

  9. Modelling of Power Fluxes during Thermal Quenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konz, C.; Coster, D. P.; Lackner, K.; Pautasso, G.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma disruptions, i. e. the sudden loss of magnetic confinement, are unavoidable, at least occasionally, in present day and future tokamaks. The expected energy fluxes to the plasma facing components (PFCs) during disruptions in ITER lie in the range of tens of GW/m''2 for timescales of about a millisecond. Since high energy fluxes can cause severe damage to the PFCs, their design heavily depends on the spatial and temporal distribution of the energy fluxes during disruptions. We investigate the nature of power fluxes during the thermal quench phase of disruptions by means of numerical simulations with the B2 SOLPS fluid code. Based on an ASDEX Upgrade shot, steady-state pre-disruption equilibria are generated which are then subjected to a simulated thermal quench by artificially enhancing the perpendicular transport in the ion and electron channels. The enhanced transport coefficients flows the Rechester and Rosenbluth model (1978) for ergodic transport in a tokamak with destroyed flux surfaces, i. e. χ, D∼const. xT''5/2 where the constants differ by the square root of the mass ratio for ions and electrons. By varying the steady-state neutral puffing rate we can modify the divertor conditions in terms of plasma temperature and density. Our numerical findings indicate that the disruption characteristics depend on the pre disruptive divertor conditions. We study the timescales and the spatial distribution of the divertor power fluxes. The simulated disruptions show rise and decay timescales in the range observed at ASDEX Upgrade. The decay timescale for the central electron temperature of ∼800 μs is typical for non-ITB disruptions. Varying the divertor conditions we find a distinct transition from a regime with symmetric power fluxes to inboard and outboard divertors to a regime where the bulk of the power flux goes to the outboard divertor. This asymmetry in the divertor peak fluxes for the higher puffing case is accompanied by a time delay between the

  10. Seasonal variability of the temperature and heat fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    ZAVALA-HIDALGO, J.; PARÉS-SIERRA, A.; OCHOA, J.

    2002-01-01

    Heat fluxes between the atmosphere and the sea surface in the Gulf of Mexico are computed using the COADS climatology, bulk formulae, radiation estimations from satellite, and a numerical model. 9 W m-2 is the estimated mean surface heat flux into the ocean, this is higher than previous studies due to different bulk formulae and data sources. The annual cycle has an amplitude of 168 W m-2. The contribution of each term in the heat equation is computed, analyzed and compared to previous studie...

  11. Thin film heat flux sensors for accurate transient and unidirectional heat transfer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azerou, B; Garnier, B; Lahmar, J

    2012-01-01

    Heat flux measurement is needed in many heat transfer studies. For the best unbiased heat flux sensors (HFS), the heat flux is obtained using temperature measurements at different locations and also an inverse heat conduction method (function specification...) in order to calculate the heat flux. Systematic errors can come from the uncertainty in the wire thermocouples locations and from errors in the knowledge of distances between two consecutive wire thermocouples. The main idea in this work is to use thin film thermoresistances deposited on a flexible thin polymer substrate instead of wire thermocouples welded on metallic sample. The interest of using thin film thermoresistances instead of wire thermocouples is a lower disturbance due to the smaller thickness of the thin film sensors (typically less than 1μm) and a much better knowledge of the distances between the different thin film thermoresistances which are precisely defined in the mask used for the metallic thin film pattern fabrication. In this paper, we present the fabrication of the new heat flux sensor with thin film thermoresistances, the study of the effect of the self heating (due to Joule effect in thermoresistances) and the performances of this new HFS with the comparison with classical HFS using wire thermocouples. For this study, a symmetric experimental setup is used with metallic samples equipped with an etched foil heater and both classical and new HFS. For several heating conditions, it appears that a better accuracy is always obtained with the new HFS using thin film thermoresistances.

  12. Experimental determination of local heat flux variation in an electrically heated BR-2 rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.; Merschroth, F.

    1977-08-01

    The installation of thermocouples within the cladding of an electrically heated BR-2 rod might cause local variations of heat flux. In order to detect a resulting temperature variation at the outer surface, experiments with a single electrically heated rod with heat fluxes up to 30.80 W/cm 2 and heat transfer coefficients up to 1000 W/m 2 K by forced convection in air were conducted. The surface temperatures were measured with an optical pyrometer. The experiment showed about 0.6% variation in the surface temperature. An analysis with the TAC2D-code shows that local variation in the heat flux under these conditions is less than 1.2%. (orig.) [de

  13. Prediction of Experimental Surface Heat Flux of Thin Film Gauges using ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Shrutidhara; Sahoo, Niranjan; Unal, Aynur

    2018-05-01

    Precise quantification of surface heat fluxes in highly transient environment is of paramount importance from the design point of view of several engineering equipment like thermal protection or cooling systems. Such environments are simulated in experimental facilities by exposing the surface with transient heat loads typically step/impulsive in nature. The surface heating rates are then determined from highly transient temperature history captured by efficient surface temperature sensors. The classical approach is to use thin film gauges (TFGs) in which temperature variations are acquired within milliseconds, thereby allowing calculation of surface heat flux, based on the theory of one-dimensional heat conduction on a semi-infinite body. With recent developments in the soft computing methods, the present study is an attempt for the application of intelligent system technique, called adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to recover surface heat fluxes from a given temperature history recorded by TFGs without having the need to solve lengthy analytical equations. Experiments have been carried out by applying known quantity of `impulse heat load' through laser beam on TFGs. The corresponding voltage signals have been acquired and surface heat fluxes are estimated through classical analytical approach. These signals are then used to `train' the ANFIS model, which later predicts output for `test' values. Results from both methods have been compared and these surface heat fluxes are used to predict the non-linear relationship between thermal and electrical properties of the gauges that are exceedingly pertinent to the design of efficient TFGs. Further, surface plots have been created to give an insight about dimensionality effect of the non-linear dependence of thermal/electrical parameters on each other. Later, it is observed that a properly optimized ANFIS model can predict the impulsive heat profiles with significant accuracy. This paper thus shows the

  14. Soil heat flux measurements in an open forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderMeulen, MJW; Klaassen, W; Kiely, G

    1996-01-01

    The soil surface heat flux in an open oak forest was determined at four locations to account for the heterogeneity of the forest. Soil temperatures and soil water content were measured at several depths and an integration method with three layers was used. The thickness of the bottom layer was

  15. Soil Heat Flux Measurements in an Open Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.W.J. van der; Klaassen, W.

    1996-01-01

    The soil surface heat flux in an open oak forest was determined at four locations to account for the heterogeneity of the forest. Soil temperatures and soil water content were measured at several depths and an integration method with three layers was used. The thickness of the bottom layer was

  16. Electric control of the heat flux through electrophononic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijas-Bellido, Juan Antonio; Aramberri, Hugo; Íñiguez, Jorge; Rurali, Riccardo

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate a fully electric control of the heat flux, which can be continuously modulated by an externally applied electric field in PbTiO3, a prototypical ferroelectric perovskite, revealing the mechanisms by which experimentally accessible fields can be used to tune the thermal conductivity by as much as 50% at room temperature.

  17. Plasma-surface interactions under high heat and particle fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Temmerman, G.; Bystrov, K.; Liu, F.; Liu, W.; Morgan, T.; Tanyeli, I.; van den Berg, M.; Xu, H.; Zielinski, J.

    2013-01-01

    The plasma-surface interactions expected in the divertor of a future fusion reactor are characterized by extreme heat and particle fluxes interacting with the plasma-facing surfaces. Powerful linear plasma generators are used to reproduce the expected plasma conditions and allow plasma-surface

  18. Extension of the heat flux method to subatmospheric pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, K.J.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The heat flux method for measuring laminar burning velocities has been extended to subatmospheric pressures, down to 80mbar. The new setup is described and adaptations necessary for the new conditions are analyzed. This includes a new burner plate to compensate for the decrease of sensitivity of the

  19. Direct evaluation of transient surface temperatures and heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, R.A.

    1975-08-01

    Evaluations of transient surface temperatures resulting from the absorption of radiation are required in laser fusion reactor systems studies. A general method for the direct evaluation of transient surface temperatures and heat fluxes on the boundaries of bounded media is developed by constructing fundamental solutions of the scalar Helmholtz equation and performing certain elementary integrations

  20. The micrometeorological investigation of heat flux and moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diurnal and seasonal variations of heat flux and the moisture content in the soil at a site for the Nigeria Mesoscale Experiment (NIMEX) in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (7.380 N and 3.930 E), had been investigated. The study also investigated effects of the atmospheric phenomena on magnitudes of the surface layer ...

  1. Estimation of bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    The bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce) has been estimated over the Arabian Sea from the moisture budget during the pre-monsoon season of 1988. The computations have been made over two regions (A: 0-8 degrees N: 60-68 degrees E: B: 0...

  2. Critical heat flux determination in an annulus section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes C, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The present report explains the phenomenon of Critical heat flux. The study of this physical phenomenon is carried out during the boiling of a liquid and is of supreme importance for the calculation and operation of a nuclear reactor even in the moderns generators of steam (thermoelectric and nucleoelectrics), industrial cooling and in all those industrial process that use a liquid subject to sources of heating and to conditions of work excessively high (temperatures and pressures) so that stay in operation in an appropriate manner and sure. Once well-known this value, the equipment used in these process works with a maximum heat that is smaller than the Critical Heat Flux. The study of the Critical Heat Flux has achieved important advances in the last years, mainly for the enormous obligation that in this moment involved the safety to world level, this has forced to researchers and designers of this type of equipment to center their attention in the obtaining of a correlation which of general way explains it. In this reports two correlations will be compared that they contribute to the evaluation of the Critical Heat Flux in annulus and that they try to be generals in this type of geometry, the Shah correlation's and the Katto correlation's. The same as most of the correlations, these have been calculated so that the fluid of work is water, although they have also been proven with others fluids. The results obtained in this report only will show the degree of advance which the investigation of this phenomenon has achieved in annulus and to low amounts of flow of liquid, like which they are in the Experimental Heat Transfer Circuit located in the Department of Physics of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. (Author)

  3. Tissue responses to fractional transient heating with sinusoidal heat flux condition on skin surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Magdy A; El-Bary, Alaa A; Al-Sowayan, Noorah S

    2016-10-01

    A fractional model of Bioheat equation for describing quantitatively the thermal responses of skin tissue under sinusoidal heat flux conditions on skin surface is given. Laplace transform technique is used to obtain the solution in a closed form. The resulting formulation is applied to one-dimensional application to investigate the temperature distribution in skin with instantaneous surface heating for different cases. According to the numerical results and its graphs, conclusion about the fractional bioheat transfer equation has been constructed. Sensitivity analysis is performed to explore the thermal effects of various control parameters on tissue temperature. The comparisons are made with the results obtained in the case of the absence of time-fractional order. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. White dwarf heating and the ultraviolet flux in dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringle, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation is made of the heating of the outer layers of the white dwarf which is likely to occur during a dwarf nova outburst. It is shown that the decline in IUE flux, observed during quiescent intervals in the dwarf novae VW Hydri and WX Hydri, may be due to the outer layers cooling off once the heat source is removed. The calculations here assume uniformity of the heat source over the white dwarf surface. This is unlikely to be realized from disc accretion, and we discuss that further calculations are required. (author)

  5. Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or open-quotes criticalclose quotes) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool reaches its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration

  6. Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1994-04-01

    The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The

  7. Satellite data based approach for the estimation of anthropogenic heat flux over urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitis, Theodoros; Tsegas, George; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Gounaridis, Dimitrios; Bliziotis, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    Anthropogenic effects in urban areas influence the thermal conditions in the environment and cause an increase of the atmospheric temperature. The cities are sources of heat and pollution, affecting the thermal structure of the atmosphere above them which results to the urban heat island effect. In order to analyze the urban heat island mechanism, it is important to estimate the anthropogenic heat flux which has a considerable impact on the urban energy budget. The anthropogenic heat flux is the result of man-made activities (i.e. traffic, industrial processes, heating/cooling) and thermal releases from the human body. Many studies have underlined the importance of the Anthropogenic Heat Flux to the calculation of the urban energy budget and subsequently, the estimation of mesoscale meteorological fields over urban areas. Therefore, spatially disaggregated anthropogenic heat flux data, at local and city scales, are of major importance for mesoscale meteorological models. The main objectives of the present work are to improve the quality of such data used as input for mesoscale meteorological models simulations and to enhance the application potential of GIS and remote sensing in the fields of climatology and meteorology. For this reason, the Urban Energy Budget concept is proposed as the foundation for an accurate determination of the anthropogenic heat discharge as a residual term in the surface energy balance. The methodology is applied to the cities of Athens and Paris using the Landsat ETM+ remote sensing data. The results will help to improve our knowledge on Anthropogenic Heat Flux, while the potential for further improvement of the methodology is also discussed.

  8. Divertor heat flux control and plasma-material interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yusuke; Nagata, Masayoshi; Sawada, Keiji; Takamura, Shuichi; Ueda, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Development of reliable radiative-cooling divertors is essential in DEMO reactor because it uses low-activation materials with low heat removal and the plasma heat flux exhausted from the confined region is 5 times as large as in ITER. It is important to predict precisely the heat and particle flux toward the divertor plate by simulation. In this present article, theoretical and experimental data of the reflection, secondary emission and surface recombination coefficients of the divertor plate by ion bombardment are given and their effects on the power transmission coefficient are discussed. In addition, some topics such as the erosion process of the divertor plate by ELM and the plasma disruption, the thermal shielding due to the vapor layer on the divertor plate and the formation of fuzz structure on W by helium plasma irradiation, are described. (author)

  9. High-heat-flux testing of helium-cooled heat exchangers for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youchison, D.L.; Izenson, M.G.; Baxi, C.B.; Rosenfeld, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    High-heat-flux experiments on three types of helium-cooled divertor mock-ups were performed on the 30-kW electron beam test system and its associated helium flow loop at Sandia National Laboratories. A dispersion-strengthened copper alloy (DSCu) was used in the manufacture of all the mock-ups. The first heat exchanger provides for enhanced heat transfer at relatively low flow rates and much reduced pumping requirements. The Creare sample was tested to a maximum absorbed heat flux of 5.8 MW/m 2 . The second used low pressure drops and high mass flow rates to achieve good heat removal. The GA specimen was tested to a maximum absorbed heat flux of 9 MW/m 2 while maintaining a surface temperature below 400 degree C. A second experiment resulted in a maximum absorbed heat flux of 34 MW/m 2 and surface temperatures near 533 degree C. The third specimen was a DSCu, axial flow, helium-cooled divertor mock-up filled with a porous metal wick which effectively increases the available heat transfer area. Low mass flow and high pressure drop operation at 4.0 MPa were characteristic of this divertor module. It survived a maximum absorbed heat flux of 16 MW/m 2 and reached a surface temperature of 740 degree C. Thermacore also manufactured a follow-on, dual channel porous metal-type heat exchanger, which survived a maximum absorbed heat flux of 14 MW/m 2 and reached a maximum surface temperature of 690 degree C. 11refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Effect of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux on Jeffrey fluid flow with variable thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Javed, Mehwish; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the study of Jeffrey fluid flow by a rotating disk with variable thickness. Energy equation is constructed by using Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model with variable thermal conductivity. A system of equations governing the model is obtained by applying boundary layer approximation. Resulting nonlinear partial differential system is transformed to ordinary differential system. Homotopy concept leads to the convergent solutions development. Graphical analysis for velocities and temperature is made to examine the influence of different involved parameters. Thermal relaxation time parameter signifies that temperature for Fourier's heat law is more than Cattaneo-Christov heat flux. A constitutional analysis is made for skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate. Effects of Prandtl number on temperature distribution and heat transfer rate are scrutinized. It is observed that larger Reynolds number gives illustrious temperature distribution.

  11. Surface temperature and surface heat flux determination of the inverse heat conduction problem for a slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroyanagi, Toshiyuki

    1983-07-01

    Based on an idea that surface conditions should be a reflection of interior temperature and interior heat flux variation as inverse as interior conditions has been determined completely by the surface temperature and/on surface heat flux as boundary conditions, a method is presented for determining the surface temperature and the surface heat flux of a solid when the temperature and heat flux at an interior point are a prescribed function of time. The method is developed by the integration of Duhumels' integral which has unknown temperature or unknown heat flux in its integrand. Specific forms of surface condition determination are developed for a sample inverse problem: slab. Ducussing the effect of a degree of avairable informations at an interior point due to damped system and the effect of variation of surface conditions on those formulations, it is shown that those formulations are capable of representing the unknown surface conditions except for small time interval followed by discontinuous change of surface conditions. The small un-resolved time interval is demonstrated by a numerical example. An evaluation method of heat flux at an interior point, which is requested by those formulations, is discussed. (author)

  12. Design of an actively cooled plate calorimeter for the investigation of pool fire heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Nicolette, V.F.; Wix, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    For final qualification of shipping containers for transport of hazardous materials, thermal testing in accordance with regulations such as 10CFR71 must be completed. Such tests typically consist of 30 minute exposures with the container fully engulfed in flames from a large, open pool of JP4 jet engine fuel. Despite careful engineering analyses of the container, testing often reveals design problems that must be solved by modification and expensive retesting of the container. One source of this problem is the wide variation in surface heat flux to the container that occurs in pool fires. Average beat fluxes of 50 to 60 kW/m 2 are typical and close the values implied by the radiation model in 10CFR71, but peak fluxes up to 150 kW/m 2 are routinely observed in fires (Keltner, et al,1990). Heat fluxes in pool fires have been shown to be a function of surface temperature of the container, height above the pool, surface orientation, wind, and other variables. If local variations in the surface heat flux to the container can be better predicted, design analyses will become more accurate, and fewer problems will be uncovered during testing. The objective of the calorimeter design described in this paper is to measure accurately pool fire heat fluxes under controlled conditions, and to provide data for calibration of improved analytical models of local flame-surface interactions

  13. Correlation of critical heat flux data for uniform tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafri, T.; Dougherty, T.J.; Yang, B.W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A data base of more than 10,000 critical heat flux (CHF) data points has been compiled and analyzed. Two regimes of CHF are observed which will be referred to as the high CHF regime and the low CHF regime. In the high CHF regime, for pressures less than 110 bar, CHF (q{sub c}) is a determined by local conditions and is adequately represented by q{sub c} = (1.2/D{sup 1/2}) exp[-{gamma}(GX{sub t}){sup 1/2}] where the parameter {gamma} is an increasing function of pressure only, X{sub t} the true mass fraction of steam, and all units are metric but the heat flux is in MWm{sup -2}. A simple kinetic model has been developed to estimate X{sub t} as a function of G, X, X{sub i}, and X{sub O}, where X{sub i} is the inlet quality and X{sub O} represents the quality at the Onset of Significant Vaporization (OSV) which is estimated from the Saha-Zuber (S-Z) correlation. The model is based on a rate equation for vaporization suggested by, and consistent with, the S-Z correlation and contains no adjustable parameters. When X{sub i}X{sub O}, X{sub t} depends on X{sub i}, a nonlocal variable, and, in this case, CHF, although determined by local conditions, obeys a nonlocal correlation. This model appears to be satisfactory for pressures less than 110 bar, where the S-Z correlation is known to be reliable. Above 110 bar the method of calculating X{sub O}, and consequently X{sub t}, appears to fail, so this approach can not be applied to high pressure CHF data. Above 35 bar, the bulk of the available data lies in the high CHF regime while, at pressures less than 35 bar, almost all of the available data lie in the low CHF regime and appear to be nonlocal.

  14. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Spectral estimates of net radiation and soil heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughtry, C.S.T.; Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Pinter, P.J. Jr.; Jackson, R.D.; Brown, P.W.; Nichols, W.D.; Gay, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional methods of measuring surface energy balance are point measurements and represent only a small area. Remote sensing offers a potential means of measuring outgoing fluxes over large areas at the spatial resolution of the sensor. The objective of this study was to estimate net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G) using remotely sensed multispectral data acquired from an aircraft over large agricultural fields. Ground-based instruments measured Rn and G at nine locations along the flight lines. Incoming fluxes were also measured by ground-based instruments. Outgoing fluxes were estimated using remotely sensed data. Remote Rn, estimated as the algebraic sum of incoming and outgoing fluxes, slightly underestimated Rn measured by the ground-based net radiometers. The mean absolute errors for remote Rn minus measured Rn were less than 7%. Remote G, estimated as a function of a spectral vegetation index and remote Rn, slightly overestimated measured G; however, the mean absolute error for remote G was 13%. Some of the differences between measured and remote values of Rn and G are associated with differences in instrument designs and measurement techniques. The root mean square error for available energy (Rn - G) was 12%. Thus, methods using both ground-based and remotely sensed data can provide reliable estimates of the available energy which can be partitioned into sensible and latent heat under non advective conditions

  17. Thermalhydraulic behavior of electrically heated rods during critical heat flux transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Rita de Cassia Fernandes de

    1997-01-01

    In nuclear reactors, the occurrence of critical heat flux leads to fuel rod overheating with clad fusion and radioactive products leakage. To predict the effects of such phenomenon, experiments are performed utilizing heated rods to simulate operational and accidental conditions of nuclear fuel rods, with special attention to the phenomenon of boiling crisis. The use of mechanisms which detect the abrupt temperature rise allows the electric power switch off. These facts prevent the test section from damage. During the critical heat flux phenomenon the axial heat conduction becomes very important. The study of the dryout and rewetting fronts yields the analysis, planning and following of critical heat flux experiments. These facts are important during the reflooding of nuclear cores at severe accidents. In the present work it is performed a theoretical analysis of the drying and rewetting front propagation during a critical heat flux experiment, starting with the application of an electrical power step or power slope from steady state condition. After the occurrence of critical heat flux, it is predicted the drying front propagation. After a few seconds, a power cut is considered and the rewetting front behavior is analytically observed. In all these transients the coolant pressure is 13,5 MPa. For one of them, comparisons are done with a pressure of 8,00 MPa. Mass flow and enthalpy influences on the fronts velocities are also analysed. These results show that mass flow has more importance on the drying front velocities whereas the pressure alters strongly the rewetting ones. (author)

  18. Inlet effect induced ''upstream'' critical heat flux in smooth tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, J.B. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An unusual form of ''upstream'' critical heat flux (CHF) has been observed and directly linked to the inlet flow pattern during an experimental study of high pressure (17 - 20 MPa) water flowing through a vertical 38.1 mm ID smooth bore tube with uniform axial and nonuniform circumferential heating. These upstream CHF data were characterized by temperature excursions which initially occurred at a relatively fixed axial location in the middle of the test section while the outlet and inlet heated lengths experienced no change. A rifled tube inlet flow conditioner could be substituted for a smooth tube section to generate the desired swirling inlet flow pattern. The upstream CHF data were found to match data from a uniformly heated smooth bore tube when the comparison was made using the peak local heat flux. The mechanism proposed to account for the upstream CHF observations involves the destructive interference between the decaying swirl flow and the secondary circumferential liquid flow field resulting from the one-sided heating

  19. Critical Heat Flux Phenomena at HighPressure & Low Mass Fluxes: NEUP Final Report Part I: Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wu, Qiao [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This report is a preliminary document presenting an overview of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomenon, the High Pressure Critical Heat Flux facility (HPCHF), preliminary CHF data acquired, and the future direction of the research. The HPCHF facility has been designed and built to study CHF at high pressure and low mass flux ranges in a rod bundle prototypical of conceptual Small Modular Reactor (SMR) designs. The rod bundle is comprised of four electrically heated rods in a 2x2 square rod bundle with a prototypic chopped-cosine axial power profile and equipped with thermocouples at various axial and circumferential positions embedded in each rod for CHF detection. Experimental test parameters for CHF detection range from pressures of ~80 – 160 bar, mass fluxes of ~400 – 1500 kg/m2s, and inlet water subcooling from ~30 – 70°C. The preliminary data base established will be further extended in the future along with comparisons to existing CHF correlations, models, etc. whose application ranges may be applicable to the conditions of SMRs.

  20. Heat flux and quantum correlations in dissipative cascaded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Salvatore; Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Palma, G. Massimo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2015-02-01

    We study the dynamics of heat flux in the thermalization process of a pair of identical quantum systems that interact dissipatively with a reservoir in a cascaded fashion. Despite that the open dynamics of the bipartite system S is globally Lindbladian, one of the subsystems "sees" the reservoir in a state modified by the interaction with the other subsystem and hence it undergoes a non-Markovian dynamics. As a consequence, the heat flow exhibits a nonexponential time behavior which can greatly deviate from the case where each party is independently coupled to the reservoir. We investigate both thermal and correlated initial states of S and show that the presence of correlations at the beginning can considerably affect the heat-flux rate. We carry out our study in two paradigmatic cases—a pair of harmonic oscillators with a reservoir of bosonic modes and two qubits with a reservoir of fermionic modes—and compare the corresponding behaviors. In the case of qubits and for initial thermal states, we find that the trace distance discord is at any time interpretable as the correlated contribution to the total heat flux.

  1. Recent High Heat Flux Tests on W-Rod-Armored Mockups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Richard E.; Youchison, Dennis L.; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Lutz, Thomas J.; Miszkiel, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    In the authors initial high heat flux tests on small mockups armored with W rods, done in the small electron beam facility (EBTS) at Sandia National Laboratories, the mockups exhibited excellent thermal performance. However, to reach high heat fluxes, they reduced the heated area to only a portion (approximately25%) of the sample. They have now begun tests in their larger electron beam facility, EB 1200, where the available power (1.2 MW) is more than enough to heat the entire surface area of the small mockups. The initial results indicate that, at a given power, the surface temperatures of rods in the EB 1200 tests is somewhat higher than was observed in the EBTS tests. Also, it appears that one mockup (PW-10) has higher surface temperatures than other mockups with similar height (10mm) W rods, and that the previously reported values of absorbed heat flux on this mockup were too high. In the tests in EB 1200 of a second mockup, PW-4, absorbed heat fluxes of approximately22MW/m 2 were reached but the corresponding surface temperatures were somewhat higher than in EBTS. A further conclusion is that the simple 1-D model initially used in evaluating some of the results from the EBTS testing was not adequate, and 3-D thermal modeling will be needed to interpret the results

  2. Component and system simulation models for High Flux Isotope Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozer, A.

