Sample records for heat extraction capability

  1. Development of Axial Compressor Heat-Extraction Capability for Thermal Management Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) proposes a small business innovation research (SBIR) program for a novel compressor heat-extraction development program in response to...

  2. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction (United States)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas


    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  3. Modular heat pipe radiators for enhanced Shuttle mission capabilities (United States)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.


    Current heat pipe radiator technology is reviewed and the results from three state-of-the-art hardware programs are summarized. Heat pipe radiators are shown to be an improvement over all-fluid loop panels for long duration space missions, when micrometeoroid survivability is important. Finally, several heat pipe radiator design concepts are presented which would enhance Shuttle mission capabilities by either extending mission life and/or augmenting heat rejection capability.

  4. Advanced Capabilities for Evidence Extraction (ACEE) (United States)


    below. (For more details please see the paper by Rubin, Kando, and Liddy (2004).) Certainty is typically defined as “the quality or state of...list of transitions of the eQuery Extraction Module during the EELD program. Saffron Tech – 3/02 – sent sample data for domain of hydro-electric...Temporal Attributes occurs before after frequency temp_qual (gives a quality of the event, such as possible or future, or negation) date-of

  5. Optimal Management of Geothermal Heat Extraction (United States)

    Patel, I. H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.


    Geothermal energy technologies use the constant heat flux from the subsurface in order to produce heat or electricity for societal use. As such, a geothermal energy system is not inherently variable, like systems based on wind and solar resources, and an operator can conceivably control the rate at which heat is extracted and used directly, or converted into a commodity that is used. Although geothermal heat is a renewable resource, this heat can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal (Rybach, 2003). For heat extraction used for commodities that are sold on the market, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into profit, on a net present value basis. We present a model that couples natural resource economic approaches for managing renewable resources with simulations of geothermal reservoir performance in order to develop an optimal heat mining strategy that balances economic gain with the performance and renewability of the reservoir. Similar optimal control approaches have been extensively studied for renewable natural resource management of fisheries and forests (Bonfil, 2005; Gordon, 1954; Weitzman, 2003). Those models determine an optimal path of extraction of fish or timber, by balancing the regeneration of stocks of fish or timber that are not harvested with the profit from the sale of the fish or timber that is harvested. Our model balances the regeneration of reservoir temperature with the net proceeds from extracting heat and converting it to electricity that is sold to consumers. We used the Non-isothermal Unconfined-confined Flow and Transport (NUFT) model (Hao, Sun, & Nitao, 2011) to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are incorporated into the natural resource economics model to determine production strategies that

  6. Increase in the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd by a heat-drying process. (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Shaoyun, Wang; Shutao, Liu; Jianwu, Zhou; Lijing, Ke; Pingfan, Rao


    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) is widely regarded as one of the best remedy foods for diabetes. The positive effect of bitter gourd on diabetes has been attributed in part to the remarkable free radical scavenging activity of its boiled water extract from sun-dried fruits. It is well known that a heat process significantly influences the antioxidant activity of fresh fruits. However, the heat drying processes of bitter gourd have not been studied so far. Here, we show that the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd extract significantly increases after the heat drying process, while the content of flavonoids and phenols, which are generally regarded as the main antioxidant components in bitter gourd, remain unaffected. Furthermore, the content of free amino acids and the total reducing sugar were found to decrease with increasing browning index, indicating the progression of the Maillard reaction, products of which are known to possess significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, it suggests that Maillard reaction products may be the main contributors to the increase in antioxidant capability. Finally, the bitter gourd extract with the higher antioxidant activity, was shown to manifest a corresponding higher proliferation activity on NIT-1 beta-cells. These results suggest that controllable conditions in the heat-drying processing of fresh bitter gourd fruit is of significance for enhancing the total free radical scavenging capacity, beta-cell proliferation activity and possibly the anti-diabetic activity of this fruit.

  7. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)


    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  8. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: heat recovery and utilization. [53 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambill, W. R.; Reed, W. R.


    A scoping survey of the capabilities of industrial heat recovery equipment was conducted to determine their adaptability to proposed coal-conversion complexes. Major categories of heat exchangers included shell-and-tube, periodic-flow and rotary regenerators, heat pipe arrays, direct phase contactors, and steam and organic Rankine cycles for power generation from waste heat. Primary applications encompassed feed-effluent and other process stream interchangers, combustion air preheaters, and heat recovery steam generators (waste heat boiler-superheaters). It is concluded that the single area providing the greatest potential for extending US industrial heat-recovery equipment capabilities as related to coal-conversion processes is a research, development, and testing program to acquire more physical-property and heat-transfer data and more-reliable design correlations.

  9. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.


    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  10. Capabilities of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Equatorial Launcher for Heating and Current Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramponi G.


    Full Text Available The ITER Electron Cyclotron Equatorial Launcher is designed to be one of the heating systems to assist and sustain the development of various ITER plasma scenarios starting with the very first plasma operation. Here the capabilities for Heating and Current Drive of this system are reviewed. In particular, the optimum launching conditions are investigated for two scenarios at burn, comparing toroidal and poloidal steering options. Then, the EC capabilities are investigated for different plasma parameters corresponding to various phases of the ITER plasma discharge, from current ramp-up up to burn, and for a wide range of magnetic field, focusing in particular on the EC potential for heating and for L to H-mode assist. It is found that the EC system can contribute to a wide range of heating scenarios during the ramp-up of the magnetic field, significantly increasing the applicable range as a function of magnetic field.

  11. The heat removal capability of actively cooled plasma-facing components for the ITER divertor (United States)

    Missirlian, M.; Richou, M.; Riccardi, B.; Gavila, P.; Loarer, T.; Constans, S.


    Non-destructive examination followed by high-heat-flux testing was performed for different small- and medium-scale mock-ups; this included the most recent developments related to actively cooled tungsten (W) or carbon fibre composite (CFC) armoured plasma-facing components. In particular, the heat-removal capability of these mock-ups manufactured by European companies with all the main features of the ITER divertor design was investigated both after manufacturing and after thermal cycling up to 20 MW m-2. Compliance with ITER requirements was explored in terms of bonding quality, heat flux performances and operational compatibility. The main results show an overall good heat-removal capability after the manufacturing process independent of the armour-to-heat sink bonding technology and promising behaviour with respect to thermal fatigue lifetime under heat flux up to 20 MW m-2 for the CFC-armoured tiles and 15 MW m-2 for the W-armoured tiles, respectively.

  12. Light-responsive threadlike micelles as drag reducing fluids with enhanced heat-transfer capabilities. (United States)

    Shi, Haifeng; Wang, Yi; Fang, Bo; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Ge, Wu; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Zakin, Jacques L


    Drag-reducing (DR) surfactant fluids based on threadlike micelles are known to suffer from poor heat-transfer capabilities. Accordingly, the use of these fluids is limited to recirculating systems in which heat exchange is not important. Here, we show for the first time that light-responsive threadlike micelles can offer a potential solution to the above problem. The fluids studied here are composed of the cationic surfactant Ethoquad O/12 PG (EO12) and the sodium salt of trans-ortho-methoxycinnamic acid (OMCA). Initially, these fluids contain numerous threadlike micelles and, in turn, are strongly viscoelastic and effective at reducing drag (up to 75% DR). Upon exposure to UV light, OMCA is photoisomerized from trans to cis. This causes the micelles to shorten considerably, as confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Because of the absence of long micelles, the UV-irradiated fluid shows lower viscoelasticity and much lower DR properties; however, its heat-transfer properties are considerably superior to the initial fluid. Thus, our study highlights the potential of switching off the DR (and in turn enhancing heat-transfer) at the inlet of a heat exchanger in a recirculating system. While the fluids studied here are not photoreversible, an extension of the above concept would be to subsequently switch on the DR again at the exit of the heat exchanger, thus ensuring an ideal combination of DR and heat-transfer properties.

  13. Heating capabilities of the Hotline and Autoline at low flow rates. (United States)

    Schnoor, Joerg; Weber, Ingo; Macko, Stephan; Heussen, Nicole; Rossaint, Rolf


    At low flow rates, fluid warmers using coaxial warming tubes are superior in preventing heat loss. This laboratory investigation was performed in order to compare the heating capabilities of two coaxial fluid warmers. The Hotline and the Autoline were investigated by using normal saline at various flow rates (10-99 ml x h(-1)). Final infusion temperatures were measured six times in a row at the end of the tubing by using a rapid-response thermometer. Final temperatures were compared with those of infusions, which passed through disposable i.v. tubing covered and warmed using an 'off label' convective air warming system (WarmTouch). Measurements were performed at two different room temperatures (20 and 24 degrees C). Each group was analyzed with respect to differences between various flow rates as well as differences between the groups at comparable flow rates by using a three-way anova with multiple comparisons according to Tukey's procedure. Significance was defined at P flow rates efficiently above 34 degrees C, with the Hotline being more effective than the Autoline (P flow rates (10-60 and 80 ml x h(-1)), the Autoline demonstrated lower infusion temperatures throughout elevated room temperature at flow rates between 20 and 90 ml x h(-1). Both devices heated infusions more efficiently compared with 'off label used' convective air warmer (each with P flow rates. However, the heating capability of the Hotline was superior and can further be increased at low flow rates by increasing the room temperature.

  14. CFD Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff


    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. This study uses first-principles based CFD methodology to compute heat transfer from the tank wall to the cryogenic fluids and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between the tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between the tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that the commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over-predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  15. An investigation of the storage capability of district heating networks. Consequences of heat production; Untersuchung der Speicherfaehigkeit von Fernwaermenetzen. Auswirkungen auf die Waermeerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Sebastian; Felsmann, Clemens [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Gebaeudeenergietechnik und Waermeversorgung


    The storage of energy is a key issue in terms of the energy policy turnaround and the concomitant increase in decentralized power generation. District heating networks can be used as a heat storage. But is this reasonable energetically and economically? And what is the situation with the storage capacity of district heating networks? How does this storage capability impact on the use of heat sources? The authors of the contribution under consideration try to give an answer to these questions.

  16. Microwave heating: A potential pretreating method for bamboo fiber extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jia-Jia


    Full Text Available Microwave heating is proposed as a kind of pretreating methods for bamboo fiber extraction. Effect of various processing parameters, e. g. microwave initial-setting power, reaction temperature, irradiation time, and bath ratio (bamboo to water on bamboo powders was studied. Analysis of chemical components indicates that microwave assisted extraction is a mild treating method without obvious change of main constitutes of bamboo. The removal of polysaccharide by microwave treating resulted in loosening the structure and thus benefits hydrolysis of bamboo in subsequent.

  17. Validation of Heat Transfer and Film Cooling Capabilities of the 3-D RANS Code TURBO (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Chen, Jen-Ping


    The capabilities of the 3-D unsteady RANS code TURBO have been extended to include heat transfer and film cooling applications. The results of simulations performed with the modified code are compared to experiment and to theory, where applicable. Wilcox s k-turbulence model has been implemented to close the RANS equations. Two simulations are conducted: (1) flow over a flat plate and (2) flow over an adiabatic flat plate cooled by one hole inclined at 35 to the free stream. For (1) agreement with theory is found to be excellent for heat transfer, represented by local Nusselt number, and quite good for momentum, as represented by the local skin friction coefficient. This report compares the local skin friction coefficients and Nusselt numbers on a flat plate obtained using Wilcox's k-model with the theory of Blasius. The study looks at laminar and turbulent flows over an adiabatic flat plate and over an isothermal flat plate for two different wall temperatures. It is shown that TURBO is able to accurately predict heat transfer on a flat plate. For (2) TURBO shows good qualitative agreement with film cooling experiments performed on a flat plate with one cooling hole. Quantitatively, film effectiveness is under predicted downstream of the hole.

  18. Design and implementation of a multiaxial loading capability during heating on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benafan, O., E-mail: [NASA Glenn Research Center, Structures and Materials Division, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Padula, S. A. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Structures and Materials Division, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Skorpenske, H. D.; An, K. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Vaidyanathan, R. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)


    A gripping capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during multiaxial loading and heating on the VULCAN engineering materials diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed capability allowed for the acquisition of neutron spectra during tension, compression, torsion, and/or complex loading paths at elevated temperatures. The design consisted of age-hardened, Inconel{sup ®} 718 grips with direct attachment to the existing MTS load frame having axial and torsional capacities of 100 kN and 400 N·m, respectively. Internal cooling passages were incorporated into the gripping system for fast cooling rates during high temperature experiments up to ~1000 K. The specimen mounting couplers combined a threaded and hexed end-connection for ease of sample installation/removal without introducing any unwanted loads. Instrumentation of this capability is documented in this work along with various performance parameters. The gripping system was utilized to investigate deformation in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes (e.g., isothermal, isobaric, and cyclic), and preliminary results are presented. The measurements facilitated the quantification of the texture, internal strain, and phase fraction evolution in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes.

  19. Effect of hotspot position fluctuation to writing capability in heated-dot magnetic recording (United States)

    Tipcharoen, Warunee; Warisarn, Chanon; Kaewrawang, Arkom; Kovintavewat, Piya


    This work presents the effect of hotspot position fluctuation to writing capability in heated-dot magnetic recording systems at an areal density (AD) beyond 2 Tbpsi via a micromagnetic modeling. At high ADs, the hotspot and the write field gradient may not be correctly focused on the target island because the bit islands are closely positioned to one another. This may lead to the overwriting/erasing of the previously written islands, which can severely affect the recording performance. Therefore, this work studies the 3-by-3 data patterns that easily cause an error when the hotspot and write head positions are fluctuated by various island pitches. Simulation results indicate that the data pattern that leads to the highest/lowest error occurrence frequency is the one with the first, second and fourth islands having the opposite/same magnetization direction to/as the write field, regardless of the magnetization direction of the third island. This result can, for example, be utilized to design a two-dimensional modulation code to prevent such destructive data patterns, thus helping enhance the overall system performance.

  20. Thermoporoelastic effects during heat extraction from low-permeability reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salimzadeh, Saeed; Nick, Hamidreza M.; Zimmerman, R. W.


    Thermoporoelastic effects during heat extraction from low permeability geothermal reservoirs are investigated numerically, based on the model of a horizontal penny-shaped fracture intersected by an injection well and a production well. A coupled formulation for thermo-hydraulic (TH) processes...... is presented that implicitly accounts for the mechanical deformation of the poroelastic matrix. The TH model is coupled to a separate mechanical contact model (M) that solves for the fracture contact stresses due to thermoporoelastic compression. Fractures are modelled as surface discontinuities within a three......-dimensional matrix. A robust contact model is utilised to resolve the contact tractions between opposing fracture surfaces. Results show that due to the very low thermal diffusivity of the rock matrix, the thermally-induced pore pressure partially dissipates even in the very low-permeability rocks that are found...

  1. Thermal performance of shallow solar pond under open cycle continuous flow heating mode for heat extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sebaii, A.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527 (Egypt)]. E-mail:; Aboul-Enein, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527 (Egypt); Ramadan, M.R.I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527 (Egypt); Khallaf, A.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527 (Egypt)


    The thermal performance of a shallow solar pond (SSP) under an open cycle continuous flow heating mode for heat extraction has been investigated. A serpentine heat exchanger (HE), either welded to the absorber plate or immersed in the pond water, has been used for extracting the heat. Suitable computer programs have been developed based on analytical solutions of the energy balance equations for the various elements of the SSP in the presence of the HE. Numerical calculations have been performed to study the effect of different operational and configurational parameters on the pond performance. In order to improve the pond performance, optimization of the various dimensions of the pond with the HE has been performed. The effects of the design parameters of the HE's tube, i.e. length L{sub he}, diameter D and mass flow rate m-bar {sub f} of the fluid flowing through the HE, on the pond performance have been investigated. The outlet temperature of the HE's fluid T{sub fo} is found to increase with increase of the HE length L{sub he}, and it decreases with increase of the mass flow rate of the HE's fluid m-bar {sub f} up to typical values for these parameters. Typical values for L{sub he} and m-bar {sub f} are found to be 4m and 0.004kg/s beyond which the change in T{sub fo} becomes insignificant. Experiments have been performed for the pond under different operational conditions with a HE welded to the absorber plate. To validate the proposed mathematical models, comparisons between experimental and theoretical results have been performed. Good agreement has been achieved.

  2. Experimental validation of an analytical model for predicting the thermal and hydrodynamic capabilities of flat micro heat pipes


    Revellin, Rémi; Rullière, Romuald; Lefèvre, Frédéric; Bonjour, Jocelyn


    Experimental validation of an analytical model for predicting the thermal and hydrodynamic capabilities of flat micro heat pipes correspondance: Corresponding author. Tel.: +33 4 7243 82 51; fax: +33 4 7243 8811. (Lefevre, Frederic) (Lefevre, Frederic) Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL) UMR 5008 CNRS-INSA-Univ. Lyon 1 Bat. Sadi Carnot--> , INSA-Lyon--> , F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex--> -...

  3. Determination of the heat transfer capability of laser mirrors with cooled cells (United States)

    Zhernovyi, Yu. V.; Odnorozhenko, I. G.; Potyagailo, D. B.; Romanchuk, Ya. P.


    A mathematical model of steady-state heat transfer in a laser mirror involving cooled prismatically shaped cells has been developed. Using cooling systems with hexahedral and tetrahedral cells (by the number of side walls) as examples, the influence of the mirror illumination nonuniformity, reflector thickness, and other parameters on the effective heat-transfer coefficient and thermal head coefficient is investigated; the physical limits for heat-transfer characteristics in the case of an unlimited increase in heat transfer from the surfaces of the cell walls have been determined.

  4. Resistive heating enhanced soil vapor extraction of chlorinated solvents from trichloroethylene contaminated silty, low permeable soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutphen, M. van; Heron, G.; Enfield, C.G.; Christensen, T.H.


    A 2D-laboratory box experiment (12 x 56 x 116 cm) was conducted to simulate the enhancement of soil vapor extraction by the application of low frequency electrical heating Uoule heating) for the remediation of a low permeable, silty soil contaminated with trichloroethylene. Joule heating enlarged

  5. Ohmic heating as a pre-treatment in solvent extraction of rice bran. (United States)

    Nair, Gopu Raveendran; Divya, V R; Prasannan, Liji; Habeeba, V; Prince, M V; Raghavan, G S V


    Rice bran, which is one of the major by products of paddy contain high quality proteins and edible oil apart from fibre, ash and NFE (nitrogen free extract). The existing solvent extraction method employs n-hexane as the most viable solvent for the extraction of oil from rice bran. But the high cost and scarce availability of n-hexane resulted in uneconomical extraction of rice bran oil. In this study, rice bran was ohmically heated for different time periods(1, 2 and 3 min) with different current values (5, 15 and 20 A) and with different concentration of sodium chloride (1 M, 0.1 M and 0.01 M) as conducting medium. The ohmically heated rice bran was subjected to extraction studies. Ohmic heating of rice bran of paddy varieties Red Triveni and Basmati reduced the extraction time by nearly 75 % and 70 % respectively and gave a maximum quantity of oil extracted when compared to bran, which was not ohmically heated. From the experiments with varying concentrations, residence time of ohmic heating and currents, it was found that ohmically heating the rice bran with 1 M sodium chloride solution and with a current value of 20 A for 3 min gave maximum oil extraction with minimum extraction time.

  6. Verification of heat removal capability of a concrete cask system for spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikio, Sakai; Hiroaki, Fujiwara; Tadatsugu, Sakaya; Akira, Sakai [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Dept., Nuclear Power Div., Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., IHI, Yokohama (Japan)


    IHI (Ishikawajima-Harima heavy industries) has developed the concrete cask system that is used for an interim storage facility for spent fuel assemblies generated from nuclear power plants. IHI has designed and fabricated the prototype of a canister and a concrete storage cask, the storage cask consists of reinforced concrete and steel liner. The canister consists of shell, guide tubes and spacer plates mainly. The canister is designed to maintain the integrity of fuel cladding during storage period. Helium gas filled in the canister increases the efficiency of heat removal. A heat shield is equipped in the annulus gap between the canister sidewall and the liner to reduce the radiation heat transferred from the canister surface to the storage cask. The spent fuel decay heat is removed by natural cooling system. Most of the decay heat shall be removed by natural convection air that enters through the four inlet vents at the bottom, then flows through airflow paths and finally outwards to ambient through the four outlet vents at the top. Heat removal experiment on the prototype concrete cask mainly focused on temperature distributions and air flow rates in the storage cask. It is shown that the analytical results are in good agreement with experimental results and that they exceed the experimental results by a few degrees. (A.C.)

  7. The experimental study of heat extraction of supercritical CO2 in the geothermal reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Cyun-Jie


    Full Text Available The heat transfer phenomena of supercritical CO2 are experimentally investigated in a horizontal tube for improving the efficiency of CO2-EGS.This study discuss the experimental verification of the numerical simulations. The experiment is conducted for the pressure, the flow rate, and particle size 1.54mm. In addition, the experiment and simulation that the maximum heat extraction is occurred at the 9MPa pressure and mass flow rate of 0.00109 kg/s. The maximum specific heat extraction at 9MPa and flow rate of 0.00082 kg/s. The results show that the numerical model has been experimentally verified of the feasibility. Furthermore, the pseudo-critical point had a significant influence on the heat extraction, temperature difference and specific heat extraction.

  8. Solving the inverse heat conduction problem using NVLink capable Power architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Szénási


    Full Text Available The accurate knowledge of Heat Transfer Coefficients is essential for the design of precise heat transfer operations. The determination of these values requires Inverse Heat Transfer Calculations, which are usually based on heuristic optimisation techniques, like Genetic Algorithms or Particle Swarm Optimisation. The main bottleneck of these heuristics is the high computational demand of the cost function calculation, which is usually based on heat transfer simulations producing the thermal history of the workpiece at given locations. This Direct Heat Transfer Calculation is a well parallelisable process, making it feasible to implement an efficient GPU kernel for this purpose. This paper presents a novel step forward: based on the special requirements of the heuristics solving the inverse problem (executing hundreds of simulations in a parallel fashion at the end of each iteration, it is possible to gain a higher level of parallelism using multiple graphics accelerators. The results show that this implementation (running on 4 GPUs is about 120 times faster than a traditional CPU implementation using 20 cores. The latest developments of the GPU-based High Power Computations area were also analysed, like the new NVLink connection between the host and the devices, which tries to solve the long time existing data transfer handicap of GPU programming.

  9. Copper vertical micro dendrite fin arrays and their superior boiling heat transfer capability (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qiao; Lyu, Shu-Shen; Luo, Jia-Li; Luo, Zhi-Yong; Fu, Yuan-Xiang; Heng, Yi; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Mo, Dong-Chuan


    Micro pin fin arrays have been widely used in electronic cooling, micro reactors, catalyst support, and wettability modification and so on, and a facile way to produce better micro pin fin arrays is demanded. Herein, a simple electrochemical method has been developed to fabricate copper vertical micro dendrite fin arrays (Cu-VMDFA) with controllable shapes, number density and height. High copper sulphate concentration is one key point to make the dendrite stand vertically. Besides, the applied current should rise at an appropriate rate to ensure the copper dendrite can grow vertically on its own. The Cu-VMDFA can significantly enhance the heat transfer coefficient by approximately twice compared to the plain copper surface. The Cu-VMDFA may be widely used in boiling heat transfer areas such as nuclear power plants, electronic cooling, heat exchangers, and so on.

  10. A Theoretical Investigation of Heat Extraction from a Compost Bed by Using a Multi-Heat-Pipe Heat Exchanger


    Seki, Hirakazu; Komori, Tomoaki


    埋設管型熱交換器を用いる方法は, 堆肥そうからの熱抽出において典型的で簡単な方法であるが, 混合素材の切返しを行う際に埋設管の取り外し, 再配管などの煩雑な作業を必要とする。このような煩雑な作業を簡単にするためにマルチ・ヒートパイプ熱交換器を用いたユニークな熱抽出方法を提示し, 熱抽出過程における堆肥そう内温度及び熱交換器出口における熱媒体の温度の解析解を導いた。これらの解は埋設管型熱交換器に対する解と数学的に同一であった。そして, 解析解に基づき, マルチ・ヒートパイプ熱交換器の熱抽出能力を計算した。A buried-tube-type heat exchanger is typical and simple for extracting heat from a compost bed except the requirement of some tedious works such as removing and retubing the tubes in remixing the compost materials. In order to simplify the abo...

  11. Calotropis procera Root Extract Has the Capability to Combat Free Radical Mediated Damage. (United States)

    Kumar, Shashank; Gupta, Ashutosh; Pandey, Abhay K


    The present study reports the antioxidant and membrane protective activities of Calotropis procera aqueous root extract using several in vitro assays along with the determination of phenolic as well as flavonoid contents. Total phenol and flavonoid contents in extract were 15.67 ± 1.52 mg propyl gallate equivalent/g and 1.62 ± 0.05 mg quercetin equivalent/g, respectively. UV-visual spectroscopic scanning of the extract indicated the presence of glycoside-linked tannins or flavonoids. The extract exhibited appreciable reducing power signifying hydrogen donating potential. DPPH radical scavenging assay revealed substantial free radical scavenging activity (42-90%) in the extracts. Concentration dependent response was observed in the metal ion chelating activity (16-95%). Extracts also provided protection against iron induced lipid peroxidation in rat tissue (liver, brain, and kidney) homogenates. Comparatively better protective efficacy against peroxidative damage was observed in liver (71%) followed by kidney (65%) and brain (60%) tissues. Positive correlation (r (2) = 0.756) was observed between DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of extract. Similarly strong positive correlation (r (2) ≈ 0.756) was observed between metal ion chelating ability and percentage lipid peroxidation inhibition in different tissues. The study demonstrated considerable protective efficacy in C. procera root aqueous extracts against free radical and metal ion mediated oxidative damage.

  12. Assessing the feasibility of high-density subsurface heat extraction in urban areas (United States)

    Abesser, Corinna; Busby, Jonathan


    The subsurface is increasingly utilized as a heat source (sink) for use in heating (and cooling) applications. This is driven by the need to increase the amount of heat generated from renewable sources to meet the EU renewable energy target of 12% by 2020. This study explores the feasibility, performance and long-term sustainability of high density, closed-loop GSHP installations in urban areas. Specifically, it employs a 2D, finite element, heat transport model to assess the impact of high density heat extraction in a residential area in Reading. A block of semi-detached houses is modelled, assuming that separate GSHP systems are installed in every property. The model considers conductive and advective heat transport. Uncertainties are explored through varying thermal properties and groundwater gradients across the site. Different heat demand scenarios are evaluated and the impact on the subsurface temperature distribution and on heat pump efficiency is assessed. The scenarios are selected to represent variations in inter-annual weather pattern, heating pattern and building insulation standards. Results indicate that high density heat extraction for domestic heating can be sustainable over the lifespan expected for GSHP systems (of around 20 years), in particular where heat demand is reduced by home improvement measures. Based on the results, recommendations are being presented for the sustainable deployment of high density GSHP installation in urban areas.

  13. Color and surface chemistry changes of extracted wood flour after heating at 120 °C (United States)

    Yao Chen; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark


    To investigate the effect of heat on color and surface chemistry of wood flour (WF), unextracted, extracted and delignified samples of commercial WF were heated at 120 °C for 24 h and analyzed by colorimetry, diffuse reflectance visible (DRV), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopies....

  14. Heat-induced chemical and color changes of extractive-free Black Locust (Rosinia Pseudoacacia) wood (United States)

    Yao Chen; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Nicole M. Stark


    To investigate chemical and color changes of the polymeric constituents of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood during heat treatment, extractive-free wood flour was conditioned to 30% initial moisture content (MC) and heated for 24 h at 120 °C in either an oxygen or nitrogen atmosphere. The color change was measured using the CIELAB color system. Chemical changes...

  15. Enzymatic extractability of soybean meal proteins and carbohydrates : heat and humidity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.; Kofod, L.V.; Schols, H.A.; Piersma, S.R.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.


    To study the incomplete enzymatic extractability of proteins and carbohydrates of thermally treated soybean meals, one unheated and three heat-treated soybean meals were produced. To obtain truly enzyme-resistant material, the meals were extracted by a repeated hydrolysis procedure using excessive

  16. Partial characterization of protein extracted from Terminalia catappa seed behaving as lectin that is capable of mouse sperm agglutination (United States)

    Haryanto, Hery; Kamilah, Santi Nurul


    The objective of this research is to partially characterize proteins extracted from Terminalia catappa seeds that behave like lectin, being capable of mouse sperm agglutination. Cotyledons of the seed were extracted in homogenizing PBS buffer. The supernatant was precipitated with ammonium sulfate to a final concentration of 50% (w/v), then dialyzed with 2 kinds of dialysis tubes, i.e. 6000 and 12000 MWCO. The precipitated proteins were then diluted in 0.9% (w/v) NaCl. Next, dialysis fractions of the precipitated protein were used for the mouse sperm agglutination test. Protein from the dialysis fraction of 6000 MWCO tube could agglutinate mouse sperm. The quantitation of protein was carried out by using the Bradford Coomassie kit from crude extract to dialyzed fractions. Both dialyzed fractions were also run on SDS-PAGE to see the protein profiles.

  17. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration. (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka


    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compressor and then exchanged heat with feed and bottom stream in the distillation column. Energy and mass balance of the intensified process is investigated and compared with the conventional microalgae drying-extraction process. The simulation results indicated that the total energy consumption of the intensified process can be saved by 52.4% of the conventional route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extraction of glabridin with heat reflux extraction by response surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ying DING


    Full Text Available Objective: To study the extraction process of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra. Methods: The solid-liquid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature are the three main factors in the experiment, and the extract solvent is ethyl acetate. Establish the response surface quadratic regression equation of glabridin extraction rate and purity. Results:The results indicate that the optimum conditions for glabridin are as follows: solvent is ethyl acetate, extraction time is 90 min, the ratio of solvent to solid is 35 ∶1 (ml/g, and extraction temperature is 44.7 ℃, purity and the maximum yield of Extraction of glabridin are 6.96% and 0.241%, The validation test shows that the experimental values of the model are 0.235% and 6.05% . Conclusion: The model equation can predict the experimental results, it can be used as reference in industrial production. 

  19. An Approximate Solution for Predicting the Heat Extraction and Preventing Heat Loss from a Closed-Loop Geothermal Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisheng Wu


    Full Text Available Approximate solutions are found for a mathematical model developed to predict the heat extraction from a closed-loop geothermal system which consists of two vertical wells (one for injection and the other for production and one horizontal well which connects the two vertical wells. Based on the feature of slow heat conduction in rock formation, the fluid flow in the well is divided into three stages, that is, in the injection, horizontal, and production wells. The output temperature of each stage is regarded as the input of the next stage. The results from the present model are compared with those obtained from numerical simulator TOUGH2 and show first-order agreement with a temperature difference less than 4°C for the case where the fluid circulated for 2.74 years. In the end, a parametric study shows that (1 the injection rate plays dominant role in affecting the output performance, (2 higher injection temperature produces larger output temperature but decreases the total heat extracted given a specific time, (3 the output performance of geothermal reservoir is insensitive to fluid viscosity, and (4 there exists a critical point that indicates if the fluid releases heat into or absorbs heat from the surrounding formation.

  20. Combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process on soy oil recovery. (United States)

    Pare, Akash; Nema, Anurag; Singh, V K; Mandhyan, B L


    This research describes a new technological process for soybean oil extraction. The process deals with the combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous oil extraction process (EAEP) on enhancement of oil recovery from soybean seed. The experimental process consisted of following basic steps, namely, dehulling, wet grinding, enzymatic treatment, ohmic heating, aqueous extraction and centrifugation. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on aqueous oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (i.e. OH600V, OH750V and OH900V), 3 levels of end point temperature (i.e. 70, 80 and 90 °C) and 3 levels of holding time (i.e. 0, 5 and 10 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovery from soybean by EAEP alone and EAEP coupled with ohmic heating were 53.12 % and 56.86 % to 73 % respectively. The maximum oil recovery (73 %) was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 90 °C using electric field strength of OH600V for a holding time of 10 min. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil (i.e. in range of 0.97 to 1.29 %) was within the acceptable limit of 3 % (oleic acid) and 0.5-3 % prescribed respectively by PFA and BIS.

  1. Fabrication of Hollow Silica Microspheres with Orderly Hemispherical Protrusions and Capability for Heat-Induced Controlled Cracking. (United States)

    Takafuji, Makoto; Hano, Nanami; Alam, Md A; Ihara, Hirotaka


    Hollow silica microspheres with orderly protrusions on their outer and inner surfaces were fabricated in three simple steps: (1) suspension polymerization of a polymerizable monomer containing silica nanoparticles to obtain polymeric microspheres with a layered shell of silica particles; (2) sol-gel reaction of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on the surface of the microspheres to connect the silica nanoparticles; (3) removal of polymer core by calcination. The shell composed of silica-connected silica nanoparticles remained spherical even after calcination, and the characteristic surface morphology with protrusions were obtained on both inner and outer surfaces. Measurements of the mechanical strength revealed that the compression modulus of the hollow microspheres increased with increasing thickness of the silica layer, which could be controlled by changing the concentration of TEOS in the sol-gel reaction. Rapid heating of the hollow silica microspheres with the thin silica-connected layer led to silica shell cracking, and the cracks were mostly observed in the connecting layer between the silica nanoparticles. The stress was probably concentrated in the connecting layer because of its lower thickness than the nanoparticles. Such characteristic of the hollow microspheres is useful for a capsule with capability for heat-induced controlled cracking caused by internal pressure changes.

  2. Petrothermal heat extraction using a single deviated well (Horstberg, revisited) (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Vogt, Esther; Bartetzko, Anne; Sauter, Martin


    The single-well tracer test conducted (Behrens et al. 2006) in conjunction with waterfrac experiments at Horstberg is re-examined with a view at four basic issues: why single-well? why fracturing? why tracers? does this only work at Horstberg, or can it work almost anywhere else in the Northern-German sedimentary basin? Heat and tracer transport within a composite reservoir (impermeable matrix + waterfrac + permeable layer), as accessed by a single deviated well, turn out to fit into a surprisingly simple description, as the plain (arithmetic) sum of certain petrothermal-type and aquifer-type contributions, whose weighting relative to each other can vary from site to site, depending upon stratigraphy and upon wellbore geometry. At Horstberg, within the particular formations tested ('Volpriehausen', 'Detfurth', 'Solling', comprising mainly claystone and sandstone layers), thermal lifetime results to be petrothermally-dominated, while tracer residence times prove to be 'aquifer'-dominated. Despite this disparity, the reservoir's thermal lifetime can reliably be predicted from tracer test results. What cannot be determined from waterfrac flow-path tracing is the very waterfrac's aperture. Aperture uncertainty, however, does not impede upon thermal lifetime predictability. The results of the semi-analytical approach are confirmed by numerical simulations using a FE model that includes more details of hydrogeological heterogeneity for the Horstberg site. They are complemented by a parameter sensitivity analysis. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit G6 of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' ('Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling').

  3. Pre-heating and polyphenol oxidase inhibition impact on extraction of purple sweet potato anthocyanins. (United States)

    de Aguiar Cipriano, Paula; Ekici, Lutfiye; Barnes, Ryan C; Gomes, Carmen; Talcott, Stephen T


    Purple sweet potatoes (PSP) have been used as a natural food colorant with high acylated anthocyanins concentrations. Commercially extracting pigments from PSP can be challenging due to firm texture and high polyphenol oxidase (PPO) content. These studies evaluated hot water immersions (30, 50, 70, and 90°C for 10 min) as pre-heating treatments and addition of PPO inhibitors (citric acid, oxalic acid, and sodium borate) to aqueous extraction solutions to aid pigment recovery. Predominant PSP anthocyanins included acylated cyanidin or peonidin derivatives. Non-pigmented cinnamates acted as oxidase substrates and induced co-oxidation reactions with anthocyanins. Pre-heating PSP significantly increased polyphenolic yields in a temperature-dependent manner, consistent with tissue softening and PPO inactivation. The use of solvent modifiers in the extraction solution associated with heat helped minimize enzyme action and increased polyphenolic recovery. Minimizing the impact of PPO with heat was critical to the extraction and recovery of PSP anthocyanins, suitable for food use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamics and control of a heat pump assisted extractive dividing-wall column for bioethanol dehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patraşcu, Iulian; Bildea, Costin Sorin; Kiss, Anton A.

    Recently, a novel heat-pump-assisted extractive distillation process taking place in a dividing-wall column was proposed for bioethanol dehydration. This integrated design combines three distillation columns into a single unit that allows over 40% energy savings and low specific energy requirements

  5. Anti-polymerization activity of tea and fruits extracts during rapeseed oil heating. (United States)

    Kmiecik, Dominik; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Korczak, Józef


    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of natural antioxidants on polymerization of partially hydrogenated rapeseed oil heated in 170°C for 40h. In the research ethanolic extracts of green tea leaves (China Lung Ching), yellow tea leaves (China Kakecha), cranberry, blackberry, and lime were used. The yellow and green tea extracts were characterized by the highest content of total polyphenol and antioxidant activity. Polymers of triacylglycerols were found only in the polar fraction of heated oil. During heating, the increase of dimers, trimers, and oligomers was observed. However, it was dependent on the used additives and not directly related to the content of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. The final content of polymers in oil samples increased in the fallowing order: green teaoil without additives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Capability of air filters to retain airborne bacteria and molds in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. (United States)

    Möritz, M; Peters, H; Nipko, B; Rüden, H


    The capability of air filters (filterclass: F6, F7) to retain airborne outdoor microorganisms was examined in field experiments in two heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. At the beginning of the 15-month investigation period, the first filter stages of both HVAC systems were equipped with new unused air filters. The number of airborne bacteria and molds before and behind the filters were determined simultaneously in 14 days-intervals using 6-stage Andersen cascade impactors. Under relatively dry ( 12 degrees C) outdoor air conditions air filters led to a marked reduction of airborne microorganism concentrations (bacteria by approximately 70% and molds by > 80%). However, during long periods of high relative humidity (> 80% R. H.) a proliferation of bacteria on air filters with subsequent release into the filtered air occurred. These microorganisms were mainly smaller than 1.1 microns therefore being part of the respirable fraction. The results showed furthermore that one possibility to avoid microbial proliferation is to limit the relative humidity in the area of the air filters to 80% R. H. (mean of 3 days), e.g. by using preheaters in front of air filters in HVAC-systems.

  7. Heat Transfer Capability of (Ethylene Glycol + Water)-Based Nanofluids Containing Graphene Nanoplatelets: Design and Thermophysical Profile (United States)

    Cabaleiro, D.; Colla, L.; Barison, S.; Lugo, L.; Fedele, L.; Bobbo, S.


    This research aims at studying the stability and thermophysical properties of nanofluids designed as dispersions of sulfonic acid-functionalized graphene nanoplatelets in an (ethylene glycol + water) mixture at (10:90)% mass ratio. Nanofluid preparation conditions were defined through a stability analysis based on zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity, and density were experimentally measured in the temperature range from 283.15 to 343.15 K and nanoparticle mass concentrations of up to 0.50% by using a transient plate source, a rotational rheometer, and a vibrating-tube technique, respectively. Thermal conductivity enhancements reach up to 5% without a clear effect of temperature while rheological tests evidence a Newtonian behavior of the studied nanofluids. Different equations such as the Nan, Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT), or Maron-Pierce (MP) models were utilized to describe the temperature or nanoparticle concentration dependences of thermal conductivity and viscosity. Finally, different figures of merit based on the experimental values of thermophysical properties were also used to compare the heat transfer capability and pumping power between nanofluids and base fluid.

  8. Spectroscopic analysis of the role of extractives on heat-induced discoloration of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) (United States)

    Yao Chen; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Nicole M. Stark


    To investigate the role of extractives on heat-induced discoloration of wood, samples of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood flour were extracted with various solvents prior to heat-treatment. Analysis of their color parameters and chromophoric structures showed that the chroma value of the unextracted sample decreased while that of the...

  9. Antrodia camphorata extract induces replicative senescence in superficial TCC, and inhibits the absolute migration capability in invasive bladder carcinoma cells. (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Su, Ching-Hua; Hsieh-Li, Hsiu Mei


    The Antrodia camphorata crude extract (ACCE), an extract obtained from a precious traditional Chinese folkloric herbal medicine Zhan-Ku (a camphor tree mushroom) since the 18th century, has showed rather significant inhibitory effects on the growth and proliferation of the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) cell lines RT4, TSGH-8301, and T24. On treatment with ACCE at 100 microg/mL, the p53-independent overexpression of p21 with simultaneous down alteration of pRb was observed in RT4, which was thus speculative of proceeding through a mechanism of replicative senescence. On the contrary treatment with ACCE, at 50 microg/mL, resulting in simultaneous down-regulations of Cdc2 and Cyclin B1, with suppression of the absolute migrating capability of the two cell lines TSGH-8301 and T24, and eventually the cell deaths. We conclude that ACCE can be rather effective and beneficial in suppression of both the superficial cancer cell line RT4 and the metastatic cell lines (TSGH-8301 and T24) through different mechanisms.

