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Sample records for heat balance integral

  1. On high-order polynomial heat-balance integral implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Alastair S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reconsiders aspects of the analysis conventionally used to establish accuracy, performance and limitations of the heat balance integral method: theoretical and practical rates of convergence are confirmed for a familiar piecewise heat-balance integral based upon mesh refinement, and the use of boundary conditions is discussed with respect to fixed and moving boundaries. Alternates to mesh refinement are increased order of approximation or non-polynomial approximants. Here a physically intuitive high-order polynomial heat balance integral formulation is described that exhibits high accuracy, rapid convergence, and desirable qualitative solution properties. The simple approach combines a global approximant of prescribed degree with spatial sub-division of the solution domain. As a variational-type method, it can be argued that heat-balance integral is simply 'one amongst many'. The approach is compared with several established variational formulations and performance is additionally assessed in terms of 'smoothness'.

  2. Application of heat-balance integral method to conjugate thermal explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novozhilov Vasily

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate thermal explosion is an extension of the classical theory, proposed and studied recently by the author. The paper reports application of heat-balance integral method for developing phase portraits for systems undergoing conjugate thermal explosion. The heat-balance integral method is used as an averaging method reducing partical differential equation problem to the set of first-order ordinary differential equations. The latter reduced problem allows natural interpretation in appropriately chosen phase space. It is shown that, with the help of heat-balance integral technique, conjugate thermal explosion problem can be described with a good accuracy by the set of non-linear first-order differential equations involving complex error function. Phase trajectories are presented for typical regimes emerging in conjugate thermal explosion. Use of heat-balance integral as a spatial averaging method allows efficient description of system evolution to be developed.

  3. An inverse Stefan problem relevant to boilover: Heat balance integral solutions and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Stefan problems relevant to burning oil-water systems are formulated. Two moving boundary sub-problems are defined: burning liquid surface and formation of a distillation ("hot zone" layer beneath it. The basic model considers a heat transfer equation with internal neat generation due to radiation flux absorbed in the fuel depth. Inverse Stefan problem corresponding to the first case solved by the heat balance integral method and dimensionless scaling of semi-analytical solutions are at issue. .

  4. Application of the heat-balance and refined integral methods to the Korteweg-de Vries equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Timothy G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider approximate travelling wave solutions to the Korteweg-de Vries equation. The heat-balance integral method is first applied to the problem, using two different quartic approximating functions, and then the refined integral method is investigated. We examine two types of solution, chosen by matching the wave speed to that of the exact solution and by imposing the same area. The first set of solutions is generally better with an error that is fixed in time. The second set of solutions has an error that grows with time. This is shown to be due to slight discrepancies in the wave speed.

  5. Research note on a parabolic heat-balance integral method with unspecified exponent: An entropy generation approach in optimal profile determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat-balance integral method of Goodman is studied with two simple 1-D heat conduction problems with prescribed temperature and flux boundary conditions. These classical problems with well known exact solutions enable to demonstrate the heat-balance integral method performance by a parabolic profile and the entropy generation minimization concept in definition of the appropriate profile exponent. The basic assumption generating the additional constraints needed to perform the solution is based on the requirement to minimize the difference in the local thermal entropy generation rates calculated by the approximate and the exact profile, respectively. This concept is easily applicable since the general concept has simple implementation of the condition requiring the thermal entropy generations calculated through both profiles to be the same at the boundary. The entropy minimization generation approach automatically generates the additional requirement which is deficient in the set of conditions defined by the heat-balance integral method concept.

  6. STARTING RADIAL SUBDIFFUSION FROM A CENTRAL POINT THROUGH A DIVERGING MEDIUM (A SPHERE: Heat-Balance Integral Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Y Hristov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents an integral solution of the time-fractional subdiffusion equation as alternative approach to those employing hypergeometric functions. The integral solution suggests a preliminary defined profile with unknown coefficients and the concept of penetration (boundary layer well known from the heat diffusion and hydrodynamics. The profile satisfies the boundary conditions imposed at the boundary of the boundary layer that allows its coefficients to be expressed through the boundary layer depth as unique parameter describing the profile. The technique is demonstrated by a solution of a time fractional radial equation concerning anomalous diffusion from a central point source in a sphere.

  7. Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1992-01-01

    Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

  8. Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

    1999-03-30

    The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached

  9. Load balancing in integrated optical wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars; Wong, S-W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the load balancing problem in Integrated Optical Wireless Networks, where cell breathing technique is used to solve congestion by changing the coverage area of a fully loaded cell tower. Our objective is to design a load balancing mechanism which works closely...

  10. Method for reducing excess heat supply experienced in typical Chinese district heating systems by achieving hydraulic balance and improving indoor air temperature control at the building level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2016-01-01

    A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance with the a.......03 kg NOx per heating square meter for a typical case in Harbin.......A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance...... with the actual heat demand. This results in 15-30% of the total supplied heat being lost. This paper proposes an integrated approach that aims to reduce the excess heat loss by introducing pre-set thermostatic radiator valves combined with automatic balancing valves. Those devices establish hydraulic balance...

  11. District heating biofuel burner efficiency and energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Okoro, Oluwashola Aderemi

    2015-01-01

    District heating is an optimal system of distributing heat to residential building in a centralized location through pipeline networks. The district heating of woodchip is cost effective, improve energy efficiency, reduce gas emissions and improve energy security. The thermal efficiency and energy balance in a boiler is obtained by combustion analysis of the wood (fuel). In this report, the district heating bio fuel burner in Skien Fjernvarme is considered. The capacity of the boiler is 6MW a...

  12. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  13. Energy and heat balance in wet DCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Viren; Moser, Alexander; Schaefer, Michael; Ritschel, Michael [BorgWarner Drivetrain Engineering GmbH, Ketsch (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Wet clutch systems are well known for their thermal robustness and versatility in a wide range of automotive applications. Conventional automatics have used them for a long time as torque converter lock-up clutches, shift elements and launch clutches. With the development of DCTs, wet clutch technology has evolved in terms of launch and shift performance, controllability, robustness and efficiency. This paper discusses improvements in the wet clutch and their impact on today's vehicle applications in terms of heat and energy management. Thermal robustness is a crucial aspect for an automatic transmission. In addition to the clutch thermal performance, the influence of transmission oil cooler and oil sump warm-up behavior are discussed. Based on our latest development activities, test results and simulations, we shall discuss the latest friction material enhancement and its impact on DCTs in terms of efficiency and performance. Drag loss is a much-discussed topic during the development of wet clutch systems. This paper discusses in detail the cause and break-up of various energy losses in a wet DCT. Efficient energy management strategies for actuation systems, cooling, and lubrication, clutch apply, and pre-selection in modern power trains with engine start / stop are evaluated based on the latest test and simulation results. Finally, the paper summarizes the performance and efficiency optimized moist clutch system. (orig.)

  14. Heat balance, haematology and serum chemistry of layers under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and thirty five 18weeks old Bovans Nera Black strain pullets were used in a 10week study to determine their heat balance and blood profile under varying stocking density in locally fabricated metal-type cage system. The cages were stocked 2, 3 and 4birds/cell. Daily ambient temperature and relative humidity ...

  15. The balance model for heat transport from hydrolytic reaction mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janacova Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of the paper is the industrial application of enzyme hydrolysis of tanning solids waste with a view to minimizing the price of enzyme hydrolysate product, which has widely used. On the base of the energy balance of the enzymatic hydrolysis we estimated the critical minimal charge of a tanning drum. We performed of the critical minimal on the basis of a balance model for heat transport from reaction mixture into the environment through reactor wall. Employing a tanning drum for hydrolytic reaction allows to process tanning wastes in the place of their origin. It means thus considerably to enhancing economics of the whole process.

  16. Forced convection heat transfer in integrated microchannel heat sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Man

    A microchannel heat sink, integrated with pressure and temperature microsensors, was fabricated to study convective boiling under uniform heat flux boundary condition. Utilizing a wafer bond and etch back technology, the heat source, temperature and pressure sensors were separated from the fluid flow by a membrane only 1.5mum in thickness; thus allowing good control of the thermal boundary conditions. Temperature and pressure distributions for various power levels and flow rates were measured. Single-phase liquid flow results, compared with numerical simulations, confirm that the heat flux boundary condition is indeed nearly uniform. The sensor arrays, particularly for two-phase flow, provide the spatial and temporal dependence of both the temperature and pressures fields. During two-phase flow, a pressure peak appears at the location of the liquid-vapor interface region. Simultaneously, qualitative visualizations of the evolving flow patterns have been correlated with quantitative temperature and pressure measurements. Based on the temperature and pressure measurements inside the microchannels, the empirical correlations of local pressure fluctuation frequency and pressure fluctuation amplitude are found to increase with increasing input power and Suratman number, but with decreasing Reynolds number. A flow regime map is plotted to distinguish the different kinds of flow pattern in microchannels. Moreover, the activity of nucleation sites as well as the ensuing bubble dynamics, from incipience to departure, was found to depend on the channel height. The critical size for active nucleation site increases with increasing microchannel height. Furthermore, size and shape effects on two-phase flow patterns in forced convection boiling were investigated in near rectangular microchannels with silicon substrate. Although detected, in contrast with triangular microchannels, annular flow was observed to be unstable. Instead, the dominant flow pattern was an unsteady

  17. Study on Gas-liquid Falling Film Flow in Internal Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong

    2017-10-01

    Gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow with nonlinear characteristics, study on gas liquid falling film flow regulation control law, can reduce emissions of the distillation column, and it can improve the quality of products. According to the distribution of gas-liquid mass balance internally heat integrated distillation column independent region, distribution model of heat transfer coefficient of building internal heat integrated distillation tower is obtained liquid distillation falling film flow in the saturated vapour pressure of liquid water balance, using heat transfer equation and energy equation to balance the relationship between the circulating iterative gas-liquid falling film flow area, flow parameter information, at a given temperature, pressure conditions, gas-liquid flow falling film theory makes the optimal parameters to achieve the best fitting value with the measured values. The results show that the geometric gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow heat exchange area and import column thermostat, the average temperature has significant. The positive correlation between the heat exchanger tube entrance due to temperature difference between inside and outside, the heat flux is larger, with the increase of internal heat integrated distillation column temperature, the slope decreases its temperature rise, which accurately describes the internal gas-liquid heat integrated distillation tower falling film flow regularity, take appropriate measures to promote the enhancement of heat transfer. It can enhance the overall efficiency of the heat exchanger.

  18. Heat Balance Analysis of EPS Products Shaping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysiak R.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The work is a part of research into the reduction of energy consumption in the production of EPSthrough the modernization of technological equipment used. This paper presents the results of research and analysis of heat transfer process between the water vapor that was provided to machine, the mold, the product and the environment. The paper shows the calculation of the heat balance of the production cycle for two types of mold: standard and modernized. The performance tests used an infrared imaging camera. The results were used to develop a computer image analysis and statistical analysis. This paper presents the main stages of the production process and the construction of technological equipment used, changing the mold surface temperature field during the production cycle and the structure of the heat balance for the mold and its instrumentation. It has been shown that the modernization of construction of technological equipment has reduced the temperature field and as a consequence of decreased of demand for process steam production cycle.

  19. Drinking and water balance during exercise and heat acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Keil, L. C.; Morse, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    The interactions between fluid intake and balance, and plasma ion, osmotic, and endocrine responses during dehydration produced by exercise in cool and warm environments during acclimation are explored. Two groups of five male subjects performed 8 days of ergometer exercise in hot and thermoneutral conditions, respectively. The exercise trials lasted 2 hr each. Monitoring was carried out on the PV, osmotic, sodium, and endocrine concentrations, voluntary fluid intake, fluid balances, and fluid deficits. A negative correlation was observed between the plasma sodium and osmolality during acclimation. The presence of hypervolemia during acclimation is suggested as a cause of drinking, while the vasopressin concentration was not found to be a significant factor stimulating drinking. Finally, the predominant mechanism in fluid intake during exercise and heat exposure is concluded to be the renin-angiotensin II system in the presence of reductions in total body water and extracellular plasma volumes.

  20. Integrated Temperature Sensors based on Heat Diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vroonhoven, C.P.L.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory, design and implementation of a new class of integrated temperature sensors, based on heat diffusion. In such sensors, temperature is sensed by measuring the time it takes for heat to diffuse through silicon. An on-chip thermal delay can be determined by geometry and

  1. THERMOREGULATION IN CHILDREN: EXERCISE, HEAT STRESS & FLUID BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawnda A. Morrison

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the specific physiological strategies of thermoregulation in children, a brief literary update relating exercise to heat stress in girls and boys as well as a discussion on fluid balance strategies for children who are performing exercise in the heat. Both sport performance and thermoregulation can be affected by the body’s water and electrolyte content. The recommendations for pre-pubertal fluid intake have been generalized from adult literature, including a limited concession for the physiological differences between adults and children. Considering these body fluid shifts, carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks are thought to be an essential tool in combating dehydration as a result of active hyperthermia (i.e. exercise, thus we examine current hydration practices in exercising children. Finally, this review summarizes research which examines the relationship between cognition and hypohydration on young athletes’ performance.

  2. The Impact of Anthropogenic Heat on Formation of Urban Heat Island and Energy Consumption Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shahmohamadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of anthropogenic heat on formation of urban heat island (UHI and also determines which factors can directly affect energy use in the city. It explores literally the conceptual framework of confliction between anthropogenic heat and urban structure, which produced UHI intensity and affected energy consumption balance. It then discusses how these two factors can be affected and gives implication to the city and then focuses on whether actions should be taken for balancing adaptation and mitigation of UHI effects. It will be concluded by making the three important strategies to minimise the impact of UHI on energy consumption: landscaping, using albedo materials on external surfaces of buildings and urban areas, and promoting natural ventilation.

  3. Integrated Current Balancing Transformer for Primary Parallel Isolated Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Gökhan; Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    A simple, PCB compatible integrated solution is proposed for the current balancing requirement of the primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC). Input inductor and the current balancing transformer are merged into the same core, which reduces the number of components allowing a cheaper...

  4. Optimum heat storage design for heat integrated multipurpose batch plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stamp, J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat integration to minimise energy usage in multipurpose batch plants has been in published literature for more than two decades. In most present methods, time is fixed a priori through a known schedule, which leads to suboptimal results...

  5. Flexible heat pipes with integrated bioinspired design

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Yang; Chengyi Song; Wen Shang; Peng Tao; Tao Deng

    2015-01-01

    In this work we report the facile fabrication and performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes that have integrated bioinspired wick structures and flexible polyurethane polymer connector design between the copper condenser and evaporator. Inside the heat pipe, a bioinspired superhydrophilic strong-base-oxidized copper mesh with multi-scale micro/nano-structures was used as the wicking material and deionized water was selected as working fluid. Thermal resistances of the fabricated flexible ...

  6. Flexible heat pipes with integrated bioinspired design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the facile fabrication and performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes that have integrated bioinspired wick structures and flexible polyurethane polymer connector design between the copper condenser and evaporator. Inside the heat pipe, a bioinspired superhydrophilic strong-base-oxidized copper mesh with multi-scale micro/nano-structures was used as the wicking material and deionized water was selected as working fluid. Thermal resistances of the fabricated flexible heat pipes charged with different filling ratios were measured under thermal power inputs ranging from 2 W to 12 W while the device was bent at different angles. The fabricated heat pipes with a 30% filling ratio demonstrated a low thermal resistance less than 0.01 K/W. Compared with the vertically oriented straight heat pipes, bending from 30° up to 120° has negligible influence on the heat-transfer performance. Furthermore, repeated heating tests indicated that the fabricated flexible heat pipes have consistent and reliable heat-transfer performance, thus would have important applications for advanced thermal management in three dimensional and flexible electronic devices.

  7. Thermoelectricity from wasted heat of integrated circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2012-05-22

    We demonstrate that waste heat from integrated circuits especially computer microprocessors can be recycled as valuable electricity to power up a portion of the circuitry or other important accessories such as on-chip cooling modules, etc. This gives a positive spin to a negative effect of ever increasing heat dissipation associated with increased power consumption aligned with shrinking down trend of transistor dimension. This concept can also be used as an important vehicle for self-powered systemson- chip. We provide theoretical analysis supported by simulation data followed by experimental verification of on-chip thermoelectricity generation from dissipated (otherwise wasted) heat of a microprocessor.

  8. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  9. Active Disturbance Rejection Control of a Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Kalbani, Fahad; Zhang, Jie; Bisgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Heat integrated distillation column (HiDC) is the most energy efficient distillation approach making efficient utilization of internal heat integration through heat pump. The rectifying section acts as a heat source with high pressure, while the stripping section operates as a heat sink with low...

  10. Measuring weld heat to evaluate weld integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauder, V., E-mail: schauder@hks-prozesstechnik.de [HKS-Prozesstechnik GmbH, Halle (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Eddy current and ultrasonic testing are suitable for tube and pipe mills and have been used for weld seam flaw detection for decades, but a new process, thermography, is an alternative. By measuring the heat signature of the weld seam as it cools, it provides information about weld integrity at and below the surface. The thermal processes used to join metals, such as plasma, induction, laser, and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), have improved since they were developed, and they get better with each passing year. However, no industrial process is perfect, so companies that conduct research in flaw detection likewise continue to develop and improve the technologies used to verify weld integrity: ultrasonic testing (UT), eddy current testing (ET), hydrostatic, X-ray, magnetic particle, and liquid penetrant are among the most common. Two of these are used for verifying the integrity of the continuous welds such as those used on pipe and tube mills: UT and ET. Each uses a transmitter to send waves of ultrasonic energy or electrical current through the material and a receiver (probe) to detect disturbances in the flow. The two processes often are combined to capitalize on the strengths of each. While ET is good at detecting flaws at or near the surface, UT penetrates the material, detecting subsurface flaws. One drawback is that sound waves and electrical current waves have a specific direction of travel, or an alignment. A linear defect that runs parallel to the direction of travel of the ultrasonic sound wave or a flaw that is parallel to the coil winding direction of the ET probe can go undetected. A second drawback is that they don't detect cold welds. An alternative process, thermography, works in a different fashion: It monitors the heat of the material as the weld cools. Although it measures the heat at the surface, the heat signature provides clues about cooling activity deep in the material, resulting in a thorough assessment of the weld's integrity It

  11. Integrated model for line balancing with workstation inventory management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Roy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the optimization of an integrated line balancing process with workstation inventory management. While doing so, we have studied the interconnection between line balancing and its conversion process. Almost each and every moderate to large manufacturing industry depends on a long and integrated supply chain, consisting of inbound logistic, conversion process and outbound logistic. In this sense an approach addresses a very general problem of integrated line balancing. Research works reported in the literature so far mainly deals with minimization of cost for inbound and outbound logistic subsystems. In most of the cases conversion process has been ignored. We suggest a generic approach for linking the balancing of the line of production in the conversion area with the customers’ rate of demand in the market and for configuring the related stock chambers. Thus, the main aim of this paper is to translate the underlying problem in the form of mixed nonlinear programming problem and design the optimum supply chain so that the total inventory cost and the cost of balancing loss of the conversion process is jointly minimized and ideal cycle time of the production process is determined along with ideal sizes of the stock chambers. A numerical example has been added to demonstrate the suitability of our approach.

  12. Water pipe network as a heat source for heat pump integrated into a district heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadwiszczak, Piotr; Niemierka, Elżbieta

    2017-11-01

    The paper will present a technical analysis of the performance of the Heat Pumps (HP) installed in the domestic water pipe network for a big city scale. The HP integration scheme predicts the domestic water flow as a heat source and the district heating as a heat sink. The technical factors which influence on the estimated thermal power and performance of HP unit will be identified. Additionally, the pros and cons of HP operation in water intake will be determined. The analysis will be based on long-term measurement data from Głogów city.

  13. Water pipe network as a heat source for heat pump integrated into a district heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiszczak Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will present a technical analysis of the performance of the Heat Pumps (HP installed in the domestic water pipe network for a big city scale. The HP integration scheme predicts the domestic water flow as a heat source and the district heating as a heat sink. The technical factors which influence on the estimated thermal power and performance of HP unit will be identified. Additionally, the pros and cons of HP operation in water intake will be determined. The analysis will be based on long-term measurement data from Głogów city.

  14. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were made in the year 2008 using soil temperature data at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala. Hourly values of soil heat flux from 00 to 24 LST are presented for selected days typical of the winter ...

  15. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were made in the year 2008 using soil temperature data at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala. Hourly values of soil heat flux from 00 to 24 LST are presented for selected days typical of the winter, ...

  16. Integral methods of solving boundary-value problems of nonstationary heat conduction and their comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The modern state of approximate integral methods used in applications, where the processes of heat conduction and heat and mass transfer are of first importance, is considered. Integral methods have found a wide utility in different fields of knowledge: problems of heat conduction with different heat-exchange conditions, simulation of thermal protection, Stefantype problems, microwave heating of a substance, problems on a boundary layer, simulation of a fluid flow in a channel, thermal explosion, laser and plasma treatment of materials, simulation of the formation and melting of ice, inverse heat problems, temperature and thermal definition of nanoparticles and nanoliquids, and others. Moreover, polynomial solutions are of interest because the determination of a temperature (concentration) field is an intermediate stage in the mathematical description of any other process. The following main methods were investigated on the basis of the error norms: the Tsoi and Postol’nik methods, the method of integral relations, the Gudman integral method of heat balance, the improved Volkov integral method, the matched integral method, the modified Hristov method, the Mayer integral method, the Kudinov method of additional boundary conditions, the Fedorov boundary method, the method of weighted temperature function, the integral method of boundary characteristics. It was established that the two last-mentioned methods are characterized by high convergence and frequently give solutions whose accuracy is not worse that the accuracy of numerical solutions.

  17. Seasonal mixed layer heat balance of the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Foltz, G.R.; Vialard, J.; PraveenKumar, B.; McPhaden, M.J.

    the remainder of the year. Vertical turbulent mixing, estimated as a residual in the heat balance, also undergoes a significant seasonal cycle. Cooling from this term is strongest in boreal summer, when surface wind and buoyancy forcing are strongest...

  18. Analysis of Leaf Heat Balance Affected by Operation of a Frost Protective Fan in Tea Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KIMURA, Kensuke; MARUO, Kyosuke; OOKI, Takahiro; NAKAZONO, Kentaro; MATSUO, Kiyoshi; KITANO, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    .... The method for quantifying the thermal effect brought by operation of frost protection methods was newly developed based on analysis of leaf heat balance, where leaf boundary layer conductance...

  19. Reverse flow in roots of Sesbania rostrata measured using the constant power heat balance method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakuratani, T; Aoe, T; Higuchi, H

    1999-01-01

    This investigation was performed to examine qualitatively and quantitatively the reverse flow in partially dried roots of Sesbania rostrata using the constant power heat balance method. First, a semi...

  20. Albedo, internal heat, and energy balance of Jupiter - Preliminary results of the Voyager infrared investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, R. A.; Conrath, B. J.; Herath, L. W.; Kunde, V. G.; Pirraglia, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Full disk measurements recorded by the 0.4-1.7 micron radiometer on Voyager 1 indicate a geometric albedo of 0.274 + or - 0.013. This measurement and the Pioneer-based phase integral of 1.25 yield a Jovian Bond albedo of 0.343 + or - 0.032. Infrared spectra yield a thermal emission of 1.359 + or - 0.014 x .001 W/sq cm, which corresponds to an equivalent blackbody temperature of 124.4 + or - 0.3 K. In addition, the internal heat flux of Jupiter is estimated to be 5.444 + or - 0.425 x .0001 W/sq cm, and the energy balance defined as the ratio of emitted thermal to absorbed solar energy is 1.668 + or - 0.085.

  1. Integrating Urban Heat Assessment in Urban Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Echevarría Icaza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is increasingly concerned with sustainability issues. Climate change is not the least of these concerns. The complexity of these issues is such that data and information management form an important means of making the right decisions. Nowadays, however, the sheer quantity of data is overwhelming; large quantities of data demand means of representation that are comprehensible and effective. The above dilemma poses questions as to how one incorporates unknown climatologic parameters, such as urban heat, in future urban planning processes, and how one ensures the proposals are specific enough to actually adapt cities to climate change and flexible enough to ensure the proposed measures are combinable and compatible with other urban planning priorities. Conventional urban planning processes and mapping strategies are not adapted to this new environmental, technological and social context. In order come up with more appropriate urban planning strategies, in its first section this paper analyzes the role of the urban planner, reviews the wide variety of parameters that are starting to be integrated into the urban planners practice, and considers the parameters (mainly land surface temperature, albedo, vegetation, and imperviousness and tools needed for the assessment of the UHI (satellite imagery and GIS. The second part of the study analyzes the potential of four catalyzing mapping categories to integrate urban heat into spatial planning processes: drift, layering, game-board, and rhizome.

  2. Comparison of heat balance- (Čermák and heat dissipation- (Granier derived sap flow measurements in ring-porous oaks and a pine species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J. Renninger

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow measurements have become integral in many physiological and ecological investigations. A number of methods are used to estimate sap flow rates in trees, but probably the most popular is the heat dissipation method (Granier because of its affordability, relatively low power consumption and ease of use. However, there have been questions about the use of this method in ring-porous species and whether individual species and site calibrations are needed. We made concurrent measurements of sap flow rates using heat dissipation sensors and the heat balance method (Čermák in two oak species (Quercus prinus Willd. and Quercus velutina Lam. and one pine species (Pinus echinata Mill.. We also made concurrent measurements of sap flow rates using both 1-cm long and 2-cm long Granier-style heat dissipation sensors in both oak species. We found that both the heat dissipation and heat balance systems tended to match well in the pine individual, but sap flow rates were underestimated by 2-cm long heat dissipation sensors in five individuals of the two ring-porous oak species. Underestimations of 20-35% occurred in Q. prinus even when a Clearwater correction was applied to account for the shallowness of the sapwood depth relative to the sensor length and flow rates were underestimated by up to 50% in Q. velutina. Two-cm long heat dissipation sensors also underestimated flow rates compared with 1-cm long sensors in Q. prinus, but only at large flow rates. When 2-cm long sensor data in Q. prinus were scaled using the regression with 1-cm long data, daily flow rates matched well with the rates measured by the heat balance system. Daily plot-level transpiration estimated using heat dissipation sap flow rates was about 15% lower than those estimated by the heat balance method at the highest flow rates. Therefore, these results suggest that 1-cm long sensors are appropriate in species with shallow sapwood, however more corrections may be necessary in ring

  3. An integrated model of soil-canopy spectral radiances, photosynthesis, fluorescence, temperature and energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. van der Tol

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model SCOPE (Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes, which is a vertical (1-D integrated radiative transfer and energy balance model. The model links visible to thermal infrared radiance spectra (0.4 to 50 μm as observed above the canopy to the fluxes of water, heat and carbon dioxide, as a function of vegetation structure, and the vertical profiles of temperature. Output of the model is the spectrum of outgoing radiation in the viewing direction and the turbulent heat fluxes, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence. A special routine is dedicated to the calculation of photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll fluorescence at the leaf level as a function of net radiation and leaf temperature. The fluorescence contributions from individual leaves are integrated over the canopy layer to calculate top-of-canopy fluorescence. The calculation of radiative transfer and the energy balance is fully integrated, allowing for feedback between leaf temperatures, leaf chlorophyll fluorescence and radiative fluxes. Leaf temperatures are calculated on the basis of energy balance closure. Model simulations were evaluated against observations reported in the literature and against data collected during field campaigns. These evaluations showed that SCOPE is able to reproduce realistic radiance spectra, directional radiance and energy balance fluxes. The model may be applied for the design of algorithms for the retrieval of evapotranspiration from optical and thermal earth observation data, for validation of existing methods to monitor vegetation functioning, to help interpret canopy fluorescence measurements, and to study the relationships between synoptic observations with diurnally integrated quantities. The model has been implemented in Matlab and has a modular design, thus allowing for great flexibility and scalability.