    1989-08-01

    Component models for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) have been developed. The models are HFIR core, heat exchangers, pressurizer pumps, circulation pumps, letdown valves, primary head tank, generic transport delay (pipes), system pressure, loop pressure-flow balance, and decay heat. The models were written in FORTRAN and can be run on different computers, including IBM PCs, as they do not use any specific simulation languages such as ACSL or CSMP. 14 refs., 13 figs

  3. Effect of local heat flux spikes on DNB in non-uniformly heated rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadek, F.F.; Hill, K.W.; Motley, F.E.

    1975-02-01

    High pressure water tests were carried out to measure the DNB heat flux using an electrically heated rod bundle in which three adjacent rods had 20 percent heat flux spikes at the axial location where DNB is most likely to occur. This test series was run at the same conditions as those of two earlier test series which had unspiked rods, so that spiked and unspiked runs could be paired and spike effects could thus be isolated. Results are described. 7 references. (U.S.)

  4. Thermalhydraulic behavior of electrically heated rod during a critical heat flux transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Rita de Cassia Fernandes de; Carajilescov, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    In nuclear reactors, the occurrence of critical heat flux leads to fuel rod overheating with clad fusion and radioactive products leakage. To predict the effects of such phenomenon, experiments are performed using electrically heated rods to simulate operational and accidental conditions of nuclear fuel rods. In the present work, a theoretical analysis of the drying and rewetting front propagation is performed during a critical heat flux experiment, starting with the application of slope of electrical power from steady state condition. After the occurrence of critical heat flux, the drying front propagation is predicted. After a few seconds, a power cut is considered and the rewetting front behavior is analytically observed. Studies done with several values of coolant mass flow rate show that this variable has more influence on the drying front velocity than on the rewetting one. (author)

  5. Using heat to characterize streambed water flux variability in four stream reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, H.I.; Zamora, C.M.; McCarthy, K.A.; Vogel, J.R.; Wilson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of streambed water flux are needed for the interpretation of streambed chemistry and reactions. Continuous temperature and head monitoring in stream reaches within four agricultural watersheds (Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Maple Creek, NE; DR2 Drain, WA; and Merced River, CA) allowed heat to be used as a tracer to study the temporal and spatial variability of fluxes through the streambed. Synoptic methods (seepage meter and differential discharge measurements) were compared with estimates obtained by using heat as a tracer. Water flux was estimated by modeling one-dimensional vertical flow of water and heat using the model VS2DH. Flux was influenced by physical heterogeneity of the stream channel and temporal variability in stream and ground-water levels. During most of the study period (April-December 2004), flux was upward through the streambeds. At the IN, NE, and CA sites, high-stage events resulted in rapid reversal of flow direction inducing short-term surface-water flow into the streambed. During late summer at the IN site, regional ground-water levels dropped, leading to surface-water loss to ground water that resulted in drying of the ditch. Synoptic measurements of flux generally supported the model flux estimates. Water flow through the streambed was roughly an order of magnitude larger in the humid basins (IN and NE) than in the arid basins (WA and CA). Downward flux, in response to sudden high streamflows, and seasonal variability in flux was most pronounced in the humid basins and in high conductivity zones in the streambed. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma–Surface Interactions Under High Heat and Particle Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory De Temmerman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma-surface interactions expected in the divertor of a future fusion reactor are characterized by extreme heat and particle fluxes interacting with the plasma-facing surfaces. Powerful linear plasma generators are used to reproduce the expected plasma conditions and allow plasma-surface interactions studies under those very harsh conditions. While the ion energies on the divertor surfaces of a fusion device are comparable to those used in various plasma-assited deposition and etching techniques, the ion (and energy fluxes are up to four orders of magnitude higher. This large upscale in particle flux maintains the surface under highly non-equilibrium conditions and bring new effects to light, some of which will be described in this paper.

  7. Critical heat flux experiments in tight lattice core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kureta, Masatoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    Fuel rods of the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) are so designed to be in tight lattices as to reduce moderation and achieve higher conversion ratio. As for the BWR type reactor coolant flow rate is reduced small compared with the existing BWR, so average void fraction comes to be langer. In order to evaluate thermo hydraulic characteristics of designed cores, critical heat flux experiments in tight lattice core have been conducted using simulated high pressure coolant loops for both the PWR and BWR seven fuel rod bundles. Experimental data on critical heat flux for full bundles have been accumulated and applied to assess the critical power of designed cores using existing codes. Evaluated results are conservative enough to satisfy the limiting condition. Further experiments on axial power distribution effects and 37 fuel rod bundle tests will be performed to validate thermohydraulic characteristics of designed cores. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Maximum heat flux in boiling in a large volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmans, Dzh.

    1976-01-01

    Relationships are derived for the maximum heat flux qsub(max) without basing on the assumptions of both the critical vapor velocity corresponding to the zero growth rate, and planar interface. The Helmholz nonstability analysis of vapor column has been made to this end. The results of this examination have been used to find maximum heat flux for spherical, cylindric and flat plate heaters. The conventional hydrodynamic theory was found to be incapable of producing a satisfactory explanation of qsub(max) for small heaters. The occurrence of qsub(max) in the present case can be explained by inadequate removal of vapor output from the heater (the force of gravity for cylindrical heaters and surface tension for the spherical ones). In case of flat plate heater the qsub(max) value can be explained with the help of the hydrodynamic theory

  9. Critical heat flux experiments in tight lattice core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureta, Masatoshi

    2002-01-01

    Fuel rods of the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) are so designed to be in tight lattices as to reduce moderation and achieve higher conversion ratio. As for the BWR type reactor coolant flow rate is reduced small compared with the existing BWR, so average void fraction comes to be langer. In order to evaluate thermo hydraulic characteristics of designed cores, critical heat flux experiments in tight lattice core have been conducted using simulated high pressure coolant loops for both the PWR and BWR seven fuel rod bundles. Experimental data on critical heat flux for full bundles have been accumulated and applied to assess the critical power of designed cores using existing codes. Evaluated results are conservative enough to satisfy the limiting condition. Further experiments on axial power distribution effects and 37 fuel rod bundle tests will be performed to validate thermohydraulic characteristics of designed cores. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Thermal resistance of a convectively cooled plate with applied heat flux and variable internal heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, N.S.; Cardoso, H.P.; Oliveira Filho, O.B. de

    1981-01-01

    The conductive heat transfer in a rectangular plate with nonuniform internal heat generation, with one end convectively cooled and a part of the opposite end subjected to external heat flux is considered. The remaining part of this end as well as the other two sides are thermally insulated. The governing differential equation is solved by a finite difference scheme. The variation of the thermal resistance with Biot modulus, the plate geometry, the internal heat generation parameter and the type of profile of internal heat generation is discussed. (author) [pt

  11. Feedforward temperature control using a heat flux microsensor

    OpenAIRE

    Lartz, Douglas John

    1993-01-01

    The concept of using heat flux measurements to provide the input for a feedforward temperature control loop is investigated. The feedforward loop is added to proportional and integral feedback control to increase the speed of the response to a disturbance. Comparison is made between the feedback and the feedback plus feedforward control laws. The control law with the feedforward control loop is also compared to the conventional approach of adding derivative control to speed up ...

  12. Heat Fluxes and Evaporation Measurements by Multi-Function Heat Pulse Probe: a Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V.; Ciocca, F.; Hopmans, J. W.; Kamai, T.; Lunati, I.; Parlange, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    Multi Functional Heat Pulse Probes (MFHPP) are multi-needles probes developed in the last years able to measure temperature, thermal properties such as thermal diffusivity and volumetric heat capacity, from which soil moisture is directly retrieved, and electric conductivity (through a Wenner array). They allow the simultaneous measurement of coupled heat, water and solute transport in porous media, then. The use of only one instrument to estimate different quantities in the same volume and almost at the same time significantly reduces the need to interpolate different measurement types in space and time, increasing the ability to study the interdependencies characterizing the coupled transports, especially of water and heat, and water and solute. A three steps laboratory experiment is realized at EPFL to investigate the effectiveness and reliability of the MFHPP responses in a loamy soil from Conthey, Switzerland. In the first step specific calibration curves of volumetric heat capacity and thermal conductivity as function of known volumetric water content are obtained placing the MFHPP in small samplers filled with the soil homogeneously packed at different saturation degrees. The results are compared with literature values. In the second stage the ability of the MFHPP to measure heat fluxes is tested within a homemade thermally insulated calibration box and results are matched with those by two self-calibrating Heatflux plates (from Huxseflux), placed in the same box. In the last step the MFHPP are used to estimate the cumulative subsurface evaporation inside a small column (30 centimeters height per 8 centimeters inner diameter), placed on a scale, filled with the same loamy soil (homogeneously packed and then saturated) and equipped with a vertical array of four MFHPP inserted close to the surface. The subsurface evaporation is calculated from the difference between the net sensible heat and the net heat storage in the volume scanned by the probes, and the

  13. Pengaruh Rasio Step pada Sudden Enlargement Channel terhadap Heat Flux Kondensasi di Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Hari Praswanto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant parameter in air conditioning problems is air humidity. A porous media can be used as a heat exchanger component in order to increase the heat transfer performance which is significantly depends on the heat flux values inside of them. To determine the heat flux value, a following test section was modeled in this research. A vapor passed through a channel whereas a particular porous media made of active carbon acted as its heat exchanger media. However, the sudden enlargement at the inlet of channel could affect the homogeneity of temperature distributions and also caused some several turbulencies. The research method is vapor flowed over the porous media for 60 minute with temperature of 300oC.The vapor velocity is varied from 1 m/s to 3 m/s and the step ratio also varied between 0 until 1.66. From the experiment shows the bigger step ratio and vapor velocity results the bigger heat flux and air humidity after passed through the low porous media. Heat transfer was occured in porous media including convection heat transfer with the value of Gr/Re2 smaller than 1.

  14. Heat flux expressions that satisfy the conservation laws in atomistic system involving multibody potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yao, E-mail: Yao.Fu@colorado.edu; Song, Jeong-Hoon, E-mail: JH.Song@colorado.edu

    2015-08-01

    Heat flux expressions are derived for multibody potential systems by extending the original Hardy's methodology and modifying Admal & Tadmor's formulas. The continuum thermomechanical quantities obtained from these two approaches are easy to compute from molecular dynamics (MD) results, and have been tested for a constant heat flux model in two distinctive systems: crystalline iron and polyethylene (PE) polymer. The convergence criteria and affecting parameters, i.e. spatial and temporal window size, and specific forms of localization function are found to be different between the two systems. The conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are discussed and validated within this atomistic–continuum bridging.

  15. Heat flux expressions that satisfy the conservation laws in atomistic system involving multibody potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yao; Song, Jeong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Heat flux expressions are derived for multibody potential systems by extending the original Hardy's methodology and modifying Admal & Tadmor's formulas. The continuum thermomechanical quantities obtained from these two approaches are easy to compute from molecular dynamics (MD) results, and have been tested for a constant heat flux model in two distinctive systems: crystalline iron and polyethylene (PE) polymer. The convergence criteria and affecting parameters, i.e. spatial and temporal window size, and specific forms of localization function are found to be different between the two systems. The conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are discussed and validated within this atomistic–continuum bridging

  16. Copper alloys for high heat flux structure applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Fabritsiev, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanical and physical properties of copper alloys are reviewed and compared with the requirements for high heat flux structural applications in fusion reactors. High heat flux structural materials must possess a combination of high thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. The three most promising copper alloys at the present time are oxide dispersion-strengthened copper (Cu-Al 2 O 3 ) and two precipitation-hardened copper alloys (Cu-Cr-Zr and Cu-Ni-Be). These three alloys are capable of room temperature yield strengths >400 MPa and thermal conductivities up to 350 W/m-K. All of these alloys require extensive cold working to achieve their optimum strength. Precipitation-hardened copper alloys such Cu-Cr-Zr are susceptible to softening due to precipitate overaging and recrystallization during brazing, whereas the dislocation structure in Cu-Al 2 O 3 remains stabilized during typical high temperature brazing cycles. All three alloys exhibit good resistance to irradiation-induced softening and void swelling at temperatures below 300 degrees C. The precipitation-strengthened allows typically soften during neutron irradiation at temperatures above about 300 degrees C and therefore should only be considered for applications operating at temperatures 2 O 3 ) is considered to be the best candidate for high heat flux structural applications

  17. Heat and Flux. Enabling the Wind Turbine Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaak, P. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    In the years 1999-2003 ECN invented and patented the technique 'Heat and Flux'. The idea behind Heat and Flux is that tuning turbines at the windward side of a wind farm more transparent than usual, i.e. realising an axial induction factor below the Lanchester-Betz optimum of 1/3, should raise net farm production and lower mechanical turbine loading without causing draw-backs. For scaled farms in a boundary layer wind tunnel this hypothesis has been proved in previous projects. To enable alternative turbine transparencies, the wind turbine controller must support the additional control aim 'desired transparency'. During this study we have determined a general method to design a transparency control algorithm. This method has been implemented in ECN's 'Control Tool' for designing wind turbine control algorithms. The aero-elastic wind turbine code Phatas has been used to verify the resulting control algorithm. Heat and Flux does not fundamentally change the control of horizontal axis variable speed wind turbines. The axial induction can be reduced by an offset on blade pitch or generator torque. Weighing reliability against performance profits, it appeared to be advisable to adapt only blade angle control.

  18. Critical heat flux for downward-facing pool boiling on CANDU calandria tube surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behdadi, Azin, E-mail: behdada@mcmaster.ca; Talebi, Farshad; Luxat, John

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Pressure tube-calandria tube contact may challenge fuel channel integrity in CANDU. • Critical heat flux variation is predicted on the outer surface of CANDU calandria tube. • A two-phase boundary layer flow driven by buoyancy is modeled on the surface. • Different slip ratios and flow regimes are considered inside the boundary layer. • Subcooling effects are added to the model using wall heat flux partitioning. - Abstract: One accident scenario in CANDU reactors that can challenge the integrity of the primary pressure boundary is a loss of coolant accident, referred to as critical break LOCA, in which the pressure tube (PT) can undergo thermal creep strain deformation and contact its calandria tube (CT). In such case, rapid redistribution of stored heat from PT to CT, leads to a large spike in heat flux to the moderator which can cause bubble accumulation and dryout on the CT surface. A challenge to fuel channel integrity is posed if critical heat flux occurs on the surface of the CT and results in sustained film boiling. If the post-dryout temperature becomes sufficiently high then continued creep strain of the PT and CT may lead to fuel channel failure. In this study, a mechanistic model is developed to predict the critical heat flux variations along the downward facing outer surface of CT. The hydrodynamic model considers a liquid macrolayer beneath an elongated vapor slug on the surface. Local dryout is postulated to occur whenever the fresh liquid supply to the macrolayer is not sufficient to compensate for the liquid depletion. A boundary layer analysis is performed, treating the two phase motion as an external buoyancy driven flow. The model shows good agreement with the available experimental data and has been modified to take into account the effect of subcooling.

  19. Global modelling study (GSM TIP of the ionospheric effects of excited N2, convection and heat fluxes by comparison with EISCAT and satellite data for 31 July 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Smilauer

    Full Text Available Near-earth plasma parameters were calculated using a global numerical self-consistent and time-dependent model of the thermosphere, ionosphere and protonosphere (GSM TIP. The model results are compared with experimental data of different origin, mainly EISCAT measurements and simultaneous satellite data (Ne and ion composition. Model runs with varying inputs of auroral FAC distributions, temperature of vibrationally excited nitrogen and photoelectron energy escape fluxes are used to make adjustments to the observations. The satellite data are obtained onboard Active and its subsatellite Magion-2 when they passed nearby the EISCAT station around 0325 and 1540 UT on 31 July 1990 at a height of about 2000 and 2200 km, respectively. A strong geomagnetic disturbance was observed two days before the period under study. Numerical calculations were performed with consideration of vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules for high solar-activity conditions. The results show good agreement between the incoherent-scatter radar measurements (Ne, Te, Ti and model calculations, taking into account the excited molecular nitrogen reaction rates. The comparison of model results of the thermospheric neutral wind shows finally a good agreement with the HWM93 empirical wind model.

  20. Global modelling study (GSM TIP of the ionospheric effects of excited N2, convection and heat fluxes by comparison with EISCAT and satellite data for 31 July 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Korenkov

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Near-earth plasma parameters were calculated using a global numerical self-consistent and time-dependent model of the thermosphere, ionosphere and protonosphere (GSM TIP. The model results are compared with experimental data of different origin, mainly EISCAT measurements and simultaneous satellite data (Ne and ion composition. Model runs with varying inputs of auroral FAC distributions, temperature of vibrationally excited nitrogen and photoelectron energy escape fluxes are used to make adjustments to the observations. The satellite data are obtained onboard Active and its subsatellite Magion-2 when they passed nearby the EISCAT station around 0325 and 1540 UT on 31 July 1990 at a height of about 2000 and 2200 km, respectively. A strong geomagnetic disturbance was observed two days before the period under study. Numerical calculations were performed with consideration of vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules for high solar-activity conditions. The results show good agreement between the incoherent-scatter radar measurements (Ne, Te, Ti and model calculations, taking into account the excited molecular nitrogen reaction rates. The comparison of model results of the thermospheric neutral wind shows finally a good agreement with the HWM93 empirical wind model.

  1. Numerical simulation in a subcooled water flow boiling for one-sided high heat flux in reactor divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, P., E-mail: pinliu@aust.edu.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Peng, X.B., E-mail: pengxb@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Song, Y.T. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fang, X.D. [Institute of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Huang, S.H. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Mao, X. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The Eulerian multiphase models coupled with Non-equilibrium Boiling model can effectively simulate the subcooled water flow boiling. • ONB and FDB appear earlier and earlier with the increase of heat fluxes. • The void fraction increases gradually along the flow direction. • The inner CuCrZr tube deteriorates earlier than the outer tungsten layer and the middle OFHC copper layer. - Abstract: In order to remove high heat fluxes for plasma facing components in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor, a numerical simulation of subcooled water flow boiling heat transfer in a vertically upward smooth tube was conducted in this paper on the condition of one-sided high heat fluxes. The Eulerian multiphase model coupled with Non-equilibrium Boiling model was adopted in numerical simulation of the subcooled boiling two-phase flow. The heat transfer regions, thermodynamic vapor quality (x{sub th}), void fraction and temperatures of three components on the condition of the different heat fluxes were analyzed. Numerical results indicate that the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) and fully developed boiling (FDB) appear earlier and earlier with increasing heat flux. With the increase of heat fluxes, the inner CuCrZr tube will deteriorate earlier than the outer tungsten layer and the middle oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper layer. These results provide a valuable reference for the thermal-hydraulic design of a water-cooled W/Cu divertor.

  2. Estimation of catchment averaged sensible heat fluxes using a large aperture scintillometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samain Bruno

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration rates at the catchment scale are very difficult to quantify. One possible manner to continuously observe this variable could be the estimation of sensible heat fluxes (H across large distances (in the order of kilometers using a large aperture scintillometer (LAS, and inverting these observations into evapotranspiration rates, under the assumption that the LAS observations are representative for the entire catchment. The objective of this paper is to assess whether measured sensible heat fluxes from a LAS over a long distance (9.5 km can be assumed to be valid for a 102.3 km2 heterogeneous catchment. Therefore, a fully process-based water and energy balance model with a spatial resolution of 50 m has been thoroughly calibrated and validated for the Bellebeek catchmentin Belgium. A footprint analysis has been performed. In general, the sensible heat fluxes from the LAS compared well with the modeled sensible heat fluxes within the footprint. Moreover, as the modeled Hwithin the footprint has been found to be almost equal to the modeled catchment averaged H, it can be concluded that the scintillometer measurements over a distance of 9.5 km and an effective heightof 68 m are representative for the entire catchment.

  3. Occurrence of critical heat flux during blowdown with flow reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.C.M.

    1976-04-01

    A small-scale experiment using Freon-11 at 130 0 F and 65 psia in a well-instrumented transparent annular test section was used to study the occurrence of critical heat flux (CHF) during blowdown with flow reversal. The inner stainless steel tube of the annulus was uniformly heated over its 2 ft length. Inlet and exit void fractions were measured by a capacitance technique. Flow regime transition was observed with high speed photography. A 1-hr contact time between Freon-11 and nitrogen at 130 0 F and 60 psig was found to greatly affect the steady-state subcooled boiling initial conditions. Delay in bubble growth was observed in adiabatic blowdown runs. This was caused by the thermodynamic nonequilibrium conditions required for the unstable bubble growth. For the diabatic runs, equilibrium was more closely approached in the test section during the early phase of blowdown. Critical heat flux did not occur immediately during the flow decay in an approximately 60 msec reversal period. The first or early CHF which occurred at about 400 msec was independent of the blowdown volume and did not propagate upward. An annular flow pattern appeared at the onset of this CHF which occurred only at the lower 8 in. of the heated zone

  4. Temporal and spatial changes in mixed layer properties and atmospheric net heat flux in the Nordic Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A; Alekseev, G; Korablev, A; Esau, I

    2010-01-01

    The Nordic Seas are an important area of the World Ocean where warm Atlantic waters penetrate far north forming the mild climate of Northern Europe. These waters represent the northern rim of the global thermohaline circulation. Estimates of the relationships between the net heat flux and mixed layer properties in the Nordic Seas are examined. Oceanographic data are derived from the Oceanographic Data Base (ODB) compiled in the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. Ocean weather ship 'Mike' (OWS) data are used to calculate radiative and turbulent components of the net heat flux. The net shortwave flux was calculated using a satellite albedo dataset and the EPA model. The net longwave flux was estimated by Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC) method. Turbulent fluxes at the air-sea interface were calculated using the COARE 3.0 algorithm. The net heat flux was calculated by using oceanographic and meteorological data of the OWS 'Mike'. The mixed layer depth was estimated for the period since 2002 until 2009 by the 'Mike' data as well. A good correlation between these two parameters has been found. Sensible and latent heat fluxes controlled by surface air temperature/sea surface temperature gradient are the main contributors into net heat flux. Significant correlation was found between heat fluxes variations at the OWS 'Mike' location and sea ice export from the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Temporal and spatial changes in mixed layer properties and atmospheric net heat flux in the Nordic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A; Alekseev, G [SI ' Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Korablev, A; Esau, I, E-mail: avsmir@aari.nw.r [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre, Bergen (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    The Nordic Seas are an important area of the World Ocean where warm Atlantic waters penetrate far north forming the mild climate of Northern Europe. These waters represent the northern rim of the global thermohaline circulation. Estimates of the relationships between the net heat flux and mixed layer properties in the Nordic Seas are examined. Oceanographic data are derived from the Oceanographic Data Base (ODB) compiled in the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. Ocean weather ship 'Mike' (OWS) data are used to calculate radiative and turbulent components of the net heat flux. The net shortwave flux was calculated using a satellite albedo dataset and the EPA model. The net longwave flux was estimated by Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC) method. Turbulent fluxes at the air-sea interface were calculated using the COARE 3.0 algorithm. The net heat flux was calculated by using oceanographic and meteorological data of the OWS 'Mike'. The mixed layer depth was estimated for the period since 2002 until 2009 by the 'Mike' data as well. A good correlation between these two parameters has been found. Sensible and latent heat fluxes controlled by surface air temperature/sea surface temperature gradient are the main contributors into net heat flux. Significant correlation was found between heat fluxes variations at the OWS 'Mike' location and sea ice export from the Arctic Ocean.

  6. Effects of nonuniform surface heat flux and uniform volumetric heating on blanket design for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.Z.

    1988-05-01

    An analytical solution for the temperature profile and film temperature drop for fully-developed, laminar flow in a circular tube is provided. The surface heat flux varies circcimferentally but is constant along the axis of the tube. The volulmetric heat generation is uniform in the fluid. The fully developed laminar velocity profile is approximated by a power velocity profile to represent the flattening effect of a perpendicular magnetic field when the coolant is electrivally conductive. The presence of volumetric heat generation in the fluid adds another component to the film temperature drop to that due to the surface heat flux. The reduction of the boundary layer thickness by a perpendicular magnetic field reduces both of these two film temperature drops. A strong perpendicular magnetic field can reduce the film termperatiure drop by a factor of two if the fluid is electrically conducting. The effect of perpendicualr magnetic field )or the flatness of the velocity profile) is less pronounced on teh film termperature drop due to nonuniform surfacae heat flux than on that due to uniform surface heat flux. An example is provided to show the relative effects on these two film temperd

  7. A combined ANN-GA and experimental based technique for the estimation of the unknown heat flux for a conjugate heat transfer problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    M K, Harsha Kumar; P S, Vishweshwara; N, Gnanasekaran; C, Balaji

    2018-05-01

    The major objectives in the design of thermal systems are obtaining the information about thermophysical, transport and boundary properties. The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the unknown heat flux at the surface of a solid body. A constant area mild steel fin is considered and the base is subjected to constant heat flux. During heating, natural convection heat transfer occurs from the fin to ambient. The direct solution, which is the forward problem, is developed as a conjugate heat transfer problem from the fin and the steady state temperature distribution is recorded for any assumed heat flux. In order to model the natural convection heat transfer from the fin, an extended domain is created near the fin geometry and air is specified as a fluid medium and Navier Stokes equation is solved by incorporating the Boussinesq approximation. The computational time involved in executing the forward model is then reduced by developing a neural network (NN) between heat flux values and temperatures based on back propagation algorithm. The conjugate heat transfer NN model is now coupled with Genetic algorithm (GA) for the solution of the inverse problem. Initially, GA is applied to the pure surrogate data, the results are then used as input to the Levenberg- Marquardt method and such hybridization is proven to result in accurate estimation of the unknown heat flux. The hybrid method is then applied for the experimental temperature to estimate the unknown heat flux. A satisfactory agreement between the estimated and actual heat flux is achieved by incorporating the hybrid method.

  8. Thermographic studies of outer target heat fluxes on KSTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A new infra-red (IR thermography system with high spatial resolution has been installed on KSTAR and is now mainly applied to measure the outer divertor heat load profile. The first measurement results of the outer divertor heat load profiles between ELMs have been applied to characterize the inter-ELMs outer divertor heat loads in KSTAR H-mode plasmas. In particular, the power decay length (λq of the divertor heat load profile has been determined by fitting the profile to a convolution of an exponential decay and a Gaussian function. The analysis on the power decay length shows a good agreement with the recent multi-machine λq scaling, which predicts λq of the inter-ELMs divertor heat load to be ∼1 mm under the standard H-mode scenario in ITER. The divertor IR thermography system has also successfully measured the strike point splitting of the outer divertor heat flux during the application of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP fields. In addition, it has provided a clear evidence that the strike point splitting pattern depends on the RMP fields configuration.