  10. Precipitation of sword bean proteins by heating and addition of magnesium chloride in a crude extract. (United States)

    Nishizawa, Kaho; Masuda, Tetsuya; Takenaka, Yasuyuki; Masui, Hironori; Tani, Fumito; Arii, Yasuhiro


    Sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) seeds are a traditional food in Asian countries. In this study, we aimed to determine the optimal methods for the precipitation of sword bean proteins useful for the food development. The soaking time for sword beans was determined by comparing it with that for soybeans. Sword bean proteins were extracted from dried seeds in distilled water using novel methods. We found that most proteins could be precipitated by heating the extract at more than 90 °C. Interestingly, adding magnesium chloride to the extract at lower temperatures induced specific precipitation of a single protein with a molecular weight of approximately 48 kDa. The molecular weight and N-terminal sequence of the precipitated protein was identical to that of canavalin. These data suggested that canavalin was precipitated by the addition of magnesium chloride to the extract. Our results provide important insights into the production of processed foods from sword bean.

  11. An experimental and theoretical investigation on heat transfer capability of Mg (OH)2/MWCNT-engine oil hybrid nano-lubricant adopted as a coolant and lubricant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Asadi, Meisam; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza


    The major objective of the present study is to investigate the heat transfer capability of Mg (OH)2/MWCNT- engine oil hybrid nano-lubricant. First, the effects of temperature and Solid volume fraction on the dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of Mg (OH)2/MWCNT- engine oil hybrid nano...... been proposed. Finally, the heat transfer capability of the nanofluid has been theoretically investigated in both the internal laminar and turbulent flow regimes and it is found that the studied nanofluid can be advantageous in heat transfer applications....... of the nanofluid showed increasing trend as the solid concentration and temperature increased. The minimum and maximum enhancement were about 13% and 50%, respectively. Based on experimental data, two new trustworthy correlations to predict the dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nano-lubricant has...

  12. Purification of Single-Wall carbon nanotubes by heat treatment and supercritical extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bertoncini


    Full Text Available Arc discharge is the most practical method for the synthesis of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT. However, the production of SWCNT by this technique has low selectivity and yield, requiring further purification steps. This work is a study of purification of SWCNT by heat treatment in an inert atmosphere followed by supercritical fluid extraction. The raw arc discharge material was first heat-treated at 1250 °C under argon. The nanotubes were further submitted to an extraction process using supercritical CO2 as solvent. A surfactant (tributylphosphate, TBP and a chelating agent (hexafluoroacetylacetone, HFA were used together to eliminate metallic impurities from the remaining arc discharge catalysts. Analysis of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES showed an efficient removal of iron and cobalt (>80%. The purified nanotubes were further analyzed by TGA and Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Developing Algorithms to Improve Defect Extraction and Suppressing Undesired Heat Patterns in Sonic IR Images (United States)

    Obeidat, Omar; Yu, Qiuye; Han, Xiaoyan


    Sonic IR imaging is an emerging NDE technology. This technology uses short pulses of ultrasonic excitation together with infrared imaging to detect defects in materials and structures. Sonic energy is coupled to the specimen under inspection by means of direct contact between the transducer tip and the specimen at some convenient point. This region which is normally in the field of view of the camera appears as intensity peak in the image which might be misinterpreted as defects or obscure the detection and/or extraction of the defect signals in the proximity of the contact region. Moreover, certain defects may have very small heat signature or being buried in noise. In this paper, we present algorithms to improve defect extraction and suppression of undesired heat patterns in sonic IR images. Two approaches are presented, each fits to a specific category of sonic IR images.

  14. Effects of Piper sarmentosum extract on the growth performance, antioxidant capability and immune response in weaned piglets. (United States)

    Wang, D F; Zhou, L L; Zhou, H L; Hou, G Y; Zhou, X; Li, W


    The biological properties of Piper sarmentosum render it a potential substitute for antibiotics in livestock feed. This study evaluated the effects of P. sarmentosum extract (PSE) on the growth performance, antioxidant capability and immune response of weaned piglets. Eighty 21-d-old weaned piglets were selected and randomly allocated to one of four dietary treatments with five replicates of four pigs each. The dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet supplemented with 0 (T0), 50 (T50), 100 (T100) or 200 (T200) mg/kg PSE. The feeding trial lasted 4 weeks. The results revealed that the T50 group had the highest average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) throughout the feeding trial (p < 0.05). Additionally, the T50 group had higher (p < 0.05) serum glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px) and lower (p < 0.05) serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels than the T0 group at 4 weeks post-weaning (p < 0.05). Serum levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) decreased, while serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) increased by PSE supplementation at 4 weeks post-weaning (p < 0.05). PSE supplementation upregulated the mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β and downregulated the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the ileal mucosal layer of piglets (p < 0.05). In summary, our study findings revealed that PSE supplementation improved the antioxidant capability, and reduced inflammation, which may be beneficial to weaned piglet health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Effect of heat treatment of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the antioxidant potential of their extracts. (United States)

    Terpinc, Petra; Polak, Tomaz; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Abramovic, Helena


    The effect of different heat treatments of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of their hydrolyzed extracts was investigated. The results showed that total phenol contents increased in thermally treated seeds. Heat treatment affected also the quantities of individual phenolic compounds in extracts. Phenolics in unheated camelina seeds existed in bound rather than in free form. A temperature of 160 °C was required for release of insoluble bound phenolics, whereas lower temperatures were found to be optimal to liberate those present as soluble conjugates. The best reducing power and alkyl peroxyl radical scavenging activity in the emulsion was expressed by phenolics which were bound to the cell wall, whereas the best iron chelators and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavengers were found to be those present in free form. The heat treatment of seeds up to 120 °C increased the reducing power and DPPH• radical scavenging ability of extracts, but negatively affected iron chelating ability and their activity in an emulsion against alkyl peroxyl radicals.

  16. A novel laparoscopic grasper with two parallel jaws capable of extracting the mechanical behaviour of soft tissues. (United States)

    Nazarynasab, Dariush; Farahmand, Farzam; Mirbagheri, Alireza; Afshari, Elnaz


    Data related to force-deformation behaviour of soft tissue plays an important role in medical/surgical applications such as realistically modelling mechanical behaviour of soft tissue as well as minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and medical diagnosis. While the mechanical behaviour of soft tissue is very complex due to its different constitutive components, some issues increase its complexity like behavioural changes between the live and dead tissues. Indeed, an adequate quantitative description of mechanical behaviour of soft tissues requires high quality in vivo experimental data to be obtained and analysed. This paper describes a novel laparoscopic grasper with two parallel jaws capable of obtaining compressive force-deformation data related to mechanical behaviour of soft tissues. This new laparoscopic grasper includes four sections as mechanical hardware, sensory part, electrical/electronical part and data storage part. By considering a unique design for mechanical hardware, data recording conditions will be close to unconfined-compression-test conditions; so obtained data can be properly used in extracting the mechanical behaviour of soft tissues. Also, the other distinguishing feature of this new system is its applicability during different laparoscopic surgeries and subsequently obtaining in vivo data. However, more preclinical examinations are needed to evaluate the practicality of the novel laparoscopic grasper with two parallel jaws.

  17. The effectiveness of Nigella sativa seed extract in inhibiting Candida albicans on heat cured acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanoem EH


    Full Text Available Background: Indonesia has a variety of plants that can be used for medicines. One of the medicinal plants is Nigella sativa. Nigella sativa has been used for medicinal purposes, both as medicinal herb and as medicinal oil. It contains saponin and atsiri oils that have antifungal, antimicrobial and antibacterial effects. Nigella sativa has been suggested as denture cleansers since it can inhibit the growth of Candida albicans (C. albicans on heat cured acrylic resin. Purpose: The aim of this research is to know the effectiveness of Nigella sativa seed extract in inhibiting the growth of C. albicans on heat cured acrylic resin. Methods: Eighteen acrylic samples were divided into three groups. Group I was control group, only contaminated with C. albicans without immersing in any solution. Group II was acrylic sample immersed in sterile aquades for one hour. Group III was acrylic sample immersed in Nigella sativa seed extract for one hour. Results: There were significant differences of C. albicans (p < 0.05 among the three groups. The number of Candida albicans was significantly higher in Group I, while that in group II was lower than that in group I, and that in group III was the lowest. Conclusion: Nigella sativa seed extract was effective in inhibiting the growth of C. albicans on heat cured acrylic resin.Latar belakang: Indonesia memiliki berbagai tanaman yang dapat dipakai sebagai obat, salah satu tanaman tersebut adalah jinten hitam (Nigella sativa. Pada beberapa negara jinten hitam telah digunakan untuk berbagai tujuan, baik sebagai obat herbal maupun sebagai minyak. kandungan jinten hitam adalah saponin dan minyak atsiri yang mempunyai efek anti jamur dan anti mikroba. Jinten hitam disarankan sebagai pilihan pembersih gigi tiruan yang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans (C. albicans pada resin akrilik heat cured. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui efektivitas dari ekstrak biji jinten hitam dalam menghambat pertumbuhan

  18. Synthesis of polystyrene, poly(styrene/4-vinylpyridine), poly(p-nitrostyrene) and poly(p-aminostyrene)-coated silica and their extraction capabilities for amphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Changmei; Zhang Shuanhong [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai, Shandong 264025 (China); Qu Rongjun, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai, Shandong 264025 (China); Sun Tao; Zhang Ying; Zhang Xiang; Song Jingyang [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai, Shandong 264025 (China)


    Several novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials, including polystyrene-coated silica (SG-PS), poly(styrene/4-vinylpyridine)-coated silica (SG-PVP), poly(p-nitrostyrene)-coated silica (SG-PS-NO{sub 2}) and poly(p-aminostyrene)-coated silica (SG-PS-NH{sub 2}), were synthesized in order to improve the extraction methods of harmful stimulants via solid phase extraction. The materials were characterized using infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The application of the new materials in solid phase extraction columns to extract methamphetamine revealed that the extraction capability of poly(styrene/4-vinylpyridine)-coated silica is the best among the four materials, which provides novel supporter materials for extracting amphetamine-derived drugs.

  19. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Atena Poiana


    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT, inhibition of oil oxidation (IO and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%, p-AV (29%; 40%, CD (45%; 30%, CT (41%; 36%, TOTOX (35%; 37%. GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  20. Enhancing oxidative stability of sunflower oil during convective and microwave heating using grape seed extract. (United States)

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena


    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600-800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  1. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract (United States)

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena


    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications. PMID:22942764

  2. Recovery of oxygenated ignitable liquids by zeolites, Part II: Dual-mode heated passive headspace extraction. (United States)

    Rodgers, Corissa L; St Pierre, Kathryne A; Hall, Adam B


    Previous studies performed by our research group have suggested that zeolites are a suitable adsorbent for the recovery of oxygenates from fire debris through heated passive headspace extraction. Zeolite 13X, in particular, has been shown to be effective for recovering analytes with molecular diameters smaller than 10Å. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of zeolite 13X to heated headspace extraction for the recovery of ignitable liquids. Comparative recoveries of petroleum and alcohol-based ignitable liquid mixtures were studied utilizing activated charcoal strips and zeolites, individually and in tandem. In the presence of both adsorption media within the same sample can, activated charcoal strips recovered the majority of gasoline components, while zeolites recovered the majority of oxygenated compounds. This phenomenon was attributed to the size exclusion properties, polarity, and available surface area of zeolites. This research supports the use of zeolites with activated charcoal strips in a "dual-mode" preparation for casework in which the presence of an ignitable liquid is suspected. The described method allows for the recovery and concentration of ignitable liquid residues in a single extraction procedure, whether the ignitable liquid is petroleum-based or oxygenated in nature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rotation Effect on Jet Impingement Heat Transfer in Smooth Rectangular Channels with Film Coolant Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Parsons


    Full Text Available The effect of channel rotation on jet impingement cooling by arrays of circular jets in twin channels was studied. Impinging jet flows were in the direction of rotation in one channel and opposite to the direction of rotation in the other channel. The jets impinged normally on the smooth, heated target wall in each channel. The spent air exited the channels through extraction holes in each target wall, which eliminates cross flow on other jets. Jet rotation numbers and jet Reynolds numbers varied from 0.0 to 0.0028 and 5000 to 10,000, respectively. For the target walls with jet flow in the direction of rotation (or opposite to the direction of rotation, as rotation number increases heat transfer decreases up to 25% (or 15% as compared to corresponding results for non-rotating conditions. This is due to the changes in flow distribution and rotation induced Coriolis and centrifugal forces.

  4. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging (United States)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.


    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  5. Administration of extract Salix tetrasperma combined with extract of turmeric and neem to improve eggs quality of chicken reared under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Quality of eggs might decrease when hens under heat stress. A further study found that a specific plant extracts could reduce the impacts of heat stress. The aim of this study was to determine effects of Salix tetrasperma plant extract in combination with extract of turmeric and neem to improve egg quality and productivity of laying hens under heat stress. Sixty laying hens strain Isa Brown of 6 months old were used and reared in individual cages. The feed and drinking water were supplied ad libitum. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design with five treatments (two controls and three treatments and each treatment consisted of 12 replication. Treatment consisted of with (KP and without (KP commercial anti-stress supplement. Formulations of extract were S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l water (EJ, S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 250 mg / l + neem 250 mg / l (EJ+K1, and S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 500 mg / l + neem 500 mg / l drinking water (EJ+K2. The hens were exposed to heat stress for 5 hours per day at a temperature range of 34.0±1.0°C. Supplements were dissolved in drinking water and were given for 30 days in the morning and noon. Results showed that a single extract of S. tetrasperma or the combination of an extract of turmeric and neem were significantly increased thickness of eggshell (P<0.05, but did not affect color of egg yolk, height albumin, egg weight, and HU value. Extract of S. tetrasperma combined with turmeric and neem extract dissolved in drinking water for 30 days in laying hens reared under heat stress could not improved quality of the eggs, but may increase thickness of the egg shell and cause decreased water consumption.

  6. Inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in orange juice by saponin extracts combined with heat-treatment. (United States)

    Alberice, Juliana Vieira; Funes-Huacca, Maribel Elizabeth; Guterres, Sheila Barreto; Carrilho, Emanuel


    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a spoilage-causing bacterium in fruit juices. The inactivation of this bacterium by commercial saponin and saponin purified extract from Sapindus saponaria fruits combined with heat-treatment is described. We investigated heat treatment (87, 90, 95, and 99°C) with incubation time ranging from 0 to 50min, in both concentrated and reconstituted juice. Juices were inoculated with 1.0×10(4)CFU/mL of A. acidoterrestris spores for the evaluation of the best temperature for inactivation. For the temperatures of 87, 90, and 95°C counts of cell viability decreased rapidly within the first 10 to 20min of incubation in both concentrated and reconstituted juices; inactivation at 99°C ensued within 1 and 2min. Combination of commercial saponin (100mg/L) with a very short incubation time (1min) at 99°C showed a reduction of 2.34 log cycle for concentrated juice A. acidoterrestris spores (1.0×10(4)CFU/mL) in the first 24h of incubation after treatments. The most efficient treatment was reached with 300, 400 or 500mg/L of purified extract of saponins from S. saponaria after 5days of incubation in concentrated juice, and after 5days with 300 and 400mg/L or 72h with 500mg/L in reconstituted juice. Commercial saponin and purified extracts from S. saponaria had similar inactivation power on A. acidoterrestris spores, without significant differences (P>0.05). Therefore, purified extract of saponins can be an alternative for the control of A. acidoterrestris in fruit juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extracts Obtained from Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Ziziphus mucronata Exhibit Antiplasmodial Activity and Inhibit Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70 Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Zininga


    Full Text Available Malaria parasites are increasingly becoming resistant to currently used antimalarial therapies, therefore there is an urgent need to expand the arsenal of alternative antimalarial drugs. In addition, it is also important to identify novel antimalarial drug targets. In the current study, extracts of two plants, Pterocarpus angolensis and Ziziphus mucronata were obtained and their antimalarial functions were investigated. Furthermore, we explored the capability of the extracts to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 function. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 are molecular chaperones whose function is to facilitate protein folding. Plasmodium falciparum the main agent of malaria, expresses two cytosol-localized Hsp70s: PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z. The PfHsp70-z has been reported to be essential for parasite survival, while inhibition of PfHsp70-1 function leads to parasite death. Hence both PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z are potential antimalarial drug targets. Extracts of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited the basal ATPase and chaperone functions of the two parasite Hsp70s. Furthermore, fractions of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited P. falciparum 3D7 parasite growth in vitro. The extracts obtained in the current study exhibited antiplasmodial activity as they killed P. falciparum parasites maintained in vitro. In addition, the findings further suggest that some of the compounds in P. angolensis and Z. mucronata may target parasite Hsp70 function.

  8. Carotenoids, Fatty Acid Composition and Heat Stability of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Extracted-Oleoresins (United States)

    Longo, Cristiano; Leo, Lucia; Leone, Antonella


    The risk of chronic diseases has been shown to be inversely related to tomato intake and the lycopene levels in serum and tissue. Cis-isomers represent approximately 50%–80% of serum lycopene, while dietary lycopene maintains the isomeric ratio present in the plant sources with about 95% of all-trans-lycopene. Supercritical CO2 extraction (S-CO2) has been extensively developed to extract lycopene from tomato and tomato processing wastes, for food or pharmaceutical industries, also by using additional plant sources as co-matrices. We compared two S-CO2-extracted oleoresins (from tomato and tomato/hazelnut matrices), which showed an oil-solid bi-phasic appearance, a higher cis-lycopene content, and enhanced antioxidant ability compared with the traditional solvent extracts. Heat-treating, in the range of 60–100 °C, led to changes in the lycopene isomeric composition and to enhanced antioxidant activity in both types of oleoresins. The greater stability has been related to peculiar lycopene isomer composition and to the lipid environment. The results indicate these oleoresins are a good source of potentially healthful lycopene. PMID:22605975

  9. Aqueous extracts of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibit high antioxidant capability and promising in vitro antitumor activity. (United States)

    Finimundy, T C; Gambato, G; Fontana, R; Camassola, M; Salvador, M; Moura, S; Hess, J; Henriques, J A P; Dillon, A J P; Roesch-Ely, M


    Mushroom extracts are increasingly sold as dietary supplements because of several of their properties, including the enhancement of immune function and antitumor activity. We hypothesized that soluble polar substances present in mushroom extracts may show antioxidant and anticancer properties. This report shows that Brazilian aqueous extracts of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju exert inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the human tumor cell lines laryngeal carcinoma (Hep-2) and cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa). Cell viability was determined after using 3 different temperatures (4°C, 22°C, and 50°C) for mushroom extraction. Biochemical assays carried out in parallel indicated higher amounts of polyphenols in the L edodes extracts at all extraction temperatures investigated. The scavenging ability of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher activity for L edodes extracts. Superoxide dismutase-like activity showed no statistically significant difference among the groups for the 2 tested extracts, and catalase-like activity was increased with the L edodes extracts at 4°C. The results for the cytotoxic activity from P sajor-caju extracts at 22°C revealed the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.64% ± 0.02% for Hep-2 and 0.25% ± 0.02% for HeLa. A higher cytotoxic activity was found for the L edodes extract at 22°C, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.78% ± 0.02% for Hep-2 and 0.57% ± 0.01% for HeLa. Substantial morphological modifications in cells were confirmed by Giemsa staining after treatment with either extract, suggesting inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis with increasing extract concentrations. These results indicate that the aqueous extracts of Brazilian L edodes and P sajor-caju mushrooms are potential sources of antioxidant and anticancer compounds. However, further investigations are needed to exploit their valuable therapeutic uses and to elucidate their modes of

  10. Assessment of Coping Capability of KORI Unit 1 under Extended Loss AC Power and Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink Initiated by Beyond Design Natural Disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Ha, Sang Jun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kee Soo [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution (NESS) Co. Ltd., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan Eok [KEPCO Engineering and Constructd., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In Korea, the government and industry performed comprehensive safety inspection on all domestic nuclear power plants against beyond design basis external events and fifty action items have been issued. In addition to post- Fukushima action items, the stress tests for all domestic nuclear power plants are on the way to enhance the safety of domestic nuclear power plants through finding the vulnerabilities in intentional stress conditions initiated by beyond design natural disaster. This paper presents assessment results of coping capability of KORI Unit 1 under the simultaneous Extended Loss of AC Power (ELAP) and Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink (LUHS) which is a representative plant condition initiated by beyond design natural disaster. The assessment of the coping capability of KORI Unit 1 has been performed under simultaneous the extended loss of AC power and loss of ultimate heat sink initiated by beyond design natural disaster. It is concluded that KORI Unit 1 has the capability, in the event of loss of safety functions by beyond design natural disaster, to sufficiently cool down the reactor core without fuel damage, to keep pressure boundaries of the reactor coolant system in transient condition and to control containment and temperature to maintain the integrity of the containment buildings.

  11. Can a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) maintain air purification capability when using polluted air for regeneration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Fang, Lei


    was experimentally studied. The results showed that using the air contained acetone or toluene for regeneration reduced the pollutants removal capability of CAHP with a reduction of approx. 10% in air cleaning efficiency. The energy performance of the CAHP when using exhaust air for regeneration was also evaluated...... on reducing the regeneration air temperature and further improving the energy performance of the CAHP. However, the exhaust air carried a lot of indoor air pollutants. Whether using exhaust air for the regeneration of the silica gel rotor had an impact on the air cleaning performance of the CAHP...

  12. Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical modeling of heat extraction from the Tattapani geothermal field, India (United States)

    Nand Pandey, Sachchida; Vishal, Vikram


    Modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in enhanced geothermal systems is presented using the finite element method of modeling for a 3-D domain. The reservoir consists of a single horizontal fracture surrounded by low permeable rock matrix. The flow is imposed on a fracture plane, consisting of a doublet system. The reservoir rock mechanical properties were taken from the field data of the Tattapani geothermal field, India. We investigate the effects of injection temperature and mass flow rate on the energy output. The results indicate that temperature and pressure changes within the reservoirs occur due to injection of cold water. The temperature drop and fluid overpressure inside the reservoirs/fracture affect the transport properties of the fracture. The spatial-temporal variations of fracture aperture inside the reservoir greatly impact the thermal drawdown and therefore net energy output. The results showed that maximum aperture evolution occurs near the injection zone than the production zone. The fracture aperture evolution is a result of combined effects of thermal stress and fluid overpressure inside the fracture. The fracture opening reduces the injection pressure required to circulate the fixed volume of water. The effects of the injection temperature on heat extraction were also analyzed under different reservoir formations. The results indicate that reservoir permeability plays a significant role on heat extraction, highlighting the important effect of water losses. For each factor, it is concluded that thermal breakthrough primarily depends on injection temperate, mass flow rate, reservoir permeability and well distances. The results of this study can help in choosing the operational parameters for successful operation of geothermal system. The study will also be helpful to optimize the EGS performance under varying reservoir conditions.

  13. The development and testing of the thermal break divertor monoblock target design delivering 20 MW m‑2 heat load capability (United States)

    Fursdon, M.; Barrett, T.; Domptail, F.; Evans, Ll M.; Luzginova, N.; Greuner, N. H.; You, J.-H.; Li, M.; Richou, M.; Gallay, F.; Visca, E.


    The design and development of a novel plasma facing component (for fusion power plants) is described. The component uses the existing ‘monoblock’ construction which consists of a tungsten ‘block’ joined via a copper interlayer to a through CuCrZr cooling pipe. In the new concept the interlayer stiffness and conductivity properties are tuned so that stress in the principal structural element of the component (the cooling pipe) is reduced. Following initial trials with off-the-shelf materials, the concept was realized by machined features in an otherwise solid copper interlayer. The shape and distribution of the features were tuned by finite element analyses subject to ITER structural design criterion in-vessel components (SDC-IC) design rules. Proof of concept mock-ups were manufactured using a two stage brazing process verified by tomography and micrographic inspection. Full assemblies were inspected using ultrasound and thermographic (SATIR) test methods at ENEA and CEA respectively. High heat flux tests using IPP’s GLADIS facility showed that 200 cycles at 20 MW m‑2 and five cycles at 25 MW m‑2 could be sustained without apparent component damage. Further testing and component development is planned.

  14. Urban Heat Island Simulations in Guangzhou, China, Using the Coupled WRF/UCM Model with a Land Use Map Extracted from Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Chen


    Full Text Available The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model coupled with an Urban Canopy Model (UCM was used for studying urban environmental issues. Because land use data employed in the WRF model do not agree with the current situation around Guangzhou, China, the performance of WRF/UCM with new land-use data extracted from Remote Sensing (RS data was evaluated in early August 2012. Results from simulations reveal that experiments with the extracted data are capable of reasonable reproductions of the majority of the observed temporal characteristics of the 2-m temperature, and can capture the characteristics of Urban Heat Island (UHI. The “UCM_12” simulation, which employed the extracted land-use data with the WRF/UCM model, provided the best reproduction of the 2-m temperature data evolution and the smallest minimum absolute average error when compared with the other two experiments without coupled UCM. The contributions of various factors to the UHI effect were analyzed by comparing the energy equilibrium processes of “UCM_12” in urban and suburban areas. Analysis revealed that energy equilibrium processes with new land use data can explain the diurnal character of the UHI intensity variation. Furthermore, land use data extracted from RS can be used to simulate the UHI.

  15. Investigating the Capability to Extract Impulse Response Functions From Ambient Seismic Noise Using a Mine Collapse Event (United States)

    Kwak, Sangmin; Song, Seok Goo; Kim, Geunyoung; Cho, Chang Soo; Shin, Jin Soo


    Using recordings of a mine collapse event (Mw 4.2) in South Korea in January 2015, we demonstrated that the phase and amplitude information of impulse response functions (IRFs) can be effectively retrieved using seismic interferometry. This event is equivalent to a single downward force at shallow depth. Using quantitative metrics, we compared three different seismic interferometry techniques—deconvolution, coherency, and cross correlation—to extract the IRFs between two distant stations with ambient seismic noise data. The azimuthal dependency of the source distribution of the ambient noise was also evaluated. We found that deconvolution is the best method for extracting IRFs from ambient seismic noise within the period band of 2-10 s. The coherency method is also effective if appropriate spectral normalization or whitening schemes are applied during the data processing.

  16. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E.M.


    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60,

  17. Ultrasound-assisted heating extraction of pectin from grapefruit peel: optimization and comparison with the conventional method. (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Ma, Xiaobin; Xu, Yuting; Cao, Yongqiang; Jiang, Zhumao; Ding, Tian; Ye, Xingqian; Liu, Donghong


    The extraction of pectin from grapefruit peel by ultrasound-assisted heating extraction (UAHE) was investigated using response surface methodology and compared with the conventional heating extraction (CHE). The optimized conditions were power intensity of 12.56 W/cm(2), extraction temperature of 66.71°C, and sonication time of 27.95 min. The experimental optimized yield was 27.34%, which was well matched with the predicted value (27.46%). Compared with CHE, UAHE provided higher yield increased by 16.34% at the temperature lowered by 13.3°C and the time shortened by 37.78%. Image studies showed that pectin extracted by UAHE showed better color and more loosen microstructure compared to that extracted by CHE, although Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis indicated insignificant difference in their chemical structures. Furthermore, UAHE pectin possessed lower viscosity, molecular weight and degree of esterification, but higher degree of branching and purity than CHE pectin, indicating that the former was preliminarily modified during the extraction process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The In Vitro and In Vivo Osteogenic Capability of the Extraction Socket-Derived Early Healing Tissue. (United States)

    Luo, Jia; Xu, Jing; Cai, Jun; Wang, Limei; Sun, Qinfeng; Yang, Pishan


    Healed extraction socket is one autologous bone source. Extraction socket-derived early healing tissue (ESEHT) contains stem cells, osteoblasts, and growth factors, suggesting that it should have an osteogenic potential. The objective of this preliminary study is to explore the in vitro and in vivo osteogenic ability of ESEHT. ESEHT from 2-week healing extraction sockets and proper alveolar bone (PAB) from interdental septa or surrounding socket walls were acquired from beagle dogs. For in vitro experiments, ESEHT and PAB were separately cocultured with mouse bone marrow-derived stromal cell lines (st2 cells) using a transwell system. The effect of ESEHT or PAB on migration, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of st2 cells was investigated. For in vivo study, 36 inflammatory Class II furcation defects in the bilateral mandibles of dogs were surgically created, and then ESEHT and PAB from the maxilla of the same dogs were implanted into defects. Histologic observation and histometric analysis were performed after an 8-week healing period. The in vitro results indicated that ESEHT and PAB significantly promoted cellular migration, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, expressions of bone sialoprotein, and Runt-related transcription factor 2 in messenger RNA and protein levels and, moreover, that ESEHT showed stronger activities than PAB except in chemotactic activity. The in vivo tests showed that ESEHT and PAB had a similar function in enhancing percentages of regenerated cementum and regenerated bone, which were significantly higher than those in blank control groups. Results showed that ESEHT possesses better effects on migration, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro but similar promotion effect on periodontal regeneration in vivo compared with PAB, suggesting that ESEHT may be one of the most effective graft materials for periodontal regeneration.

  19. An experimental and theoretical investigation on heat transfer capability of Mg (OH)2/MWCNT-engine oil hybrid nano-lubricant adopted as a coolant and lubricant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Asadi, Meisam; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza


    The major objective of the present study is to investigate the heat transfer capability of Mg (OH)2/MWCNT- engine oil hybrid nano-lubricant. First, the effects of temperature and Solid volume fraction on the dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of Mg (OH)2/MWCNT- engine oil hybrid nano...... Newtonian behavior in all the studied temperatures and solid concentrations. Furthermore, the experimental results indicated that the dynamic viscosity of the nano-lubricant increases with an increase in solid concentration while it decreases with an increase in temperature. The thermal conductivity...... of the nanofluid showed increasing trend as the solid concentration and temperature increased. The minimum and maximum enhancement were about 13% and 50%, respectively. Based on experimental data, two new trustworthy correlations to predict the dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nano-lubricant has...

  20. Speciation of vanadium in coal mining, industrial, and agricultural soil samples using different extractants and heating systems. (United States)

    Khan, Sumaira; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Ullah, Naeem; Dev, Kapil


    A fast microwave-assisted extraction procedure was developed for the speciation of vanadium (V) species in soil samples collected from the vicinity of the Lakhra coal power plant (situated near a coal mining area) and industrial and agricultural areas. Soil samples were treated with two extracting reagents, (NH4)2HPO4 (0.2-1 M) and Na2CO3 (0.1-0.5 M), and heated by conventional and microwave methods for different time intervals to extract V+5 species. The V+4 and total V were extracted from filtration residue and the same subsamples of soil by treating with the acid mixture of HNO3-HCl-HClO4-H2SO4 (1:1:1:1, v/v/v/v). No significant difference between V+5 contents obtained by conventional heating and microwave-assisted extraction was observed (P = 0.485). The extraction efficiency of 0.6 M (NH4)2HPO4 for V+5 was lower (4-7%) than that obtained by 0.2 M Na2CO3 solution. The levels of V+5 were higher in soil samples collected from the vicinity of the Lakhra coal power plant and industrial areas, compared to those obtained from agricultural soil.

  1. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH. (United States)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; van Boekel, Martinus; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E M

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60, 90 and 120 °C for 30 min led to protein denaturation and aggregation, which was enhanced at higher treatment temperatures. The in vitro gastric digestibility measured during 6 h was lower for protein extracts pre-treated at 90 and 120 °C compared to 60 °C. The digestibility decreased with increasing extraction pH, which could be ascribed to protein aggregation. Protein digestibility of the quinoa protein isolates was higher compared to wholemeal quinoa flour. We conclude that an interactive effect of processing temperature and extraction pH on in vitro gastric digestibility of quinoa protein isolates obtained at various extraction pH is observed. This gives a first indication of how the nutritional value of quinoa protein could be influenced by heat processing, protein extraction conditions and other grain components.

  2. Heating Quality and Stability of Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Fatty Acid-Balanced Oil in Comparison with Other Blended Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li


    Full Text Available The heating performance of enzyme-assisted aqueous processing-extracted blended oil (EAEPO, hexane-extracted blended oil (HEBO, and three kinds of blended oils was investigated by varying the heating times. Oil degradation was monitored by analysis of the acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, color, and trans-fatty acid composition. The fatty acid ratios of EAEPO, HEBO, and the three kinds of blended oils were very similar (0.27 : 1.03 : 0.96, 0.27 : 1.08 : 1.16, 0.27 : 0.65 : 0.8, 0.27 : 0.6 : 0.84, and 0.27 : 0.61 : 0.79, resp.. The AV and color increased in proportion to the heating time for all the oils. There was a rapid increase in the PV and p-AV of EAEPO and HEBO after heating for only 1 h, whereas the other three blended oils showed a rapid increase after heating for 2 h or 6 h. Despite the highest trans-fatty acid content found for HEBO, this content was relatively low and remained low up to a heating time of 8 h. It was found that after heating, a fatty acid ratio relatively close to its ideal value (0.27 : 0.48 : 0.49 was maintained by EAEPO, which indicates that EAEPO is tolerant to heat treatment and is suitable for maintaining a healthy diet.

  3. Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchie Marie L. Lumbera


    Full Text Available There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0 through incubation at 42°C for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of 37°C for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to 400 μg/mL increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of

  4. Intelligent poly (vinyl alcohol)-chitosan nanoparticles-mulberry extracts films capable of monitoring pH variations. (United States)

    Ma, Qianyun; Liang, Tieqiang; Cao, Lele; Wang, Lijuan


    The aim of this study was to prepare a visually responsive intelligent film based on poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), chitosan nanoparticles (CHNPs) and mulberry extracts (MBE). CHNPs were first prepared by using ionotropic gelation method to enhance the mechanical properties of PVA based films. The morphology, particle size, zeta potential and crystallinity of CHNPs were measured. The resultant CHNPs were spherical with a diameter of 381.2nm, with high stability and a zeta potential of 49.1±1.33mV. The film with 6% CHNPs (P-C6) had the highest tensile strength (∼73.43MPa). MBE was incorporated into the P-C6 film. The film containing 20% MBE had the highest tensile strength and showed visible color responses to variations across pH 1-13. The film was tested by monitoring the spoilage of fish. The color of the film changed from red to green as the fish spoiled. Therefore, the pH responsive intelligent film developed here can be used as a package label to detect food spoilage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of heating rate and plant species on the size and uniformity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aromatic plant extracts (United States)

    Hernández-Pinero, Jorge Luis; Terrón-Rebolledo, Manuel; Foroughbakhch, Rahim; Moreno-Limón, Sergio; Melendrez, M. F.; Solís-Pomar, Francisco; Pérez-Tijerina, Eduardo


    Mixing aqueous silver solutions with aqueous leaf aromatic plant extracts from basil, mint, marjoram and peppermint resulted in the synthesis of quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles in a range of size between 2 and 80 nm in diameter as analyzed by analytical high-resolution electron microscopy. The average size could be controlled by applying heat to the initial reaction system at different rates of heating, and by the specific botanical species employed for the reaction. Increasing the rate of heating resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the size of the nanoparticles produced, regardless of the species employed. This fact was more evident in the case of marjoram, which decreased the average diameter from 27 nm at a slow rate of heating to 8 nm at a high rate of heating. With regard to the species, minimum sizes of mint yielded an average size between 10 and 25 nm. The results indicate that aromatic plant extracts can be used to achieve the controlled synthesis of metal nanoparticles.

  6. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; Boekel, van Tiny; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus


    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8

  7. Heat stability of strawberry anthocyanins in model solutions containing natural copigments extracted from rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) petals. (United States)

    Shikov, Vasil; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Mihalev, Kiril; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold


    Thermal degradation and color changes of purified strawberry anthocyanins in model solutions were studied upon heating at 85 degrees C by HPLC-DAD analyses and CIELCh measurements, respectively. The anthocyanin half-life values increased significantly due to the addition of rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) petal extracts enriched in natural copigments. Correspondingly, the color stability increased as the total color difference values were smaller for anthocyanins upon copigment addition, especially after extended heating. Furthermore, the stabilizing effect of rose petal polyphenols was compared with that of well-known copigments such as isolated kaempferol, quercetin, and sinapic acid. The purified rose petal extract was found to be a most effective anthocyanin-stabilizing agent at a molar pigment/copigment ratio of 1:2. The results obtained demonstrate that the addition of rose petal polyphenols slows the thermal degradation of strawberry anthocyanins, thus resulting in improved color retention without affecting the gustatory quality of the product.

  8. Heat

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Ellen


    Is it possible to make heat by rubbing your hands together? Why does an ice cube melt when you hold it? In this title, students will conduct experiments to help them understand what heat is. Kids will also investigate concepts such as which materials are good at conducting heat and which are the best insulators. Using everyday items that can easily be found around the house, students will transform into scientists as they carry out step-by-step experiments to answer interesting questions. Along the way, children will pick up important scientific skills. Heat includes seven experiments with detailed, age-appropriate instructions, surprising facts and background information, a "conclusions" section to pull all the concepts in the book together, and a glossary of science words. Colorful, dynamic designs and images truly put the FUN into FUN-damental Experiments.

  9. Aroma characterisation and retention after heat treatment and drying of fruits using extraction and GC-MS analysis


    Ráice, Rui


    This study concerns the identification and characterisation of volatile components of fruits, and evaluation of the effect of heat treatment and drying on retention or loss of volatiles of fruits. The investigation included developing a procedure to extract volatile components from the fruit matrix, a purification step, separation, identification and quantification. Initial experiments with Vangueria infausta L. showed that some components, especially sugars, degrade during ...

  10. Capability Paternalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269266224

    A capability approach prescribes paternalist government actions to the extent that it requires the promotion of specific functionings, instead of the corresponding capabilities. Capability theorists have argued that their theories do not have much of these paternalist implications, since promoting

  11. Enhancing natural product extraction and mass transfer using selective microwave heating


    Lee, Chai Siah; Binner, Eleanor; Winkworth-Smith, Charles; John, Rebecca; Gomes, R.L.; Robinson, John


    This study uses a combination of empirical observations and an analysis of mass transfer behaviour to yield new insights into the mechanism of microwave assisted extraction. Enhancements in extraction rate and yield were observed experimentally compared with conventional extraction at temperatures in excess of 50°C, however at lower temperatures there was no observable difference between the two processes. A step-change in extract yield between microwave and conventional processes was shown t...

  12. Antioxidant capacity, insecticidal ability and heat-oxidation stability of Tagetes lemmonii leaf extract. (United States)

    Ma, Chih-Ming; Cheng, Chih-Lun; Lee, Shang-Chieh; Hong, Gui-Bing


    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of process factors such as ethanol concentration, extraction time and temperature on the extraction yield and the bioactive contents of Tagetes lemmonii leaf extracts using response surface methodology (RSM). ANOVA results showed that the response variables were affected by the ethanol concentration to a very significant degree and by extraction temperature to a lesser degree. GC/MS characterization showed that the extract is rich in bioactive compounds and those present exhibited important biological activities such as antioxidant, insect repellence and insecticidal activities. The results from the toxicity assay demonstrate that the extract obtained from the leaves of Tagetes lemmonii was an effective insect toxin against Tribolium castaneum. The radical scavenging activity and p-anisidine test results of olive oil spiked with different concentrations of leaf extract showed that the phenolic compounds can retard lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction of anthocyanins from black corn cultivated in Tunshi-Chimborazo subjected to different heat treatments for scalding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Díaz


    Full Text Available In order to avoid the loss of anthocyanins during the preparation of black corn (Zea mays L. as food, and for the extraction of these metabolites for industrial purposes, it is necessary to determine the effect of several factors that influence its final content. The objective of this work was to extract anthocyanins from black corn cultivated in Tunshi-Chimborazo, Ecuador subjected to different heat treatments for scalding. Black corn seeds were used and planted manually. The corn cobs harvests were subjected to three scalding treatments (immersion in boiling water, steam and microwave with 160W of power with three times (3, 5 and 7 minutes. In addition, a control treatment was included without application of heat treatment. The content of total anthocyanins per sample was calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent per kg fresh mass (mg kg-1. The content of anthocyanins was found to vary with the heat treatment applied. The extraction times conditioned the differences in anthocyanin content only at the extreme values for immersion in boiling water. Heat treatment methods of black corn for sclading such as immersion in boiling water, steam and microwave with 160 W of power condition the anthocyanin content. The maximum reduction of the anthocyanin equivalent content of cyanidin in the black corn grains was obtained in the treatment with immersion in boiling water during 7 min where it was reduced in 79%, while the preservation in these of the content of anthocyanins was achieved with the use of microwave with 160W of power for 3 min.   Keywords: microwave, secondary metabolites, Zea mays

  14. Numerical investigation of the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir: a case study of the Daming geothermal field in China. (United States)

    Guo, Xuyang; Song, Hongqing; Killough, John; Du, Li; Sun, Pengguang


    The utilization of geothermal energy is clean and has great potential worldwide, and it is important to utilize geothermal energy in a sustainable manner. Mathematical modeling studies of geothermal reservoirs are important as they evaluate and quantify the complex multi-physical effects in geothermal reservoirs. However, previous modeling efforts lack the study focusing on the emission reduction efficiency and the deformation at geothermal wellbores caused by geothermal water extraction/circulation. Emission efficiency is rather relevant in geothermal projects introduced in areas characterized by elevated air pollution where the utilization of geothermal energy is as an alternative to burning fossil fuels. Deformation at geothermal wellbores is also relevant as significant deformation caused by water extraction can lead to geothermal wellbore instability and can consequently decrease the effectiveness of the heat extraction process in geothermal wells. In this study, the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir in Daming County, China, are numerically investigated based on a coupled multi-physical model. Relationships between the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction, deformation at geothermal well locations, and geothermal field parameters including well spacing, heat production rate, re-injection temperature, rock stiffness, and geothermal well placement patterns are analyzed. Results show that, although large heat production rates and low re-injection temperatures can lead to decreased heat production in the last 8 years of heat extraction, they still improve the overall heat production capacity and emission reduction capacity. Also, the emission reduction capacity is positively correlated with the heat production capacity. Deformation at geothermal wellbore locations is alleviated by smaller well spacing, lower heat production rates, and smaller numbers of injectors in the well pattern, and by

  15. Carotenoids, fatty acid composition and heat stability of supercritical carbon dioxide-extracted-oleoresins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longo, Cristiano; Leo, Lucia; Leone, Antonella


    .... We compared two S-CO(2)-extracted oleoresins (from tomato and tomato/hazelnut matrices), which showed an oil-solid bi-phasic appearance, a higher cis-lycopene content, and enhanced antioxidant ability compared with the traditional solvent extracts...