  4. Energy Balance and Operating Features of the Heat Accumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Fiala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are described design and realization of a heat accumulator in the article which joins advantages and eliminates disadvantages of water and gravel accumulators. Inside the accumulator there are suppressed heat convection and conduction between layers of storage matter, so there is the temperature stratification along a height of such accumulator. The article deals with operating features as well.

  5. Surface energy balance closure in an arid region: role of soil and heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, B.G.; Jacobs, A.F.G.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Berkowicz, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    The large soil heat fluxes in hot desert regions are very important in energy balance studies. Surface energy balance (SEB) observations, however, reveal that there is an imbalance in Surface flux measurements and that it is difficult to isolate those flux measurements causing the imbalance errors.

  6. Energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau : surface energy balance and turbulent heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhongbo; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Yaoming; Jia, Li; Wen, Jun

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy

  7. Energy and water cycle over the Tibetan Plateau: surface energy balance and turbulent heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Z.; Zhang, T.; Ma, Y.; Jia, L.; Wen, J.

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy

  8. Sensible heat balance estimates of transient soil ice contents for freezing and thawing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil ice content is an important component for winter soil hydrology. The sensible heat balance (SHB) method using measurements from heat pulse probes (HPP) is a possible way to determine transient soil ice content. In a previous study, in situ soil ice contents estimates with the SHB method were in...

  9. Field test and sensitivity analysis of a sensible heat balance method to determine ice contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil ice content impacts winter vadose zone hydrology. It may be possible to estimate changes in soil ice content with a sensible heat balance (SHB) method, using measurements from heat pulse (HP) sensors. Feasibility of the SHB method is unknown because of difficulties in measuring soil thermal pro...

  10. Restoring Balance for People with Cancer Through Integrative Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Judy A; Grimone, Ania; Victorson, David

    2017-06-01

    Integrative Oncology incorporates conventional and western cancer treatment approaches with the best of ancient and traditional medicine including nutrition, supplements, Qigong, herbal medicine, mind-body practices, and more. This article offers a guiding conceptual paradigm from an integrative perspective based on the principles of balance and imbalance. An integrative approach is used to help improve quality of life, enhance lifestyle choices and mitigate symptoms and side effects from conventional treatments. By supporting the patient's mind, body and spirit throughout the cancer treatment journey, the primary care physician is in a key position to work with their patient's oncologist to provide supportive care and recommendations during cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Heat balance of the rotary kiln for the limestone burning and its analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ігор Альбертович Ленцов

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the known methods of calculation of material and heat balances of the rotary kilns with heat exchangers for limestone burning has been done. It is shown that the methods of calculations, proposed by the authors, have restrictions and inaccuracies, associated with both the assumptions made by authors for their conditions and the design of the units. Based on the made analysis the main provisions of the generalized method of calculation of the material and heat balances, that best describes the process of limestone burning in the rotary kiln with heat exchangers, have been developed. As can be seen it is impossible to perform analytical calculation of material and heat balances of the existing rotary kiln without balance test results. Thus, in the material balance calculation, besides of the content of carbonates, hydrated moisture and impurities in the feedstock, the influence of the physical humidity, which may vary depending on season and storage conditions, should be taken into account. The amount and chemical composition of burnt dust carried away from the kiln, may differ significantly from the literature data. The value of the cold air inflow can reach 15% of the total amount of air entering the kiln, it has a significant impact on fuel consumption for lime burning. When calculating the heat balance needs to know the actual temperature of the heated air and burnt lime, temperature and flue gas composition at the outlet of the heater, the temperature of the flue dust. Determining of the heat loss to the environment through the kiln body is not possible without measuring the temperature of its surface. The accuracy of determining the heat transfer coefficient, depending on the temperature of the surface of the kiln can also have a significant impact on the calculation results

  12. On local fractional Volterra integral equations in fractal heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the fractal heat-transfer models are described by the local fractional integral equations. The local fractional linear and nonlinear Volterra integral equations are employed to present the heat transfer problems in fractal media. The local fractional integral equations are derived from the Fourier law in fractal media.

  13. The value of balancing procedure[Heating systems in apartment buildings]; Vaerdet av injustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueschel, Anders [CIT Energy Management AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    In this work, the hydronic heating systems in three residential houses in Gothenburg has been balanced in order to show the extent of deviations in heating systems today and the profitability of reducing these deviations by using realistic measures. The economic aspects are related to both the property manager and the district heating supplier. The results are derived from measurements of temperatures and flows in each district heating substation, a few months before and after the balancing procedure. From these measurements, profiles of water temperatures, water flow and thermal output are derived for each building. By relating these profiles to a 'normal' year, it is possible to compare the performance of each heating system before and after balancing. Three different pricing methods, for three different districts (Goeteborg, Boraas and Stockholm), are used in order to show the changes in operational costs due to balancing. The effect of balancing on the costs for handling complaints is also estimated for the buildings. By relating these changes of costs to the balancing cost, the profitability for the implemented measures is obtained. Each building is considered to be fairly normal, but the motives for balancing differ between them. There were many complaints from the tenants on insufficient thermal comfort in Building 1. The use of heating energy were quite considerable in Building 2, while the temperature drop of the district heating water in Building 3 were quite small. During the balancing procedure of each building some deviations are revealed. The most common of these are: Changed valve settings since the system was balanced last time; Clogged up, leaking or stuck radiator valves; Missing or broken thermostats. Since the systems were balanced last time, 10 to 15 years ago, the pre settings has been increased for approximately 65 % of the valves, in some cases to fully open position. Thus, a balanced system will eventually become unbalanced, since

  14. Responses of Lithium-Modified Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/Output Balance and Observation of Freeze-Lining Formation During the Heat Balance Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    In the aluminum electrolysis process, new industrial aluminum/electricity power markets demand a new cell technology to extend the cell heat balance and amperage operating window of smelters by shifting the steady states. The current work investigates the responses of lithium-modified bath system when the input/output balance is shifted in a laboratory analogue to the industrial heat balance shift. Li2CO3 is added to the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 system as a bath modifier. A freeze deposit is formed on a `cold finger' dipped into the bath and investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The macro- and micro-structure of the freeze lining varies with the bath superheat (bath temperature minus bath liquidus temperature) and an open crystalline layer with entrapped liquid dominates the freeze thickness. Compared with the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 bath system, the lithium-modified bath freeze is more sensitive to the heat balance shift. This freeze investigation provides primary information to understand the variation of the side ledge in an industrial cell when the lithium-modified bath system is used.

  15. Responses of Lithium-Modified Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/Output Balance and Observation of Freeze-Lining Formation During the Heat Balance Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2018-02-01

    In the aluminum electrolysis process, new industrial aluminum/electricity power markets demand a new cell technology to extend the cell heat balance and amperage operating window of smelters by shifting the steady states. The current work investigates the responses of lithium-modified bath system when the input/output balance is shifted in a laboratory analogue to the industrial heat balance shift. Li2CO3 is added to the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 system as a bath modifier. A freeze deposit is formed on a `cold finger' dipped into the bath and investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The macro- and micro-structure of the freeze lining varies with the bath superheat (bath temperature minus bath liquidus temperature) and an open crystalline layer with entrapped liquid dominates the freeze thickness. Compared with the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 bath system, the lithium-modified bath freeze is more sensitive to the heat balance shift. This freeze investigation provides primary information to understand the variation of the side ledge in an industrial cell when the lithium-modified bath system is used.

  16. Heat balance and eddies in the Peru-Chile current system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colas, Francois; McWilliams, James C.; Kurian, Jaison [University of California, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Capet, Xavier [Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans, Ifremer, Plouzane (France)

    2012-07-15

    The Peru-Chile current System (PCS) is a region of persistent biases in global climate models. It has strong coastal upwelling, alongshore boundary currents, and mesoscale eddies. These oceanic phenomena provide essential heat transport to maintain a cool oceanic surface underneath the prevalent atmospheric stratus cloud deck, through a combination of mean circulation and eddy flux. We demonstrate these behaviors in a regional, quasi-equilibrium oceanic model that adequately resolves the mesoscale eddies with climatological forcing. The key result is that the atmospheric heating is large (>50 W m{sup -2}) over a substantial strip >500 km wide off the coast of Peru, and the balancing lateral oceanic flux is much larger than provided by the offshore Ekman flux alone. The atmospheric heating is weaker and the coastally influenced strip is narrower off Chile, but again the Ekman flux is not sufficient for heat balance. The eddy contribution to the oceanic flux is substantial. Analysis of eddy properties shows strong surface temperature fronts and associated large vorticity, especially off Peru. Cyclonic eddies moderately dominate the surface layer, and anticyclonic eddies, originating from the nearshore poleward Peru-Chile Undercurrent (PCUC), dominate the subsurface, especially off Chile. The sensitivity of the PCS heat balance to equatorial intra-seasonal oscillations is found to be small. We demonstrate that forcing the regional model with a representative, coarse-resolution global reanalysis wind product has dramatic and deleterious consequences for the oceanic circulation and climate heat balance, the eddy heat flux in particular. (orig.)

  17. Reproduction and energy balance: the integrative role of prolactin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T I Romantsova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The physiological mechanisms controlling reproduction are closely linked to energy balance. In the recent years, accumulating evidence suggests that prolactin regulates metabolic functions, besides regulating breast development and stimulating milk formation. Hyperprolactinemia is associated with obesity and treatment with dopamine agonists results in weight loss. We discuss the integrated effects of prolactin in the metabolic control and reproductive function, the role of prolactin in the pathogenesis of obesity. The present review also describes the effects of treatment with cabergoline on body weight and cardiovascular risk markers.

  18. Integrated Heat Exchange For Recuperation In Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTEGRATED HEAT EXCHANGE FOR RECUPERATION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR...ship gas turbines is difficult due the size and weight of the heat exchanger components required. An alternate approach would be to embed a heat ... exchange system within the engine using existing blade surfaces to extract and insert heat . Due to the highly turbulent and transient flow, heat

  19. Integration of Decentralized Thermal Storages Within District Heating (DH) Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Georg K.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal Storages and Thermal Accumulators are an important component within District Heating (DH) systems, adding flexibility and offering additional business opportunities for these systems. Furthermore, these components have a major impact on the energy and exergy efficiency as well as the heat losses of the heat distribution system. Especially the integration of Thermal Storages within ill-conditioned parts of the overall DH system enhances the efficiency of the heat distribution. Regarding an illustrative and simplified example for a DH system, the interactions of different heat storage concepts (centralized and decentralized) and the heat losses, energy and exergy efficiencies will be examined by considering the thermal state of the heat distribution network.

  20. Wind power integration using individual heat pumps – Analysis of different heat storage options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Significant installations of individual heat pumps are expected in future energy systems due to their economic competitiveness. This case study of the Danish energy system in 2020 with 50% wind power shows that individual heat pumps and heat storages can contribute to the integration of wind power...... reductions in excess electricity production and fuel consumption than heat accumulation tanks. Moreover, passive heat storage is found to be significantly more cost-effective than heat accumulation tanks. In terms of reducing fuel consumption of the energy system, the installation of heat pumps is the most...... important step. Adding heat storages only moderately reduces the fuel consumption. Model development has been made to facilitate a technical optimisation of individual heat pumps and heat storages in integration with the energy system....

  1. Heat balance model for a human body in the form of wet bulb globe temperature indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Mochida, Tohru; Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kuwabara, Kohei; Horiba, Yosuke; Sawada, Shin-Ichi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the empirically derived wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index to a rational thermal index based on the heat balance for a human body. We derive the heat balance model in the same form as the WBGT for a human engaged in moderate intensity work with a metabolic heat production of 174W/m 2 while wearing typical vapor-permeable clothing under shady and sunny conditions. Two important relationships are revealed based on this derivation: (1) the natural wet bulb and black globe temperature coefficients in the WBGT coincide with the heat balance equation for a human body with a fixed skin wettedness of approximately 0.45 at a fixed skin temperature; and (2) the WBGT can be interpreted as the environmental potential to increase skin temperature rather than the heat storage rate of a human body. We propose an adjustment factor calculation method that supports the application of WBGT for humans dressed in various clothing types and working under various air velocity conditions. Concurrently, we note difficulties in adjusting the WBGT by using a single factor for humans wearing vapor-impermeable protective clothing. The WBGT for shady conditions does not need adjustment depending on the positive radiant field (i.e., when a radiant heat source exists), whereas that for the sunny condition requires adjustments because it underestimates heat stress, which may result in insufficient human protection measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural killer cell signal integration balances synapse symmetry and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Fiona J; Johnson, Matthew; Evans, J Henry; Kumar, Sunil; Crilly, Rupert; Casasbuenas, Juan; Schnyder, Tim; Mehrabi, Maryam; Deonarain, Mahendra P; Ushakov, Dmitry S; Braud, Veronique; Roth, Günter; Brock, Roland; Köhler, Karsten; Davis, Daniel M

    2009-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells discern the health of other cells by recognising the balance of activating and inhibitory ligands expressed by each target cell. However, how the integration of activating and inhibitory signals relates to formation of the NK cell immune synapse remains a central question in our understanding of NK cell recognition. Here we report that ligation of LFA-1 on NK cells induced asymmetrical cell spreading and migration. In contrast, ligation of the activating receptor NKG2D induced symmetrical spreading of ruffled lamellipodia encompassing a dynamic ring of f-actin, concurrent with polarization towards a target cell and a "stop" signal. Ligation of both LFA-1 and NKG2D together resulted in symmetrical spreading but co-ligation of inhibitory receptors reverted NK cells to an asymmetrical migratory configuration leading to inhibitory synapses being smaller and more rapidly disassembled. Using micropatterned activating and inhibitory ligands, signals were found to be continuously and locally integrated during spreading. Together, these data demonstrate that NK cells spread to form large, stable, symmetrical synapses if activating signals dominate, whereas asymmetrical migratory "kinapses" are favoured if inhibitory signals dominate. This clarifies how the integration of activating and inhibitory receptor signals is translated to an appropriate NK cell response.

  3. Miniaturized Balanced Antenna with Integrated Balun for Practical LTE Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. E. Elfergani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A design of dual-band balanced antenna structure operating in the 700 and 2600MHz LTE bands is studied and investigated. The overall dimensions of the radiator are 50 × 18 × 7 mm^3 allowing it to be easily concealed within mobile handsets. A broad-band balun is designed and integrated with the antenna handset in order to provide the feeding network and perform the measurements of the antenna radiation performance. Prototypes of proposed antenna with and without balun are fabricated and verified. The simulated and practical results with and without the handheld effects in terms of reflection coefficient, power gain and radiation pattern, are studied and shown reasonable agreement.

  4. Heat Pumps in Private Residences used for Grid Balancing by Demand Response Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Pedersen, Tom S.; Andersen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Increased production of renewable energy as wind energy will give a fluctuating production which requires flexible energy storages. Heat capacity in single-family houses with electrical heating using heat pumps represents a storage which can be used to balance the electricity supply. It is assumed....... The minimization results in a power consumption schedule and a temperature schedule for each house. A number of control structures are described aiming to obtain this optimum by communicating references to either house temperature or heat pump power or by offering the consumer an hour by hour price. By simulation...... the schemes are compared by there ability to time shift consumption and to avoid consumer discomfort. Additionally the necessary information exchange for the schemes is discussed. Comparisons indicate that it is possible to use heat pump heated private houses to move power consumption within a time interval...

  5. Integration of Heat Exchangers with Thermoelectric Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    thermally interdependent in the system designs. This chapter studies the effect of the heat exchangers design on system performance, and discusses the challenges through accurate analyses techniques while introducing proper cooling technologies. Proper design of a TEG system involves design optimization...... processes wherein the critical system components such as the TEG module and the heat exchangers are thermally coupled. The optimization techniques of the TEG systems coupled with the heat transfer through the system using a maximum efficiency-power map for waste heat recovery applications offer maximum...

  6. An Integrated Control System for Heating and Indoor Climate Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature hydronic heating and cooling systems connected to renewable energy sources have gained more attention in the recent decades. This is due to the growing public awareness of the adverse environmental impacts of energy generation using fossil fuel. Radiant hydronic sub-floor heating...... in terms of energy efficiency, associated energy cost and occupants’ thermal comfort is the main objective to be fulfilled via design of an integrated controller. We also proposed control strategies to manage energy consumption of the building to turn domestic heat demands into a flexible load in the smart...... which geothermal heat pump, solar driven heat pumps and the other types are categorized as renewable or renewable energy sources. In the present study, we investigated modeling and control of hydronic heat emitters integrated with a ground-source heat pump. Optimization of the system performance...

  7. Energy Balance and Heat Storage of Small Shallow Water Bodies in Semi-arid Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, A.

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at developing a flexible and efficient (numerical) approach for estimating energy balance and heat storage of small shallow lakes in arid and semi-arid regions. To reach to this aim, some numerical methods and improvements in conventional methods were done. Optimizing the methods

  8. Measuring heat balance residual at lake surface using distributed temperature sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Emmerik, T.H.M.; Rimmer, A.; Lechinsky, Y.; Wenker, K.J.R.; Nussboim, S.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a new method to verify the measurements of surface fluxes and the heat balance at a lake surface, by means of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) measurements from 0.5 m above to 1.5 m below the surface. Using a polyvinyl chloride hyperboloid construction, a floating

  9. Estimation of sensible heat flux using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and ATSR measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, L.; Su, Z.; Hurk, van den B.; Menenti, M.; Moene, A.F.; Bruin, de H.A.R.; Baselga Yrisarry, J.J.; Ibanez, M.; Cuesta, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a modified version of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) as regards the use of radiometric data from space and presents the results of a large area validation study on estimated sensible heat flux, extended over several months. The improvements were made possible by the

  10. Simulated tempering based on global balance or detailed balance conditions: Suwa-Todo, heat bath, and Metropolis algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Okumura, Hisashi

    2015-12-05

    Simulated tempering (ST) is a useful method to enhance sampling of molecular simulations. When ST is used, the Metropolis algorithm, which satisfies the detailed balance condition, is usually applied to calculate the transition probability. Recently, an alternative method that satisfies the global balance condition instead of the detailed balance condition has been proposed by Suwa and Todo. In this study, ST method with the Suwa-Todo algorithm is proposed. Molecular dynamics simulations with ST are performed with three algorithms (the Metropolis, heat bath, and Suwa-Todo algorithms) to calculate the transition probability. Among the three algorithms, the Suwa-Todo algorithm yields the highest acceptance ratio and the shortest autocorrelation time. These suggest that sampling by a ST simulation with the Suwa-Todo algorithm is most efficient. In addition, because the acceptance ratio of the Suwa-Todo algorithm is higher than that of the Metropolis algorithm, the number of temperature states can be reduced by 25% for the Suwa-Todo algorithm when compared with the Metropolis algorithm. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The human heat balance in the city of Novi Sad (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajić Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis is based on the human heat balance according to the bioclimatic man-environment heat exchange model created by Krzysztof Błażejczyk. The final result of the human heat balance model points to biothermal weather situations for the outdoor recreational needs. In this analysis, middles daily meteorological data (of climatological station of Novi Sad were used for two extreme months, January and July. In this work, it is analyzed two periods, the first is for 1992-2010. and the second is for year 2010. The aim is to show how weather can be evaluated for recreational needs which the health resource of Novi Sad and to point out the shortcomings when it comes to multi-year analysis. The objective of this article has been to present a bioclimatic analysis of city Novi Sad and how weather variables come together in order to give a climate meaning on human organism.

  12. Small-scale combined heat and power as a balancing reserve for wind – The case of participation in the German secondary control reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sorknæs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES are being integrated into energy systems worldwide. Due to the nature of these sources, they are found to increase the importance of mechanisms for balancing the electricity system. Small-scale combined heat and power (CHP plants based on gas have proven their ability to participate in the electricity system balancing, and can hence be used to facilitate an integration of intermittent RES into electricity systems. Within the EU electricity system, balancing reserves have to be procured on a market basis. This paper investigates the ability and challenges of a small-scale CHP plant based on natural gas to participate in the German balancing reserve for secondary control. It is found that CHP plants have to account for more potential losses than traditional power plants. However, it is also found that the effect of these losses can be reduced by increasing the flexibility of the CHP unit.

  13. Multiple Steady-States in a Heat Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC)

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Manabu; Fukushima, Tomohiro; Makita, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Shinji

    2007-01-01

    A heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) is a new and highly energy-efficient distillation process. In the present work, multiple steady-states in HIDiC are analyzed. In HIDiC, the pressure in the rectifying section is kept higher than that in the stripping section by using a compressor to enhance heat transfer from the rectifying section to the stripping section through the wall. Therefore, an energy balance, particularly the influence of the compressor, must be taken into account for t...

  14. Efficiency improvements by geothermal heat integration in a lignocellulosic biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohel, M Imroz; Jack, Michael

    2010-12-01

    In an integrated geothermal biorefinery, low-grade geothermal heat is used as process heat to allow the co-products of biofuel production to become available for higher-value uses. In this paper we consider integrating geothermal heat into a biochemical lignocellulosic biorefinery so that the lignin-enriched residue can be used either as a feedstock for chemicals and materials or for on-site electricity generation. Depending on the relative economic value of these two uses, we can maximize revenue of a biorefinery by judicious distribution of the lignin-enriched residue between these two options. We quantify the performance improvement from integrating geothermal energy for an optimized system. We then use a thermodynamic argument to show that integrating geothermal heat into a biorefinery represents an improvement in overall resource utilization efficiency in all cases considered. Finally, possible future technologies for electricity generation are considered which could improve this efficiency further. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of snow cover changes on surface radiation and heat balance based on the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingxue; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping; Zhang, Shuwen

    2017-10-01

    The snow cover extent in mid-high latitude areas of the Northern Hemisphere has significantly declined corresponding to the global warming, especially since the 1970s. Snow-climate feedbacks play a critical role in regulating the global radiation balance and influencing surface heat flux exchange. However, the degree to which snow cover changes affect the radiation budget and energy balance on a regional scale and the difference between snow-climate and land use/cover change (LUCC)-climate feedbacks have been rarely studied. In this paper, we selected Heilongjiang Basin, where the snow cover has changed obviously, as our study area and used the WRF model to simulate the influences of snow cover changes on the surface radiation budget and heat balance. In the scenario simulation, the localized surface parameter data improved the accuracy by 10 % compared with the control group. The spatial and temporal analysis of the surface variables showed that the net surface radiation, sensible heat flux, Bowen ratio, temperature and percentage of snow cover were negatively correlated and that the ground heat flux and latent heat flux were positively correlated with the percentage of snow cover. The spatial analysis also showed that a significant relationship existed between the surface variables and land cover types, which was not obviously as that for snow cover changes. Finally, six typical study areas were selected to quantitatively analyse the influence of land cover types beneath the snow cover on heat absorption and transfer, which showed that when the land was snow covered, the conversion of forest to farmland can dramatically influence the net radiation and other surface variables, whereas the snow-free land showed significantly reduced influence. Furthermore, compared with typical land cover changes, e.g., the conversion of forest into farmland, the influence of snow cover changes on net radiation and sensible heat flux were 60 % higher than that of land cover changes

  16. Integration of Decentralized Thermal Storages Within District Heating (DH Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuchardt Georg K.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal Storages and Thermal Accumulators are an important component within District Heating (DH systems, adding flexibility and offering additional business opportunities for these systems. Furthermore, these components have a major impact on the energy and exergy efficiency as well as the heat losses of the heat distribution system. Especially the integration of Thermal Storages within ill-conditioned parts of the overall DH system enhances the efficiency of the heat distribution. Regarding an illustrative and simplified example for a DH system, the interactions of different heat storage concepts (centralized and decentralized and the heat losses, energy and exergy efficiencies will be examined by considering the thermal state of the heat distribution network.

  17. Wind power integration in Aalborg Municipality using compression heat pumps and geothermal absorption heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2013-01-01

    -temperature geothermal resources. The analyses have also demonstrated that the municipality will still rely heavily on surrounding areas for electric load balancing assistance. With a departure in a previously elaborated 100% renewable energy scenario, this article investigates how absorption heat pumps (AHP...

  18. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Pavel; Ostry, Milan; Mauder, Tomas; Klimes, Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data).

  19. The Influence of Rain Sensible Heat and Subsurface Energy Transport on the Energy Balance at the Land Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollet, S.J.; Cvijanovic, I.; Schüttemeyer, D.; Maxwell, R.M.; Moene, A.F.; Bayer, P.

    2009-01-01

    In land surface models, which account for the energy balance at the land surface, subsurface heat transport is an important component that reciprocally influences ground, sensible, and latent heat fluxes and net radiation. In most models, subsurface heat transport parameterizations are commonly

  20. New calculation method to solve moisture balance in the room with regenerator heat recovery and infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Drivsholm, Christian

    2017-01-01

    time of the regenerator and consequently might be evaporated in the next cycle back to the building and cause elevated humidity conditions in the indoor spaces. Due to the fact that the traditionally used dilution equation must not be used to solve moisture balance in the room with regenerator heat....... Theoretical calculations indicate that the ability of a ventilation system with regenerator to remove moisture from the room is very dependent on moisture loads in the room, air change rate, and infiltration rate....