  9. Critical heat flux correlation for thin rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Futoshi; Mishima, Kaichiro; Hibiki, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    The effect of heated length on Critical heat flux (CHF) in thin rectangular channels was studied based on CHF data obtained under atmospheric pressure. CHF in small channels has been widely studied in the past decades but most of the studies are related to CHF in round tubes. Although basic mechanisms of burnout in thin rectangular channels are similar to tubes, applicability of CHF correlations for tubes to rectangular channels are questionable since CHF in rectangular channels are affected by the existence of non-heated walls and the non-circular geometry of channel circumference. Several studies of CHF in thin rectangular channels have been reported in relation to thermal hydraulic design of research reactors and neutron source targets and CHF correlations have been proposed, but the studies mostly focus on CHFs under geometrical conditions of the application of interest. In his study, existing CHF data obtained in thin rectangular channels were collected and the effect of heated length on CHF was examined. Existing CHF correlations were verified with positive quality flow CHF data but none of the correlations successfully reproduced the CHF for a wide range of heated length. A new CHF correlation for qualify region applicable to a wide range of heated length was developed based on the collected data. (author)

  10. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  11. On the determination of the overall heat transmission coefficient and soil heat flux for a fog cooled, naturally ventilated greenhouse: Analysis of radiation and convection heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, Ahmed M.; Kozai, Toyoki

    2006-01-01

    A physical model for analyzing the radiative and convective heat transfer in a fog cooled, naturally ventilated greenhouse was developed for estimating the overall heat transmission coefficient based on the conduction, convection and thermal radiation heat transfer coefficients and for predicting the soil heat flux. The contribution of the water vapor of the inside air to the emission and absorption of thermal radiation was determined. Measurements of the outside and inside greenhouse environments to be used in the analysis were conducted around solar noon (12:19-13:00) on a hot sunny day to provide the maximum solar radiation transmission into the greenhouse. The net solar radiation flux measured at the greenhouse floor showed a reasonable agreement with the predicted value. The net fluxes were estimated around noon. The average net radiation (solar and thermal) at the soil surface was 220.0 W m -2 , the average soil heat flux was 155.0 W m -2 and the average contribution of the water vapor of the inside air to the thermal radiation was 22.0 W m -2 . The average overall heat transmission coefficient was 4.0 W m -2 C -1 and was in the range between 3.0 W m -2 C -1 and 6.0 W m -2 C -1 under the different hot summer conditions between the inside and outside of the naturally ventilated, fog cooled greenhouse

  12. Advanced neutron source design: burnout heat flux correlation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Mochizuki, T.

    1988-01-01

    In the advanced neutron source reactor (ANSR) fuel element region, heat fluxes will be elevated. Early designs corresponded to average and estimated hot-spot fluxes of 11 to 12 and 21 to 22 MW/m 2 , respectively. Design changes under consideration may lower these values to ∼ 9 and 17 MW/m 1 . In either event, the development of a satisfactory burnout heat flux correlation is an important element among the many thermal-hydraulic design issues, since the critical power ratio will depend in part on its validity. Relatively little work in the area of subcooled-flow burnout has been published over the past 12 yr. The authors have compared seven burnout correlations and modifications therefore with several sets of experimental data, of which the most relevant to the ANS core are those referenced. The best overall agreement between the correlations tested and these data is currently provided by a modification of Thorgerson et al. correlation. The variable ranges of the experimental data are outlined and the results of the correlation comparisons are summarized

  13. Experimental and analytical studies of high heat flux components for fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Masanori

    1993-03-01

    In this report, the experimental and analytical results concerning the development of plasma facing components of ITER are described. With respect to developing high heat removal structures for the divertor plates, an externally-finned swirl tube was developed based on the results of critical heat flux (CHF) experiments on various tube structures. As the result, the burnout heat flux, which also indicates incident CHF, of 41 ± 1 MW/m 2 was achieved in the externally-finned swirl tube. The applicability of existing CHF correlations based on uniform heating conditions was evaluated by comparing the CHF experimental data with the smooth and the externally-finned tubes under one-sided heating condition. As the results, experimentally determined CHF data for straight tube show good agreement, for the externally-finned tube, no existing correlations are available for prediction of the CHF. With respect to the evaluation of the bonds between carbon-based material and heat sink metal, results of brazing tests were compared with the analytical results by three dimensional model with temperature-dependent thermal and mechanical properties. Analytical results showed that residual stresses from brazing can be estimated by the analytical three directional stress values instead of the equivalent stress value applied. In the analytical study on the separatrix sweeping for effectively reducing surface heat fluxes on the divertor plate, thermal response of the divertor plate has been analyzed under ITER relevant heat flux conditions and has been tested. As the result, it has been demonstrated that application of the sweeping technique is very effective for improvement in the power handling capability of the divertor plate and that the divertor mock-up has withstood a large number of additional cyclic heat loads. (J.P.N.) 62 refs

  14. Evaluation of subcooled critical heat flux correlations for tubes with and without internal twisted tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, F.; Nariai, H.

    1996-01-01

    Eleven correlations and models for critical heat flux (CHF) of subcooled flow boiling in water were evaluated. Both a direct substitution method (DSM) and a heat balance condition method (HBM) were compared in the evaluations. The HBM was recommended as a better prediction method in the present study. For straight tubes under uniform heating conditions, the correlations of the Gunther, Knoebel, modified Tong, W-2, and Tong-75, and also the Celata and Weisman-Pei models were confirmed to give reasonably good predictions. Among them, the Celata model was the best with respect to accuracy. For swirl flow under uniform heating conditions, Tong-75-I (involving modification of the water velocity parameter) and Nariai-Inasaka correlations were confirmed to give reasonably good predictions, even though their predictions were too low for the CHF under non-uniform heating conditions. (orig.)

  15. Free convection flow of some fractional nanofluids over a moving vertical plate with uniform heat flux and heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Waqas Ali; Vieru, Dumitru; Fetecau, Constantin

    2017-08-01

    Free convection flow of some water based fractional nanofluids over a moving infinite vertical plate with uniform heat flux and heat source is analytically and graphically studied. Exact solutions for dimensionless temperature and velocity fields, Nusselt numbers, and skin friction coefficients are established in integral form in terms of modified Bessel functions of the first kind. These solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to the similar solutions for ordinary nanofluids when the fractional parameters tend to one. Furthermore, they reduce to the known solutions from the literature when the plate is fixed and the heat source is absent. The influence of fractional parameters on heat transfer and fluid motion is graphically underlined and discussed. The enhancement of heat transfer in such flows is higher for fractional nanofluids in comparison with ordinary nanofluids. Moreover, the use of fractional models allows us to choose the fractional parameters in order to get a very good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  16. Evaluation of Deep Learning Models for Predicting CO2 Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Nguyen, P.; Frankel, D.

    2017-12-01

    Artificial neural networks have been employed to calculate surface flux measurements from station data because they are able to fit highly nonlinear relations between input and output variables without knowing the detail relationships between the variables. However, the accuracy in performing neural net estimates of CO2 flux from observations of CO2 and other atmospheric variables is influenced by the architecture of the neural model, the availability, and complexity of interactions between physical variables such as wind, temperature, and indirect variables like latent heat, and sensible heat, etc. We evaluate two deep learning models, feed forward and recurrent neural network models to learn how they each respond to the physical measurements, time dependency of the measurements of CO2 concentration, humidity, pressure, temperature, wind speed etc. for predicting the CO2 flux. In this paper, we focus on a) building neural network models for estimating CO2 flux based on DOE data from tower Atmospheric Radiation Measurement data; b) evaluating the impact of choosing the surface variables and model hyper-parameters on the accuracy and predictions of surface flux; c) assessing the applicability of the neural network models on estimate CO2 flux by using OCO-2 satellite data; d) studying the efficiency of using GPU-acceleration for neural network performance using IBM Power AI deep learning software and packages on IBM Minsky system.

  17. Heat tranfer decrease during water boiling in a tube for the heat flux step distribution by the tube length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remizov, O.V.; Sergeev, V.V.; Yurkov, Yu.I.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of the heat flux distribution along the circular tube length on supercritical convective heat transfer at parameters typical for steam generators heated by liquid metal is studied. The effect of conditions in a under- and a supercritical zones of a vertical tube with independently heated lower and upper sections on supercritical convective heat transfer is studied on a water circulation loop at 9.8-17.7 MPa pressure and 330-1000 kg/m 2 s mass velocities. The experimental heat fluxes varied within the following limits: at the upper section from 0 to 474 kW/m 2 , at the lower section from 190 to 590 kW/m 2 . Analysis of the obtained data shows that when heat flux changes in the supercritical zone rewetting of the heated surface and simultaneous existence of two critical zones are observed. The effect of heat flux in the supercritical zone on convective heat transfer is ambiguous: the heat flux growth up to 60-100 kW/m 2 leads to increasing minimum values of the heat transfer factor in the supercritical zone, and a further heat flux growth - to their reduction. The conclusion is made that the value of heat flux in the undercritical zone affects convective heat transfer in the supercritical zone mainly through changing the value of critical vapour content

  18. Study of mechanism of burnout in a high heat-flux boiling system with an impinging jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katto, Y.; Monde, M.

    1974-01-01

    Nucleate boiling at very high heat fluxes was created on a heated surface covered with a flowing film of saturated water at atmospheric pressure being maintained by a small circular jet of water held at the center of the heated surface. It was found that increasing the heat flux led to a limiting state of flow where the splashing of droplets from the heated surface was no longer increased being kept constant until burnout appeared; and that there was a close relation between the burnout heat flux and the jet velocity. A flow model, which can explain the characteristics of this boiling system, is proposed. It is suggested that the burnout may be connected with the separation of a liquid flow from the heated surface accompanied with the effusion of vapor. (U.S.)

  19. Study of heat flux deposition in the Tore Supra Tokamak; Etude des depots de chaleur dans le tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, S.

    2009-02-15

    Accurate measurements of heat loads on internal tokamak components is essential for protection of the device during steady state operation. The optimisation of experimental scenarios also requires an in depth understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the heat flux deposition on the walls. The objective of this study is a detailed characterisation of the heat flux to plasma facing components (PFC) of the Tore Supra tokamak. The power deposited onto Tore Supra PFCs is calculated using an inverse method, which is applied to both the temperature maps measured by infrared thermography and to the enthalpy signals from calorimetry. The derived experimental heat flux maps calculated on the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) are then compared with theoretical heat flux density distributions from a standard SOL-model. They are two experimental observations that are not consistent with the model: significant heat flux outside the theoretical wetted area, and heat load peaking close to the tangency point between the TPL and the last closed field surface (LCFS). An experimental analysis for several discharges with variable security factors q is made. In the area consistent with the theoretical predictions, this parametric study shows a clear dependence between the heat flux length lambda{sub q} (estimated in the SOL (scrape-off layer) from the IR measurements) and the magnetic configuration. We observe that the spreading of heat fluxes on the component is compensated by a reduction of the power decay length lambda{sub q} in the SOL when q decreases. On the other hand, in the area where the derived experimental heat loads are not consistent with the theoretical predictions, we observe that the spreading of heat fluxes outside the theoretical boundary increases when q decreases, and is thus not counterbalanced. (author)

  20. Burnout in a channel with non-uniform circumferential heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.

    1966-03-01

    Burnout experiments are reported for uniform flux and circumferential flux tilt (maximum/average flux about 1.25) with tubes and annuli, all the experiments having uniform axial heating. These show similar results, the burnout power with flux tilt being within 10% of that with uniform flux. For the same mean exit steam quality, the local maximum flux is higher than the predicted burnout value and generally a better prediction is obtained using the average flux. (author)

  1. A One-Source Approach for Estimating Land Surface Heat Fluxes Using Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of available energy between sensible heat and latent heat is important for precise water resources planning and management in the context of global climate change. Land surface temperature (LST is a key variable in energy balance process and remotely sensed LST is widely used for estimating surface heat fluxes at regional scale. However, the inequality between LST and aerodynamic surface temperature (Taero poses a great challenge for regional heat fluxes estimation in one-source energy balance models. To address this issue, we proposed a One-Source Model for Land (OSML to estimate regional surface heat fluxes without requirements for empirical extra resistance, roughness parameterization and wind velocity. The proposed OSML employs both conceptual VFC/LST trapezoid model and the electrical analog formula of sensible heat flux (H to analytically estimate the radiometric-convective resistance (rae via a quartic equation. To evaluate the performance of OSML, the model was applied to the Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX in United States and the Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration (MUSOEXE in China, using remotely sensed retrievals as auxiliary data sets at regional scale. Validated against tower-based surface fluxes observations, the root mean square deviation (RMSD of H and latent heat flux (LE from OSML are 34.5 W/m2 and 46.5 W/m2 at SMACEX site and 50.1 W/m2 and 67.0 W/m2 at MUSOEXE site. The performance of OSML is very comparable to other published studies. In addition, the proposed OSML model demonstrates similar skills of predicting surface heat fluxes in comparison to SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System. Since OSML does not require specification of aerodynamic surface characteristics, roughness parameterization and meteorological conditions with high spatial variation such as wind speed, this proposed method shows high potential for routinely acquisition of latent heat flux estimation

  2. Determination of regional heat fluxes from the growth of the mixed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Batchvarova, E. [National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-10-01

    The distribution of surface sensible heat flux is a critical factor in producing and modifying the mesoscale atmospheric flows, turbulence and evaporation. Parameterizations that assume homogeneous land characteristics are inappropriate to represent the spatial variability often found in nature. One possibility to overcome this problem is to increase the resolution of the model grid which demands unrealistic computing resources and data for model initialization. Area averaged fluxes can be obtained from aircraft measurements. It is essential that the flights are performed at a height where the individual surface features are not felt. A large number of flights and appropriate pattern to meet the task are needed in order to achieve a fair statistics. The mixed layer grows in response to the regional turbulent fluxes including the aggregation and small scale processes. The region of influence in upwind direction is typically 20 times the height of the mixed layer for convective and 100 times the height of the mixed layer for atmospheric near neutral conditions. In this study we determine the regional integrated sensible heat flux from information on the evolution of the mixed layer over the area. The required information to use the method can be derived from wind speed and temperature profiles obtained by radio-soundings when performed frequently enough to provide a reasonably detailed structure of the development of the mixed-layer. The method is applied to estimate the regional heat flux over the NOPEX experimental area for three days during the campaign in 1994. (au)

  3. Gradient heat flux measurement as monitoring method for the diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, S. Z.; Mityakov, V. Yu; Mityakov, A. V.; Vintsarevich, A. V.; Pavlov, A. V.; Nalyotov, I. D.

    2017-11-01

    The usage of gradient heat flux measurement for monitoring of heat flux on combustion chamber surface and optimization of diesel work process is proposed. Heterogeneous gradient heat flux sensors can be used at various regimes for an appreciable length of time. Fuel injection timing is set by the position of the maximum point on the angular heat flux diagram however, the value itself of the heat flux may not be considered. The development of such an approach can be productive for remote monitoring of work process in the cylinders of high-power marine engines.

  4. Counterintuitive Constraints on Chaos Formation Set by Heat Flux through Europa's Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Models for the formation of disruptive chaos features on the icy surface of Europa fall into two broad categories: either chaos is formed when basal heating causes localized melting and thinning of the ice shell, or basal heating drives diapiric convection within the ice shell. We argue that in both of these cases, heating of the ice shell from below does not lead to chaos formation at the location of heating. If chaos is formed when a localized oceanic heat source, such as a hydrothermal plume, "melts through" the ice crust, we must consider what happens to the melted liquid. If Europa's ocean is salty, the melt will form a buoyant pool inside the melted cavity, leading to a stable interface between cold fresh meltwater and warm salty seawater. This stable interface acts like an ablative heat shield, protecting the ice from further damage. Some heat can be transferred across the stable layer by double diffusion, but this transfer is very inefficient. We calculate that local ocean heating cannot be balanced by local flux through the stable layer: instead, the warm ocean water must spread laterally until it is delivering heat to the ice base on a regional or global scale (a heating zone hundreds or thousands of km across, for conservative parameters.) If chaos is formed by diapiric solid-state convection within the ice shell, many investigators have assumed that diapirism and chaos should be most prevalent where the basal heat flux is strongest. We argue that this is not the case. In Rayleigh-Benard convection, increasing the heat flux will make convection more vigorous --- if and only if the convecting layer thickness does not change. We argue that increased basal heat flux will thin the ice shell, reducing its Rayleigh number and making convection less likely, not more. This insight allows us to reverse the logic of recent discussions of the relationship between ocean circulation and chaos (for instance, Soderlund et al, 2013 LPSC). We argue that global oceanic

  5. A Numerical Study on Impact of Taiwan Island Surface Heat Flux on Super Typhoon Haitang (2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three to four tropical cyclones (TCs by average usually impact Taiwan every year. This study, using the Developmental Tested Center (DTC version of the Hurricane WRF (HWRF model, examines the effects of Taiwan’s island surface heat fluxes on typhoon structure, intensity, track, and its rainfall over the island. The numerical simulation successfully reproduced the structure and intensity of super Typhoon Haitang. The model, especially, reproduced the looped path and landfall at nearly the right position. Sensitive experiments indicated that Taiwan’s surface heat fluxes have significant influence on the super Typhoon Haitang. Compared to sensible heat (SH fluxes, latent heat (LH is the dominant factor affecting the intensity and rainfall, but they showed opposite effects on intensity and rainfall. LH (SH flux of Taiwan Island intensified (weakened Typhoon Haitang’s intensity and structure by transferring more energy from (to surface. However, only LH played a major role in the looped path before the landfall of the Typhoon Haitang.

  6. Numerical Simulation of the Moving Induction Heating Process with Magnetic Flux Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The induction heating with ferromagnetic metal powder bonded magnetic flux concentrator (MPB-MFC demonstrates more advantages in surface heating treatments of metal. However, the moving heating application is mostly applied in the industrial production. Therefore, the analytical understanding of the mechanism, efficiency, and controllability of the moving induction heating process becomes necessary for process design and optimization. This paper studies the mechanism of the moving induction heating with magnetic flux concentrator. The MPB-MFC assisted moving induction heating for Inconel 718 alloy is studied by establishing the finite element simulation model. The temperature field distribution is analyzed, and the factors influencing the temperature are studied. The conclusion demonstrates that the velocity of the workpiece should be controlled properly and the heat transfer coefficient (HTC has little impact on the temperature development, compared with other input parameters. In addition, the validity of the static numerical model is verified by comparing the finite element simulation with experimental results on AISI 1045 steel. The numerical model established in this work can provide comprehensive understanding for the process control in production.

  7. Alongshore wind stress and heat flux divergence off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, D.P.

    Annual variation of heat flux divergence (Qv) was computed for the coastal waters of Visakhapatnam. The mean values of net heat exchange (Qn) and heat flux divergence (Qv) were found to be 114 and 115 W.m/2 respectively on annual scale. The net heat...

  8. Recent trends (2003-2013) of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2015-12-01

    Novice efforts have been made in order to study the regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas utilizing high-resolution remotely sensed products, but these have been on instantaneous scale. In this study the Surface Energy Balance System model is used to obtain annual averaged maps of the land surface heat fluxes for 11 years (2003-2013) and study their annual trends on the central Himalayan region. The maps were derived at 5 km resolution using monthly input products ranging from satellite derived to Global Land Data Assimilation System meteorological data. It was found that the net radiation flux is increasing as a result of decreasing precipitation (drier environment). The sensible heat flux did not change much except for the northwestern High Himalaya and High Mountains. In northwestern High Himalaya sensible heat flux is decreasing because of decrease in wind speed, ground-air temperature difference, and increase in winter precipitation, whereas in High Mountains it is increasing due to increase in ground-air temperature difference and high rate of deforestation. The latent heat flux has an overall increasing trend with increase more pronounced in the lower regions compared to high elevated regions. It has been reported that precipitation is decreasing with altitude in this region. Therefore, the increasing trend in latent heat flux can be attributed to increase in net radiation flux under persistent forest cover and irrigation land used for agriculture.

  9. Idealised modelling of ocean circulation driven by conductive and hydrothermal fluxes at the seabed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jowan M.; Morales Maqueda, Miguel A.; Polton, Jeff A.; Megann, Alex P.

    2018-02-01

    Geothermal heating is increasingly recognised as an important factor affecting ocean circulation, with modelling studies suggesting that this heat source could lead to first-order changes in the formation rate of Antarctic Bottom Water, as well as a significant warming effect in the abyssal ocean. Where it has been represented in numerical models, however, the geothermal heat flux into the ocean is generally treated as an entirely conductive flux, despite an estimated one third of the global geothermal flux being introduced to the ocean via hydrothermal sources. A modelling study is presented which investigates the sensitivity of the geothermally forced circulation to the way heat is supplied to the abyssal ocean. An analytical two-dimensional model of the circulation is described, which demonstrates the effects of a volume flux through the ocean bed. A simulation using the NEMO numerical general circulation model in an idealised domain is then used to partition a heat flux between conductive and hydrothermal sources and explicitly test the sensitivity of the circulation to the formulation of the abyssal heat flux. Our simulations suggest that representing the hydrothermal flux as a mass exchange indeed changes the heat distribution in the abyssal ocean, increasing the advective heat transport from the abyss by up to 35% compared to conductive heat sources. Consequently, we suggest that the inclusion of hydrothermal fluxes can be an important addition to course-resolution ocean models.

  10. Influences of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages on the land surface fluxes and radiative temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lianhong; Meyers, Tilden; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hanson, Paul J.; Yang, Bai; Heuer, Mark; Hosman, Kevin P.; Liu, Qing; Riggs, Jeffery S.; Sluss, Dan; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2007-01-01

    The interest of this study was to develop an initial assessment on the potential importance of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages for land-atmosphere interactions, an issue that has been largely neglected so far. We conducted flux tower observations and model simulations at a temperate deciduous forest site in central Missouri in the summer of 2004. The model used was the comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem Fluxes and Pools Integrated Simulator (FAPIS). We first examined FAPIS performance by testing its predictions with and without the representation of biomass energy storages against measurements of surface energy and CO2 fluxes. We then evaluated the magnitudes and temporal patterns of the biomass energy storages calculated by FAPIS. Finally, the effects of biomass energy storages on land-atmosphere exchanges of sensible and latent heat fluxes and variations of land surface radiative temperature were investigated by contrasting FAPIS simulations with and without these storage terms. We found that with the representation of the two biomass energy storage terms, FAPIS predictions agreed with flux tower measurements fairly well; without the representation, however, FAPIS performance deteriorated for all predicted surface energy flux terms although the effect on the predicted CO2 flux was minimal. In addition, we found that the biomass heat storage and biochemical energy storage had clear diurnal patterns with typical ranges from -50 to 50 and -3 to 20 W m-2, respectively; these typical ranges were exceeded substantially when there were sudden changes in atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, FAPIS simulations without the energy storages produced larger sensible and latent heat fluxes during the day but smaller fluxes (more negative values) at night as compared with simulations with the energy storages. Similarly, without-storage simulations had higher surface radiative temperature during the day but lower radiative temperature at night, indicating that the

  11. USE OF PELTIER COOLERS AS SOIL HEAT FLUX TRANSDUCERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, H.L.; Campbell, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Peltier coolers were modified and calibrated to serve as soil heat flux transducers. The modification was to fill their interiors with epoxy. The average calibration constant on 21 units was 13. 6 plus or minus 0. 8 kW m** minus **2 V** minus **1 at 20 degree C. This sensitivity is about eight times that of the two thermopile transducers with which comparisons were made. The thermal conductivity of the Peltier cooler transducers was 0. 4 W m** minus **1 degree C** minus **1, which is comparable to that of dry soil.

  12. Applicability of copper alloys for DEMO high heat flux components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, Steven J.

    2016-02-01

    The current state of knowledge of the mechanical and thermal properties of high-strength, high conductivity Cu alloys relevant for fusion energy high heat flux applications is reviewed, including effects of thermomechanical and joining processes and neutron irradiation on precipitation- or dispersion-strengthened CuCrZr, Cu-Al2O3, CuNiBe, CuNiSiCr and CuCrNb (GRCop-84). The prospects for designing improved versions of wrought copper alloys and for utilizing advanced fabrication processes such as additive manufacturing based on electron beam and laser consolidation methods are discussed. The importance of developing improved structural materials design criteria is also noted.

  13. Critical heat flux performance of hypervapotrons proposed for use in the ITER divertor vertical target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youchison, D.L.; Marshall, T.D.; McDonald, J.M.; Lutz, T.J.; Watson, R.D.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Kubik, D.L.; Slattery, K.T.; Hellwig, T.H.

    1997-09-01

    Task T-222 of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program addresses the manufacturing and testing of permanent components for use in the ITER divertor. Thermalhydraulic and critical heat flux performance of the heat sinks proposed for use in the divertor vertical target are part of subtask T-222.4. As part of this effort, two single channel, medium scale, bare copper alloy, hypervapotron mockups were designed, fabricated, and tested using the EB-1200 electron beam system. The objectives of the effort were to develop the design and manufacturing procedures required for construction of robust high heat flux (HHF) components, verify thermalhydraulic, thermomechanical and critical heat flux (CHF) performance under ITER relevant conditions, and perform analyses of HHF data to identify design guidelines and failure criteria and possibly modify any applicable CHF correlations. The design, fabrication, and finite element modeling of two types of hypervapotrons are described; a common version already in use at the Joint European Torus (JET) and a new attached fin design. HHF test data on the attached fin hypervapotron will be used to compare the CHF performance under uniform heating profiles on long heated lengths with that of localized, highly peaked, off nominal profiles

  14. Critical heat flux performance of hypervapotrons proposed for use in the ITER divertor vertical target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, D.L.; Marshall, T.D.; McDonald, J.M.; Lutz, T.J.; Watson, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Driemeyer, D.E. Kubik, D.L.; Slattery, K.T.; Hellwig, T.H. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Task T-222 of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program addresses the manufacturing and testing of permanent components for use in the ITER divertor. Thermalhydraulic and critical heat flux performance of the heat sinks proposed for use in the divertor vertical target are part of subtask T-222.4. As part of this effort, two single channel, medium scale, bare copper alloy, hypervapotron mockups were designed, fabricated, and tested using the EB-1200 electron beam system. The objectives of the effort were to develop the design and manufacturing procedures required for construction of robust high heat flux (HHF) components, verify thermalhydraulic, thermomechanical and critical heat flux (CHF) performance under ITER relevant conditions, and perform analyses of HHF data to identify design guidelines and failure criteria and possibly modify any applicable CHF correlations. The design, fabrication, and finite element modeling of two types of hypervapotrons are described; a common version already in use at the Joint European Torus (JET) and a new attached fin design. HHF test data on the attached fin hypervapotron will be used to compare the CHF performance under uniform heating profiles on long heated lengths with that of localized, highly peaked, off nominal profiles.