  16. Trace metals content (contaminants) as initial indicator in the quality of heat treated palm oil whole extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Fauzi, Noor Akhmazillah bt [Chemical and Bioprocess Department, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Sarmidi, Mohd Roji [Chemical Engineering Pilot Plant, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)


    An investigation was carried out on the effect of different sterilization time on the trace metals concentration of palm oil whole extract. Palm fruits were collected, cleaned and sterilized for 0, 20, 40 and 60 minutes. The kernels were then stripped from the sterilized fruits to get the pulp and later the pulp was pressed using small scale expeller. The resulting puree was centrifuge at 4000 rpm for 20 minutes. The palm oil whole extract were then collected and trace metals analysis was conducted using Inductively Couple Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The result showed that the highest yield was obtained at 40 minutes of sterilization with 19.9 {+-} 0.21 % (w/w). There was no significant different (p < 0.5) in total trace metals content between the degrees of the heat treatment. Na+ was found as the highest trace metals content in the extract with mean concentration ranging from 1.05 {+-} 0.03 ppm to 2.36 {+-} 0.01 ppm. 40 minutes of heating time was predicted to have good oil quality due to higher content in trace metals that inhibit the lipase enzyme activity.

  17. Numerical Investigation on the Heat Extraction Capacity of Dual Horizontal Wells in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Based on the 3-D THM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixue Sun


    Full Text Available The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS constructs an artificial thermal reservoir by hydraulic fracturing to extract heat economically from hot dry rock. As the core element of the EGS heat recovery process, mass and heat transfer of working fluid mainly occurs in fractures. Since the direction of the natural and induced fractures are generally perpendicular to the minimum principal stress in the formation, as an effective stimulation approach, horizontal well production could increase the contact area with the thermal reservoir significantly. In this paper, the thermal reservoir is developed by a dual horizontal well system and treated as a fractured porous medium composed of matrix rock and discrete fracture network. Using the local thermal non-equilibrium theory, a coupled THM mathematical model and an ideal 3D numerical model are established for the EGS heat extraction process. EGS heat extraction capacity is evaluated in the light of thermal recovery lifespan, average outlet temperature, heat production, electricity generation, energy efficiency and thermal recovery rate. The results show that with certain reservoir and production parameters, the heat production, electricity generation and thermal recovery lifespan can achieve the commercial goal of the dual horizontal well system, but the energy efficiency and overall thermal recovery rate are still at low levels. At last, this paper puts forward a series of optimizations to improve the heat extraction capacity, including production conditions and thermal reservoir construction design.

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation with turmeric rhizome extract on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability, and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfa Wang


    Full Text Available Our study aimed to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of turmeric rhizome extract (TRE on performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens. Three hundred, 1-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were brooded together for 2 weeks, then randomly allocated into four treatments with five replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with TRE at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg for 12 weeks. The results revealed that a TRE-supplemented diet had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the body weight, although birds fed a diet with TRE at 100 and 200 mg/kg had higher average daily weight gains and average daily feed as compared to controls from 9 to 12 week (P<0.05. Also, the addition of TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg had a better feed conversion ratio compared to controls from week 9 to 12 (P<0.05. Dietary supplementation with TRE at 300 mg/kg increased the breast muscle weight ratio (P<0.05. Meanwhile, dietary supplementation with TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg reduced the abdominal fat ratio (P<0.05, compared to that of the control group. TRE increased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondiadehhyde concentrations, compared to the control group. Dietary TRE supplementation at 300 mg/kg decreased the drip loss in both breast muscle and thigh muscles, compared with the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, dietary TRE supplementation enhanced antioxidant capability, growth performance, breast muscle weight ratio, and reduced the abdominal fat ratio of Wenchang broiler chickens.

  19. Flows and Heat Exchange in a Geothermal Bed in the Process of Extraction of a Vapor-Water Mixture from It (United States)

    Ramazanov, M. M.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Abasov, G. M.


    With the use of the finite-difference method, a nonstationary nonlinear problem on the heat and mass transfer in a geothermal bed in the process of extraction of a vapor-water mixture from it was solved numerically with regard for the heat exchange between the bed and the surrounding rocks. The results obtained were analyzed and compared with the results of earlier investigations. It was established that the heat exchange between the bed and its roof and bottom influences the heat and mass transfer in the neighborhood of a producing well in it. It is shown that this heat exchange increases somewhat the pressure (temperature) of the phase transition of the heat-transfer medium and changes its saturation with water. At the stage of stationary heat and mass transfer in the bed, this change leads to a decrease in the water saturation of the heat-transfer medium, i.e., to an additional evaporation of water from it. However, at the stage of substantially nonstationary heat and mass transfer in the bed, the pattern is more complex: within certain time intervals, the heat exchange in separate regions of the bed decreases the content of vapor in the heat-transfer medium (increases its saturation with water). Moreover, in both the cases of absence and presence of heat exchange between the bed and the surrounding rocks, the distributions of the water saturation of the heat-transfer medium in the bed executes damped oscillations and, in so doing, approaches the stationary state.

  20. Campomanesia adamantium Peel Extract in Antidiarrheal Activity: The Ability of Inhibition of Heat-Stable Enterotoxin by Polyphenols. (United States)

    Lescano, Caroline Honaiser; de Oliveira, Ivan Pires; Zaminelli, Tiago; Baldivia, Débora da Silva; da Silva, Luan Ramos; Napolitano, Mauro; Silvério, Camila Bitencourt Mendes; Lincopan, Nilton; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet


    Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant distributed in Brazilian Cerrado. Different parts of this plant are used in popular medicine for treatment of several diseases like fever, diarrhea, hypercholesterolemia and rheumatism. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibition of heat-stable enterotoxin type A (STa) by gallic acid present in the peel of C. adamantium fruit and assays to assess the antidiarrheal activity, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties of peel extract using the T84 cell line model. The possible inhibition exerted by the gallic acid of the peel extract on the STa peptide was inferred by molecular dynamics simulations. The antidiarrheal effects were investigated measuring cGMP accumulation in cells after stimulation by STa toxin and antibacterial activity was assessed. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2. MTT and LDH assays were used to evaluate any possible cytotoxic action while the CyQUANT test was used to investigate the effect on cell proliferation. A representation showing how the possible interactions between STa and the gallic acid of the extract might reduce the action of the enterotoxin is presented. C. adamantium peel extract significantly decreased the levels of cGMP in T84 cells. However, no effect on the species of microorganisms was observed. The extract also inhibited COX-1 (IC50 255.70 ± 0.04 ng/mL) and COX-2 (IC50 569.50 ± 0.11 ng/mL) enzymes. Cytotoxicity assay have shown significant changes in cells treated with the extract, which inhibited the cell proliferation until 72 hours of treatment. Direct interactions of phenolic compounds present in the extract with the STa toxin may limit its activity. Curative effect in the diarrhea treatment and its anti-inflammatory action is based on the pharmacological properties, mechanism of action of the C. adamantium peel extract, and no toxic effects of the peel extract presented on this work.

  1. Campomanesia adamantium Peel Extract in Antidiarrheal Activity: The Ability of Inhibition of Heat-Stable Enterotoxin by Polyphenols (United States)

    Lescano, Caroline Honaiser; de Oliveira, Ivan Pires; Zaminelli, Tiago; Baldivia, Débora da Silva; da Silva, Luan Ramos; Napolitano, Mauro; Silvério, Camila Bitencourt Mendes; Lincopan, Nilton; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet


    Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant distributed in Brazilian Cerrado. Different parts of this plant are used in popular medicine for treatment of several diseases like fever, diarrhea, hypercholesterolemia and rheumatism. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibition of heat-stable enterotoxin type A (STa) by gallic acid present in the peel of C. adamantium fruit and assays to assess the antidiarrheal activity, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties of peel extract using the T84 cell line model. The possible inhibition exerted by the gallic acid of the peel extract on the STa peptide was inferred by molecular dynamics simulations. The antidiarrheal effects were investigated measuring cGMP accumulation in cells after stimulation by STa toxin and antibacterial activity was assessed. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2. MTT and LDH assays were used to evaluate any possible cytotoxic action while the CyQUANT test was used to investigate the effect on cell proliferation. A representation showing how the possible interactions between STa and the gallic acid of the extract might reduce the action of the enterotoxin is presented. C. adamantium peel extract significantly decreased the levels of cGMP in T84 cells. However, no effect on the species of microorganisms was observed. The extract also inhibited COX-1 (IC50 255.70 ± 0.04 ng/mL) and COX-2 (IC50 569.50 ± 0.11 ng/mL) enzymes. Cytotoxicity assay have shown significant changes in cells treated with the extract, which inhibited the cell proliferation until 72 hours of treatment. Direct interactions of phenolic compounds present in the extract with the STa toxin may limit its activity. Curative effect in the diarrhea treatment and its anti-inflammatory action is based on the pharmacological properties, mechanism of action of the C. adamantium peel extract, and no toxic effects of the peel extract presented on this work. PMID:27764241

  2. Heat and Bleach: A Cost-Efficient Method for Extracting Microplastics from Return Activated Sludge. (United States)

    Sujathan, Surya; Kniggendorf, Ann-Kathrin; Kumar, Arun; Roth, Bernhard; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz; Nogueira, Regina


    The extraction of plastic microparticles, so-called microplastics, from sludge is a challenging task due to the complex, highly organic material often interspersed with other benign microparticles. The current procedures for microplastic extraction from sludge are time consuming and require expensive reagents for density separation as well as large volumes of oxidizing agents for organic removal, often resulting in tiny sample sizes and thus a disproportional risk of sample bias. In this work, we present an improved extraction method tested on return activated sludge (RAS). The treatment of 100 ml of RAS requires only 6% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for bleaching at 70 °C, followed by density separation with sodium nitrate/sodium thiosulfate (SNT) solution, and is completed within 24 h. Extracted particles of all sizes were chemically analyzed with confocal Raman microscopy. An extraction efficiency of 78 ± 8% for plastic particle sizes 20 µm and up was confirmed in a recovery experiment. However, glass shards with a diameter of less than 20 µm remained in the sample despite the density of glass exceeding the density of the separating SNT solution by 1.1 g/cm3. This indicates that density separation may be unreliable for particle sizes in the lower micrometer range.

  3. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)


    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological

  4. A Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical modeling of fracture opening and closing due heat extraction from geothermal reservoir (United States)

    Nand Pandey, Sachchida; Chaudhuri, Abhijit; Kelkar, Sharad


    Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration in atmosphere become challenging task for the scientific community. To achieve the sustainable growth with minimum pollution in atmosphere requires the development of low carbon technology or switch towards renewable energy. Geothermal energy is one of the promising source of clean energy. Geothermal energy is also considered a sustainable, reliable and least-expensive. This study presents a numerical modeling of subsurface heat extraction from the reservoir. The combine flow, heat transfer and geo-mechanical problem are modeled using FEHM code, which was validated against existing field data, numerical code and commercial software. In FEHM the flow and heat transfer in reservoir are solved by control volume method while for mechanical deformation finite element technique is used. The 3-D computational domain (230m × 200m × 1000m) has single horizontal fault/fracture, which is located at 800 m depth from the ground surface. The fracture connects the injection and production wells. The distance between the wells is 100 m. A geothermal gradient 0.08 °C/m is considered. The temperatures at top and bottom boundaries are held fixed as 20 and 100 °C respectively. The zero heat and mass flux boundary conditions are imposed to all vertical side boundaries of the domain. The simulation results for 100 days suggests that the computational domain is sufficiently large as the temperature along the vertical boundaries are not affected by cold-water injection. To model the thermo-poro-elastic deformation, zero all three components of displacement are specified as zero at the bottom. The zero stress condition along all other boundaries allows the boundaries to move freely. The temperature and pressure dependent fluid properties such as density and viscosity with single phase flow in saturated medium is considered. We performed a series of thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) simulations to show aperture alteration due to cold


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra


    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL:, organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  6. Comparison of heat and mass transfer of different microwave-assisted extraction methods of essential oil from Citrus limon (Lisbon variety) peel. (United States)

    Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi; Moayyedi, Mahsa


    Dried and fresh peels of Citrus limon were subjected to microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), respectively. A comparison was made between MAHD and SFME with the conventional hydrodistillation (HD) method in terms of extraction kinetic, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity. Higher yield results from higher extraction rates by microwaves and could be due to a synergy of two transfer phenomena: mass and heat acting in the same way. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis did not indicate any noticeable differences between the constituents of essential oils obtained by MAHD and SFME, in comparison with HD. Antioxidant analysis of the extracted essential oils indicated that microwave irradiation did not have adverse effects on the radical scavenging activity of the extracted essential oils. The results of this study suggest that MAHD and SFME can be termed as green technologies because of their less energy requirements per ml of essential oil extraction.

  7. Capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Nielsen, Thorkild


    The aim of this article is to analyse entrepreneurship from an action research perspective. What is entrepreneurship about? Which are the fundamental capabilities and processes of entrepreneurship? To answer these questions the article includes a case study of a Danish entrepreneur and his networks...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suthar, K. J.; Lurie, Alexander M.; Den Hartog, P.


    Heat pipes and vapour chambers work on heat exchange phenomena of two-phase flow and are widely used for in-dustrial and commercial applications. These devices offer very high effective thermal conductivities (5,000-200,000 W/m/K) and are adaptable to various sizes, shapes, and ori-entations. Although they have been found to be an excel-lent thermal management solution for laptops, satellites, and many things in-between, heat pipes and vapour cham-bers have yet to be adopted for use at particle accelerator facilities where they offer the possibility of more compact and more efficient means to remove heat from unwanted synchrotron radiation. As with all technologies, there are inherent limitations. Foremost, they are limited by practi-cality to serve as local heat transfer devices; heat transfer over long distances is likely best provided by other means. Heat pipes also introduce unique failure modes which must be considered.

  10. Carcinoembryonic antigen: assay following heat compared with perchloric acid extraction in patients with colon cancer, non-neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases, or chronic renal failure. (United States)

    Witherspoon, L R; Shuler, S E; Alyea, K; Husserl, F E


    Heat inactivation has been proposed as an alternative to perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation for the extraction of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from human plasma. We examined a commercial RIA kit using heat inactivation, and compared results with those obtained with PCA precipitation. Adequate sensitivity (1.5 micrograms CEA/l plasma), satisfactory analytical recovery of CEA added to plasma, and dilutional linearity of samples found to have elevated CEA concentrations, were demonstrated for the heat-inactivation assay. Between-assay precision was better with the heat inactivation than with the PCA assay. Although the absolute concentration of CEA estimated after heat inactivation was consistently lower than that estimated after PCA extraction of plasma specimens, there was excellent correlation between results obtained with the two methods in colon cancer patients free of disease, colon cancer patients with residual or recurrent disease, patients with benign gastrointestinal disease, and in patients with chronic renal failure. We conclude that the heat-inactivation assay is an excellent alternative to the PCA assay.

  11. Carcinoembryonic antigen: assay following heat compared with perchloric acid extraction in patients with colon cancer, non-neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases, or chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, L.R.; Shuler, S.E.; Alyea, K.; Husserl, F.E.


    Heat inactivation has been proposed as an alternative to perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation for the extraction of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from human plasma. A commercial RIA kit using heat inactivation was examined and results compared with those obtained with PCA precipitation. Adequate sensitivity (1.5 CEA/I plasma), satisfactory analytical recovery of CEA added to plasma, and dilutional linearity of samples found to have elevated CEA concentrations, were demonstrated for the heat-inactivation assay. Between-assay precision was better with the heat inactivation than with the PCA assay. Although the absolute concentration of CEA estimated after heat inactivation was consistently lower than that estimated after PCA extraction of plasma specimens, there was excellent correlation between results obtained with the two methods in colon cancer patients free of disease, colon cancer patients with residual or recurrent disease, patients with benign gastrointestinal disease, and in patients with chronic renal failure. The heat-inactivation assay is an excellent alternative to the PCA assay.

  12. Extraction of Maltol from Fraser Fir: A Comparison of Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Conventional Heating Protocols for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Koch, Andrew S.; Chimento, Clio A.; Berg, Allison N.; Mughal, Farah D.; Spencer, Jean-Paul; Hovland, Douglas E.; Mbadugha, Bessie; Hovland, Allan K.; Eller, Leah R.


    Two methods for the extraction of maltol from Fraser fir needles are performed and compared in this two-week experiment. A traditional benchtop extraction using dichloromethane is compared to a microwave-assisted extraction using aqueous ethanol. Students perform both procedures and weigh the merits of each technique. In doing so, students see a…

  13. A Methodology for Calculating EGS Electricity Generation Potential Based on the Gringarten Model for Heat Extraction From Fractured Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, Chad


    Existing methodologies for estimating the electricity generation potential of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) assume thermal recovery factors of 5% or less, resulting in relatively low volumetric electricity generation potentials for EGS reservoirs. This study proposes and develops a methodology for calculating EGS electricity generation potential based on the Gringarten conceptual model and analytical solution for heat extraction from fractured rock. The electricity generation potential of a cubic kilometer of rock as a function of temperature is calculated assuming limits on the allowed produced water temperature decline and reservoir lifetime based on surface power plant constraints. The resulting estimates of EGS electricity generation potential can be one to nearly two-orders of magnitude larger than those from existing methodologies. The flow per unit fracture surface area from the Gringarten solution is found to be a key term in describing the conceptual reservoir behavior. The methodology can be applied to aid in the design of EGS reservoirs by giving minimum reservoir volume, fracture spacing, number of fractures, and flow requirements for a target reservoir power output. Limitations of the idealized model compared to actual reservoir performance and the implications on reservoir design are discussed.

  14. Fibre-optical measurement of the time curve of layer temperatures in a well as a result of heat injection and heat extraction; Untersuchung der zeitlichen Entwicklung von Schichttemperaturen in einer Bohrung bei Waermeaus- und Waermeeinspeisung mit Hilfe faseroptischer Temperaturmessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtig, E.; Groswig, S.; Kasch, M. [GESO GmbH, Jena (Germany)


    The relations between the thermal processes around a 200 m deep geothermal well and the petrographic composition were studied using the fibre optic temperature sensing method. The heat injection and heat extraction properties depend on the petrographic properties (porosity, permeability) of the individual layers. Coarse sandy, water saturated layers have good properties, silts and clays have poor properties for het storage and heat extraction. Heat transport occurs in well defined layers with good hydraulic properties and can be explained by a convective heat transport model. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit faseroptischen Temperaturmessungen in einer Erdwaermesonde (EWS)-Bohrung wurde der Zusammenhang zwischen den thermischen Prozessen unmittelbar um die EWS und dem petrographischen Aufbau untersucht. Das Waermeein- bzw. -ausspeisevermoegen haengt von der petrographischen Ausbildung der einzelnen Schichten ab (Porositaet, Kf-Wert). Grobsandige bis kiesige, wassergesaettigte Schichten haben guenstige, schluffig-tonige unguenstige Eigenschaften fuer die Waermeaus- bzw. -einspeisung. Der wesentliche Waermetransport erfolgt in definierten geringmaechtigen Schichten mit guten hydraulischen Eigenschaften. Der Waermetransport in poroesen, wassergefuellten Schichten kann mit einem konvektiven Waermetransportmodell erklaert werden. (orig.)

  15. Extracts from Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex (Soft Corals are Capable of Inhibiting the Growth of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guey-Horng Wang


    Full Text Available Many biomedical products have already been obtained from marine organisms. In order to search more therapeutic drugs against cancer, this study demonstrates the cytotoxicity effects of Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex extractson human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC4, SCC9 and SCC25 cells using cell adhesion and cell viability assay. The morphological alterations in SCCs cells after treatment with three extracts, such as typical nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies of cells were demonstrated by Hoechst stain. Flow cytometry indicated that three extracts sensitized SCC25 cells in the G0/G1 and S-G2/M phases with a concomitant significantly increased sub-G1 fraction, indicating cell death by apoptosis. This apoptosis process was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 expression after SCC25 cells were treated with three extracts. Thereby, it is possible that extracts of C. australis, C. viridis and K. simplex cause apoptosis of SCCs and warrant further research investigating the possible anti-oral cancer compounds in these soft corals.

  16. The Development of an INL Capability for High Temperature Flow, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Energy Storage with Applications in Advanced Small Modular Reactors, High Temperature Heat Exchangers, Hybrid Energy Systems, and Dynamic Grid Energy Storage C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhang, Xiaoqin [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Kim, Inhun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); O' Brien, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The overall goal of this project is to support Idaho National Laboratory in developing a new advanced high temperature multi fluid multi loop test facility that is aimed at investigating fluid flow and heat transfer, material corrosion, heat exchanger characteristics and instrumentation performance, among others, for nuclear applications. Specifically, preliminary research has been performed at The Ohio State University in the following areas: 1. A review of fluoride molten salts’ characteristics in thermal, corrosive, and compatibility performances. A recommendation for a salt selection is provided. Material candidates for both molten salt and helium flow loop have been identified. 2. A conceptual facility design that satisfies the multi loop (two coolant loops [i.e., fluoride molten salts and helium]) multi purpose (two operation modes [i.e., forced and natural circulation]) requirements. Schematic models are presented. The thermal hydraulic performances in a preliminary printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) design have been estimated. 3. An introduction of computational methods and models for pipe heat loss analysis and cases studies. Recommendations on insulation material selection have been provided. 4. An analysis of pipe pressure rating and sizing. Preliminary recommendations on pipe size selection have been provided. 5. A review of molten fluoride salt preparation and chemistry control. An introduction to the experience from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been provided. 6. A review of some instruments and components to be used in the facility. Flowmeters and Grayloc connectors have been included. This report primarily presents the conclusions drawn from the extensive review of literatures in material selections and the facility design progress at the current stage. It provides some useful guidelines in insulation material and pipe size selection, as well as an introductory review of facility process and components.

  17. Green synthesis of silver nano particles from Atalantia monophylla (L) Correa leaf extract, their antimicrobial activity and sensing capability of H2O2. (United States)

    Mahadevan, S; Vijayakumar, S; Arulmozhi, P


    In the present study deals with the green synthesis of silver nano particles from methanolic leaf extracts of Atalantia monophylla. The synthesized nano-particles are characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, PL, FTIR, XRD, SEM with EDAX and TEM. The nano-particles are indicated in absorption peak at 404 nm in the absorption spectrum. Further micro graphical analysis confirmed the average size was estimated about 35 nm and SEAD pattern authorized well crystalline materials. The FTIR studies help to confirm the functional group of synthesized silver nano particles. The XRD data shown the crystalline nature of nano particles and EDAX measurement indicates the purity of silver metal. The antimicrobial effect of silver nanoparticles was tested on pathogenic organisms using agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) were also investigated in different concentrations of leaf extract. The results indicated that synthesized silver nano particle of A. monophylla leaf extract has the potential of antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganism. In addition, this is the first report on leaf synthesized silver nano particles of A. monophylla. The antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms and the ability to detect hydrogen peroxide using the silver nanoparticles were confirmed which would find applications in the development of new antimicrobial drugs and new biosensors to detect the presence of hydrogen peroxide in various samples respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the Nitric Oxide and Nitrite Scavenging Capability, N-Nitrosamine Formation Inhibitory Activity, and Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Aqueous Two-Phase System Extraction of Total Saponins from Coreopsis tinctoria Flowering Tops by Response Surface Methodology. (United States)

    Luo, Ruiling; Yao, Xincheng; Liu, Xieying; Zhang, Yushang; Ying, Xue


    Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops (CTFs) is a popular health product as herbal tea or as a traditional medicinal herb that is rich in saponins and exerts substantial biological activity. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was utilized to extract total saponins from CTFs and optimize the extraction process by response surface methodology. Moreover, the nitric oxide and nitrite scavenging capability, and N-nitrosamine formation inhibitory activity of total saponins were evaluated. Results showed that the optimal conditions for total saponins were 37.76% (w/w) ammonium sulfate and 35.62% (w/w) ethanol in ATPS coupled with ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Under the optimal conditions, the maximum yield of total saponins of 33.4 g/kg can be obtained from the CTFs raw material. The nitric oxide radical scavenging, nitrite scavenging, and N-nitrosamine inhibitory activities (SC50) were 287.92 ± 7.42, 191.63 ± 7.69, and 1787.4 ± 51.26 μg/mL, respectively. The total saponins has a certain nitric oxide and nitrite scavenging capability, and N-nitrosamine formation inhibitory activity in vitro. Given these activities, research on saponins from CTFs provides profound and lasting implications for the novel applications of C. tinctoria.

  19. Heat sink design considerations in medium power electronic applications with long power cycles


    Asimakopoulos, Panagiotis; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Thiringer, Torbjörn; Bongiorno, Massimo


    The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of the heat sink thickness and material, as well as, of the convection coefficient of the water cooling system on the power-electronics module thermal stressing. The heat extraction capability of different thicknesses is tested. It is concluded that the thickest heat sink results in marginally lower temperature variation at the junction level compared to the second thickest one. In the thickest heat sink case, the linear dependence of the ther...

  20. A comparison of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) for the analysis of volatile compounds in heated beef and sheep fats. (United States)

    Watkins, P J; Rose, G; Warner, R D; Dunshea, F R; Pethick, D W


    A comparison has been made on the application of SPME and SDE for the extraction of volatile compounds from heated beef and sheep fats with separation and measurement by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. As far as we know, this report represents the first time that such a comparison has been made for the measurement of volatile compounds in heated sheep fat. Approximately 100 compounds (in relatively high abundance) were characterised in the volatile profiles of heated beef and sheep fats using both techniques. Differences were observed in the volatile profiles obtained from each technique, independent of compound class. Rather than rate one technique as superior to another, the techniques can be regarded as complementary to each other. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). (United States)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; van Boekel, Martinus; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus


    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8 (E8), 9 (E9), 10 (E10) and 11 (E11)), followed by acid precipitation. The obtained protein isolates were freeze dried. The protein isolates E8 and E9 resulted in a lower protein yield as well as less protein denaturation. These isolates also had a higher protein purity, more protein bands at higher molecular weights, and a higher protein solubility in the pH range of 3-4.5, compared to the isolates E10 and E11. Heating the 10%w/w protein isolate suspensions E8 and E9 led to increased aggregation, and semi-solid gels with a dense microstructure were formed. The isolate suspensions E10 and E11, on the other hand, aggregated less, did not form self-supporting gels and had loose particle arrangements. We conclude that extraction pH plays an important role in determining the functionality of quinoa protein isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Chemical and biological evaluation of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Effect of the extraction of saponins by heat treatment]. (United States)

    Tellería Rios, M L; Sgarbieri, V C; Amaya, J


    The changes in proximate composition, amino acid content and protein efficiency ratio (PER) caused by hot-water extraction of the saponins were studied in four Bolivian varieties of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd). Detectable saponin was eliminated with an extraction at 70 degrees C. Extraction at 87 degrees C also eliminated the saponins but, in addition, had the tendency of slightly increasing the protein amino acid content. The maximum PER obtained was 2.99 for the Blanca variety, followed by 2.72 for the Sajama variety, also extracted at 87 degrees C (casein gave a PER value of 3.21).

  3. Antigens of Bordetella pertussis. IV. Effect of heat, merthiolate, and formaldehyde on histamine-sensitizing factor and protective activity of soluble extracts from Bordetella pertussi.s. (United States)

    Munoz, J; Hestekin, B M


    Munoz, J. (Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Mont.), and B. M. Hestekin. Antigens of Bordetella pertussis. IV. Effect of heat, Merthiolate, and formaldehyde on histamine-sensitizing factor and protective activity of soluble extracts from Bordetella pertussis. J. Bacteriol. 91:2175-2179. 1966.-Both histamine-sensitizing and protective activities of soluble preparations from Bordetella pertussis cells are destroyed by heating at 80 C for 0.5 hr. The histamine-sensitizing activity appeared to be more susceptible to inactivation by heat than the protective activity. Formaldehyde in a final concentration of 0.5% rapidly diminished the histamine-sensitizing ability of saline extract (SE) held at 37 C. The protective activity was clearly more resistant to inactivation by formaldehyde at similar temperature. The inactivating action of formaldehyde was slower when the concentration of SE was increased or when the mixture was kept at 2 to 5 C. Merthiolate in a final concentration of 1:10,000 had no demonstrable deleterious effects on either protective or histamine-sensitizing activity of SE.

  4. Manual for the thermal and hdyraulic design of direct contract spray columns for use in extracting heat from geothermal brines (United States)

    Jacobs, H. R.


    This report outlines the current methods being used in the thermal and hydraulic design of spray column type, direct contact heat exchangers. It provides appropriate referenced equations for both preliminary design and detailed performance. The design methods are primarily empirical and are applicable for use in the design of such units for geothermal application and for application with solar ponds. Methods for design, for both preheater and boiler sections of the primary heat exchangers, for direct contact binary powers plants are included.

  5. The effect of herbal extract Foeniculum vulgare Mill. solution on the mechanical and wetting properties of heat polymerized denture base resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Milica B.


    Full Text Available Introduction. Commercially used chemical dental cleansers adversely affect mechanical properties of denture. Therefore, there is a need for finding an alternative which will not change the surface properties of material. Aim. This paper studied the effect of the herbal extract (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. solution on the wetting and mechanical properties of heat-polymerized denture base resin compared to the same properties of the same resin in the native state (in air and exposed only to aqueous environment. Material and methods. Rectangular shape of heat polymerized acrylic resin (15 mm x 15 mm x 3 mm were prepared and divided into: (i sample continuously exposed to air - AIR; (ii sample continuously exposed to distilled water - DW; and (iii sample exposed to 10% solution of the fennel leaves extract - PES. Wetting properties were measured by sessile drop method, whereas mechanical properties were analyzed by nanoindentation method. Results. Results showed that samples AIR had the lowest ΘC value 64.5±2.3 °, while the other two samples DW and PES had similar ΘC values (75.4±3.3 °, 75.7±4.7 °, respectively. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference in hardness coefficient, while Young's modulus showed a significant difference (p < 0.005 only between the samples AIR and DW. Conclusion. The obtained values confirmed that fennel extract can be used as successful and efficient cleanser, without degradation of denture surface.

  6. Heat stability and effect of pH on enzyme activity of polyphenol oxidase in buriti (Mauritia flexuosa Linnaeus f.) fruit extract. (United States)

    de Oliveira Carvalho, Jhonatam; Orlanda, José Fábio França


    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted and characterized from ripe fruit of Mauritia flexuosa. Buriti PPO showed optimum activity at pH 7.0 and 35°C, with complete inactivation in between 2.0≤pH>10, using catechol as substrate. The enzyme had optimum temperaturet 35°C and was relatively stable at 77°C, with 59.93% loss of activity. These results demonstrate that the enzyme has heat stability at higher temperatures and the possibility of being used to construct biosensors and other analytical methods in various fields of science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein extraction from spinach juice using vacuum explosion and their separation by active carbon, heat, and CaCl2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Huurman, S.


    The goal of the study described here is to produce a clear, uncoloured protein solution from spinach.
    Activated carbon, 50 °C heat and 50 °C+ CaCl2 are applied to decolour the juice by removing unwanted
    material. The Betaprocess (vacuum explosion) is tested at different temperatures for its

  8. One-step green synthesis of β-cyclodextrin/iron oxide-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite with high supramolecular recognition capability: Application for vortex-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides residue from honey samples. (United States)

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan


    In this research, β-cyclodextrin/iron oxide reduced graphene oxide hybrid nanostructure (β-CD/MRGO) with high water dispersability, excellent magnetic responsivity and molecular selectivity was prepared via a facile one step green strategy. The obtained nanomaterial was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), which confirmed the modification of GO with β-CD and magnetic nanoparticles. The formation mechanism of β-CD/MRGO was also discussed. The prepared magnetic nanocomposite was then applied as adsorbent in the vortex-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from honey samples prior to gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) analysis. Optimum extraction conditions have been assessed with respect to vortex time, sample pH, adsorbent amount, and salt concentration as well as desorption conditions (type and volume of desorption solvent and desorption time). A good level of linearity (2-10,000ngkg-1) with satisfactory determination coefficients (R2>0.9966) and suitable precision (%RSDs less than 7.8) was obtained for OCPs under the optimal conditions. The limits of detection and quantification of the method were obtained in the sub-parts per trillion (ppt) to parts per trillion range (LOD: 0.52-3.21ngkg-1; LOQ: 1.73-10.72ngkg-1) based on 3 and 10 signal to noise ratios, respectively. The MSPE method was successfully applied to analysis of OCPs in honey samples with recoveries in the range of 78.8% to 116.2% and RSDs (n=3) below 8.1%. The results demonstrated that β-CD/MRGO could exhibit good supramolecular recognition, enrichment capability and high extraction recoveries toward OCPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Imbalance of the liquid-metal flow and heat extraction in a manifold with sub-channels having locally different eletric conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yang; Wen, Meimei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in, Kyunggi-do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Nyung, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in, Kyunggi-do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Shangjing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in, Kyunggi-do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, the characteristics of liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and convective heat transfer in a manifold with three sub-channels having locally different electric conductivity are investigated with the use of commercial code CFX, allowing an imbalance in flow rate among the sub-channels, which can be used for intensive cooling of the region with higher heat load in the blanket. In a manifold with co-flow multiple sub-channels, the electrical current can cross the fluid regions and channel walls, thus influencing the flow distribution in each sub-channel. In the present study, cases with various arrangements of the electric conductivity in different parts of the channel walls are investigated, yielding different distributions of the current and fluid flow in different cases. Here, the mechanism governing the imbalance in mass flow rate among the sub-channels is discussed. The interdependency of the fluid velocity, current and electric potential of LM MHD flows in the three sub-channels are analyzed in detail. The results show that, in the sub-channel surrounded by the walls with lower electric conductivity, higher axial velocity and superior heat extraction can be obtained, with an effective cooling associated with higher velocity, where the higher velocity is closely related to the distribution of the electromotive component of the current in the flow field.

  10. Role of glucosinolates in the causation of liver haemorrhages in laying hens fed water-extracted or heat-treated rapeseed cakes. (United States)

    Wight, P A; Scougall, R K; Shannon, D W; Wells, J W; Mawson, R


    Glucosinolates were removed from whole rapeseed by a hot-water extraction procedure or depleted by heat treatment. When laying hens were maintained for three months on diets containing about 300 g kg-1 of these rapeseed cakes, the incidence of liver haemorrhages detected at post mortem examination was similar to that in birds maintained on 300 g kg-1 commercial rapeseed meal and significantly greater than in control birds fed soya-based diets. The effectiveness of glucosinolate extraction or depletion was determined by chemical analysis and by histological examination of the thyroid glands. Histologically the haemorrhages were similar after feeding extracted and commercial rapeseed meals. Diets containing mixtures of nitriles and glucosinolates severely depressed food intake and egg production but did not cause a greater incidence of haemorrhages than the other rapeseed products tested. Mortality from causes other than liver haemorrhage was higher with the diets containing rapeseed and this suggests that rapeseed has a more generalised effect on the body's defence mechanisms. These observations suggest that other factors in rapeseed meal, alone or acting with glucosinolates, may be responsible for inducing liver haemorrhages in laying hens.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bannehr


    Full Text Available Remote sensing methods are used to obtain different kinds of information about the state of the environment. Within the cooperative research project HiReSens, funded by the German BMBF, a hyperspectral scanner, an airborne laser scanner, a thermal camera, and a RGB-camera are employed on a small aircraft to determine roof material parameters and heat bridges of house tops over the city Oldenburg, Lower Saxony. HiReSens aims to combine various geometrical highly resolved data in order to achieve relevant evidence about the state of the city buildings. Thermal data are used to obtain the energy distribution of single buildings. The use of hyperspectral data yields information about material consistence of roofs. From airborne laser scanning data (ALS digital surface models are inferred. They build the basis to locate the best orientations for solar panels of the city buildings. The combination of the different data sets offers the opportunity to capitalize synergies between differently working systems. Central goals are the development of tools for the collection of heat bridges by means of thermal data, spectral collection of roofs parameters on basis of hyperspectral data as well as 3D-capture of buildings from airborne lasers scanner data. Collecting, analyzing and merging of the data are not trivial especially not when the resolution and accuracy is aimed in the domain of a few decimetre. The results achieved need to be regarded as preliminary. Further investigations are still required to prove the accuracy in detail.

  12. Rights, goals, and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.


    This article analyses the relationship between rights and capabilities in order to get a better grasp of the kind of consequentialism that the capability theory represents. Capability rights have been defined as rights that have a capability as their object (rights to capabilities). Such a

  13. Rights, goals, and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    This article analyses the relationship between rights and capabilities in order to get a better grasp of the kind of consequentialism that the capability theory represents. Capability rights have been defined as rights that have a capability as their object (rights to capabilities). Such a

  14. Protective and Heat Retention Effects of Thermo-sensitive Basement Membrane Extract (Matrigel) in Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation in an Experimental Animal Study. (United States)

    Fu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Song; Yang, Wei; Gong, Wei; Jiang, An-Na; Yan, Kun; Chen, Min-Hua


    To evaluate the protective effect of using thermo-sensitive basement membrane extract (Matrigel) for hydrodissection to minimize thermal injury to nearby structures and to evaluate its heat sink effect on the ablation zone in radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the liver. First, the viscosity profile and heat sink effect of Matrigel were assessed during RFA in vitro and ex vivo. Fresh pig liver tissue was used, and the temperature changes in Matrigel and in 5% dextrose in water (D5W) during RFA were recorded. Then, the size of the ablation zone in the peripheral liver after RFA was measured. Second, in an in vivo study, 45 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups of 15 rats each (Matrigel, D5W and control). In the experimental groups, artificial ascites with 10 ml of Matrigel or D5W were injected using ultrasound guidance prior to RFA. The frequency of thermal injury to the nearby organs was compared among the three groups, with assessments of several locations: near the diaphragm, the abdominal wall and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Finally, the biological degradation of Matrigel by ultrasound was evaluated over 60 days. First, Matrigel produced a greater heat retention (less heat sink) effect than D5W during ex vivo ablation (63 ± 9 vs. 26 ± 6 °C at 1 min on the surface of the liver, P structures was found in 14 of 15 cases (93.3%) in the control group, 8 of 15 cases (53.3%) in the D5W group, and 1 of 15 cases (6.7%) in the Matrigel group. Significant differences in the thermal injury rates for nearby structures were detected among the three groups (P structures, especially in locations close to the GI tract, compared to conventional D5W. Additionally, Matrigel did not increase the heat sink effect on the ablation zone during ablation and was degraded over time in vivo.