  1. Sustaining Engagements for Integrated Heat-Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtanj, J.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme heat events are on the rise, evidenced by the record breaking heat in the summer of 2016 in the US, increased heat-related death toll in south Asia, and projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The impacts, responses and adaptation to extreme heat are inherently local or region in nature and require multisector engagement to manage current and future heat risks. Understanding the character of the information demand, who needs it, when and how it is needed, how it is used, and the remaining research questions, requires sustained engagement of multiple science and decision making communities. The construct of Integrated Information Systems provides the framework that sustains this dialogue, supports the production of useful information, and the translation of knowledge to action. The National Integrated Heat Health Information System (NIHHIS), a multi-agency collaboration, working at state, local and international levels, designed to facilitate an integrated approach to providing a suite of decision support services that reduce heat-related illness and death. NIHHIS sustains engagement across the public health, emergency management, disaster risk reduction, planning, housing, communication, climate, weather and other science communities. This presentation will highlight NIHHS sustained engagements in the Rio Grande Bravo region, other NIHHIS pilots, and international efforts building on the NIHHIS framework. NIHHIS, launched by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2015, now has over eight Federal partners and a burgeoning mix of pilots, projects and partners at state, local and international levels.

  2. Seaglider surveys at Ocean Station Papa: Diagnosis of upper-ocean heat and salt balances using least squares with inequality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelland, Noel A.; Eriksen, Charles C.; Cronin, Meghan F.

    2017-06-01

    Heat and salt balances in the upper 200 m are examined using data from Seaglider spatial surveys June 2008 to January 2010 surrounding a NOAA surface mooring at Ocean Station Papa (OSP; 50°N, 145°W). A least-squares approach is applied to repeat Seaglider survey and moored measurements to solve for unknown or uncertain monthly three-dimensional circulation and vertical diffusivity. Within the surface boundary layer, the estimated heat and salt balances are dominated throughout the surveys by turbulent flux, vertical advection, and for heat, radiative absorption. When vertically integrated balances are considered, an estimated upwelling of cool water balances the net surface input of heat, while the corresponding large import of salt across the halocline due to upwelling and diffusion is balanced by surface moisture input and horizontal import of fresh water. Measurement of horizontal gradients allows the estimation of unresolved vertical terms over more than one annual cycle; diffusivity in the upper-ocean transition layer decreases rapidly to the depth of the maximum near-surface stratification in all months, with weak seasonal modulation in the rate of decrease and profile amplitude. Vertical velocity is estimated to be on average upward but with important monthly variations. Results support and expand existing evidence concerning the importance of horizontal advection in the balances of heat and salt in the Gulf of Alaska, highlight time and depth variability in difficult-to-measure vertical transports in the upper ocean, and suggest avenues of further study in future observational work at OSP.

  3. Market integration of wind power in electricity system balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorknæs, Peter; Andersen, Anders N.; Tang, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In most countries markets for electricity are divided into wholesale markets on which electricity is traded before the operation hour, and real-time balancing markets to handle the deviations from the wholesale trading. So far, wind power has been sold only on the wholesale market and has been...... known to increase the need for balancing. This article analyses whether wind turbines in the future should participate in the balancing markets and thereby play a proactive role. The analysis is based on a real-life test of proactive participation of a wind farm in West Denmark. It is found...

  4. Integration of large-scale heat pumps in the district heating systems of Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bjarne; Werling, Jesper; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the technical and private economic aspects of integrating a large capacity of electric driven HP (heat pumps) in the Greater Copenhagen DH (district heating) system, which is an example of a state-of-the-art large district heating system with many consumers and suppliers....... The analysis was based on using the energy model Balmorel to determine the optimum dispatch of HPs in the system. The potential heat sources in Copenhagen for use in HPs were determined based on data related to temperatures, flows, and hydrography at different locations, while respecting technical constraints...

  5. The balanced scorecard: an integrative approach to performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J

    2001-05-01

    In addition to strict financial outcomes, healthcare financial managers should assess intangible assets that affect the organization's bottom line, such as clinical processes, staff skills, and patient satisfaction and loyalty. The balanced scorecard, coupled with data-warehousing capabilities, offers a way to measure an organization's performance against its strategic objectives while focusing on building capabilities to achieve these objectives. The balanced scorecard examines performance related to finance, human resources, internal processes, and customers. Because the balanced scorecard requires substantial amounts of data, it is a necessity to establish an organizational data warehouse of clinical, operational, and financial data that can be used in decision support. Because it presents indicators that managers and staff can influence directly by their actions, the balanced-scorecard approach to performance measurement encourages behavioral changes aimed at achieving corporate strategies.

  6. Wind Turbines and Heat Pumps. Balancing wind power fluctuations using flexible demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K. [ECN Wind Energy, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Derzsi, Z. [Free University Amsterdam, FEW/Business Informatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In order to overcome portfolio imbalance for traders of variable power from wind we have built an 'Imbalance Reduction System' (IRS) and performed a real-world field test with it, in which imbalance is minimized within a real-time electricity market portfolio, consisting of wind power and industrial and residential consumers and producers (Combined Heat and Power for district heating; residential heat pumps; industrial cold store; emergency generators). IRS uses the PowerMatcher concept, a coordination system for supply and demand of electricity in a which multi-agent system is combined with microeconomic principles. IRS appears to offer opportunities for embedding less predictable generators such as wind power more smoothly in the portfolio. We describe the context and operation of the Imbalance Reduction System and discuss a number of results from the performed field test. Also we introduce a business model for the balance responsible party, based on the e3-value method.

  7. Thermal substitution and aerobic efficiency: measuring and predicting effects of heat balance on endotherm diving energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovvorn, J R

    2007-11-29

    For diving endotherms, modelling costs of locomotion as a function of prey dispersion requires estimates of the costs of diving to different depths. One approach is to estimate the physical costs of locomotion (Pmech) with biomechanical models and to convert those estimates to chemical energy needs by an aerobic efficiency (eta=Pmech/Vo2) based on oxygen consumption (Vo2) in captive animals. Variations in eta with temperature depend partly on thermal substitution, whereby heat from the inefficiency of exercising muscles or the heat increment of feeding (HIF) can substitute for thermogenesis. However, measurements of substitution have ranged from lack of detection to nearly complete use of exercise heat or HIF. This inconsistency may reflect (i) problems in methods of calculating substitution, (ii) confounding mechanisms of thermoregulatory control, or (iii) varying conditions that affect heat balance and allow substitution to be expressed. At present, understanding of how heat generation is regulated, and how heat is transported among tissues during exercise, digestion, thermal challenge and breath holding, is inadequate for predicting substitution and aerobic efficiencies without direct measurements for conditions of interest. Confirming that work rates during exercise are generally conserved, and identifying temperatures at those work rates below which shivering begins, may allow better prediction of aerobic efficiencies for ecological models.

  8. Heat and salt balances over the New England continental shelf, August 1996 to June 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, S. J.; Shearman, R. K.; Plueddemann, A. J.

    2010-07-01

    Heat and salt balances over the New England shelf are examined using 10 month time series of currents, temperature, and salinity from a four element moored array and surface heat and freshwater fluxes from a meteorological buoy. A principal result is closure of the heat budget to 10 W m-2. The seasonal variation in depth-average temperature, from 14°C in September to 5°C in March, was primarily due to the seasonal variation in surface heat flux and a heat loss in winter caused by along-shelf advection of colder water from the northeast. Conductivity sensor drifts precluded closing the salt balance on time scales of months or longer. For time scales of days to weeks, depth-average temperature and salinity variability were primarily due to advection. Advective heat and salt flux divergences were strongest and most complex in winter, when there were large cross-shelf temperature and salinity gradients at the site due to the shelf-slope front that separates cooler, fresher shelf water from warmer, saltier slope water. Onshore flow of warm, salty slope water near the bottom and offshore flow of cooler, fresher shelf water due to persistent eastward (upwelling-favorable) winds caused a temperature increase of nearly 3°C and a salinity increase of 0.8 in winter. Along-shelf barotropic tidal currents caused a temperature decrease of 1.5°C and a salinity decrease of 0.7. Wave-driven Stokes drift caused a temperature increase of 0.5°C and a salinity increase of 0.4 from mid December to January when there were large waves and large near-surface cross-shelf temperature and salinity gradients.

  9. Linearization properties, first integrals, nonlocal transformation for heat transfer equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem; Özer, Teoman

    2016-08-01

    We examine first integrals and linearization methods of the second-order ordinary differential equation which is called fin equation in this study. Fin is heat exchange surfaces which are used widely in industry. We analyze symmetry classification with respect to different choices of thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient functions of fin equation. Finally, we apply nonlocal transformation to fin equation and examine the results for different functions.

  10. Building Space Heating with a Solar-Assisted Heat Pump Using Roof-Integrated Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Yang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A solar assisted heat pump (SAHP system was designed by using a roof-integrated solar collector as the evaporator, and then it was demonstrated to provide space heating for a villa in Tianjin, China. A building energy simulation tool was used to predict the space heating load and a three dimensional theoretical model was established to analyze the heat collection performance of the solar roof collector. A floor radiant heating unit was used to decrease the energy demand. The measurement results during the winter test period show that the system can provide a comfortable living space in winter, when the room temperature averaged 18.9 °C. The average COP of the heat pump system is 2.97 and with a maximum around 4.16.

  11. Consistency among integral measurements of aggregate decay heat power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, H.; Sagisaka, M.; Oyamatsu, K.; Kukita, Y. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Persisting discrepancies between summation calculations and integral measurements force us to assume large uncertainties in the recommended decay heat power. In this paper, we develop a hybrid method to calculate the decay heat power of a fissioning system from those of different fissioning systems. Then, this method is applied to examine consistency among measured decay heat powers of {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu at YAYOI. The consistency among the measured values are found to be satisfied for the {beta} component and fairly well for the {gamma} component, except for cooling times longer than 4000 s. (author)

  12. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compressor and then exchanged heat with feed and bottom stream in the distillation column. Energy and mass balance of the intensified process is investigated and compared with the conventional microalgae drying-extraction process. The simulation results indicated that the total energy consumption of the intensified process can be saved by 52.4% of the conventional route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface Heat Balance Analysis of Tainan City on March 6, 2001 Using ASTER and Formosat-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Sun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island phenomenon occurs as a mixed result of anthropogenic heat discharge, decreased vegetation, and increased artificial impervious surfaces. To clarify the contribution of each factor to the urban heat island, it is necessary to evaluate the surface heat balance. Satellite remote sensing data of Tainan City, Taiwan, obtained from Terra ASTER and Formosat-2 were used to estimate surface heat balance in this study. ASTER data is suitable for analyzing heat balance because of the wide spectral range. We used Formosat-2 multispectral data to classify the land surface, which was used to interpolate some surface parameters for estimating heat fluxes. Because of the high spatial resolution of the Formosat-2 image, more roads, open spaces and small vegetation areas could be distinguished from buildings in urban areas; however, misclassifications of land cover in such areas using ASTER data would overestimate the sensible heat flux. On the other hand, the small vegetated areas detected from the Formosat-2 image slightly increased the estimation of latent heat flux. As a result, the storage heat flux derived from Formosat-2 is higher than that derived from ASTER data in most areas. From these results, we can conclude that the higher resolution land coverage map increases accuracy of the heat balance analysis. Storage heat flux occupies about 60 to 80% of the net radiation in most of the artificial surface areas in spite of their usages. Because of the homogeneity of the building roof materials, there is no contrast between the storage heat flux in business and residential areas. In sparsely vegetated urban areas, more heat is stored and latent heat is smaller than that in the forested suburbs. This result implies that density of vegetation has a significant influence in decreasing temperatures.

  14. Monitoring the latent and sensible heat fluxes in vineyard by applying the energy balance model METRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González-Piqueras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the energy fluxes over vineyard applying the one source energy balance model METRIC (Allen et al., 2007b are shown in this work. This model is considered operaive because it uses an internalized calibration method derived from the selection of two extreme pixels in the scene, from the minimum ET values such as the bare soil to a maximum that corresponds to full cover active vegetation. The model provides the maps of net radiation (Rn, soil heat flux (G, sensible heat (H, latent heat (LE, evapotranspiration (ET and crop coefficient (Kc. The flux values have been validated with a flux tower installed in the plot, providing a RMSE for instantaneous fluxes of 43 W m2, 33 W m2, 55 W m2 y 40 W m2 on Rn, G, H and LE. In relative terms are 8%, 29%, 21% and 20% respectively. The RMSE at daily scale for the ET is 0.58 mm day-1, with a value in the crop coefficient for the mid stage of 0.42±0.08. These results allow considering the model adequate for crop monitoring and irrigation purposes in vineyard. The values obtained have been compared to other studies over vineyard and with alternative energy balance models showing similar results.

  15. Surface layer scintillometry for estimating the sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Savage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively recently developed scintillometry method, with a focus on the dual-beam surface layer scintillometer (SLS, allows boundary layer atmospheric turbulence, surface sensible heat and momentum flux to be estimated in real-time. Much of the previous research using the scintillometer method has involved the large aperture scintillometer method, with only a few studies using the SLS method. The SLS method has been mainly used by agrometeorologists, hydrologists and micrometeorologists for atmospheric stability and surface energy balance studies to obtain estimates of sensible heat from which evaporation estimates representing areas of one hectare or larger are possible. Other applications include the use of the SLS method in obtaining crucial input parameters for atmospheric dispersion and turbulence models. The SLS method relies upon optical scintillation of a horizontal laser beam between transmitter and receiver for a separation distance typically between 50 and 250 m caused by refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere that arise from turbulence fluctuations in air temperature and to a much lesser extent the fluctuations in water vapour pressure. Measurements of SLS beam transmission allow turbulence of the atmosphere to be determined, from which sub-hourly, real-time and in situ path-weighted fluxes of sensible heat and momentum may be calculated by application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Unlike the eddy covariance (EC method for which corrections for flow distortion and coordinate rotation are applied, no corrections to the SLS measurements, apart from a correction for water vapour pressure, are applied. Also, path-weighted SLS estimates over the propagation path are obtained. The SLS method also offers high temporal measurement resolution and usually greater spatial coverage compared to EC, Bowen ratio energy balance, surface renewal and other sensible heat measurement methods. Applying the shortened surface

  16. Software for Regional Studies: Adjustment Procedures for Integrated Balances

    OpenAIRE

    Lenko, M.; Kim, K.

    1983-01-01

    This report is devoted to the problem of analysis of sensitivity of balance tables, which arises by mathematical modeling, for example, economic-financial flow within a region, a trade market, a transport system and so on. The report contains both the statement of the problem and the algorithms of solution, including a well detailed software description.

  17. More Wind Power Integration with Adjusted Energy Carriers for Space Heating in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun He

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Northern China, due to the high penetration of coal-fired cogeneration facilities, which are generally equipped with extraction-condensing steam turbines, lots of wind power resources may be wasted during the heating season. In contrast, considerable coal is consumed in the power generation sector. In this article, firstly it is revealed that there exists a serious divergence in the ratio of electrical to thermal energy between end users’ demand and the cogenerations’ production during off-peak load at night, which may negate active power-balancing of the electric power grid. Secondly, with respect to this divergence only occurring during off-peak load at night, a temporary proposal is given so as to enable the integration of more wind power. The authors suggest that if the energy carrier for part of the end users’ space heating is switched from heating water to electricity (e.g., electric heat pumps (EHPs can provide space heating in the domestic sector, the ratio of electricity to heating water load should be adjusted to optimize the power dispatch between cogeneration units and wind turbines, resulting in fuel conservation. With this proposal, existing infrastructures are made full use of, and no additional ones are required. Finally a numerical simulation is performed in order to illustrate both the technical and economic feasibility of the aforementioned proposal, under ongoing infrastructures as well as electricity and space heating tariff conditions without changing participants’ benefits. The authors aim to persuade Chinese policy makers to enable EHPs to provide space heating to enable the integration of more wind power.

  18. Integration of seismic reflection and geologically balanced profiles; Integration reflexionsseismischer und geologisch bilanzierter Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, A. [Trappe Erdoel Erdgas Consultant, Isernhagen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Geophysics and geology employ different kinds of techniques in order to preserve the underground structure. These techniques are based on different sets of data, i.e. seismic or geological data. A sensible combination of the two techniques should produce a better model of the ground structure. This study attempts to integrate geologically balanced profiles and seismic reflection data. A balanced geological profile can than be compared with seismic reflection data measured in the field. The geological model is then changed into a seismic model of the underground by means of seismic modeling. Synthetic modeling is based on the acquisition of available field data. The synthetic stack section or the synthetic migration image are then compared to the field data. Deviations between the two can be attributed to speed errors and the fact that balances will never give an unequivocal solution but always present a group of solutions. (orig. MSK). [Deutsch] In der Geophysik und der Geologie werden verschiedene Techniken verwendet, um die Untergrundstruktur zu erhalten. Diese Techniken basieren auf verschiedenen Datensaetzen, z.B. seismische und geologische Daten. Eine sinnvolle Kombination der Techniken sollte ein besseres Abbild des Untergrundes liefern. In dieser Studie wird ein Versuch unternommen geologisch bilanzierte Profile und reflexionsseismische Daten zu integrieren. Soll ein bilanziertes geologisches Profil mit im Feld gemessenen reflexionsseismischen Daten verglichen werden, dann wird das geologische Modell mit Hilfe der seismischen Modellierung in ein seismisches Abbild des Untergrundes verwandelt. Dabei wird die synthetische Modellierung entsprechend der Aquisition der vorliegenden Felddaten durchgefuehrt. Die synthetische Stapelsektion oder das synthetische Migrationsimage werden anschliessend mit den Felddaten verglichen. Abweichungen zwischen beobachteten und Felddaten haben ihre Ursachen sowohl in Geschwindigkeitsfehlern, als auch in der Tatsache, dass eine

  19. Supervisory Model Predictive Control of the Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Kristian; Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2017-01-01

    This paper benchmarks a centralized control system based on model predictive control for the operation of the heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) against a fully decentralized control system using the most complete column model currently available in the literature. The centralized control...

  20. EnergyPlus Air Source Integrated Heat Pump Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Adams, Mark B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2016-03-30

    This report summarizes the development of the EnergyPlus air-source integrated heat pump model. It introduces its physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. In addition, inputs and outputs of the new model are described, and input data file (IDF) examples are given.

  1. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles - Energy systems analysis and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard, K.

    2013-09-15

    This PhD investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing research, the main focus is put on individual heat pumps in the residential sector (one-family houses) and the possibilities for flexible operation, using the heat storage options available. Several energy systems analyses are performed using the energy system models, Balmorel, developed at the former TSO, ElkraftSystem, and, EnergyPLAN, developed at Aalborg University. The Danish energy system towards 2030, with wind power penetrations of up to 60 %, is used as a case study in most of the analyses. Both models have been developed further, resulting in an improved representation of individual heat pumps and heat storages. An extensive model add-on for Balmorel renders it possible to optimise investment and operation of individual heat pumps and different types of heat storages, in integration with the energy system. Total costs of the energy system are minimised in the optimisation. The add-on incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various different heat storage options: intelligent heat storage in the building structure for houses with radiator heating and floor heating, respectively, heat accumulation tanks on the space heating circuit, as well as hot water tanks. In EnergyPLAN, some of the heat storage options have been modelled in a technical optimisation that minimises fuel consumption of the energy system and utilises as much wind power as possible. The energy systems analyses reveal that in terms of supporting wind power integration, the installation of individual heat pumps is an important step, while adding heat storages to the heat pumps is less influential. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only moderate system benefits can be gained. Hereof, the main system benefit is that the need for peak/reserve capacity investments can be reduced through peak load shaving; in

  2. Initial characterization of a modular heat exchanger with an integral heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) Advanced Technology program, a conceptual design of the Stirling space engine (SSE) was generated. The overall goal of the CSTI high capacity power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space missions. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) was chosen as the growth option in the CSTI program. A major goal during the conceptual design of the SSE was to reduce the number of critical joints. One area of concern was the heat exchanger assemblies that typically have the majority of critical joints. The solution proposed in the SSE conceptual design used 40 modular heat exchangers. Each module has its own integral heat pipe to transport heat from the heat source to the engine. A demonstration of the modular concept was undertaken before committing to the detailed design of the SSE heat exchangers. An existing FPSE was modified as a test bed for modular heat exchanger evaluation. The engine incorporated three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe. The thermal loading of these modules was intended to be similar to the conditions projected for the SSE modules. The engine was assembled and tests are underway. The design and fabrication of the heat exchanger modules and the engine used for these tests were described. Evaluation of the individual heat pipes before installation in the engine is described. The initial test results with the modules in operation on the engine were presented. Future tests involving the engine were outlined.

  3. Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    At many occasions we are asked to achieve a “balance” in our lives: when it comes, for example, to work and food. Balancing is crucial in game design as well as many have pointed out. In games with a meaningful purpose, however, balancing is remarkably different. It involves the balancing of three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. From the experience of designing Levee Patroller, I observed that different types of tensions can come into existence that require balancing. It is possible to conceive of within-worlds dilemmas, between-worlds dilemmas, and trilemmas. The first, the within-world dilemmas, only take place within one of the worlds. We can think, for example, of a user interface problem which just relates to the world of Play. The second, the between-worlds dilemmas, have to do with a tension in which two worlds are predominantly involved. Choosing between a cartoon or a realistic style concerns, for instance, a tension between Reality and Play. Finally, the trilemmas are those in which all three worlds play an important role. For each of the types of tensions, I will give in this level a concrete example from the development of Levee Patroller. Although these examples come from just one game, I think the examples can be exemplary for other game development projects as they may represent stereotypical tensions. Therefore, to achieve harmony in any of these forthcoming games, it is worthwhile to study the struggles we had to deal with.

  4. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    A Heat Pump Centered-Integrated Community Energy System (HP-ICES) concept was explored and developed that is based on use of privately owned ice-making heat pumps in each building or complex within a community. These heat pumps will provide all of the space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water needs. All of the community input energy required is provided by electrical power, thereby eliminating a community's dependence on gas or oil supplies. The heat pumps will operate in both air and water source modes, deriving performance advantages of both. The possible forms of an HP-ICES system, the technical and economic limitations, environmental impacts and other factors are discussed from a general viewpoint. The concept is applied to a specific planned community and its performance and economic features are examined in detail. It is concluded that the HP-ICES concept is technically viable, but that its economic desirability as compared with conventional heat pump systems is hampered by much higher initial costs, and that the economic feasibility of HP-ICES systems will depend on future fuel source costs and supply and on electric power rates. (LCL)

  5. Integrated reversible space heating integrating production, distribution and regulation; Chauffage reversible integre associant production, distribution et regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-04-01

    This article presents an individual reversible space heating system integrated to the building and devoted to the residential and tertiary sectors. It combines a air/air heat pump, an aeraulic distribution by plenum ventilation system and a specific thermoregulation system for the autonomous adjustment of temperatures inside each room. (J.S.)

  6. The momentary disturbance of the heat balance - a possible objective measure instead of the thermal sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theves, B.; Hundhausen, E.

    1982-01-01

    The momentary (maximal) disturbance of the heat balance η of a man in a certain climate happens to him when suddenly going outdoors into it. A suitable definition of the dimensionless value η is explained and a formula derived for it. The value η can be an objective, easily computable measure for heat and cold stress, if the person has been -or for the computation is supposed to have been - in a standardized comfort (i. e. room-) climate for a long time before. For these comfort conditions it is possible to use a great deal of fixed values, such as a mean skin temperature of 33 °C, and a skin wetness degree of 10%, certain values of heat production in the body, of surface area and curvature, and of clothing. For these conditions the value of η remains rather a function of the meteorological elements. Moreover the η-formula can be still simplified by using the partial climatic complex temperature ι0 which can be measured directly. Then besides ι0 only wind velocity is needed for the computation of the value η. For the observation point Westerland/Sylt registrations of complex temperature and wind velocity have been used for the computation of η. The results are shown in a diagram. The value η can be used as an objective measure instead of the subjective thermal sensation.

  7. Thermal Vacuum/Balance Test Results of Swift BAT with Loop Heat Pipe Thermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Detector Array is thermally well coupled to eight constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) embedded in the Detector Array Plate PAP), and two loop heat pipes (LHPs) transport heat from the CCHPs to a radiator. The CCHPs have ammonia as the working fluid and the LHPs have propylene as the working fluid. Precision heater controllers, which have adjustable set points in flight, are used to control the LHP compensation chamber and Detector Array xA1 ASIC temperatures. The radiator has AZ-Tek's AZW-LA-II low solar absorptance white paint as the thermal coating, and is located on the anti-sun side of the spacecraft. A thermal balance (T/B) test on the BAT was successfully completed. It validated that the thermal design satisfies the temperature requirements of the BAT in the flight thermal environments. Instrument level and observatory level thermal vacuum (TN) cycling tests of the BAT Detector Array by using the LHP thermal system were successfully completed. This paper presents the results of the T/B test and T N cycling tests.

  8. Benefits of Integrating Geographically Distributed District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    2016-01-01

    was reduced by 1.76 %. For the year 2029, in which intermittent renewable energy sources are dominating the energy generation, total socio-economic costs were reduced by 5.9 %, CO2 emissions by 7.1 % and primary energy supply by 8.4 % after the adjacent district heating systems were connected. Hence......, the integration of district heating systems have beneficial impact on the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources....... was truly represented. The model was adapted to the case of Sønderborg municipality in Denmark and the results show that three out of four interconnections are economic feasible in the present system. In the reference year (2013) total system costs were 4.1 % lower, while total primary energy supply...

  9. A Steam Utility Network Model for the Evaluation of Heat Integration Retrofits – A Case Study of an Oil Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Marton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real industrial example in which the steam utility network of a refinery is modelled in order to evaluate potential Heat Integration retrofits proposed for the site. A refinery, typically, has flexibility to optimize the operating strategy for the steam system depending on the operation of the main processes. This paper presents a few examples of Heat Integration retrofit measures from a case study of a large oil refinery. In order to evaluate expected changes in fuel and electricity imports to the refinery after implementation of the proposed retrofits, a steam system model has been developed. The steam system model has been tested and validated with steady state data from three different operating scenarios and can be used to evaluate how changes to steam balances at different pressure levels would affect overall steam balances, generation of shaft power in turbines, and the consumption of fuel gas.