  15. Minimum heat flux (MHF) point in pool and external-flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Shigefumi

    1983-01-01

    As for the boiling phenomena near a minimum heat flux (MHF) point to which attention has been paid recently concerning the safety analysis of LWR cores, the results of research have not been put in order sufficiently. Therefore in this explanation, the object is limited to pool boiling and external flow boiling, and it is attempted to rearrange the present knowledge on the phenomena near a MHF point from the viewpoint of the relation to the state of solid-liquid contact, the effect of various factors on a MHF point and the modeling of a MHF point. The heat transfer characteristics in boiling phenomena are represented by a curve with one maximum and one minimum points. The MHF point is called also minimum film boiling point. In a heat flux-controlled heating surface, temperature jump arises when heat flux is decreased at a MHF point. The phenomena near a MHF point and the technological background when a MHF point becomes a problem are explained. Near a MHF point, only partial, intermittent solid-liquid contact is maintained. The effects of solid-liquid contact mode, the geometry of a heating surface, pressure and others on a MHF point are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  16. Analytical modeling for heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Claudio; Kaoui, Badr; L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar; Rudenko, Oleksii; ten Thije Boonkkamp, J H M; Toschi, Federico

    2012-07-01

    We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nanoparticles in sheared laminar flows of nanofluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles, the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles. The rotation of the nanoparticles has a twofold effect: it induces a fluid advection around the particle and it strongly influences the statistical distribution of particle orientations. These dynamical effects, which were not included in existing thermal models, are responsible for changing the thermal properties of flowing fluids as compared to quiescent fluids. The proposed model is strongly supported by extensive numerical simulations, demonstrating a potential increase of the heat flux far beyond the Maxwell-Garnett limit for the spherical nanoparticles. The road ahead, which should lead toward robust predictive models of heat flux enhancement, is discussed.

  17. Heat transfer augmentation in a tube using nanofluids under constant heat flux boundary condition: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vinay; Gupta, Munish

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reviews heat transfer augmentation of nanofluids in a tube with constant heat flux. • Recent advances in hybrid nanofluids are reviewed. • Identifies and compares significant results. • Scope of future research in this area is discussed. - Abstract: In the last few decades, research on nanofluids has increased rapidly. Traditional heat transfer fluids with order of nanometer sized particles (1–100 nm) suspended in them are termed as nanofluids. Nanofluids have been proved as better heat transfer fluids despite of various contradictions in results by different research groups. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the recent experimental and theoretical studies on convective heat transfer in heat exchangers using constant heat flux boundary condition. The use of different types of nanoparticles with different base fluids by different research groups has been presented and compared. Further an overview of experimental results about heat transfer abilities of hybrid nanofluids from available literature sources is also presented. Finally, the challenges and future directions in which research can be further progress are discussed.

  18. The Heat Flux through the Ice Shell on Europa, Constraints from Measurements in Terrestrial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruba, J.; Kletetschka, G.

    2017-12-01

    Heat transport across the ice shell of Europa controls the thermal evolution of its interior. Such process involves energy sources that drive ice resurfacing (1). More importantly, heat flux through the ice shell controls the thickness of the ice (2), that is poorly constrained between 1 km to 30+ km (3). Thin ice would allow ocean water to be affected by radiation from space. Thick ice would limit the heat ocean sources available to the rock-ocean interface at the ocean's bottom due to tidal dissipation and potential radioactive sources. The heat flux structures control the development of geometrical configurations on the Europa's surface like double ridges, ice diapirs, chaos regions because the rheology of ice is temperature dependent (4).Analysis of temperature record of growing ice cover over a pond and water below revealed the importance of solar radiation during the ice growth. If there is no snow cover, a sufficient amount of solar radiation can penetrate through the ice and heat the water below. Due to temperature gradient, there is a heat flux from the water to the ice (Qwi), which may reduce ice growth at the bottom. Details and variables that constrain the heat flux through the ice can be utilized to estimate the ice thickness. We show with this analog analysis provides the forth step towards measurement strategy on the surface of Europa. We identify three types of thermal profiles (5) and fourth with combination of all three mechanisms.References:(1) Barr, A. C., A. P. Showman, 2009, Heat transfer in Europa's icy shell, University of Arizona Press, p. 405-430.(2) Ruiz, J., J. A. Alvarez-Gómez, R. Tejero, and N. Sánchez, 2007, Heat flow and thickness of a convective ice shell on Europa for grain size-dependent rheologies: Icarus, v. 190, p. 145-154.(3) Billings, S. E., S. A. Kattenhorn, 2005, The great thickness debate: Ice shell thickness models for Europa and comparisons with estimates based on flexure at ridges: Icarus, v. 177, p. 397-412.(4) Quick

  19. High heat flux tests at divertor relevant conditions on water-cooled swirl tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Boscary, J.

    1994-01-01

    High heat flux experiments were performed to provide a technology for heat flux removal under NET/ITER relevant conditions. The water-cooled rectangular test sections were made of hardened copper with a stainless steel twisted tape installed inside a circular channel and one-side heated. The tests aimed to investigate the heat transfer and the critical heat flux in the subcooled boiling regime. A CHF data base of 63 values was established. Test results have shown the thermalhydraulic ability of swirl tubes to sustain an incident heat flux up to a 30 MW.m -2 range. (author) 10 refs.; 7 figs

  20. A comparison of optical and microwave scintillometers with eddy covariance derived surface heat fluxes

    KAUST Repository

    Yee, Mei Sun

    2015-11-01

    Accurate measurements of energy fluxes between land and atmosphere are important for understanding and modeling climatic patterns. Several methods are available to measure heat fluxes, and scintillometers are becoming increasingly popular because of their ability to measure sensible (. H) and latent (. LvE) heat fluxes over large spatial scales. The main motivation of this study was to test the use of different methods and technologies to derive surface heat fluxes.Measurements of H and LvE were carried out with an eddy covariance (EC) system, two different makes of optical large aperture scintillometers (LAS) and two microwave scintillometers (MWS) with different frequencies at a pasture site in a semi-arid environment of New South Wales, Australia. We used the EC measurements as a benchmark. Fluxes derived from the EC system and LAS systems agreed (R2>0.94), whereas the MWS systems measured lower H (bias ~60Wm-2) and larger LvE (bias ~65Wm-2) than EC. When the scintillometers were compared against each other, the two LASs showed good agreement of H (R2=0.98), while MWS with different frequencies and polarizations led to different results. Combination of LAS and MWS measurements (i.e., two wavelength method) resulted in performance that fell in between those estimated using either LAS or MWS alone when compared with the EC system. The cause for discrepancies between surface heat fluxes derived from the EC system and those from the MWS systems and the two-wavelength method are possibly related to inaccurate assignment of the structure parameter of temperature and humidity. Additionally, measurements from MWSs can be associated with two values of the Bowen ratio, thereby leading to uncertainties in the estimation of the fluxes. While only one solution has been considered in this study, when LvE was approximately less than 200Wm-2, the alternate solution may be more accurate. Therefore, for measurements of surface heat fluxes in a semi-arid or dry environment, the

  1. Comparison of sensible heat flux estimates using AVHRR with scintillometer measurements over semi-arid grassland in northwest Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, C.J.; Chehbouni, A.; Rodriguez, J.C.; Kerr, Y.H.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Bruin, de H.A.R.

    2000-01-01

    The problems associated with the validation of satellite-derived estimates of the surface fluxes are discussed and the possibility of using the large aperture scintillometer is investigated. Simple models are described to derive surface temperature and sensible heat flux from the advanced very high

  2. Experimental study of critical heat flux in inclined rectangular gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.J.; Kim, Y.H.; Noh, S.W.; Suh, K.Y.; Rempe, J.L.; Cheung, F.B.; Kim, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    In the TMI-2 accident, the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel was overheated and then rather rapidly cooled down, as was later found out in a vessel investigation project. This accounted for the possibility of gap cooling feasibility. For this reason, a great deal of investigations was performed to determine the critical heat flux (CHF) from the standpoint of in-vessel retention (IVR). As part of a joint Korean-U.S. International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project, Tests were conducted to examine the critical heat flux (CHF) on the one-dimensional downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap by changing the orientation of the copper test heater assembly in a pool of saturated water under the atmospheric pressure. The test parameters include both the gap sizes of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mm, and the surface orientation angles from the downward-facing position (180deg) to the vertical position (90deg), respectively. It was observed that the CHF generally decreases as the surface inclination angle increases and as the gap size decreases. However, in downward-facing position (180deg), somewhat differing results were detected relative to previous reports. For a certain gap size having a similar dimension with vapor layer thickness, more efficient heat transfer was detected and this may be interpreted by characteristic property such as the vapor layer thickness of water. In consistency with several studies reported in the literature, it was found that there exists a transition angle above that the CHF changes with a rapid slope. (author)

  3. High heat flux x-ray monochromators: What are the limits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.S.

    1997-06-01

    First optical elements at third-generation, hard x-ray synchrotrons, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS), are subjected to immense heat fluxes. The optical elements include crystal monochromators, multilayers and mirrors. This paper presents a mathematical model of the thermal strain of a three-layer (faceplate, heat exchanger, and baseplate), cylindrical optic subjected to narrow beam of uniform heat flux. This model is used to calculate the strain gradient of a liquid-gallium-cooled x-ray monochromator previously tested on an undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). The resulting thermally broadened rocking curves are calculated and compared to experimental data. The calculated rocking curve widths agree to within a few percent of the measured values over the entire current range tested (0 to 60 mA). The thermal strain gradient under the beam footprint varies linearly with the heat flux and the ratio of the thermal expansion coefficient to the thermal conductivity. The strain gradient is insensitive to the heat exchanger properties and the optic geometry. This formulation provides direct insight into the governing parameters, greatly reduces the analysis time, and provides a measure of the ultimate performance of a given monochromator

  4. Bayesian inferences of the thermal properties of a wall using temperature and heat flux measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Iglesias, Marco

    2017-09-20

    The assessment of the thermal properties of walls is essential for accurate building energy simulations that are needed to make effective energy-saving policies. These properties are usually investigated through in situ measurements of temperature and heat flux over extended time periods. The one-dimensional heat equation with unknown Dirichlet boundary conditions is used to model the heat transfer process through the wall. In Ruggeri et al. (2017), it was assessed the uncertainty about the thermal diffusivity parameter using different synthetic data sets. In this work, we adapt this methodology to an experimental study conducted in an environmental chamber, with measurements recorded every minute from temperature probes and heat flux sensors placed on both sides of a solid brick wall over a five-day period. The observed time series are locally averaged, according to a smoothing procedure determined by the solution of a criterion function optimization problem, to fit the required set of noise model assumptions. Therefore, after preprocessing, we can reasonably assume that the temperature and the heat flux measurements have stationary Gaussian noise and we can avoid working with full covariance matrices. The results show that our technique reduces the bias error of the estimated parameters when compared to other approaches. Finally, we compute the information gain under two experimental setups to recommend how the user can efficiently determine the duration of the measurement campaign and the range of the external temperature oscillation.

  5. Mapping Surface Heat Fluxes by Assimilating SMAP Soil Moisture and GOES Land Surface Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Farhadi, Leila; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-12-01

    Surface heat fluxes play a crucial role in the surface energy and water balance. In situ measurements are costly and difficult, and large-scale flux mapping is hindered by surface heterogeneity. Previous studies have demonstrated that surface heat fluxes can be estimated by assimilating land surface temperature (LST) and soil moisture to determine two key parameters: a neutral bulk heat transfer coefficient (CHN) and an evaporative fraction (EF). Here a methodology is proposed to estimate surface heat fluxes by assimilating Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture data and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) LST data into a dual-source (DS) model using a hybrid particle assimilation strategy. SMAP soil moisture data are assimilated using a particle filter (PF), and GOES LST data are assimilated using an adaptive particle batch smoother (APBS) to account for the large gap in the spatial and temporal resolution. The methodology is implemented in an area in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Assessment against in situ observations suggests that soil moisture and LST estimates are in better agreement with observations after assimilation. The RMSD for 30 min (daytime) flux estimates is reduced by 6.3% (8.7%) and 31.6% (37%) for H and LE on average. Comparison against a LST-only and a soil moisture-only assimilation case suggests that despite the coarse resolution, assimilating SMAP soil moisture data is not only beneficial but also crucial for successful and robust flux estimation, particularly when the uncertainties in the model estimates are large.

  6. Validation of heat transfer models for gap cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yukimitsu; Nagae, Takashi; Murase, Michio

    2004-01-01

    For severe accident assessment of a light water reactor, models of heat transfer in a narrow annular gap between overheated core debris and a reactor pressure vessel are important for evaluating vessel integrity and accident management. The authors developed and improved the models of heat transfer. However, validation was not sufficient for applicability of the gap heat flux correlation to the debris cooling in the vessel lower head and applicability of the local boiling heat flux correlations to the high-pressure conditions. Therefore, in this paper, we evaluated the validity of the heat transfer models and correlations by analyses for ALPHA and LAVA experiments where molten aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) at about 2700 K was poured into the high pressure water pool in a small-scale simulated vessel lower head. In the heating process of the vessel wall, the calculated heating rate and peak temperature agreed well with the measured values, and the validity of the heat transfer models and gap heat flux correlation was confirmed. In the cooling process of the vessel wall, the calculated cooling rate was compared with the measured value, and the validity of the nucleate boiling heat flux correlation was confirmed. The peak temperatures of the vessel wall in ALPHA and LAVA experiments were lower than the temperature at the minimum heat flux point between film boiling and transition boiling, so the minimum heat flux correlation could not be validated. (author)

  7. Cattaneo-Christov on heat and mass transfer of unsteady Eyring Powell dusty nanofluid over sheet with heat and mass flux conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha S. Upadhay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat and mass flux conditions on magnetohydrodynamic unsteady Eyring-Powell dusty nanofluid over a sheet is addressed. The combined effect of Brownian motion and thermophoresis in nanofluid modeling are retained. The Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is imposed. A set of similarity variables are utilized to form ordinary differential system from the prevailing partial differential equations. The problem of ordinary differential system (ODS is analyzed numerically through Runge-Kutta based shooting method. Graphical results of pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration are studied. Skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt and Sherwood number are also addressed with help of graphs and also validated the present solutions with already existing solutions in the form of table. It is found that the thermal relaxation parameter improves the heat transfer rate and minimizes the mass transfer rate. The heat transfer rate is higher in prescribed heat flux (PHF case when compared with prescribed wall temperature (PWT case.

  8. Surface latent heat flux as an earthquake precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dey

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of surface latent heat flux (SLHF from the epicentral regions of five recent earthquakes that occurred in close proximity to the oceans has been found to show anomalous behavior. The maximum increase of SLHF is found 2–7 days prior to the main earthquake event. This increase is likely due to an ocean-land-atmosphere interaction. The increase of SLHF prior to the main earthquake event is attributed to the increase in infrared thermal (IR temperature in the epicentral and surrounding region. The anomalous increase in SLHF shows great potential in providing early warning of a disastrous earthquake, provided that there is a better understanding of the background noise due to the tides and monsoon in surface latent heat flux. Efforts have been made to understand the level of background noise in the epicentral regions of the five earthquakes considered in the present paper. A comparison of SLHF from the epicentral regions over the coastal earthquakes and the earthquakes that occurred far away from the coast has been made and it has been found that the anomalous behavior of SLHF prior to the main earthquake event is only associated with the coastal earthquakes.

  9. A Numerical Study on Impact of Taiwan Island Surface Heat Flux on Super Typhoon Haitang (2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hongxiong

    2015-01-01

    Three to four tropical cyclones (TCs) by average usually impact Taiwan every year. This study, using the Developmental Tested Center (DTC) version of the Hurricane WRF (HWRF) model, examines the effects of Taiwan’s island surface heat fluxes on typhoon structure, intensity, track, and its rainfall over the island. The numerical simulation successfully reproduced the structure and intensity of super Typhoon Haitang. The model, especially, reproduced the looped path and landfall at nearly the ...

  10. TIME-DEPENDENT TURBULENT HEATING OF OPEN FLUX TUBES IN THE CHROMOSPHERE, CORONA, AND SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolsey, L. N.; Cranmer, S. R., E-mail: lwoolsey@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We investigate several key questions of plasma heating in open-field regions of the corona that connect to the solar wind. We present results for a model of Alfvén-wave-driven turbulence for three typical open magnetic field structures: a polar coronal hole, an open flux tube neighboring an equatorial streamer, and an open flux tube near a strong-field active region. We compare time-steady, one-dimensional turbulent heating models against fully time-dependent three-dimensional reduced-magnetohydrodynamic modeling of BRAID. We find that the time-steady results agree well with time-averaged results from BRAID. The time dependence allows us to investigate the variability of the magnetic fluctuations and of the heating in the corona. The high-frequency tail of the power spectrum of fluctuations forms a power law whose exponent varies with height, and we discuss the possible physical explanation for this behavior. The variability in the heating rate is bursty and nanoflare-like in nature, and we analyze the amount of energy lost via dissipative heating in transient events throughout the simulation. The average energy in these events is 10{sup 21.91} erg, within the “picoflare” range, and many events reach classical “nanoflare” energies. We also estimated the multithermal distribution of temperatures that would result from the heating-rate variability, and found good agreement with observed widths of coronal differential emission measure distributions. The results of the modeling presented in this paper provide compelling evidence that turbulent heating in the solar atmosphere by Alfvén waves accelerates the solar wind in open flux tubes.

  11. Critical heat flux of subcooled flow boiling in narrow rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureta, Masatoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    In relation to the high-heat-load devices such as a solid-target cooling channel of a high-intensity neutron source, burnout experiments were performed to obtain critical heat flux (CHF) data systematically for vertical upward flow in one-side heated rectangular channels. One of the objectives of this study was to study an extensibility of existing CHF correlations and models, which were proposed for a round tube, to rectangular channels for design calculation. Existing correlations and models were reviewed and compared with obtained data. Sudo's thin liquid layer dryout model, Griffel correlation and Bernath correlation were in good agreement with the experimental data for short-heated-length and low inlet water temperature conditions. (author)

  12. A review of dryout heat fluxes and coolability of particle beds. APRI 4, Stage 2 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, Ilona

    2002-04-01

    Dryout heat flux experiments on particle beds have been reviewed. The observed dryout heat flux varies from some tens of kW/m 2 to well over 1 MW/m 2 . The variation can be qualitatively and to some extent also quantitatively explained. The effect of particle diameter has been clearly demonstrated. For particles having diameter less than about 1 mm, the dryout heat flux on the order of 100-200 kW/m 2 , and increases on square of the particle diameter. For larger than 1 mm particles the dryout heat flux increases on square root of the particle diameter. Typical values for ∼ 5 mm particles is 500 kW/m 2 to 1 MW/m 2 . An effect of bed thickness can be seen for small particles and medium range (50-500 mm) beds. For thick beds, > 500 mm, the dryout heat flux does not any more change as the bed height increases. The dryout heat flux increases with increasing coolant pressure. This can be explained by the increasing vapour density, which can remove more latent heat from the bed. Debris bed stratification, with small particles on top, clearly decreases the dryout heat flux. The dryout heat flux in a stratified bed can even be smaller than a heat flux of an equivalent debris bed consisting of the smaller particles alone. This is due to the capillary force, which draws liquid towards the smaller particles and causes the dryout to occur at the interface of the particle layers. A model has been developed by Lipinski to estimate dryout heat fluxes in a particle bed. The model has been derived based on solution of momentum, energy and mass conservation equations for two phases. The 1-D model can take into account variable particle sizes (stratification) along the bed and different coolant entry positions. It has been shown that the model can quite well predict the observed dryout characteristics in most experiments. The simpler 0-D model can give reasonable estimates for non-stratified beds. Results and observations of several tests on melt jet fragmentation in a water pool

  13. The drift flux model in the ASSERT subchannel code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, M.B.; Judd, R.A.; Kiteley, J.C.; Tahir, A.

    1987-01-01

    The ASSERT subchannel code has been developed specifically to model flow and phase distributions within CANDU fuel bundles. ASSERT uses a drift-flux model that permits the phases to have unequal velocities, and can thus model phase separation tendencies that may occur in horizontal flow. The basic principles of ASSERT are outlined, and computed results are compared against data from various experiments for validation purposes. The paper concludes with an example of the use of the code to predict critical heat flux in CANDU geometries

  14. Critical heat flux and exit film flow rate in a flow boiling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Tatsuhiro; Isayama, Yasushi

    1981-01-01

    The critical heat flux in a flowing boiling system is an important problem in the evaporating tubes with high thermal load such as nuclear reactors and boilers, and gives the practical design limit. When the heat flux in uniformly heated evaporating tubes is gradually raised, the tube exit quality increases, and soon, the critical heat flux condition arises, and the wall temperature near tube exit rises rapidly. In the region of low exit quality, the critical heat flux condition is caused by the transition from nucleating boiling, and in the region of high exit quality, it is caused by dry-out. But the demarcation of both regions is not clear. In this study, for the purpose of obtaining the knowledge concerning the critical heat flux condition in a flowing boiling system, the relation between the critical heat flux and exit liquid film flow rate was examined. For the experiment, a uniformly heated vertical tube supplying R 113 liquid was used, and the measurement in the range of higher heating flux and mass velocity than the experiment by Ueda and Kin was carried out. The experimental setup and experimental method, the critical heat flux and exit quality, the liquid film flow rate at heating zone exit, and the relation between the critical heat flux and the liquid film flow rate at exit are described. (Kako, I.)

  15. Experimental data on heat flux distribution from a volumetrically heated pool with frozen boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, Maria; Kymaelaeinen, Olli; Tuomisto, Harri

    1999-01-01

    The COPO II experiments are confirmatory experiments and a continuation project to the earlier COPO I experiments. As in COPO 1, a molten corium pool on the lower head of a RPV is simulated by a two - dimensional slice of it in linear scale 1:2. The corium is simulated by water-zinc sulfate solution with volumetric Joule heating. The heat flux distribution on the boundaries and the temperature distribution in the pool are measured. The major new feature in COPO II is the cooling arrangement which is based on circulation of liquid nitrogen on the outside of the pool boundaries. The use of liquid nitrogen leads to formation of ice on the inside of boundaries. Two geometrically different versions of the COPO II facility have been constructed: one with a tori-spherical bottom shape, simulating the RPV of a VVER-440 reactor as COPO I, and another one with semicircular bottom simulating a western PWR such as AP600. The modified Rayleigh number in the COPO II experiments corresponds to the one in a prototypic corium pool (∼ 10 15 ). This paper reports results from the COPO II-Lo and COPO II-AP experiments with homogenous pool. Results indicate that the upward heat fluxes are in agreement with the results of the COPO I experiments. Also, as expected, the time averaged upward heat flux profile was relatively flat. On the other hand, the heat fluxes at the side and bottom boundaries of the pool were slightly higher in COPO II-Lo than in COPO I. In COPO II-AP, the average heat transfer coefficients to the curved boundary were higher than predicted by Jahn's and Mayinger's correlation, but slightly lower than in BALI experiments. (authors)

  16. Experimental investigation of pool boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux on a downward facing surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocmanac, M.; Luxat, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    A separate effects experimental study of heat transfer and Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a downward facing plate in subcooled water pool boiling is described. Two geometries of downwards facing surfaces are studied. The first is termed the 'confined' study in which bubble motion is restricted to the heated surface. The second is termed the 'unconfined' study where individual bubbles are free to move along the heated surface and vent in any direction. The method used in the confined study is novel and involves the placement of a lip surrounding the heated surface. The CHF as a function of angle of inclination of the surface is presented and is in good agreement with other experimental data from somewhat different test geometries. (author)

  17. Computational multi-fluid dynamics predictions of critical heat flux in boiling flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimouni, S.; Baudry, C.; Guingo, M.; Lavieville, J.; Merigoux, N.; Mechitoua, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new mechanistic model dedicated to DNB has been implemented in the Neptune_CFD code. • The model has been validated against 150 tests. • Neptune_CFD code is a CFD tool dedicated to boiling flows. - Abstract: Extensive efforts have been made in the last five decades to evaluate the boiling heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux in particular. Boiling crisis remains a major limiting phenomenon for the analysis of operation and safety of both nuclear reactors and conventional thermal power systems. As a consequence, models dedicated to boiling flows have being improved. For example, Reynolds Stress Transport Model, polydispersion and two-phase flow wall law have been recently implemented. In a previous work, we have evaluated computational fluid dynamics results against single-phase liquid water tests equipped with a mixing vane and against two-phase boiling cases. The objective of this paper is to propose a new mechanistic model in a computational multi-fluid dynamics tool leading to wall temperature excursion and onset of boiling crisis. Critical heat flux is calculated against 150 tests and the mean relative error between calculations and experimental values is equal to 8.3%. The model tested covers a large physics scope in terms of mass flux, pressure, quality and channel diameter. Water and R12 refrigerant fluid are considered. Furthermore, it was found that the sensitivity to the grid refinement was acceptable.

  18. Computational multi-fluid dynamics predictions of critical heat flux in boiling flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimouni, S., E-mail: stephane.mimouni@edf.fr; Baudry, C.; Guingo, M.; Lavieville, J.; Merigoux, N.; Mechitoua, N.