  15. Mobile Test Capabilities (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  16. Effects of grape seed extract as a natural antioxidant on growth performance, carcass characteristics and antioxidant status of rabbits during heat stress. (United States)

    Hassan, Fawzia A; Mahrose, Khalid M; Basyony, Mohammed M


    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary supplementation of grape seed extract (GSE) on growth performance, carcass traits and antioxidant status of rabbits under heat stress conditions (temperature humidity index 87.5-93.5). Weaned male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits about 6 weeks old (n = 144, mean body weight 705 g) were randomly allotted to four dietary groups. The Control group was fed a basal diet without GSE; the experimental groups received the basal diet with 100, 200 and 300 mg GSE/kg (Groups 100 GSE, 200 GSE and 300 GSE, respectively). The experimental period lasted for 8 weeks. Compared with other groups, rabbits of Group 300 GSE had the best body weight gain and feed conversion ratio and the lowest mortality. Dietary GSE improved carcass weight, percentage of hot carcass, intestine and edible giblets, while total non-edible parts were reduced (p ≤ 0.05) in comparison with the Control group. In Groups 200 GSE and 300 GSE, plasma total protein, albumin and globulin were increased (p ≤ 0.05). In contrast, all supplementation levels of GSE reduced (p ≤ 0.05) the plasma concentrations of total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins. Antioxidant enzymes of rabbits (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase) and total antioxidant capacity in blood were increased (p ≤ 0.05) by adding dietary GSE. However, malondialdehyde was reduced (p ≤ 0.001) with increasing GSE levels. Generally, grape seeds can be considered as rich source of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The results of the study revealed that all tested levels of GSE were useful as a natural protection against heat stress to maintain performance, carcass traits and antioxidant status and could reduce the negative effects of heat stress in rabbits.

  17. The CHPM2030 H2020 Project: Combined Heat, Power and Metal extraction from ultra-deep ore bodies (United States)

    Miklovicz, Tamas; Bodo, Balazs; Cseko, Adrienn; Hartai, Eva; Madarasz, Tamas


    The CHPM2030 project consortium is working on a novel technology solution that can provide both geothermal energy and minerals, in a single interlinked process. The CHPM technology involves an integrated approach to cross fertilize between two yet separated research areas: unconventional geothermal energy and mineral extraction. This places the project's research agenda onto the frontiers of geothermal resources development, mineral extraction and electro-metallurgy with the objectives of converting ultra-deep metallic mineral formations into an "orebody-enhanced geothermal system". In the envisioned facility, an EGS is established on a 3-4 km deep ore mineralisation. Metal content from the ore body is mobilised using mild leaching and/or nanoparticles, then metals are recovered by high-temperature, high-pressure geothermal fluid electrolysis and gas-diffusion electroprecipitation and electrocrystallisation. Salinity gradient power from pre-treated geothermal fluids will also be used. In the project, all these will be carried out at laboratory scale (technology readiness level of 4-5), providing data for the conceptual framework, process optimisation and simulations. Integrated sustainability assessment will also be carried out on the economic feasibility, social impact, policy considerations, environmental impact and ethics concerns. During the last stage of the research agenda, the work will focus on mapping converging technological areas, setting a background for pilot implementation and developing research roadmaps for 2030 and 2050. Pilot study areas include South West England, the Iberian Pyrite Belt in Portugal, the Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenic Belt in Romania, and three mining districts in Sweden. The project started in January 2016 and lasts for 42 months. In the first phase, the metallogenesis of Europe was investigated and the potential ore formations have been identified. The rock-mechanical characteristics of orebodies have also been examined

  18. Dynamic capabilities, Marketing Capability and Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Roseli Wünsch Takahashi


    Full Text Available The goal of the study is to investigate the influence of dynamic capabilities on organizational performance and the role of marketing capabilities as a mediator in this relationship in the context of private HEIs in Brazil. As a research method we carried out a survey with 316 IES and data analysis was operationalized with the technique of structural equation modeling. The results indicate that the dynamic capabilities have influence on organizational performance only when mediated by marketing ability. The marketing capability has an important role in the survival, growth and renewal on educational services offerings for HEIs in private sector, and consequently in organizational performance. It is also demonstrated that mediated relationship is more intense for HEI with up to 3,000 students and other organizational profile variables such as amount of courses, the constitution, the type of institution and type of education do not significantly alter the results.

  19. A Rhodiola rosea root extract protects skeletal muscle cells against chemically induced oxidative stress by modulating heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression. (United States)

    Hernández-Santana, Aaron; Pérez-López, Verónica; Zubeldia, Jose María; Jiménez-del-Rio, Miguel


    Rhodiola rosea is a perennial plant in the Crassulaceae family, recently postulated to exert its adaptogenic functions partially by modulating the expression of molecular factors such as heat shock proteins (HSP). The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of a Rhodiola rosea extract (Rhodiolife) in protecting murine skeletal muscle cells (C2 C12 myotubes) from chemically induced oxidative stress and to establish whether modulation of HSP70 expression is observed. C2 C12 cells treated with Rhodiolife did not experience any loss of viability (p > 0.05) at concentrations of 1-100 µg/mL for up to 24 h. In control cultures, viability decreased 25% following exposure to 2 mM H2 O2 (1 h). However, no significant decrease in viability in cells pre-treated with extract at concentrations as low as 1 µg/mL was observed. HSP70 mRNA levels were up-regulated two-fold in cell cultures treated with Rhodiolife (10 µg/mL), and expression was further enhanced by exposure to H2 O2 (six-fold, p < 0.05). HSP70 protein levels were maintained in pre-treated cell cultures compared to controls but was significantly lower (-50%) in cells lacking treatment exposed to H2 O2 . The present results indicate that Rhodiolife protects C2 C12 myotubes against peroxide-induced oxidative stress through the modulation of the molecular chaperone HSP70. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Isolated quantum heat engine. (United States)

    Fialko, O; Hallwood, D W


    We present a theoretical and numerical analysis of a quantum system that is capable of functioning as a heat engine. This system could be realized experimentally using cold bosonic atoms confined to a double well potential that is created by splitting a harmonic trap with a focused laser. The system shows thermalization, and can model a reversible heat engine cycle. This is the first demonstration of the operation of a heat engine with a finite quantum heat bath.

  1. Isolated quantum heat engine


    Fialko, O.; Hallwood, D.


    We present a theoretical and numerical analysis of a quantum system that is capable of functioning as a heat engine. This system could be realized experimentally using cold bosonic atoms confined to a double well potential that is created by splitting a harmonic trap with a focused laser. The system shows thermalization, and can model a reversible heat engine cycle. This is the first demonstration of the operation of a heat engine with a finite quantum heat bath.

  2. Ginkgo biloba extract decreases non-small cell lung cancer cell migration by downregulating metastasis-associated factor heat-shock protein 27.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Rung Tsai

    Full Text Available Heat-shock proteins (HSPs are molecular chaperones that protect proteins from damage. HSP27 expression is associated with cancer transformation and invasion. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761, the most widely sold herbal supplement, has antiangiogenic effects and induces tumor apoptosis. Data regarding the effect of EGb761 on HSP expression is limited, particularly in cancer. HSP27 expression in paired tumors and normal lung tissues of 64 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC were detected by real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. NSCLC cell lines (A549/H441 were used to examine the migratory abilities in vitro. NSCLC tissue showed higher HSP27 expression than normal lung tissue. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that NSCLC patients with low HSP27 expression ratio (1 (p = 0.04. EGb761 inhibited HSP27 expression and migratory ability of A549/H441 cells, which is the same as HSP27-siRNA transfection effect. Moreover, EGb761 treatment activated the AKT and p38 pathways and did not affect the expression of PI3K, ERK, and JNK pathways. HSP27 is a poor prognostic indicator of NSCLC. EGb761 can decrease the migration ability of A549/H441 by inhibiting HSP27 expression most likely through AKT and p38 MAPK pathways activation.

  3. Capabilities for Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Distel, Andreas Philipp

    This dissertation explores capabilities that enable firms to strategically adapt to environmental changes and preserve competitiveness over time – often referred to as dynamic capabilities. While dynamic capabilities being a popular research domain, too little is known about what these capabilities...... on capabilities for sensing and seizing new business opportunities and reconfiguring corporate resources. More specifically, the dissertation examines the role of key organization members, such as knowledge workers and top managers, in defining and building these capabilities. Moreover, it investigates how...... empirical studies through the dynamic capabilities lens and develops propositions for future research. The second paper is an empirical study on the origins of firm-level absorptive capacity; it explores how organization-level antecedents, through their impact on individual-level antecedents, influence...

  4. Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) (United States)


    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-582 Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Program Information Program Name Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) DoD Component Navy Joint Participants United States Marine Corps; United...dated June 16, 2004 CEC December 2015 SAR March 17, 2016 12:13:59 UNCLASSIFIED 5 Mission and Description Mission The Cooperative Engagement Capability

  5. In vitro inhibition of angiogenesis by heat and low pH stable hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala seeds via inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression of VEGF secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yavari, Niloofar; Emamian, Farnoosh; Yarani, Reza


    ) is a native plant from the eastern Iranian region, which is used as a traditional folk medicine. Although some biological properties of this plant are determined, its effect on angiogenesis is still unclear. Objective: We investigated the anti-angiogenic effects of heat and low pH stable hydroalcoholic...... and angiogenesis with an ID50 of ∼85 μg/ml. VEGF secretion was (inhibited) decreased by the extracts at concentrations higher than 10 μg/ml. Discussion and conclusion: Herbal plant extracts still attract attention owing to their fewer side effects comparing to synthetic drug agents. Current study indicated...

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of an existing coal-fired power plant for district heating/cooling application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, H.H.; Dagdas, A.; Sevilgen, S.H.; Cetin, B.; Akkaya, A.V.; Sahin, B.; Teke, I.; Gungor, C.; Atas, S. [Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    In a conventional coal-fired power plant, which is only designed for electricity generation, 2/3 of fuel energy is wasted through stack gases and cooling water of condensers. This waste energy could be recovered by trigeneration; modifying the plants in order to meet district heating/cooling demand of the locations. In this paper, thermodynamical analysis of trigeneration conversion of a public coal-fired power plant, which is designed only for electricity generation, has been carried out. Waste heat potential and other heat extraction capabilities have been evaluated. Best effective steam extraction point for district heating/cooling systems have been identified by conducting energetic and exergetic performance analyses. Analyses results revealed that the low-pressure turbine inlet stage is the most convenient point for steam extraction for the plant analyzed.

  7. Telematics Options and Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This presentation describes the data tracking and analytical capabilities of telematics devices. Federal fleet managers can use the systems to keep their drivers safe, maintain a fuel efficient fleet, ease their reporting burden, and save money. The presentation includes an example of how much these capabilities can save fleets.

  8. Dynamic Capabilities and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilden, Ralf; Gudergan, Siegfried P.; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard


    Dynamic capabilities are widely considered to incorporate those processes that enable organizations to sustain superior performance over time. In this paper, we argue theoretically and demonstrate empirically that these effects are contingent on organizational structure and the competitive...... intensity in the market. Results from partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analyses indicate that organic organizational structures facilitate the impact of dynamic capabilities on organizational performance. Furthermore, we find that the performance effects of dynamic capabilities...... are contingent on the competitive intensity faced by firms. Our findings demonstrate the performance effects of internal alignment between organizational structure and dynamic capabilities, as well as the external fit of dynamic capabilities with competitive intensity. We outline the advantages of PLS...

  9. KSC Technical Capabilities Website (United States)

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.


    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  10. A Novel Reduplicate Strategy for Tracing Hemostatic Compounds from Heating Products of the Flavonoid Extract in Platycladi cacumen by Spectrum-Effect Relationships and Column Chromatography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Yeqing; Yu, Hongli; Wu, Hao; Pan, Yaozong; Wang, Kuilong; Liu, Liping; Jin, Yangping; Zhang, Chengchao


    .... In this study, the base peak chromatogram fingerprints of heating products of total flavonoids in Platycladi cacumen were established by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass...

  11. Capabilities for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Bamberger, Simon Grandjean


    between employers and employees are expected to be of vital importance. This article will follow a resource-based perspective on developing dynamic capabilities in order to test the importance of enhancing human and organizational capabilities for innovation in firms. In particular, the article will focus...... on some of the important institutional conditions in Danish firms derived from the Nordic model, such as the formal and informal relations of cooperation between employers and employees in firms and their function in building capabilities for innovation. The foundation of the empirical analysis...... and in particular their ability to develop firm-specific innovative capabilities through employee participation and creation of innovative workplaces. In this article, we argue that national institutional conditions can play an enhancing or hampering role in this. Especially the norms and values governing relations...

  12. Capabilities and social cohesion


    Diego Lanzi


    The paper connects the concepts of well-being and social cohesion. By using Sen's capability approach to well-being, and analysing the socio-psychological literature on cohesiveness in groups and communities, we explain when social cohesion has positive effects on the development of social capabilities and human well-being. Furthermore, we discuss cases and conditions in which stronger social cohesion may delay the achievement of the kind of goals Sen has in mind. Finally, we suggest a multid...

  13. CASL Dakota Capabilities Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Simmons, Chris [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Dakota software project serves the mission of Sandia National Laboratories and supports a worldwide user community by delivering state-of-the-art research and robust, usable software for optimization and uncertainty quantification. These capabilities enable advanced exploration and riskinformed prediction with a wide range of computational science and engineering models. Dakota is the verification and validation (V&V) / uncertainty quantification (UQ) software delivery vehicle for CASL, allowing analysts across focus areas to apply these capabilities to myriad nuclear engineering analyses.

  14. Education and Innovative Capabilities


    Leiponen, Aija


    This study investigates the role of capabilities, acquired through education and on the job learning, in innovation. It is argued that education enhances learning and innovation because it provides employees with communication and interaction skills, and, more importantly, with abilities to receive, understand and utilize relevant knowledge, and solve problems. These dynamic capabilities are one of the sources of innovation. A dataset of 333 Finnish manufacturing firms is used to estimat...

  15. Thermal degradation kinetics of anthocyanins extracted from juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius) and "Italia" grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), and the effect of heating on the antioxidant capacity. (United States)

    Peron, D V; Fraga, S; Antelo, F


    The effect of temperature on the degradation of anthocyanins in juçara and "Italia" grape extracts was determined between 50 and 90°C. For both species, thermal degradation followed a first-order kinetic model. The decimal reduction time decreased with increasing temperature, and dependence on the thermodegradable factor was lower at higher temperatures. The anthocyanins from juçara degraded more slowly than those extracted from "Italia" grapes. The activation enthalpy and free energy of inactivation indicated an endothermic reaction, not spontaneous degradation, whereas the activation entropy suggested that the transition state has less structural freedom than that of the reactants. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was reduced when subjected to 90°C heat treatment, however, significant quantities of this bioactive compound still remained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute phase protein mRNA expressions and enhancement of antioxidant defense system in Black-meated Silkie Fowls supplemented with clove (Eugenia caryophyllus extracts under the influence of chronic heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan Usman Bello


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study investigates the anti-stress effects of clove (Eugenia caryophyllus extracts (0, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg on serum antioxidant biomarkers, immune response, immunological organ growth index, and expression levels of acute phase proteins (APPs; ovotransferrin (OVT, ceruloplasmin (CP, ceruloplasmin (AGP, C-reactive protein (CRP, and serum amyloid-A (SAA mRNA in the immunological organs of 63-d-old male black-meated Silkie fowls subjected to 21 d chronic heat stress at 35 ± 2 °C. Results The results demonstrated that clove extract supplementation in the diet of Silkie fowls subjected to elevated temperature (ET improve growth performance, immune responses, and suppressed the activities of glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD; reduced serum malonaldehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH concentrations when compared with fowls raised under thermoneutral condition (TC. Upon chronic heat stress and supplementation of clove extracts, the Silkie fowls showed a linear increase in GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, and TXNRD activities (P = 0.01 compared with fowls fed diets without clove extract. ET decreased (P < 0.05 the growth index of the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus. However, the growth index of the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus increased significantly (P < 0.05 which corresponded to an increase in clove supplemented levels. The expression of OVT, CP, AGP, CRP, and SAA mRNA in the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus were elevated (P < 0.01 by ET compared with those maintained at TC. Nevertheless, clove mitigates heat stress-induced overexpression of OVT, CP, AGP, CRP and SAA mRNA in the immune organs of fowls fed 400 mg clove/kg compared to other groups. Conclusions The results showed that clove extracts supplementation decreased oxidative stress in the heat-stressed black-meated fowls by alleviating



    Podobeková, Veronika; Peráčková, Jana


    The article discusses utilization of heat from waste water in sewage. During the year, temperature of water in sewage ranges between 10 °C and 20 °C and the heat from sewage could be used for heating, cooling and hot water preparation in building. The heat is extracted through a transfer surface area of the heat exchanger into the heat pump, which is able to utilize the low–potential energy. Different design and types of the heat exchangers in sewage are dealt with: heat exchangers embedded i...

  18. Space Logistics: Launch Capabilities (United States)

    Furnas, Randall B.


    The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.

  19. Hydride heat pump (United States)

    Cottingham, James G.


    Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.

  20. Graphical Visualization of Human Exploration Capabilities (United States)

    Rodgers, Erica M.; Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Simon, Matthew A.; Williams, Phillip A.; Barsoum, Christopher; Cowan, Tyler; Larman, Kevin T.; Hay, Jason; Burg, Alex


    NASA's pioneering space strategy will require advanced capabilities to expand the boundaries of human exploration on the Journey to Mars (J2M). The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) architecture serves as a framework to identify critical capabilities that need to be developed and tested in order to enable a range of human exploration destinations and missions. Agency-wide System Maturation Teams (SMT) are responsible for the maturation of these critical exploration capabilities and help formulate, guide and resolve performance gaps associated with the EMC-identified capabilities. Systems Capability Organization Reporting Engine boards (SCOREboards) were developed to integrate the SMT data sets into cohesive human exploration capability stories that can be used to promote dialog and communicate NASA's exploration investments. Each SCOREboard provides a graphical visualization of SMT capability development needs that enable exploration missions, and presents a comprehensive overview of data that outlines a roadmap of system maturation needs critical for the J2M. SCOREboards are generated by a computer program that extracts data from a main repository, sorts the data based on a tiered data reduction structure, and then plots the data according to specified user inputs. The ability to sort and plot varying data categories provides the flexibility to present specific SCOREboard capability roadmaps based on customer requests. This paper presents the development of the SCOREboard computer program and shows multiple complementary, yet different datasets through a unified format designed to facilitate comparison between datasets. Example SCOREboard capability roadmaps are presented followed by a discussion of how the roadmaps are used to: 1) communicate capability developments and readiness of systems for future missions, and 2) influence the definition of NASA's human exploration investment portfolio through capability-driven processes. The paper concludes with a description

  1. Campus Capability Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Arsenlis, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bailey, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bergman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brase, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brenner, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Camara, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Carlton, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cheng, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chrzanowski, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Colson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); East, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Farrell, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ferranti, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gursahani, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hansen, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Helms, L. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hernandez, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jeffries, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Larson, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lu, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McNabb, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mercer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Skeate, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sueksdorf, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zucca, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Le, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ancria, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leininger, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gagliardi, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gash, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bronson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chung, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hobson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meeker, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanchez, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zagar, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Quivey, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sommer, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Atherton, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Campus Capability Plan for 2018-2028. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is one of three national laboratories that are part of the National Nuclear Security Administration. LLNL provides critical expertise to strengthen U.S. security through development and application of world-class science and technology that: Ensures the safety, reliability, and performance of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile; Promotes international nuclear safety and nonproliferation; Reduces global danger from weapons of mass destruction; Supports U.S. leadership in science and technology. Essential to the execution and continued advancement of these mission areas are responsive infrastructure capabilities. This report showcases each LLNL capability area and describes the mission, science, and technology efforts enabled by LLNL infrastructure, as well as future infrastructure plans.

  2. Technological Capability's Predictor Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maciel Reichert


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence in configuration of the technological capability of companies in sectors with medium-low technological intensity. To achieve the goal proposed in this article a survey was carried out. Based on the framework developed by Lall (1992 which classifies firms in basic, intermediate and advanced level of technological capability; it was found that the predominant technological capability is intermediate, with 83.7% of respondent companies (plastics companies in Brazil. It is believed that the main contribution of this study is the finding that the dependent variable named “Technological Capability” can be explained at a rate of 65% by six variables: development of new processes; selection of the best equipment supplier; sales of internally developed new technology to third parties; design and manufacture of equipment; study of the work methods and perform inventory control; and improvement of product quality.

  3. Sandia QIS Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a broad set of capabilities in quantum information science (QIS), including elements of quantum computing, quantum communications, and quantum sensing. The Sandia QIS program is built atop unique DOE investments at the laboratories, including the MESA microelectronics fabrication facility, the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) facilities (joint with LANL), the Ion Beam Laboratory, and ASC High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities. Sandia has invested $75 M of LDRD funding over 12 years to develop unique, differentiating capabilities that leverage these DOE infrastructure investments.

  4. Capability Handbook- offline metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido

    This offline metrological capability handbook has been made in relation to HiMicro Task 3.3. The purpose of this document is to assess the metrological capability of the HiMicro partners and to gather the information of all available metrological instruments in the one single document. It provides...... a quick overview of what is possible today by the state of the art, what the HiMicro consortium can do and what metrological requirements we have concerning the HiMicro industrial demonstrators....

  5. Management Innovation Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Mie

    Management innovation is the implementation of a new management practice, process, technique or structure that significantly alters the way the work of management is performed. This paper presents a typology categorizing management innovation along two dimensions; radicalness and complexity. Then......, the paper introduces the concept of management innovation capabilities which refers to the ability of a firm to purposefully create, extend and modify its managerial resource base to address rapidly changing environments. Drawing upon behavioral theory of the firm and the dynamic capabilities framework......, the paper proposes a model of the foundations of management innovation. Propositions and implications for future research are discussed....

  6. Microwave Extraction of Volatiles for Mars Science and ISRU (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaulker, William F.


    The greatest advantage of microwave heating for volatiles extraction is that excavation can be greatly reduced. Surface support operations would be simple consisting of rovers with drilling capability for insertion of microwaves down bore holes to heat at desired depths. The rovers would also provide support to scientific instruments for volatiles analysis and for volatiles collection and storage. The process has the potential for a much lower mass and a less complex system than other in-situ processes. Microwave energy penetrates the surface heating within with subsequent sublimation of water or decomposition of volatile containing minerals. On Mars the volatiles should migrate to the surface to be captured with a cold trap. The water extraction and transport process coupled with atmospheric CO2 collection could readily lead to a propellant production process, H2O + CO2 yields CH4 + O2.

  7. Experimental results and a self-consistent model of evaporation and high heat flux extraction by evaporating flow in a micro-grooved blade (United States)

    Monazami, Reza; Saadat, Mehdi; Zhu, Jianzhong; Haj-Hariri, Hossein


    The problem of evaporation from a vertical micro-grooved blade heated from above is investigated. The required superheat to handle the incoming flux is calculated using the results of the study by Monazami and Haj-Hariri (2012). The relation between the applied heat flux, dry-out length and the maximum equilibrium temperature for several geometries and working fluids are studied. Furthermore, a computational study of the evaporating meniscus is conducted to evaluate the evaporation rates and dissipated heat flux at the liquid-vapor interface. The computational study accounts for the flow and heat transfer in both liquid and vapor phases. The results of this study indicate that the micro-grooved structure can dissipate heat fluxes as high as 10MW/m2 for superheats as low as 5 degrees Kelvin. Experiments are conducted to verify the computational and analytical results. The findings of this work are applicable to the design of thermal management systems for high heat flux applications. Partially supported by the MAXNET Energy Partnership (Max Planck Institute and UVA).

  8. Capabilities for Intercultural Dialogue (United States)

    Crosbie, Veronica


    The capabilities approach offers a valuable analytical lens for exploring the challenge and complexity of intercultural dialogue in contemporary settings. The central tenets of the approach, developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, involve a set of humanistic goals including the recognition that development is a process whereby people's…

  9. a Capability approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    efforts towards gender equality in education as a means of achieving social justice. Over the years .... who, in exploring the idea of capabilities in support of the intrinsic importance of gender equality in education, came up ... Firstly, personal conversion factors (e.g. metabolism, physical condition, sex, gender, reading skills ...

  10. The Capability Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)


    textabstract In its most general description, the capability approach is a flexible and multi-purpose normative framework, rather than a precise theory of well-being, freedom or justice. At its core are two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary

  11. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...

  12. a Capability approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    focus on personal and socio-environmental conversion factors that transform resources into functionings, and on the whole social and institutional context that affects the conversion factors and also the capability set directly (Sen, 2009; Unterhalter, 2007 and Robeyns, 2007). Applying this to the SMTs learning and teaching ...

  13. Visual Absorption Capability (United States)

    Lee Anderson; Jerry Mosier; Geoffrey Chandler


    Visual absorption capability (VAC) is a tool to assess a landscape's susceptibility to visual change caused by man's activities. This paper explores different descriptive approaches to VAC and addresses in depth the development of the VAC process used on the Klamath National Forest. Four biophysical factors were selected to assess VAC for the lands within the...

  14. Capabilities and Special Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    into international consideration in relation to the implementation of the UN convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. As for the theoretical basis, the research makes use of the sociological open-ended and relational concepts of Pierre Bourdieu and the normative yardstick of the Capability Approach...

  15. Capabilities Composition (Briefing Charts) (United States)


    and support , , processes (including ITIL v3) • Understanding of Governance is still evolving Engineering Acquisition and Operational Governance...L – Logistics • NC – Net-Centric • CPM – Capability Portfolio Management • ITIL v3 – Information Technology • ONR – Office of Naval Research

  16. Capitalizing on capabilities. (United States)

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm


    By making the most of organizational capabilities--employees' collective skills and fields of expertise--you can dramatically improve your company's market value. Although there is no magic list of proficiencies that every organization needs in order to succeed, the authors identify 11 intangible assets that well-managed companies tend to have: talent, speed, shared mind-set and coherent brand identity, accountability, collaboration, learning, leadership, customer connectivity, strategic unity, innovation, and efficiency. Such companies typically excel in only three of these capabilities while maintaining industry parity in the other areas. Organizations that fall below the norm in any of the 11 are likely candidates for dysfunction and competitive disadvantage. So you can determine how your company fares in these categories (or others, if the generic list doesn't suit your needs), the authors explain how to conduct a "capabilities audit," describing in particular the experiences and findings of two companies that recently performed such audits. In addition to highlighting which intangible assets are most important given the organization's history and strategy, this exercise will gauge how well your company delivers on its capabilities and will guide you in developing an action plan for improvement. A capabilities audit can work for an entire organization, a business unit, or a region--indeed, for any part of a company that has a strategy to generate financial or customer-related results. It enables executives to assess overall company strengths and weaknesses, senior leaders to define strategy, midlevel managers to execute strategy, and frontline leaders to achieve tactical results. In short, it helps turn intangible assets into concrete strengths.

  17. Multileg Heat-Pipe Evaporator (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A.


    Parallel pipes provide high heat flow from small heat exchanger. Six parallel heat pipes extract heat from overlying heat exchanger, forming evaporator. Vapor channel in pipe contains wick that extends into screen tube in liquid channel. Rods in each channel hold wick and screen tube in place. Evaporator compact rather than extended and more compatible with existing heat-exchanger geometries. Prototype six-pipe evaporator only 0.3 m wide and 0.71 m long. With ammonia as working fluid, transports heat to finned condenser at rate of 1,200 W.

  18. Industrial Heat Pump for a High Temperature District Heating Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus Nørgaard

    by excess thermal energy from thermal solar panels. An industrial heat pump system using the natural refrigerant ammonia, is extracting the thermal energy from the storage when needed, and produce hot water at 85°C, for the district heating grid. The heat pump also acts as contributor to electricity grid...

  19. Building Server Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi


    Many western companies have moved part of their operations to China in order to take advantage of cheap resources and/or to gain access to a high potential market. Depending on motive, offshore facilities usually start either as “sales-only” of products exported by headquarters or “production......-only”, exporting parts and components back to headquarter for sales in the home country. In the course of time, the role of offshore subsidiaries in a company’s operations network tends to change and, with that, the capabilities, of the subsidiaries. Focusing on Danish subsidiaries in China, the objective...... of this project is to identify and explain trajectories of offshore subsidiary capability development. Given the nature of this objective the chief methodology is longitudinal, partly retrospective, partly real-time, case studies....

  20. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, L.M.


    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2000, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at These parameters are summarized in the table at the bottom of this introduction.

  1. Group Capability Model (United States)

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen


    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  2. Heat Islands (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  3. Heat Waves (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  4. A Structured Approach to Analyze the Influence of Cannel Dimensions on Heat Extraction via Superfluid Helium (Proc. 25th ICEC & ICMC2014 conference)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielert, Erwin; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Verweij, A.P.; Verweij, A.P.


    For the luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN, the final focusing quadrupole magnets will be exposed to an increased energy deposition in their coil windings. To have a higher heat transfer rate between cable and superfluid helium bath, the cable insulation has been subject of many studies. Improved

  5. Modification of the method for determining protein solubility of heat treated full-fat soybeans using extraction in potassium hydroxide: Inter-laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palić Dragan V.


    Full Text Available Among a number of laboratory methods used to estimate the adequacy of heat treatment applied to full-fat soybean (FFSB protein solubility in potassium hydroxide (PSKOH is an unofficial method, but it is used by many laboratories due to its simplicity. It has been reported that the results of PSKOH analysis of the same sample of FFSB on the degree of heat treatment vary widely between laboratories. In this study, the original PSKOH method has been modified and subjected to an inter-laboratory test, with participation of 9 laboratories. Eight FFBS samples were processed by dry extrusion at temperatures ranging from 110 to 164°C and analysed on PSKOH. Processed FFSB samples were also assessed in a growth trial with broilers. Analysis of FFSB by the PSKOH method generated for adequately-processed FFSB values between 67.1 and 76.5%. The values above 76.5% corresponded to under-processed and below 67.1% to over-processed FFSB. The PSKOH method generated good precision, i.e. the repeatability and reproducibility limits of 3.48 and 10.86 %, respectively. The modified PSKOH method can be recommended as a reliable indicator for quality control of heat processed FFSB for the use in routine laboratory practice. This study could pave the way for establishing PSKOH as an official method for determining the nutritional value of FFSB following heat treatment.

  6. ISOPHOT - Capabilities and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, D.; Klaas, U.; Abolins, J.


    ISOPHOT covers the largest wavelength range on ISO from 2.5 to 240 mu m. Its scientific capabilities include multi filter and multi-aperture photometry, polarimetry, imaging and spectrophotometry. All modes can optionally include a focal plane chopper. The backbone of the photometric calibration...... operating the instrument in space are continuously being implemented in the standard data reduction software packages available to every observer. Particular strengths of the instrument include the detectability of very cold sources, high resolution mapping and fast spectrophotometry. The far infrared...

  7. Tracer dye transport from a well fitted with a downhole heat exchanger, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstall, M.G.


    Low or medium temperature geothermal resources are often used for space and domestic hot water heating. If the resource is located at reasonably shallow depths and adjacent to a major population centre large amounts of relatively cheap, clean heat can be provided. Geothermal fluid is often brought to the surface, either under natural artesian pressure or by pumping, to be used in surface heat exchangers (SHEs). This method generally requires a second well for disposal of the cooled fluid and a substantial capital outlay for pumps and heat exchangers. Large amounts of heat can be extracted from just one or two wells using surface heat exchangers and the method can prove very cost effective in areas with a high density of energy intensive users. For smaller heat loads surface heat exchangers can become expensive and in many instances a downhole heat exchanger (DHE) installed directly in the well bore is capable of supplying cheap heat to a smaller number of users. This report first describes the methods used to carry out the series of dye tests, from well selection to injection of the dye samples. It then discusses the results of these tests in terms of how much dye was recovered, where it was recovered from and how long it took to arrive. The results of the concurrent temperature monitoring work and DHE heat output performance are also presented. Some recommendations are made for any future testing. 13 refs., 42 figs.

  8. Short-term heating reduces the anti-inflammatory effects of fresh raw garlic extracts on the LPS-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by downregulating allicin activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages. (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hye; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Min Jung; Hwang, Cho Rong; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon


    Garlic has a variety of biologic activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Although garlic has several biologic activities, some people dislike eating fresh raw garlic because of its strong taste and smell. Therefore, garlic formulations involving heating procedures have been developed. In this study, we investigated whether short-term heating affects the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic. Fresh and heated raw garlic extracts (FRGE and HRGE) were prepared with incubation at 25 °C and 95 °C, respectively, for 2 h. Treatment with FRGE and HRGE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO through HO-1 upregulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in FRGE than in HRGE. The allicin concentration was higher in FRGE than in HRGE. Allicin treatment showed reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO and increased HO-1 activity. The results show that the decrease in LPS-induced NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction was greater for FRGE compared with HRGE. Additionally, the results indicate that allicin is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FRGE. Our results suggest a potential therapeutic use of allicin in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving urban district heating systems and assessing the efficiency of the energy usage therein (United States)

    Orlov, M. E.; Sharapov, V. I.


    The report describes issues in connection with improving urban district heating systems from combined heat power plants (CHPs), to propose the ways for improving the reliability and the efficiency of the energy usage (often referred to as “energy efficiency”) in such systems. The main direction of such urban district heating systems improvement suggests transition to combined heating systems that include structural elements of both centralized and decentralized systems. Such systems provide the basic part of thermal power via highly efficient methods for extracting thermal power plants turbines steam, while peak loads are covered by decentralized peak thermal power sources to be mounted at consumers’ locations, with the peak sources being also reserve thermal power sources. The methodology was developed for assessing energy efficiency of the combined district heating systems, implemented as a computer software product capable of comparatively calculating saving on reference fuel for the system.

  10. Use of a double condenser in a dehumidifier with a spray dryer for vitamin A extraction in tomato as a heat-sensitive material (United States)

    Kosasih, E. A.; Warjito, H., Imansyah I.; Ruhyat, N.


    Spray dryers are commonly operated at a high temperature (>100 °C), which becomes an obstacle for heat-sensitive materials. In this study, a refrigeration system that uses evaporator as dehumidifier and that recovers the heat released from the first condenser to preheat the drying air was utilised to reduce the drying temperature. Results showed that the degradation of vitamin A (measured with the high performance liquid chromatography method) in tomato increased significantly when the drying air temperature increased from 90 °C to 120 °C, and it cannot be controlled at a temperature higher than 120 °C. At an air flow rate of 450 lpm, the drying capacity at a drying air temperature of 60 °C (with refrigeration, humidity ratio of 0.005 [kg H2O / kg dry air]) is equal to the drying capacity at a drying air temperature of 120 °C (without refrigeration, humidity ratio of 0.021 [kg H2O / kg dry air]). The drying capacity at a drying air temperature of 90 °C (with refrigeration) even becomes 1.5 times the drying capacity at a drying air temperature of 120 °C (without refrigeration). The combination of a spray dryer system with a refrigeration system (double condenser) is therefore beneficial for drying heat-sensitive materials, such as vitamin A.

  11. Characterization and Quantification by LC-MS/MS of the Chemical Components of the Heating Products of the Flavonoids Extract in Pollen Typhae for Transformation Rule Exploration. (United States)

    Chen, Yeqing; Yu, Hongli; Wu, Hao; Pan, Yaozong; Wang, Kuilong; Jin, Yangping; Zhang, Chengchao


    The Traditional Chinese Medicine herbs Pollen Typhae and Pollen Typhae Carbonisatus have been used as a hemostatic medicine promoting blood clotting for thousands of years. In this study, a reliable, highly sensitive method based on LC-MS/MS has been developed for differentiation of the heating products of total flavonoids in Pollen Typhae (FPT-N). Twenty three peaks were detected and 18 peaks have been structurally identified by comparing retention times, high resolution mass spectrometry data, and fragment ions with those of the reference substances and/or literature data. Additionally, 15 compounds have been quantified by multiple reaction monitoring in the negative ionization mode. It was found that the contents of the characterized compounds differed greatly from each other in FPT-N samples. Among them, the content of huaicarbon B significantly increased at first, while it decreased after heating for 25 min, which could be considered as the characteristic component for distinguishing FPT-N. The present study provided an approach to rapidly distinguish the differences of FPT-N samples. In addition, the actively summarized characteristic fragmentation might help deducing the structure of unknown flavonols compounds. Furthermore, transformation rules of flavonoids during the heating process in carbonisatus development could contribute to hemostatic therapeutic component exploration.

  12. Improved results of LINE-1 methylation analysis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues with the application of a heating step during the DNA extraction process. (United States)

    Wen, Xianyu; Jeong, Seorin; Kim, Younghoon; Bae, Jeong Mo; Cho, Nam Yun; Kim, Jung Ho; Kang, Gyeong Hoon


    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are important resources for profiling DNA methylation changes and for studying a variety of diseases. However, formalin fixation introduces inter-strand crosslinking, which might cause incomplete bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosines, which might lead to falsely elevated measurements of methylation levels in pyrosequencing assays. Long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) is a major constituent of repetitive transposable DNA elements, and its methylation is referred to correlates with global DNA methylation. To identify whether formalin fixation might impact the measured values of methylation in LINE-1 repetitive elements and whether prolonged heat-induced denaturation of DNA might reduce the artificial increases in measured values caused by formalin fixation, we analyzed paired fresh-frozen (FF) and FFPE xenograft tissue samples for their methylation levels in LINE-1 using a pyrosequencing assay. To further confirm the effect of a heating step in the measurement of LINE-1 or single gene methylation levels, we analyzed FFPE tissue samples of gastric cancer and colorectal cancer for their methylation status in LINE-1 and eight single genes, respectively. Formalin fixation led to an increase in the measured values of LINE-1 methylation regardless of the duration of fixation. Prolonged heating of the DNA at 95 °C for 30 min before bisulfite conversion was found (1) to decrease the discrepancy in the measured values between the paired FF and FFPE tissue samples, (2) to decrease the standard deviation of the measured value of LINE-1 methylation levels in FFPE tissue samples of gastric cancer, and (3) to improve the performance in the measurement of single gene methylation levels in FFPE tissue samples of colorectal cancer. Formalin fixation leads to artificial increases in the measured values of LINE-1 methylation, and the application of prolonged heating of DNA samples decreases the discrepancy in the

  13. Structural Capability of an Organization toward Innovation Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Momeni, Mostafa


    indicated that the advantages relying on the internal capabilities of organizations may determine the competitive position of organizations better than environmental opportunities do. Characteristics of firms shows that one of the most internal capabilities that lead the organizations to the strongest...... competitive advantage in the organizations is the innovation capability. The innovation capability is associated with other organizational capabilities, and many organizations have focused on the need to identify innovation capabilities.This research focuses on recognition of the structural aspect...... of innovation capability and proposes a conceptual framework based on a Qualitative Meta Synthesis of academic literature on organizations innovation capability. This is proposed for the development of the concept of innovation capability in the organizations and this paper includes an expert based validation...

  14. An ecofriendly graphene-based nanofluid for heat transfer applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Akhiani, Amir Reza


    Herein, a new ecofriendly approach to generate a graphene-based nanofluid was established. Specifically, a novel mode of graphene oxide reduction through functionalization with polyphenol extracted from red wine was introduced. Comprehensive characterization methods were employed to confirm...... including chemical stability, viscosity, wettability, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity were investigated in a comprehensive manner. A significant thermal conductivity enhancement amounting to 45.1% was obtained for a volume fraction of 4%. In addition, the convective heat transfer...... coefficient of the nanofluid in a laminar flow regime with uniform wall heat flux was investigated to estimate its cooling capabilities. These results, firmly confirm that the generated graphene-based nanofluid is a formidable transporter of heat and yet ecofriendly. Therefore, it's anticipate...

  15. Cosmopolitan capabilities in the HE classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Crosbie


    Full Text Available This study, concerning the development of cosmopolitan citizenship, draws on theories of human development and capabilities (Sen 1999; Nussbaum 2000 from a social justice perspective, where individual wellbeing is articulated as having the freedom to live a life of one’s choosing. In the context of an English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL classroom this involves paying attention to pedagogical strategies, power dynamics and curriculum content as a means of developing valued beings and doings (or capabilities and functionings as they are described in the literature. Sample activities are presented and evaluated to see to what extent they achieve the desired end. These include critical pedagogical interventions, students’ artefacts and extracts from focus group interviews, class reports and reflective journals.  Results from the textual data offer research evidence of successful curriculum change, demonstrating that the learning that takes place there can make a difference: in terms of the learners’ identity development, capability enhancement and cosmopolitan citizenship.

  16. [Improving venous tone and capillary sealing. Effect of a combination of Ruscus extract and hesperidine methyl chalcone in healthy probands in heat stress]. (United States)

    Rudofsky, G


    The drug combination of Ruscus-extract and hesperidine methyl chalcone (HMC) involves two basic mechanisms in the treatment of venous diseases: increase in venous tonicity and edema protection. This was shown in a double-blind study on 20 healthy volunteers by comparing the effectiveness of the individual substances, the combination and a placebo on the venous hemodynamics and the volume of the foot. Ruscus-extract augments the tonicity of the venous wall. This is expressed by a decrease in venous capacity (p less than 0.01), a reduction in the blood pool in the lower leg under orthostatic conditions, and a decrease in tissue volume of the foot and ankle (p less than 0.01). HMC lowers the capillary filtration rate (p less than 0.01) but augmented the blood pool. The increase in blood volume can be explained by dehydration of the tissue of the lower leg lowering the pressure of tissue on the venous system and increasing the blood pool in the limb. After administration of the combination, the blood volume was between the Ruscus and HMC volumes, while the effects on filtration rate, venous capacity and tissue volume corresponded to the changes seen after administration of HMC and Ruscus extract alone.