  10. Assessing neonatal heat balance and physiological strain in newborn infants nursed under radiant warmers in intensive care with fentanyl sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Daboval, Thierry; Chou, Shirley; Jay, Ollie

    2014-12-01

    To assess heat balance status of newborn infants nursed under radiant warmers (RWs) during intensive care. Heat balance, thermal status and primary indicators of physiological strain were concurrently measured in 14 newborns nursed under RWs for 105 min. Metabolic heat production (M), evaporative heat loss (E), convective (C) and conductive heat flow (K), rectal temperature (T re) and mean skin temperatures (T sk) were measured continuously. The rate of radiant heat required for heat balance (R req) and the rate of radiant heat provided (R prov) were derived. The rate of body heat storage (S) was calculated using a two-compartment model of 'core' (T re) and 'shell' (T sk) temperatures. Mean M, E, C and K were 10.5 ± 2.7 W, 5.8 ± 1.1 W, 6.2 ± 0.8 W and 0.1 ± 0.1 W, respectively. Mean R prov (1.7 ± 2.6 W) and R req (1.7 ± 2.7 W) were similar (p > 0.05). However, while the resultant mean change in body heat content after 105 min was negligible (-0.1 ± 3.7 kJ), acute time-dependent changes in S were evidenced by a mean positive heat storage component of +6.4 ± 2.6 kJ and a mean negative heat storage component of -6.5 ± 3.7 kJ. Accordingly, large fluctuations in both T re and T sk occurred that were actively induced by changes in RW output. Nonetheless, no active physiological responses (heart rate, breathing frequency and mean arterial pressure) to these bouts of heating and cooling were observed. RWs maintain net heat balance over a prolonged period, but actively induce acute bouts of heat imbalance that cause rapid changes in T re and T sk. Transient bouts of heat storage do not exacerbate physiological strain, but could in the longer term.

  11. Heat balance of textile materials modified with the mixtures of PCM microcapsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejman, Alicja, E-mail: anejman@iw.lodz.pl; Goetzendorf-Grabowska, Bogna

    2013-10-10

    Highlights: • The encapsulation process reduces absorbed heat by about 20% in the melting process. • The knitted fabrics MPCMk absorb about 30–40% of the total MPCMp heat. • Mixing the MPCM get thermo-regulating properties in varied interval of temperature. - Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess thermo-regulating properties of the knitted fabric, modified with homogeneous microcapsules of PCM (MPCM) and their mixtures. MPCM containing the following hydrocarbons: n-tetradecane (C{sub 14}H{sub 30}), n-Hexadecane (C{sub 16}H{sub 34}), n-Octadecane (C{sub 18}H{sub 38}), n-Eicosane (C{sub 20}H{sub 42}) and a mixture of paraffins were used for the study. Melting points of the MPCM examined amounted to 6–43 °C. A 100% PET column knitwear fabric with a weight of 72.80 g/m{sup 2} was modified with a polymer paste containing 40% of MPCM and binders. The thermo-regulating properties of both MPCM in the form of powder and the modified knitted fabric were assessed and the heat balance of the fabric modified was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results of DSC have showed that: -the exploitation of MPCM heat in the modified knitwear fabric determined by the effectiveness coefficient K amounts to 31%; -the use of MPCM mixtures for the modification of knitted fabrics extents the temperature range of the textile thermo-regulating properties in relation to homogeneous MPCM.

  12. 77 FR 74027 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products... integrated circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing same by...

  13. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE THERMAL BALANCE OF LOOSE DISPERSE MATERIALS EXEMPLIFIED BY MILLED PEAT EXPOSED TO INFRARED HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Mikhail Vasil'evich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Good knowledge of thermal balance is a prerequisite of successful mastering of the processes of heat and water transfer within a body. Given the reflective power of the substance surface under consideration, the analysis of the thermal balance of a loose disperse material was performed. A sample of milled peat served as the loose disperse material exposed to infrared heating. The practical results were compared to those available in the literature. One of the key results of the experiment represents identification of the radiation balance of the substance. Further research of the heat accumulation capacity rad will make it possible to identify the boundary conditions (energy and mass at the body boundary required to formulate and solve the boundary problem of thermal and moisture transfer. The latter will make it possible to project and to manage the thermal and moisture mode of materials in terms of timing and depth subject to thermal processes underway on their surface

  14. Balance-of-plant options for the Heat-Pipe Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berte, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Capell, B. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    1997-09-01

    The Heat-Pipe Power System (HPS) is a near-term, low-cost space fission power system with the potential for utilizing various option for balance-of-plant options. The following options have been studied: a low-power thermoelectric design (14-kWe output), a small Brayton cycle system (60--75 kWe), and a large Brayton cycle system (250 kWe). These systems were analyzed on a preliminary basis, including mass, volume, and structure calculations. These analyses have shown that the HPS system can provide power outputs from 10--250 kWe with specific powers of {approximately} 14 W/kg for a 14-kWe model to {approximately} 100 W/kg for a 250-kWe model. The system designs considered in this study utilize a common component base to permit easy expansion and development.

  15. A review on process intensification in internally heat-integrated distillation columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton Alexandru; Olujic, Zarko

    2014-01-01

    Internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC) is the most radical approach of a heat pump design, making efficient use of internal heat-integration: the rectifying section of a distillation column operating at a higher pressure becomes the heat source, while the stripping part of the column

  16. Ultra-compact integrated silicon photonics balanced coherent photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jason T.

    The design, simulation, and initial fabrication of a novel ultra-compact 2x2 silicon multimode-interference device evanescently coupled to a dual germanium metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector is presented. For operation at the standard telecom wavelength of 1.5 mum, the simulations demonstrate high-speed operation at 30 GHz, low dark current in the nanoamp range, and external quantum efficiency of 80%. Error analysis was performed for possible tilt error introduced by hybrid integration of the MSM layer on top of the MMI waveguides by use of surface mount technology (SMT) and direct wafer bonding.

  17. Integration and Control of a Battery Balancing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    to Δx in the Riemann sum . As the value for tstep increases, the accuracy of the integration increases but causes the model to run slower. This...calculus, which is known as a Riemann Sum . An interval [a, b] is divided into n subintervals of equal width x∆ , where b ax n − ∆ = (7) and 0 1 2...9) where the right side of the equation is traditionally known as the Riemann sum of the function f over the interval [a, b]. The value n is the

  18. High-Order Unsteady Heat Transfer with the Harmonic Balance Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapke, Robert David

    Despite the significant advancements in computational fluid dynamics, modeling turbomachinery flows remains extremely difficult. The challenges include complex unsteady blade row interactions, large thermal gradients, and complex geometries. During the design process, simplifications and approximations are necessary to reduce the computational cost. Two common simplifications are the use of adiabatic boundary conditions and steady methods for resolving the flow field in multistage turbomachinery. The Harmonic Balance (HB) method is an efficient way to simulate periodic unsteady phenomena. Compared to traditional time-marching methods, the HB method reduces the computational cost by considering only the dominant frequencies of the solution field. Using a Fourier series representation of the solution variables, an unsteady governing equation transforms into a series of steady-like equations. The cost is further reduced when considering multistage turbomachinery. Unlike a time-marching method, which requires periodic boundaries, the HB method models a single blade passage per blade row. A phase lag condition is applied instead of a periodic condition. At the junction between blade rows, an interface resolves the relative motion and any passage mismatch. Assuming the heat transfer of wall boundary conditions is, by definition, non-physical. Assuming no heat transfer (an adiabatic wall) is certainly wrong for turbomachinery flows because of the large thermal gradients. An constant temperature wall can provide a better approximation, but for complex geometries, the temperature is not known a priori. The most accurate approach involves modeling both the fluid and solid domains, which is called Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT). This can be performed in several ways, but the most stable method is one in which the fluid and solid are strongly coupled. This strong coupling is achieved by using the same discretization in both domains. This dissertation details an approach for

  19. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles – Energy systems analysis and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten

    in an energy system context. Energy systems analyses reveal that the heat pumps can even without flexible operation contribute significantly to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only......The fluctuating and only partly predictable nature of wind challenges an effective integration of large wind power penetrations. This PhD thesis investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing...... research, main focus is put on individual heat pumps in the residential sector and the possibilities for flexible operation, using the heat storage options available. Extensive model development is performed that significantly improves the possibilities for analysing individual heat pumps and heat storages...

  20. Increasing process integrity in global scale water balance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöger, Lisa; Mewes, Benjamin; Oppel, Henning; Schumann, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological models on a global or continental scale are often used to model human impact on the water balance in data scarce regions. Therefore, they are not validated for a time series of runoff measured at gauges but for long term estimates. The simplistic model GlobWat was introduced by the FAO to predict irrigation water demand based on open source data for continental catchments. Originally, the model was not designed to process time series, but to estimate the water demand on long-time averages of precipitation and evapotranspiration. Therefore the emphasis of detail of GlobWat was focused on crop evapotranspiration and water availability in agricultural regions. In our study we wanted to enhance the modelling in detail to forest evapotranspiration on the one hand and to time series simulation on the other hand. Meanwhile, we tried to keep the amount of input data as small as possible or at least limit it to open source data. Our objectives derived from case studies in the forest dominated catchments of Danube and Mississippi. With the use of Penman-Montheith equation as fundamental equation within the original GlobWat model, evapotranspiration losses in these regions could not be simulated adequately. As this being the fact, the water availability of downstream regions dominated by agriculture might be overestimated and hence estimation of irrigation demands biased. Therefore, we implemented a Shuttleworth & Calder as well as a Priestly-Taylor approach for evapotranspiration calculation of forested areas. Both models are compared and evaluated based on monthly time series validation of the model with runoff series provided by GRDC (Global Runoff Data Center). For an additional extension of the model we added a simple one-parameter snow-routine. In our presentation we compare the different stages of modelling to demonstrate the options to extent and validate these models with observed data on an appropriate scale.

  1. Beyond Leptin: Emerging Candidates for the Integration of Metabolic and Reproductive Function during Negative Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Cadence; Grove, Kevin L; Smith, M Susan

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive status is tightly coupled to metabolic state in females, and ovarian cycling in mammals is halted when energy output exceeds energy input, a metabolic condition known as negative energy balance. This inhibition of reproductive function during negative energy balance occurs due to suppression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release in the hypothalamus. The GnRH secretagogue kisspeptin is also inhibited during negative energy balance, indicating that inhibition of reproductive neuroendocrine circuits may occur upstream of GnRH itself. Understanding the metabolic signals responsible for the inhibition of reproductive pathways has been a compelling research focus for many years. A predominant theory in the field is that the status of energy balance is conveyed to reproductive neuroendocrine circuits via the adipocyte hormone leptin. Leptin is stimulatory for GnRH release and lower levels of leptin during negative energy balance are believed to result in decreased stimulatory drive for GnRH cells. However, recent evidence found that restoring leptin to physiological levels did not restore GnRH function in three different models of negative energy balance. This suggests that although leptin may be an important permissive signal for reproductive function as indicated by many years of research, factors other than leptin must critically contribute to negative energy balance-induced reproductive inhibition. This review will focus on emerging candidates for the integration of metabolic status and reproductive function during negative energy balance.

  2. Micro-balance sensor integrated with atomic layer deposition chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, Alex B. F.; Libera, Joseph A.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Riha, Shannon C.

    2018-01-02

    The invention is directed to QCM measurements in monitoring ALD processes. Previously, significant barriers remain in the ALD processes and accurate execution. To turn this exclusively dedicated in situ technique into a routine characterization method, an integral QCM fixture was developed. This new design is easily implemented on a variety of ALD tools, allows rapid sample exchange, prevents backside deposition, and minimizes both the footprint and flow disturbance. Unlike previous QCM designs, the fast thermal equilibration enables tasks such as temperature-dependent studies and ex situ sample exchange, further highlighting the feasibility of this QCM design for day-to-day use. Finally, the in situ mapping of thin film growth rates across the ALD reactor was demonstrated in a popular commercial tool operating in both continuous and quasi-static ALD modes.

  3. The electrohydraulic balance of the solar heat storage with autonomous power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Marahtanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the paper emphasizes an increasingly important role of alternative power sources nowadays. At the same time, a solar collector (suntrap is one of the most frequent techniques to use the solar energy. It is an absorber that picks up solar radiation and heats a heat carrier circulating in the close loop. Then the heat is transferred to the heat accumulator that is integrated in the hot-tap water system (HWS.The paper presents a prospective circuit of the solar collector. It differs from the traditional one because, in addition to absorbing panel, it uses photoconverters to generate electric power for the circulating pump. The advantage of this system is that for operation such a solar energy converter has no need in external power sources, i.e. it is autonomous. The need to calculate the essential thermo-physical parameters that ensure no-break system operation was stated as a main objective of the work.The suggested circuit has a photocell panel to convert solar radiation into dc voltage of 12 V. In case of a lack of the solar energy an accumulator battery can be used for feeding. To ensure the no-break supply of power an adaptor is offered.To calculate a density distribution of solar radiation a sine law is offered depending on the time of day and geographical locality. This dependence was used to obtain the expressions for calculating the water temperature in boiler over daytime.Further, the calculations have been done for the operating conditions under which an efficient heat exchange will be provided with the minimum consumption of electric power for the heat carrier circulation in the first loop. For this purpose, a pump power was calculated depending on consumption and hydraulic losses of head in the pipeline. As a minimum required consumption the value has been chosen at which a laminar flow regime changes to the turbulent one because of the most efficient heat exchange being both in collector and in heat accumulator

  4. Hydrogen and renewable energy sources integrated system for greenhouse heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A research is under development at the Department of Agro- Environmental Sciences of the University of Bari “Aldo Moro” in order to investigate the suitable solutions of a power system based on solar energy (photovoltaic and hydrogen, integrated with a geothermal heat pump for powering a self sustained heated greenhouse. The electrical energy for heat pump operation is provided by a purpose-built array of solar photovoltaic modules, which supplies also a water electrolyser system controlled by embedded pc; the generated dry hydrogen gas is conserved in suitable pressured storage tank. The hydrogen is used to produce electricity in a fuel cell in order to meet the above mentioned heat pump power demand when the photovoltaic system is inactive during winter night-time or the solar radiation level is insufficient to meet the electrical demand. The present work reports some theoretical and observed data about the electrolyzer operation. Indeed the electrolyzer has required particular attention because during the experimental tests it did not show a stable operation and it was registered a performance not properly consistent with the predicted performance by means of the theoretical study.

  5. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  6. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  7. Experimental Evaluation of High Performance Integrated Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Berry, Robert [Unico Inc., St. Louis, MO; Durfee, Neal [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Integrated heat pump (IHP) technology provides significant potential for energy savings and comfort improvement for residential buildings. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a high performance IHP that provides space heating, cooling, and water heating services. Experiments were conducted according to the ASHRAE Standard 206-2013 where 24 test conditions were identified in order to evaluate the IHP performance indices based on the airside performance. Empirical curve fits of the unit s compressor maps are used in conjunction with saturated condensing and evaporating refrigerant conditions to deduce the refrigerant mass flowrate, which, in turn was used to evaluate the refrigerant side performance as a check on the airside performance. Heat pump (compressor, fans, and controls) and water pump power were measured separately per requirements of Standard 206. The system was charged per the system manufacturer s specifications. System test results are presented for each operating mode. The overall IHP performance metrics are determined from the test results per the Standard 206 calculation procedures.

  8. Heat Transfer Study of Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) Using Simulation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Jeffrey León; Martínez, Edgar Leonardo; Wolf, Maria Regina; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    2011-08-01

    Separation processes is largely used in petroleum refining and alcohol industries. Distillation columns consume a huge amount of energy in industrial process. Therefore, the concept of Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) was studied using simulation techniques in order to overcome this drawback. In this configuration the column is composed for two concentric sections called rectifying and stripping. The heat transfer is conducted from the rectifying section (which works at higher pressure and temperature) to the stripping section (which works at lower pressure and temperature) using the heat present in the process and decreasing the energy charge required by the reboiler. The HIDiC column offers great potential to reduce energy consumption compared to conventional columns. However, the complexity of the internal configuration requires the development of rigorous works that enable a better understanding of the column operation. For this reason, techniques of simulation were used through of computational software. The current work presents a heat transfer study in a concentric stage of a HIDiC column. The results obtained by Aspen Plus and CFD simulation showed the internal heat transfer in a concentric tray as a promissory configuration in order to decrease energy consumption in distillation processes.

  9. The Philippines: integrated planning for balanced urban growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    During the past 80 years, the proportion of the Philippine population living in urban areas has nearly tripled, from 13% at the beginning of the 20th century to 36% in 1980. The number of people living in urban areas multipled 17-fold over this period. Currently, an estimated 17 million people live in urban areas, and this number is expected to reach 30 million by the year 2000. Migration from rural areas has been an important component of urban growth, but it has not been the principal one. Natural increase accounted for 54% of total urban growth in the 1960s and 1970s. A combination of reclassification and migration accounted for the rest. Big cities did not grow as rapidly as small cities, since their growth was generated largely by urban inmigration. Small cities tended to grow faster due to more natural increase than to inmigration. Philippine urbanization has been marked by increasing primacy. Metropolitan Manila, the largest city, has more than quadrupled in size since 1950. The phenomenon of primacy has been the cumulative consequence of historical, demographic, political, and socioeconomic factors. It may also have resulted from growth policies which unintentionally and indirectly favored the premier city. For national planners, the issue of urbanization in the Philippines is closely intertwined with the country's development objectives, particularly those of reducing poverty and attaining a more equitable distribution of income and wealth. The integration of population growth and distribution trends into the planning process is very important. Efforts to actively advocate this approach at various planning levels have been initiated. More must be learned about population and development dynamics, and planning capabilities at all levels must be improved.

  10. Observing integrals of heat kernels from a distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heat kernels have integrals such as Brownian motion mean exit time, potential capacity, and torsional rigidity. We show how to obtain bounds on these values - essentially by observing their behaviour in terms of the distance function from a point and then comparing with corresponding values...... in tailor-made warped product spaces. The results will be illustrated by applications to the so-called 'type' problem: How to decide if a given manifold or surface is transient (hyperbolic) or recurrent (parabolic). Specific examples of minimal surfaces and constant pressure dry foams will be shown...

  11. Abnormal sensory integration affects balance control in hemiparetic patients within the first year after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa B. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Impairments in balance can be a consequence of changes in the motor, sensory, and integrative aspects of motor control. Abnormal sensory reweighting, i.e., the ability to select the most appropriate sensory information to achieve postural stability, may contribute to balance impairment. The Sensory Organization Test is a component of Computerized Dynamic Posturography that evaluates the impact of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory inputs, as well as sensory reweighting, under conditions of sensory conflict. The aim of this study is to compare balance control in hemiparetic patients during the first year post-stroke and in age-matched neurologically normal subjects using the Berg Balance Scale and Computerized Dynamic Posturography. METHODS: We compared the Berg Balance Scale and Sensory Organization Test scores in 21 patients with hemiparesis after first-ever ischemic stroke and in 21 age-matched, neurologically normal subjects. An equilibrium score was defined for each Sensory Organization Test condition. RESULTS: Berg Balance Scale scores were significantly lower in the patients than in the neurologically normal subjects. Equilibrium scores were significantly lower in the patients than in the neurologically normal subjects for those Sensory Organization Test conditions that did not provide appropriate somatosensory information and under conditions of sensory conflict. A history of falls was more frequent in patients with lower equilibrium scores. CONCLUSION: During the first year after a stroke, defective sensory reweighting significantly impacts balance control in hemiparetic patients. These results are important for the planning of effective rehabilitation interventions.

  12. An integrated model of soil-canopy spectral radiances, photosynthesis, fluorescence, temperature and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der C.; Verhoef, W.; Timmermans, J.; Verhoef, A.; Su, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the model SCOPE (Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes), which is a vertical (1-D) integrated radiative transfer and energy balance model. The model links visible to thermal infrared radiance spectra (0.4 to 50 µm) as observed above the canopy to the fluxes of

  13. Effect of preexercise soup ingestion on water intake and fluid balance during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Neil M; Sullivan, Zebblin M; Warnke, Nicole R; Smiley-Oyen, Ann L; King, Douglas S; Sharp, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether chicken noodle soup before exercise increases ad libitum water intake, fluid balance, and physical and cognitive performance compared with water. Nine trained men (age 25 ± 3 yr, VO2peak 54.2 ± 5.1 ml · kg-1 · min-1; M ± SD) performed cycle exercise in the heat (wet bulb globe temperature = 25.9 ± 0.4 °C) for 90 min at 50% VO2peak, 45 min after ingesting 355 ml of either commercially available bottled water (WATER) or chicken noodle soup (SOUP). The same bottled water was allowed ad libitum throughout both trials. Participants then completed a time trial to finish a given amount of work (10 min at 90% VO2peak; n = 8). Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Stroop color-word task before, every 30 min during, and immediately after the time trial. Ad libitum water intake throughout steady-state exercise was greater in SOUP than with WATER (1,435 ± 593 vs. 1,163 ± 427 g, respectively; p water retention in SOUP than in WATER (87.7% ± 7.6% vs. 74.9% ± 21.7%, respectively; p = .09), possibly due to a change in free water clearance (-0.32 ± 1.22 vs. 0.51 ± 1.06 ml/min, respectively; p = .07). Fluid balance tended to be improved with SOUP (-106 ± 603 vs. -478 ± 594 g, p = .05). Likewise, change in plasma volume tended to be reduced in SOUP compared with WATER (p = .06). Only mild dehydration was achieved (water intake and may alter kidney function.

  14. Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Tomsik, T. M.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Conyers, H. J.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2014-01-01

    Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

  15. Optimal operation of integrated processes. Studies on heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glemmestad, Bjoern

    1997-12-31

    Separators, reactors and a heat exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery are important parts of an integrated plant. This thesis deals with the operation of HENs, in particular, optimal operation. The purpose of heat integration is to save energy, but the HEN also introduces new interactions and feedback into the overall plant. A prerequisite for optimisation is that there are extra degrees of freedom left after regulatory control is implemented. It is shown that extra degrees of freedom may not always be utilized for energy optimisation, and a quantitative expression for the degrees of freedom that can be so utilized are presented. A simplified expression that is often valid is also deduced. The thesis presents some improvements and generalisations of a structure based method that has been proposed earlier. Structural information is used to divide possible manipulations into three categories depending on how each manipulation affects the utility consumption. By means of these categories and two heuristic rules for operability, the possible manipulations are ordered in a priority table. This table is used to determine which manipulation should be preferred and which manipulation should be selected if an active manipulation is saturated. It is shown that the method may correspond to split-range control. A method that uses parametric information in addition to structural information is proposed. In this method, the optimal control structure is found through solving an integer programming problem. The thesis also proposes a method that combines the use of steady state optimisation and optimal selection of measurements. 86 refs., 46 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. A heat & mass integration approach to reduce capital and operating costs of a distillation configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madenoor Ramapriya, Gautham [Purdue University; Jiang, Zheyu [Purdue University; Tawarmalani, Mohit [Purdue University; Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue University

    2015-11-11

    We propose a general method to consolidate distillation columns of a distillation configuration using heat and mass integration. The proposed method encompasses all heat and mass integrations known till date, and includes many more. Each heat and mass integration eliminates a distillation column, a condenser, a reboiler and the heat duty associated with a reboiler. Thus, heat and mass integration can potentially offer significant capital and operating cost benefits. In this talk, we will study the various possible heat and mass integrations in detail, and demonstrate their benefits using case studies. This work will lay out a framework to synthesize an entire new class of useful configurations based on heat and mass integration of distillation columns.

  17. Retrofitting of municipal coal fired heating plant with integrated biomass gasification gas turbine based cogeneration block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Jacek [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Thermal Technologies, Knarskiego 22, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    Biomass has a significant potential for reduction of both CO{sub 2} emission and consumption of fossil fuels in energy production sector. On the other hand the successful implementation of biomass into regional energy systems is strongly influenced by many political, economic and technical factors. The best effects can be obtained if a proper choice of biomass plant technology has been made. The objective of this work is the analysis and discussion of technical and economic benefits of retrofitting an existing coal-fired municipal heating plant with integrated biomass gasification cogeneration block. The project leads to both local and global reduction of emission and fossil fuels consumption. An investment decision is however dependent on economic profitability, which is also examined in this work. Four design alternatives were proposed and modeled with using Cycle-Tempo simulation software. An annual mass and energy balance of the plant was calculated and economic analysis was performed. The results indicate a great energy and emission savings potential. An effective financial support, that results from local renewable energy promotion policy, can make an economic performance of the project attractive. The best technical solution for the retrofitting the analyzed heating plant was the combined cycle integrated with gasification of biomass with steam. (author)

  18. Development of heat and mass balance analysis code in out-of-pile hydrogen production system for HTTR heat utilization system (contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Yoshitomo; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Suyama, Kazumasa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    A heat and mass balance analysis code has been developed to examine test conditions, to investigate transient behavior etc. in the out-of-pile hydrogen production system for the HTTR heat utilization system. The code can analyze temperature, mass and pressure profiles of helium and process gases and behavior of the control system under both static state (case of steady operation) and dynamic state (case of transient operation). This report describes analytical methods, basic equations and constitution of the code, and how to make of the input data, estimate of the analytical results and so on. (author)

  19. Integration of solar installations in heating technology; Integration der Solaranlage in die Heizungstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H. [Solvis Energiesysteme GmbH und Co KG, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Future heating systems must be geared to the task of providing the comfort of warm rooms and warm water while giving due consideration to the consequences this has for the environment. The present paper discusses the development of heating energy demand, the integration and adjustment of the heating circuit for solar energy, and the dimensioning and layout of a solar installation for water warming. It also deals with the testing of solar buffer storages. [Deutsch] Wie kann der Komfort warmer Raeume und warmem Wassers erreicht werden und welche Konsquenzen hat das fuer die Umwelt, dies sind die Kriterien an denen sich die Waermeversorgung der Zukunft orientieren muss. Die Entwicklung des Heizenergiebedarfs, die Einbindung und Abstimmung des Heizkrieses fuer Solarenergie sowie die Dimensionierung und Auslegung einer Solaranlage zur Warmwassererw armung werden erlaeutert. Ein weiterer Punkt betrifft den Test von Solarpufferspeichern.

  20. Integral-type solar water heater using loop heat pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.J.; Yang, P.E.; Wang, J.H.; Wu, J.H. [New Energy Center, Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China)

    2008-07-01

    Taiwan University has been devoted to the development of low-cost LHP (loop hat pipe). A new manufacturing process for low-cost LHP has been developed that leads to a cost down to less than 10 USD for a 100W LHP. The present study utilizes the low-cost LHP to develop a new type of solar water heater. A thermosyphon which is thermally bonded with a solar absorber plate is used to absorb solar energy and transfer the heat upward to the evaporator of the LHP. From that, the heat is conducted downward to the condenser of the LHP which is immersed in a hot water tank beneath the solar collector. The solar water heater thus can be designed in integral type with streamline shape which is easy to install and has a good outlook as well as high efficiency. A prototype was designed and fabricated in the present study. A preliminary heat transfer test for a single unit of thermosyphon-LHP combination shows that it is capable of transferring the absorbed energy downward to the LHP condenser immersed in a hot water tank. The overall thermal resistance from the absorber plate to water is 0.34 C/W. and the thermal resistance of the LHP is 0.16 C/W. Two prototypes of the solar water heaters with 50 liters and 80 liters hot water tanks were designed according to the results of the feasibility test. In addition, an automatic monitoring system was designed and set up for the performance test of these two solar water heaters based on the test standard CNS B7277. The measured overall thermal resistance from solar absorber plate to water is 0.369 C/W. The daily solar water heater efficiency is 0.503. The present study has shown that the application of low-cost LHP in solar water heater is feasible and cost competitive. (orig.)