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • A new mechanistic model dedicated to DNB has been implemented in the Neptune-CFD code. • The model has been validated against 150 tests. • Neptune-CFD code is a CFD tool dedicated to boiling flows. - Abstract: Extensive efforts have been made in the last five decades to evaluate the boiling heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux in particular. Boiling crisis remains a major limiting phenomenon for the analysis of operation and safety of both nuclear reactors and conventional thermal power systems. As a consequence, models dedicated to boiling flows have being improved. For example, Reynolds Stress Transport Model, polydispersion and two-phase flow wall law have been recently implemented. In a previous work, we have evaluated computational fluid dynamics results against single-phase liquid water tests equipped with a mixing vane and against two-phase boiling cases. The objective of this paper is to propose a new mechanistic model in a computational multi-fluid dynamics tool leading to wall temperature excursion and onset of boiling crisis. Critical heat flux is calculated against 150 tests and the mean relative error between calculations and experimental values is equal to 8.3%. The model tested covers a large physics scope in terms of mass flux, pressure, quality and channel diameter. Water and R12 refrigerant fluid are considered. Furthermore, it was found that the sensitivity to the grid refinement was acceptable.

  19. Theoretical and experimental studies on critical heat flux in subcooled boiling and vertical flow geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staron, E.

    1996-01-01

    Critical Heat Flux is a very important subject of interest due to design, operation and safety analysis of nuclear power plants. Every new design of the core must be thoroughly checked. Experimental studies have been performed using freon as a working fluid. The possibility of transferring of results into water equivalents has been proved. The experimental study covers vertical flow, annular geometry over a wide range of pressure, mass flow and temperature at inlet of test section. Theoretical models of Critical Heat Flux have been presented but only those which cover DNB. Computer programs allowing for numerical calculations using theoretical models have been developed. A validation of the theoretical models has been performed in accordance with experimental results. (author). 83 refs, 32 figs, 4 tabs

  20. An algebraic stress/flux model for two-phase turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.

    1995-12-01

    An algebraic stress model (ASM) for turbulent Reynolds stress and a flux model for turbulent heat flux are proposed for two-phase bubbly and slug flows. These mathematical models are derived from the two-phase transport equations for Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux, and provide C μ , a turbulent constant which defines the level of eddy viscosity, as a function of the interfacial terms. These models also include the effect of heat transfer. When the interfacial drag terms and the interfacial momentum transfer terms are absent, the model reduces to a single-phase model used in the literature

  1. RELAP5/MOD2 benchmarking study: Critical heat flux under low-flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggles, E.; Williams, P.T.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental studies by Mishima and Ishii performed at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent experimental studies performed by Mishima and Nishihara have investigated the critical heat flux (CHF) for low-pressure low-mass flux situations where low-quality burnout may occur. These flow situations are relevant to long-term decay heat removal after a loss of forced flow. The transition from burnout at high quality to burnout at low quality causes very low burnout heat flux values. Mishima and Ishii postulated a model for the low-quality burnout based on flow regime transition from churn turbulent to annular flow. This model was validated by both flow visualization and burnout measurements. Griffith et al. also studied CHF in low mass flux, low-pressure situations and correlated data for upflows, counter-current flows, and downflows with the local fluid conditions. A RELAP5/MOD2 CHF benchmarking study was carried out investigating the performance of the code for low-flow conditions. Data from the experimental study by Mishima and Ishii were the basis for the benchmark comparisons

  2. Stable water isotope and surface heat flux simulation using ISOLSM: Evaluation against in-situ measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Mick Y.; Wang, Lixin; Parkes, Stephen; Strauss, Josiah; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.; Griffiths, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    The stable isotopes of water are useful tracers of water sources and hydrological processes. Stable water isotope-enabled land surface modeling is a relatively new approach for characterizing the hydrological cycle, providing spatial and temporal variability for a number of hydrological processes. At the land surface, the integration of stable water isotopes with other meteorological measurements can assist in constraining surface heat flux estimates and discriminate between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). However, research in this area has traditionally been limited by a lack of continuous in-situ isotopic observations. Here, the National Centre for Atmospheric Research stable isotope-enabled Land Surface Model (ISOLSM) is used to simulate the water and energy fluxes and stable water isotope variations. The model was run for a period of one month with meteorological data collected from a coastal sub-tropical site near Sydney, Australia. The modeled energy fluxes (latent heat and sensible heat) agreed reasonably well with eddy covariance observations, indicating that ISOLSM has the capacity to reproduce observed flux behavior. Comparison of modeled isotopic compositions of evapotranspiration (ET) against in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measured bulk water vapor isotopic data (10. m above the ground), however, showed differences in magnitude and temporal patterns. The disparity is due to a small contribution from local ET fluxes to atmospheric boundary layer water vapor (~1% based on calculations using ideal gas law) relative to that advected from the ocean for this particular site. Using ISOLSM simulation, the ET was partitioned into E and T with 70% being T. We also identified that soil water from different soil layers affected T and E differently based on the simulated soil isotopic patterns, which reflects the internal working of ISOLSM. These results highlighted the capacity of using the isotope-enabled models to discriminate

  3. Stable water isotope and surface heat flux simulation using ISOLSM: Evaluation against in-situ measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Mick Y.

    2015-04-01

    The stable isotopes of water are useful tracers of water sources and hydrological processes. Stable water isotope-enabled land surface modeling is a relatively new approach for characterizing the hydrological cycle, providing spatial and temporal variability for a number of hydrological processes. At the land surface, the integration of stable water isotopes with other meteorological measurements can assist in constraining surface heat flux estimates and discriminate between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). However, research in this area has traditionally been limited by a lack of continuous in-situ isotopic observations. Here, the National Centre for Atmospheric Research stable isotope-enabled Land Surface Model (ISOLSM) is used to simulate the water and energy fluxes and stable water isotope variations. The model was run for a period of one month with meteorological data collected from a coastal sub-tropical site near Sydney, Australia. The modeled energy fluxes (latent heat and sensible heat) agreed reasonably well with eddy covariance observations, indicating that ISOLSM has the capacity to reproduce observed flux behavior. Comparison of modeled isotopic compositions of evapotranspiration (ET) against in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measured bulk water vapor isotopic data (10. m above the ground), however, showed differences in magnitude and temporal patterns. The disparity is due to a small contribution from local ET fluxes to atmospheric boundary layer water vapor (~1% based on calculations using ideal gas law) relative to that advected from the ocean for this particular site. Using ISOLSM simulation, the ET was partitioned into E and T with 70% being T. We also identified that soil water from different soil layers affected T and E differently based on the simulated soil isotopic patterns, which reflects the internal working of ISOLSM. These results highlighted the capacity of using the isotope-enabled models to discriminate

  4. Application of the Critical Heat Flux Look-Up Table to Large Diameter Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Nakla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical heat flux look-up table was applied to a large diameter tube, namely 67 mm inside diameter tube, to predict the occurrence of the phenomenon for both vertical and horizontal uniformly heated tubes. Water was considered as coolant. For the vertical tube, a diameter correction factor was directly applied to the 1995 critical heat flux look-up table. To predict the occurrence of critical heat flux in horizontal tube, an extra correction factor to account for flow stratification was applied. Both derived tables were used to predict the effect of high heat flux and tube blockage on critical heat flux occurrence in boiler tubes. Moreover, the horizontal tube look-up table was used to predict the safety limits of the operation of boiler for 50% allowable heat flux.

  5. New geothermal heat flux map of Greenland and the Iceland hotspot track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Y. M.; Jordan, T. A.; Catalan, M.; Jordan, T. M.; Bamber, J. L.; Vaughan, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Greenland is the second largest reservoir of water on Earth and about 80% of its surface is covered by ice. It is mainly composed of Archean blocks that collided during the Early Proterozoic. Indirect methods have been used to study its subglacial thermal conditions, geology and lithospheric structure. Numerous regions of basal melting are identified in the central and north Greenland but their relationship with geothermal heat flux is not yet clear. Crustal thickness derived by seismology and gravity data are consistent, showing no significant lateral variations, and providing average values of about 40 and 36 km respectively. Even though Greenland is considered a craton its crust has been affected by the presume passage of the Iceland hotspot since at least 100 Ma. Here we present the newest and highest resolution Curie Depth and geothermal heat flux maps for Greenland as well as their associated uncertainties. For estimating the Curie Depths we applied spectral methods to aeromagnetic data from the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map WDMAM2.0. Calculated Curie Depths vary from 25 to 50 km with shallower values located to the east. A thermal model is built based on the 1D heat conduction equation and considering steady state conditions. The thermal parameters are then optimized using local values derived from direct measurements, temperature profiles and more indirect methods such as radar imaging. The heat flux distribution shows higher spatial variability and a very different pattern than previously proposed and with values of 50-80 mW/m2. We identify a NW-SE high heat flux feature crossing Greenland which we correlate with the Iceland hotspot track. Additionally, to evaluate the lithospheric structure we calculate the Bouguer anomaly from GOCO5s satellite free air data and construct several gravity models across the proposed hotspot track. We show that a dense lower crust body in the same location the high heat flux trend is permissible from a gravimetric

  6. Comparing simulated and measured sensible and latent heat fluxes over snow under a pine canopy to improve an energy balance snowmelt model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Marks; M. Reba; J. Pomeroy; T. Link; A. Winstral; G. Flerchinger; K. Elder

    2008-01-01

    During the second year of the NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX), an eddy covariance (EC) system was deployed at the Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS) from mid-February to June 2003. The EC system was located beneath a uniform pine canopy, where the trees are regularly spaced and are of similar age and height. In an effort to evaluate the turbulent flux...

  7. Analytical and numerical study on cooling flow field designs performance of PEM fuel cell with variable heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Ebrahim; Ziaei-Rad, Masoud; Jahantigh, Nabi

    2016-06-01

    In PEM fuel cells, during electrochemical generation of electricity more than half of the chemical energy of hydrogen is converted to heat. This heat of reactions, if not exhausted properly, would impair the performance and durability of the cell. In general, large scale PEM fuel cells are cooled by liquid water that circulates through coolant flow channels formed in bipolar plates or in dedicated cooling plates. In this paper, a numerical method has been presented to study cooling and temperature distribution of a polymer membrane fuel cell stack. The heat flux on the cooling plate is variable. A three-dimensional model of fluid flow and heat transfer in cooling plates with 15 cm × 15 cm square area is considered and the performances of four different coolant flow field designs, parallel field and serpentine fields are compared in terms of maximum surface temperature, temperature uniformity and pressure drop characteristics. By comparing the results in two cases, the constant and variable heat flux, it is observed that applying constant heat flux instead of variable heat flux which is actually occurring in the fuel cells is not an accurate assumption. The numerical results indicated that the straight flow field model has temperature uniformity index and almost the same temperature difference with the serpentine models, while its pressure drop is less than all of the serpentine models. Another important advantage of this model is the much easier design and building than the spiral models.

  8. Reconstructing Heat Fluxes Over Lake Erie During the Lake Effect Snow Event of November 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, L.; Fujisaki-Manome, A.; Gronewold, A.; Anderson, E. J.; Spence, C.; Chen, J.; Shao, C.; Posselt, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Lofgren, B. M.; Schwab, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The extreme North American winter storm of November 2014 triggered a record lake effect snowfall (LES) event in southwest New York. This study examined the evaporation from Lake Erie during the record lake effect snowfall event, November 17th-20th, 2014, by reconstructing heat fluxes and evaporation rates over Lake Erie using the unstructured grid, Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). Nine different model runs were conducted using combinations of three different flux algorithms: the Met Flux Algorithm (COARE), a method routinely used at NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (SOLAR), and the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE); and three different meteorological forcings: the Climate Forecast System version 2 Operational Analysis (CFSv2), Interpolated observations (Interp), and the High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR). A few non-FVCOM model outputs were also included in the evaporation analysis from an atmospheric reanalysis (CFSv2) and the large lake thermodynamic model (LLTM). Model-simulated water temperature and meteorological forcing data (wind direction and air temperature) were validated with buoy data at three locations in Lake Erie. The simulated sensible and latent heat fluxes were validated with the eddy covariance measurements at two offshore sites; Long Point Lighthouse in north central Lake Erie and Toledo water crib intake in western Lake Erie. The evaluation showed a significant increase in heat fluxes over three days, with the peak on the 18th of November. Snow water equivalent data from the National Snow Analyses at the National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center showed a spike in water content on the 20th of November, two days after the peak heat fluxes. The ensemble runs presented a variation in spatial pattern of evaporation, lake-wide average evaporation, and resulting cooling of the lake. Overall, the evaporation tended to be larger in deep water than shallow water near the shore. The lake-wide average evaporations

  9. Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Mohammed T.; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Alvarez-Hernandez, Angel R.

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid wick heat pipes are developed to operate against gravity on planetary surfaces, operate in space carrying power over long distances and act as thermosyphons on the planetary surface for Lunar and Martian landers and rovers. These hybrid heat pipes will be capable of operating at the higher heat flux requirements expected in NASA's future spacecraft and on the next generation of polar rovers and equatorial landers. In addition, the sintered evaporator wicks mitigate the start-up problems in vertical gravity aided heat pipes because of large number of nucleation sites in wicks which will allow easy boiling initiation. ACT, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center, are working together on the Advanced Passive Thermal experiment (APTx) to test and validate the operation of a hybrid wick VCHP with warm reservoir and HiK"TM" plates in microgravity environment on the ISS.

  10. Impact of melting heat transfer and nonlinear radiative heat flux mechanisms for the generalized Burgers fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Azeem Khan

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the analysis of melting heat and mass transfer characteristics in the stagnation point flow of an incompressible generalized Burgers fluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of non-linear radiative heat flux. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. The governing equations in dimensional form are reduced to a system of dimensionless expressions by implementation of suitable similarity transformations. The resulting dimensionless problem governing the generalized Burgers is solved analytically by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM. The effects of different flow parameters like the ratio parameter, magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, melting parameter, radiation parameter, temperature ratio parameter and Schmidt number on the velocity, heat and mass transfer characteristics are computed and presented graphically. Moreover, useful discussions in detail are carried out with the help of plotted graphs and tables. Keywords: Generalized Burgers fluid, Non-linear radiative flow, Magnetic field, Melting heat transfer

  11. Critical heat flux in tubes and tight hexagonal rod lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbacher, F.J.; Cheng Xu; Zeggel, W.

    1994-01-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) in small-diameter tubes and in tight hexagonal 7-rod and 37-rod bundles was investigated in the KRISTA test facility, using Freon 12 as the working fluid. The measurements in tubes showed that the influence of the tube diameter on CHF cannot be described as suggested by earlier publications with sufficient accuracy. CHF in bundles is lower than in tubes under comparable conditions. The influence of spacers (grid spacers, wire wraps) on CHF was found to be governed by local steam qualities. A comparison of the test results with some CHF prediction methods showed that the look-up table method reproduces the test results in circular tubes most accurately. Combined with CHF look-up tables, subchannel analysis and Ahmad's fluid-to-fluid scaling law, Freon experiments have proven to be a suitable tool for CHF prediction in water-cooled rod bundles. (orig.) [de

  12. Experiments on Critical Heat Flux for CAREM -25 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazufri, C.M

    2000-01-01

    The prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in rod bundles of light water reactors is basically performed with the aid of empirical correlations derived from experimental data.Many CHF correlations have been proposed and are widely used in the analysis of the thermal margin during normal operation, transient, and accident conditions.Correlations found in the open literature are not sufficiently verified for the thermal hydraulic conditions that appear in the CAREM core under normal operation: high pressure, low flow, and low qualities.To compensate this deficiency, an experimental investigation on CHF in such thermal-hydraulic conditions was carried out.The experiments have been performed in the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering of Russian Federation.A short description of facilities, details of the experimental program and some preliminary results obtained are presented in this work

  13. Mass transfer effects on vertical oscillating plate with heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical solution of unsteady viscous incompressible flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate with uniform heat flux and mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account of the homogeneous chemical reaction of first-order. The temperature from the plate to the fluid at an uniform rate and the mass is diffused uniformly. The dimensionless governing equations has been obtained by the Laplace transform method, when the plate is oscillating harmonically in its own plane. The effects of velocity and concentration are studied for different parameters like phase angle chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number Schmidt number and time are studied. The so­lutions are valid only for small values of time t. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing phase angle ωt or chemical reaction parameter.

  14. Experience with high heat flux components in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappuis, P.; Dietz, K.J.; Ulrickson, M.

    1991-01-01

    The large present day tokamaks. i.e.JET, TFTR, JT-60, DIII-D and Tore Supra are machines capable of sustaining plasma currents of several million amperes. Pulse durations range from a few seconds up to a minute. These large machines have been in operation for several years and there exists wide experience with materials for plasma facing components. Bare and coated metals, bare and coated graphites and beryllium were used for walls, limiters and divertors. High heat flux components are mainly radiation cooled, but stationary cooling for long pulse duration is also employed. This paper summarizes the experience gained in the large machines with respect to material selection, component design, problem areas, and plasma performance. 2 tabs., 26 figs., 50 refs

  15. Experimental study on the effect of heat flux tilt on rod bundle dryout limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, S.; Terunuma, K.; Kamoshida, H.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of heat flux tilt on rod bundle dryout limitation was studied experimentally using a full-scale mock-up test facility and simulated 36-rod fuel bundles in which heater pins have azimuthal nonuniform heat flux distribution (i.e., heat flux tilt). Experimental results for typical lateral power distribution in the bundle indicate that the bundle dryout power with azimuthal heat flux tilt is higher than that without azimuthal heat flux tilt in the entire experimental range. Consequently, it is concluded that the dryout experiment using the test bundle with heater pins which has circumferentially uniform heat flux distribution gives conservative results for the usual lateral power distribution in a bundle in which the relative power of outermost-circle fuel rods is higher than those of middle- and inner-circle ones. (author). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  16. Experimental study on the effect of heat flux tilt on rod bundle dryout limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, S; Terunuma, K; Kamoshida, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1996-12-31

    The effect of heat flux tilt on rod bundle dryout limitation was studied experimentally using a full-scale mock-up test facility and simulated 36-rod fuel bundles in which heater pins have azimuthal nonuniform heat flux distribution (i.e., heat flux tilt). Experimental results for typical lateral power distribution in the bundle indicate that the bundle dryout power with azimuthal heat flux tilt is higher than that without azimuthal heat flux tilt in the entire experimental range. Consequently, it is concluded that the dryout experiment using the test bundle with heater pins which has circumferentially uniform heat flux distribution gives conservative results for the usual lateral power distribution in a bundle in which the relative power of outermost-circle fuel rods is higher than those of middle- and inner-circle ones. (author). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  17. Viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects in MHD 3D flow with heat and mass fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Taseer; Hayat, Tasawar; Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    The present research explores the three-dimensional stretched flow of viscous fluid in the presence of prescribed heat (PHF) and concentration (PCF) fluxes. Mathematical formulation is developed in the presence of chemical reaction, viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects. Fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Appropriate transformations yield the nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The resulting nonlinear system has been solved. Graphs are plotted to examine the impacts of physical parameters on the temperature and concentration distributions. Skin friction coefficients and local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and analyzed.

  18. FILAMENT INTERACTION MODELED BY FLUX ROPE RECONNECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeroek, T.; Chandra, R.; Pariat, E.; Demoulin, P.; Schmieder, B.; Aulanier, G.; Linton, M. G.; Mandrini, C. H.

    2011-01-01

    Hα observations of solar active region NOAA 10501 on 2003 November 20 revealed a very uncommon dynamic process: during the development of a nearby flare, two adjacent elongated filaments approached each other, merged at their middle sections, and separated again, thereby forming stable configurations with new footpoint connections. The observed dynamic pattern is indicative of 'slingshot' reconnection between two magnetic flux ropes. We test this scenario by means of a three-dimensional zero β magnetohydrodynamic simulation, using a modified version of the coronal flux rope model by Titov and Demoulin as the initial condition for the magnetic field. To this end, a configuration is constructed that contains two flux ropes which are oriented side-by-side and are embedded in an ambient potential field. The choice of the magnetic orientation of the flux ropes and of the topology of the potential field is guided by the observations. Quasi-static boundary flows are then imposed to bring the middle sections of the flux ropes into contact. After sufficient driving, the ropes reconnect and two new flux ropes are formed, which now connect the former adjacent flux rope footpoints of opposite polarity. The corresponding evolution of filament material is modeled by calculating the positions of field line dips at all times. The dips follow the morphological evolution of the flux ropes, in qualitative agreement with the observed filaments.

  19. Fast nanoscale heat-flux modulation with phase-change materials

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zwol , Pieter; Joulain , Karl; Ben-Abdallah , Philippe; Greffet , Jean-Jacques; Chevrier , Joël

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a new concept for electrically controlled heat flux modulation. A flux contrast larger than 10 dB is expected with switching time on the order of tens of nanoseconds. Heat flux modulation is based on the interplay between radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale and phase change materials. Such large contrasts are not obtainable in solids, or in far field. As such this opens up new horizons for temperature modulation and actuation at the nanoscale.

  20. The comparison of heat flux pattern on lower divertor in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Eunnam; Hong, Suk-Ho; Bak, JunGyo; Kim, Kyungmin; Kim, Hongtack; Kim, Hakkun; Yang, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The heat flux on the lower divertor is higher than upper divertor. • The heat flux on OD is decreased with IVCP. • The heat flux on CD is decreased with RMP, but that on OD is increased. • Because the strike point was shifted from CD toward OD due to the RMP. - Abstract: The heat flux in KSTAR is estimated for various discharge conditions by using thermocouple arrays. The heat flux on the divertor is higher than that on inboard limiter or passive stabilizer by a factor of 2. Although the plasma configuration in KSTAR has been set to a double-null configuration, the heat flux on lower divertor is higher than that on upper divertor by 3–8 times, indicating a lower-single-null-like configuration. It is observed that the operation of the in-vessel cryo-pump (IVCP) changes the heat flux pattern significantly: When the IVCP was not operated, the heat fluxes on inboard divertor (ID), central divertor (CD) and outboard divertor (OD) were similar, but when the IVCP was operated, the heat fluxes on ID and CD were increased slightly and that on OD was decreased by 2–3 times. The heat flux on divertor was decreased from 35 to 26 kW/m"2 with the use of the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP), especially that on CD was decreased by 2–4 times, while that on OD is increased by 2–3 times than without RMP. For the longest H-mode pulse of 22 s shot, the heat flux on lower OD was 73 kW/m"2, which is the maximum heat flux among the shots obtained in 2013 campaign.

  1. Numerical simulation of heat fluxes in a two-temperature plasma at shock tube walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, E A; Poniaev, S A

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulation of a two-temperature three-component Xenon plasma flow is presented. A solver based on the OpenFOAM CFD software package is developed. The heat flux at the shock tube end wall is calculated and compared with experimental data. It is shown that the heat flux due to electrons can be as high as 14% of the total heat flux. (paper)

  2. Numerical simulation of heat fluxes in a two-temperature plasma at shock tube walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, E. A.; Poniaev, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulation of a two-temperature three-component Xenon plasma flow is presented. A solver based on the OpenFOAM CFD software package is developed. The heat flux at the shock tube end wall is calculated and compared with experimental data. It is shown that the heat flux due to electrons can be as high as 14% of the total heat flux.

  3. Analysis of the dual phase lag bio-heat transfer equation with constant and time-dependent heat flux conditions on skin surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaei Poor Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on temperature response of skin tissue due to time-dependent surface heat fluxes. Analytical solution is constructed for DPL bio-heat transfer equation with constant, periodic and pulse train heat flux conditions on skin surface. Separation of variables and Duhamel’s theorem for a skin tissue as a finite domain are employed. The transient temperature responses for constant and time-dependent boundary conditions are obtained and discussed. The results show that there is major discrepancy between the predicted temperature of parabolic (Pennes bio-heat transfer, hyperbolic (thermal wave and DPL bio-heat transfer models when high heat flux accidents on the skin surface with a short duration or propagation speed of thermal wave is finite. The results illustrate that the DPL model reduces to the hyperbolic model when τT approaches zero and the classic Fourier model when both thermal relaxations approach zero. However for τq = τT the DPL model anticipates different temperature distribution with that predicted by the Pennes model. Such discrepancy is due to the blood perfusion term in energy equation. It is in contrast to results from the literature for pure conduction material, where the DPL model approaches the Fourier heat conduction model when τq = τT . The burn injury is also investigated.

  4. Heat flux estimation for neutral beam line components using inverse heat conduction procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharathi, P.; Prahlad, V.; Quereshi, K.; Bansal, L.K.; Rambabu, S.; Sharma, S.K.; Parmar, S.; Patel, P.J.; Baruah, U.K.; Patel, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe and compare the analytical IHCP methods such-as semi-infinite method, finite slab method and a numerical method called Stolz method for estimating the incident heat flux from the experimentally measured temperature data. In case of analytical methods, the finite time response of the sensor is needed to be accounted for an accurate power density estimations. The modified models corrected for the response time of the sensors are also discussed in this paper. Application of these methods using example temperature waveforms obtained on the SST1-NBI test stand is presented and discussed. For choosing the suitable method for the calorimetry on beam line components, the estimated results are also validated using the ANSYS analysis done on these beam Iine components. As a conclusion, the finite slab method corrected for the influence of the sensor response time found out to be the most suitable method for the inversion of temperature data in case of neutral beam line components

  5. Measurements of carbon dioxide and heat fluxes during monsoon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere due to ... The changes in land ... the air quality and climate models. 2. ... soon period of 2011 as a part Cloud Aerosol .... density effects due to heat and water vapour trans-.

  6. Tests of a robust eddy correlation system for sensible heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, J. H.; Gay, L. W.

    1992-03-01

    Sensible heat flux estimates from a simple, one-propeller eddy correlation system (OPEC) were compared with those from a sonic anemometer eddy correlation system (SEC). In accordance with similarity theory, the performance of the OPEC system improved with increasing height of the sensor above the surface. Flux totals from the two systems at sites with adequate fetch were in excellent agreement after frequency response corrections were applied. The propeller system appears suitable for long periods of unattended measurement. The sensible heat flux measurements can be combined with net radiation and soil heat flux measurements to estimate latent heat as a residual in the surface energy balance.