  17. LHC Capabilities for Quarkonia

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushanko, Sergey


    The measurement of the charmonium and bottomonium resonances in nucleus-nucleus collisions provides crucial information on high-density QCD matter. First, the suppression of quarkonia production is generally agreed to be one of the most direct probes of quark-gluon plasma formation. The observation of anomalous J/$\\psi$ suppression at the CERN-SPS and at RHIC is well established but the clarification of some important remaining questions requires equivalent studies of the $\\Upsilon$ family, only possible at the LHC energies. Second, the production of heavy-quarks proceeds mainly via gluon-gluon fusion processes and, as such, is sensitive to saturation of the gluon density at low-x in the nucleus. Measured departures from the expected vacuum quarkonia cross-sections in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC will thus provide valuable information not only on the thermodynamical state of the produced partonic medium, but also on the initial-state modifications of the nuclear parton distribution functions. The capabilities ...

  18. Mobile systems capability plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered.

  19. Mekanisme Peningkatan Heat Shock Protein-70 pada Kanker Payudara Tikus yang Diradiasi, Pascapemberian Ekstrak Meniran (Phyllanthus niruri (MECHANISM OF INCREASING OF HSP-70 ON IRRADIATED RAT BREAST CANCER, DUE TO APPLICATION OF EXTRACT OF PHYLLANTHUS NIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Soeprijanto


    Full Text Available The used of radiation as a cancer treatment is also proven giving the side effect of damaging thenormal tissue. The extract of Phyllanthus niruri L plant has already been known have an ability to modulatethe immune system. Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70 is a protein which can protect other proteins from anydamages. The transcription factor, such as Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells(NfkB,is required for protein synthesis. This research was intended to analyze the mechanism, of the immunecompetent cells in expressing the HSP70,through the increase of Nf-kB, at the rat breast cancer tissueunder radiation, due to the application of the extract of P.niruri L plant. An experimental study wasperformed by using the randomized separate pre-test post test controlled group design. The female whiterat (Rattus norvegicus strain Sprague Dawleystrain, undergoing breast cancer due to the application ofcarcinogen materials 7,12-dimethylbenz(aantrasen(DMBA at 20 mg/kg.b.wt, and then the externalradiation at 6Gy given. The treatment group was given the aqueous extract of P.niruri L plant per oral at250 mg/kg b.wt.By immunohistochemistry and t-test study we observe a significant increases in thenumber of cells expressing Nf-kB (p<0.05 and a significant increases in the number of cells expressingHSP70 (p<0.05 at the treatment group. At the regression test, there found to be a stronger influence of NfkBto HSP70 at the treatment group. It is concluded that the mechanism of cell increase expressing theHSP70 at the rat breast cancer tissue under radiation due to the application of the aqueous extract ofP.niruri L plant per oral, is through the increase of cells expressing the Nf-kB.

  20. Overview of bladder heating technology: matching capabilities with clinical requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Stauffer; G.C. van Rhoon (Gerard)


    textabstractModerate temperature hyperthermia (40–45°C for 1 h) is emerging as an effective treatment to enhance best available chemotherapy strategies for bladder cancer. A rapidly increasing number of clinical trials have investigated the feasibility and efficacy of treating bladder cancer with

  1. Impact of Personnel Capabilities on Organizational Innovation Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Momeni, Mostafa


    One of the most dynamic capabilities that lead to the strongest competitive advantage in the organizations is the innovation capability. Analysing the development of a firm’s innovation capability is an important research project, and can help organizations to achieve competitive advantage in thi...

  2. Heat Stress (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NEW OSHA- ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  3. Thermodynamics of heat and Mass Transfer in Chemical Engineering. Vol. 2. Application of Rectification, Adsorption, Absorption and Extraction. Die Thermodynamik des Waerme- und Stoffaustausches in der Verfahrenstechnik. Bd. 2. Anwendung auf Rektifikation, Adsorption, Absorption und Extraktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matz, W.


    The approved textbook with the title: Thermodynamics of Heat and Mass Transfer in Chemical Engineering is in its 2nd revised edition turned again towards to students of technical and natural science, as well as towards professionals and researchers that are confronted with thermodynamical problems of chemical engineering. The worked out foundations of volume one are here applied to the fields of rectification adsorption from the gaseous phase, absorption and extraction. After a treatment of the especially important equilibrium follow considerations on thermal and mass transfer and kinetics. In the parts of industrial applications and in many examples on many-component systems it is shown that these thermal separation techiques draw their importance not only from purification and separation of substances but also by an important support of environmental protection.

  4. Modeling pressure distribution and heat in the body tissue and extract the relationship between them in order to improve treatment planning in HIFU

    CERN Document Server

    Hajian, Saeed Reza; Pouladian, Majid; Hemmasi, Gholam Reza


    In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) systems using non-ionizing methods in cancer treatment, if the device is applied to the body externally, the HIFU beam can damage nearby healthy tissues and burn skin due to lack of knowledge about the viscoelastic properties of patient tissue and failure to consider the physical properties of tissue in treatment planning. Addressing this problem by using various methods, such as MRI or ultrasound, elastography can effectively measure visco-elastic properties of tissue and fits within the pattern of stimulation and total treatment planning. In this paper, in a linear path of HIFU propagation, and by considering the smallest part of the path, including voxel with three mechanical elements of mass, spring and damper, which represents the properties of viscoelasticity of tissue, by creating waves of HIFU in the wire environment of MATLAB mechanics and stimulating these elements, pressure and heat transfer due to stimulation in the hypothetical voxel was obtained. Throu...

  5. The development of capability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, Paul; Hunter, Graham; Carter, Ian; Dowding, Keith; Guala, Francesco; Van Hees, Martin


    This paper is motivated by sustained interest in the capabilities approach to welfare economics combined with the paucity of economic statistics that measure capabilities at the individual level. Specifically, it takes a much discussed account of the normatively desirable capabilities constitutive

  6. The Capability to Hold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, Rutger


    This paper discusses the question of whether a capability theory of justice (such as that of Martha Nussbaum) should accept a basic “capability to hold property.” Answering this question is vital for bridging the gap between abstract capability theories of justice and their institutional

  7. Spasmolytic Mechanism of Aqueous Licorice Extract on Oxytocin-Induced Uterine Contraction through Inhibiting the Phosphorylation of Heat Shock Protein 27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang


    Full Text Available Licorice derived from the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (Fabaceae, is one of the most widely-used traditional herbal medicines in China. It has been reported to possess significant analgesic activity for treating spastic pain. The aim of this study is to investigate the spasmolytic molecular mechanism of licorice on oxytocin-induced uterine contractions and predict the relevant bioactive constituents in the aqueous extract. The aqueous extraction from licorice inhibited the amplitude and frequency of uterine contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. A morphological examination showed that myometrial smooth muscle cells of oxytocin-stimulated group were oval-shaped and arranged irregularly, while those with a single centrally located nucleus of control and licorice-treated groups were fusiform and arranged orderly. The percentage of phosphorylation of HSP27 at Ser-15 residue increased up to 50.33% at 60 min after oxytocin stimulation. Furthermore, this increase was significantly suppressed by licorice treatment at the concentration of 0.2 and 0.4 mg/mL. Colocalization between HSP27 and α-SMA was observed in the myometrial tissues, especially along the actin bundles in the oxytocin-stimulated group. On the contrary, the colocalization was no longer shown after treatment with licorice. Additionally, employing ChemGPS-NP provided support for a preliminary assignment of liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin as protein kinase C (PKC inhibitors in addition to liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritin and isoliquiritin as MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2 inhibitors. These assigned compounds were docked with corresponding crystal structures of respective proteins with negative and low binding energy, which indicated a high affinity and tight binding capacity for the active site of the kinases. These results suggest that licorice exerts its spasmolytic effect through inhibiting the phosphorylation of HSP27 to alter the

  8. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter


    A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

  9. Capability-based computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Henry M


    Capability-Based Computer Systems focuses on computer programs and their capabilities. The text first elaborates capability- and object-based system concepts, including capability-based systems, object-based approach, and summary. The book then describes early descriptor architectures and explains the Burroughs B5000, Rice University Computer, and Basic Language Machine. The text also focuses on early capability architectures. Dennis and Van Horn's Supervisor; CAL-TSS System; MIT PDP-1 Timesharing System; and Chicago Magic Number Machine are discussed. The book then describes Plessey System 25

  10. Transforming organizational capabilities in strategizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus; Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian


    Offshored and networked enterprises are becoming an important if not leading organizational form and this development seriously challenges their organizational capabilities. More specifically, over the last years, SMEs have commenced entering these kinds of arrangements. As the organizational...... capabilities of SMEs are limited at the outset, even more emphasis is needed regarding the issues of developing relevant organizational capabilities. This paper aims at investigating how capabilities evolve during an offshoring process of more than 5 years in two Danish SMEs, i.e. not only short- but long......-term evolvements within the companies. We develop our framework of understanding organizational capabilities drawing on dynamic capability, relational capability and strategy as practice concepts, appreciating the performative aspects of developing new routines. Our two cases are taken from one author’s Ph...

  11. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA


    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  12. A Novel Reduplicate Strategy for Tracing Hemostatic Compounds from Heating Products of the Flavonoid Extract in Platycladi cacumen by Spectrum-Effect Relationships and Column Chromatography. (United States)

    Chen, Yeqing; Yu, Hongli; Wu, Hao; Pan, Yaozong; Wang, Kuilong; Liu, Liping; Jin, Yangping; Zhang, Chengchao


    Platycladi cacumen and its processed product have been utilized as a Chinese medicine to treat hemorrhages. In this study, the base peak chromatogram fingerprints of heating products of total flavonoids in Platycladi cacumen were established by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy/mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS), and the hemostatic activities were studied by hemostatic screening tests in vivo. The spectrum-effect relationships between fingerprints and hemostatic activities were analyzed by using canonical correlation analysis to trace the peaks responsible for the significant hemostatic effects. Peak 10 and peak 12 were correlated most closely, thus probably being the main hemostatic compounds. To confirm the reliability of this strategy, the targeted unknown peak was obtained by bioactivity-guided isolation, characterized by MS, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectroscopies, and referred to as cecarbon as a new compound. In addition, the isolated compound exhibited hemostatic effect in a dose-dependent manner with different potencies in vitro and existed in Platycladi cacumen Carbonisatus. A novel dereplication strategy was employed to trace and identify the active compounds of other herbs that have bioactivity enhancement after processing using spectrum-effect relationships and column chromatography.

  13. Lunar Base Heat Pump (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.


    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  14. Knee temperatures measured in vivo after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction followed by cryotherapy with gel-packs or computer controlled heat extraction. (United States)

    Rashkovska, Aleksandra; Trobec, Roman; Avbelj, Viktor; Veselko, Matjaž


    To obtain in vivo data about intra- and extra-articular knee temperatures to assess the effectiveness of two cryotherapeutic methods-conventional cooling with gel-packs and computer controlled cryotherapy following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Twenty patients were arbitrarily assigned for cryotherapy after ACL reconstruction: 8 patients with frozen gel-packs and 12 patients with computer controlled cryotherapy with constant temperatures of the cooling liquid in the knee pads. The treatment was performed for 12 h. Temperatures were measured with two thermo sensors in catheters placed intraarticularly and subcutaneously, four sensors on the skin and one sensor under protective bandage, every second for 16 h after surgery. In the first 2 h of treatment, there were no significant differences (n.s.) between the groups in temperatures in the intracondylar notch. After 4 h of cryotherapy, the temperatures were significantly lower on the skin (24.6 ± 2.8 and 31.4 ± 1.3 °C, p cryotherapy group compared to the gel-pack group. The cooling effect of the arthroscopy irrigation fluid on the knee temperature is evident in the first 2 h of treatment. The energy extraction is significantly more effective and controllable by computer controlled cryotherapy than with frozen gel-packs. Prospective comparative study, Level II.

  15. Developing Collaborative Product Development Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Tran, Yen


    innovation strategies’. Our analyses suggest that developing such collaboration capabilities benefits from the search for complementary practices, the combination of learning styles, and the development of weak and strong ties. Results also underscore the crucial importance of co-evolution of multi......-level, simultaneous learning processes and highlight the role of human agency in capability development with partners. Building on our analyses, we advance propositions for future research and managerial practices on developing dynamic collaboration capabilities....

  16. Laminated insulators having heat dissipation means (United States)

    Niemann, R.C.; Mataya, K.F.; Gonczy, J.D.


    A laminated body is provided with heat dissipation capabilities. The insulator body is formed by dielectric layers interleaved with heat conductive layers, and bonded by an adhesive to form a composite structure. The heat conductive layers include provision for connection to an external thermal circuit.

  17. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski


    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  18. Study of the extraction of residual heat for a steam generator in the presence of incondensables modeling with TRACE: PKL experiment III G1.1; Estudio de la extraccion del calor residual por un generador de vapor en presencia de incondensables modelado con TRACE: experimento PKL III G1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, C.; Escriva, A.; Munuz-Cobo, J. L.; Romero, A.


    This paper made the simulation of the PKL III G1.1 experiment using SNAP interface and the TRACE code. This experiment aims to essentially the study of the extraction of the residual heat of the steam generator in the presence of gases incondensables.

  19. A business analytics capability framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko Cosic


    Full Text Available Business analytics (BA capabilities can potentially provide value and lead to better organisational performance. This paper develops a holistic, theoretically-grounded and practically relevant business analytics capability framework (BACF that specifies, defines and ranks the capabilities that constitute an organisational BA initiative. The BACF was developed in two phases. First, an a priori conceptual framework was developed based on the Resource-Based View theory of the firm and a thematic content analysis of the BA literature. Second, the conceptual framework was further developed and refined using a three round Delphi study involving 16 BA experts. Changes from the Delphi study resulted in a refined and confirmed framework including detailed capability definitions, together with a ranking of the capabilities based on importance. The BACF will help academic researchers and industry practitioners to better understand the capabilities that constitute an organisational BA initiative and their relative importance. In future work, the capabilities in the BACF will be operationalised to measure their as-is status, thus enabling organisations to identify key areas of strength and weakness and prioritise future capability improvement efforts.

  20. Technological Dynamics and Social Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerberg, Jan; Feldman, Maryann; Srholec, Martin


    for the sample as a whole between 1998 and 2008. The results indicate that social capabilities, such as well-developed public knowledge infrastructure, an egalitarian distribution of income, a participatory democracy and prevalence of public safety condition the growth of technological capabilities. Possible...

  1. Heat sink design considerations in medium power electronic applications with long power cycles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)744611; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Thiringer, Torbjörn; Bongiorno, Massimo


    The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of the heat sink thickness and material, as well as, of the convection coefficient of the water cooling system on the power-electronics module thermal stressing. The heat extraction capability of different thicknesses is tested. It is concluded that the thickest heat sink results in marginally lower temperature variation at the junction level compared to the second thickest one. In the thickest heat sink case, the linear dependence of the thermal resistance on the thickness counteracts the benefit of the increased thermal capacitance. The increase in the cooling medium flow rate, which corresponds to an increase in the convection coefficient between the heat sink bottom surface and the water, can be avoided by increasing the thickness of the heat sink. In this way, the energy consumption of the cooling system is reduced. The increase in the flow rate drastically reduces the thermal stressing in the thinnest heat sink case. The increase of the heat sink thickne...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin


    Full Text Available Heat recovery is an effective method of shortening specific energy consumption. new constructions of recuperators for heating and cupola furnaces have been designed and successfully introduced. two-stage recuperator with computer control providing blast heating up to 600 °C and reducing fuel consumption by 30% is of special interest.

  3. Marketing Capability in Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Distel, Andreas Philipp

    Following the call for a demand-side perspective of strategic management (e.g., Priem et al., 2012), a firm’s marketing capability, i.e. its ability to interact with down-stream stakeholders, becomes a pivotal element in explaining a firm’s competitiveness. While marketing capability is recognize...... ground for advancing marketing capability research and thus supporting the demand-side perspective in strategic management, we develop an integrative framework to explain the differences and propose a research agenda for developing the field....

  4. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschliman, Dave [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Lubbehusen, Mike [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)


    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  6. Advanced Capabilities for Combat Medics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Convertino, Victor A; Cooke, William H; Salinas, Jose; Holcomb, John B


    The US Army Institute of Surgical Research (USAISR) has the lead for directing the Research Program Area for Advanced Triage Capabilities for Combat Medics in the Medical Research and Materiel Command (MRMC...

  7. Counterforce Targeting Capabilities and Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Barry R


    .... To fully understand what progress the United States has made in counterforce capability, as well as the continuing shortfalls and the way ahead, one has to search for answers to a few key questions, namely...

  8. Broadening Access to Geospatial Capabilities


    Song, Carol


    Responding to the need for geospatial tool and data capabilities in HUBzero from various communities, a Purdue team is developing and integrating geospatial capabilities into the HUBzero software. Funded by the National Science Foundation’s Data Infrastructure Building Blocks (DIBBs) initiative, the follow-on program to the DataNet program, the GABBs project is a four-year software development effort aiming at enabling researchers, students and citizens to share geospatial data and tools onli...

  9. Judgmental Forecasting of Operational Capabilities


    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Andersen, Torben Juul


    This paper explores a new judgmental forecasting indicator, the Employee Sensed Operational Capabilities (ESOC). The purpose of the ESOC is to establish a practical prediction tool that can provide early signals about changes in financial performance by gauging frontline employees’ sensing of changes in the firm’s operational capabilities. We present the first stage of the development of ESOC by applying a formative measurement approach to test the index in relation to financia...

  10. Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project (United States)

    Cobleigh, Brent


    A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.

  11. Capabilities for Constrained Military Operations (United States)


    information derived from social media, the Internet of Things (IoT) and advanced data analytical methods must be integrated with conventional...Department does have significant capabilities to support whole-of- government approaches. The good news is that The DoD can prevail with inexpensive...for the U.S. to address such conflicts. The good news is that The DoD can prevail with inexpensive capabilities that have low technology risk and on a

  12. Enhanced Energy Distribution for Quantum Information Heat Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Diaz de la Cruz


    Full Text Available A new scenario for energy distribution, security and shareability is presented that assumes the availability of quantum information heat engines and a thermal bath. It is based on the convertibility between entropy and work in the presence of a thermal reservoir. Our approach to the informational content of physical systems that are distributed between users is complementary to the conventional perspective of quantum communication. The latter places the value on the unpredictable content of the transmitted quantum states, while our interest focuses on their certainty. Some well-known results in quantum communication are reused in this context. Particularly, we describe a way to securely distribute quantum states to be used for unlocking energy from thermal sources. We also consider some multi-partite entangled and classically correlated states for a collaborative multi-user sharing of work extraction possibilities. In addition, the relation between the communication and work extraction capabilities is analyzed and written as an equation.

  13. 21 CFR 573.310 - Crambe meal, heat toasted. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crambe meal, heat toasted. 573.310 Section 573.310... Additive Listing § 573.310 Crambe meal, heat toasted. (a) The additive is the seed meal of Crambe... solvent extraction or by solvent extraction alone. The resulting seed meal is heat toasted. (b) The...

  14. Development of Students Learning Capabilities and Professional Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringtved, Ulla Lunde; Wahl, Christian; Belle, Gianna

    This paper describes the work-in-progress on a project that aims to develop a tool that via learning analytic methods enable students to enhance, document and assess the development of their learning capabilities and professional capabilities in consequence of their self-initiated study activities...... during their bachelor educations. The tool aims at enhancing the development of students’ capabilities to self-initiate, self-regulate and self-assess their study activities. The tool uses the concept of collective intelligence as source for motivation and inspiration in self-initiating study activities...... as well as self-assessing them. The tool is based on a heutagogical approach to support reflection on learning potential in these activities. This enhances the educational use of students self-initiated learning activities by bringing visibility and evidence to them, and thereby bringing value...

  15. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kevin W [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  16. Nonadiabatic electron heat pump


    Rey, Miguel; Strass, Michael; Kohler, Sigmund; Hänggi, Peter; Sols, Fernando


    We investigate a mechanism for extracting heat from metallic conductors based on the energy-selective transmission of electrons through a spatially asymmetric resonant structure subject to ac driving. This quantum refrigerator can operate at zero net electronic current as it replaces hot by cold electrons through two energetically symmetric inelastic channels. We present numerical results for a specific heterostructure and discuss general trends. We also explore the conditions under which the...

  17. Heated Goggles (United States)


    The electrically heated ski goggles shown incorporate technology similar to that once used in Apollo astronauts' helmet visors, and for the same reason-providing fogfree sight in an activity that demands total vision. Defogging is accomplished by applying heat to prevent moisture condensation. Electric heat is supplied by a small battery built into the h goggles' headband. Heat is spread across the lenses by means of an invisible coating of electrically conductive metallic film. The goggles were introduced to the market last fall. They were designed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California, specialists in the field of heated transparent materials. The company produces heated windshields for military planes and for such civil aircraft as the Boeing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar.

  18. autoimage: Multiple Heat Maps for Projected Coordinates. (United States)

    French, Joshua P


    Heat maps are commonly used to display the spatial distribution of a response observed on a two-dimensional grid. The autoimage package provides convenient functions for constructing multiple heat maps in unified, seamless way, particularly when working with projected coordinates. The autoimage package natively supports: 1. automatic inclusion of a color scale with the plotted image, 2. construction of heat maps for responses observed on regular or irregular grids, as well as non-gridded data, 3. construction of a matrix of heat maps with a common color scale, 4. construction of a matrix of heat maps with individual color scales, 5. projecting coordinates before plotting, 6. easily adding geographic borders, points, and other features to the heat maps. After comparing the autoimage package's capabilities for constructing heat maps to those of existing tools, a carefully selected set of examples is used to highlight the capabilities of the autoimage package.

  19. Performance of ultra low temperature district heating systems with utility plant and booster heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Markussen, Wiebke Brix


    The optimal integration of booster heat pumps in ultra low temperature district heating (ULTDH) was investigated and compared to the performance of low temperature district heating. Two possible heat production technologies for the DH networks were analysed, namely extraction combined heat...... and power (CHP) and central heat pumps (HPs). The analysis focussed on the characteristic heat demands of newly build multi-story buildings and the results were based on the ratio of the individual demands compared to the total. It was found that the optimal return temperature was dependent on the forward...

  20. A unifying process capability metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jay Flaig


    Full Text Available A new economic approach to process capability assessment is presented, which differs from the commonly used engineering metrics. The proposed metric consists of two economic capability measures – the expected profit and the variation in profit of the process. This dual economic metric offers a number of significant advantages over other engineering or economic metrics used in process capability analysis. First, it is easy to understand and communicate. Second, it is based on a measure of total system performance. Third, it unifies the fraction nonconforming approach and the expected loss approach. Fourth, it reflects the underlying interest of management in knowing the expected financial performance of a process and its potential variation.

  1. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso


    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described. PMID:25386758

  2. Heat flux sensors for infrared thermography in convective heat transfer. (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso


    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.

  3. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Maria Carlomagno


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.

  4. Judgmental Forecasting of Operational Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Andersen, Torben Juul

    This paper explores a new judgmental forecasting indicator, the Employee Sensed Operational Capabilities (ESOC). The purpose of the ESOC is to establish a practical prediction tool that can provide early signals about changes in financial performance by gauging frontline employees’ sensing...... of changes in the firm’s operational capabilities. We present the first stage of the development of ESOC by applying a formative measurement approach to test the index in relation to financial performance and against an organizational commitment scale. We use distributed lag models to test whether the ESOC...

  5. Nanofabrication principles, capabilities and limits

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Zheng


    This second edition of Nanofabrication is one of the most comprehensive introductions on nanofabrication technologies and processes. A practical guide and reference, this book introduces readers to all of the developed technologies that are capable of making structures below 100nm. The principle of each technology is introduced and illustrated with minimum mathematics involved. Also analyzed are the capabilities of each technology in making sub-100nm structures, and the limits of preventing a technology from going further down the dimensional scale. This book provides readers with a toolkit that will help with any of their nanofabrication challenges.

  6. Preliminary Heat Transfer Characteristics of RP-2 Fuel as Tested in the High Heat Flux Facility (PREPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irvine, S. A; Burns, R. M


    ...., high aspect ratio cooling channels, various fuel thermal stability issues, material compatibility, heat transfer capability, effects related to dissolved oxygen or specific sulfur species contained...

  7. Colloidal heat engines: a review. (United States)

    Martínez, Ignacio A; Roldán, Édgar; Dinis, Luis; Rica, Raúl A


    Stochastic heat engines can be built using colloidal particles trapped using optical tweezers. Here we review recent experimental realizations of microscopic heat engines. We first revisit the theoretical framework of stochastic thermodynamics that allows to describe the fluctuating behavior of the energy fluxes that occur at mesoscopic scales, and then discuss recent implementations of the colloidal equivalents to the macroscopic Stirling, Carnot and steam engines. These small-scale motors exhibit unique features in terms of power and efficiency fluctuations that have no equivalent in the macroscopic world. We also consider a second pathway for work extraction from colloidal engines operating between active bacterial reservoirs at different temperatures, which could significantly boost the performance of passive heat engines at the mesoscale. Finally, we provide some guidance on how the work extracted from colloidal heat engines can be used to generate net particle or energy currents, proposing a new generation of experiments with colloidal systems.

  8. Heat Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Sofie Søndergaard; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Bestle, Morten Heiberg


    Heat stroke is an acute, life-threatening emergency characterized clinically by elevated body temperature and central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and treatment including aggressive cooling and management of life-threatening systemic complications are essential to reduce morbidity...... and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were...... not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat...

  9. Capabilities and Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)


    textabstractIntroduction The Capability Approach (CA) has been initiated and guided by Amartya Sen, since the 1980s, as an alternative to neoclassical welfare economics. The approach emerged gradually out of his rich critique of mainstream economics, in particular his dissatisfaction with

  10. Indigenous Technological Innovation : Capability and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indigenous Technological Innovation : Capability and Competitiveness in China's Western Region. China has experienced extraordinary economic growth over the past 20 years. Nevertheless, the vast western region of the country tends to lag behind the dynamic eastern coastline. The gap between the two is an ongoing ...

  11. Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Tippo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Heimericks, Koen H.


    This article introduces the Special Issue and discusses the microfoundations of routines and capabilities, including why a microfoundations view is needed and how it may inform work on organizational and competitive heterogeneity. Building on extant research, we identify three primary categories...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU


    Full Text Available In the paper are presented the SolidWorks analysis steps to be taken in order to study sustainability of parts or assemblies designed. There are presented the software capabilities and the settings that have to be done for such analysis and the results shown by software.

  13. Lifelong Learning: Capabilities and Aspirations (United States)

    Ilieva-Trichkova, Petya


    The present paper discusses the potential of the capability approach in conceptualizing and understanding lifelong learning as an agency process, and explores its capacity to guide empirical studies on lifelong learning. It uses data for 20 countries from the Adult Education Survey (2007; 2011) and focuses on aspirations for lifelong learning. The…

  14. ROV (remotely operated vehicles) capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.W. [Slingsby Engineering Ltd., Kirkbymoorside, York (United Kingdom)


    Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) and associated tooling are being increasingly utilised in subsea installation and maintenance operations. With the offshore industry developing into deeper waters, 3000 metres and beyond, questions are arising as to the suitability of ROVs. This paper illustrates some of the current applications and capabilities of ROVs and highlights a number of the issues involved at 3000 metres and beyond. (author)

  15. Building server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum


    The purpose of this paper is to further our understanding of multinational companies building server capabilities in China. The paper is based on the cases of two western companies with operations in China. The findings highlight a number of common patterns in the 1) managerial challenges related...

  16. Research for new UAV capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Leadabrand, R.


    This paper discusses research for new Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) capabilities. Findings indicate that UAV performance could be greatly enhanced by modest research. Improved sensors and communications enhance near term cost effectiveness. Improved engines, platforms, and stealth improve long term effectiveness.

  17. Microwave extraction of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Blekić


    Full Text Available Microwave extraction presents novel extraction and treatment method for food processing. In paper, several examples of microwave extraction of bioactive compounds are presented. Also, novel innovative equipment for microwave extraction and hydrodiffusion with gravitation is presented. Advantage of using novel equipment for microwave extraction is shown, and it include, shorter treatment time, less usage or without any solvent use. Novel method is compared to standard extraction methods. Some positive and negative aspects of microwave heating can be observed, and also its influence on development of oxidation in sunflower oil subjected to microwave heating. Also, use of microwaves for the extraction of essential oils is shown. One can also see the advantages of solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs in comparison with the standard extraction, and determination of antioxidant components in rice bran oil extracted by microwave-assisted method. Comparison of microwave and ultrasound extraction, as well as positive and negative aspects of the combination of microwaves and ultrasound is described.

  18. Development of Students Learning Capabilities and Professional Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringtved, Ulla Lunde; Wahl, Christian; Belle, Gianna


    This paper describes the work-in-progress on a project that aims todevelop a tool that via learning analytic methods enable studentsto enhance, document and assess the development of their learningcapabilities and professional capabilities in consequence of theirself-initiated study activities...... during their bachelor educations. Thetool aims at enhancing the development of students’ capabilities toself-initiate, self-regulate and self-assess their study activities.The tool uses the concept of collective intelligence as source formotivation and inspiration in self-initiating study activities...... as wellas self-assessing them. The tool is based on a heutagogical approachto support reflection on learning potential in these activities. Thisenhances the educational use of students self-initiated learningactivities by bringing visibility and evidence to them, and therebybringing value to the assessment...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V


    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were

  20. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D


    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  1. Numerical Modeling of Freezing and Melting Processes around a Borehole Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Shao, Haibing; Zheng, Tianyuan; Nagel, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf


    In ground sourced heat pump (GSHP) systems, heat energy stored in the shallow subsurface is extracted through borehole heat exchangers (BHE) and then utilized for domestic heating. In cold regions, the continuous heat deficit in the vicinity of the BHE can cause freezing of the surrounding soil. Its material properties, such as permeability and heat conductivity, will then significantly change and lead to a series of coupled thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical processes. In particular, the heat exchange performance of the BHE will be altered, and the frozen soil may also induce ground lift or subsidence in the vicinity of the building. As the first step of modelling this coupled system, we followed the approach proposed by Al-Khoury et al (2010) and Diersch et al (2011), where the BHE has been fully integrated into the numerical model in a dual-continuum way. Additionally, we extended the existing heat transport module in the numerical simulator OpenGeoSys to include the freezing and melting processes, whereas the ice volume fraction in the soil is non-linearly dependent on the temperature, and the soil properties were determined based on the degree of freezing/melting. The non-linearity of the coupled model was numerically solved by a Newton scheme. The extended model has been verified by comparing numerical results against analytical solutions and also findings from other numerical codes. Moreover, we proposed and simulated a hypothetical scenario, where ice is gradually forming around a BHE in response to the continuous operation of a heat pump. The model is capable of reproducing the thermodynamic freezing process as well as the heat transport affected by it. Future work will be focused on the integration of deformation processes into the model.

  2. Human-Centered Design Capability (United States)

    Fitts, David J.; Howard, Robert


    For NASA, human-centered design (HCD) seeks opportunities to mitigate the challenges of living and working in space in order to enhance human productivity and well-being. Direct design participation during the development stage is difficult, however, during project formulation, a HCD approach can lead to better more cost-effective products. HCD can also help a program enter the development stage with a clear vision for product acquisition. HCD tools for clarifying design intent are listed. To infuse HCD into the spaceflight lifecycle the Space and Life Sciences Directorate developed the Habitability Design Center. The Center has collaborated successfully with program and project design teams and with JSC's Engineering Directorate. This presentation discusses HCD capabilities and depicts the Center's design examples and capabilities.

  3. Developing Acquisition IS Integration Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynne, Peter J.


    An under researched, yet critical challenge of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A), is what to do with the two organisations’ information systems (IS) post-acquisition. Commonly referred to as acquisition IS integration, existing theory suggests that to integrate the information systems successfully......, an acquiring company must leverage two high level capabilities: diagnosis and integration execution. Through a case study, this paper identifies how a novice acquirer develops these capabilities in anticipation of an acquisition by examining its use of learning processes. The study finds the novice acquirer...... applies trial and error, experimental, and vicarious learning processes, while actively avoiding improvisational learning. The results of the study contribute to the acquisition IS integration literature specifically by exploring it from a new perspective: the learning processes used by novice acquirers...

  4. Manually operated elastomer heat pump (United States)

    Hutchinson, W. D.


    Device consisting of a rotating mechanism, a frame with multiple wide bands of rubber, and a fluid bath, demonstrates the feasibility of a human operated device capable of cooling or producing heat. This invention utilizes the basic thermodynamic properties of natural rubber.

  5. Determining your organization's 'risk capability'. (United States)

    Hannah, Bill; Hancock, Melinda


    An assessment of a provider's level of risk capability should focus on three key elements: Business intelligence, including sophisticated analytical models that can offer insight into the expected cost and quality of care for a given population. Clinical enterprise maturity, marked by the ability to improve health outcomes and to manage utilization and costs to drive change. Revenue transformation, emphasizing the need for a revenue cycle platform that allows for risk acceptance and management and that provides incentives for performance against defined objectives.

  6. Preliminary assessment of free radical scavenging, thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing capabilities of organic fractions of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis.) skeels leaves. (United States)

    Ahmed, Farhana; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur


    Callistemon citrinus (Curtis.) (Family- Myrtaceae) is a popular evergreen shrub in Bangladesh. In the present study, the leaves of this plant have been assessed comprehensively for free radical scavenging, thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities. The leaves were collected, powdered and extracted with methanol. The extract was then concentrated and successively fractionated into petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble fractions. The extractives were investigated for free radical scavenging, thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities. In case of 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assays, the crude methanol extract of the leaves showed the highest free radical scavenging activity among the tested materials including standard ascorbic acid (p = 0.0000). Besides, this extract was also found significantly rich (p = 0.0000) in phenolics and flavonoids compared to other organic fractions. In thrombolytic study, the petroleum ether fraction exhibited significantly stronger thrombolysis (p = 0.024) than other leaf extractives but was weaker than the standard streptokinase. In membrane stabilizing assay, the activity of chloroform fraction was similar to that of standard acetylsalicylic acid (p = 1.000) in hypotonic solution induced hemolysis. However, membrane stabilization activity of this chloroform fraction was found significantly stronger than that of the standard (p = 0.0000) in heat induced hemolysis. This study has revealed the medicinal capabilities of different organic fractions of C. citrinus displaying free radical scavenging, thrombolysis and membrane stabilizing antiinflammatory potentials. Further bioactivity guided isolation is required to obtain pharmacologically secondary metabolites.

  7. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.


    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  8. Summary of Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The technical capabilities of Sandia Laboratories are detailed in a series of companion reports. In this summary the use of the capabilities in technical programs is outlined and the capabilities are summarized. 25 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.


    Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

  10. An AMR capable finite element diffusion solver for ALE hydrocodes [An AMR capable diffusion solver for ALE-AMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, A. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bailey, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kaiser, T. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eder, D. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunney, B. T. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Masters, N. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Koniges, A. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Anderson, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Here, we present a novel method for the solution of the diffusion equation on a composite AMR mesh. This approach is suitable for including diffusion based physics modules to hydrocodes that support ALE and AMR capabilities. To illustrate, we proffer our implementations of diffusion based radiation transport and heat conduction in a hydrocode called ALE-AMR. Numerical experiments conducted with the diffusion solver and associated physics packages yield 2nd order convergence in the L2 norm.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu Dumitru


    Full Text Available The fact that the Internet has become a commodity in the world has created a framework for anew economy. Traditional businesses migrate to this new environment that offers many features and options atrelatively low prices. However competitiveness is fierce and successful Internet business is tied to rigorous use of allavailable information. The information is often hidden in data and for their retrieval is necessary to use softwarecapable of applying data mining algorithms and techniques. In this paper we want to review some of the programswith data mining capabilities currently available in this area.We also propose some classifications of this softwareto assist those who wish to use such software.

  12. Developing a dispersant spraying capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, S.D.


    In developing a national dispersant spraying capability, the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) has undertaken a modification program to enable the conventional offshore spraying gear to be mounted on almost any vessel of convenience. Smaller, more versatile inshore spraying vessels and pumps have been designed and built. With the popularization of concentrated dispersants, the inshore pumping equipment can be used aboard hovercraft for special application situations. A program of acquiring mobile dispersant storage tanks has been undertaken with auxiliary equipment that will facilitate the shipment of dispersants in bulk by air freight. Work also has commenced on extending the dispersant application program to include the CCG fleet of helicopters.

  13. Production, innovation and service capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Wu, Dong


    Fragmentation and global dispersion are among the most prominent characteristics of contemporary operations. Not only routine transactional tasks, but also more knowledge-intensive proprietary tasks are subjected to this trend. As a result of this, complex configurations of assets and capabilities...... crossing both national and organisational borders emerge. The challenge of coordination in these configurations is an imperative which has not been adequately addressed so far. Therefore, by using explorative cases of Chinese and Danish companies, this paper seeks to develop a conceptual framework relating...... functional nodes of global production networks and devising appropriate coordination mechanisms between them....

  14. Heat transfer. Basics and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Thomas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Boeckh, Peter von


    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author's experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises of 45 minutes based on this textbook, have proved capable of designing independently complex heat exchangers such as for cooling of rocket propulsion chambers, condensers and evaporators for heat pumps. (orig.)

  15. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.


    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  16. Milk-clotting potential of fruit extracts from Solanum esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 22, 2010 ... The loss of milk-clotting activity was dramatic after wet-heating of extracts from S. esculentum and S. macrocarpon at 80°C for 10 min and after dry-heating of fruits at 100°C for 24 h. Heat treatment did not significantly affect the clotting activity of extract from S. melongena. Fruit extracts from S. esculentum.

  17. Integrated Heat Exchange For Recuperation In Gas Turbine Engines (United States)


    DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTEGRATED HEAT EXCHANGE FOR RECUPERATION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR...ship gas turbines is difficult due the size and weight of the heat exchanger components required. An alternate approach would be to embed a heat ... exchange system within the engine using existing blade surfaces to extract and insert heat . Due to the highly turbulent and transient flow, heat

  18. Dynamic thermal modelling of horizontal ground-source heat pumps


    Guohui Gan


    A computer program has been developed for numerical simulation of the dynamic thermal performance of horizontally coupled heat exchangers for ground-source heat pumps, taking account of dynamic variations of climatic, load and soil conditions. The program was used to investigate the effects of operating and start times, installation depth and soil freezing on the heat exchanger performance. It is shown that the rate of heat extraction decreases with increasing operating time. Operating a heat...

  19. Heat convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiji, L.M. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the following ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters. (orig.)

  20. Quantum optomechanical heat engine. (United States)

    Zhang, Keye; Bariani, Francesco; Meystre, Pierre


    We investigate theoretically a quantum optomechanical realization of a heat engine. In a generic optomechanical arrangement the optomechanical coupling between the cavity field and the oscillating end mirror results in polariton normal mode excitations whose character depends on the pump detuning and the coupling strength. By varying that detuning it is possible to transform their character from phononlike to photonlike, so that they are predominantly coupled to the thermal reservoir of phonons or photons, respectively. We exploit the fact that the effective temperatures of these two reservoirs are different to produce an Otto cycle along one of the polariton branches. We discuss the basic properties of the system in two different regimes: in the optical domain it is possible to extract work from the thermal energy of a mechanical resonator at finite temperature, while in the microwave range one can in principle exploit the cycle to extract work from the blackbody radiation background coupled to an ultracold atomic ensemble.

  1. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms ... heavy sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, ...

  2. Renewable Heating and Cooling (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  3. Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office Testing (United States)

    Sanders, Sean


    While at the KSC, I was given the opportunity of assisting the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) specifically the Propellant Transfer System (PTS) lead by my mentor, Brian Nufer. While waiting to test different components in the PTS, I was able to assist with testing for the Hose Management Assembly (HMA) and was able to work on a simulation in Labview. For the HMA, I was able to help with testing of a coating as well as to help test the durability of the pinch rollers in space. In Labview, I experimented with building a simulation for the PTS, to show where fluids and gases were flowing depending on which valves in the PTS were opened. Not all of the integrated parts required assembly level testing, which allowed me to test these parts individually by myself and document the results. I was also able to volunteer to assist project NEO, allowing me to gain some knowledge of cryogenic fluid systems.