  1. Method for achieving hydraulic balance in typical Chinese building heating systems by managing differential pressure and flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Xia, Jianjun; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic unbalance is a common problem in Chinese district heating (DH) systems. Hydraulic unbalance has resulted in poor flow distribution among heating branches and overheating of apartments. Studies show that nearly 30% of the total heat supply is being wasted in Chinese DH systems due...... to a lack of pressure and flow control. This study investigated using pre-set radiator valves combined with differential pressure (DP) controllers to achieve hydraulic balance in building distribution systems, and consequently save energy and reduce the emissions. We considered a multi-storey building...... modelled in the IDA-ICE software, along with a self-developed mathematical hydraulic model to simulate its heat performance and hydraulic performance with various control scenarios. In contrast to the situation with no pressure or flow control, this solution achieves the required flow distribution...

  2. Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, V. D. [ORNL; Rice, K. [ORNL; Murphy, R. [ORNL; Munk, J. [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Craddick, William [ORNL; Hearn, Shawn A. [ClimateMaster, Inc.

    2013-05-24

    Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test

  3. Investigation on Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating and due to storage. The storage affects the heat demand passively due to higher temperatures. Hence heat loss is reduced and passive heating is optioned. In theory, by running the system flow backwards, active heating can...... solar collector area of the system, was achieved. Active heating from the sand storage was not observed. The pay-back time for the system can be estimated to be similar to solar heated domestic hot water systems in general. A number of minor improvements on the system could be pointed out....

  4. Long-Term Momentum and Heat Balances and Turbulent Mixing in the Upper Equatorial Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Shusheng

    The unique properties of high shear, low R _{i}, zero inertial rotation, and strong diurnal variations of the upper equatorial ocean provide an ideal settings for testing models of turbulent mixing. Initially, we utilize inverse methods to construct the long-term balances of zonal momentum and heat in the upper 200 meters of the equatorial Pacific Ocean at 152 ^circW from meterological and oceanic data. Then we use the time-independent forcing terms obtained from inverse analysis to drive a simple critical-R_{i} model of turbulence, modified from Price et al. (1986) by excluding the bulk Richardson number mixing and adding a background diffusion of constant diffusivity. The modeled steady-state velocity, temperature, turbulent fluxes and diffusivities are consistent with analysis. However, strong transient behavior of the model with a time scale of 100 days due to vertical advection underscores the importance of spin-up of a turbulence model before investigating effects of time-varying surface forcing. When solar radiation is allowed to vary diurnally, the simulated diurnal cycle of turbulent mixing has two prominent phases: during the day, the solar insolation creates stratification that interrupts the strong turbulent transfers between the westward wind and the eastward EUC core; during the night, the surface cooling re-establishes their interaction through a 100-m deep water column. The diurnal cycle of turbulent dissipation compares well to the Tropic Heat 1984 measurements. The model uses only a local gradient Richardson number criterion to parameterize mixing. Model tests show that the inclusion of a bulk Richardson number criterion (as used in previous model simulations) distorts the turbulent mixing in both the steady and diurnally varying cases. The model periodically (7 days on average) results in an intense mixing event, then allows the gradual build-up of shear until the next catastrophic mixing event (even when all forcing terms are time

  5. Integrated testing of standing balance and cognition: test-retest reliability and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szturm, Tony; Sakhalkar, Vedant; Boreskie, Sue; Marotta, Jonathan J; Wu, Christine; Kanitkar, Anuprita

    2015-01-01

    Balance and cognitive impairments which are common with aging often coexist, are prognostic of future adverse health events, including fall injuries. Consequently, dual-task assessment programs that simultaneously address both stability and cognition are important to consider in rehabilitation and benefit healthy aging. The objective of this study was to establish test-retest reliability and construct validity of a dual-task computer game-based platform (TGP) that integrates head tracking and cognitive tasks with balance activities. Thirty healthy, community-dwelling individuals median age 64 (range 60-67) were recruited from a certified Medical Fitness Facility. Participants performed a series of computerized head tracking and cognitive game tasks while standing on fixed and sponge surfaces. Testing was conducted on two occasions, one week apart. Moderate to high test retest reliability (ICC values of 0.55-0.75) was observed for all outcome measures representing balance, gaze performance, cognition, and dual-task performance. A significant increase in center of foot pressure (COP) excursion was observed during both head tracking and cognitive dual-task conditions. The results demonstrate the system's ability to reliably detect changes related to specific and integrated aspects of balance, gaze, and cognitive performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An integrated tool to support engineers for WMSDs risk assessment during the assembly line balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, Raffaele; Fanti, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This paper wants to present an integrated approach to Line Balancing and Risk Assessment and a Software Tool named ErgoAnalysis that makes it easy to control the whole production process and produces a Risk Index for the actual work tasks in an Assembly Line. Assembly Line Balancing, or simply Line Balancing, is the problem of assigning operations to workstations along an assembly line, in such a way that the assignment be optimal in some sense. Assembly lines are characterized by production constraints and restrictions due to several aspects such as the nature of the product and the flow of orders. To be able to respond effectively to the needs of production, companies need to frequently change the workload and production models. Each manufacturing process might be quite different from another. To optimize very specific operations, assembly line balancing might utilize a number of methods and the Engineer must consider ergonomic constraints, in order to reduce the risk of WMDSs. Risk Assessment may result very expensive because the Engineer must evaluate it at every change. ErgoAnalysis can reduce cost and improve effectiveness in Risk Assessment during the Line Balancing.

  7. In-situ Modelisation of a Greenhouse Climate Including Sensible Heat, Water Vapour and CO2 Balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi-Triki N.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While thermal structures such as greenhouses are complex to model under transient conditions because of coupled heat and mass (H2O and CO2 exchanges between their different parts, systems theory allows a simple analysis of the input/output behaviour of the model. In particular, parameters of the reduced dynamic models can be derived from in-situ measurements on these systems. This paper describes an application of the systems approach to a greenhouse climate model which incorporates CO2 balance, crop transpiration and photosynthesis and the effects of heating, CO2 enrichment, natural ventilation and evaporative cooling. In a first stage, system parameters such as the equivalent thermal mass, the wind dependent coefficient of natural ventilation and the various heat exchange coefficients were identified in situ from sequences of input-output data concerning the heat and water vapour balance, recorded over the crop production period from December to July. Good agreement between measured and computed values of air temperature, air humidity was observed. In a second stage, we have considered simultaneously the sensible heat, water vapour and CO2 exchanges and tested the model against experimental data measured using a commercial greenhouse climate control computer. The identified values of the physical and physiological parameters are close the theoretical values and the accuracy of temperature, humidity and CO2 content is rather good.

  8. H2O heating in molecular clouds - Line transfer and thermal balance in a warm dusty medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Silk, J.; Hollenbach, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation is undertaken into the possibility of the heating of molecular gas through collisions with radiatively pumped H2O, in the context of the overall thermal balance of optically thick molecular clouds with embedded sources. In order to solve the line transfer equation, which includes warm dust grains, an extended method of escape probability approximation is developed in which the equilibrium gas temperature arises from the balance of heating by cosmic ray ionization of H2, and by collisions with warm dust grains and radiatively pumped H2O molecules against cooling by collisions with CO and C I. The equilibrium gas temperature for a given dust temperature strongly depends on the efficiency of the cooling species, and is therefore most sensitive to the cloud optical depth. It is less dependent, in decreasing order, on H2O abundance, gas density, and velocity dispersion.

  9. Application of integral methods to prediction of heat transfer from a nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blesch, C J; Kulacki, F A; Christensen, R N

    1983-10-01

    Integral methods have been developed and applied to the prediction of the far field thermal impact of a nuclear waste repository. Specifically, the heat balance integral has been applied to a semi-infinite layered domain in which a limited number of sublayers form the repository overburden, and the repository is represented by an infinite plane beneath either one or two sublayers. Calculations for PWR spent fuel with an initial areal thermal loading of 60 kW/acre are carried out for various stratigraphies and overburden compositions. Results of the analyses are temperature distributions and heat fluxes to the surface as a function to time. Based on this study, the thermophysical properties of the individual layers are identified as the most important influence on temperature distributions and maximum temperature rise at any position above the repository. The thicknesses of the sublayers play a secondary role for a given rock composition. Where a comparison to exact or numerical solutions is possible, the method predicts maximum temperature increases in the overburden to within 10 percent. Heat fluxes to the surface are found to be relatively insensitive to overburden composition. For dome salt, a maximum of 1.2 percent to 2.7 percent of the initial areal thermal power of a five-term source reaches the surface. For bedded salt, a maximum of 1 percent to 1.8 percent of the initial areal thermal power reaches the surface over a wide range of sublayer compositions. Similarly, low percentages of initial areal thermal power reach the surface for the other stratigraphies considered in the calculations.

  10. An integrated vestibular-cochlear prosthesis for restoring balance and hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Thomas; Djalilian, Hamid; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Chen, Hongbin; Sun, Xiaoan

    2011-01-01

    An integrated vestibular-cochlear implant can be rapidly prototyped and clinically tested by modifying an existing modern cochlear implant. The modifications include addition of gyroscope sensors and reallocation of several electrodes that are normally used for auditory nerve stimulation to the semicircular canals, while sharing the external DSP processor and the internal receiver/stimulator. This paper discusses the validation issues related to hardware and software design that arise in integrating electric hearing and balance onto a single device. The device's initially targeted population will be deaf individuals who also have vestibular impairment since there is a strong ethical justification for vestibular implantation along with minimal additional surgical risk. Because of widespread usage of ototoxic drugs and unique genetic mutations, the patient population with both impaired hearing and balance function is especially prevalent in Asian countries such as China and India. Should such an integrated vestibular-cochlear implant be verified, it could be used to restore balance or treat a wide array of vestibular disorders.

  11. Integration of space heating and hot water supply in low temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    of the consumers involves both domestic hot water and space heating. Space heating may be provided at low temperature in low energy buildings. Domestic hot water, however, needs sufficient temperatures to avoid growth of legionella. If the network temperature is below the demand temperature, supplementary heating......District heating may supply many consumers efficiently, but the heat loss from the pipes to the ground is a challenge. The heat loss may be lowered by decreasing the network temperatures for which reason low temperature networks are proposed for future district heating. The heating demand...... is required by the consumer. We study conventional district heating at different temperatures and compare the energy and exergetic efficiency and annual heating cost to solutions that utilize electricity for supplementary heating of domestic hot water in low temperature district heating. This includes direct...

  12. Body segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and 3D displacement and the estimation of heat balance during locomotion in hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Alan; Collard, Mark; Nelson, Andrew

    2008-06-18

    The conventional method of estimating heat balance during locomotion in humans and other hominins treats the body as an undifferentiated mass. This is problematic because the segments of the body differ with respect to several variables that can affect thermoregulation. Here, we report a study that investigated the impact on heat balance during locomotion of inter-segment differences in three of these variables: surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement. The approach adopted in the study was to generate heat balance estimates with the conventional method and then compare them with heat balance estimates generated with a method that takes into account inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement. We reasoned that, if the hypothesis that inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement affect heat balance during locomotion is correct, the estimates yielded by the two methods should be statistically significantly different. Anthropometric data were collected on seven adult male volunteers. The volunteers then walked on a treadmill at 1.2 m/s while 3D motion capture cameras recorded their movements. Next, the conventional and segmented methods were used to estimate the volunteers' heat balance while walking in four ambient temperatures. Lastly, the estimates produced with the two methods were compared with the paired t-test. The estimates of heat balance during locomotion yielded by the two methods are significantly different. Those yielded by the segmented method are significantly lower than those produced by the conventional method. Accordingly, the study supports the hypothesis that inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement impact heat balance during locomotion. This has important implications not only for current understanding of heat balance during locomotion in hominins but also for how future research on this topic should be approached.

  13. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2013-01-01

    of an integrated system in which steam extracted from an existing combined heat and power unit is used for covering the heating demand of a lignocellulosic ethanol production facility. The integration solution was designed and optimized using already existing steam extraction points in the combined heat and power...... produces ethanol, solid biofuel, molasses, and is able to produce district heating hot water. Considering all products equally valuable, the exergy efficiency of the ethanol facility was found to be 0.790 during integrated operation with zero district heating production, and 0.852 during integrated......Integrating second generation bioethanol production in combined heat and power units is expected to increase system energy efficiencies while producing sustainable fuel for the transportation sector at a competitive price. By applying exergy analysis, this study assessed the efficiency...

  14. Thermal modeling of a greenhouse integrated to an aquifer coupled cavity flow heat exchanger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 008, Punjab (India); Sharma, S.K. [Energy Research Centre, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 017, Punjab (India)

    2007-06-15

    A thermal model is developed for heating and cooling of an agricultural greenhouse integrated with an aquifer coupled cavity flow heat exchanger system (ACCFHES). The ACCFHES works on the principal of utilizing deep aquifer water available at the ground surface through an irrigation tube well already installed in every agricultural field at constant year-round temperature of 24 C. The analysis is based on the energy balance equations for different components of the greenhouse. Using the derived analytical expressions, a computer program is developed in C{sup ++} for computing the hourly greenhouse plant and room air temperature for various design and climatic parameters. Experimental validation of the developed model is carried out using the measured plant and room air temperature data of the greenhouse (in which capsicum is grown) for the winter and summer conditions of the year 2004-2005 at Chandigarh (31 N and 78 E), Punjab, India. It is observed that the predicted and measured values are in close agreement. Greenhouse room air and plant temperature is maintained 6-7 K and 5-6 K below ambient, respectively for an extreme summer day and 7-8 K and 5-6 K above ambient, respectively for an extreme winter night. Finally, parametric studies are conducted to observe the effect of various operating parameters such as mass of the plant, area of the plant, mass flow rate of the circulating air and area of the ACCFHES on the greenhouse room air and plant temperature. (author)

  15. Reducing urban heat island effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Dan; Ochinciuc, Cristina Victoria; Cheval, Sorin; Comşa, Ionuţ; Sîrodoev, Igor; Andone, Radu; Caracaş, Gabriela; Crăciun, Cerasella; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Georgescu, Mihaela; Ianoş, Ioan; Merciu, Cristina; Moraru, Dan; Opriş, Ana; Paraschiv, Mirela; Raeţchi, Sonia; Saghin, Irina; Schvab, Andrei; Tătui-Văidianu, Nataşa

    2017-04-01

    In the recent decades, extreme temperature events and derived hazards are frequent and trigger noteworthy impacts in Romania, especially over the large urban areas. The cities produce significant disturbances of many elements of the regional climate, and generates adverse effects such as Urban Heat Islands (UHI). This presentation condenses the outputs of an ongoing research project (REDBHI) developed through (2013-2017) focused on developing a methodology for monitoring and forecasting indoor climate and energy challenges related to the intensity of UHI of Bucharest (Romania), based on relevant urban climate zones (UCZs). Multi-criteria correlations between the UHI and architectural, urban and landscape variables were determined, and the vulnerability of buildings expressed in the form of transfer function between indoor micro-climate and outdoor urban environment. The vulnerability of civil buildings was determined in relation with the potential for amplifying the thermal hazards intensity through the anthropogenic influence. The project REDBHI aims at developing innovative and original products, with direct applicability, which can be used in any urban settlement and have market potential with regards to energy design and consulting. The concrete innovative outcomes consist of a) localization of the Bucharest UCZs according to the UHI intensity, identifying reference buildings and sub-zones according to urban anthropic factors and landscape pattern; b) typology of representative buildings with regards to energy consumption and CO2 emitted as a result of building exploitation; c) 3D modelling of the reference buildings and of the thermal/energy reaction to severe climatic conditions d) empirical validation of the dynamic thermal/energy analysis; d) development of an pilot virtual studio capable to simulate climate alerts, analyse scenarios and suggest measures to mitigate the UHI effects, and disseminate the outcomes for educational purposes; e) compendium of

  16. A Question of Balance: Exploring the Acculturation, Integration and Adaptation of Muslim Immigrant Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimee Stuart

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses criticisms of contemporary acculturation research by adopting a mixed method approach (open-ended survey responses, interviews, focus groups and projective techniques to the study of the acculturation experiences of Muslim youth in New Zealand. The research explores: 1 the meaning, definition and achievement of success; 2 the process of negotiating multiple social identities; and 3 the graphic representation of identity. Thematic analysis indicated that young Muslims aspire to achieve success in personal, social, material and religious domains and that they seek to balance potentially competing demands from family, friends, the Muslim community and the wider society. At the same time they aspire to balance multiple identities, retaining religious and cultural elements in the definition of self while endeavoring to integrate into the wider society. The process of achieving this balance is characterized by three strategies: alternating orientations, blending orientations and minimizing differences. The findings are discussed in relation to advancing our understanding of integration as an acculturation option, and the community-based policy implications for multicultural societies are considered.

  17. Integrated Cabin and Fuel Cell System Thermal Management with a Metal Hydride Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovland, V.

    2004-12-01

    Integrated approaches for the heating and cooling requirements of both the fuel cell (FC) stack and cabin environment are critical to fuel cell vehicle performance in terms of stack efficiency, fuel economy, and cost. An integrated FC system and cabin thermal management system would address the cabin cooling and heating requirements, control the temperature of the stack by mitigating the waste heat, and ideally capture the waste heat and use it for useful purposes. Current work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) details a conceptual design of a metal hydride heat pump (MHHP) for the fuel cell system and cabin thermal management.

  18. Vapor compression CuCl heat pump integrated with a thermochemical water splitting cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamfirescu, C., E-mail: Calin.Zamfirescu@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada); Naterer, G.F., E-mail: Greg.Naterer@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada); Dincer, I., E-mail: Ibrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada)

    2011-01-10

    In this paper, the feasibility of using cuprous chloride (CuCl) as a working fluid in a new high temperature heat pump with vapor compression is analyzed. The heat pump is integrated with a copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical water splitting cycle for internal heat recovery, temperature upgrades and hydrogen production. The minimum temperature of heat supply necessary for driving the water splitting cycle can be lowered because the heat pump increases the working fluid temperature from 755 K up to {approx}950 K, at a high COP of {approx}6.5. Based on measured data available in past literature, the authors have determined the T-s diagram of CuCl, which is then used for the thermodynamic modeling of the cycle. In the heat pump cycle, molten CuCl is flashed in a vacuum where the vapor quality reaches {approx}2.5%, and then it is boiled to produce saturated vapor. The vapor is then compressed in stages (with inter-cooling and heat recovery), and condensed in a direct contact heat exchanger to transfer heat at a higher temperature. The heat pump is then integrated with a copper-chlorine water splitting plant. The heat pump evaporator is connected thermally with the hydrogen production reactor of the water splitting plant, which performs an exothermic reaction that generates heat at 760 K. Additional source heat is obtained from heat recovery from the hot reaction products of the oxy-decomposer. The heat pump transfers heat at {approx}950 K to the oxy-decomposer to drive its endothermic chemical reaction. It is shown that the heat required at the heat pump source can be obtained completely from internal heat recovery within the plant. First and second law analyses and a parametric study are performed for the proposed system to study the influence of the compressor's isentropic efficiency and temperature levels on the heat pump's COP. Two new indicators are presented: one represents the heat recovery ratio (the ratio between the thermal energy obtained by

  19. Integrated liquid chromatography-heated nebulizer microchip for mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Markus; Saarela, Ville; Pól, Jaroslav; Kolari, Kai; Kotiaho, Tapio; Franssila, Sami; Kostiainen, Risto

    2010-03-10

    A new integrated microchip for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is presented. The chip is made from bonded silicon and glass wafers with structures for a packed LC column channel, a micropillar frit, a channel for optional optical detection, and a heated vaporizer section etched in silicon and platinum heater elements on the glass cover. LC eluent is vaporized and mixed with nebulizer gas in the vaporizer section and the vapor is sprayed out from the chip. Nonpolar and polar analytes can be efficiently ionized in the gas phase by atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) as demonstrated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). This is not achievable with present LC-MS chips, since they are based on electrospray ionization, which is not able to ionize nonpolar compounds efficiently. The preliminary quantitative performance of the new chip was evaluated in terms of limit of detection (down to 5 ng mL(-1)), linearity (r>0.999), and repeatability of signal response (RSD=2.6-4.0%) and retention time (RSD=0.3-0.5%) using APPI for ionization and PAHs as standard compounds. Determination of fluorescent compounds is demonstrated by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for detection in the optical detection channel before the vaporizer section. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Absorption chillers integration in a combined heat and power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, J. C.; Fernandez, F.; Castells, F. [Barcelona Univ., Tarragona (Spain). Dept. d`Enginyeria Quimica i Bioqumica

    1996-11-01

    Inclusion of an absorption cycle within a combined heat and power plant (CHP) was evaluated. To determine the most suitable configuration of the energy network generation system and absorption chiller, a simulation and optimization model was constructed. To validate the optimization model, a case study using actual data from existing operating plants has been used. In the case described the cooling facilities from the absorption cycle were used to lower the inlet temperature to the compressor of the gas turbine to improve the overall plant efficiency. Waste steam from the steam network was used in the generator of the absorption chiller. A reduction in steam wastes, and an improvement in overall plant efficiency was observed. A simulation model of a single effect absorption chiller, using water-lithium bromide as the working fluid pair, was used to validate the methodology. Results showed that the benefits of integrating the absorption refrigeration cycle (ARC) depends directly on the refrigeration demand, and on the benefit produced by the waste steam recovered. The increase in power generation, allowing a reduction in primary energy consumption, showed a slight economic advantage over the conventional compression cycle. 13 refs., 7. tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Some Problems of the Integration of Heat Pump Technology into a System of Combined Heat and Electricity Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Böszörményi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The closure of a part of the municipal combined heat and power (CHP plant of Košice city would result in the loss of 200 MW thermal output within a realtively short period of time. The long term development plan for the Košice district heating system concentrates on solving this problem. Taking into account the extremely high (90 % dependence of Slovakia on imported energy sources and the desirability of reducing the emission of pollutantst the alternative of supplying of 100 MW thermal output from geothermal sources is attractive. However the indices of economic efficiency for this alternative are unsatisfactory. Cogeneration of electricity and heat in a CHP plant, the most efficient way of supplying heat to Košice at the present time. If as planned, geothermal heat is fed directly into the district heating network the efficiency would be greatly reduced. An excellent solution of this problem would be a new conception, preferring the utilization of geothermal heat in support of a combined electricity and heat production process. The efficiency of geothermal energy utilization could be increased through a special heat pump. This paper deals with several aspects of the design of a heat pump to be integrated into the system of the CHP plant.

  2. Modeling landscape evapotranspiration by integrating land surface phenology and a water balance algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel B.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to present an improved modeling technique called Vegetation ET (VegET) that integrates commonly used water balance algorithms with remotely sensed Land Surface Phenology (LSP) parameter to conduct operational vegetation water balance modeling of rainfed systems at the LSP’s spatial scale using readily available global data sets. Evaluation of the VegET model was conducted using Flux Tower data and two-year simulation for the conterminous US. The VegET model is capable of estimating actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of rainfed crops and other vegetation types at the spatial resolution of the LSP on a daily basis, replacing the need to estimate crop- and region-specific crop coefficients.

  3. A 38 to 44GHz sub-harmonic balanced HBT mixer with integrated miniature spiral type marchand balun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an active balanced sub-harmonic mixer (SHM) using InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor technology (DHBT) for Q-band applications. A miniature spiral type Marchand balun with five added capacitances for improved control of amplitude and phase balance is integrated with t...

  4. James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Thermal Vacuum Thermal Balance Test Campaign at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Stuart; Comber, Brian (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, designed as a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope when launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments contained within the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K with radiators, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. Thermal-vacuum testing of the flight science instruments at the ISIM element level has taken place in three separate highly challenging and extremely complex thermal tests within a gaseous helium-cooled shroud inside Goddard Space Flight Centers Space Environment Simulator. Special data acquisition software was developed for these tests to monitor over 1700 flight and test sensor measurements, track over 50 gradients, component rates, and temperature limits in real time against defined constraints and limitations, and guide the complex transition from ambient to final cryogenic temperatures and back. This extremely flexible system has proven highly successful in safeguarding the nearly $2B science payload during the 3.5-month-long thermal tests. Heat flow measurement instrumentation, or Q-meters, were also specially developed for these tests. These devices provide thermal boundaries o the flight hardware while measuring instrument heat loads up to 600 mW with an estimated uncertainty of 2 mW in test, enabling accurate thermal model correlation, hardware design validation, and workmanship verification. The high accuracy heat load measurements provided first evidence of a potentially serious hardware design issue that was subsequently corrected. This paper provides an overview of the ISIM-level thermal-vacuum tests and thermal objectives; explains the thermal test configuration and thermal balances; describes special measurement instrumentation and monitoring and control software; presents key test thermal results

  5. Integration of Space Heating and Hot Water Supply in Low Temperature District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    pipes, where the water is at the highest temperature. The heat loss may be lowered by decreasing the temperatures in the network for which reason low temperature networks are proposed as a low loss solution for future district heating. However, the heating demand of the consumers involve both domestic...... hot water and space heating. Space heating may be provided at low temperature in modern low energy buildings. Domestic hot water, however, needs to reach sufficient temperatures to avoid growth of legionella bacteria. If the network temperature is below the temperature demand, supplementary heating...... is required by the consumer. In the present paper we study conventional district heating at different temperature levels and compare the energy efficiency, the exergetic efficiency and annual heating cost to solutions that utilize electricity for supplementary heating of domestic hot water in low temperature...

  6. Test results of a Stirling engine utilizing heat exchanger modules with an integral heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupinski, Robert C.; Tower, Leonard K.; Madi, Frank J.; Brusk, Kevin D.

    1993-01-01

    The Heat Pipe Stirling Engine (HP-1000), a free-piston Stirling engine incorporating three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe, has been tested at the NASA-Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The heat exchanger modules were designed to reduce the number of potential flow leak paths in the heat exchanger assembly and incorporate a heat pipe as the link between the heat source and the engine. An existing RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine was modified to operate using the heat exchanger modules. This paper describes heat exchanger module and engine performance during baseline testing. Condenser temperature profiles, brake power, and efficiency are presented and discussed.

  7. Evaluation of three energy balance-based evaporation models for estimating monthly evaporation for five lakes using derived heat storage changes from a hysteresis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, Z.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    The heat storage changes (Qt) can be a significant component of the energy balance in lakes, and it is important to account for Qt for reasonable estimation of evaporation at monthly and finer timescales if the energy balance-based evaporation models are used. However, Qt has been often neglected in

  8. Modular Micromachined Si Heat Removal (MOMS Heat Removal): Electronic Integration and System Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    ...: (1) insulated-gated bipolar transistors (IGBTs), and (2) laterally-diffused (LD) MOSFETs. Heat pipes were found to provide little or no advantage over conventional copper-based heat spreaders in both device applications...