  7. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  8. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices

  9. Azimuthal critical heat flux in narrow rectangular channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Noh, Sang Woo; Kim, Sung Joong; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Tests were conducted to examine the critical heat flux (CHF) on the one-dimensional downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap by changing the orientation of the copper test heater assembly in a pool of saturated water under the atmospheric pressure. The test parameters include both the gap sizes of 1, 2, 5 and 10mm, and the surface orientation angles from the downward-facing position (180{sup o}) to the vertical position (90{sup o}), respectively. Also, the CHF experiments were performed for pool boiling with varying heater surface orientations in the unconfined space at the atmospheric pressure using the rectangular test section. It was observed that the CHF generally decreases as the surface inclination angle increases and as the gap size decreases. In consistency with several studies reported in the literature, it was found that there exists a transition angle above which the CHF changes with a rapid slope. An engineering correlation is developed for the CHF during natural convective boiling in the inclined, confined rectangular channels with the aid of dimensional analysis.

  10. Occurrence of critical heat flux during blowdown with flow reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.C.M.

    1977-01-01

    A small-scale experiment using Freon-11 at 130 0 F (54.4 0 C) and 65 psia (0.45 MPa) in a well-instrumented, transparent annular test section was used to study the occurrence of critical heat flux (CHF) during blowdown with flow reversal. The inner stainless steel tube of the annulus was uniformly heated over its 61-cm length. Inlet and exit void fractions were measured by a capacitance technique. Flow-regime transition was observed with high-speed photography. A 1-hr contact time between Freon-11 and nitrogen at 130 0 F (54.4 0 C) and 60 psig (0.517 MPa) was found to greatly affect the steady-state subcooled-boiling initial conditions. Delay in bubble growth was observed in adiabatic blowdown runs. This was caused by the conditions of thermodynamic nonequilibrium required for the unstable bubble growth. For the diabatic runs, equilibrium was more closely approached in the test section during the early phase of blowdown

  11. Systems with a constant heat flux with applications to radiative heat transport across nanoscale gaps and layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaev, Bair V.; Bogy, David B.

    2018-06-01

    We extend the statistical analysis of equilibrium systems to systems with a constant heat flux. This extension leads to natural generalizations of Maxwell-Boltzmann's and Planck's equilibrium energy distributions to energy distributions of systems with a net heat flux. This development provides a long needed foundation for addressing problems of nanoscale heat transport by a systematic method based on a few fundamental principles. As an example, we consider the computation of the radiative heat flux between narrowly spaced half-spaces maintained at different temperatures.

  12. Heat transfer augmentation for high heat flux removal in rib-roughened narrow channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Hino, Ryutaro; Haga, Katsuhiro; Sudo, Yukio; Monde, Masanori.

    1997-03-01

    Heat transfer augmentation in narrow rectangular channels in a target system is a very important method to remove high heat flux up to 12 MW/m 2 generated at target plates of a high-intensity proton accelerator of 1.5 GeV and 1 mA with a proton beam power of 1.5 MW. In this report, heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in narrow rectangular channels with one-sided rib-roughened surface were evaluated for fully developed flows in the range of the Reynolds number from 6,000 to 1,00,000; the rib pitch-to-height ratios (p/k) were 10,20 and 30; the rib height-to-equivalent diameter ratios (k/De) were 0.025, 0.03 and 0.1 by means of previous existing experimental correlations. The rib-roughened surface augmented heat transfer coefficients approximately 4 times higher than the smooth surface at Re=10,000, p/k=10 and k/De=0.1; friction factors increase around 22 times higher. In this case, higher heat flux up to 12 MW/m 2 could be removed from the rib-roughened surface without flow boiling which induces flow instability; but pressure drop reaches about 1.8 MPa. Correlations obtained by air-flow experiments have showed lower heat transfer performance with the water-flow conditions. The experimental apparatus was proposed for further investigation on heat transfer augmentation in very narrow channels under water-flow conditions. This report presents the evaluation results and an outline of the test apparatus. (author)

  13. Modelling drug flux through microporated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhevskiy, Alexey S; Guy, Richard H; Anissimov, Yuri G

    2016-11-10

    A simple mathematical equation has been developed to predict drug flux through microporated skin. The theoretical model is based on an approach applied previously to water evaporation through leaf stomata. Pore density, pore radius and drug molecular weight are key model parameters. The predictions of the model were compared with results derived from a simple, intuitive method using porated area alone to estimate the flux enhancement. It is shown that the new approach predicts significantly higher fluxes than the intuitive analysis, with transport being proportional to the total pore perimeter rather than area as intuitively anticipated. Predicted fluxes were in good general agreement with experimental data on drug delivery from the literature, and were quantitatively closer to the measured values than those derived from the intuitive, area-based approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chromospheric heating during flux emergence in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaarts, Jorrit; de la Cruz Rodríguez, Jaime; Danilovic, Sanja; Scharmer, Göran; Carlsson, Mats

    2018-04-01

    Context. The radiative losses in the solar chromosphere vary from 4 kW m-2 in the quiet Sun, to 20 kW m-2 in active regions. The mechanisms that transport non-thermal energy to and deposit it in the chromosphere are still not understood. Aim. We aim to investigate the atmospheric structure and heating of the solar chromosphere in an emerging flux region. Methods: We have used observations taken with the CHROMIS and CRISP instruments on the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope in the Ca II K , Ca II 854.2 nm, Hα, and Fe I 630.1 nm and 630.2 nm lines. We analysed the various line profiles and in addition perform multi-line, multi-species, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) inversions to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of the chromospheric structure. Results: We investigate which spectral features of Ca II K contribute to the frequency-integrated Ca II K brightness, which we use as a tracer of chromospheric radiative losses. The majority of the radiative losses are not associated with localised high-Ca II K-brightness events, but instead with a more gentle, spatially extended, and persistent heating. The frequency-integrated Ca II K brightness correlates strongly with the total linear polarization in the Ca II 854.2 nm, while the Ca II K profile shapes indicate that the bulk of the radiative losses occur in the lower chromosphere. Non-LTE inversions indicate a transition from heating concentrated around photospheric magnetic elements below log τ500 = -3 to a more space-filling and time-persistent heating above log τ500 = -4. The inferred gas temperature at log τ500 = -3.8 correlates strongly with the total linear polarization in the Ca II 854.2 nm line, suggesting that that the heating rate correlates with the strength of the horizontal magnetic field in the low chromosphere. Movies attached to Figs. 1 and 4 are available at http://https://www.aanda.org/

  15. A prediction method of the effect of radial heat flux distribution on critical heat flux in CANDU fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Lan Qin; Yang, Jun; Harrison, Noel

    2014-01-01

    Fuel irradiation experiments to study fuel behaviors have been performed in the experimental loops of the National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in support of the development of new fuel technologies. Before initiating a fuel irradiation experiment, the experimental proposal must be approved to ensure that the test fuel strings put into the NRU loops meet safety margin requirements in critical heat flux (CHF). The fuel strings in irradiation experiments can have varying degrees of fuel enrichment and burnup, resulting in large variations in radial heat flux distribution (RFD). CHF experiments performed in Freon flow at CRL for full-scale bundle strings with a number of RFDs showed a strong effect of RFD on CHF. A prediction method was derived based on experimental CHF data to account for the RFD effect on CHF. It provides good CHF predictions for various RFDs as compared to the data. However, the range of the tested RFDs in the CHF experiments is not as wide as that required in the fuel irradiation experiments. The applicability of the prediction method needs to be examined for the RFDs beyond the range tested by the CHF experiments. The Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV was employed to simulate the CHF behavior for RFDs that would be encountered in fuel irradiation experiments. The CHF predictions using the derived method were compared with the ASSERT simulations. It was observed that the CHF predictions agree well with the ASSERT simulations in terms of CHF, confirming the applicability of the prediction method in fuel irradiation experiments. (author)

  16. Self-castellation of tungsten monoblock under high heat flux loading and impact of material properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Panayotis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the full-tungsten divertor qualification program at ITER Organization, macro-cracks, so called self-castellation were found in a fraction of tungsten monoblocks during cyclic high heat flux loading at 20MW/m2. The number of monoblocks with macro-cracks varied with the tungsten products used as armour material. In order to understand correlation between the macro-crack appearance and W properties, an activity to characterize W monoblock materials was launched at the IO. The outcome highlighted that the higher the recrystallization resistance, the lower the number of cracks detected during high heat flux tests. Thermo-mechanical finite element modelling demonstrated that the maximum surface temperature ranges from 1800 °C to 2200 °C and in this range recrystallization of tungsten occurred. Furthermore, it indicated that loss of strength due to recrystallization is responsible for the development of macro-cracks in the tungsten monoblock.

  17. Heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow towards a shrinking sheet with non-uniform heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya Krishnendu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of non-uniform heat flux on heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow over a shrinking sheet is studied. The variable boundary heat fluxes are considered of two types: direct power-law variation with the distance along the sheet and inverse power-law variation with the distance. The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) are transformed into non linear self-similar ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by similarity transformations, and then those are solved using very efficient shooting method. The direct variation and inverse variation of heat flux along the sheet have completely different effects on the temperature distribution. Moreover, the heat transfer characteristics in the presence of non-uniform heat flux for several values of physical parameters are also found to be interesting

  18. Seasonal variability of heat flux divergence in the coastal waters of Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, B.P.; Sadhuram, Y.

    Heat flux divergence (Qv) in the coastal waters of Visakhapatnam, Andhra, Pradesh, India during different seasons, was estimated for the period February 1980-January 1981. It is found that the water column (0-60 m) gains heat during winter...

  19. Active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes in EAST towards advanced steady state operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L., E-mail: lwang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Guo, H.Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); General Atomics, P. O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Li, J.; Wan, B.N.; Gong, X.Z.; Zhang, X.D.; Hu, J.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liang, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Xu, G.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zou, X.L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Maingi, R.; Menard, J.E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Luo, G.N.; Gao, X.; Hu, L.Q.; Gan, K.F.; Liu, S.C.; Wang, H.Q.; Chen, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    Significant progress has been made in EAST towards advanced steady state operations by active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes. Many innovative techniques have been developed to mitigate transient ELM and stationary heat fluxes on the divertor target plates. It has been found that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can lead to edge plasma ergodization, striation of the stationary heat flux and lower ELM transient heat and particle fluxes. With multi-pulse supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) to quantitatively regulate the divertor particle flux, the divertor power footprint pattern can be actively modified. H-modes have been extended over 30 s in EAST with the divertor peak heat flux and the target temperature being controlled well below 2 MW/m{sup 2} and 250 °C, respectively, by integrating these new methods, coupled with advanced lithium wall conditioning and internal divertor pumping, along with an edge coherent mode to provide continuous particle and power exhaust.

  20. Correlations of Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer and Critical Heat Flux for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Yang; F. B. Cheung; J. L. Rempe; K. Y. Suh; S. B. Kim

    2005-01-01

    Four types of steady-state boiling experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of two distinctly different heat transfer enhancement methods for external reactor vessel cooling under severe accident conditions. One method involved the use of a thin vessel coating and the other involved the use of an enhanced insulation structure. By comparing the results obtained in the four types of experiments, the separate and integral effect of vessel coating and insulation structure were determined. Correlation equations were obtained for the nucleate boiling heat transfer and the critical heat flux. It was found that both enhancement methods were quite effective. Depending on the angular location, the local critical heat flux could be enhanced by 1.4 to 2.5 times using vessel coating alone whereas it could be enhanced by 1.8 to 3.0 times using an enhanced insulation structure alone. When both vessel coating and insulation structure were used simultaneously, the integral effect on the enhancement was found much less than the product of the two separate effects, indicating possible competing mechanisms (i.e., interference) between the two enhancement methods

  1. Divertor Heat Flux Reduction and Detachment in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, Vsevolod

    2007-11-01

    Steady-state handling of the heat flux is a critical divertor issue for both the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and spherical torus (ST) devices. Because of an inherently compact divertor, it was thought that ST-based devices might not be able to fully utilize radiative and dissipative divertor techniques based on induced power and momentum loss. However, initial experiments conducted in the National Spherical Torus Experiment in an open geometry horizontal carbon plate divertor using 0.8 MA 2-6 MW NBI-heated lower single null H-mode plasmas at the lower end of elongations κ=1.8-2.4 and triangularities δ=0.45-0.75 demonstrated that high divertor peak heat fluxes, up to 6-10 MW/ m^2, could be reduced by 50-75% using a high-recycling radiative divertor regime with D2 injection. Furthermore, similar reduction was obtained with a partially detached divertor (PDD) at high D2 injection rates, however, it was accompanied by an X-point MARFE that quickly led to confinement degradation. Another approach takes advantage of the ST relation between strong shaping and high performance, and utilizes the poloidal magnetic flux expansion in the divertor region. Up to 60 % reduction in divertor peak heat flux was achieved at similar levels of scrape-off layer power by varying plasma shaping and thereby increasing the outer strike point (OSP) poloidal flux expansion from 4-6 to 18-22. In recent experiments conducted in highly-shaped 1.0-1.2 MA 6 MW NBI heated H-mode plasmas with divertor D2 injection at rates up to 10^22 s-1, a PDD regime with OSP peak heat flux 0.5-1.5 MW/m^2 was obtained without noticeable confinement degradation. Calculations based on a two point scrape-off layer model with parameterized power and momentum losses show that the short parallel connection length at the OSP sets the upper limit on the radiative exhaust channel, and both the impurity radiation and large momentum sink achievable only at high divertor neutral pressures are required

  2. D III-D divertor target heat flux measurements during Ohmic and neutral beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.N.; Petrie, T.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Lao, L.; Howl, W.

    1988-01-01

    Time resolved power deposition profiles on the D III-D divertor target plates have been measured for Ohmic and neutral beam injection heated plasmas using fast response infrared thermography (τ ≤ 150 μs). Giant Edge Localized Modes have been observed which punctuate quiescent periods of good H-mode confinement and deposit more than 5% of the stored energy of the core plasma on the divertor armour tiles on millisecond time-scales. The heat pulse associated with these events arrives approximately 0.5 ms earlier on the outer leg of the divertor relative to the inner leg. The measured power deposition profiles are displaced relative to the separatrix intercepts on the target plates, and the peak heat fluxes are a function of core plasma density. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 11 refs, 7 figs

  3. Doubling of critical heat flux using a grapheme oxide nanofluid and its repeatabiltiy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sung Bo; Bang, In Cheol

    2013-01-01

    CHF(Critical Heat Flux : heat flux which makes dramatic increase of temperature on heater surface) is one of the most important phenomena in the thermal hydraulic system. High CHF makes more thermal margin of heat transfer. This makes high efficiency and safety of power plant especially in nuclear power plant. Much smaller danger can be concerned to public society like radioactive material leakage in the accidents. Graphene Oxide which can be deposited on the heater surface makes nano-scale structures with enhancing thermal limit of heater. Three major models of enhancing limit of heater have been concerned in many heat transfer studies. In this study, wettability that is about ability to wet on surface and thermal activity which is about thermal property of coated layer are concerned to analyze the mechanism of CHF enhancing. Also, chemical reduction of Graphene Oxide(GO) to Reduced Graphene Oxide(RGO) on the surface will be concerned with one reason of changing wettability of nano-scale structure on the heater surface. We used GO nanofluid 0.001 volume percent. Two models are compared to explain how CHF is enhanced. Results show wettability increased with slightly reduced GO and structure. And in thermal activity model, the most powerful term, thickness of layer, is too small to affect thermal activity. It has low ability to explain how GO nanofluid can enhance CHF

  4. Prediction of critical heat flux by a new local condition hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, J. H.; Jun, K. D.; Sim, J. W.; Deng, Zhijian

    1998-01-01

    Critical Heat Flux(CHF) was predicted for uniformly heated vertical round tube by a new local condition hypothesis which incorporates a local true steam quality. This model successfully overcame the difficulties in predicted the subcooled and quality CHF by the thermodynamic equilibrium quality. The local true steam quality is a dependent variable of the thermodynamic equilibrium quality at the exit and the quality at the Onset of Significant Vaporization(OSV). The exit thermodynamic equilibrium quality was obtained from the heat balance, and the quality at OSV was obtained from the Saha-Zuber correlation. In the past CHF has been predicted by the experimental correlation based on local or non-local condition hypothesis. This preliminary study showed that all the available world data on uniform CHF could be predicted by the model based on the local condition hypothesis

  5. A model for heliospheric flux-ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Linton, M.; Vourlidas, A.; Hidalgo, M. A. U.

    2017-12-01

    This work is presents an analytical flux-rope model, which explores different levels of complexity starting from a circular-cylindrical geometry. The framework of this series of models was established by Nieves-Chinchilla et al. 2016 with the circular-cylindrical analytical flux rope model. The model attempts to describe the magnetic flux rope topology with distorted cross-section as a possible consequence of the interaction with the solar wind. In this model, the flux rope is completely described in a non-orthogonal geometry. The Maxwell equations are solved using tensor calculus consistent with the geometry chosen, invariance along the axial direction, and with the assumption of no radial current density. The model is generalized in terms of the radial and azimuthal dependence of the poloidal current density component and axial current density component. The misalignment between current density and magnetic field is studied in detail for several example profiles of the axial and poloidal current density components. This theoretical analysis provides a map of the force distribution inside of the flux-rope. For reconstruction of the heliospheric flux-ropes, the circular-cylindrical reconstruction technique has been adapted to the new geometry and applied to in situ ICMEs with a flux-rope entrained and tested with cases with clear in situ signatures of distortion. The model adds a piece in the puzzle of the physical-analytical representation of these magnetic structures that should be evaluated with the ultimate goal of reconciling in-situ reconstructions with imaging 3D remote sensing CME reconstructions. Other effects such as axial curvature and/or expansion could be incorporated in the future to fully understand the magnetic structure.

  6. Calibration of aerodynamic roughness over the Tibetan Plateau with Ensemble Kalman Filter analysed heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic roughness height (Zom is a key parameter required in several land surface hydrological models, since errors in heat flux estimation are largely dependent on optimization of this input. Despite its significance, it remains an uncertain parameter which is not readily determined. This is mostly because of non-linear relationship in Monin-Obukhov similarity (MOS equations and uncertainty of vertical characteristic of vegetation in a large scale. Previous studies often determined aerodynamic roughness using a minimization of cost function over MOS relationship or linear regression over it, traditional wind profile method, or remotely sensed vegetation index. However, these are complicated procedures that require a high accuracy for several other related parameters embedded in serveral equations including MOS. In order to simplify this procedure and reduce the number of parameters in need, this study suggests a new approach to extract aerodynamic roughness parameter from single or two heat flux measurements analyzed via Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF that affords non-linearity. So far, to our knowledge, no previous study has applied EnKF to aerodynamic roughness estimation, while the majority of data assimilation study have paid attention to updates of other land surface state variables such as soil moisture or land surface temperature. The approach of this study was applied to grassland in semi-arid Tibetan Plateau and maize on moderately wet condition in Italy. It was demonstrated that aerodynamic roughness parameter can be inversely tracked from heat flux EnKF final analysis. The aerodynamic roughness height estimated in this approach was consistent with eddy covariance method and literature value. Through a calibration of this parameter, this adjusted the sensible heat previously overestimated and latent heat flux previously underestimated by the original Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS model. It was considered that

  7. Progress of High Heat Flux Component Manufacture and Heat Load Experiments in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Lian, Y.; Xu, Z.; Chen, J.; Chen, L.; Wang, Q.; Duan, X., E-mail: xliu@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengu (China); Luo, G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Yan, Q. [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: High heat flux components for first wall and divertor are the key subassembly of the present fusion experiment apparatus and fusion reactors in the future. It is requested the metallurgical bonding among the plasma facing materials (PFMs), heat sink and support materials. As to PFMs, ITER grade vacuum hot pressed beryllium CN-G01 was developed in China and has been accepted as the reference material of ITER first wall. Additionally pure tungsten and tungsten alloys, as well as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) W coating are being developed for the aims of ITER divertor application and the demand of domestic fusion devices, and significant progress has been achieved. For plasma facing components (PFCs), high heat flux components used for divertor chamber are being studied according to the development program of the fusion experiment reactor of China. Two reference joining techniques of W/Cu mockups for ITER divertor chamber are being developed, one is mono-block structure by pure copper casting of tungsten surface following by hot iso-static press (HIP), and another is flat structure by brazing. The critical acceptance criteria of high heat flux components are their high heat load performance. A 60 kW Electron-beam Material testing Scenario (EMS-60) has been constructed at Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP),which adopts an electron beam welding gun with maximum energy of 150 keV and 150 x 150 mm{sup 2} scanning area by maximum frame rate of 30 kHz. Furthermore, an Engineering Mockup testing Scenario (EMS-400) facility with 400 kW electron-beam melting gun is under construction and will be available by the end of this year. After that, China will have the comprehensive capability of high heat load evaluation from PFMs and small-scale mockups to engineering full scale PFCs. A brazed W/CuCrZr mockup with 25 x 25 x 40 mm{sup 3} in dimension was tested at EMS-60. The heating and cooling time are 10 seconds and 15 seconds, respectively. The experiment

  8. Evaluation of Heat Flux Measurement as a New Process Analytical Technology Monitoring Tool in Freeze Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Ilona; Pauli, Victoria; Friess, Wolfgang; Freitag, Angelika; Hawe, Andrea; Winter, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the suitability of heat flux measurement as a new technique for monitoring product temperature and critical end points during freeze drying. The heat flux sensor is tightly mounted on the shelf and measures non-invasively (no contact with the product) the heat transferred from shelf to vial. Heat flux data were compared to comparative pressure measurement, thermocouple readings, and Karl Fischer titration as current state of the art monitoring techniques. The whole freeze drying process including freezing (both by ramp freezing and controlled nucleation) and primary and secondary drying was considered. We found that direct measurement of the transferred heat enables more insights into thermodynamics of the freezing process. Furthermore, a vial heat transfer coefficient can be calculated from heat flux data, which ultimately provides a non-invasive method to monitor product temperature throughout primary drying. The end point of primary drying determined by heat flux measurements was in accordance with the one defined by thermocouples. During secondary drying, heat flux measurements could not indicate the progress of drying as monitoring the residual moisture content. In conclusion, heat flux measurements are a promising new non-invasive tool for lyophilization process monitoring and development using energy transfer as a control parameter. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of the Velocity Gradient in Laminar Convective Heat Transfer through a Tube with a Uniform Wall Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Bi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Xia

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy…

  10. The role of electron heat flux in guide-field magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Masha; Birn, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    A combination of analytical theory and particle-in-cell simulations are employed in order to investigate the electron dynamics near and at the site of guide field magnetic reconnection. A detailed analysis of the contributions to the reconnection electric field shows that both bulk inertia and pressure-based quasiviscous processes are important for the electrons. Analytic scaling demonstrates that conventional approximations for the electron pressure tensor behavior in the dissipation region fail, and that heat flux contributions need to be accounted for. Based on the evolution equation of the heat flux three tensor, which is derived in this paper, an approximate form of the relevant heat flux contributions to the pressure tensor is developed, which reproduces the numerical modeling result reasonably well. Based on this approximation, it is possible to develop a scaling of the electron current layer in the central dissipation region. It is shown that the pressure tensor contributions become important at the scale length defined by the electron Larmor radius in the guide magnetic field

  11. Determination of heat flows inside turbochargers by means of a one dimensional lumped model

    OpenAIRE

    Olmeda González, Pablo Cesar; Dolz Ruiz, Vicente; Arnau Martínez, Francisco José; Reyes Belmonte, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, a methodology to calculate the heat fluxes inside a turbocharger from diesel passenger car is presented. The heat transfer phenomenon is solved by using a one dimensional lumped model that takes into account both the heat fluxes between the different turbocharger elements, as well as the heat fluxes between the working fluids and the turbocharger elements. This heat transfer study is supported by the high temperature differences between the working fluids passing thr...

  12. Inferring near surface soil temperature time series from different land uses to quantify the variation of heat fluxes into a shallow aquifer in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfersberger, Hans; Rock, Gerhard; Draxler, Johannes C.

    2017-09-01

    Different land uses exert a strong spatially distributed and temporal varying signal of heat fluxes from the surface in or out of the ground. In this paper we show an approach to quantify the heat fluxes into a groundwater body differentiating between near surface soil temperatures under grass, forest, asphalt, agriculture and surface water bodies and heat fluxes from subsurface structures like heated basements or sewage pipes. Based on observed time series of near surface soil temperatures we establish individual parameters (e.g. shift, moving average) of a simple empirical function that relates air temperature to soil temperature. This procedure is useful since air temperature time series are readily available and the complex energy flux processes at the soil atmosphere interface do not need to be described in detail. To quantify the heat flux from heated subsurface structures that have lesser depths to the groundwater table the 1D heat conduction module SoilTemp is developed. Based on soil temperature time series observed at different depths in a research lysimeter heat conduction and heat storage capacity values are calibrated disregarding their dependence on the water content. With SoilTemp the strong interaction between time series of groundwater temperature and groundwater level, near surface soil temperatures and the basement temperatures in heated buildings could be evaluated showing the dynamic nature of thermal gradients. The heat fluxes from urban areas are calculated considering the land use patterns within a spatial unit by mixing the heat fluxes from basements with those under grass and asphalt. The heat fluxes from sewage pipes and of sewage leakage are shown to be negligible for evaluated pipe diameters and sewage discharges. The developed methodology will allow to parameterize the upper boundary of heat transport models and to differentiate between the heat fluxes from different surface usages and their dynamics into the subsurface.

  13. Aram Chaos and its constraints on the surface heat flux of Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, S.; Zegers, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The surface heat flux of a planet is an important parameter to characterize its internal activity and to determine its thermal evolution. Here we report on a new method to constrain the surface heat flux of Mars during the Hesperian. For this, we explore the consequences for the martian surface

  14. Geothermal Heat Flux Underneath Ice Sheets Estimated From Magnetic Satellite Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox Maule, Cathrine; Purucker, M.E.; Olsen, Nils

    The geothermal heat flux is an important factor in the dynamics of ice sheets, and it is one of the important parameters in the thermal budgets of subglacial lakes. We have used satellite magnetic data to estimate the geothermal heat flux underneath the ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland...

  15. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were ... mate source of energy for all physical and bio- logical processes ... May) account for major thunderstorm activity in the state and winter ...