  4. Amartya Sen's Capability Approach and Education (United States)

    Walker, Melanie


    The human capabilities approach developed by the economist Amartya Sen links development, quality of life and freedom. This article explores the key ideas in the capability approach of: capability, functioning, agency, human diversity and public participation in generating valued capabilities. It then considers how these ideas relate specifically…

  5. Professionals and Public Good Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Walker


    Full Text Available Martha Nussbaum (2011 reminds us that, all over the world people are struggling for a life that is fully human - a life worthy of human dignity. Purely income-based and preference-based evaluations, as Sen (1999 argues, do not adequately capture what it means for each person to have quality of life. There are other things that make life good for a person, including access to publicly provided professional services. The question then is what version of education inflects more towards the intrinsic and transformational possibilities of professional work and contributions to decent societies? This paper suggests that we need a normative approach to professional education and professionalism; it is not the case that any old version will do. We also need normative criteria to move beyond social critique and to overcome a merely defensive attitude and to give a positive definition to the potential achievements of the professions. Moreover universities are connected to society, most especially through the professionals they educate; it is reasonable in our contemporary world to educate professional graduates to be in a position to alleviate inequalities, and to have the knowledge, skills and values to be able to do so. To make this case, we draw on the human capabilities approach of Sen (1999, 2009 and Nussbaum (2000, 2011 to conceptualise professional education for the public good as an ally of the struggles of people living in poverty and experiencing inequalities, expanding the well-being of people to be and to do in ways they have reason to value – to be mobile, cared for, respected, and so on. In particular we are interested in which human capabilities and functionings are most needed for a professional practice and professionalism that can contribute to transformative social change and how professional development is enabled via pedagogical arrangements.

  6. Infrared heating (United States)

    IR heating was first industrially used in the 1930s for automotive curing applications and rapidly became a widely applied technology in the manufacturing industry. Contrarily, a slower pace in the development of IR technologies for processing foods and agricultural products was observed, due to lim...

  7. Extraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from anaerobic granular sludges: comparison of chemical and physical extraction protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abzac, D' P.; Bordas, F.; Hullebusch, E.; Lens, P.N.L.; Guibaud, G.


    The characteristics of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted with nine different extraction protocols from four different types of anaerobic granular sludge were studied. The efficiency of four physical (sonication, heating, cationic exchange resin (CER), and CER associated with

  8. Capturing Firms’ Heterogeneity through Marketing and IT Capabilities in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Ramón-Jerónimo


    Full Text Available To achieve sustainability, firms capable of surviving economic recessions is of key relevance; the capabilities that firms need to face dynamic environments remain an open question. In this work, a new procedure is proposed to capture firms’ heterogeneity with regard to the capabilities they possess in operating efficiently in dynamic environments. This approach enables the identification of the classes of firms that develop efficiency with a specific integration of resources. While the literature has most often measured firm capabilities using subjective measures, this study suggests the use of Data Envelopment Analysis to capture the ability to transform resources into outcomes and of Latent Class Regression to capture differences across firms that explain firms’ heterogeneity in the way they perform. By combining these two techniques, this work presents a way to identify those firms that need to invest in and develop certain capabilities. This work analyses a large dataset of manufacturing Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs extracted from the Business and Strategy survey provided by Fundación de la Sociedad Estatal de Participaciones Industriales( SEPI in Spain. The dataset used enfolds 10,960 observations from 2048 firms during the period 1994–2011. The complete dataset has been employed to calculate manufacturing firms’ efficiency. In a second step, data were cleaned to eliminate outliers, and to identify SMEs and observations with records of IT capabilities. As a result, 329 manufacturing SMEs were analysed to capture their heterogeneity. The results contribute to the current literature by explaining how manufacturing SMEs show a different need in their development of capabilities to be efficient and adapt to environmental changes. While approximately 20% of firms analysed really take advantage of recessions through their investment in R&D, the remaining 80% need to adjust their size or invest in IT capabilities to become competitive

  9. Heat blocking gallium arsenide solar cells (United States)

    Rahman, F.; Farmer, C. D.; Schmidt, C.; Pfaff, G.; Stanley, C. R.


    The solar cell industry is witnessing an era of unprecedented growth and this trend is set to continue for the foreseeable future. Here we describe a heat reflection pigment-coated single-junction gallium arsenide solar cell that is capable of reflecting heat-inducing near-infrared radiation. The cell maintains its performance better than non-coated cells when exposed to infrared-rich radiant flux. In situations where solar cells get heated mainly from incident infrared radiation, these cells exhibit superior performance. The heat reflecting pigment, cell structure, coating process and cell performance have been described.

  10. An Indoor Video Surveillance System with Intelligent Fall Detection Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chih Chen


    Full Text Available This work presents a novel indoor video surveillance system, capable of detecting the falls of humans. The proposed system can detect and evaluate human posture as well. To evaluate human movements, the background model is developed using the codebook method, and the possible position of moving objects is extracted using the background and shadow eliminations method. Extracting a foreground image produces more noise and damage in this image. Additionally, the noise is eliminated using morphological and size filters and this damaged image is repaired. When the image object of a human is extracted, whether or not the posture has changed is evaluated using the aspect ratio and height of a human body. Meanwhile, the proposed system detects a change of the posture and extracts the histogram of the object projection to represent the appearance. The histogram becomes the input vector of K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN algorithm and is to evaluate the posture of the object. Capable of accurately detecting different postures of a human, the proposed system increases the fall detection accuracy. Importantly, the proposed method detects the posture using the frame ratio and the displacement of height in an image. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can further improve the system performance and the fall down identification accuracy.

  11. OPSAID improvements and capabilities report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbgewachs, Ronald D.; Chavez, Adrian R.


    Process Control System (PCS) and Industrial Control System (ICS) security is critical to our national security. But there are a number of technological, economic, and educational impediments to PCS owners implementing effective security on their systems. Sandia National Laboratories has performed the research and development of the OPSAID (Open PCS Security Architecture for Interoperable Design), a project sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE), to address this issue. OPSAID is an open-source architecture for PCS/ICS security that provides a design basis for vendors to build add-on security devices for legacy systems, while providing a path forward for the development of inherently-secure PCS elements in the future. Using standardized hardware, a proof-of-concept prototype system was also developed. This report describes the improvements and capabilities that have been added to OPSAID since an initial report was released. Testing and validation of this architecture has been conducted in another project, Lemnos Interoperable Security Project, sponsored by DOE/OE and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  12. Effect of ethanol extract of Selaginella doederleinii hieron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper mainly studied the effect of ethanol extract of Selaginella doederleinii Hieron on the proliferation of two kinds of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines, CNE-1 and C666-1, and their mechanisms of action. Extract was obtained by heat reflux extraction with ethanol, and the effect of extract on the extracellular matrix ...

  13. Astrobionibbler: In Situ Microfluidic Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids (United States)

    Noell, A. C.; Fisher, A. M.; Takano, N.; Fors-Francis, K.; Sherrit, S.; Grunthaner, F.


    A fluidic-chip based instrument for subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of amino acids and other organics from powder samples has been developed. A variety of soil analog extractions have been performed to better understand SCWE capabilities.

  14. Effect of Alcohol Extract of Zataria multiflora (Boiss), Satureja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The alcohol extracts of Z. multiflora Z. membranacea and S. bachtiarica extracts are capable of stimulating the immune defense mechanism without causing undesirable effects on hematological parameters. Keywords: Zataria multiflora, Satureja bachtiarica, Zaravschanica membranacea, Immunoglobulin, ...

  15. Heat pump


    Klíma, Martin


    Bakalářská práce popisuje a charakterizuje tepelné čerpadlo. Obsahuje souhrn jednotlivých druhů tepelných čerpadel z hlediska získávání energie, princip jejich funkce a popis odlišností mezi jednotlivými druhy kompresorů, použití pracovní látky a její vývin do budoucna. Závěrem je zde uveden můj vlastní názor na tepelné čerpadlo, které bych preferoval. Bachelor thesis describes and characterizes the heat pump. Summarizes the various types of heat pumps in terms of energy production, princi...

  16. High-Efficiency Extraction and Utilization of Lunar Solar Wind Volatiles (United States)

    Petrick, David E.; Gardner, Tracy Q.; Nieczkoski, Steven J.


    A method of processing Lunar regolith for the extraction of solar wind volatiles has been developed to enable sustainable exploration of the Moon. The process incorporates efficient heat and mass transfer processes to provide thermal extraction and subsequent recovery of atoms implanted on the upper surface of Lunar regolith. End-to-end system modeling and component design establish a level feasibility and efficiency not previously achieved. Extracted molecular species are purified and stored on a mobile platform which delivers the resources to a central storage facility. The design concept results in several hundred times the mass of the facility produced in liquid product resources for life support and propulsion over the life of the system. Key developments include recuperative heating and cooling systems, rapid heating of regolith, and separation membranes capable of high selectivity due to thermal management. The ability to produce significant amounts of hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium from the Lunar surface will dramatically reduce the cost and complexity of performing ISRU with earth-based resources.

  17. Heat Exchange


    Bottomley, Stephen


    Heat Exchange’ is an international touring exhibition of enamel metalwork curated by Turrell.E (UK), Gegenwart (Germany/UK) and Cameron (Australia). Bottomley was one of twenty-three international artists invited to join a transcontinental on-line blog and forum that recorded individual contemporary approaches to working with vitreous enamel the year prior to the 2012 exhibition that coincided with the SNAG (Society of North American Goldsmiths) National Conference in Phoenix Arizona USA.Vitr...

  18. Heat pump system (United States)

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.


    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  19. Enhancement of EAST plasma control capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Bingjia, E-mail: [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Yuan, Qiping; Luo, Zhengping; Huang, Yao; Liu, Lei; Guo, Yong; Pei, Xiaofang; Chen, Shuliang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Humphreys, D.A.; Hyatt, A.W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Mueller, Dennis [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Calabró, G.; Crisanti, F. [ENEA UnitàTecnicaFusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Federicao II, Università di Cassino and Università di Napoli Parthenope, Via Claudio 19, 80125 Napoli (Italy)


    Highlights: • Parallel plasma equilibrium reconstruction using GPU for real-time control on EAST. • Vertical control using Bang-bang + PID method to improve the response and minimize the oscillation caused by the latency. • Quasi-snow flake divertor plasma configuration has been demonstrated on EAST. - Abstract: In order to improve the plasma control performance and enhance the capability for advanced plasma control, new algorithms such as PEFIT/ISOFLUX plasma shape feedback control, quasi-snowflake plasma shape development and vertical control under new vertical control power supply, have been implemented and experimentally tested and verified in EAST 2014 campaign. P-EFIT is a rewritten version of EFIT aiming at fast real-time equilibrium reconstruction by using GPU for parallelized computation. Successful control using PEFIT/ISOFLUX was established in dedicated experiment. Snowfldivertor plasma shape has the advantage of spreading heat over the divertor target and a quasi-snowflake (QSF) configuration was achieved in discharges with I{sub p} = 0.25 MA and B{sub t} = 1.8T, κ∼1.9, by plasma position feedback control. The shape feedback control to achieve QSF shape has been preliminary implemented by using PEFIT and the initial experimental test has been done. For more robust vertical instability control, the inner coil (IC) and its power supply have been upgraded. A new control algorithm with the combination of Bang-bang and PID controllers has been developed. It is shown that new vertical control power supply together with the new control algorithms results in higher vertical controllability.

  20. Heat-Exchanger/Heat-Pipe Interface (United States)

    Snyder, H. J.; Van Hagan, T. H.


    Monolithic assembly reliable and light in weight. Heat exchanger and evaporator ends of heat pipes integrated in monolithic halves welded together. Interface assembly connects heat exchanger of furnace, reactor, or other power source with heat pipes carrying heat to radiator or power-consuming system. One of several concepts proposed for nuclear power supplies aboard spacecraft, interface useful on Earth in solar thermal power systems, heat engines, and lightweight cooling systems.

  1. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: computation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report characterizes the computation systems capabilities at Sandia Laboratories. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs. 9 figures.

  2. Global dynamics, capabilities and the crisis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fagerberg, J.; Srholec, Martin


    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2016), s. 765-784 ISSN 0936-9937 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : technological capabilities * social capabilities * competitiveness Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.862, year: 2016

  3. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid


    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  4. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne


    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...

  5. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX


    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  6. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)


    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  7. Selecting Capabilities for Quality of Life Measurement (United States)

    Robeyns, Ingrid


    The capability approach advocates that interpersonal comparisons be made in the space of functionings and capabilities. However, Amartya Sen has not specified which capabilities should be selected as the relevant ones. This has provoked two types of criticism. The stronger critique is Martha Nussbaum's claim that Sen should endorse one specific…

  8. Organisational Capability--What Does It Mean? (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006


    Organisational capability is rapidly becoming recognized as the key to organizational success. However, the lack of research on it has been well documented in the literature, and organizational capability remains an elusive concept. Yet an understanding of organizational capability can offer insights into how RTOs might work most effectively,…

  9. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglin, B., E-mail:; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today’s fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  10. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D


    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  11. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  12. Low temperature nuclear heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotakorpi, J.; Tarjanne, R. (comps.)


    The meeting was concerned with the use of low grade nuclear heat for district heating, desalination, process heat, and agriculture and aquaculture. The sessions covered applications and demand, heat sources, and economics.

  13. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.


    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  14. Analysing Leontiev Tube Capabilities in the Space-based Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Shchegolev


    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of publications dedicated to the gas-dynamic temperature stratification device (the Leontief tube and shows main factors affecting its efficiency. Describes an experimental installation, which is used to obtain data on the value of energy separation in the air to prove this device the operability.The assumption that there is an optimal relationship between the flow velocities in the subsonic and supersonic channels of the gas-dynamic temperature stratification device is experimentally confirmed.The paper conducts analysis of possible ways to raise the efficiency of power plants of various (including space basing, and shows that, currently, a mainstream of increasing efficiency of their operation is to complicate design solutions.A scheme of the closed gas-turbine space-based plant using a mixture of inert gases (helium-xenon one for operation is proposed. What differs it from the simplest variants is a lack of the cooler-radiator and integration into gas-dynamic temperature stratification device and heat compressor.Based on the equations of one-dimensional gas dynamics, it is shown that the total pressure restorability when removing heat in a thermal compressor determines operating capability of this scheme. The exploratory study of creating a heat compressor is performed, and it is shown that when operating on gases with a Prandtl number close to 1, the total pressure does not increase.The operating capability conditions of the heat compressor are operation on gases with a low value of the Prandtl number (helium-xenon mixture at high supersonic velocities and with a longitudinal pressure gradient available.It is shown that there is a region of the low values of the Prandtl number (Pr <0.3 for which, with the longitudinal pressure gradient available in the supersonic flows of a viscous gas, the total pressure can be restored.

  15. General Purpose Heat Source Simulator (United States)

    Emrich, Bill


    The General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulator project is designed to replicate through the use of electrical heaters, the form, fit, and function of actual GPHS modules which generate heat through the radioactive decay of Pu238. The use of electrically heated modules rather than modules containing Pu238 facilitates the testing of spacecraft subsystems and systems without sacrificing the quantity and quality of the test data gathered. Previous GPHS activities are centered around developing robust heater designs with sizes and weights that closely matched those of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks. These efforts were successful, although their maximum temperature capabilities were limited to around 850 C. New designs are being pursued which also replicate the sizes and weights of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks but will allow operation up to 1100 C.

  16. Organizational Economics of Capability and Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyres, Nicholas S.; Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul


    economics, and we point to the dominance of a “capabilities first” logic in this relationship. We argue that capabilities considerations are inherently intertwined with questions about organizational boundaries and internal organization, and we use this point to respond to the prevalent capabilities first......For decades, the literatures on firm capabilities and organizational economics have been at odds with each other, specifically relative to explaining organizational boundaries and heterogeneity. We briefly trace the history of the relationship between the capabilities literature and organizational...

  17. Capability Development in an Offshoring Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaura, Manya

    activities to R&D activities. The third paper examines capability development at the cluster level, and examines how spillovers from firms contribute to the emergence and evolution of clusters. Overall, this thesis argues that capability development is a path dependent process, and the offshoring context...... complicates the identification of capabilities lacking, the resources required to develop these capabilities and the alignment of supporting organizational processes. Captive offshore units and local service providers often perform back-office or standardized tasks that have been disaggregated from the value...... chain. In these cases, capability development presents a challenge, as firms need to take deliberate actions in order to develop capabilities, and identify the external linkages they must form to aid the capability development process....

  18. Distinctive Dynamic Capabilities for New Business Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian


    and fast-paced industries, and that similarities exist across industries. Hence, the study contributes to dynamic capabilities literature by: 1) identifying the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation; 2) shifting focus away from dynamic capabilities in environments characterised by high......This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow...... clock-speed and uncertainty towards considering dynamic capabilities for the purpose of developing new businesses, which also implies a high degree of uncertainty. Based on interviews with 33 companies, we identify distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation, find that dynamic...

  19. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system. (United States)

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin


    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  20. Conceptualizing innovation capabilities: A contingency perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Helge Aas


    Full Text Available Empirical research has confirmed that a positive relationship exists between the implementation of innovation activities and the future performance of organizations. Firms utilize resources and capabilities to develop innovations in the form of new products, services or processes. Some firms prove to be better at reproducing innovation success than others, and the capacity to do so is referred to as innovation capability. However, the term innovation capability is ambiguously treated in extant literature. There are several different definitions of the concept and the distinction between innovation capabilities and other types of capabilities, such as dynamic capabilities, is neither explicitly stated, nor is the relationship between the concept and other resource- and capability-based concepts within strategy theory established. Although innovation is increasingly identified as crucial for a firm’s sustainable competitiveness in contemporary volatile and complex markets, the strategy-innovation link is underdeveloped in extant research. To overcome this challenge this paper raises the following research question: What type of innovation capabilities are required to innovate successfully? Due to the status of the extant research, we chose a conceptual research design to answer our research question and the paper contributes with a conceptual framework to discuss what innovation capabilities firms need to reproduce innovation success. Based on careful examination of current literature on innovation capability specifically, and the strategy-innovation link in general, we suggest that innovation capability must be viewed along two dimensions – innovation novelty and market characteristics. This framework enables the identification of four different contexts for innovation capabilities in a two-bytwo matrix. We discuss the types of innovation capabilities necessary within the four different contexts. This novel framework contributes to the

  1. Fusible pellet transport and storage of heat (United States)

    Bahrami, P. A.


    A new concept for both transport and storage of heat at high temperatures and heat fluxes is introduced and the first steps in analysis of its feasibility is taken. The concept utilizes the high energy storage capability of materials undergoing change of phase. The phase change material, for example a salt, is encapsulated in corrosion resistant sealed pellets and transported in a carrier fluid to heat source and storage. Calculations for heat transport from a typical solar collector indicate that the pellet mass flow rates are relatively small and that the required pumping power is only a small fraction of the energy transport capability of the system. Salts and eutectic salt mixtures as candidate phase change materials are examined and discussed. Finally, the time periods for melting or solidification of sodium chloride pellets is investigated and reported.

  2. Segmented heat exchanger (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann


    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  3. Dual source heat pump (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.


    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  4. Synchronized acoustic refrigerator and heat engine (SARAH)


    Banerjee, Aayan; Nayak, Gaurav


    In light of the present global energy scenario, it is imperative to seek novel and efficient energy solutions to redress the situation. Solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, ocean thermoclines and waste heat recovery are the major players in the sustainable energy field. In this paper we propose a Synchronized Acoustic Refrigerator And Heat Engine (SARAH), a Thermoacoustic (TA) device capable of harnessing these untapped sources in a cost-effective and efficient way on both small and ...

  5. Low heat transfer oxidizer heat exchanger design and analysis (United States)

    Kanic, P. G.; Kmiec, T. D.; Peckham, R. J.


    The RL10-IIB engine, a derivative of the RLIO, is capable of multi-mode thrust operation. This engine operates at two low thrust levels: tank head idle (THI), which is approximately 1 to 2 percent of full thrust, and pumped idle (PI), which is 10 percent of full thrust. Operation at THI provides vehicle propellant settling thrust and efficient engine thermal conditioning; PI operation provides vehicle tank pre-pressurization and maneuver thrust for log-g deployment. Stable combustion of the RL10-IIB engine at THI and PI thrust levels can be accomplished by providing gaseous oxygen at the propellant injector. Using gaseous hydrogen from the thrust chamber jacket as an energy source, a heat exchanger can be used to vaporize liquid oxygen without creating flow instability. This report summarizes the design and analysis of a United Aircraft Products (UAP) low-rate heat transfer heat exchanger concept for the RL10-IIB rocket engine. The design represents a second iteration of the RL10-IIB heat exchanger investigation program. The design and analysis of the first heat exchanger effort is presented in more detail in NASA CR-174857. Testing of the previous design is detailed in NASA CR-179487.

  6. The heating effect on different light emitting diodes chips materials (United States)

    Chu, K. K.; Hambali, N. A. M. A.; Ariffin, S. N.; Wahid, M. H. A.; Shahimin, M. M.; Ali, Norshamsuri


    In this paper, simulation of non-radiative recombination heating and Joule heating effects based on different material of a light emitting diodes chip for Gallium Nitride, Indium Nitride, Zinc Oxide, Zinc Selenide and Titanium Dioxide are demonstrated. Among the light emitting diodes chips materials, Indium Nitride, Zinc Oxide and Zinc Selenide has the capability to produce the highest non-radiative recombination heating which the heating value is potential up to ×1012 to ×1013 W/m3. Meanwhile, Titanium Dioxide has the capability to generate higher value of non-radiative recombination heating with lowest value of electron carriers concentration. For the joule heating effect, the Titanium Dioxide shows the fast heating behavior as compared with other materials.

  7. A New Wick Structure to Significantly Improve Heat Pipe Performance Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Increasing thermal requirements for space-based thermal control systems are straining the capabilities of conventional heat pipes. Mainstream has experimentally...

  8. Deep Space Network Capabilities for Receiving Weak Probe Signals (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Johnston, Doug; Preston, Robert


    Planetary probes can encounter mission scenarios where communication is not favorable during critical maneuvers or emergencies. Launch, initial acquisition, landing, trajectory corrections, safing. Communication challenges due to sub-optimum antenna pointing or transmitted power, amplitude/frequency dynamics, etc. Prevent lock-up on signal and extraction of telemetry. Examples: loss of Mars Observer, nutation of Ulysses, Galileo antenna, Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rovers Entry, Descent, and Landing, and the Cassini Saturn Orbit Insertion. A Deep Space Network capability to handle such cases has been used successfully to receive signals to characterize the scenario. This paper will describe the capability and highlight the cases of the critical communications for the Mars rovers and Saturn Orbit Insertion and preparation radio tracking of the Huygens probe at (non-DSN) radio telescopes.

  9. Maximum Power Point Characteristics of Generalized Heat Engines with Finite Time and Finite Heat Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Khanna


    Full Text Available We revisit the problem of optimal power extraction in four-step cycles (two adiabatic and two heat-transfer branches when the finite-rate heat transfer obeys a linear law and the heat reservoirs have finite heat capacities. The heat-transfer branch follows a polytropic process in which the heat capacity of the working fluid stays constant. For the case of ideal gas as working fluid and a given switching time, it is shown that maximum work is obtained at Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. Our expressions clearly show the dependence on the relative magnitudes of heat capacities of the fluid and the reservoirs. Many previous formulae, including infinite reservoirs, infinite-time cycles, and Carnot-like and non-Carnot-like cycles, are recovered as special cases of our model.

  10. Machine capability index evaluation of machining center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Won Pyo [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)


    Recently, there has been an increasing need to produce more precise products, with only the smallest deviations from a defined target value. Machine capability is the ability of a machine tool to produce parts within the tolerance interval. Capability indices are a statistical way of describing how well a product is machined compared to defined target values and tolerances. Currently, there is no standardized way to acquire a machine capability value. This paper describes how machine capability indices are evaluated in machining centers. After the machining of specimens, straightness, roundness and positioning accuracy were measured using CMM(coordinate measuring machine). These measured values and defined tolerances were used to evaluate the machine capability index. It will be useful for the industry to have standardized ways to choose and calculate machine capability indices.

  11. Compilation of Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundergan, C. D.; Mead, P. L. [eds.


    This report is a compilation of 17 individual documents that together summarize the technical capabilities of Sandia Laboratories. Each document in this compilation contains details about a specific area of capability. Examples of application of the capability to research and development problems are provided. An eighteenth document summarizes the content of the other seventeen. Each of these documents was issued with a separate report number (SAND 74-0073A through SAND 74-0091, except -0078). (RWR)

  12. Work output and efficiency at maximum power of linear irreversible heat engines operating with a finite-sized heat source. (United States)

    Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji


    We formulate the work output and efficiency for linear irreversible heat engines working between a finite-sized hot heat source and an infinite-sized cold heat reservoir until the total system reaches the final thermal equilibrium state with a uniform temperature. We prove that when the heat engines operate at the maximum power under the tight-coupling condition without heat leakage the work output is just half of the exergy, which is known as the maximum available work extracted from a heat source. As a consequence, the corresponding efficiency is also half of its quasistatic counterpart.

  13. Dynamic capabilities and innovation capabilities: The case of the ‘Innovation Clinic’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Strønen


    Full Text Available In this explorative study, we investigate the relationship between dynamic capabilities and innovation capabilities. Dynamic capabilities are at the core of strategic management in terms of how firms can ensure adaptation to changing environments over time. Our paper follows two paths of argumentation. First, we review and discuss some major contributions to the theories on ordinary capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and innovation capabilities. We seek to identify different understandings of the concepts in question, in order to clarify the distinctions and relationships between dynamic capabilities and innovation capabilities. Second, we present a case study of the ’Innovation Clinic’ at a major university hospital, including four innovation projects. We use this case study to explore and discuss how dynamic capabilities can be extended, as well as to what extent innovation capabilities can be said to be dynamic. In our conclusion, we discuss the conditions for nurturing ‘dynamic innovation capabilities’ in organizations.

  14. The influence of heat sink temperature on the seasonal efficiency of shallow geothermal heat pumps (United States)

    Pełka, Grzegorz; Luboń, Wojciech; Sowiżdżał, Anna; Malik, Daniel


    Geothermal heat pumps, also known as ground source heat pumps (GSHP), are the most efficient heating and cooling technology utilized nowadays. In the AGH-UST Educational and Research Laboratory of Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Saving in Miękinia, shallow geothermal heat is utilized for heating. In the article, the seasonal efficiency of two geothermal heat pump systems are described during the 2014/2015 heating season, defined as the period between 1st October 2014 and 30th April 2015. The first system has 10.9 kW heating capacity (according to European Standard EN 14511 B0W35) and extracts heat from three vertical geothermal loops at a depth of 80m each. During the heating season, tests warmed up the buffer to 40°C. The second system has a 17.03 kW heating capacity and extracts heat from three vertical geothermal loops at a depth of 100 m each, and the temperature of the buffer was 50°C. During the entire heating season, the water temperatures of the buffers was constant. Seasonal performance factors were calculated, defined as the quotient of heat delivered by a heat pump to the system and the sum of electricity consumed by the compressor, source pump, sink pump and controller of heat pumps. The measurements and calculations give the following results: - The first system was supplied with 13 857 kWh/a of heat and consumed 3 388 kWh/a electricity. The SPF was 4.09 and the average temperature of outlet water from heat pump was 40.8°C, and the average temperature of brine flows into the evaporator was 3.7 °C; - The second system was supplied with 12 545 kWh/a of heat and consumed 3 874 kWh/a electricity. The SPF was 3.24 and the average temperature of outlet water from heat pump was 51.6°C, and the average temperature of brine flows into the evaporator was 5.3°C. To summarize, the data shown above presents the real SPF of the two systems. It will be significant in helping to predict the SPF of objects which will be equipped with ground source heat pumps.

  15. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn


    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  16. Developing Technological Capabilities in Agro-Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay


    This article examines the emergence and trajectory of a new agro-industry in Ghana, the pineapple export industry, using the technological capabilities approach. It explains the limited expansion of the industry and its declining competitiveness in the face of new competition by looking at how...... Ghanaian exporters developed technological capabilities initially and the incentives and disincentives to building on those capabilities. The article argues that at the heart of the industry's crisis was an inability to further develop technological capabilities. The crisis had systemic features that have...

  17. Capabilities and Equality of Health II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    The concept of capabilities, introduced originally by Sen, has inspired many researchers but has not found any simple formal representation which might be instrumental in the construction of a comprehensive theory of equality. In a previous paper (Keiding, 2005), we investigated whether preferences...... of the capability approach to questions of health or equality. In the present paper we extend the notion of rationalizing orderings of capabilities to a dynamical context, in the sense that the utility function is not yet revealed to the individual at the time when the capabilities are ordered. It turns out...

  18. High heat flux single phase heat exchanger (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Izenson, Michael G.


    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux, single-phase heat exchanger for spacecraft thermal management. The intended application is a net generation interface heat exchanger to couple the crew module water thermal bus to the two-phase ammonia main thermal bus in the Space Station Freedom. The large size of the interface heat exchanger is dictated by the relatively poor water-side heat transfer characteristics. The objective of this program is to develop a single-phase heat transfer approach which can achieve heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients comparable to those of the evaporation ammonia side. A new heat exchanger concept has been developed to meet these objecties. The main feature of this heat exchanger is that it can achieve very high heat fluxes with a pressure drop one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of previous microchannel or jet impingement high heat flux heat exchangers. This paper describes proof-of-concept experiments performed in air and water and presents analytical model of the heat exchanger.

  19. Do Acquirer Capabilities Affect Acquisition Performance? Examining Strategic and Effectiveness Capabilities in Acquirers


    Mudde, Paul A.; Brush, Thomas


    This paper examines acquisition performance from the perspective of acquirer capabilities. It argues that the strategic capabilities underpinning a firm’s competitive strategy can be utilized to create economic value in acquisitions. Acquirers with strong cost leadership capabilities are expected to leverage these capabilities to reduce post-acquisition costs as they integrate acquisition targets. Acquirers with strong differentiation capabilities are expected to utilize their strategic capab...

  20. Current price guided use of combined cycle power plants with heat extraction using the example of the combined cycle Tiefstack; Strompreisgefuehrter Einsatz von GuD-Kraftwerken mit Waermeauskopplung am Beispiel der GuD Tiefstack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieck, Jan; Hagen, Ralf [Vattenfall Waerme Hamburg GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)


    The sale of electricity at the European Power Exchange in the DayAhead auction contains a certain economic risk, if the electricity is produced with gas fired CHP plants. This risk is due to a low price level connected with a relatively high price volatility. An auction strategy, using block orders, including the use of smart blocks is a possible way to minimize economic risk. Such a strategy is presented in this paper, using the example of the auction strategy for the CCGT Tiefstack. As the CCGT Tiefstack is part of the district heating system of the city Hamburg, this system is described as well as the technical constraints of the CCGT.

  1. A non-equilibrium model for soil heating and moisture transport during extreme surface heating: The soil (heat-moisture-vapor) HMV-Model Version (United States)

    William Massman


    Increased use of prescribed fire by land managers and the increasing likelihood of wildfires due to climate change require an improved modeling capability of extreme heating of soils during fires. This issue is addressed here by developing and testing the soil (heat-moisture-vapor) HMVmodel, a 1-D (one-dimensional) non-equilibrium (liquid- vapor phase change)...

  2. Multiple source heat pump (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.


    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  3. Optimal dimensioning of low-energy district heating networks with operational planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend


    Low-temperature operation in low-energy District Heating (DH) systems is rewarding for increased exploitation of low-temperature renewable energy sources, heightened efficiency at heat extraction, and intensified energy efficiency at heat distribution. Success of heat delivery in low...

  4. Dual Expander Cycle Rocket Engine with an Intermediate, Closed-cycle Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)


    A dual expander cycle (DEC) rocket engine with an intermediate closed-cycle heat exchanger is provided. A conventional DEC rocket engine has a closed-cycle heat exchanger thermally coupled thereto. The heat exchanger utilizes heat extracted from the engine's fuel circuit to drive the engine's oxidizer turbomachinery.

  5. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F


    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  6. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A


    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  7. Development, Verification and Validation of Enclosure Radiation Capabilities in the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) Code (United States)

    Salazar, Giovanni; Droba, Justin C.; Oliver, Brandon; Amar, Adam J.


    With the recent development of multi-dimensional thermal protection system (TPS) material response codes including the capabilities to account for radiative heating is a requirement. This paper presents the recent efforts to implement such capabilities in the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) code developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This work also describes the different numerical methods implemented in the code to compute view factors for radiation problems involving multiple surfaces. Furthermore, verification and validation of the code's radiation capabilities are demonstrated by comparing solutions to analytical results, to other codes, and to radiant test data.

  8. Measuring IT core capabilities for electronic commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.G.M.


    This paper reports on the theoretical development and empirical validation of a measurement instrument for three information technology (IT) core capabilities in an electronic commerce context. The instrument is based on the work of Feeny and Willcocks (1998) and includes the capabilities

  9. Cultivating Human Capabilities in Venturesome Learning Environments (United States)

    Hogan, Padraig


    The notion of competencies has been a familiar feature of educational reform policies for decades. In this essay, Padraig Hogan begins by highlighting the contrasting notion of capabilities, pioneered by the research of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. An educational variant of the notion of capabilities then becomes the basis for exploring…

  10. Reputation management capabilities as decision rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.M.A.R. Heugens (Pursey); C.B.M. van Riel (Cees); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans)


    textabstractWe draw on a detailed grounded theory study of the reactions of Dutch food firms to the recent introduction of genetically modified foods to inductively identify the capabilities that firms develop in response to reputational threats. Central to the view on capabilities we propose are

  11. A framework for offshore vendor capability development (United States)

    Yusuf Wibisono, Yogi; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Irianto, Dradjad; Sudirman, Iman


    Offshore outsourcing is a common practice conducted by companies, especially in developed countries, by relocating one or more their business processes to other companies abroad, especially in developing countries. This practice grows rapidly owing to the ease of accessing qualified vendors with a lower cost. Vendors in developing countries compete more intensely to acquire offshore projects. Indonesia is still below India, China, Malaysia as main global offshore destinations. Vendor capability is among other factors that contribute to the inability of Indonesian vendor in competing with other companies in the global market. Therefore, it is essential to study how to increase the vendor's capability in Indonesia, in the context of global offshore outsourcing. Previous studies on the vendor's capability mainly focus on capabilities without considering the dynamic of capabilities due to the environmental changes. In order to be able to compete with competitors and maintain the competitive advantage, it is necessary for vendors to develop their capabilities continuously. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework that describes offshore vendor capability development along the client-vendor relationship stages. The framework consists of three main components, i.e. the stages of client-vendor relationship, the success of each stage, and the capabilities of vendor at each stage.

  12. Knowledge Perspectives on Advancing Dynamic Capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reijsen, J.


    Dynamic Capability is the organizational capacity to timely adapt to a changing market environment by reconfiguring resources and routines in order to stay competitive. Although dynamic capability is considered the Holy Grail of strategic management, a connection to the knowledge management domain

  13. 'capabilities poverty' with learners attending informal settlement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    (2005) emphasise the denial of human and political rights as a central theme in understanding capabilities poverty. In Osmani's view (2005), the unidimen- sional approach of poverty as low income should be replaced with the multi- dimensional view that poverty consists in the failure to achieve a range of basic capabilities.

  14. Manifestations of 'capabilities poverty' with learners attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study I use the notion of 'capabilities poverty', as theorised by Sen, to examine the experiences of learners attending informal settlement schools in North-West Province, South Africa. Sen distinguishes between functionings (what people do or their ability to do something) and capabilities (various combinations of ...

  15. Capabilities of Universities in Achieving the Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All (100%) the respondents had no capability in acquiring machines and equipment needed for teaching and conducting researches on climate change. Majority (85%) of the respondents had no capability in terms of human resource development with regards to climate change. Funding/manpower (0.657), organizational ...

  16. Organizational Capabilities of the Entrepreneurial University


    Lucian Gramescu; Nicolae Bibu


    Developing entrepreneurial capabilities has become a key competitiveness strategy in business across the world. Overall, organizational capabilities can provide performance improvements by taking an integrated approach to people, infrastructure and processes as means of codifying organizational learning. The paper proposes “organizational capability” as a valuable tool for universities who seek to develop their competitiveness entrepreneurially, especially across the EU, where hig...

  17. Global dynamics, capabilities and the crisis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fagerberg, J.; Srholec, Martin


    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2016), s. 765-784 ISSN 0936-9937 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/2310 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : technological capabilities * social capabilities * competitiveness Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.862, year: 2016

  18. Considerations in Launch Vehicle Abort Capability and Failure Tolerance (United States)

    Hale, N. W., Jr.; Conte, B. A.


    operations, the Space Shuttle was designed to incur loss of thrust from one engine at liftoff and return safely to a runway. This is a very unusual capability in space launch vehicles and, if desired, must be designed into the system initially. For some extremely high value payloads on future expendable launch vehicles, this capability may be cost effective as well as for human space flights. Current designers may be inclined to design a "simple" emergency escape pod to resolve this issue. That may neither be the most effective nor the safest way to provide ascent failure tolerance. This paper discusses some real-world issues associated with this capability that the designers of the Space Shuttle did take into account that have become serious issues in real operations. paper discusses the affect of payload mass on abort capability. Issues related to abort modes can also be influence by other aspects of payload mass including center of gravity concerns. In a similar mode, consumables such as on-orbit attitude control propellant is a major factor in abort mode design. multiple engine failures during the powered ascent trajectory and have a happy outcome: landing on a runway. This paper discusses options and post-design fixes to the Space Shuttle to enhance multiple engine out capability. scenarios. include propellant underload on STS-61C, off nominal performance of engine clusters on STS-78 and STS-93, and other flights. Designers of these future human rated vehicles should consider the Space Shuttle experience in designing their systems. About the Authors: N. Wayne Hale, Jr. is currently the Deputy Chief for Shuttle of the NASA/JSC Flight Director Office. In 23 years with NASA at Houston's Johnson Space Center, he has served in the Mission Control Center for 41 Space Shuttle flights including 25 as Entry Flight Director. Mr. Hale received his Bachelor of Science Degree in Mechanical Engineering from Rice University in 1976 and his Master of Science Degree in

  19. Reactive capability limits of wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villacorta, A.R. [European Univ., Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Gomez, S.A.; Rodriguez Amenedo, J.L. [Carlos III Univ., Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) technology can be classified into two main types: fixed speed and variable speed. Fixed speed WECS use an induction generator connected directly to the grid while variable speed WECS use a power converter to connect the generator to the grid. Fixed speed WECS require shunt capacitors for reactive power compensation, while variable speed WECS have reactive power capability. Under the Spanish grid code, wind farms have to operate in a range of power factor values. This paper determines the reactive power capability of wind farms equipped with both fixed and variable speed WECS. The reactive power capability can be represented as a reactive capability curve. In this paper, the reactive capability curve is used to calculate the additional reactive power compensation needed to meet the requirements of the Spanish grid code. (Author)

  20. EKSTRAKSI DAN KARAKTERISASI BAKTERIOSIN YANG DIHASILKAN OLEH Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM 22 [Extraction and Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM 22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darnawan Ari Nugroho


    Full Text Available Bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria has potential as food biopreservative due to their capability to control spoilage and pathogenic food borne bacteria. Previous studies showed that extraction of bacteriocin produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM 22 using adsorption-desorption method was not optimal. The objectives of this research were (1 to increase the effectiveness of bacteriocin extraction using adsorption-desorption method by the addition of heated biomass of Leuconostoc SM 22 in various concentration during adsorbtion (2 to characterize the bacteriocin of Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM 22 on it's stability during heat treatment, during cool storage and it's spectrum activity againts pathogenic bacteria. Result of this research showed that bacteriocin activity obtained from extraction with no addition of heated biomass was 1000 AU/ml, while by addition of heated biomass of 2 to 3 times of original concentration (OD were 2000 AU/ml. Therefore it was suggested that addition of heated biomass of Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM 22 during adsorption-desorption with 2 times of original concentration (OD was able to increase the bacteriocin obtained. Bacteriocin with original activity of 2000 AU/ml, was stable (no reduction activity after heated at 100oC for 30 minutes, but slightly decrease after heated at 121oC for 5 minutes and 121oC for 15 minutes, that were 1600 AU/ml and 800 AU/ml respectively. Bacteriocin of Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM 22 was stable during 8 weeks storage at refrigerator (4oC, freezer -20oC and -40oC. This bacteriocin has a wide spectrum of activity showed by it's ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella thypimurium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Shigella and psychrophilic bacteria isolated from milk and isolated from meat.

  1. A solar heating system with annual storage (United States)

    Lazzari, F.; Raffellini, G.