  9. An examination of heat rate improvements due to waste heat integration in an oxycombustion pulverized coal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Joshua M.

    Oxyfuel, or oxycombustion, technology has been proposed as one carbon capture technology for coal-fired power plants. An oxycombustion plant would fire coal in an oxidizer consisting primarily of CO2, oxygen, and water vapor. Flue gas with high CO2 concentrations is produced and can be compressed for sequestration. Since this compression generates large amounts of heat, it was theorized that this heat could be utilized elsewhere in the plant. Process models of the oxycombustion boiler, steam cycle, and compressors were created in ASPEN Plus and Excel to test this hypothesis. Using these models, heat from compression stages was integrated to the flue gas recirculation heater, feedwater heaters, and to a fluidized bed coal dryer. All possible combinations of these heat sinks were examined, with improvements in coal flow rate, Qcoal, net power, and unit heat rate being noted. These improvements would help offset the large efficiency impacts inherent to oxycombustion technology.

  10. Using the balanced scorecard to characterize benefits of integration in the safety net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca; Weiner, Bryan

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive framework depicting the potential benefits of integration among health-care providers that serve vulnerable populations. Research teams interviewed participants in 12 integrated functions across seven community health-centre-led networks. Functions included clinical processes; managed care contracting; and administrative services such as human resources, finance, and information systems. Using a Balanced Scorecard framework, benefits were identified across financial, customer, internal business, and learning and growth perspectives. Financial benefits were more frequently cited relative to managed care and administrative functions than relative to clinical functions. Clinical functions were frequently characterized by perceived improvements in patient care quality, while managed-care functions appeared to yield most benefits in access. Administrative functions were most often associated with improvements in internal business operations. There were substantial findings in learning and growth across all three types of integration, in keeping with the early stages of the integrated functions in the study. Findings imply that integration among health-care providers yields a wide range of benefits, but not necessarily quickly or financial in nature.

  11. Performance Characteristics of a Modularized and Integrated PTC Heating System for an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hyuk Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A modularized positive temperature coefficient heating system has controller-integrated heater modules. Such a heating system that uses a high-voltage power of 330 V was developed in the present study for use in electric vehicles. Four heater modules and one controller with an input power of 5.6 kW were integrated in the modularized system, which was designed for improved heating power density and light weight compared to the conventional heating system, in which the controller is separated. We experimentally investigated the performance characteristics, namely, the heating capacity, energy efficiency, and pressure drop, of a prototype of the developed heating system and found it to have satisfactory performance. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of heating systems for electric vehicles.

  12. A condensing and photic solar heat exchanger integrating with the residential construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Wenxiang; Zhang Kaifeng; Wu Limei; Liu Yingchun [Shenyang Inst. of Aeronautical Engineering, LN, Shenyang (China)

    2008-07-01

    The condensing and photic solar heat exchanger (patent number: ZL200520089160.4) introduced in this article has its particular character on design and work. In addition, taking advantage of proper physical principles to integrate with the residential constructions to make them form an integrative system, the superiority of the heat exchanger will be given a full play. A condensing and photic solar heat exchanger can be used simultaneously by several households in the same dwelling unit in the city. In the countryside, a heat exchanger can satisfy people's requirements of bathing and heating, making use of the facilities such as a methane tank in the courtyard. It can also bring its excellence into play in villas using the underground cement heat preservation trough. And people would also feel comfortable and convenient if they work and live in a workshop, which bring the environment full of humanization because of the heat exchanger. (orig.)

  13. Heat shock genes–integrating cell survival and death

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-03-22

    Mar 22, 2007 ... Heat shock induced gene expression and other cellular responses help limit the damage caused by stress and thus facilitate cellular recovery. Cellular damage also triggers apoptotic cell death through several pathways. This paper briefly reviews interactions of the major heat shock proteins with ...

  14. Dynamic link load balancing based integrated routing algorithm in IP-over-WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhang, Yunlin; Zeng, Qingji; Wang, Jianxin; Ye, Tong; Zhou, Yuli

    2004-04-01

    Integrated routing is a routing approach to support the peer interconnection model in IP over WDM networks. To have a better network link load distribution and network usage in IP over WDM networks, in which network nodes may have the ability to handle traffic in fine granularities, it is important to take into account the combined routing at the IP and WDM layers. Based upon this, this paper develops an algorithm for integrated dynamic routing of bandwidth guaranteed paths in IP over WDM networks. For newly dynamic arriving requests, as the developed algorithm takes into account the combined topology and resource usage information at the IP and WDM layers, and the routing procedure makes full use of the statistic information of the users" bandwidth requirement and considers carefully both the routing cost and the corresponding length of the routing path, thus a better link load balancing and network usage can be achieved. Simulation results show that the developed scheme performs well in terms of performance metrics such as the number of rejected demands and the network link load balancing.

  15. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 1: Integrated approach and field campaign results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Vugts, H. F.; Ramothwa, G. K.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. Results of the first part of the program (Botswana 1) which ran from 1 Jan. 1988 - 31 Dec. 1990 are summarized. Botswana 1 consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components in general are described and activities performed during the surface energy modeling component including the extensive field campaign are summarized. The results of the passive microwave component are summarized. The key of the field campaign was a multilevel approach, whereby measurements by various similar sensors were made at several altitudes and resolution. Data collection was performed at two adjacent sites of contrasting surface character. The following measurements were made: micrometeorological measurements, surface temperatures, soil temperatures, soil moisture, vegetation (leaf area index and biomass), satellite data, aircraft data, atmospheric soundings, stomatal resistance, and surface emissivity.

  16. The theoretical and experimental evaluation of the heat balance in perfused tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crezee, J.; Mooibroek, J.; Lagendijk, J. J.; van Leeuwen, G. M.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate treatment planning is necessary for the successful application of hyperthermia in the clinic. The validity of four different bioheat models or combinations of models is evaluated: the conventional bioheat transfer equation, the limited effective conductivity model, a mixed heat

  17. Three‐dimensional aspects of the seasonal heat balance in the Gulf of California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beron‐Vera, F. J; Ripa, P

    2000-01-01

    Previously unresolved three‐dimensional aspects of the time mean, as well as the annual and semiannual cycles of the heat transport, are studied in the Gulf of California using a minimal box model suggested by the hydrographic data...

  18. Surface Heat Balance and Spatially Distributed Ablation Modelling at Koryto Glacier, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Konya, Keiko; Matsumoto, Takane; Naruse,Renji

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of ablation at Koryto Glacier, a mountain glacier under maritime climate in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, we made field observations from August to early September 2000. At a site near the equilibrium line, the 31-day average net radiation, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux were 43, 59 and 31 W-2, respectively. We developed a new distributed ablation model, which only needs measurements of air temperature and global radiation at one site. Hourly ablati...

  19. Balancing current drive and heating in DIII-D high noninductive current fraction discharges through choice of the toroidal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, J. R.; Holcomb, C. T.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Turco, F.; DeBoo, J. C.; Doyle, E. J.; In, Y.; La Haye, R. J.; Murakami, M.; Okabayashi, M.; Park, J. M.; Petrie, T. W.; Petty, C. C.; Reimerdes, H.

    2011-11-01

    In order to maintain stationary values of the stored energy and the plasma current in a tokamak discharge with all of the current driven noninductively, the sum of the α-heating power and the power required to provide externally driven current must be equal to the power required to maintain the pressure against transport losses. In a study of high noninductive current fraction discharges in the DIII-D tokamak, it is shown that in the case of present-day tokamaks with no α-heating, adjustment of the toroidal field strength (BT) is a tool to obtain this balance between the required current drive and heating powers with other easily modifiable discharge parameters (βN, q95, discharge shape, ne) fixed at values chosen to satisfy specific constraints. With all of the external power sources providing both heating and current drive, and βN and q95 fixed, the fraction of externally driven current scales with BT with little change in the bootstrap current fraction, thus allowing the noninductive current fraction to be adjusted.

  20. Albedo, internal heat, and energy balance of Jupiter, preliminary results of the Voyager infrared investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, R. A.; Conrath, B. J.; Herath, L. W.; Kunde, V. G.; Pirraglia, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The in flight calibration of the radiometer and the Michelson interferometer of the Voyager 1 infrared instrument is discussed. The calibrated full disk measurements are applied to derive values of the albedo, the thermal emission and the global energy balance of Jupiter.

  1. 77 FR 39735 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products Containing Same... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit packages provided with multiple... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit packages...

  2. Activated-Carbon Sorbent With Integral Heat-Transfer Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Yavrouian, Andre

    1996-01-01

    Prototype adsorption device used, for example, in adsorption heat pump, to store natural gas to power automobile, or to separate components of fluid mixtures. Device includes activated carbon held together by binder and molded into finned heat-transfer device providing rapid heating or cooling to enable rapid adsorption or desorption of fluids. Concepts of design and fabrication of device equally valid for such other highly thermally conductive devices as copper-finned tubes, and for such other high-surface-area sorbents as zeolites or silicates.

  3. Combined Heat and Power Dispatch Considering Heat Storage of Both Buildings and Pipelines in District Heating System for Wind Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The strong coupling between electric power and heat supply highly restricts the electric power generation range of combined heat and power (CHP units during heating seasons. This makes the system operational flexibility very low, which leads to heavy wind power curtailment, especially in the region with a high percentage of CHP units and abundant wind power energy such as northeastern China. The heat storage capacity of pipelines and buildings of the district heating system (DHS, which already exist in the urban infrastructures, can be exploited to realize the power and heat decoupling without any additional investment. We formulate a combined heat and power dispatch model considering both the pipelines’ dynamic thermal performance (PDTP and the buildings’ thermal inertia (BTI, abbreviated as the CPB-CHPD model, emphasizing the coordinating operation between the electric power and district heating systems to break the strong coupling without impacting end users’ heat supply quality. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CPB-CHPD model has much better synergic benefits than the model considering only PDTP or BTI on wind power integration and total operation cost savings.

  4. Multiple solutions and numerical analysis to the dynamic and stationary models coupling a delayed energy balance model involving latent heat and discontinuous albedo with a deep ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J I; Hidalgo, A; Tello, L

    2014-10-08

    We study a climatologically important interaction of two of the main components of the geophysical system by adding an energy balance model for the averaged atmospheric temperature as dynamic boundary condition to a diagnostic ocean model having an additional spatial dimension. In this work, we give deeper insight than previous papers in the literature, mainly with respect to the 1990 pioneering model by Watts and Morantine. We are taking into consideration the latent heat for the two phase ocean as well as a possible delayed term. Non-uniqueness for the initial boundary value problem, uniqueness under a non-degeneracy condition and the existence of multiple stationary solutions are proved here. These multiplicity results suggest that an S-shaped bifurcation diagram should be expected to occur in this class of models generalizing previous energy balance models. The numerical method applied to the model is based on a finite volume scheme with nonlinear weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction and Runge-Kutta total variation diminishing for time integration.

  5. Multiple solutions and numerical analysis to the dynamic and stationary models coupling a delayed energy balance model involving latent heat and discontinuous albedo with a deep ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J. I.; Hidalgo, A.; Tello, L.

    2014-01-01

    We study a climatologically important interaction of two of the main components of the geophysical system by adding an energy balance model for the averaged atmospheric temperature as dynamic boundary condition to a diagnostic ocean model having an additional spatial dimension. In this work, we give deeper insight than previous papers in the literature, mainly with respect to the 1990 pioneering model by Watts and Morantine. We are taking into consideration the latent heat for the two phase ocean as well as a possible delayed term. Non-uniqueness for the initial boundary value problem, uniqueness under a non-degeneracy condition and the existence of multiple stationary solutions are proved here. These multiplicity results suggest that an S-shaped bifurcation diagram should be expected to occur in this class of models generalizing previous energy balance models. The numerical method applied to the model is based on a finite volume scheme with nonlinear weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction and Runge–Kutta total variation diminishing for time integration. PMID:25294969

  6. Latent Heat Flux Estimate Through an Energy Water Balance Model and Land Surface Temperature from Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Chiara; Sobrino, Jose A.; Mancini, Marco; Hidalgo, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role in the terrestrial water cycle and is responsible for the partitioning of precipitation between runoff and infiltration. Moreover, surface soil moisture controls the redistribution of the incoming solar radiation on land surface into sensible and latent heat fluxes. Recent developments have been made to improve soil moisture dynamics predictions with hydrologic land surface models (LSMs) that compute water and energy balances between the land surface and the low atmosphere. However, most of the time soil moisture is confined to an internal numerical model variable mainly due to its intrinsic space and time variability and to the well known difficulties in assessing its value from remote sensing as from in situ measurements. In order to exploit the synergy between hydrological distributed models and thermal remote sensed data, FEST-EWB, a land surface model that solves the energy balance equation, was developed. In this hydrological model, the energy budget is solved looking for the representative thermodynamic equilibrium temperature (RET) defined as the land surface temperature that closes the energy balance equation. So using this approach, soil moisture is linked to the latent heat flux and then to LST. In this work the relationship between land surface temperature and soil moisture is analysed using LST from AHS (airborne hyperspectral scanner), with a spatial resolution of 2-4 m, LST from MODIS, with a spatial resolution of 1000 m, and thermal infrared radiometric ground measurements that are compared with the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature from the energy water balance model. Moreover soil moisture measurements were carried out during the airborne overpasses and then compared with SM from the hydrological model. An improvement of this well known inverse relationship between soil moisture and land surface temperature is obtained when the thermodynamic approach is used. The analysis of the scale effects of the different

  7. IRAS observations of dust heating and energy balance in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Thomas P.; Young, Erick T.

    1989-01-01

    The equilibrium process dust emission in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud is studied. The luminosity of the cloud is found to closely match the luminosity of the clouds's known embedded and external radiation sources. There is no evidence for a large population of undetected low-luminosity sources within the cloud and unknown external heating is also only a minor source of energy. Most of the cloud's luminosity is emitted in the mid-to-far-IR. Dust temperature maps indicate that the dust is not hot enough to heat the gas to observed temperatures. A simple cloud model with a radiation field composed of flux HD 147889, S1, and Sco OB2 associations predicts the observed IRAS 60 to 100 micron in-band flux ratios for a mean cloud density n(H2) = 1400. Flattened 12 and 25 micron observations show much extended emission in these bands, suggesting stochastic heating of very small grains or large molecules.

  8. Plane infrared heaters for piglets. Heat balance analysis and initial trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, G.

    1985-10-01

    Demand of extra infrared heat to piglets is affected by the feed intake of the pigs and by climate factors as air temperature, insulation of the floor and air velocities. The intensity of infrared heat to the resting area should correspond to the demand of extra heat from a weak newborn pig which is staying in thermal uncomfortable climate and which feed intake corresponds to the maintenance energy requirement. If the air velocity is 0.5 m/s and if the floor consists of concrete without extra insulation the infrared intensity against the resting zone should be at least 210 w/m/sup 2/. The heated area should be at least 0.45 m/sup 2/. The radiation intensity against the resting zone should be as even as possible. The distribution of extra heat to the pigs is more effective from above than the floor. Experiments have shown that plane infrared heaters give a more even temperature below the heater than heating lamps. The temperature of the floor and the air under the heater are strongly affected by the height of the heater above the floor. The insulation value of the floor under the heater will also have a strong influence on the temperature of the floor and the air below the heater. If for example an extra insulation of a 19 mm thick fibre board is added to a concrete floor the temperature rise of the floor and the air will be doubled below the heater. Trials with 2 - 5 days old pigs have shown that the air temperature under the heater should be at least 32 degrees C and the globe temperature at least 34 degrees C. With 8 refs.

  9. Net radiation, sensible and latent heat flux densities on slopes computed by the energy balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo; Qian, Ping

    1990-01-01

    Energy balance components obtained over five grass-covered sloping surfaces near Manhattan, KS, using the Bowen ratio energy balance technique with the instruments mounted horizontally were compared with calculated values when the instruments were mounted parallel to the surfaces. Hourly values of the components changed when the instruments were parallel to the surfaces. The changes were larger at low solar angles (spring and fall) and on steeper slopes. An area average of daylight totals, assuming that all aspects were equally represented, changed only 0.1 percent on June 6 and 2.3 percent on October 11. The calculations, extended to steeper slopes, indicated small changes in the daylight totals for slopes of less than 10 deg.

  10. Possibilities of Heat Pump Integration for the Renovation of Dwelling Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaitis, Vytautas; Siupsinskas, Giedrius

    2011-01-01

    The technical solutions for the installation of heat pumps in individual houses are well known, but its integration in the existing systems in dwelling houses is not common. Heat pump technology is referred to as renewable but would have technical, economic and environmental impact on the whole existing heat supply system in a dwelling house. The aim of this article is to investigate the possibility of using heat pumps for supplying heat to the existing residential buildings. This article examines the possibilities to supplement the engineering systems with additional heat pumps. The smallest heat pump end-user group is the dwelling stairwell. The possibility to use heat pumps in a separate apartment has not been analysed. This article analyses the integration of heat pumps for residential heat supply in the building. The primary heat source is the exhaust air or wastewater. All calculations have been made for several real existing dwelling houses in Birštonas town (Lithuania) within the framework of the CONCERTO Eco-Life project. The analysis also provides economic and environmental assessment of the alternatives. This research was supported by EC FP7 CONCERTO program ("Sustainable Zero Carbon ECO-Town Developments Improving Quality of Life across EU - ECO-Life" (ECO-Life Project) Contract No. TREN/FP7EN/239497/"ECOLIFE").

  11. Modular, thermal bus-to-radiator integral heat exchanger design for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Joe; Ewert, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The baseline concept is introduced for the 'integral heat exchanger' (IHX) which is the interface of the two-phase thermal bus with the heat-rejecting radiator panels. A direct bus-to-radiator heat-pipe integral connection replaces the present interface hardware to reduce the weight and complexity of the heat-exchange mechanism. The IHX is presented in detail and compared to the baseline system assuming certain values for heat rejection, mass per unit width, condenser capacity, contact conductance, and assembly mass. The spreadsheet comparison can be used to examine a variety of parameters such as radiator length and configuration. The IHX is shown to permit the reduction of panel size and system mass in response to better conductance and packaging efficiency. The IHX is found to be a suitable heat-rejection system for the Space Station Freedom because it uses present technology and eliminates the interface mechanisms.

  12. On the controllability and energy sensitivity of heat-integrated desiccant adsorption dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, van G.; Deventer, van H.C.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    This work studies the controllability of heat-integrated zeolite adsorption dryers. Mean product moisture content, temperature and vitamin C concentration (representative of product quality) are considered as controlled variables. Set-point tracking and disturbance rejection controllability metrics

  13. Integration of windpower using cogeneration plants under decreasing space heating consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2004-01-01

    ancillary services for grid stability reasons. Increasing amounts of wind power thus require increasing amounts of electricity generation on large-scale power plants. With heat in Denmark being supplied from such plants, heat savings reduce electricity generation on CHP plants and thereby the amount of wind...... power that may be integrated into the electricity system. However, analyses reveal that even though this is an issue, the fuels savings from heat savings by far exceed the loss in utilisation of wind power....

  14. Real-time impact of power balancing on power system operation with large scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2017-01-01

    regulating power bids are activated manually. In this article, an algorithm is developed to simulate the activation of regulating power bids, as performed in the control room, during power imbalance between generation and load demand. In addition, the active power balance is also controlled through automatic......Highly wind power integrated power system requires continuous active power regulation to tackle the power imbalances resulting from the wind power forecast errors. The active power balance is maintained in real-time with the automatic generation control and also from the control room, where...... power system model. The power system model takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan from power balancing model and the generation and power exchange capacities for the year 2020 into account. The real-time impact of power balancing in a highly wind power integrated power system is assessed...

  15. Optimization of the integrated gas balance planning with PLANGAS; Planejamento integrado e otimizado da movimentacao do gas utilizando o PLANGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iamashita, Edson K.; Iachan, Roberto; Justiniano, Luiz R.S.; Silva, Nelson de M. da; Chaves, Jose R. da C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this paper we propose to explain PLANGAS system, developed by PETROBRAS in order to subsidize the natural gas balance integrated planning of Campos Basin. This system performs the natural gas balance forecasting of a complex pipeline network, with a great deal of platforms, and wide operation possibilities correlated to the large number of variables. The production increasing, equipment process, compressors and pipeline capacity, and even gas price variation are examples considered in gas balance planning. The PLANGAS uses an optimizing mathematical model with linear programming and a database that optimizes the integrated gas balance forecasting, maximizing earnings, considering all the network restrictions. PLANGAS has been in use since 1999, and in 2003, was improved with new advances. This improvement reduced the simulation time providing opportunity to a better result analysis, as well as, higher quality plans. (author)

  16. A model proposal concerning balance scorecard application integrated with resource consumption accounting in enterprise performance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORHAN ELMACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to investigate the “Balance Scorecard (BSC model integrated with Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA” which helps to evaluate the enterprise as matrix structure in its all parts. It aims to measure how much tangible and intangible values (assets of enterprises contribute to the enterprises. In other words, it measures how effectively, actively, and efficiently these values (assets are used. In short, it aims to measure sustainable competency of enterprises. As expressing the effect of tangible and intangible values (assets of the enterprise on the performance in mathematical and statistical methods is insufficient, it is targeted that RCA Method integrated with BSC model is based on matrix structure and control models. The effects of all complex factors in the enterprise on the performance (productivity and efficiency estimated algorithmically with cause and effect diagram. The contributions of matrix structures for reaching the management functional targets of the enterprises that operate in market competitive environment increasing day to day, is discussed. So in the context of modern management theories, as a contribution to BSC approach which is in the foreground in today’s administrative science of enterprises in matrix organizational structures, multidimensional performance evaluation model -RCA integrated with BSC Model proposal- is presented as strategic planning and strategic evaluation instrument.

  17. Heat-integrated liquid-desorption exchanger (HILDE) for CO2 desorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, L.V. van der; Khakharia, P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2016-01-01

    A novel type of separating heat exchanger, called a heat-integrated liquid-desorption exchanger (HILDE), applied to a typical CO2 desorption process, has been investigated both numerically and experimentally. Process simulations, hydrodynamic and mass transfer experiments, and a preliminary cost

  18. Aluminum heat sink enables power transistors to be mounted integrally with printed circuit board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaward, R. C.

    1967-01-01

    Power transistor is provided with an integral flat plate aluminum heat sink which mounts directly on a printed circuit board containing associated circuitry. Standoff spacers are used to attach the heat sink to the printed circuit board containing the remainder of the circuitry.

  19. The integrating factor method for solving the steady heat transfer problems in fractal media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shan-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose the integrating factor method via local fractional derivative for the first time. We use the proposed method to handle the steady heat-transfer equations in fractal media with the constant coefficients. Finally, we discuss the non-differentiable behaviors of fractal heat-transfer problems.

  20. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Khan, Murad; Han, Kijun

    2018-02-25

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption. Hence, we propose a smart home energy management system that reduces unnecessary energy consumption by integrating an automated switching off system with load balancing and appliance scheduling algorithm. The load balancing scheme acts according to defined constraints such that the cumulative energy consumption of the household is managed below the defined maximum threshold. The scheduling of appliances adheres to the least slack time (LST) algorithm while considering user comfort during scheduling. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated against an existing energy management scheme through computer simulation. The simulation results have revealed a significant improvement gained through the proposed LST-based energy management scheme in terms of cost of energy, along with reduced domestic energy consumption facilitated by an automated switching off mechanism.

  1. Process for producing an activated carbon adsorbent with integral heat transfer apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing an integral adsorbent-heat exchanger apparatus useful in ammonia refrigerant heat pump systems. In one embodiment, the process wets an activated carbon particles-solvent mixture with a binder-solvent mixture, presses the binder wetted activated carbon mixture on a metal tube surface and thereafter pyrolyzes the mixture to form a bonded activated carbon matrix adjoined to the tube surface. The integral apparatus can be easily and inexpensively produced by the process in large quantities.

  2. Cross-correlation of output fluctuation and system-balancing cost in photovoltaic integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Ikeda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors analysed the cross-correlation of photovoltaic (PV output fluctuation for the actual PV output time series data in both the Tokyo area and the whole of Japan using the principal component analysis with the random matrix theory. Based on the obtained cross-correlation coefficients, the forecast error for PV output was estimated with/without considering the cross-correlations. Then the operation schedule of thermal plants is calculated to integrate PV output using the proposed unit commitment model with the estimated forecast error. The system-balancing cost of PV system was also estimated with or without demand response. Finally, validity of the concept of ‘local production for local consumption of renewable energy’ and alternative policy implications were discussed.

  3. BALANCED SCORECARD AS AN ADVANCED MANAGEMENT CONCEPT WITHIN THE INTEGRATED QUALITY MANAGEMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Zivojinovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of >Integratedquality management< (IQM model, originating form St.Gallen-model, is reflected in the need for synergic application of new and advanced concepts of management theory and practise. Balanced score card (BSC within IQM model becomes a catalyst of business success for a modern organization by focusing on organizational variables-business strategy, organization structure and corporate culture. BSC is the leading system of performance tracking and strategy implementation, consistent with other management concepts and methods for managing process improvement. Through BSC, IQM processes' activities correlate with organization business results. BSC management processes enable integration of all decision-making levels, from institutional via strategic to operative, in the process starting from planing, i.e. formulating and implementation of strategy, to feed back by performance measurement and control.

  4. An integrated framework for outsourcing using balanced score card and ELECTRE III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Namazi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, many organizations have attempted to increase their productivity through outsourcing parts of their responsibilities. Outsourcing helps firms reduce their low value added activities and focus on their high value added activities. It also helps organization save their time and energy which leads to more efficient units. The idea of outsourcing is more important for project based organizations where the nature of works is different from a particular project to another one. This paper presents an integrated balanced score card system with an adaptation of ELECTRE III method to select suitable resources for outsourcing. The proposed model of the paper is implemented for a case study of subway system in Iran and the results are discussed.