  16. Modeling radon flux from the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schery, S.D.; Wasiolek, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    We report development of a 222 Rn flux density model and its use to estimate the 222 Rn flux density over the earth's land surface. The resulting maps are generated on a grid spacing of 1 0 x 1 0 using as input global data for soil radium, soil moisture, and surface temperature. While only a first approximation, the maps suggest a significant regional variation (a factor of three is not uncommon) and a significant seasonal variation (a factor of two is not uncommon) in 222 Rn flux density over the earth's surface. The estimated average global flux density from ice-free land is 34 ± 9 mBq m -2 s -1 . (author)

  17. Correlation between abnormal deuterium flux and heat flow in a D/Pd system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingzhong; Liu Bin; Tian Jian; Wei Qingming; Zhou Rui; Yu Zhiwu

    2003-01-01

    Deuterium flux through the thin wall of a palladium tube has been studied by monitoring gas pressure and temperature. A high-precision calorimeter (Calvet) was used to detect heat flow when the heater was shut down and the palladium tube was cooling down slowly. At certain temperatures an abnormal deuterium flux appeared. This deuterium flux reached a peak when the temperature of the palladium was decreasing. This abnormal deuterium flux differs from the monotonic feature of a normal diffusive flux and is accompanied by a heat flow

  18. A study on critical heat flux in gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae Joon; Jeong, Ji Whan; Cho, Young Ro; Chang, Young Cho; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jong Whan; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-04-01

    The scope and content of this study is to perform the test on critical heat flux in hemispherical narrow gaps using distilled water and Freon R-113 as experimental parameters, such as system pressure from 1 to 10 atm and gap thickness of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mm. The CHFG test results have shown that the measured values of critical power are much lower than the predictions made by empirical CHF correlations applicable to flat plate gaps and annuli. The pressure effect on the critical power was found to be much milder than predictions by those CHF correlations. The values and the pressure trend of the critical powers measured in the present experiments are close to the values converted from the CCFL data. This confirms the claim that a CCFL brings about local dryout and finally, global dryout in hemispherical narrow gaps. Increases in the gap thickness lead to increase in critical power. The measured critical power using R-113 in hemispherical narrow gaps are 60 % lower than that using water due to the lower boiling point, which is different from the pool boiling condition. The CCFL (counter counter flow limit) test facility was constructed and the test is being performed to estimate the CCFL phenomena and to evaluate the CHFG test results on critical power in hemispherical narrow gaps. (Author). 35 refs., 2 tabs., 19 figs

  19. A study on critical heat flux in gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Joon; Jeong, Ji Whan; Cho, Young Ro; Chang, Young Cho; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jong Whan; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-04-01

    The scope and content of this study is to perform the test on critical heat flux in hemispherical narrow gaps using distilled water and Freon R-113 as experimental parameters, such as system pressure from 1 to 10 atm and gap thickness of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mm. The CHFG test results have shown that the measured values of critical power are much lower than the predictions made by empirical CHF correlations applicable to flat plate gaps and annuli. The pressure effect on the critical power was found to be much milder than predictions by those CHF correlations. The values and the pressure trend of the critical powers measured in the present experiments are close to the values converted from the CCFL data. This confirms the claim that a CCFL brings about local dryout and finally, global dryout in hemispherical narrow gaps. Increases in the gap thickness lead to increase in critical power. The measured critical power using R-113 in hemispherical narrow gaps are 60 % lower than that using water due to the lower boiling point, which is different from the pool boiling condition. The CCFL (counter counter flow limit) test facility was constructed and the test is being performed to estimate the CCFL phenomena and to evaluate the CHFG test results on critical power in hemispherical narrow gaps. (Author). 35 refs., 2 tabs., 19 figs.

  20. The potential influence of multiple scattering on longwave flux and heating rate simulations with clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C. P.; Yang, P.; Huang, X.; Feldman, D.; Flanner, M.; Kuo, C.; Mlawer, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds, which cover approximately 67% of the globe, serve as one of the major modulators in adjusting radiative energy on the Earth. Since rigorous radiative transfer computations including multiple scattering are costly, only absorption is considered in the longwave spectral bands in the radiation sub-models of the general circulation models (GCMs). Quantification of the effect of ignoring longwave scattering for flux and heating rate simulations is performed by using the GCM version of the Longwave Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG_LW) with an implementation with the 16-stream Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer (DISORT) Program for a Multi-Layered Plane-Parallel Medium in conjunction with the 2010 CCCM products that merge satellite observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), the CloudSat, the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). One-year global simulations show that neglecting longwave scattering overestimates upward flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and underestimates downward flux at the surface by approximately 2.63 and 1.15 W/m2, respectively. Furthermore, when longwave scattering is included in the simulations, the tropopause is cooled by approximately 0.018 K/day and the surface is heated by approximately 0.028 K/day. As a result, the radiative effects of ignoring longwave scattering and doubling CO2 are comparable in magnitude.

  1. Chesapeake Bay Sediment Flux Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    1988; Van der Molen , -88- 1991; Yoshida, 1981.) The model developed below is based on both of these approaches. It incorporates the diagenetic...288: pp. 289-333. Van der Molen , D.T. (1991): A simple, dynamic model for the simulation of the release of phosphorus from sediments in shallow...1974; Berner, 1980; van Cappellen and Berner, 1988). These relate the diagenetic production of phosphate to the resulting pore water concentration

  2. Heat flux variations over sea ice observed at the coastal area of the Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Jong; Choi, Tae-Jin; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2013-08-01

    This study presents variations of sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over sea ice observed in 2011 from the 10-m flux tower located at the coast of the Sejong Station on King George Island, Antarctica. A period from July to September was selected as a sea ice period based on daily record of sea state and hourly photos looking at the Marian Cove in front of the Sejong Station. For the sea ice period, mean sensible heat flux is about -11 Wm-2, latent heat flux is about +2 W m-2, net radiation is -12 W m-2, and residual energy is -3 W m-2 with clear diurnal variations. Estimated mean values of surface exchange coefficients for momentum, heat and moisture are 5.15 × 10-3, 1.19 × 10-3, and 1.87 × 10-3, respectively. The observed exchange coefficients of heat shows clear diurnal variations while those of momentum and moisture do not show diurnal variation. The parameterized exchange coefficients of heat and moisture produces heat fluxes which compare well with the observed diurnal variations of heat fluxes.

  3. Transient local heat fluxes during the entire vapor bubble life time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, P.; Fuchs, T; Wagner, E.; Schweizer, N. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Technical Thermodynamics], e-mail: pstephan@ttd.tu-darmstadt.de

    2009-07-01

    Recent experimental and numerical investigations of the nucleate boiling heat transfer process at a single active nucleation site are presented and used for an evaluation of the local heat fluxes during the entire life time of a vapor bubble from its nucleation to the rise through the thermal boundary layer. In a special boiling cell, vapor bubbles are generated at a single nucleation site on a 20 {mu}m thin stainless steel heating foil. An infrared camera captures the temperature distribution at the wall with high temporal and spatial resolution. The bubble shape is recorded with a high-speed camera. Measurements were conducted with the pure fluids FC-84 and FC-3284 and with its binary mixtures. For pure fluids, up to 50-60% of the latent heat flows through the three-phase-contact line region. For mixtures, this ratio is clearly reduced. These observations are in agreement with the numerical model of the author's group. The fully transient model contains a multi scale approach ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale for the detailed description of the relevant local and global phenomena. It describes the transient heat and fluid flow during the entire periodic cycle of a growing, detaching and rising bubble including the waiting time between two successive bubbles from a single nucleation site. The detailed analysis of the computed transient temperature profiles in wall and fluid give accurate information about the heat supply, temporal energy storage and local evaporation rates. (author)

  4. Transient local heat fluxes during the entire vapor bubble life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, P.; Fuchs, T; Wagner, E.; Schweizer, N.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experimental and numerical investigations of the nucleate boiling heat transfer process at a single active nucleation site are presented and used for an evaluation of the local heat fluxes during the entire life time of a vapor bubble from its nucleation to the rise through the thermal boundary layer. In a special boiling cell, vapor bubbles are generated at a single nucleation site on a 20 μm thin stainless steel heating foil. An infrared camera captures the temperature distribution at the wall with high temporal and spatial resolution. The bubble shape is recorded with a high-speed camera. Measurements were conducted with the pure fluids FC-84 and FC-3284 and with its binary mixtures. For pure fluids, up to 50-60% of the latent heat flows through the three-phase-contact line region. For mixtures, this ratio is clearly reduced. These observations are in agreement with the numerical model of the author's group. The fully transient model contains a multi scale approach ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale for the detailed description of the relevant local and global phenomena. It describes the transient heat and fluid flow during the entire periodic cycle of a growing, detaching and rising bubble including the waiting time between two successive bubbles from a single nucleation site. The detailed analysis of the computed transient temperature profiles in wall and fluid give accurate information about the heat supply, temporal energy storage and local evaporation rates. (author)

  5. Convective heat transfer for a gaseous slip flow in micropipe and parallel-plate microchannel with uniform wall heat flux: effect of axial heat conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddout, Y.; Essaghir, E.; Oubarra, A.; Lahjomri, J.

    2018-06-01

    Thermally developing laminar slip flow through a micropipe and a parallel plate microchannel, with axial heat conduction and uniform wall heat flux, is studied analytically by using a powerful method of self-adjoint formalism. This method results from a decomposition of the elliptic energy equation into a system of two first-order partial differential equations. The advantage of this method over other methods, resides in the fact that the decomposition procedure leads to a selfadjoint problem although the initial problem is apparently not a self-adjoint one. The solution is an extension of prior studies and considers a first order slip model boundary conditions at the fluid-wall interface. The analytical expressions for the developing temperature and local Nusselt number in the thermal entrance region are obtained in the general case. Therefore, the solution obtained could be extended easily to any hydrodynamically developed flow and arbitrary heat flux distribution. The analytical results obtained are compared for select simplified cases with available numerical calculations and they both agree. The results show that the heat transfer characteristics of flow in the thermal entrance region are strongly influenced by the axial heat conduction and rarefaction effects which are respectively characterized by Péclet and Knudsen numbers.

  6. Nonlinear radiative heat flux and heat source/sink on entropy generation minimization rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Khan, M. Waleed Ahmed; Khan, M. Ijaz; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-06-01

    Entropy generation minimization in nonlinear radiative mixed convective flow towards a variable thicked surface is addressed. Entropy generation for momentum and temperature is carried out. The source for this flow analysis is stretching velocity of sheet. Transformations are used to reduce system of partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Total entropy generation rate is determined. Series solutions for the zeroth and mth order deformation systems are computed. Domain of convergence for obtained solutions is identified. Velocity, temperature and concentration fields are plotted and interpreted. Entropy equation is studied through nonlinear mixed convection and radiative heat flux. Velocity and temperature gradients are discussed through graphs. Meaningful results are concluded in the final remarks.

  7. Type I ELM filament heat fluxes on the KSTAR main chamber wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-K. Bae

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat loads deposited on the first wall by mitigated Type I ELMs are expected to be the dominant contributor to the total thermal plasma wall load of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER, particularly in the upper main chamber regions during the baseline H-mode magnetic equilibrium, due to the fast radial convective heat propagation of ELM filaments before complete loss to the divertor. Specific Type I ELMing H-mode discharges have been performed with a lower single null magnetic geometry, where the outboard separatrix position is slowly (∼7s scanned over a radial distance of 7cm, reducing the wall probe–separatrix distance to a minimum of ∼9cm, and allowing the ELM filament heat loss to the wall to be analyzed as a function of radial propagation distance. A fast reciprocating probe (FRP head is separately held at fixed position toroidally close and 4.7cm radially in front of the wall probe. This FRP monitors the ELM ion fluxes, allowing an average filament radial propagation speed, found to be independent of ELM energy, of 80–100ms−1 to be extracted. Radial dependence of the peak filament wall parallel heat flux is observed to be exponential, with the decay length of λq, ELM ∼25 ± 4mm and with the heat flux of q∥, ELM= 0.05MWm−2 at the wall, corresponding to q∥ ∼ 7.5MWm−2 at the second separatrix. Along with the measured radial propagation speed and the calculated radial profile of the magnetic connection lengths across the SOL, these data could be utilized to analyze filament energy loss model for the future machines.

  8. Thin film heat flux sensor for Space Shuttle Main Engine turbine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbine environment stresses engine components to their design limits and beyond. The extremely high temperatures and rapid temperature cycling can easily cause parts to fail if they are not properly designed. Thin film heat flux sensors can provide heat loading information with almost no disturbance of gas flows or of the blade. These sensors can provide steady state and transient heat flux information. A thin film heat flux sensor is described which makes it easier to measure small temperature differences across very thin insulating layers.

  9. Third law of thermodynamics in the presence of a heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, J.

    1995-01-01

    Following a maximum entropy formalism, we study a one-dimensional crystal under a heat flux. We obtain the phonon distribution function and evaluate the nonequilibrium temperature, the specific heat, and the entropy as functions of the internal energy and the heat flux, in both the quantum and the classical limits. Some analogies between the behavior of equilibrium systems at low absolute temperature and nonequilibrium steady states under high values of the heat flux are shown, which point to a possible generalization of the third law in nonequilibrium situations

  10. On Cattaneo–Christov heat flux in MHD flow of Oldroyd-B fluid with homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Almezal, Saleh

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid over a stretching surface with homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions. Characteristics of relaxation time for heat flux are captured by employing new heat flux model proposed by Christov. A system of ordinary differential equations is obtained by using suitable transformations. Convergent series solutions are derived. Impacts of various pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration are discussed. Analysis of the obtained results shows that fluid relaxation and retardation time constants have reverse behavior on the velocity and concentration fields. Also temperature distribution decreases for larger values of thermal relaxation time. - Highlights: • Cattaneo–Christov heat flux model is used to study the MHD flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid. • Velocity is decreasing function of Hartman number. • Increasing values of the strengths of homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction parameters decrease the wall concentration.

  11. Critical heat flux in vertical flows at low pressures; Flux de chaleur critique en ecoulements verticaux aux pressions faibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olekhnowitch, A [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents some critical heat flux (CHF) data obtained for vertical upflow of water in an 8 mm test section, for exit pressures ranging from 5 to 30 bar. The experiments were carried out for heated lengths of 0.75, 1, 1.4 and 1.8 m. In general, the collected data show trends similar to those described in the open literature. However, it was observed that for low pressures CHF depends on the heated length; this dependence begins to disappear for exit pressure of about 30 bar. The data have been compared with a look-up table and predictions of well known correlations. For low pressures and low mass fluxes, the look-up table seems to give better predictions, but for medium pressures and mass fluxes, the correlations perform better. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  12. 2-D temperature distribution and heat flux of PFC in 2011 KSTAR campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Eunnam, E-mail: bang14@nfri.re.kr; Hong, Suk-Ho; Yu, Yaowei; Kim, Kyungmin; Kim, Hongtack; Kim, Hakkun; Lee, Kunsu; Yang, Hyunglyul

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The heat flux on PFC tiles of 12 s pulse duration and 630 kA plasma current is about 0.02 MW/m{sup 2}. • When the cryopump is operated, the heat flux of CD is higher than without cryopump. • The more H-mode duration is long, the more heat flux on divertor is high. -- Abstract: KSTAR has reached a plasma current up to 630 kA, plasma duration up to 12 s, and has achieved high confinement mode (H-mode) in 2011 campaign. The heat flux of PFC tile was estimated from the temperature increase of PFC since 2010. The heat flux of PFC tiles increases significantly with higher plasma current and longer pulse duration. The time-averaged heat flux of shots in 2010 campaign (with 3 s pulse durations and I{sub p} of 611 kA) is 0.01 MW/m{sup 2} while that in 2011 campaign (with 12 s pulse duration and I{sub p} of 630 kA) is about 0.02 MW/m{sup 2}. The heat flux at divertor is 1.4–2 times higher than that at inboard limiter or passive stabilizer. With the cryopump operation, the heat flux at the central divertor is higher than that without cryopump. The heat flux at divertor is proportional to, of course, the duration of H-mode. Furthermore, a software tool, which visualizes the 2D temperature distribution of PFC tile and estimates the heat flux in real time, is developed.

  13. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF UNSTEADY HEAT TRANSFER OF PASSENGER CAR WITH HEATING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Biloshytskyi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. The existing mathematical models of unsteady heat processes in a passenger car do not fully reflect the thermal processes, occurring in the car wits a heating system. In addition, unsteady heat processes are often studied in steady regime, when the heat fluxes and the parameters of the thermal circuit are constant and do not depend on time. In connection with the emergence of more effective technical solutions to the life support system there is a need for creating a new mathematical...

  14. Boundary layer heights and surface fluxes of momentum and heat derived from ECMWF data for use in pollutant dispersion models - problems with data accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wotawa, G. [Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Inst. of Meteorology and Physics, Vienna (Austria); Stohl, A. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen, Munich (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    Certain boundary layer parameters, especially boundary layer heights, are very important for pollutant dispersion modelling. On the regional scale (>- 100 km), data of the numerical weather prediction model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts are often used for that purpose. Based on ECMWF data, the meteorological preprocessor FLEXTRA for Lagrangian air quality simulation models and the Lagrangian particle diffusion model FLEXPART have been developed. Using analyses and short term forecasts, a temporal resolution of three hours can be achieved. Some alternative methods to obtain boundary layer parameters can be applied, producing different results which affect all subsequent calculations, for instance the calculation of boundary layer trajectories and the dispersion of air pollutants. (au)

  15. Role of Turbulent Prandtl Number on Heat Flux at Hypersonic Mach Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Edwards, J. R.; Hassan, H. A.

    2004-01-01

    Present simulation of turbulent flows involving shock wave/boundary layer interaction invariably overestimates heat flux by almost a factor of two. One possible reason for such a performance is a result of the fact that the turbulence models employed make use of Morkovin's hypothesis. This hypothesis is valid for non-hypersonic Mach numbers and moderate rates of heat transfer. At hypersonic Mach numbers, high rates of heat transfer exist in regions where shock wave/boundary layer interactions are important. As a result, one should not expect traditional turbulence models to yield accurate results. The goal of this investigation is to explore the role of a variable Prandtl number formulation in predicting heat flux in flows dominated by strong shock wave/boundary layer interactions. The intended applications involve external flows in the absence of combustion such as those encountered in supersonic inlets. This can be achieved by adding equations for the temperature variance and its dissipation rate. Such equations can be derived from the exact Navier-Stokes equations. Traditionally, modeled equations are based on the low speed energy equation where the pressure gradient term and the term responsible for energy dissipation are ignored. It is clear that such assumptions are not valid for hypersonic flows. The approach used here is based on the procedure used in deriving the k-zeta model, in which the exact equations that governed k, the variance of velocity, and zeta, the variance of vorticity, were derived and modeled. For the variable turbulent Prandtl number, the exact equations that govern the temperature variance and its dissipation rate are derived and modeled term by term. The resulting set of equations are free of damping and wall functions and are coordinate-system independent. Moreover, modeled correlations are tensorially consistent and invariant under Galilean transformation. The final set of equations will be given in the paper.

  16. Phase Change Materials-Assisted Heat Flux Reduction: Experiment and Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein J. Akeiber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCM in the construction industry became attractive because of several interesting attributes, such as thermo-physical parameters, open air atmospheric condition usage, cost and the duty structure requirement. Thermal performance optimization of PCMs in terms of proficient storage of a large amount of heat or cold in a finite volume remains a challenging task. Implementation of PCMs in buildings to achieve thermal comfort for a specific climatic condition in Iraq is our main focus. From this standpoint, the present paper reports the experimental and numerical results on the lowering of heat flux inside a residential building using PCM, which is composed of oil (40% and wax (60%. This PCM (paraffin, being plentiful and cost-effective, is extracted locally from waste petroleum products in Iraq. Experiments are performed with two rooms of identical internal dimensions in the presence and absence of PCM. A two-dimensional numerical transient heat transfer model is developed and solved using the finite difference method. A relatively simple geometry is chosen to initially verify the numerical solution procedure by incorporating in the computer program two-dimensional elliptic flows. It is demonstrated that the heat flux inside the room containing PCM is remarkably lower than the one devoid of PCM.

  17. Review of issues relating to enhancement of critical heat flux in nuclear reactors - 15220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.M.K.; Chowdhury, M.A.Z.; Sarkar, M.A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is manifested by sharp reduction in heat transfer coefficient and a drastic rise in fuel rod surface temperature, which may lead to failure of the fuel cladding and is of immense importance in reactor design and operation. In this paper, the existing literature on CHF is studied and analyzed. Different modeling techniques such as geometry modeling and fluid modeling are highlighted. CHF enhancement techniques such as swirl flow, porous coating, nano-fluids or mechanical vibrations are analyzed and their suitability for different applications is discussed. The advances in prediction methods for tubes and rod bundles are also presented. CHF correlations and their applications have been compiled to estimate the CHF for fluids other than water or other geometries. Finally, future research needs are identified and presented. (authors)

  18. Seasonal effects of irrigation on land-atmosphere latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon fluxes in semiarid basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yujin; Xie, Zhenghui; Liu, Shuang

    2017-02-01

    Irrigation, which constitutes ˜ 70 % of the total amount of freshwater consumed by the human population, is significantly impacting land-atmosphere fluxes. In this study, using the improved Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) with an active crop model, two high-resolution (˜ 1 km) simulations investigating the effects of irrigation on latent heat (LH), sensible heat (SH), and carbon fluxes (or net ecosystem exchange, NEE) from land to atmosphere in the Heihe River basin in northwestern China were conducted using a high-quality irrigation dataset compiled from 1981 to 2013. The model output and measurements from remote sensing demonstrated the capacity of the developed models to reproduce ecological and hydrological processes. The results revealed that the effects of irrigation on LH and SH are strongest during summer, with a LH increase of ˜ 100 W m-2 and a SH decrease of ˜ 60 W m-2 over intensely irrigated areas. However, the reactions are much weaker during spring and autumn when there is much less irrigation. When the irrigation rate is below 5 mm day-1, the LH generally increases, whereas the SH decreases with growing irrigation rates. However, when the irrigation threshold is in excess of 5 mm day-1, there is no accrued effect of irrigation on the LH and SH. Irrigation produces opposite effects to the NEE during spring and summer. During the spring, irrigation yields more discharged carbon from the land to the atmosphere, increasing the NEE value by 0.4-0.8 gC m-2 day-1, while the summer irrigation favors crop fixing of carbon from atmospheric CO2, decreasing the NEE value by ˜ 0.8 gC m-2 day-1. The repercussions of irrigation on land-atmosphere fluxes are not solely linked to the irrigation amount, and other parameters (especially the temperature) also control the effects of irrigation on LH, SH, and NEE.

  19. The role of the velocity gradient in laminar convective heat transfer through a tube with a uniform wall heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liangbi; Zhang Qiang; Li Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy conservation equation of convective heat transfer is used to explain convective heat transfer there are two points that are difficult for teachers to explain and for undergraduates to understand: thermal diffusivity is placed before the Laplacian operator of temperature; on the wall surface (the fluid side) the velocity is zero, a diffusion equation of temperature is gained from energy conservation equation, however, temperature cannot be transported. Consequently, the real physical meaning of thermal diffusivity is not clearly reflected in the energy conservation equation, and whether heat transfer occurs through a diffusion process or a convection process on the wall surface is not clear. Through a simple convective heat transfer case: laminar convective heat transfer in a tube with a uniform wall heat flux on the tube wall, this paper explains these points more clearly. The results declare that it is easier for teachers to explain and for undergraduates to understand these points when a description of heat transfer in terms of the heat flux is used. In this description, thermal diffusivity is placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux; the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer appears, on the wall surface, the fact whether heat transfer occurs through a diffusion process or a convection process can be explained and understood easily. The results are not only essential for teachers to improve the efficiency of university-level physics education regarding heat transfer, but they also enrich the theories for understanding heat transfer

  20. The Effect of the Heat Flux on the Self-Ignition of Oriented Strand Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirle Siegfried

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the initiation phase of flaming and smouldering burning of oriented strand board. The influence of heat flux on thermal degradation of OSB boards, time to ignition, heat release rate and mass loss rate using thermal analysis and vertical electrical radiation panel methods were studied. Significant information on the influence of the heat flux density and the thickness of the material on time to ignition was obtained.

  1. Fabrication of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane for High Heat Flux Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    As electronics become more powerful and have higher energy densities, it is becoming more and more necessary to find solutions to dissipate these high heat fluxes. One solution to this problem is nanopore evaporative cooling. Based on current literature, the experimental data is far below what is expected from the theoretical calculations.In this thesis, the experimental results produced heat fluxes much closer to the theoretical values. Experimentally, a maximum heat dissipation of 103 W was...

  2. COMPARISON OF COOLING SCHEMES FOR HIGH HEAT FLUX COMPONENTS COOLING IN FUSION REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar Domalapally

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Some components of the fusion reactor receives high heat fluxes either during the startup and shutdown or during the operation of the machine. This paper analyzes different ways of enhancing heat transfer using helium and water for cooling of these high heat flux components and then conclusions are drawn to decide the best choice of coolant, for usage in near and long term applications.

  3. The Effect of the Heat Flux on the Self-Ignition of Oriented Strand Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirle, Siegfried; Balog, Karol

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the initiation phase of flaming and smouldering burning of oriented strand board. The influence of heat flux on thermal degradation of OSB boards, time to ignition, heat release rate and mass loss rate using thermal analysis and vertical electrical radiation panel methods were studied. Significant information on the influence of the heat flux density and the thickness of the material on time to ignition was obtained.

  4. Geothermal Heat Flux: Linking Deep Earth's Interior and the Dynamics of Large-Scale Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozhina, Irina; Vaughan, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Regions covered by continental-scale ice sheets have the highest degree of uncertainty in composition and structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle, compounded by the poorest coverage on Earth of direct heat flow measurements. In addition to challenging conditions that make direct measurements and geological survey difficult Greenland and Antarctica are known to be geologically complex. Antarctica in particular is marked by two lithospherically distinct zones. In contrast to young and thin lithosphere of West Antarctica, East Antarctica is a collage of thick Precambrian fragments of Gondwana and earlier supercontinents. However, recent observations and modeling studies have detected large systems of subglacial lakes extending beneath much of the East Antarctic ice sheet base that have been linked to anomalously elevated heat flow. Outcrop samples from the rift margin with Australia (Prydz Bay) have revealed highly radiogenic Cambrian granite intrusives that are implicated in regional increase of crustal heat flux by a factor of two to three compared to the estimated continental background. Taken together, these indicate high variability of heat flow and properties of rocks across Antarctica. Similar conclusions have been made based on direct measurements and observations of the Greenland ice sheet. Airborne ice-penetrating radar and deep ice core projects show very high rates of basal melt for parts of the ice sheet in northern and central Greenland that have been explained by abnormally high heat flux. Archaean in age, the Greenland lithosphere was significantly reworked during the Early Proterozoic. In this region, the interpretation of independent geophysical data is complicated by Proterozoic and Phanerozoic collision zones, compounded by strong thermochemical effects of rifting along the western and eastern continental margins between 80 and 25 million years ago. In addition, high variability of heat flow and thermal lithosphere structure in central

  5. Heat transfer in flow past a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate in transverse magnetic field with heat flux

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.