    A solar heated house with long term storage capability, built in Trento, Italy, is described. The one story house was built from modular components and has a total heated volume of 1130 cu m. Flat plate solar collectors with a water-antifreeze medium are located beneath the lawn, and six cylindrical underground tanks holding 130 cu m of water heated by thermal energy from the collectors are situated under the garden. The house walls have an 8 cm cavity filled with 5 cm of formaldehyde foam, yielding a heat transmission (U) of 0.37 W/sq m/deg C. The roof and ceilings are insulated with fiberglass and concrete, producing U-values of 0.46 W/sq m/deg C and 0.57 W/sq m/deg C, respectively. Heat pumps using 6 kW move thermal energy between the house and the tanks. Direct hot water heating occurs in the summer, and direct home heating when the stored water temperature exceeds 32 C. A computer model was developed which traces the annual heat flow and it is shown that the system supplies all heating requirements for the house, with electrical requirements equal to 20 percent of the annual house needs.

  2. Human capabilities in advanced dementia: Nussbaum's approach. (United States)

    Melander, Catharina; Sävenstedt, Stefan; Wälivaara, Britt-Marie; Olsson, Malin


    To explore how Martha Nussbaum's approach to human capabilities can apply to dignity in the lives of people with advanced dementia living in nursing homes. Challenges experienced when supporting people with advanced dementia who express problematic behaviours include understanding their needs and ensuring a dignified life for them. Data were gathered using an ethnographic approach based on participatory observation. Nussbaum's capability approach was then used as a framework for the analysis. Four women diagnosed with advanced dementia who also expressed problematic behaviours were recruited from a nursing home in Northern Sweden. The data collection was performed during 2015. Individuals with advanced dementia had difficulties in participating in the planning of their lives and achieving the human capability of practical reasoning. They were also at risk of being placed outside the social group, thus hindering them from attaining the human capability of affiliation. A dignified life for individuals with advanced dementia requires nursing staff to be present and to provide adapted support to ensure that the individual can actually pursue human capabilities. Creating opportunities for the human capabilities of practical reasoning and affiliation is essential as they permeate all other human capabilities. For these individuals, it was crucial not only to create opportunities for human capabilities but also to attend to their expressions and needs and to guide and steer them towards a dignified life. The normative structure of the capability approach described by Nussbaum can ensure that nursing staffs move beyond fulfilling patients' basic needs to consider other capabilities vital for a dignified life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Advanced Capabilities Medical Suction Device Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A compact microgravity and hypogravity compatible vacuum device is proposed to provide medical suction and containment of extracted fluids. The proposed aspirator...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.


    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the

  5. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited to high oleic acid oil and water purification property (Katayon et al., 2006; Foid et al., 2001 and. Folkard et al., 1993), whereas it contains up to. 332.5 g of crude protein per kg of sample (Jose et al., 1999). Studies to characterize the interaction effects of pH and salts on the extraction of. PROTEIN EXTRACTABILITY ...

  6. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin


    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  7. Heat Related Illnesses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, R; Cheuvront, S. N; Sawka, M. N


    .... The risk of serious heat illness can be markedly reduced by implementing a variety of countermeasures, including becoming acclimated to the heat, managing heat stress exposure, and maintaining hydration...

  8. Heat Roadmap Europe 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg


    Heat Roadmap Europe (Pre-study 1) investigates the role of district heating in the EU27 energy system by mapping local conditions across Europe, identifying the potential for district heating expansion, and subsequently simulating the potential resource in an hourly model of the EU27 energy system....... In 2010, approximately 12% of the space heating demand in Europe is met by district heating, but in this study four alternative scenarios are considered for the EU27 energy system: 1. 2010 with 30% district heating 2. 2010 with 50% district heating 3. 2030 with 30% district heating 4. 2050 with 50......% district heating These scenarios are investigated in two steps. Firstly, district heating replaces individual boilers by converting condensing power plants to combined heat and power plants (CHP) to illustrate how district heating improves the overall efficiency of the energy system. In the second step...

  9. Multidimensional Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten


    Analytical theory of multidimensional heat conduction. General heat conduction equation in three dimensions. Steay state, analytical solutions. The Laplace equation. Method of separation of variables. Principle of superposition. Shape factors. Transient, multidimensional heat conduction....

  10. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, dry ... consciousness, vomiting or a high body temperature. For late stage heat stroke symptoms, cool the person further ...

  11. Absorption heat pump system (United States)

    Grossman, Gershon


    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  12. Cyclic high temperature heat storage using borehole heat exchangers (United States)

    Boockmeyer, Anke; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Bauer, Sebastian


    The transition of the German energy supply towards mainly renewable energy sources like wind or solar power, termed "Energiewende", makes energy storage a requirement in order to compensate their fluctuating production and to ensure a reliable energy and power supply. One option is to store heat in the subsurface using borehole heat exchangers (BHEs). Efficiency of thermal storage is increasing with increasing temperatures, as heat at high temperatures is more easily injected and extracted than at temperatures at ambient levels. This work aims at quantifying achievable storage capacities, storage cycle times, injection and extraction rates as well as thermal and hydraulic effects induced in the subsurface for a BHE storage site in the shallow subsurface. To achieve these aims, simulation of these highly dynamic storage sites is performed. A detailed, high-resolution numerical simulation model was developed, that accounts for all BHE components in geometrical detail and incorporates the governing processes. This model was verified using high quality experimental data and is shown to achieve accurate simulation results with excellent fit to the available experimental data, but also leads to large computational times due to the large numerical meshes required for discretizing the highly transient effects. An approximate numerical model for each type of BHE (single U, double U and coaxial) that reduces the number of elements and the simulation time significantly was therefore developed for use in larger scale simulations. The approximate numerical model still includes all BHE components and represents the temporal and spatial temperature distribution with a deviation of less than 2% from the fully discretized model. Simulation times are reduced by a factor of ~10 for single U-tube BHEs, ~20 for double U-tube BHEs and ~150 for coaxial BHEs. This model is then used to investigate achievable storage capacity, injection and extraction rates as well as induced effects for

  13. Assessment of conventional and novel extraction techniques on extraction efficiency of five anthraquinones from Rheum emodi. (United States)

    Arvindekar, Aditya U; Pereira, Galvina R; Laddha, Kirti S


    Rheum emodi is principally known to consist 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinones (DHAQs) that find immense use in the chemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic industries and in herbal medication and food sector. The aim of this study was to compare non-conventional and classical methods for extraction of anthraquinones from R. emodi. Optimisation of the extraction parameters for various methods was done and their extraction efficiency was evaluated. In preliminary screening experiments, choice of solvent and solid : solvent ratio was optimised. Comparison of extraction efficiency for classical methods like maceration, heat-reflux, soxhletion and non-conventional methods like ultra-sonication and sublimation was done for five DHAQs - aloe emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion using HPLC-UV and fluorescence detection in native and acid hydrolysed samples. It was observed that ethanol was the best solvent for extraction of anthraquinones with a solid : solvent ratio of 1:20. A prior acid hydrolysis led to significant increase in anthraquinone extraction. Among the extraction methods heat reflux for 45 min was the most prominent extraction method with highest recovery of the DHAQs. In ultrasonic assisted extraction, an increase in the anthraquinone extraction was seen till 45 min after which the concentration declined. A novel, solvent-free, green and selective method of extraction by sublimation was found to be effective for extraction of anthraquinones.

  14. Community Psychology and the Capabilities Approach (United States)


    What makes for a good life? The capabilities approach to this question has much to offer community psychology, particularly with respect to marginalized groups. Capabilities are freedoms to engage in valued social activities and roles—what people can do and be given both their capacities, and environmental opportunities and constraints. Economist Amartya Sen’s focus on freedoms and agency resonates with psychological calls for empowerment, and philosopher Martha Nussbaum’s specification of requirements for a life that is fully human provides an important guide for social programs. Community psychology’s focus on mediating structures has much to offer the capabilities approach. Parallels between capabilities, as enumerated by Nussbaum, and settings that foster positive youth development, as described in a National Research Council Report (Eccles and Gootman (Eds) in Community programs to promote youth development. National Academy Press, Washington, 2002) suggest extensions of the approach to children. Community psychologists can contribute to theory about ways to create and modify settings to enhance capabilities as well as empowerment and positive youth development. Finally, capabilities are difficult to measure, because they involve freedoms to choose but only choices actually made or enacted can be observed. The variation in activities or goals across members of a setting provides a measure of the capabilities that the setting fosters. PMID:25822113

  15. Community psychology and the capabilities approach. (United States)

    Shinn, Marybeth


    What makes for a good life? The capabilities approach to this question has much to offer community psychology, particularly with respect to marginalized groups. Capabilities are freedoms to engage in valued social activities and roles-what people can do and be given both their capacities, and environmental opportunities and constraints. Economist Amartya Sen's focus on freedoms and agency resonates with psychological calls for empowerment, and philosopher Martha Nussbaum's specification of requirements for a life that is fully human provides an important guide for social programs. Community psychology's focus on mediating structures has much to offer the capabilities approach. Parallels between capabilities, as enumerated by Nussbaum, and settings that foster positive youth development, as described in a National Research Council Report (Eccles and Gootman (Eds) in Community programs to promote youth development. National Academy Press, Washington, 2002) suggest extensions of the approach to children. Community psychologists can contribute to theory about ways to create and modify settings to enhance capabilities as well as empowerment and positive youth development. Finally, capabilities are difficult to measure, because they involve freedoms to choose but only choices actually made or enacted can be observed. The variation in activities or goals across members of a setting provides a measure of the capabilities that the setting fosters.

  16. Evaluating Internal Technological Capabilities in Energy Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingook Lee


    Full Text Available As global competition increases, technological capability must be evaluated objectively as one of the most important factors for predominance in technological competition and to ensure sustainable business excellence. Most existing capability evaluation models utilize either quantitative methods, such as patent analysis, or qualitative methods, such as expert panels. Accordingly, they may be in danger of reflecting only fragmentary aspects of technological capabilities, and produce inconsistent results when different models are used. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a comprehensive framework for evaluating technological capabilities in energy companies by considering the complex properties of technological knowledge. For this purpose, we first explored various factors affecting technological capabilities and divided the factors into three categories: individual, organizational, and technology competitiveness. Second, we identified appropriate evaluation items for each category to measure the technological capability. Finally, by using a hybrid approach of qualitative and quantitative methods, we developed an evaluation method for each item and suggested a method to combine the results. The proposed framework was then verified with an energy generation and supply company to investigate its practicality. As one of the earliest attempts to evaluate multi-faceted technological capabilities, the suggested model can support technology and strategic planning.

  17. Extraction temperature affects the activities of antioxidation, carbohydrate-digestion enzymes, and angiotensin-converting enzyme of Pleurotus citrinopileatus extract


    Chen, Pao-Huei; Weng, Yih-Ming; Yu, Zer-Ran; Koo, Malcolm; Wang, Be-Jen


    Extraction temperature can potentially affect the chemical compositions and bioactivities of the extracts obtained. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction temperature on the distribution of bioactive compounds and the bioactivities of Pleurotus citrinopileatus. The antioxidant activities (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)+ scavenging capabilities) and the inhibitory capabilities on pancreatic α-amylase, in...

  18. Tunneling of heat: Beyond linear response regime (United States)

    Walczak, Kamil; Saroka, David


    We examine nanoscale processes of heat (energy) transfer as carried by electrons tunneling via potential barriers and molecular interconnects between two heat reservoirs (thermal baths). For that purpose, we use Landauer-type formulas to calculate thermal conductance and quadratic correction to heat flux flowing via quantum systems. As an input, we implement analytical expressions for transmission functions related to simple potential barriers and atomic bridges. Our results are discussed with respect to energy of tunneling electrons, temperature, the presence of resonant states, and specific parameters characterizing potential barriers as well as heat carriers. The simplicity of semi-analytical models developed by us allows to fit experimental data and extract crucial information about the values of model parameters. Further investigations are expected for more realistic transmission functions, while time-dependent aspects of nanoscale heat transfer may be addressed by using the concept of wave packets scattered on potential barriers and point-like defects within regular (periodic) nanostructures.

  19. Modeling coupled convection and carbon dioxide injection for improved heat harvesting in geopressured geothermal reservoirs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plaksina, Tatyana; White, Christopher


    .... In such geographic areas thick geopressured sandstones (up to several hundred meters thick) hold tremendous geothermal heat with conservative estimates of gross extractable energy approximately 0.2...

  20. Enhancing innovation capability maturity through knowledge conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Esterhuizen


    Full Text Available Purpose: This research was aimed at investigating organisational support by means of knowledge conversion processes toward maturity growth in innovation capability areas. Problem investigated: No formal guidelines exist for the use of knowledge management to grow innovation capability maturity. As knowledge management plays a fundamental role in an enterprise's ability to innovate successfully, the following question arises: Can knowledge creation processes be used to enable innovation capability maturity growth? Methodology: The literature therefore provides a strong basis for the argument that knowledge management and more specifically knowledge creation processes could be used to improve an enterprise's innovation capability maturity. A knowledge creation framework that enables innovation capability maturity growth was designed by aligning knowledge creation processes to the requirements for innovation capability growth from one maturity level to the next. The time-frame of the research did not allow the implementation of the framework, and five industry and subject theory experts were used to evaluate the framework. Findings: All five experts responded positively to, and were in agreement that the reasoning applied when identifying the specific knowledge creation process path as a key enabler of growth between innovation capability maturity levels is logical and sound. Value of research: The unique research contribution of the framework lies in providing a tangible link between the fields of knowledge management and innovation capability maturity.Conclusion: The impact of this research lies in the development of a knowledge creation framework that provides guidelines for the use of knowledge creation processes as a vehicle for innovation capability maturity growth.

  1. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)


    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  2. Influence of heating on the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape seed flour. (United States)

    Ross, Carolyn Felicity; Hoye, Clifford; Fernandez-Plotka, Virginia Christina


    The production of grape seed flour (GSF) from a waste product generated during winemaking, is of interest in product development applications due to its potential health benefits. However, before GSF can used in baking as a source of additional antioxidants, research on its heat stability is required. The overall objective of this study was to assess changes in phenolic content and antioxidant activity of GSF during heating. Merlot GSF was heated at 5 temperatures (120 to 240 °C) for 0 to 90 min. At each time/temperature combination, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavanoid content (TFC), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the extracts were determined. Specific polyphenolic compounds, including catechin, gallocatechin, epicatechin, and gallic acid were also measured. Results showed that when Merlot GSF was heated to ≥180 °C, significant decreases in the TPC and antioxidant activity, measured using FRAP, DPPH, and TEAC, were observed. Longer heating times also caused a reduction in antioxidant capability. Catechin and epicatechin content decreased with increasing heating temperature while gallocatechin and gallic acid content increased. Both catechin and epicatechin content had strong positive correlations (r > 0.91) with TPC and TFC, as well with FRAP and TEAC, suggesting that the GSF antioxidant activity is related to the presence of these particular compounds. Overall, while a decrease in antioxidant content was observed during heating, this occurred at higher baking temperatures. Thus GSF may be suitable for use as an ingredient in baked goods to bolster antioxidant content. In order for Merlot grape seed flour (GSF) to be used in baking as a source of additional antioxidant compounds, the impact of heating on the polyphenolic compounds in the GSF needed to be examined. Thermal treatment of Merlot GSF caused significant decreases in

  3. Heat stress reduction of helicopter crew wearing a ventilated vest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reffeltrath, P.A.


    Background: Helicopter pilots are often exposed to periods of high heat strain, especially when wearing survival suits. Therefore, a prototype of a ventilated vest was evaluated on its capability to reduce the heat strain of helicopter pilots during a 2-h simulated flight. Hypothesis: It was

  4. Numerical Modeling of Ablation Heat Transfer (United States)

    Ewing, Mark E.; Laker, Travis S.; Walker, David T.


    A unique numerical method has been developed for solving one-dimensional ablation heat transfer problems. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the method, along with detailed derivations of the governing equations. This methodology supports solutions for traditional ablation modeling including such effects as heat transfer, material decomposition, pyrolysis gas permeation and heat exchange, and thermochemical surface erosion. The numerical scheme utilizes a control-volume approach with a variable grid to account for surface movement. This method directly supports implementation of nontraditional models such as material swelling and mechanical erosion, extending capabilities for modeling complex ablation phenomena. Verifications of the numerical implementation are provided using analytical solutions, code comparisons, and the method of manufactured solutions. These verifications are used to demonstrate solution accuracy and proper error convergence rates. A simple demonstration of a mechanical erosion (spallation) model is also provided to illustrate the unique capabilities of the method.

  5. Classifying organisational capabilities by their nature and role for technological capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rousseva, R.


    Based on critical literature review this research highlights a number of gaps in the existing treatment of technological and organisational capabilities. It has been recognised that organisational capabilities have an important role to play in development of technological capabilities both in

  6. The Impact of IT Capability on Employee Capability, Customer Value, Customer Satisfaction, and Business Performance (United States)

    Chae, Ho-Chang


    This study empirically examines the impact of IT capability on firms' performance and evaluates whether firms' IT capabilities play a role in improving employee capability, customer value, customer satisfaction, and ultimately business performance. The results were based on comparing the business performance of the IT leader companies with that of…

  7. Heat pumps in district heating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    constraints limit the power plants. Efficient heat pumps can be used to decouple the constraints of electricity and heat production, while maintaining the high energy efficiency needed to match the politically agreed carbon emission goals. The requirements in terms of COP, location, capacity and economy...... are calculated using an energy system model which includes power plants, heat pumps and district heating consumption profiles. The model is developed with focus on accurate representation of the performance of the units in different locations and operating modes. The model can assist in investment decisions...... and strategic planning in the energy sector. The paper presents a case study of optimal implementation of heat pumps in the present energy system of the Copenhagen area. By introduction of the correct capacity of heat pumps, a 1,6 % reduction in fuel consumption for electricity and heat production can...

  8. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrabrant, Michael [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City, TN (United States); Keinath, Christopher [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City, TN (United States)


    , which will allow for improved load matching. In addition, the energy savings analysis showed that a house in Albany, NY, Chicago, IL and Minneapolis, MN would save roughly 32, 28.5 and 36.5 MBtu annually when compared to a 100% efficient boiler, respectively. The gas absorption heat pump achieves this performance by using high grade heat from the combustion of natural gas in combination with low grade heat extracted from the ambient to produce medium grade heat suitable for space and water heating. Expected product features include conventional outdoor installation practices, 4:1 modulation, and reasonable economic payback. These factors position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for residential space heating.

  9. Technology support for military capability based acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thaba, Mphahlela


    Full Text Available . DAP1000. Joint Defense Publication. Montealegre, R. (2002). A process model of capability development: Lessons from the electronic commerce strategy at Bolsa de Valores de Guayaquil. Organization science, Vol 13. No 5 (September - October, 2002), pp...

  10. Capability of Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capability of Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) males to made and inseminate female flies in different mating ratios to sustain a laboratory tsetsefly colony for sterile insect technique control programme in Ghana.

  11. Defence Capability Plan 2006-2016

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The Defence Capability Plan: Public Version 2006-2016 (DCP 2006-16) provides a brief account of major capital equipment proposals that are currently planned to be approved in the period 2006 to 2016...

  12. Technological Capabilities of Brazilian Shipbuilding Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Primo


    Full Text Available Technological capabilities (TC play a key role in the competitiveness of firms in industrial sectors. Suppliers in emerging economies often acquire technological capabilities by operating and mastering technologies developed by others and then leveraging this learning to develop indigenous technologies. By reviewing research on firm specific technological capabilities, the development of global value chains and industrial clusters in emerging markets we discuss local suppliers’ insertion and upgrading in the supply chains of new large industrial enterprises. Using the Brazilian shipbuilding industry as context, we investigate and develop propositions related to the ability of local suppliers to develop technological capabilities that permit eventual insertion into the local supply chain. This research has applications for managers and policy makers from other emerging market countries seeking to increase local sourcing through development of local suppliers.

  13. Perception Management: A Core IO Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaman, Khyber


    This thesis postulates that in today's media environment, with adversaries skillfully using propaganda to skirt nations' resolve, Perception Management is key to military success and should be an Information Operations (IO) Core Capability...

  14. Trilateral Strategic Defense Capability Planning Symposium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butts, Kent


    .... This strategic planning initiative has developed the Emerging Security Environment to 2022 document, a National Military Strategy, a National Internal Security Plan, and a Multi-Year Defense Capability Planning System (MYDCaPS...

  15. Geospatial Information System Capability Maturity Models (United States)


    To explore how State departments of transportation (DOTs) evaluate geospatial tool applications and services within their own agencies, particularly their experiences using capability maturity models (CMMs) such as the Urban and Regional Information ...

  16. Demonstration of New OLAF Capabilities and Technologies (United States)

    Kingston, C.; Palmer, E.; Stone, J.; Neese, C.; Mueller, B.


    Upgrades to the On-Line Archiving Facility (OLAF) PDS tool are leading to improved usability and additional functionality by integration of JavaScript web app frameworks. Also included is the capability to upload tabular data as CSV files.

  17. Building Airport Surface HITL Simulation Capability (United States)

    Chinn, Fay Cherie


    FutureFlight Central is a high fidelity, real-time simulator designed to study surface operations and automation. As an air traffic control tower simulator, FFC allows stakeholders such as the FAA, controllers, pilots, airports, and airlines to develop and test advanced surface and terminal area concepts and automation including NextGen and beyond automation concepts and tools. These technologies will improve the safety, capacity and environmental issues facing the National Airspace system. FFC also has extensive video streaming capabilities, which combined with the 3-D database capability makes the facility ideal for any research needing an immersive virtual and or video environment. FutureFlight Central allows human in the loop testing which accommodates human interactions and errors giving a more complete picture than fast time simulations. This presentation describes FFCs capabilities and the components necessary to build an airport surface human in the loop simulation capability.

  18. Eros-based Confined Capability Client

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shapiro, Jonathan S


    .... This was accomplished by constructing of a single exemplar application, a web browser using capability-based structuring techniques, and determining whether this application can defend itself against hostile content...

  19. On the Capabilities of Digimaterial Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The purpose of the paper is to propose and discuss three types of capabilities of digimaterial artifacts like laptop computers, cameras, cars, robots etc. Digimaterial artifacts are material artifacts that combine digital and non-digital elements by bearing one or more digital artifacts. Digital...... artifacts are linguistic expressions like, say, binary sequences of 0's and 1's. Software and databases are examples of digital artifacts. Paper pieces with digital inscriptions and cars with data and software are examples of digimaterial artifacts. Digimaterial artifacts can bear, and potentially...... manipulate, digital artifacts. We describe and discuss digimaterial structures and the capabilities that are enabled by these structures. And we describe and discuss the plastic nature of such structures and capabilities. We expect that our work can be used to understand digimaterial capabilities...

  20. Blue Force Tracking: Building a Joint Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sweeney, Michael M


    .... The realities of current operations have created such a need for this capability, and there are at least a dozen different devices being used in our current operations supporting all functional areas...

  1. The role of capability in technology valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nelcy Jiménez


    Full Text Available  Technology valuation has traditionally been approached from an economics-based financial approach applied to project management. However, some authors have detected flaws in such approach, proposing that techniques should be included allowing technology’s qualitative and intangible aspects to be taken into account. Considering a broader definition of technology covering production systems’ technological capability, this article was aimed at analysing such capability as part of technology valuation, emphasising technological resources’ intangible aspects and their exploitation. The tendencies and some of the tools which have been developed for such valuation are shown, identifying the challenges involved in assessing technological capability within the context of developing countries where the creation of such capability must be promoted, implying a strategic vision of technological development.  

  2. TOMCAT: An Obsolescence Management Capability Assessment Framework


    Romero Rojo, Francisco Javier; Baguley, Paul; Shaikh, N.; Roy, Rajkumar; Kelly, S.


    As the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) moves away from the traditional support contracts to contracting for availability/capability, it is essential that the MoD has confidence in Industry’s capability to manage the risk of obsolescence. For this purpose, it was necessary to develop a set of metrics to demonstrate it. The eight key elements identified are as follows: obsolescence management governance; supplier; design for obsolescence; risk assessment; obsolescence monitoring; communication; an...

  3. Capabilities offered by Heavy User Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J; Barreiro Megino, F; Campana, S; Girone, M; Santinelli, R


    This document describes the capabilities offered by the Heavy User Communities (HUCs) to other communities: This public report illustrates how the functional capabilities being supported by this activity can be re-used by other communities using European Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCIs). Sufficient technical depth is provided for potential adopters of DCI platforms to make an initial assessment of how they could work with the offered technologies.

  4. Identity Building in Organisations: Proactive Capability Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard


    Identity building in organisations is often viewed as legitimacy of value systems of the organisation. Based on empirical studies the task of this article is to argue that such a legitimacy approach risks failing in the longer perspective, if the proactive capability development is neglected....... The participatory scenario method presented in this article is one of the possible methods to enhance identity building based on proactive capability development....

  5. Descriptors of server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    China with the huge market potential it possesses is an important issue for subsidiaries of western multinational companies. The objective of this paper is therefore to strengthen researchers’ and practitioners’ perspectives on what are the descriptors of server capabilities. The descriptors...... are relevant to determine subsidiary roles and as an indication of the capabilities required. These descriptors are identified through extensive literature review and validated by case studies of two Danish multinational companies subsidiaries operating in China. They provided the empirical basis...

  6. Innovation capability and organizational resources configuration


    Edna Rocío Bravo Ibarra; Liliana Herrera


    The main purpose of this article is to contribute to a better understanding of the organizational sources pertaining to continuous innovation. This work identifies a set of best practices, which once integrated, create the innovative activities that help organizations to acquire a continuous innovation capability by means of the development of new products. Furthermore, in an effort to understand how the innovation capacity is created, based on the dynamic capability theory, a conceptual mode...

  7. Capability curve analysis of photovoltaic generation systems


    Cabrera Tobar, Ana; Bullich Massagué, Eduard; Aragüés Peñalba, Mònica; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol


    The present article assesses the study of the PV generator capability curves for use in large scale photovoltaic power plants (LS-PVPPs). For this purpose, the article focuses on three main aspects: (i) the modelling of the main components of the PV generator, (ii) the operational limits analysis of the PV array together with the inverter, and (iii) the capability curve analysis considering variable solar irradiance and temperature. To validate this study a PVPP of 1 MW is designed, modelled ...

  8. Understanding dynamic capabilities through knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Paarup


    In the paper eight knowledge management activities are identified; knowledge creation, acquisition, capture, assembly, sharing, integration, leverage and exploitation. These activities are assembled into the three dynamic capabilities of knowledge development, knowledge (re)combination and knowle......In the paper eight knowledge management activities are identified; knowledge creation, acquisition, capture, assembly, sharing, integration, leverage and exploitation. These activities are assembled into the three dynamic capabilities of knowledge development, knowledge (re...

  9. Aging and DNA repair capability. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R R


    A review of the literature on DNA repair processes in relation to aging is presented under the following headings: DNA repair processes; age-related occurrence of unrepaired DNA lesions; DNA repair capability as a function of age; tissue-specific DNA repair capability; acceleration of the aging process by exposure to DNA damaging agents; human genetic syndromes; and longevity and DNA repair processes. (HLW)

  10. Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, R.B. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); MacDonald, R.R. [ed.] [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, Vienna, VA (United States); Viebrock, J.M.; Mote, N. [Nuclear Assurance Corp., Norcross, GA (United States)


    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for developing the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) to accept spent nuclear fuel from commercial facilities. The objective of the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) project was to assess the capability of each commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage facility, at which SNF is stored, to handle various SNF shipping casks. The purpose of this report is to present and analyze the results of the facility assessments completed within the FICA project. During Phase 1, the data items required to complete the facility assessments were identified and the database for the project was created. During Phase 2, visits were made to 122 facilities on 76 sites to collect data and information, the database was updated, and assessments of the cask-handling capabilities at each facility were performed. Each assessment of cask-handling capability contains three parts: the current capability of the facility (planning base); the potential enhanced capability if revisions were made to the facility licensing and/or administrative controls; and the potential enhanced capability if limited physical modifications were made to the facility. The main conclusion derived from the planning base assessments is that the current facility capabilities will not allow handling of any of the FICA Casks at 49 of the 122 facilities evaluated. However, consideration of potential revisions and/or modifications showed that all but one of the 49 facilities could be adapted to handle at least one of the FICA Casks. For this to be possible, facility licensing, administrative controls, and/or physical aspects of the facility would need to be modified.

  11. Composite heat damage spectroscopic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C.J.; Muhs, J.D.; Wachter, E.A.; Ziegler, R.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Powell, G.L.; Smyrl, N.R. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (USA)); Philpot, H.E. (Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, TN (USA))


    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Applied Technology Division (ORNL/ATD) has successfully demonstrated the unique applicability of two spectroscopic techniques that possess the capability of detecting heat damage in IM6/3501-6 laminates and correlation of this damage with the residual mechanical-strength properties. The results on the diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform (DRIFT) and laser-pumped fluorescence (LPF) spectroscopic techniques, which are capable of rapid, in-service, non-destructive detection and quantitation of heat damage in IM6/3501-6 laminates, is presented. Both of these techniques have been shown to be quite effective at probing the elusive and complex molecular changes that take place in IM6/3501-6 laminates subjected to varying degrees of thermal degradation. Using LPF or DRIFT techniques, it has been shown that laminates having different thermal histories can be readily differentiated from one another due to their characteristic fingerprint'' spectral features. The effects of short-term, elevated temperature heating on the room- temperature compressive interlaminar-shear, and flexural strengths and room-temperature shore-D hardness properties of dry'' and wet'' preconditioned IM6/3501-6 laminates are discussed. Additionally, the geometrical changes and percent-weight-loss measurements of IM6/3501-6 laminates that accompany heat damage are also examined. It was found that below a certain temperature/time exposure threshold, these laminates visually and microscopically appeared to be undamaged but, in fact, may have lost a significant percentage of their original strength. In addition, laminates that were exposed above the temperature/time exposure threshold suffered dramatic geometrical changes and large amounts of weight loss. 32 refs., 39 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities. (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar


    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper aims to disseminate the results of a study focused on young leaders, designed to fill the gap in the specialty literature about the capabilities of young leaders in Romania. Capabilities - in our opinion, represents the leader's potentialities, the engine of transformation. They exist in a latent state and by activation they generate economic effects. Through this study we want to identify young Romanian people's attitudes towards capabilities; when we say capabilities, we understand potential. In this article we will present the capabilities from the perspective of potential. Sure, there are also other classifications, but from an economical perspective we consider that the potential of a leader is relevant through the following components: emotional potential, social potential, cognitive potential, managerial potential and behavioral potential. The overall conclusion is that in the realized study we have identified the following key capabilities of young Romanian leaders: character, confidence, empathy, credibility, leadership style, vision, memory, ability to be proactive, optimism, ability to generate respect.

  14. Land Capability Evaluation of Upper Sekampung Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa


    Full Text Available Land degradation is a serious problem in the Upper Sekampung Watersheds. This is because the farmers cultivated in steep land to coffee crops without in adequate soil and water conservation practices. The land degradation is mostly caused by erosion. The erosion problem not only stripping the most fertile top soil and decreasing crop production, but also resulting problems in lowland. Therefore, the reorientation land management should be improved to produce agriculture sustainability. The first step is to evaluated land capability this area. The objectives of the research were evaluate land capability of Upper Sekampung Watersheds. The results showed that the Upper Sekampung Watersheds were dominated with class and subclass land capability of III-l2 about 17.630,51 ha (41,58%. All of the constrain for each land capability in this area is erosion hazard, especially land slope. From this research, cultivated land to coffee base crops were allowed in land capability II-l1.e1, III-l2, IV-l3, and VI-l4, with in adequate soil and water conservation practices. In contrary, the land capability of VII-l5 unsuitable for agriculture, they should be a nature or for conservation forest.

  15. Biomass universal district heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltero Victor Manuel


    Full Text Available In mild climate regions Directive 27/2012 EU application for developing sustainable district heating networks in consolidated urban nucleus is a challenge. In Spain most of the municipalities above 5,000 inhabitants have a reliable natural gas network and individual heating systems at homes. In this work a new heating network paradigm is proposed, the biomass universal heating network in rural areas. This model involves all the economic, legal and technical aspects and interactions between the different agents of the systems: provider company, individual and collective end-users and local and regional administration. The continental region in Spain has 588 municipalities with a population above 1,500 inhabitants close to forest biomass with renewable use. In many of these cases the regulation identifies the ownership of the forest resources use. The universal heating networks are a great opportunity for energy saving of 2,000 GWh, avoiding 2.7 million tons of CO2 emissions and with a global annual savings for end users of 61.8 million of euros. The presented model is easily extrapolated to other small municipalities in Europe. The real application of the model is presented for three municipalities in different locations of Spain where Universal Heating Networks are under development. The analysis show the interest of the integrated model for the three cases with different structural agents and relationships between them. The use of sustainable forest resources, extracted and managed by local companies, strengths circular economy in the region with a potential global economic impact above 200 M€.

  16. Biomass universal district heating systems (United States)

    Soltero, Victor Manuel; Rodríguez-Artacho, Salvador; Velázquez, Ramón; Chacartegui, Ricardo


    In mild climate regions Directive 27/2012 EU application for developing sustainable district heating networks in consolidated urban nucleus is a challenge. In Spain most of the municipalities above 5,000 inhabitants have a reliable natural gas network and individual heating systems at homes. In this work a new heating network paradigm is proposed, the biomass universal heating network in rural areas. This model involves all the economic, legal and technical aspects and interactions between the different agents of the systems: provider company, individual and collective end-users and local and regional administration. The continental region in Spain has 588 municipalities with a population above 1,500 inhabitants close to forest biomass with renewable use. In many of these cases the regulation identifies the ownership of the forest resources use. The universal heating networks are a great opportunity for energy saving of 2,000 GWh, avoiding 2.7 million tons of CO2 emissions and with a global annual savings for end users of 61.8 million of euros. The presented model is easily extrapolated to other small municipalities in Europe. The real application of the model is presented for three municipalities in different locations of Spain where Universal Heating Networks are under development. The analysis show the interest of the integrated model for the three cases with different structural agents and relationships between them. The use of sustainable forest resources, extracted and managed by local companies, strengths circular economy in the region with a potential global economic impact above 200 M€.

  17. Space shuttle heat pipe thermal control systems (United States)

    Alario, J.


    Heat pipe (HP) thermal control systems designed for possible space shuttle applications were built and tested under this program. They are: (1) a HP augmented cold rail, (2) a HP/phase change material (PCM) modular heat sink and (3) a HP radiating panel for compartment temperature control. The HP augmented cold rail is similar to a standard two-passage fluid cold rail except that it contains an integral, centrally located HP throughout its length. The central HP core helps to increase the local power density capability by spreading concentrated heat inputs over the entire rail. The HP/PCM modular heat sink system consists of a diode HP connected in series to a standard HP that has a PCM canister attached to its mid-section. It is designed to connect a heat source to a structural heat sink during normal operation, and to automatically decouple from it and sink to the PCM whenever structural temperatures are too high. The HP radiating panel is designed to conductively couple the panel feeder HPs directly to a fluid line that serves as a source of waste heat. It is a simple strap-on type of system that requires no internal or external line modifications to distribute the heat to a large radiating area.

  18. Fullerenes synthesis by combined resistive heating and arc discharge techniques


    Kyesmen, Pannan Isa; Onoja, Audu; Amah, Alexander Nwabueze


    The two main electrode techniques for fullerenes production; the direct arc technique and the resistive heating of graphite rod were employed in this work. One of the electrodes was resistively heated to high temperature and subjected to arc discharge along its length by the second graphite rod. Fullerenes solid were extracted from carbon soot samples collected from an installed arc discharge system using the solvent extraction method. The fullerenes solid obtained from carbon soot collected ...

  19. Nature's Heat Exchangers. (United States)

    Barnes, George


    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  20. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten


    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  1. Solar Heating Equipment (United States)


    Solar Unlimited, Inc.'s suncatcher line includes a variety of solar arrays, derived from NASA's satellite program: water heating only, partial home heating, or water and whole house central heating. Solar Unlimited developed a set of vigorous requirements to avoid problems common to solar heating technologies.

  2. Rotary magnetic heat pump (United States)

    Kirol, Lance D.


    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  3. One-dimensional Simulation of Heat Structure Melting and Evaporation Under High Heat Flux Condition Using MARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Hun; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Park, Goon-Cherl [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In order to establish the successful application for high heat flux condition, it is necessary to analyze material damage including possible phase change such as melting and evaporation due to high heat flux. In addition, in terms of coolant, water which is widely used for coolant has serious concern in that critical heat flux (CHF) occurrence can degrade the cooling capability and aggravate the integrity of cooling components. However, MARS code cannot simulate the melting and evaporation of materials under high heat flux or heat generation condition by itself due to the absence of those models. In the present study, therefore, one dimensional heat conduction calculation module for heat structure melting and evaporation was developed and coupled with MARS to overcome the limitation of material phase change simulation capability in MARS code. As clarifying the high heat flux problem, plasma facing component of Korean demonstration fusion reactor, K-DEMO, was selected. The one-dimensional simulation of melting and evaporation of high heat flux component was performed using MARS and newly developed phase change simulation module. The target component and high heat flux condition were referred to geometry of plasma facing component in Korean fusion demonstration plant and fusion reactor's plasma disruption event. In order to simulate melting and evaporation, effective heat capacity method and evaporation model were applied to phase change simulation module. The simulation results showed several phenomena such as melting, evaporation and CHF occurrence in coolant channel.

  4. Finite-size effect on optimal efficiency of heat engines (United States)

    Tajima, Hiroyasu; Hayashi, Masahito


    The optimal efficiency of quantum (or classical) heat engines whose heat baths are n -particle systems is given by the strong large deviation. We give the optimal work extraction process as a concrete energy-preserving unitary time evolution among the heat baths and the work storage. We show that our optimal work extraction turns the disordered energy of the heat baths to the ordered energy of the work storage, by evaluating the ratio of the entropy difference to the energy difference in the heat baths and the work storage, respectively. By comparing the statistical mechanical optimal efficiency with the macroscopic thermodynamic bound, we evaluate the accuracy of the macroscopic thermodynamics with finite-size heat baths from the statistical mechanical viewpoint. We also evaluate the quantum coherence effect on the optimal efficiency of the cycle processes without restricting their cycle time by comparing the classical and quantum optimal efficiencies.

  5. NATO initial common operational picture capability project (United States)

    Fanti, Laura; Beach, David


    The Common Operational Picture (COP) capability can be defined as the ability to display on a single screen integrated views of the Recognized Maritime, Air and Ground Pictures, enriched by other tactical data, such as theater plans, assets, intelligence and logistics information. The purpose of the COP capability is to provide military forces a comprehensive view of the battle space, thereby enhancing situational awareness and the decision-making process across the military command and control spectrum. The availability of a COP capability throughout the command structure is a high priority operational requirement in NATO. A COP capability for NATO is being procured and implemented in an incremental way within the NATO Automated Information System (Bi-SC AIS) Functional Services programme under the coordination of the NATO Consultation, Command and Control Agency (NC3A) Integrated Programme Team 5 (IPT5). The NATO Initial COP (iCOP) capability project, first step of this evolutionary procurement, will provide an initial COP capability to NATO in a highly pragmatic and low-risk fashion, by using existing operational communications infrastructure and NATO systems, i.e. the NATO-Wide Integrated Command and Control Software for Air Operations (ICC), the Maritime Command and Control Information System (MCCIS), and the Joint Operations and Intelligence Information System (JOIIS), which will provide respectively the Recognized Air, Maritime and Ground Pictures. This paper gives an overview of the NATO Initial COP capability project, including its evolutionary implementation approach, and describes the technical solution selected to satisfy the urgent operational requirement in a timely and cost effective manner.

  6. Capable design or designing capabilities? An exploration of service design as an emerging organizational capability in Telenor – Martinkenaite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Martinkenaite


    Full Text Available This empirical paper examines a process, starting with the managerial decision to make service design an organizational capability, and follows it as it unfolds over time within one organization. Service design has become an established business practice of how firms create new products and services to promote differentiation in an increasingly uncertain business landscape. Implicit in the literature on service design are assumptions about strategic implications of adopting the prescribed innovation methods and tools. However, little is known about how service design evolves into an organizational capability enabling firms to transform their existing businesses and sustain competitiveness. Through a longitudinal, exploratory case study of service design practices in one of the world’s largest telecommunications companies, we explicate mechanisms through which service design evolves into an organizational capability by exploring the research question: what are the mechanisms through which service design develops into an organizational capability? Our study reveals the effect of an initial introduction of service design tools, identification of boundaryspanning actors and co-alignment of dedicated resources between internal functions, as well as through co-creation with customers. Over time, these activities lead to the adoption of service design practices, and subsequently these practices spark incremental learning throughout the organization, alter managerial decisions and influence multiple paths for the development of new capabilities. Reporting on this process, we are able to describe how service design practices were disseminated and institutionalized within the organization we observed. This study thus contributes by informing how service design can evolve into an organizational capability, as well as by bridging the emerging literature on service design and design thinking with established strategy theory. Further research will have to

  7. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik


    of supplying sustainable heating. Different heat production options are included in terms of individual and community heating systems. Furthermore, the levelised cost of supplying sustainable heat is estimated for both a single technology and from an energy system perspective. The results are analysed...... by assessing various parameters such as socio-economic costs and energy efficiency improvements in the national energy systems. The results demonstrate the economically feasible levels of heat savings and heat production for various European countries, highlighting differences in their national conditions......The cost of heat savings in buildings increase as more heat savings are achieved due to the state of the building stock and hence, alternatives other than savings typically become more economically feasible at a certain level of heat reductions. It is important to identify when the cost of heat...