  5. Self-heating co-pyrolysis of excessive activated sludge with waste biomass: energy balance and sludge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong-Sheng; Jiang, Hong

    2013-04-01

    In this work, co-pyrolysis of sludge with sawdust or rice husk was investigated. The results showed that the co-pyrolysis technology could be used to dispose of the excessive activated sludge without external energy input. The results also demonstrated that no obvious synergistic effect occurred except for heat transfer in the co-pyrolysis if the co-feeding biomass and sludge had similar thermogravimetric characteristics. The experimental results combined with calculation showed that adding sawdust accounting for 49.6% of the total feedstock or rice husk accounting for 74.7% could produce bio-oil to keep the energy balance of the co-pyrolysis system and self-heat it. The sludge from solar drying bed can be further reduced by 38.6% and 35.1% by weight when co-pyrolyzed with rice husk and sawdust, respectively. This study indicates that sludge reduction without external heat supply through co-pyrolysis of sludge with waste biomass is practically feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of individual heat pumps on wind power integration – Energy system investments and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Münster, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Individual heat pumps are expected to constitute a significant electricity demand in future energy systems. This demand becomes flexible if investing in complementing heat storage capabilities. In this study, we analyse how the heat pumps can influence the integration of wind power by applying...... an energy system model that optimises both investments and operation, and covers various heat storage options. The Danish energy system by 2030 with around 50–60% wind power is used as a case study. Results show that the heat pumps, even without flexible operation, can contribute significantly...... to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. Investments in heat storages can provide only moderate system benefits in these respects. The main benefit of the flexible heat pump operation is a reduced need for peak/reserve capacity, which is also...

  7. ALTERATION OF THERMAL BALANCE: HYPERTHERMIA, HYPERTHERMIC REACTIONS, HEAT STROKE, AND SUNSTROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Litvitskiy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Author analyzes an etiology, key components of pathogenesis and symptoms of hyperthermic states: hyperthermia, hyperthermic reactions, heat stroke, and sunstroke, adaptive and pathogenic effects, developing in these conditions, and principles of their etiotropic, pathogenetic and symptomatic therapy.Key words: hyperthermic states, disconnectors of oxidative phosphorylation, hypoxia, toxemia.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:96-102

  8. Heat shock genes – integrating cell survival and death

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Sudhan

    H 2004 Expression of heat-shock protein Hsp60 correlated with the apoptotic index and patient prognosis in human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Eur. J. Cancer 40 2804–2811. Fink A L 1999 Chaperone-mediated protein folding; Physiol. Rev. 79 425–449. Gabai V L, Mabuchi K, Mosser D D and Sherman M Y ...

  9. Chicken hepatic response to chronic heat stress using integrated transcriptome and metabolome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara F Jastrebski

    Full Text Available The liver plays a central role in metabolism and is important in maintaining homeostasis throughout the body. This study integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic data to understand how the liver responds under chronic heat stress. Chickens from a rapidly growing broiler line were heat stressed for 8 hours per day for one week and liver samples were collected at 28 days post hatch. Transcriptome analysis reveals changes in genes responsible for cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and DNA repair along with immune function. Integrating the metabolome and transcriptome data highlighted multiple pathways affected by heat stress including glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism along with glutathione production and beta-oxidation.

  10. Method for achieving hydraulic balance in typical Chinese building heating systems by managing differential pressure and flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Xia, Jianjun; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2017-01-01

    and close-to-design room temperatures, as well as 16% heat savings, 74% pump electricity savings, and proper cooling of supply water. The energy consumption savings would therefore have positive environmental impacts, and be reflected in seasonal reductions of 2.1 kg/m2 CO2, 0.02 kg/m2 SO2, and 0.01 kg/m2...... to a lack of pressure and flow control. This study investigated using pre-set radiator valves combined with differential pressure (DP) controllers to achieve hydraulic balance in building distribution systems, and consequently save energy and reduce the emissions. We considered a multi-storey building...... NO x for 3rd step energy efficiency buildings in Beijing....

  11. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  12. Optimal Operation System of the Integrated District Heating System with Multiple Regional Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ui Sik; Park, Tae Chang; Kim, Lae-Hyun; Yeo, Yeong Koo

    This paper presents an optimal production and distribution management for structural and operational optimization of the integrated district heating system (DHS) with multiple regional branches. A DHS consists of energy suppliers and consumers, district heating pipelines network and heat storage facilities in the covered region. In the optimal management system, production of heat and electric power, regional heat demand, electric power bidding and sales, transport and storage of heat at each regional DHS are taken into account. The optimal management system is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) where the objectives is to minimize the overall cost of the integrated DHS while satisfying the operation constraints of heat units and networks as well as fulfilling heating demands from consumers. Piecewise linear formulation of the production cost function and stairwise formulation of the start-up cost function are used to compute nonlinear cost function approximately. Evaluation of the total overall cost is based on weekly operations at each district heat branches. Numerical simulations show the increase of energy efficiency due to the introduction of the present optimal management system.

  13. Leatherbacks Swimming In Silico: Modeling and Verifying Their Momentum and Heat Balance Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Peter N.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Jones, T. Todd; Wyneken, Jeanette; Porter, Warren P.

    2014-01-01

    As global temperatures increase throughout the coming decades, species ranges will shift. New combinations of abiotic conditions will make predicting these range shifts difficult. Biophysical mechanistic niche modeling places bounds on an animal’s niche through analyzing the animal’s physical interactions with the environment. Biophysical mechanistic niche modeling is flexible enough to accommodate these new combinations of abiotic conditions. However, this approach is difficult to implement for aquatic species because of complex interactions among thrust, metabolic rate and heat transfer. We use contemporary computational fluid dynamic techniques to overcome these difficulties. We model the complex 3D motion of a swimming neonate and juvenile leatherback sea turtle to find power and heat transfer rates during the stroke. We combine the results from these simulations and a numerical model to accurately predict the core temperature of a swimming leatherback. These results are the first steps in developing a highly accurate mechanistic niche model, which can assists paleontologist in understanding biogeographic shifts as well as aid contemporary species managers about potential range shifts over the coming decades. PMID:25354303

  14. Leatherbacks swimming in silico: modeling and verifying their momentum and heat balance using computational fluid dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N Dudley

    Full Text Available As global temperatures increase throughout the coming decades, species ranges will shift. New combinations of abiotic conditions will make predicting these range shifts difficult. Biophysical mechanistic niche modeling places bounds on an animal's niche through analyzing the animal's physical interactions with the environment. Biophysical mechanistic niche modeling is flexible enough to accommodate these new combinations of abiotic conditions. However, this approach is difficult to implement for aquatic species because of complex interactions among thrust, metabolic rate and heat transfer. We use contemporary computational fluid dynamic techniques to overcome these difficulties. We model the complex 3D motion of a swimming neonate and juvenile leatherback sea turtle to find power and heat transfer rates during the stroke. We combine the results from these simulations and a numerical model to accurately predict the core temperature of a swimming leatherback. These results are the first steps in developing a highly accurate mechanistic niche model, which can assists paleontologist in understanding biogeographic shifts as well as aid contemporary species managers about potential range shifts over the coming decades.

  15. Integrative analysis of the heat shock response in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brakhage Axel A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus fumigatus is a thermotolerant human-pathogenic mold and the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA in immunocompromised patients. Its predominance is based on several factors most of which are still unknown. The thermotolerance of A. fumigatus is one of the traits which have been assigned to pathogenicity. It allows the fungus to grow at temperatures up to and above that of a fevered human host. To elucidate the mechanisms of heat resistance, we analyzed the change of the A. fumigatus proteome during a temperature shift from 30°C to 48°C by 2D-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE. To improve 2D gel image analysis results, protein spot quantitation was optimized by missing value imputation and normalization. Differentially regulated proteins were compared to previously published transcriptome data of A. fumigatus. The study was augmented by bioinformatical analysis of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in the promoter region of genes whose corresponding proteins were differentially regulated upon heat shock. Results 91 differentially regulated protein spots, representing 64 different proteins, were identified by mass spectrometry (MS. They showed a continuous up-, down- or an oscillating regulation. Many of the identified proteins were involved in protein folding (chaperones, oxidative stress response, signal transduction, transcription, translation, carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. A correlation between alteration of transcript levels and corresponding proteins was detected for half of the differentially regulated proteins. Interestingly, some previously undescribed putative targets for the heat shock regulator Hsf1 were identified. This provides evidence for Hsf1-dependent regulation of mannitol biosynthesis, translation, cytoskeletal dynamics and cell division in A. fumigatus. Furthermore, computational analysis of promoters revealed putative binding sites for an AP-2alpha

  16. AN INTEGRATED MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY EFFICIENT CAR OWNERSHIP AND TRIP BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao FENG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban transport emissions generated by automobile trips are greatly responsible for atmospheric pollution in both developed and developing countries. To match the long-term target of sustainable development, it seems to be important to specify the feasible level of car ownership and travel demand from environmental considerations. This research intends to propose an integrated modeling framework for optimal construction of a comprehensive transportation system by taking into consideration environmental constraints. The modeling system is actually a combination of multiple essential models and illustrated by using a bi-level programming approach. In the upper level, the maximization of both total car ownership and total number of trips by private and public travel modes is set as the objective function and as the constraints, the total emission levels at all the zones are set to not exceed the relating environmental capacities. Maximizing the total trips by private and public travel modes allows policy makers to take into account trip balance to meet both the mobility levels required by travelers and the environmentally friendly transportation system goals. The lower level problem is a combined trip distribution and assignment model incorporating traveler's route choice behavior. A logit-type aggregate modal split model is established to connect the two level problems. In terms of the solution method for the integrated model, a genetic algorithm is applied. A case study is conducted using road network data and person-trip (PT data collected in Dalian city, China. The analysis results showed that the amount of environmentally efficient car ownership and number of trips by different travel modes could be obtained simultaneously when considering the zonal control of environmental capacity within the framework of the proposed integrated model. The observed car ownership in zones could be increased or decreased towards the macroscopic optimization

  17. Predictors of Memory in Healthy Aging: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Balance and Fornix White Matter Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K; Paul, Erick J; Zwilling, Chris E; Barbey, Aron K

    2017-07-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that age and disease-related decline in cognition depends not only upon degeneration in brain structure and function, but also on dietary intake and nutritional status. Memory, a potential preclinical marker of Alzheimer's disease, is supported by white matter integrity in the brain and dietary patterns high in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the extent to which memory is supported by specific omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the degree to which this relationship is reliant upon microstructure of particular white matter regions is not known. This study therefore examined the cross-sectional relationship between empirically-derived patterns of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (represented by nutrient biomarker patterns), memory, and regional white matter microstructure in healthy, older adults. We measured thirteen plasma phospholipid omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, memory, and regional white matter microstructure in 94 cognitively intact older adults (65 to 75 years old). A three-step mediation analysis was implemented using multivariate linear regressions, adjusted for age, gender, education, income, depression status, and body mass index. The mediation analysis revealed that a mixture of plasma phospholipid omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids is linked to memory and that white matter microstructure of the fornix fully mediates the relationship between this pattern of plasma phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids and memory. These results suggest that memory may be optimally supported by a balance of plasma phospholipid omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids through the preservation of fornix white matter microstructure in cognitively intact older adults. This report provides novel evidence for the benefits of plasma phospholipid omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid balance on memory and underlying white matter microstructure.

  18. Upper-Ocean Heat Balance Processes and the Walker Circulation in CMIP5 Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, C.; Lyon, B.; Ricciardulli, L.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable uncertainty remains as to the importance of mechanisms governing decadal and longer variability of the Walker Circulation, its connection to the tropical climate system, and prospects for tropical climate change in the face of anthropogenic forcing. Most contemporary climate models suggest that in response to elevated CO2 and a warmer but more stratified atmosphere, the required upward mass flux in tropical convection will diminish along with the Walker component of the tropical mean circulation as well. Alternatively, there is also evidence to suggest that the shoaling and increased vertical stratification of the thermocline in the eastern Pacific will enable a muted SST increase there-- preserving or even enhancing some of the dynamical forcing for the Walker cell flow. Over the past decade there have been observational indications of an acceleration in near-surface easterlies, a strengthened Pacific zonal SST gradient, and globally-teleconnected dislocations in precipitation. But is this evidence in support of an ocean dynamical thermostat process posited to accompany anthropogenic forcing, or just residual decadal fluctuations associated with variations in warm and cold ENSO events and other stochastic forcing? From a modeling perspective we try to make headway on this question by examining zonal variations in surface energy fluxes and dynamics governing tropical upper ocean heat content evolution in the WCRP CMIP5 model projections. There is some diversity among model simulations; for example, the CCSM4 indicates net ocean warming over the IndoPacific region while the CSIRO model concentrates separate warming responses over the central Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. The models, as with observations, demonstrate strong local coupling between variations in column water vapor, downward surface longwave radiation and SST; but the spatial patterns of changes in the sign of this relationship differ among models and, for models as a whole, with

  19. Optimal Placement of A Heat Pump in An Integrated Power and Heat Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyapovskiy, Sergey; You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2017-01-01

    with the help of mathematical optimization that minimizes investments of both electric and heating utilities, achieving the reduction of the total investment. The optimization is performed in Matlab using built-in Genetic Algorithm function and Matpower software package for calculating power flow equations....

  20. The balancing of existing space heating systems using temperature measurements; L'equilibrage des installations de chauffage existantes par mesure des temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didier, G.

    2004-03-01

    The balancing of space heating systems using the measurements of water temperature or of the ambient temperature is a method used since several decades. However, the results obtained with this method have been very often disappointing. Today, the improvements made in the metrology of surface temperatures allow to reconsider this approach. This technical paper describes: the progresses made in surface temperature measurements, the balancing principle using water temperature measurements, a numerical example and the study of a concrete case (relation between temperature drop and flow rate), and the choice of a balancing method. (J.S.)

  1. Effect of drink pattern and solar radiation on thermoregulation and fluid balance during exercise in chronically heat acclimatized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, José R Rodríguez; Rivera-Brown, Anita M; Frontera, Walter R; Rivera, Miguel A; Mayol, Pedro M; Bar-Or, Oded

    1995-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the thermoregulatory and body fluid balance responses in chronically heat acclimatized children, i.e., indigenous to a tropical climate, during exercise in four outdoor conditions and the effects of dehydration on their thermoregulatory response. Nine children (age = 13.3 ± 1.9 yr, VO 2 max = 45.5 ± 9.2 ml · kg -1 · min -1 ) cycled at 60% VO 2 max each under four conditions: sun exposure voluntary drinking (SuVD), sun exposure forced drinking (SuFD), shaded voluntary drinking (ShVD), and shaded forced drinking (ShFD). Exercise sessions consisted of four 20-min exercise bouts alternating with 25-min rest periods. Globe temperature and the WBGT index were higher during SuVD and SuFD compared to ShVD and ShFD (P dehydration and adequate heat dissipation. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  2. The dynamic warm pool: A new paradigm for understanding the role of the tropics in the global heat balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, P. J.; Hoyos, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    The region of atmospheric heating in the tropics, here termed the dynamic warm pool, represents the "boiler box" of the planetary heat engine and plays a determining role in global climate and tropical weather variability, modulating the genesis and intensification of tropical cyclones, the ascending branches of the Walker and Hadley circulations, monsoons and ENSO variability, and the nature of global teleconnections emanating from the tropics. Hence, it is important to understand how the tropical warm pool has changed in the past and how it may change in the future, and how these changes may alter climate both regionally and globally. The concept of the dynamic warm pool, which encloses the region of net atmospheric convective heating in the tropics, is fundamentally different to the traditionally defined oceanic warm pool corresponding to the area occupied by sea surface temperatures above a pre-defined threshold, typically 28C. While the traditionally defined warm pool has expanded as a result of global warming, the dynamical warm pool has remained constant as a result of an increasing column integrated heating-sea surface temperature threshold. In other words, in a warming climate the convective area does not expand with the area of SST>28C. However, despite the near constancy of the dynamic warm pool area, the magnitude of the column integrated heating in the tropics increases substantially. In light of these results, the traditional warm pool definition and the thresholds for convection and cyclogenesis are not climatically meaningful and lack a physical basis. Rather than a static definition set by a constant temperature, the climatically active warm pool should be defined dynamically by the large-scale coupled ocean-atmosphere system rather than just by the temperature of the ocean surface. In this work we use the concept of the dynamical warm pool as a physical basis to explore and understand long-term variability of tropical cyclogenesis and

  3. SUPPORT OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND BALANCED SCORECARD IN THE INTEGRATION OF NORMATIVE, STRATEGIC AND OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Stevan Živojinović; Andrej Stanimirović

    2012-01-01

    Taking into consideration the problems of strategy implementation, as well as problems of external adaptation and internal integration in the enterprise, through the prism of the application of advanced management concepts, primarily - the quality management system (QMS) and the balanced scorecard (BSC), leads to the opportunity to increase the integration of organizational levels of decision making and management. Understanding the support of the QMS and BSC in relationship coordination - bu...

  4. Integration of available regenerative energy sources in community networks for both electricity and heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcalde Melo, Henrique

    2013-03-06

    In the last years, energy prices for German households have been increasing constantly. Some reasons for that include: the dependency of Germany on external fossil fuels to supply its energy demand, the decision to invest in renewable energy generation and to shut down all its nuclear power plants. Nowadays households are already able to generate energy on-site, however the generation potential depends on climatic conditions as well as the specific location and the type of the building. The aim of this work is to evaluate whether a community of new efficient single-family houses can generate enough energy on-site to supply its electricity and heating demand over the year based on renewable energy sources and with the support of energy storage systems, including electric vehicles. The theoretical community is situated in the city of Cottbus, Germany. For this community, an electricity load profile was designed based on the use of common devices and separated in controllable and uncontrollable loads. Electricity is generated on-site through photovoltaic panels and small wind turbines, and the electricity generation potential is evaluated based on the community's available space, which is rather limited, and the actual regulations in the State of Brandenburg. A comparison of the available technologies to supply the heating demand as well as to store energy in the household sector is presented and discussed. It is assumed that each household has an electric vehicle that can be charged and also discharged in the community as an extra energy storage system. A software simulation system was designed with which an energy balance analysis is carried out based on hourly values of supply and demand. Under the assumptions taken for this study, the results of the simulation show that the community is able to generate more energy than consumed throughout a year, however in a few occasions there is not enough energy available to supply the community's energy demand

  5. THADA Regulates the Organismal Balance between Energy Storage and Heat Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, Alexandra; Cakan-Akdogan, Gulcin; Strassburger, Katrin; Males, Matilda; Mueller, Sandra; Jabs, Markus; Muelleder, Michael; Frejno, Martin; Braeckman, Bart P; Ralser, Markus; Teleman, Aurelio A

    2017-04-10

    Human susceptibility to obesity is mainly genetic, yet the underlying evolutionary drivers causing variation from person to person are not clear. One theory rationalizes that populations that have adapted to warmer climates have reduced their metabolic rates, thereby increasing their propensity to store energy. We uncover here the function of a gene that supports this theory. THADA is one of the genes most strongly selected during evolution as humans settled in different climates. We report here that THADA knockout flies are obese, hyperphagic, have reduced energy production, and are sensitive to the cold. THADA binds the sarco/ER Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) and acts on it as an uncoupler. Reducing SERCA activity in THADA mutant flies rescues their obesity, pinpointing SERCA as a key effector of THADA function. In sum, this identifies THADA as a regulator of the balance between energy consumption and energy storage, which was selected during human evolution. Copyright © 2017 The Francis Crick Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cross-Beam Energy Transfer (CBET) Effect with Additional Ion Heating Integrated into the 2-D Hydrodynamics Code DRACO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.

    2012-10-01

    The cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) effect causes pump and probe beams to exchange energy via stimulated Brillouin scattering.footnotetext W. L. Kruer, The Physics of Laser--Plasma Interactions, Frontiers in Physics, Vol. 73, edited by D. Pines (Addison-Wesley, Redwood City, CA, 1988), p. 45. The total energy gained does not, in general, equate to the total energy lost; the ion-acoustic wave comprises the residual energy balance, which can decay, resulting in ion heating.footnotetext E. A. Williams et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 231 (2004). The additional ion heating can retune the conditions for CBET affecting the overall energy transfer as a function of time. CBET and the additional ion heating are incorporated into the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACOfootnotetext P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 056307 (2005). as an integral part of the 3-D ray trace where CBET is treated self-consistently within on the hydrodynamic evolution. DRACO simulation results employing CBET will be discussed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  7. Challenges of deriving a complete biosphere greenhouse gas balance through integration of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichl, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Past research efforts have mostly focused on separately investigating the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHGs) within the limits of different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem types. More recently however, it has been recognized that GHG exchanges and budgets are not limited to boundaries of the terrestrial or aquatic biosphere components and instead are often tightly linked amongst the different ecosystem types. Primarily the aquatic production and export of GHGs due to substrate supply or discharge from surrounding terrestrial ecosystems play a major role in regional GHG budgets. Understanding the mechanisms and drivers of this connectivity between different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem GHG exchanges is therefore necessary to develop landscape-level GHG budgets and to understand their sensitivity to disturbances of the biosphere. Moreover, the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the most important GHG species has been the primary research objective with regards to obtaining better estimates of the carbon sequestration potential of the biosphere. However, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions may offset CO2 sinks and considerably affect the complete GHG balance in both terrestrial and aquatic systems. Including their contribution and improved knowledge on the dynamics of these two gas species is therefore essential for complete GHG budget estimates. At present, the integration of terrestrial and aquatic GHG exchanges toward landscape GHG budgets poses numerous challenges. These include the need for a better knowledge of i) the contribution of CH4 and N2O to the GHG budgets within contrasting terrestrial (forests, peatlands, grasslands, croplands) and aquatic (lake, streams) ecosystems when integrated over a full year, ii) the effect of ecosystem properties (e.g. age and/or development stage, size of water body) on the GHG balance, iii) the impact of management effects (e.g. nitrogen fertilizer application), iv) differences among climate regions and v

  8. Zero-G Condensing Heat Exchanger with Integral Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The system that operates in a zero gravity environment and has an integral ozone generating capability is disclosed. The system contributes to the control of metabolic water vapors in the air, and also provided disinfection of any resulting condensate within the system, as well as disinfection of the air stream that flows throughout the disclosed system.

  9. A structural equation model of the relationship between muscle strength, balance performance, walking endurance and community integration in stroke survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P W H Kwong

    Full Text Available To use structural equation modelling (SEM to determine (1 the direct and indirect associations of strength of paretic lower limb muscles with the level of community integration, and (2 the direct association of walking endurance and balance performance with the level of community integration in community-dwelling stroke survivors.In this cross-sectional study of 105 stroke survivors, the Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO was used to measure the level of community integration. Lower-limb strength measures included isometric paretic ankle strength and isokinetic paretic knee peak torque. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT were used to evaluate balance performance and walking endurance, respectively.SEM revealed that the distance walked on the 6MWT had the strongest direct association with the SIPSO score (β = 0.41, p <0.001. An increase of one standard deviation in the 6MWT distance resulted in an increase of 0.41 standard deviations in the SIPSO score. Moreover, dorsiflexion strength (β = 0.18, p = 0.044 and the BBS score (β = 0.21, p = 0.021 had direct associations with the SIPSO score.The results of the proposed model suggest that rehabilitation training of community-dwelling stroke survivors could focus on walking endurance, balance performance and dorsiflexor muscle strengthening if the aim is to augment the level of community integration.

  10. Optimization of the Heating Element in a Gas-Gas Heater Using an Integrated Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Mun Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas-gas heaters (GGHs are used to reheat gases through desulfurization in coal-fired power plants to reduce low-temperature corrosion and white smoke. Wrinkled heating elements are installed inside the GGH to perform effective heat exchange. An optimization study of the heating element shape was conducted to reduce the differential pressure effectively and improve performance. An integrated analysis model was applied. Based on actual operational data, a computational fluid dynamic analysis was conducted on the L-type heating element and GGH system. The experiments applied the optimal latin hypercube sampling method, and numerical analysis was performed for each sample. Based on the response surface, the result of the sample was optimized through the pointer algorithm. For the integrated analysis model, validation was performed by comparison with the actual operational data, and the thermal-fluid characteristics of the heating element and GGH system were analyzed to set three parameters: plate angle, undulated angle, and pitch 1. From the optimization result, increases in the undulated angle and pitch 1 reduce the pressure drop by widening the heating element cross section. By increasing the plate angle, the heat transfer area is secured and the reduced heat transfer coefficient is compensated, improving the GGH performance.

  11. Roles of DNA repair and membrane integrity in heat resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Anja; Hahn, Claudia; Rettberg, Petra; Reitz, Günther; Moeller, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    To study the effects of heat shock on Deinococcus radiodurans and the role of DNA repair in high temperature resistance, different strains of D. radiodurans (wild type, recA, irrE, and pprA) were treated with temperatures ranging from 40 to 100 °C under wet and dry conditions. The mutant strains were more sensitive to wet heat of ≥60 °C and dry heat of ≥80 °C than the wild type. Both wild-type and DNA repair-deficient strains were much more resistant to high temperatures when exposed in the dried state as opposed to cells in suspension. Molecular staining techniques with the wild-type strain revealed that cells in the dried state were able to retain membrane integrity after drying and subsequent heat exposure, while heat-exposed cells in suspension showed significant loss of membrane integrity and respiration activity. The results suggest that the repair of DNA damage (e.g., DNA double-strand breaks by RecA and PprA) is essential after treatment with wet heat at temperatures >60 °C and dry heat >80 °C, and the ability of D. radiodurans to stabilize its plasma membrane during dehydration might represent one aspect in the protection of dried cells from heat-induced membrane damage.

  12. Effect of permanent access to operant heating on energy balance of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiergiel, A H

    1987-02-01

    Early-weaned littermate piglets were acclimated to cold for 3 wk and then housed for 6 wk at a room temperature of 10 degrees C in individual cages. Half the littermates (OP) could switch on a heater and thus adjust temperature within a cage; the other half (CP) had access to a source of light only. Food was available ad libitum. It was found that when the room temperature was 10 degrees C OP maintained cage temperature at 17.3 degrees C, whereas that of CP was at 10.4 degrees C (P less than 0.001); rectal temperature of OP was 0.4 degree C (P less than 0.01), and locomotor activity 19.9% (P less than 0.001) higher than in CP. Oxygen consumption measured at 25 degrees C was 12.5% lower (P less than 0.05) in OP than CP, but did not differ when measured at 10 degrees C. There were no differences in food intake and growth rate, but the food conversion ratio was improved by 10.9% (P less than 0.01) in OP in comparison with CP. By the end of the experiment CP had shorter bodies, tails and snouts and smaller heads and ears than CP. No difference in distribution of tissues, size of internal organs, or dry matter and energy content in tissues was observed between the groups. The role of autonomic vs. behavioral thermoregulation in maintaining a mammal's energy balance and thermal homeostasis is discussed.