    Thermal boundary layer on a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate in the presence of transverse magnetic field with heat flux has been examined. Similarity solutions have been derived and the resulting equations are integrated numerically...

  6. Critical heat flux and post-critical heat flux performance of a 6-m, 37-element fully segmented bundle cooled by Freon-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, J.R.

    1982-05-01

    A 6-m, 37-element, electrically heated bundle with full end plate simulation, cooled by Freon-12, has been tested for CHF (critical heat flux) and post-CHF conditions in the MR-3 Freon loop. The bundle was tested in a horizontal attitude and had a uniform axial heat flux distribution and radial heat flux depression. A total of 110 CHF points have been collected over the following range of water equivalent conditions: exit pressure 8.27 - 11.03 MPa, mass flux 1.38 - 8.14 Mg.m -2 .s -1 , inlet subcooling 0 - 500 kJ.kg -1 , outlet quality 10% - 37%. The data have been correlated on both a systems and local conditions basis over a limited mass flux range to within 2.8% rms. Significant CHF increases over smooth bundle results have been observed along with significant CHF improvement over a two end plate bundle simulation in the lower mass flux ranges. A satisfactory axial drypatch spreading correlation has been determined and extensive drypatch wall superheat mapping has been performed

  7. Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface Temperature in an Inland Irrigation Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, we compare simulations among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON, the irrigation scenario (IRR, and the irrigated cropland expansion scenario (ICE. Our results show that the surface energy budgets and temperature are sensitive to changes in the extent and spatial pattern of irrigated land. Conversion to irrigated agriculture at the contemporary scale leads to an increase in annual mean latent heat fluxes of 12.10 W m−2, a decrease in annual mean sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean temperature of 1.3 °C across the study region. Further expansion of irrigated land increases annual mean latent heat fluxes by 18.08 W m−2, decreases annual mean sensible heat fluxes by 12.31 W m−2, and decreases annual mean temperature by 1.7 °C. Our simulated effects of irrigation show that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an important component of climate change and need to be considered together with greenhouse forcing in climate change assessments.

  8. Simultaneously estimation for surface heat fluxes of steel slab in a reheating furnace based on DMC predictive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanhao; Wang, Guangjun; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The predictive control theory is utilized for the research of a simultaneous estimation of heat fluxes through the upper, side and lower surface of a steel slab in a walking beam type rolling steel reheating furnace. An inverse algorithm based on dynamic matrix control (DMC) is established. That is, each surface heat flux of a slab is simultaneously estimated through rolling optimization on the basis of temperature measurements in selected points of its interior by utilizing step response function as predictive model of a slab's temperature. The reliability of the DMC results is enhanced without prior assuming specific functions of heat fluxes over a period of future time. The inverse algorithm proposed a respective regularization to effectively improve the stability of the estimated results by considering obvious strength differences between the upper as well as lower and side surface heat fluxes of the slab. - Highlights: • The predictive control theory is adopted. • An inversion scheme based on DMC is established. • Upper, side and lower surface heat fluxes of slab are estimated based DMC. • A respective regularization is proposed to improve the stability of results

  9. The flow distribution in the parallel tubes of the cavity receiver under variable heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yun; Wang, Yueshe; Hu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An experimental loop is built to find the flow distribution in the parallel tubes. • With the concentration of heat flux, two-phase flow makes distribution more uneven. • The total flow rate is chosen appropriately for a wider heat flux distribution. • A suitable system pressure is essential for the optimization of flow distribution. - Abstract: As an optical component of tower solar thermal power station, the heliostat mirror reflects sunlight to one point of the heated surface in the solar cavity receiver, called as one-point focusing system. The radiation heat flux concentrated in the cavity receiver is always non-uniform temporally and spatially, which may lead to extremely local over-heat on the receiver evaporation panels. In this paper, an electrical heated evaporating experimental loop, including five parallel vertical tubes, is set up to evaluate the hydrodynamic characteristics of evaporation panels in a solar cavity receiver under various non-uniform heat flux. The influence of the heat flux concentration ratio, total flow rate, and system pressure on the flow distribution of parallel tubes is discussed. It is found that the flow distribution becomes significantly worse with the increase of heat flux and concentration ratio; and as the system pressure decreased, the flow distribution is improved. It is extremely important to obtain these interesting findings for the safe and stable operation of solar cavity receiver, and can also provide valuable references for the design and optimization of operating parameters solar tower power station system.

  10. Liquid jet impingement cooling with diamond substrates for extremely high heat flux applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienhard V, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The combination of impinging jets and diamond substrates may provide an effective solution to a class of extremely high heat flux problems in which very localized heat loads must be removed. Some potential applications include the cooling of high-heat-load components in synchrotron x-ray, fusion, and semiconductor laser systems. Impinging liquid jets are a very effective vehicle for removing high heat fluxes. The liquid supply arrangement is relatively simple, and low thermal resistances can be routinely achieved. A jet's cooling ability is a strong function of the size of the cooled area relative to the jet diameter. For relatively large area targets, the critical heat fluxes can approach 20 W/mm 2 . In this situation, burnout usually originates at the outer edge of the cooled region as increasing heat flux inhibits the liquid supply. Limitations from liquid supply are minimized when heating is restricted to the jet stagnation zone. The high stagnation pressure and high velocity gradients appear to suppress critical flux phenomena, and fluxes of up to 400 W/mm 2 have been reached without evidence of burnout. Instead, the restrictions on heat flux are closely related to properties of the cooled target. Target properties become an issue owing to the large temperatures and large temperature gradients that accompany heat fluxes over 100 W/mm 2 . These conditions necessitate a target with both high thermal conductivity to prevent excessive temperatures and good mechanical properties to prevent mechanical failures. Recent developments in synthetic diamond technology present a possible solution to some of the solid-side constraints on heat flux. Polycrystalline diamond foils can now be produced by chemical vapor deposition in reasonable quantity and at reasonable cost. Synthetic single crystal diamonds as large as 1 cm 2 are also available

  11. Unsteady Heat-Flux Measurements of Second-Mode Instability Waves in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergerise, Michael A.; Rufer, Shann J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report on the application of the atomic layer thermopile (ALTP) heat- flux sensor to the measurement of laminar-to-turbulent transition in a hypersonic flat plate boundary layer. The centerline of the flat-plate model was instrumented with a streamwise array of ALTP sensors and the flat-plate model was exposed to a Mach 6 freestream over a range of unit Reynolds numbers. Here, we observed an unstable band of frequencies that are associated with second-mode instability waves in the laminar boundary layer that forms on the flat-plate surface. The measured frequencies, group velocities, phase speeds, and wavelengths of these instability waves are in agreement with data previously reported in the literature. Heat flux time series, and the Morlet-wavelet transforms of them, revealed the wave-packet nature of the second-mode instability waves. In addition, a laser-based radiative heating system was developed to measure the frequency response functions (FRF) of the ALTP sensors used in the wind tunnel test. These measurements were used to assess the stability of the sensor FRFs over time and to correct spectral estimates for any attenuation caused by the finite sensor bandwidth.

  12. Evaporation at microscopic scale and at high heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecek, V.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis theoretically investigates the transport processes in the vicinity of the triple gas-liquid-solid contact line and its impact on macroscopic evaporation. In the first part of the thesis, the hydrodynamics close to the contact line at partial wetting is studied. Specifically, evaporation into the atmosphere of pure vapor driven by heating of the substrate is considered. The question of singularity relaxation is addressed. The main finding of the thesis is that the Kelvin effect (dependence of saturation temperature on pressure) is sufficient by itself to relax the hydrodynamic contact line singularity. The proposed microregion (the contact line vicinity) model for small interface slopes is solved numerically. Asymptotic solutions are found for some specific cases. The governing length scales of the problem are identified and the multi-scale nature of the phenomenon is addressed. Parametric studies revealing the role of the thermal resistance of vapor-liquid interface, slip length, thermo-capillary term, the vapor recoil and surface forces are also performed. An extension of the lubrication approximation for high slopes of the gas-liquid interface at evaporation is discussed. In the second part of the thesis, the previously established microregion model is coupled to a simplified single vapor bubble growth numerical simulation. The bubble departure from the heater at boiling is also studied. It was proposed in the thesis, that under high heat loads, the increase of the apparent contact angle causes the vapor bubble to spread over the heated substrate. Such a behavior may cause the heater dry-out that occurs during the boiling crisis. (author) [fr

  13. Modelling radiocesium fluxes in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, G.; Kliashtorin, A.; Mamikhin, S.; Shcheglov, A.; Rafferty, B.; Dvornik, A.; Zhuchenko, T.; Kuchma, N.

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring of radiocesium inventories and fluxes has been carried out in forest ecosystems in Ukraine, Belarus and Ireland to determine distributions and rates of migration. This information has been used to construct and calibrate mathematical models which are being used to predict the likely longevity of contamination of forests and forest products such as timber following the Chernobyl accident

  14. Models of Flux Tubes from Constrained Relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2000) 21, 299 302. Models of Flux Tubes from Constrained Relaxation. Α. Mangalam* & V. Krishan†, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala,. Bangalore 560 034, India. *e mail: mangalam @ iiap. ernet. in. † e mail: vinod@iiap.ernet.in. Abstract. We study the relaxation of a compressible plasma to ...

  15. The Response of the Ocean Thermal Skin Layer to Air-Sea Surface Heat Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elizabeth Wing-See

    There is much evidence that the ocean is heating as a result of an increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere from human activities. GHGs absorb infrared radiation and re-emit infrared radiation back to the ocean's surface which is subsequently absorbed. However, the incoming infrared radiation is absorbed within the top micrometers of the ocean's surface which is where the thermal skin layer exists. Thus the incident infrared radiation does not directly heat the upper few meters of the ocean. We are therefore motivated to investigate the physical mechanism between the absorption of infrared radiation and its effect on heat transfer at the air-sea boundary. The hypothesis is that since heat lost through the air-sea interface is controlled by the thermal skin layer, which is directly influenced by the absorption and emission of infrared radiation, the heat flow through the thermal skin layer adjusts to maintain the surface heat loss, assuming the surface heat loss does not vary, and thus modulates the upper ocean heat content. This hypothesis is investigated through utilizing clouds to represent an increase in incoming longwave radiation and analyzing retrieved thermal skin layer vertical temperature profiles from a shipboard infrared spectrometer from two research cruises. The data are limited to night-time, no precipitation and low winds of less than 2 m/s to remove effects of solar radiation, wind-driven shear and possibilities of thermal skin layer disruption. The results show independence of the turbulent fluxes and emitted radiation on the incident radiative fluxes which rules out the immediate release of heat from the absorption of the cloud infrared irradiance back into the atmosphere through processes such as evaporation and increase infrared emission. Furthermore, independence was confirmed between the incoming and outgoing radiative flux which implies the heat sink for upward flowing heat at the air-sea interface is more

  16. Design of an actively cooled plate calorimeter for the investigation of pool fire heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Nicolette, V.F.; Wix, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    In order to better measure local heat fluxes in open pool fires, an actively cooled calorimeter has been designed and analyzed. As this paper is being prepared, the calorimeter is in fabrication. Following fabrication, testing in a radiant heat facility is planned to assure proper performance before introduction into the pool fire environment. Initially, testing in the SMERF facility will assure reproducibility of tests by removing wind effects. As the program progresses, tests in open facilities, and with different geometries are anticipated. Experimental data from the initial tests will be compared continuously to the gray gas model, and as experiments proceed, the gray gas analytical model will be refined with the goal of improving finite element code analysis of shipping containers. (J.P.N.)

  17. The button effect of CANFLEX bundle on the critical heat flux and critical channel power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Jisu; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G. R.; Bullock, D. E.; Inch, W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A CANFLEX (CANdu FLEXible fuelling) 43-element bundle has developed for a CANDU-6 reactor as an alternative of 37-element fuel bundle. The design has two diameter elements (11.5 and 13.5 mm) to reduce maximum element power rating and buttons to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF), compared with the standard 37-element bundle. The freon CHF experiments have performed for two series of CANFLEX bundles with and without buttons with a modelling fluid as refrigerant R-134a and axial uniform heat flux condition. Evaluating the effects of buttons of CANFLEX bundle on CHF and Critical Channel Power (CCP) with the experimental results, it is shown that the buttons enhance CCP as well as CHF. All the CHF`s for both the CANFLEX bundles are occurred at the end of fuel channel with the high dryout quality conditions. The CHF enhancement ratio are increased with increase of dryout quality for all flow conditions and also with increase of mass flux only for high pressure conditions. It indicates that the button is a useful design for CANDU operating condition because most CHF flow conditions for CANDU fuel bundle are ranged to high dryout quality conditions. 5 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

  18. Roughness Length of Water Vapor over Land Surfaces and Its Influence on Latent Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Jong Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat flux at the surface is largely dependent on the roughness length for water vapor (z0q. The determination of z0q is still uncertain because of its multifaceted characteristics of surface properties, atmospheric conditions and insufficient observations. In this study, observed values from the Fluxes Over Snow Surface II field experiment (FLOSS-II from November 2002 to March 2003 were utilized to estimate z0q over various land surfaces: bare soil, snow, and senescent grass. The present results indicate that the estimated z0q over bare soil is much smaller than the roughness length of momentum (z0m; thus, the ratio z0m/z0q is larger than those of previous studies by a factor of 20 - 150 for the available flow regime of the roughness Reynolds number, Re* > 0.1. On the snow surface, the ratio is comparable to a previous estimation for the rough flow (Re* > 1, but smaller by a factor of 10 - 50 as the flow became smooth (Re* < 1. Using the estimated ratio, an optimal regression equation of z0m/z0q is determined as a function of Re* for each surface type. The present parameterization of the ratio is found to greatly reduce biases of latent heat flux estimation compared with that estimated by the conventional method, suggesting the usefulness of current parameterization for numerical modeling.

  19. The button effect of CANFLEX bundle on the critical heat flux and critical channel power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Jisu; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G R; Bullock, D E; Inch, W [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    A CANFLEX (CANdu FLEXible fuelling) 43-element bundle has developed for a CANDU-6 reactor as an alternative of 37-element fuel bundle. The design has two diameter elements (11.5 and 13.5 mm) to reduce maximum element power rating and buttons to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF), compared with the standard 37-element bundle. The freon CHF experiments have performed for two series of CANFLEX bundles with and without buttons with a modelling fluid as refrigerant R-134a and axial uniform heat flux condition. Evaluating the effects of buttons of CANFLEX bundle on CHF and Critical Channel Power (CCP) with the experimental results, it is shown that the buttons enhance CCP as well as CHF. All the CHF`s for both the CANFLEX bundles are occurred at the end of fuel channel with the high dryout quality conditions. The CHF enhancement ratio are increased with increase of dryout quality for all flow conditions and also with increase of mass flux only for high pressure conditions. It indicates that the button is a useful design for CANDU operating condition because most CHF flow conditions for CANDU fuel bundle are ranged to high dryout quality conditions. 5 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

  20. Critical heat flux for free convection boiling in thin rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Tichler, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A review of the experimental data on free convection boiling critical heat flux (CHF) in vertical rectangular channels reveals three mechanisms of burnout. They are the pool boiling limit, the circulation limit, and the flooding limit associated with a transition in flow regime from churn to annular flow. The dominance of a particular mechanism depends on the dimensions of the channel. Analytical models were developed for each free convection boiling limit. Limited agreement with data is observed. A CHF correlation, which is valid for a wide range of gap sizes, was constructed from the CHFs calculated according to the three mechanisms of burnout. 17 refs., 7 figs

  1. Evaporation and vapor shielding of CFC targets exposed to plasma heat fluxes relevant to ITER ELMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.M.; Arkhipov, N.I.; Landman, I.S.; Pestchanyi, S.E.; Toporkov, D.A.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon fibre composite NB31 was tested at plasma gun facility MK-200UG by plasma heat fluxes relevant to Edge Localised Modes in ITER. The paper reports the results obtained on the evaporation threshold of carbon fibre composite, the velocity of carbon vapor motion along and across the magnetic field lines, and the parameters of carbon plasma such as temperature, density and ionization state. First experimental results on investigation of the vapor shield onset conditions are presented also. The obtained experimental data are compared with the results of numerical modeling.

  2. On the use of radiative surface temperature to estimate sensible heat flux over sparse shrubs in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehbouni, A.; Nichols, W. D.; Qi, J.; Njoku, E. G.; Kerr, Y. H.; Cabot, F.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate partitioning of available energy into sensible and latent heat flux is crucial to the understanding of surface atmosphere interactions. This issue is more complicated in arid and semi arid regions where the relative contribution to surface fluxes from the soil and vegetation may vary significantly throughout the day and throughout the season. A three component model to estimate sensible heat flux over heterogeneous surfaces is presented. The surface was represented with two adjacent compartments. The first compartment is made up of two components, shrubs and shaded soil, the second of open 'illuminated' soil. Data collected at two different sites in Nevada (U.S.) during the Summers of 1991 and 1992 were used to evaluate model performance. The results show that the present model is sufficiently general to yield satisfactory results for both sites.

  3. Heat flux characteristics in an atmospheric double arc argon plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Xin; Yu Liang; Yan Jianhua; Cen Kefa; Cheron, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the axial evolution of heat flux excited by a double arc argon plasma jet impinging on a flat plate is determined, while the nonstationary behavior of the heat flux is investigated by combined means of the fast Fourier transform, Wigner distribution, and short-time Fourier transform. Two frequency groups (<1 and 2-10 kHz) are identified in both the Fourier spectrum and the time-frequency distributions, which suggest that the nature of fluctuations in the heat flux is strongly associated with the dynamic behavior of the plasma arc and the engulfment of ambient air into different plasma jet regions

  4. Tabular method of critical heat flux description in square packing rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobkov, V.P.; Smogalev, I.P.

    2003-01-01

    Elaborations of harnessing tabular method for the description and calculation of critical heat fluxes in square packing rod bundles are presented. The tabular method for fuel rod triangular assemblies derived from using basic table for critical heat fluxes in triangular fuel assemblies demonstrates good results. For the harnessing tabular method in square packing rod bundles correction functions reflecting specific geometry were found. Comparative evaluations of calculated values for the critical heat fluxes with experimental ones are presented. Good agreement of calculations with experiments is noted in all range of parameters [ru

  5. Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients of Nanofluids Containing Carbon Nanotubes up to Critical Heat Fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki Jung; Lee, Yohan; Jung, Dong Soo; Shim, Sang Eun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) and critical heat flux (CHF) for a smooth and square flat heater in a pool of pure water with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed at 60 .deg. C were measured. Tested aqueous nanofluids were prepared using CNTs with volume concentrations of 0.0001%, 0.001%, and 0.01%. The CNTs were dispersed by chemically treating them with an acid in the absence of any polymers. The results showed that the pool boiling HTCs of the nanofluids are higher than those of pure water in the entire nucleate boiling regime. The acid-treated CNTs led to the deposition of a small amount of CNTs on the surface, and the CNTs themselves acted as heat-transfer-enhancing particles, owing to their very high thermal conductivity. There was a significant increase in the CHF- up to 150%-when compared to that of pure water containing CNTs with a volume concentration of 0.001%. This is attributed to the change in surface characteristics due to the deposition of a very thin layer of CNTs on the surface. This layer delays nucleate boiling and causes a reduction in the size of the large vapor canopy around the CHF. This results in a significant increase in the CHF

  6. Network Simulation solution of free convective flow from a vertical cone with combined effect of non- uniform surface heat flux and heat generation or absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanuel, Y.; Pullepu, Bapuji; Sambath, P.

    2018-04-01

    A two dimensional mathematical model is formulated for the transitive laminar free convective, incompressible viscous fluid flow over vertical cone with variable surface heat flux combined with the effects of heat generation and absorption is considered . using a powerful computational method based on thermoelectric analogy called Network Simulation Method (NSM0, the solutions of governing nondimensionl coupled, unsteady and nonlinear partial differential conservation equations of the flow that are obtained. The numerical technique is always stable and convergent which establish high efficiency and accuracy by employing network simulator computer code Pspice. The effects of velocity and temperature profiles have been analyzed for various factors, namely Prandtl number Pr, heat flux power law exponent n and heat generation/absorption parameter Δ are analyzed graphically.

  7. Energy and variance budgets of a diffusive staircase with implications for heat flux scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronymus, M.; Carpenter, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Diffusive convection, the mode of double-diffusive convection that occur when both temperature and salinity increase with increasing depth, is commonplace throughout the high latitude oceans and diffusive staircases constitute an important heat transport process in the Arctic Ocean. Heat and buoyancy fluxes through these staircases are often estimated using flux laws deduced either from laboratory experiments, or from simplified energy or variance budgets. We have done direct numerical simulations of double-diffusive convection at a range of Rayleigh numbers and quantified the energy and variance budgets in detail. This allows us to compare the fluxes in our simulations to those derived using known flux laws and to quantify how well the simplified energy and variance budgets approximate the full budgets. The fluxes are found to agree well with earlier estimates at high Rayleigh numbers, but we find large deviations at low Rayleigh numbers. The close ties between the heat and buoyancy fluxes and the budgets of thermal variance and energy have been utilized to derive heat flux scaling laws in the field of thermal convection. The result is the so called GL-theory, which has been found to give accurate heat flux scaling laws in a very wide parameter range. Diffusive convection has many similarities to thermal convection and an extension of the GL-theory to diffusive convection is also presented and its predictions are compared to the results from our numerical simulations.

  8. Heat flux sensor calibration using noninteger system identification: Theory, experiment, and error analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardarein, Jean-Laurent; Battaglia, Jean-Luc; Loehle, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns the improvement of the calibration technique of null point calorimeters generally used in high enthalpy plasma flows. Based on the linearity assumption, this technique leads to calculate the impulse response that relates the heat flux at the tip of the sensor according to the temperature at the embedded thermocouple close to the heated surface. The noninteger system identification (NISI) procedure is applied. The NISI technique had been well described in previous study. The present work focuses on the accuracy of the identified system in terms of absorbed heat flux during the calibration experiment and of the estimated parameters in the model. The impulse response is thus calculated along with its associated standard deviation. Furthermore, this response is compared with that of the one-dimensional semi-infinite medium, which is classically used in practical applications. The asymptotic behavior of the identified system at the short times is analyzed for a better understanding of the noninteger identified system. Finally, the technique was applied to a new sensor geometry that has been developed particularly for high enthalpy plasma flows and it is shown that the method can be applied to any geometry suitable for a certain test configuration.

  9. Thermal wave propagation in blood perfused tissues under hyperthermia treatment for unique oscillatory heat flux at skin surface and appropriate initial condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jaideep; Kundu, Balaram

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims to develop an analytical study of heat propagation in biological tissues for constant and variable heat flux at the skin surface correlated with Hyperthermia treatment. In the present research work we have attempted to impose two unique kind of oscillating boundary condition relevant to practical aspect of the biomedical engineering while the initial condition is constructed as spatially dependent according to a real life situation. We have implemented Laplace's Transform method (LTM) and Green Function (GFs) method to solve single phase lag (SPL) thermal wave model of bioheat equation (TWMBHE). This research work strongly focuses upon the non-invasive therapy by employing oscillating heat flux. The heat flux at the skin surface is considered as constant, sinusoidal, and cosine forms. A comparative study of the impact of different kinds of heat flux on the temperature field in living tissue explored that sinusoidal heat flux will be more effective if the time of therapeutic heating is high. Cosine heating is also applicable in Hyperthermia treatment due to its precision in thermal waveform. The result also emphasizes that accurate observation must be required for the selection of phase angle and frequency of oscillating heat flux. By possible comparison with the published experimental research work and published mathematical study we have experienced a difference in temperature distribution as 5.33% and 4.73%, respectively. A parametric analysis has been devoted to suggest an appropriate procedure of the selection of important design variables in viewpoint of an effective heating in hyperthermia treatment.

  10. An experimental study of high heat flux removal by shear-driven liquid films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensively evaporating liquid films, moving under the friction of a co-current gas flow in a mini-channel (shear-driven liquid films, are promising for the use in cooling systems of modern semiconductor devices with high local heat release. In this work, the effect of various parameters, such as the liquid and gas flow rates and channel height, on the critical heat flux in the locally heated shear-driven water film has been studied. A record value of the critical heat flux of 1200 W/cm2 has been achieved in experiments. Heat leaks to the substrate and heat losses to the atmosphere in total do not exceed 25% for the heat flux above 400 W/cm2. Comparison of the critical heat fluxes for the shear-driven liquid film and for flow boiling in a minichannel shows that the critical heat flux is an order of magnitude higher for the shear-driven liquid film. This confirms the prospect of using shear-driven liquid films in the modern high-efficient cooling systems.

  11. Determination of transient temperature and heat flux on the surface of a reactor control rod based on temperature measurements at the interior points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebula, Artur; Taler, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents heat transfer calculation results concerning a control rod of nuclear power plant. Apart from numerical calculation results, experimental heat transfer measurements of the control rod model are also presented. The control rod that is the object of interest is surrounded by a mixing region of hot and cold streams and, as a consequence, is subjected to thermal fluctuations. The paper describes a method based on the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) for determining heat flux on the outer surface of the rod. Numerical tests were conducted to validate the method by comparison of the results with the time changes of surface temperature and heat flux which were obtained from the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the mixing process. A measuring instrument was designed to measure the heat flux at the outer surface of the control rod model. In addition, the principle of operation and construction of heat flux meter is presented in detail. -- Highlights: • Temperature and heat flux estimation during cooling of control rod are presented. • The inverse technique is based on the space marching method. • The instrument for surface heat flux measurement was manufactured and tested. • CFD simulations were used to validate the developed inverse technique. • Actual dat