  8. Heat Roadmap Europe 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    Many strategies have already been proposed for the decarbonisation of the EU energy system by the year 2050. These typically focus on the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector and subsequently, electrifying both the heat and transport sectors as much as possible...... are identified and then, the EU27 energy system is modelled to investigate the impact of district heating. The results indicate that a combination of heat savings, district heating in urban areas, and individual heat pumps in rural areas will enable the EU27 to reach its greenhouse gas emission targets by 2050....... In these strategies, the role of district heating has never been fully explored system, nor have the benefits of district heating been quantified at the EU level. This study combines the mapping of local heat demands and local heat supplies across the EU27. Using this local knowledge, new district heating potentials...

  9. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik


    information systems (GIS) and energy system analyses. In this report, the inputs for other modelling tools such as PRIMES are presented, in order to enable other researches to generate similar heating scenarios for Europe. Although Heat Roadmap Europe presents a complete heat strategy for Europe, which...... includes energy efficiency, individual heating units (such as boilers and heat pumps), and heat networks, the recommendations here are primarily relating to the potential and modelling of district heating. Although other solutions will play a significant role in decarbonising the heating and cooling sector...... in a low-carbon energy system context, so we have focused on this area based on our extensive experience in this area [1-10]. This report includes guidelines on the potential heat demand in European buildings that can be met by district heating as well as some general guidelines on how this district...


    Radio frequency heating (RFH) is a process that uses electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency (RF) band to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. An RFH system developed by KAI Technologies, I...


    IITRI's patented in situ RFH technology enhances the removal of volatile and semi-volatile organics by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Electromagnetic energy heats the soil resulting in increased contaminant vapor pressures and potentially higher soil permeability. RFH heats soil us...


    Radio frequency heating (RFH) is a process that uses electromagnetic energy generated by radio waves to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. An RFH system developed by the IIT Research Institute ...

  13. Introduction to heat transfer

    CERN Document Server



    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  14. Machine Process Capability Information Through Six Sigma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, M.F.


    A project investigating details concerning machine process capability information and its accessibility has been conducted. The thesis of the project proposed designing a part (denoted as a machine capability workpiece) based on the major machining features of a given machine. Parts are machined and measured to gather representative production, short-term variation. The information is utilized to predict the expected defect rate, expressed in terms of a composite sigma level process capability index, for a production part. Presently, decisions concerning process planning, particularly what machine will statistically produce the minimum amount of defects based on machined features and associated tolerances, are rarely made. Six sigma tools and methodology were employed to conduct this investigation at AlliedSignal FM and T. Tools such as the thought process map, factor relationship diagrams, and components of variance were used. This study is progressing toward completion. This research study was an example of how machine process capability information may be gathered for milling planar faces (horizontal) and slot features. The planning method used to determine where and how to gather variation for the part to be designed is known as factor relationship diagramming. Components-of-variation is then applied to the gathered data to arrive at the contributing level of variation illustrated within the factor relationship diagram. The idea of using this capability information beyond process planning to the other business enterprise operations is proposed.

  15. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)


    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  16. Heat loads in hypersonic vehicle design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschel, E.H. [Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, Muenchen (Germany)


    Heat loads are the major issue in high-speed vehicle design. Heat loads prediction capabilities need to be improved with regard to the materials and structure concept, and the aerodynamic and propulsion performance. Surface radiation cooling is the basic means to reduce heat loads on high-speed vehicles. Strong couplings can exist with the aerodynamic performance of vehicles, the structure and materials design, and flow-physics and thermochemical phenomena. Qualitative knowledge is available to interpret (computation) results and flight data, and to give the designer insight into related disciplinary and interdisciplinary vehicle design problems. Flow-physics and thermo-chemical models in prediction tools are inadequate. Heat loads and the related surface-temperature effects pose very important and challenging research and development problems. (orig.)

  17. Dynamic measurement of near-field radiative heat transfer


    Lang, S.; G. Sharma; Molesky, S.; Kränzien, P. U.; Jalas, T.; Z. Jacob; Petrov, A. Yu.; Eich, M.


    Super-Planckian near-field radiative heat transfer allows effective heat transfer between a hot and a cold body to increase beyond the limits long known for black bodies. Until present, experimental techniques to measure the radiative heat flow relied on steady-state systems. Here, we present a dynamic measurement approach based on the transient plane source technique, which extracts thermal properties from a temperature transient caused by a step input power function. Using this versatile me...

  18. Human Exploration Systems and Mobility Capability Roadmap Progress Review (United States)

    Culbert, Chris; Taylor, Jeff


    Contents include the following: Capability Roadmap Team. Capability Description and Capability Breakdown Structure. Benefits of the Human Systems and Mobility Capability. Roadmap Process and Approach. Drivers and Assumptions for the whole team. Current State-of-the-Art, Assumptions and Requirements will be covered in the appropriate sections. Capability Presentations by Leads under Roadmap (Repeated for each capability under roadmap). Capability Description, Benefits, Current State-of-the-Art. Capability Requirements and Assumptions. Roadmap for Capability. Capability Readiness Level. Technology Readiness Level. Figures of Merit. Summary of Top Level Capability. Significant Technical Challenges. Summary and Forward Work.

  19. Heat stroke and related heat stress disorders. (United States)

    Knochel, J P


    Medical disorders related to environmental heat exposure are exceptionally common in persons who perform hard work in hot climates. They are also common in competitive athletes as well as in persons who participate in casual exercise to maintain health. The important issue of salt and water disturbances consequent to heavy sweating in hot climates is discussed in detail as are mechanisms of potassium deficiency and its implications. The major forms of environmental heat illness including heat syncope, heat cramp, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke are presented in detail with relevant clinical examples. A discussion of the differential diagnosis of hyperthermia and rhabdomyolysis follows. Because of the difference in treatment and complications, heat stroke is subdivided into the classic variety that affects the elderly and very young and that form that follows heavy physical work and is always associated with rhabdomyolysis. Because severe heat exhaustion and heat stroke are life-threatening disorders, the chapter includes a detailed discussion of complications and plans for treatment.

  20. Dynamic capabilities, creative action, and poetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald MacLean


    Full Text Available Research on dynamic capabilities explores how businesses change enables enterprises to remain competitive. However, theory on dynamic capabilities still struggles to capture novelty, the essence of change. This study argues that a full understanding of strategic change requires us to sharpen our focus on real people and experiences; in turn, we must incorporate other faculties, which almost always operate alongside our logical ones, into our theory. We must pay more attention to the “non­-rational” sides of ourselves—including, but not limited to, our imaginations, intuitions, attractions, biographies, preferences, and aesthetic faculties and capabilities. We argue that all such faculties, on the one hand, are central to our abilities to comprehend and cope with complexity and, on the other hand, foster novel understandings, potential responses, and social creativity. This study intro­duces the possibility of an alternative form of inquiry that highlights the role of poetic faculties in strategic behavior and change.

  1. Capabilitarian Sufficiency: Capabilities and Social Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Axelsen, David Vestergaard


    This paper suggests an account of sufficientarianism—i.e. that justice is fulfilled when everyone has enough—laid out within a general framework of the capability approach. In doing so, it seeks to show that sufficiency is especially plausible as an ideal of social justice when constructed around...... key capabilitarian insights such as freedom, pluralism, and attention to empirical interconnections between central capabilities. Correspondingly, we elaborate on how a framework for evaluating social justice would look when constructed in this way and give reasons for why capabilitarians should...... embrace sufficientarianism. We do this by elaborating on how capabilitarian values underpin sufficiency. On this basis, we identify three categories of central capabilities; those related to biological and physical needs, those to fundamental interests of a human agent, and those to fundamental interests...

  2. Kokkos' Task DAG Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Harold C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ibanez, Daniel Alejandro [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report documents the ASC/ATDM Kokkos deliverable "Production Portable Dy- namic Task DAG Capability." This capability enables applications to create and execute a dynamic task DAG ; a collection of heterogeneous computational tasks with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) of "execute after" dependencies where tasks and their dependencies are dynamically created and destroyed as tasks execute. The Kokkos task scheduler executes the dynamic task DAG on the target execution resource; e.g. a multicore CPU, a manycore CPU such as Intel's Knights Landing (KNL), or an NVIDIA GPU. Several major technical challenges had to be addressed during development of Kokkos' Task DAG capability: (1) portability to a GPU with it's simplified hardware and micro- runtime, (2) thread-scalable memory allocation and deallocation from a bounded pool of memory, (3) thread-scalable scheduler for dynamic task DAG, (4) usability by applications.

  3. Extracting Work from Quantum Measurement in Maxwell's Demon Engines. (United States)

    Elouard, Cyril; Herrera-Martí, David; Huard, Benjamin; Auffèves, Alexia


    The essence of both classical and quantum engines is to extract useful energy (work) from stochastic energy sources, e.g., thermal baths. In Maxwell's demon engines, work extraction is assisted by a feedback control based on measurements performed by a demon, whose memory is erased at some nonzero energy cost. Here we propose a new type of quantum Maxwell's demon engine where work is directly extracted from the measurement channel, such that no heat bath is required. We show that in the Zeno regime of frequent measurements, memory erasure costs eventually vanish. Our findings provide a new paradigm to analyze quantum heat engines and work extraction in the quantum world.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuleu Daniela


    Full Text Available Customer relationship management, as a process to manage customer relationship initiation, maintenance and termination to maximize the value of the relationship portfolio, is an evolving process. In recent years, the development of interactive technologies (social media have revolutionized the interaction between firms and their customers and between customers. The impact of technology on CRM is improving ways of collecting and processing customer information and transforming communication with customers. In the context of the development of social networks, the introduction of social media applications in customer relationship management activities bring important changes in this area. Thus, managers need to pay attention to the interaction management as an important process of CRM and enhance the customer relationship management capabilities. The study propose a conceptual research model of several antecedents of customer relationship managements capabilities and provide the linkage between this antecedents and CRM capabilities. First, following review of existing research literature related to customer relationship management, there are some conceptual clarification on customer relationship management. Second, are presented the working concepts: the adoption of interactive technologies, customer concept, customer empowerment, customer relationship orientation and customer-centric management system. Then, it is proposed the conceptual model and finally are presented conclusions, managerial implications, limitations and research directions. From a theoretical perspective, this paper highlights the importance of marketing actions at the individual customer level and reveal the impact of adoption by companies of interactive technologies so that organizations have the opportunity to engage in conversations with customers and respond in real time the requirements that they launched the online environment. Nowadays, customers feel empowered and play

  5. Estimation of transient heat transfer coefficients in multidimensional problems by using inverse heat transfer methods (United States)

    Osman, Arafa Mohamed


    The inverse heat transfer problem is one of considerable practical interest in the analysis and design of experimental heat transfer investigations. The analytical and experimental investigation of the inverse heat transfer coefficients in multi-dimensional convective heat transfer applications is examined. An application considered is the sudden quenching of a hot solid in a cold liquid. Other applications include thermal analysis of forced convection over impulsively started solid bodies and investigation of short duration wind tunnel experiments. The primary aim is to describe methods and algorithms for the solution of the ill-posed inverse heat transfer coefficient problem. The solution method used is an extension of the sequential future-information method of Beck. Numerical experiments are conducted for a systematic investigation of the developed algorithms on selected heat transfer coefficient test cases. The overall objective of the experimental work is to investigate the early transients in the heat transfer coefficients from spheres in one- and two-dimensional quenching experiments. Several experiments were performed by plunging hollow spheres in either ethylene glycol or water. The developed methods are used for the analysis of the quenching experiments for the estimation of the transient heat transfer coefficients. Analysis of the results indicate that the transient inverse technique has the capability of estimating early transients and subsequent quasi-steady state values of the heat transfer coefficients in a single transient experiment.

  6. SPS extraction kicker magnet thermal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Timmins, M


    As the SPS accelerator will be used for the CNGS project and as LHC injector, the proton beams passing through its extraction kickers will have a much higher intensity than in the past. The image currents generated by this beam may provoke a temperature increase in the magnet's ferrite core to temperatures above the Curie temperature, unless the heat produced is effectively removed. A further complication arises from the fact that a high voltage is applied to the ferrites. The solution adopted consists in transferring the heat via Aluminium Nitride insulators to a water cooling circuit. The heat transfer analysis and the calculated thermal distribution of the magnet are presented.

  7. Organizational capabilities and new market entry processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Leticia Antunes; Andersen, Poul Houman; Drejer, Ina

    This is a conceptual paper that addresses the question of organizational capabilities in the context of firms entering markets that are new to them. The purpose of this work is to outline the theoretical debate on the topic, and propose avenues for empirical investigation.......This is a conceptual paper that addresses the question of organizational capabilities in the context of firms entering markets that are new to them. The purpose of this work is to outline the theoretical debate on the topic, and propose avenues for empirical investigation....

  8. The (Proper) Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul


    Sidney Winter (2011), Brian Pentland (2011), and Geoffrey Hodgson and Thorbjørn Knudsen (2011) take issue with the arguments in Teppo Felin and Nicolai J. Foss (2011), along with more generally critiquing the ‘microfoundations project’ related to routines and capabilities. In this rejoinder we...... argue that the responses of our critics reinforce a number of the points stated in our writings on the routines and capabilities literature. In response to their many points we address the following key issues in the debate: (1) lack of construct clarity; (2) universal mechanisms or comparative...

  9. Cloud-based Architecture Capabilities Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vang, Leng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    In collaborating scientific research arena it is important to have an environment where analysts have access to a shared of information documents, software tools and be able to accurately maintain and track historical changes in models. A new cloud-based environment would be accessible remotely from anywhere regardless of computing platforms given that the platform has available of Internet access and proper browser capabilities. Information stored at this environment would be restricted based on user assigned credentials. This report reviews development of a Cloud-based Architecture Capabilities (CAC) as a web portal for PRA tools.

  10. Competencies, Capabilities and the Neoschumpeterian Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augier, Mie-Sophia; Teece, David J.


    In this paper, Mie Augier and David Teece outline the history and development of the ideas underlying an emerging approach within strategic management research: the dynamic capabili-ties framework. The framework was first outlined by Teece and Pisano (1994), and in the pre-sent paper elaborated...... theory of the firm) and Nelson and Winter (an evolutionary theory of economic change). In the dynamic capability framework firms and markets co-evolve. Managers are now allowed to perform distinct strate-gic roles in shaping both firms and their markets, e.g. through asset- selection and orchestra...

  11. Trends in Microfabrication Capabilities & Device Architectures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lentine, Tony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mudrick, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Okandan, Murat [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodrigues, Arun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The last two decades have seen an explosion in worldwide R&D, enabling fundamentally new capabilities while at the same time changing the international technology landscape. The advent of technologies for continued miniaturization and electronics feature size reduction, and for architectural innovations, will have many technical, economic, and national security implications. It is important to anticipate possible microelectronics development directions and their implications on US national interests. This report forecasts and assesses trends and directions for several potentially disruptive microfabrication capabilities and device architectures that may emerge in the next 5-10 years.

  12. Advancing Test Capabilities at NASA Wind Tunnels (United States)

    Bell, James


    NASA maintains twelve major wind tunnels at three field centers capable of providing flows at 0.1 M 10 and unit Reynolds numbers up to 45106m. The maintenance and enhancement of these facilities is handled through a unified management structure under NASAs Aeronautics and Evaluation and Test Capability (AETC) project. The AETC facilities are; the 11x11 transonic and 9x7 supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Ames; the 10x10 and 8x6 supersonic wind tunnels, 9x15 low speed tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, and Propulsion Simulator Laboratory, all at NASA Glenn; and the National Transonic Facility, Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, LAL aerothermodynamics laboratory, 8 High Temperature Tunnel, and 14x22 low speed tunnel, all at NASA Langley. This presentation describes the primary AETC facilities and their current capabilities, as well as improvements which are planned over the next five years. These improvements fall into three categories. The first are operations and maintenance improvements designed to increase the efficiency and reliability of the wind tunnels. These include new (possibly composite) fan blades at several facilities, new temperature control systems, and new and much more capable facility data systems. The second category of improvements are facility capability advancements. These include significant improvements to optical access in wind tunnel test sections at Ames, improvements to test section acoustics at Glenn and Langley, the development of a Supercooled Large Droplet capability for icing research, and the development of an icing capability for large engine testing. The final category of improvements consists of test technology enhancements which provide value across multiple facilities. These include projects to increase balance accuracy, provide NIST-traceable calibration characterization for wind tunnels, and to advance optical instruments for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation. Taken as a whole, these individual projects provide significant

  13. Heat Pipe Technology (United States)


    The heat pipe, a sealed chamber whose walls are lined with a "wick," a thin capillary network containing a working fluid in liquid form was developed for a heat distribution system for non-rotating satellites. Use of the heat pipe provides a continuous heat transfer mechanism. "Heat tubes" that improve temperature control in plastics manufacturing equipment incorporated the heat pipe technology. James M. Stewart, an independent consultant, patented the heat tubes he developed and granted a license to Kona Corporation. The Kona Nozzle for heaterless injection molding gets heat for its operation from an external source and has no internal heating bands, reducing machine maintenance and also eliminating electrical hazards associated with heater bands. The nozzles are used by Eastman Kodak, Bic Pen Corporation, Polaroid, Tupperware, Ford Motor Company, RCA, and Western Electric in the molding of their products.

  14. Transient critical heat flux and blowdown heat-transfer studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.C.


    Objective of this study is to give a best-estimate prediction of transient critical heat flux (CHF) during reactor transients and hypothetical accidents. To accomplish this task, a predictional method has been developed. Basically it involves the thermal-hydraulic calculation of the heated core with boundary conditions supplied from experimental measurements. CHF predictions were based on the instantaneous ''local-conditions'' hypothesis, and eight correlations (consisting of round-tube, rod-bundle, and transient correlations) were tested against most recent blowdown heat-transfer test data obtained in major US facilities. The prediction results are summarized in a table in which both CISE and Biasi correlations are found to be capable of predicting the early CHF of approx. 1 s. The Griffith-Zuber correlation is credited for its prediction of the delay CHF that occurs in a more tranquil state with slowly decaying mass velocity. In many instances, the early CHF can be well correlated by the x = 1.0 criterion; this is certainly indicative of an annular-flow dryout-type crisis. The delay CHF occurred at near or above 80% void fraction, and the success of the modified Zuber pool-boiling correlation suggests that this CHF is caused by flooding and pool-boiling type hydrodynamic crisis.

  15. Solar Energy School Heating Augmentation Experiment. Sections I, II, and III. (United States)

    InterTechnology Corp., Warrenton, VA.

    An experimental solar heating system heats five modular classrooms at the Fauquier County High School in Warrenton, Virginia. The present report covers the operation, maintenance, and modifications to the system over the 1974-75 and 1975-76 heating seasons. The solar system has shown the capability of providing essentially 100 percent of the…

  16. NGNP Data Management and Analysis System Modeling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynthia D. Gentillon


    Projects for the very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR) program provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. In addition, thermal-hydraulic experiments are conducted to validate codes used to assess reactor safety. The VHTR Program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are (1) qualified for use, (2) stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and (3) analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the third NDMAS objective. It describes capabilities for displaying the data in meaningful ways and identifying relationships among the measured quantities that contribute to their understanding.

  17. Effect of heat input on dilution and heat affected zone in submerged ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a fusion joining process, known for its high deposition capabilities. This process is useful in joining thick section components used in various industries. Besides joining, SAW can also be used for surfacing applications. Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) produced within the base metal as a result of ...

  18. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana (United States)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor


    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  19. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H


    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  20. Ideal Heat Exchange System (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.


    The requirements with which a heat exchange system should comply in order that at certain values of the total contact surface and heat load the entropy production in it should be minimal have been determined. It has been shown that this system can serve as a standard for real systems of irreversible heat exchange. We have found the conditions for physical realizability of a heat exchange system in which heat exchange occurs by a law linear with respect to the temperature difference between contacting flows. Analogous conditions are given without deriving for the case of heat exchange by the Fourier law.

  1. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred


    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  2. TOMCAT: An Obsolescence Management Capability Assessment Framework (United States)

    Romero Rojo, F. J.; Baguley, P.; Shaikh, N.; Roy, R.; Kelly, S.


    As the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) moves away from the traditional support contracts to contracting for availability/capability, it is essential that the MoD has confidence in Industry's capability to manage the risk of obsolescence. For this purpose, it was necessary to develop a set of metrics to demonstrate it. The eight key elements identified are as follows: obsolescence management governance; supplier; design for obsolescence; risk assessment; obsolescence monitoring; communication; and obsolescence resolution process. Each one was assessed, ranked, and was further broken down into major constituents. They formed the basis of the final 25 metrics, which were then ranked and weighted accordingly. These metrics are embedded into the Total Obsolescence Management Capability Assessment Tool (TOMCAT), which provides a mean for contractors to perform self-assessment and for the MoD to set obsolescence management capability improvement targets. This tool was subjected to rigorous industry scrutiny through different means, including workshops and piloting sessions, which led to refining the TOMCAT tool and the way in which the metrics are formulated. This tool has been developed as a web based application. The MoD is planning to standardise its usage by incorporating it to the obsolescence management policy for defence contracting.

  3. Mathematical Model for Mapping Students' Cognitive Capability (United States)

    Tambunan, Hardi


    The quality mapping of educational unit program is important issue in education in Indonesia today in an effort to improve the quality of education. The objective of this study is to make a mathematical model to find out the map of students' capability in mathematics. It has been made a mathematical model to be used in the mapping of students'…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    literature can offer. But not all literary expressions are posers of questions and problems. Certain concepts such as Keats' Negative. Capability suggest solutions to Camus' Sisyphean problem and its ilk. This paper explores this problem-solution relationship and finds complementarity and possibility feasible. Introduction.

  5. Capability, Governance and Nanotechnology : Focus on India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Capability, Governance and Nanotechnology : Focus on India. Nanotechnology is the study and manipulation of matter on an ultra-small scale, generally in the range of 1-100 nanometres (1 metre = 1 billion nanometres). Like biotechnology, nanotechnology has the potential to bring huge benefits to the poor, but also huge ...

  6. Truth and the Capability of Learning (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey


    This paper examines learning as a capability, taking as its starting point the work of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. The paper is concerned to highlight the relation between learning and truth, and it does so by examining the idea of a genealogy of truth and also Donald Davidson's coherence theory. Thus the notion of truth is understood to be…

  7. Methodological Individualism and the Organizational Capabilities Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul


    AbstractDuring the last decade, strategy scholars have increasingly converged on organizationalcapabilities as a key construct in strategy research. We explicate some of the underlying,unstated assumptions of current capabilities-based work by drawing on seminal work in thephilosophy of social sc...

  8. An inferential comparison between the capabilities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this descriptive, comparative study, all 1st-year medical and nursing students at the University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa were invited to complete a validated questionnaire to reflect their capabilities (scope) and achievements (outcomes). The questionnaire incorporated seven domains: happiness, ...

  9. Bearding the Capability Deprivation Machine: The Pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on Sen and his ideas of capability deprivation, it is contended here that income-deprivation ideas by themselves do not adequately encompass the full complexity of how deprivation works. The approach taken here, therefore, is different. It works with the proposition that education needs to respond to the full range ...

  10. Capabilities and accessibility: a model for progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Tyler


    Full Text Available Accessibility is seen to be a core issue which relates directly to the quality of life: if a person cannot reach and use a facility then they cannot take advantage of the benefits that the facility is seeking to provide. In some cases this is about being able to take part in an activity for enjoyment, but in some it is a question of the exercise of human rights – access to healthcare, education, voting and other citizens’ rights. This paper argues that such an equitable accessibility approach requires understanding of the relationships between the capabilities that a person has and the capabilities required of them by society in order to achieve the accessibility they seek. The Capabilities Model, which has been developed at UCL is an attempt to understand this relationship and the paper sets out an approach to quantifying the capabilities in a way that allows designers and implementers of environmental construction and operation to have a more robust approach to their decisions about providing accessibility.

  11. Organizational Strategic Learning Capability: Exploring the Dimensions (United States)

    Moon, Hanna; Sejong, Wendy; Valentine, Tom


    Purpose: How to build and enhance the strategic learning capability (SLC) of an organization becomes crucial to both research and practice. This study was designed with the purpose to conceptualize SLC by translating and interpreting the related literature to develop empirical dimensions that could be tested and used in a survey instrument.…

  12. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.


    and troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO...... the NATO aspect of Nordic-Baltic security....

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capability of freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capability and growth profile of indigenous filamentous freshwater fungi from four (4) different streams were determined in vitro. The result indicated that the streams under investigation contained an average heterotrophic fungal count of 5.55 0.25x105 cfu ml-1 while the mean count of ...

  14. Australian Space Situational Awareness Capability Demonstrations (United States)

    Morreale, B.; Bessell, T.; Rutten, M.; Cheung, B.

    Australia is increasing its contribution to the global space situational awareness (SSA) problem by committing to acquire and operate SSA sensors. Over the last year, a series of collaborative SSA experiments have been undertaken to demonstrate the capabilities of Australian sensors. These experiments aimed to demonstrate how existing Australian sensors could perform in a surveillance of space role, prove passive radar’s capability to observe low earth orbit (LEO) satellites and perform SSA handoffs to optical sensors. The trials established a data sharing and communications protocol that bridged defence, academia, and industry partners. Geographically dispersed optical assets, including the Falcon telescope in Canberra, Raven telescopes in Exmouth (Western Australia) and Defence Science and Technology (DST) Telescopes in Adelaide (South Australia) collected on LEO satellites and established cueing protocols. The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) located in Western Australia, demonstrated the capability of passive radar as an SSA asset after successfully observing LEO satellites based on reflected terrestrial radio signals. The combination of radar and optical SSA assets allows for the exploitation of each sensors unique advantages and locations across the Australian continent. This paper outlines the capabilities and diversity of Australian optical and radar sensors as demonstrated by field trials in 2016 and 2017. It suggests future potential for harnessing novel radar and optical integration techniques to supplement high-value assets such as the Space Surveillance Telescope as part of the Space Surveillance Network.

  15. Characterization, Classification and Land Capability Evalution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil morphological and physical characteristics were dominantly used for the land capability evaluation.These include drainage (internal and external), moisture retention capacity, slope, liability to flooding, erosion, effective soil depth and climatic variations. Chemical characteristics were considered only when ...

  16. The Assessment of Children's Cognitive Processing Capabilities. (United States)

    Romberg, Thomas A.; Collis, Kevin F.

    This paper reports the results of the second of a series of collaborative studies examining how children acquire the skills to represent and solve verbal addition and subtraction problems. The purpose of this study was to identify the cognitive processing capabilities of a group of Tasmanian (Australian) children. Fifteen cognitive tests were…

  17. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas


    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors.

  18. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  19. Evaluating Self Healing Capability of Bituminous Mastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.; Van de Ven, M.; Wu, S.; Yu, J.; Molenaar, A.


    The self-healing capability of bituminous materials has been known for many years. Researches were mostly focused on the self healing behaviour during load repetitions. The tests are either time consuming and/or complex. In this paper, a simple self healing test procedure is presented combining the

  20. The Capability Approach: Enabling Musical Learning (United States)

    Cameron, Kate


    Amartya Sen's capability approach offers a new perspective for educators throughout the curriculum. This new insight has the potential to promote a music education that is inherently tailored to the individual. In essence it asks the question: What is music education going to offer to this student? This article represents an initial enquiry into…

  1. Critical Capability Pedagogies and University Education (United States)

    Walker, Melanie


    The article argues for an alliance of the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen with ideas from critical pedagogy for undergraduate university education which develops student agency and well being on the one hand, and social change towards greater justice on the other. The purposes of a university education in this article are taken to…

  2. Vulnerability, Health Agency and Capability to Health. (United States)

    Straehle, Christine


    One of the defining features of the capability approach (CA) to health, as developed in Venkatapuram's book Health Justice, is its aim to enable individual health agency. Furthermore, the CA to health hopes to provide a strong guideline for assessing the health-enabling content of social and political conditions. In this article, I employ the recent literature on the liberal concept of vulnerability to assess the CA. I distinguish two kinds of vulnerability. Considering circumstantial vulnerability, I argue that liberal accounts of vulnerability concerned with individual autonomy, align with the CA to health. Individuals should, as far as possible, be able to make health-enabling decisions about their lives, and their capability to do so should certainly not be hindered by public policy. The CA to health and a vulnerability-based analysis then work alongside to define moral responsibilities and designate those who hold them. Both approaches demand social policy to address circumstances that hinder individuals from taking health-enabling decisions. A background condition of vulnerability, on the other hand, even though it hampers the capability for health, does not warrant the strong moral claim proposed by the CA to health to define health as a meta-capability that should guide social policy. Nothing in our designing social policy could change the challenge to health agency when we deal with background conditions of vulnerability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education (United States)

    Le Grange, L.


    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  4. Towards an Organizational Economics of Heterogeneous Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    The notion of “capability” has long been influential in management research as an approach to address firm-level heterogeneity and heterogeneity in competitive outcomes. I discuss how recent advances in economics may allow for a more rigorous understanding and measurement of capability that take...

  5. Thermoregulatory capabilities of the woodland dormouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The woodland dormouse, Graphiurus murinus, in common with many other small rodents, enters torpor under conditions of food deprivation and low temperatures. Its thermoregulatory capabilities under more favourable conditions, however, have not been investigated. We measured metabolism and thermoregulation in ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper study the relation between information technology and marketing capabilities. The interface between marketing and information technology forms the subject of numerous empirical and conceptual research. The expanding adoption of information technology in marketing implies the knowledge about the e-marketing capabilities development factors and the potential of these capabilities to generate competitive advantage and to improve firm’s performance. The results of recent studies highlight that organizations witch integrate information technology in marketing processes can improve results in customer acquisition and retention processes, also provides other benefits like share growth and cost reduction and it also improve the firms marketing functions. The aim of this exploratory research is to identify the antecedents of e-marketing and technological capabilities of the firm. Understanding this link is arguably one of the key challenges facing organizations in today’s highly dynamic environment.. It is also critical for marketing managers not only for determining strategic investments of resources but also for demonstrating marketing return on activities. E-marketing not only has a tremendous potential for growth but also poses unique challenges for all organisations, incumbents or new entrants.

  7. Extracting Business Intelligence from Online Product Reviews


    Soundarya.V; Siddareddy Sowmya Rupa; Sristi Khanna; G. Swathi; Manjula, D.


    The project proposes to build a system which is capable of extracting business intelligence for amanufacturer, from online product reviews. For a particular product, it extracts a list of the discussedfeatures and their associated sentiment scores. Online products reviews and review characteristics areextracted from A two level filtering approach is adapted to choose a set of reviews thatare perceived to be useful by customers. The filtering process is based on the concept tha...

  8. A design method of axially grooved heat pipes embedded in equipment panel for communication satellite (United States)

    Miyasaka, Akihiro; Nakajima, Katsuhiko

    A calculation method of the maximum heat load for an axially grooved heat pipe which is embedded in a honeycomb sandwich panel with multipoint heating is developed by considering the estimation of heat flux rate along the heat pipe. A thermal mathematical model for the panel is also used to estimate the net heat input to the heat pipe. The maximum heat loads predicted for the heat pipe embedded in the panel show good agreement with the data obtained from tests which has been performed in a vacuum chamber. A minimum weight design method for rectangular grooved heat pipes which satisfied heat transport capabilities required are also proposed as a result of this study.

  9. Ensuring US National Aeronautics Test Capabilities (United States)

    Marshall, Timothy J.


    U.S. leadership in aeronautics depends on ready access to technologically advanced, efficient, and affordable aeronautics test capabilities. These systems include major wind tunnels and propulsion test facilities and flight test capabilities. The federal government owns the majority of the major aeronautics test capabilities in the United States, primarily through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD). However, changes in the Aerospace landscape, primarily the decrease in demand for testing over the last 20 years required an overarching strategy for management of these national assets. Therefore, NASA established the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) as a two-pronged strategic initiative to: (1) retain and invest in NASA aeronautics test capabilities considered strategically important to the agency and the nation, and (2) establish a strong, high level partnership with the DoD. Test facility utilization is a critical factor for ATP because it relies on user occupancy fees to recover a substantial part of the operations costs for its facilities. Decreasing utilization is an indicator of excess capacity and in some cases low-risk redundancy (i.e., several facilities with basically the same capability and overall low utilization). However, low utilization does not necessarily translate to lack of strategic importance. Some facilities with relatively low utilization are nonetheless vitally important because of the unique nature of the capability and the foreseeable aeronautics testing needs. Unfortunately, since its inception, the customer base for ATP has continued to shrink. Utilization of ATP wind tunnels has declined by more than 50% from the FY 2006 levels. This significant decrease in customer usage is attributable to several factors, including the overall decline in new programs and projects in the aerospace sector; the impact of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) on the design, development, and research

  10. Exploration Medical Capability System Engineering Overview (United States)

    Mindock, J.; McGuire, K.


    Deep Space Gateway and Transport missions will change the way NASA currently practices medicine. The missions will require more autonomous capability compared to current low Earth orbit operations. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The ExMC Systems Engineering team's mission is to "Define, develop, validate, and manage the technical system design needed to implement exploration medical capabilities for Mars and test the design in a progression of proving grounds." The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is using Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) to accomplish its integrative goals. The MBSE approach to medical system design offers a paradigm shift toward greater integration between vehicle and the medical system, and directly supports the transition of Earth-reliant ISS operations to the Earth-independent operations envisioned for Mars. This talk will discuss how ExMC is using MBSE to define operational needs, decompose requirements and architecture, and identify medical capabilities needed to support human exploration. How MBSE is being used to integrate across disciplines and NASA Centers will also be described. The medical system being discussed in this talk is one system within larger habitat systems. Data generated within the medical system will be inputs to other systems and vice versa. This talk will also describe the next steps in model development that include: modeling the different systems that comprise the larger system and interact with the medical system, understanding how the various systems work together, and

  11. Transferable Denitrification Capability of Thermus thermophilus (United States)

    Alvarez, Laura; Bricio, Carlos; Blesa, Alba; Hidalgo, Aurelio


    Laboratory-adapted strains of Thermus spp. have been shown to require oxygen for growth, including the model strains T. thermophilus HB27 and HB8. In contrast, many isolates of this species that have not been intensively grown under laboratory conditions keep the capability to grow anaerobically with one or more electron acceptors. The use of nitrogen oxides, especially nitrate, as electron acceptors is one of the most widespread capabilities among these facultative strains. In this process, nitrate is reduced to nitrite by a reductase (Nar) that also functions as electron transporter toward nitrite and nitric oxide reductases when nitrate is scarce, effectively replacing respiratory complex III. In many T. thermophilus denitrificant strains, most electrons for Nar are provided by a new class of NADH dehydrogenase (Nrc). The ability to reduce nitrite to NO and subsequently to N2O by the corresponding Nir and Nor reductases is also strain specific. The genes encoding the capabilities for nitrate (nar) and nitrite (nir and nor) respiration are easily transferred between T. thermophilus strains by natural competence or by a conjugation-like process and may be easily lost upon continuous growth under aerobic conditions. The reason for this instability is apparently related to the fact that these metabolic capabilities are encoded in gene cluster islands, which are delimited by insertion sequences and integrated within highly variable regions of easily transferable extrachromosomal elements. Together with the chromosomal genes, these plasmid-associated genetic islands constitute the extended pangenome of T. thermophilus that provides this species with an enhanced capability to adapt to changing environments. PMID:24141123

  12. KSTAR RF heating system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, J. G.; Kim, S. K.; Hwang, C. K. (and others)


    Design, high-voltage test, and installation of 6 MW ICRF heating system for KSTAR is completed. The antenna demonstrated satisfactory standoff at high voltages up to 41 kV for 300 sec. The result indicates good power handling capabilities of the antenna as high as 10 MW/m2. This power density is equivalent to RF power coupling of 6 MW into a 4 {omega}/m target plasma, and is typical of advanced tokamak heating scenarios. In addition, vacuum feed through, DC break, and liquid stub developed for 300 sec operation are installed, as well as a 2 MW, 30-60MHz transmitter. The transmitter successfully produced output powers of 600 kW continuously, 1.5{approx}1.8 MW for 300 sec, and 2 MW for 100 msec or shorter pulses. A realtime control system based on DSP and EPICS is developed, installed, and tested on the ICRF system. Initial results from feasibility study indicate that the present antenna and the transmission lines could allow load-resilient operation on KSTAR. Until the KSTAR tokamak start to produce plasmas in 2008, however, hands-on operational experiences are obtained from participating in ICRF heating experiments at ASDEX and DIII-D tokamaks arranged through international cooperation.

  13. Monogroove heat pipe design: Insulated liquid channel with bridging wick (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Brown, R. F.; Kosson, R. L.


    A screen mesh artery supported concentrically within the evaporator section of a heat pipe liquid channel retains liquid in the channel. Continued and uniform liquid feed to the heat pipe evaporation section (20) during periods of excessive heat transfer is assured. The overall design provides high evaporation and condensation film coefficients for the working fluid by means of the circumferential grooves in the walls of the vapor channel, while not interfering with the overall heat transport capability of the axial groove. The design has particular utility in zero-g environments.

  14. Hospitals Capability in Response to Disasters Considering Surge Capacity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khademipour


    Full Text Available Background: The man-made and natural disasters have adverse effects with sound, apparent, and unknown consequences. Among various components of disaster management in health sector, the most important role is performed by health-treatment systems, especially hospitals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the surge capacity of hospitals of Kerman Province in disaster in 2015. Materials and Methods: This is a quantitative study, conducted on private, military, and medical sciences hospitals of Kerman Province. The sampling method was total count and data collection for the research was done by questionnaire. The first section of the questionnaire included demographic information of the studied hospitals and second part examined the hospital capacity in response to disasters in 4 fields of equipment, physical space, human resources, and applied programs. The extracted data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: The mean capability of implementing the surge capacity programs by hospitals of Kerman Province in disasters and in 4 fields of equipment, physical space, human resources, and applied programs was evaluated as 7.33% (weak. The surge capacity capability of state hospitals in disasters was computed as 8% and compared to private hospitals (6.07% had a more suitable condition. Conclusion: Based on the results of study and significance of preparedness of hospitals in response to disasters, it is proposed that managers of studied hospitals take measures to promote the hospital response capacity to disasters based on 4 components of increasing hospital capacity.

  15. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  16. APS high heat load monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.


    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  17. Threshold Capabilities: Threshold Concepts and Knowledge Capability Linked through Variation Theory (United States)

    Baillie, Caroline; Bowden, John A.; Meyer, Jan H. F.


    The Threshold Capability Integrated Theoretical Framework (TCITF) is presented as a framework for the design of university curricula, aimed at developing graduates' capability to deal with previously unseen situations in their professional, social, and personal lives. The TCITF is a new theoretical framework derived from, and heavily dependent…

  18. Innovative system for delivery of low temperature district heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ivanov Ianakiev


    Full Text Available An innovative Low Temperature District Heating (LTDH local network is developed in Nottingham, supported by REMOURBAN project, part of the H2020 Smart City and Community Lighthouse scheme. It was proposed that a branch emanating from the return pipe of the of the existing district heating system in Nottingham would be created to use low temperature heating for the first time in UK. The development is aimed to extract wasted (unused heat from existing district heating system and make it more efficient and profitable. Four maisonette blocks of 94 low-raised flats, at Nottingham demo site of the REMOURBAN project will be connected to this new LTDH system. The scheme will provide a primary supply of heat and hot water at approximately 50oC to 60oC. Innovated solutions have been put forward to overcome certain barriers, such as legionella related risks and peak loads during extreme heating seasons and occasional maintenance.

  19. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Be Prepared Safe Citizen Day Organize Important Medical Information ER Checklists Preparing for Emergencies Be ready to ... anyone can be affected. Here you will find information about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. ...

  20. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Andrei; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Averfalk, Helge


    The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document...... that such developments can begin now with technologies currently available. We present a database and the status of the technology and its ability of expansion to other European locations by reviewing experiences aimed at further research or application in the heating industry. This is based on a survey of the existing...... capacity of electric large-scale heat pumps with more than 1 MW thermal output, operating in European DH systems. The survey is the first database of its kind containing the technical characteristics of these heat pumps, and provides the basis for the analysis of this paper. By quantifying the heat sources...