  13. Development of a PEMFC Power System with Integrated Balance of Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, B.; Diffenderfer, C.; Ferguson, S.; Keyser, J.; Miller, M.; Sievers, B.; Ryan, A.; Vasquez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV s) have received increasing attention in recent years as military and commercial users look for means to maintain a mobile and persistent presence in the undersea world. Compact, neutrally buoyant power systems are needed for both small and large vehicles. Batteries are usually employed in these applications, but the energy density and therefore the mission duration are limited with current battery technology. At a certain energy or mission duration requirement, other means to get long duration power become feasible. For example, above 10 kW-hrs liquid oxygen and hydrogen have better specific energy than batteries and are preferable for energy storage as long as a compact system of about 100 W/liter is achievable to convert the chemical energy in these reactants into power. Other reactant forms are possible, such as high pressure gas, chemical hydrides or oxygen carriers, but it is essential that the power system be small and light weight. Recent fuel cell work, primarily focused on NASA applications, has developed power systems that can meet this target power density. Passive flow-through systems, using ejector driven reactant (EDR) flow, integrated into a compact balance of plant have been developed. These systems are thermally and functionally integrated in much the same way as are automotive, air breathing fuel cell systems. These systems fit into the small volumes required for AUV and future NASA applications. Designs have been developed for both a 21" diameter and a larger diameter (LD) AUV. These fuel cell systems occupy a very small portion of the overall energy system, allowing most of the system volume to be used for the reactants. The fuel cell systems have been optimized to use reactants efficiently with high stack efficiency and low parasitic losses. The resulting compact, highly efficient fuel cell system provides exceptional reactant utilization and energy density. Key design variables and supporting test data are

  14. Institutional profile: integrated center for research and treatment of vertigo, balance and ocular motor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Zwergal, Andreas; Jahn, Klaus; Strupp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the German BMBF (German Ministry of Education and Research) established an Integrated Center for Research and Treatment (IFB(LMU)) of Vertigo, Balance and Ocular Motor Disorders in Munich. After the 10-year period of funding by the BMBF, it is envisioned that the (IFB(LMU)) will continue over the long term with the joint support of the University Hospital, the Medical Faculty, and the Bavarian State. Vertigo is one of the most common complaints in medicine. Despite its high prevalence, patients with vertigo generally receive either inappropriate or inadequate treatment. This deplorable situation is internationally well known and its causes are multiple: insufficient interdisciplinary cooperation, no standardized diagnostics and therapy, the failure to translate findings of basic science into clinical applications, and the scarcity of clinical multicenter studies. The (IFB(LMU)) will constitute a suitable tool with which these structural, clinical, and scientific deficits can be overcome. It will also make possible the establishment of an international interdisciplinary referral center. Munich has become the site of a unique concentration of leading experts on vertigo, balance and ocular motor disorders, both in the clinical and basic sciences. Academic structures have paved the way for the creation of an interdisciplinary horizontal network that also allows structured, vertical academic career paths via the Bachelor's and Master's degree programs in Neuroscience, a Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences, and the Munich Center for Neurosciences - Brain and Mind. The (IFB(LMU)) has the following objectives as regards structure and content: to create an independent patient-oriented clinical research center under the auspices of the Medical Faculty but with autonomous administration and budget; to overcome existing clinical and academic barriers separating the traditional specializations; to establish a standardized interdisciplinary longitudinal and

  15. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol production is often assumed integrated in polygeneration systems because of its energy intensive nature. The objective of this study is to investigate potential irreversibilities from such integration, and what impact it has on the efficiency of the integrated ethanol...... production. An exergy analysis is carried out for a modelled polygeneration system in which lignocellulosic ethanol production based on hydrothermal pretreatment is integrated in an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The ethanol facility is driven by steam extracted from the CHP unit when feasible...... in the ethanol facility. The calculated standard exergy efficiency of the ethanol facility varied from 0.564 to 0.855, of which the highest was obtained for integrated operation at reduced CHP load and full district heating production in the ethanol facility, and the lowest for separate operation with zero...

  17. Shp2 controls female body weight and energy balance by integrating leptin and estrogen signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhao; Zhang, Sharon S; Meng, Qingyuan; Li, Shuangwei; Zhu, Helen H; Raquil, Marie-Astrid; Alderson, Nazilla; Zhang, Hai; Wu, Jiarui; Rui, Liangyou; Cai, Dongsheng; Feng, Gen-Sheng

    2012-05-01

    In mammals, leptin regulates food intake and energy balance mainly through the activation of LepRb in the hypothalamus, and estrogen has a leptin-like effect in the hypothalamic control of metabolism. However, it remains to be elucidated how estrogen signaling is intertwined with the leptin pathway. We show here that Shp2, a nonreceptor tyrosine phosphatase, acts to integrate leptin and estrogen signals. The expression of a dominant-active mutant (Shp2(D61A)) in forebrain neurons conferred female, but not male, transgenic mice resistance to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and liver steatosis, accompanied by improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Fed with either HFD or regular chow food, Shp2(D61A) female mice showed dramatically enhanced leptin sensitivity. Microinjection of Shp2(D61A)-expressing adeno-associated virus into mediobasal hypothalamus elicited a similar antiobese effect in female mice. Biochemical analyses showed a physical association of Shp2 with estrogen receptor alpha, which is necessary for the synergistic and persistent activation of Erk by leptin and estrogen. Together, these results elucidate a mechanism for the direct cross talk of leptin and estrogen signaling and offer one explanation for the propensity of postmenopausal women to develop obesity.

  18. Circumventricular organs: targets for integration of circulating fluid and energy balance signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimee, Andrea; Smith, Pauline M; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2013-09-10

    The subfornical organ (SFO), as one of the sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs), is among the only central nervous system structures which interfaces directly with circulating substances that do not cross the blood brain barrier. Here we describe a growing literature showing that circulating indicators of cardiovascular (angiotensin II, osmolarity, calcium, sodium) and metabolic (adiponectin, amylin, glucose, ghrelin, leptin) statuses influence the excitability of single SFO neurons. Single cell electrophysiological studies from our laboratory have demonstrated excitatory effects of angiotensin II on individual SFO neurons, and changes in angiotensin II receptor expression in this CVO in hypertensive states emphasize the dynamic contribution of SFO neurons to the regulation of fluid balance. Furthermore, we have shown both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing effects of the adipokines adiponectin and leptin in SFO cells, and highlight that conditions of fasting in the case of adiponectin, and obesity in the case of leptin, alter the sensitivity of SFO neurons to these circulating factors. The results examined in this review provide evidence for a role of the SFO as a mediator and integrative structure in the maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ming [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Yin, Hongxi [Southeast University, Nanjing, China

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  20. Enhancing Thermodynamic Efficiency of Energy Intensive Distillation Columns via Internal Heat Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Olujić, Ž.; Sun, L.; Gadalla, M.; de Rijke, A.; Jansens, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    As demonstrated in the present simulation study, taking propylene/propane splitter as base case, an internally heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC), with rectification section operating at higher pressure and temperature than the stripping section, offers significant potential for energy saving compared to energy requirements associated with operation of conventional and heat-pump assisted distillation columns. The rectification section of a propylene/propane splitter contains us...

  1. Closure integrity testing of heat sealed aseptic packaging using scanning acoustic microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrosson, Bruno P.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the possible application of ultrasonic inspection for non-destructive, online evaluation of the integrity of heat sealed, flexible package structure commonly used in packaging of aseptic and shelf-stable food products. A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), Olympus UH-3, and image analysis system were used to establish the operational parameters to ultrasonically inspect the heat seal closure of various flexible packages. The...

  2. The use of superficial heat for treatment of temporomandibular disorders: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Renata Maria Moreira Moraes; Giovanardi, Raquel Safar; Britto, Ana Teresa Brandão de Oliveira e; Oliveira e Britto, Denise Brandão de

    2015-01-01

    To perform an integrative review of scientific bibliographic production on the use of superficial heat treatment for temporomandibular disorders. Research strategy : Literature review was accomplished on PubMed, LiLACS, SciELO, Bireme, Web of Science, and BBO databases. The following descriptors were used: hot temperature, hyperthermia induced, heat transference, temporomandibular joint, temporomandibular joint disorders, temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome, and their equivalents in Portuguese and Spanish. Articles that addressed the superficial heat for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders, published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese, between 1980 and 2013. The following data were collected: technique of applying superficial heat, duration of application, stimulated body area, temperature of the stimulus, frequency of application, and benefits. initially, 211 studies were found, but just 13 contemplated the proposed selection criteria. Data were tabulated and presented in chronological order. Several techniques for superficial heat application on treatment of temporomandibular disorders were found in the literature. The moist heat was the most widely used technique. Many studies suggested the application of heat for at least 20 minutes once a day. Most authors recommended the application of heat in facial and cervical regions. The heat treatment resulted in significant relief of pain, reduced muscle tension, improved function of the mandible, and increased mouth opening.

  3. Calculation of heat capacities of light and heavy water by path-integral molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Motoyuki; Shinoda, Wataru

    2005-10-01

    As an application of atomistic simulation methods to heat capacities, path-integral molecular dynamics has been used to calculate the constant-volume heat capacities of light and heavy water in the gas, liquid, and solid phases. While the classical simulation based on conventional molecular dynamics has estimated the heat capacities too high, the quantum simulation based on path-integral molecular dynamics has given reasonable results based on the simple point-charge/flexible potential model. The calculated heat capacities (divided by the Boltzmann constant) in the quantum simulation are 3.1 in the vapor H2O at 300 K, 6.9 in the liquid H2O at 300 K, and 4.1 in the ice Ih H2O at 250 K, respectively, which are comparable to the experimental data of 3.04, 8.9, and 4.1, respectively. The quantum simulation also reproduces the isotope effect. The heat capacity in the liquid D2O has been calculated to be 10% higher than that of H2O, while it is 13% higher in the experiment. The results demonstrate that the path-integral simulation is a promising approach to quantitatively evaluate the heat capacities for molecular systems, taking account of quantum-mechanical vibrations as well as strongly anharmonic motions.

  4. A Swedish integrated pulp and paper mill-Energy optimisation and local heat cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klugman, S. [Department of Technology and Building Environment, University of Gaevle, SE-80 176 Gaevle (Sweden); Karlsson, M. [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)], E-mail: magnus.karlsson@liu.se; Moshfegh, B. [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2009-07-15

    Heat cooperation between industries and district heating companies is often economically and environmentally beneficial. In this paper, energy cooperation between an integrated Swedish pulp and paper mill and two nearby energy companies was analysed through economic optimisations. The synergies of cooperation were evaluated through optimisations with different system perspectives. Three changes of the energy system and combinations of them were analysed. The changes were process integration, extending biofuel boiler and turbine capacity and connection to a local heat market. The results show that the single most promising system change is extending biofuel and turbine capacity. Process integration within the pulp and paper mill would take place through installing evaporation units that yield less excess heat but must in this particular case be combined with extended biofuel combustion capacity in order to be beneficial. Connecting to the local heat market would be beneficial for the pulp and paper mill, while the studied energy company needs to extend its biofuel capacity in order to benefit from the local heat market. Furthermore, the potential of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through the energy cooperation is shown to be extensive; particularly if biofuel and turbine capacity is increased.

  5. A Swedish integrated pulp and paper mill. Energy optimisation and local heat cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klugman, S. [Department of Technology and Building Environment, University of Gaevle, SE-80 176 Gaevle (Sweden); Karlsson, M.; Moshfegh, B. [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2009-07-15

    Heat cooperation between industries and district heating companies is often economically and environmentally beneficial. In this paper, energy cooperation between an integrated Swedish pulp and paper mill and two nearby energy companies was analysed through economic optimisations. The synergies of cooperation were evaluated through optimisations with different system perspectives. Three changes of the energy system and combinations of them were analysed. The changes were process integration, extending biofuel boiler and turbine capacity and connection to a local heat market. The results show that the single most promising system change is extending biofuel and turbine capacity. Process integration within the pulp and paper mill would take place through installing evaporation units that yield less excess heat but must in this particular case be combined with extended biofuel combustion capacity in order to be beneficial. Connecting to the local heat market would be beneficial for the pulp and paper mill, while the studied energy company needs to extend its biofuel capacity in order to benefit from the local heat market. Furthermore, the potential of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through the energy cooperation is shown to be extensive; particularly if biofuel and turbine capacity is increased. (author)

  6. Error field measurement, correction and heat flux balancing on Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerson, Samuel A.; Otte, Matthias; Jakubowski, Marcin; Israeli, Ben; Wurden, Glen A.; Wenzel, Uwe; Andreeva, Tamara; Bozhenkov, Sergey; Biedermann, Christoph; Kocsis, Gábor; Szepesi, Tamás; Geiger, Joachim; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn; Gates, David; The W7-X Team

    2017-04-01

    The measurement and correction of error fields in Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is critical to long pulse high beta operation, as small error fields may cause overloading of divertor plates in some configurations. Accordingly, as part of a broad collaborative effort, the detection and correction of error fields on the W7-X experiment has been performed using the trim coil system in conjunction with the flux surface mapping diagnostic and high resolution infrared camera. In the early commissioning phase of the experiment, the trim coils were used to open an n/m  =  1/2 island chain in a specially designed magnetic configuration. The flux surfacing mapping diagnostic was then able to directly image the magnetic topology of the experiment, allowing the inference of a small  ∼4 cm intrinsic island chain. The suspected main sources of the error field, slight misalignment and deformations of the superconducting coils, are then confirmed through experimental modeling using the detailed measurements of the coil positions. Observations of the limiters temperatures in module 5 shows a clear dependence of the limiter heat flux pattern as the perturbing fields are rotated. Plasma experiments without applied correcting fields show a significant asymmetry in neutral pressure (centered in module 4) and light emission (visible, H-alpha, CII, and CIII). Such pressure asymmetry is associated with plasma-wall (limiter) interaction asymmetries between the modules. Application of trim coil fields with n  =  1 waveform correct the imbalance. Confirmation of the error fields allows the assessment of magnetic fields which resonate with the n/m  =  5/5 island chain. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher, by accepting the article for publication acknowledges, that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world

  7. Comparing electricity, heat and biogas storages’ impacts on renewable energy integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Increasing penetration of fluctuating energy sources for electricity generation, heating, cooling and transportation increase the need for flexibility of the energy system to accommodate the fluctuations of these energy sources. Controlling production, controlling demand and utilising storage......-inclusive 100% renewable energy scenario developed for the Danish city Aalborg based on wind power, bio-resources and low-temperature geothermal heat. The article investigates the system impact of different types of energy storage systems including district heating storage, biogas storage and electricity...... options are the three general categories of measures that may be applied for ensuring balance between production and demand, however with fluctuating energy sources, options are limited, and flexible demand has also demonstrated limited perspective. This article takes its point of departure in an all...

  8. Air source integrated heat pump simulation model for EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo; New, Joshua; Baxter, Van

    2017-12-01

    An Air Source Integrated Heat Pump (AS-IHP) is an air source, multi-functional spacing conditioning unit with water heating function (WH), which can lead to great energy savings by recovering the condensing waste heat for domestic water heating. This paper summarizes development of the EnergyPlus AS-IHP model, introducing the physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. Based on the model, building energy simulations were conducted to demonstrate greater than 50% annual energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, using the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We assessed water heating energy saving potentials using AS-IHP versus both gas and electric baseline systems, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising. In addition, a grid integration strategy was investigated to reveal further energy saving and electricity cost reduction potentials, via increasing the water heating set point temperature during off-peak hours and using larger water tanks.

  9. Manufacturing of tailored tubes with a process integrated heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordych, Illia; Boiarkin, Viacheslav; Rodman, Dmytro; Nürnberger, Florian

    2017-10-01

    The usage of work-pieces with tailored properties allows for reducing costs and materials. One example are tailored tubes that can be used as end parts e.g. in the automotive industry or in domestic applications as well as semi-finished products for subsequent controlled deformation processes. An innovative technology to manufacture tubes is roll forming with a subsequent inductive heating and adapted quenching to obtain tailored properties in the longitudinal direction. This processing offers a great potential for the production of tubes with a wide range of properties, although this novel approach still requires a suited process design. Based on experimental data, a process simulation is being developed. The simulation shall be suitable for a virtual design of the tubes and allows for gaining a deeper understanding of the required processing. The model proposed shall predict microstructural and mechanical tube properties by considering process parameters, different geometries, batch-related influences etc. A validation is carried out using experimental data of tubes manufactured from various steel grades.

  10. Quantitative trait loci for energy balance traits in an advanced intercross line derived from mice divergently selected for heat loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry J. Leamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in human populations, currently a serious health concern, is considered to be the consequence of an energy imbalance in which more energy in calories is consumed than is expended. We used interval mapping techniques to investigate the genetic basis of a number of energy balance traits in an F11 advanced intercross population of mice created from an original intercross of lines selected for increased and decreased heat loss. We uncovered a total of 137 quantitative trait loci (QTLs for these traits at 41 unique sites on 18 of the 20 chromosomes in the mouse genome, with X-linked QTLs being most prevalent. Two QTLs were found for the selection target of heat loss, one on distal chromosome 1 and another on proximal chromosome 2. The number of QTLs affecting the various traits generally was consistent with previous estimates of heritabilities in the same population, with the most found for two bone mineral traits and the least for feed intake and several body composition traits. QTLs were generally additive in their effects, and some, especially those affecting the body weight traits, were sex-specific. Pleiotropy was extensive within trait groups (body weights, adiposity and organ weight traits, bone traits and especially between body composition traits adjusted and not adjusted for body weight at sacrifice. Nine QTLs were found for one or more of the adiposity traits, five of which appeared to be unique. The confidence intervals among all QTLs averaged 13.3 Mb, much smaller than usually observed in an F2 cross, and in some cases this allowed us to make reasonable inferences about candidate genes underlying these QTLs. This study combined QTL mapping with genetic parameter analysis in a large segregating population, and has advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits related to obesity.

  11. Quantitative trait loci for energy balance traits in an advanced intercross line derived from mice divergently selected for heat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, Larry J; Elo, Kari; Nielsen, Merlyn K; Thorn, Stephanie R; Valdar, William; Pomp, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in human populations, currently a serious health concern, is considered to be the consequence of an energy imbalance in which more energy in calories is consumed than is expended. We used interval mapping techniques to investigate the genetic basis of a number of energy balance traits in an F11 advanced intercross population of mice created from an original intercross of lines selected for increased and decreased heat loss. We uncovered a total of 137 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits at 41 unique sites on 18 of the 20 chromosomes in the mouse genome, with X-linked QTLs being most prevalent. Two QTLs were found for the selection target of heat loss, one on distal chromosome 1 and another on proximal chromosome 2. The number of QTLs affecting the various traits generally was consistent with previous estimates of heritabilities in the same population, with the most found for two bone mineral traits and the least for feed intake and several body composition traits. QTLs were generally additive in their effects, and some, especially those affecting the body weight traits, were sex-specific. Pleiotropy was extensive within trait groups (body weights, adiposity and organ weight traits, bone traits) and especially between body composition traits adjusted and not adjusted for body weight at sacrifice. Nine QTLs were found for one or more of the adiposity traits, five of which appeared to be unique. The confidence intervals among all QTLs averaged 13.3 Mb, much smaller than usually observed in an F2 cross, and in some cases this allowed us to make reasonable inferences about candidate genes underlying these QTLs. This study combined QTL mapping with genetic parameter analysis in a large segregating population, and has advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits related to obesity.

  12. An Integrated Investigation of the Sea Ice-Ocean Energy Balance using Satellite Remote Sensing, Autonomous In-Situ Observations, and Three-Dimensional Sea Ice Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, N.; Polashenski, C. M.; Skyllingstad, E. D.; Perovich, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    A key process that exerts control over sea ice mass balance in the Arctic Ocean is the partitioning of incident solar radiation between reflection back to the atmosphere and absorption into the ice and upper ocean. The amount and distribution of solar energy absorbed is highly dependent on the fractional coverage of sea ice surface types. We use a newly developed satellite image processing technique to classify the sea ice surface type into four categories: thick or snow covered ice, thin ice, ponds, and open water. The high resolution optical satellite imagery allows us to quantify the evolution of surrounding ice conditions, including melt pond coverage and floe size distribution, at a sub-meter scale over scenes of approximately 700km2. We integrate these results with in-situ measurements collected by Arctic Observing Network (AON) sites and reanalysis products from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. AON assets, including ice mass balance buoys and ice tethered profilers, monitor the storage and fluxes of heat in the ice-ocean system, while the reanalysis products inform the long and shortwave radiation fluxes through cloud fraction and cloud temperature. These datasets provide a series of snapshots of the surface types, snow and ice characteristics, and radiative fluxes. We use a resolved sea ice model (RSIM) to integrate these snapshots, filling in the temporal gaps to develop a physically-based description of the ice-ocean system at the AON sites over time. The combined representation of the ice-ocean system is used to evaluate the absorption, storage, and release of solar shortwave energy and its effect on the sea ice mass balance.

  13. Evaluating artificial lifted wells with resistive downhole heating through an integrated numerical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caicedo, Sergio; Araujo, Alexandra [PDVSA S.A. - Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (Venezuela). INTEVEP - Instituto Tecnologico Venezolano de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    Resistive downhole heating has been applied in Canada as a thermal recovery technique in tar sand pay zones. Usually the tool is installed, the well is shut in during a long period of time while the reservoir is heated and finally the well is gotten back into production. However, some production engineers claim that this tool would be useful to improve the artificial lift performance when handling viscous heavy oil. Although, this concept sounds feasible there is no commercial software to evaluate such idea; usually sucker rod pumping simulators do not consider downhole heaters and temperature increase is difficult to determine because depends on the heating power and fluid rate. Thus, in order to quantify the performance of the artificial lift system an integrated numerical model was developed which included the heating power, heat losses in the tubing string, reservoir inflow performance and rod string friction stresses that govern the artificial lift methods (Progressive Cavity pumping and Sucker Rod Pumping). Numerical results show that downhole heating improves the artificial lift performance; however, it should be highlighted that there are other practical ways to get the same effects such as diluent injection and special completions. In other words, resistive downhole heating should be used for thermal recovery and take advantage of the higher temperatures expected after the heating stage in order to get an improvement not only in the recovery factor but also in productivity index and the artificial lift efficiency. (author)

  14. Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J' Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated

  15. Experimental Evaluation of the Thermal Performance of Raised Floor Integrated Radiant Heating Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Woo Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a method for the evaluation of the thermal output of radiant heating panels by employing a modification of the currently used method, which is recommended by existing standards, using cooling plates. We aim to overcome the absence in the measurement method of the downward thermal output as well as to address the challenges in the control of the heat transfer resistance of the heat transfer layer, which arise due to the contact resistance between the layers. Using the modified method, we compare the thermal performance of three types of raised floor integrated radiant heating panels that have different filler materials for the bottom insulation of the panel. We show that the most efficient sample panel is the one that is not filled with a material; with an efficiency of 70.1%. In addition, we show that the value of the gradient of the characteristic curve calculated by the existing method ranged between 7.2% to 14.9% larger than that obtained by modified method. This difference is attributed to the heat transfer resistance of the heat transfer layer that is present in the experiments, and has a value in the interval of 0.1096 m 2 K / W to 0.1582 m 2 K / W . This is caused by the contact resistance between the heat transfer layer and other layers, even though the heat transfer resistance of the heat transfer layer used in the experiment is 0.0985 m 2 K / W . The modified method proposed in this study reveals that the experimental results are not influenced by the heat transfer resistance of the heat transfer layer. We also show that our experimental results are reproducible.

  16. Time-interval for integration of stabilizing haptic and visual information in subjects balancing under static and dynamic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS) continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a) subtract or integrate sensory inputs; (b) move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa; and (c) adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1–2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift) in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training devices

  17. Time-interval for integration of stabilizing haptic and visual information in subjects balancing under static and dynamic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis eHoneine

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a subtract or integrate sensory inputs, (b move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa, and (c adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1-2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training

  18. Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Business Case Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further

  19. Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

  20. Scale analysis and integral approximation applied to heat and mass transfer in packed beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we apply two mathematical tools for the analysis of models describing heat and mass transfer in dispersed systems, namely scale analysis and integral approximation. The particular model investigated is a 1-D model describing the cooling of packed beds of fresh agricultural produce

  1. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycleWasteHeatRecovery (WHR)systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine andWHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel

  2. Installation package for integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronic subsystem - solar heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of the Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual and information on the power panel and programmable microprocessor, a hydronic solar pump system and a hydronic heating hot water pumping system. These systems are integrated into various configurations for usages in solar energy management, control and monitoring, lighting control, data logging and other solar related applications.

  3. Energylab Nordhavn: An integrated community energy system towards green heating and e-mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiawei; You, Shi; Zong, Yi

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the green potential of a newly developed urban community, i.e., Nordhavn, in Copenhagen, Denmark from a planning perspective, wherein the energy sector of power, heat and transportation will be developed as an integrated energy system solution. Based on an hour-by-hour analysis...

  4. Simulation of temperature in office with building integrated heating and cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter

    2002-01-01

    by raising the temperature of the concrete to slightly above the desired room temperature. Another way of solving the problem of cooling is by using building integrated cooling in floors. This technique utilizes the thermal mass of concrete in the floors, by integrating PEX pipes in the floor. By maintaining...... the temperature of the concrete to a level slightly below the desired room temperature, the concrete will work as an absorber for the excess heat in the office. This can significantly reduce the need for air conditioning, which will give both improved indoor climate and lower energy costs in the building...... and thermal comfort parameters. The model is based on a numerical Finite Control Volume (FCV) method for the heat transfer in walls, ceiling, windows and floor. The model uses both convective and radiative heat transfer to the room air and between the room surfaces. The simulation model can be used...

  5. Optimal Operation of the Integrated Electrical and Heating Systems to Accommodate the Intermittent Renewable Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinghua; Fang, Jiakun; Zeng, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The integration of electrical and heating systems has great potential to enhance the flexibility of power systems to accommodate more renewable power such as the wind and solar. This study was to investigate an optimal way to integrate the energy of both systems in urban areas. The amount of energy...... the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The results showed that coordinated optimization of the energy distribution have significant benefits for reducing wind curtailment, operation cost, and energy losses. The proposed model and methodology could help system operators with decision support in the emerging...... conversion between the electrical system and heating system was optimally decided so that the demand within both systems could be met at the least operational cost. Besides, the best node to join with the electrical system and heating system was chosen by consideration of the energy transmission loss...

  6. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. The design of integrated cooling processes in district heating systems; Kylprocessers design i fjaerrvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Viktoria [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (SE). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology; Setterwall, Fredrik [Fredrik Setterwall Konsult AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Andersson, Mikael [AB Berglunds Rostfria, Boden (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results from an investigation regarding the design of integrated cooling processes in district heating systems. Increasing investment levels in district heating networks combined with expanding comfort cooling demand makes heat-driven cooling processes extremely interesting. This solution has a great potential tbe cost effective. At the same time, the problem with the environmentally harmful refrigerants used in conventional vapor compression chillers is avoided. In many cases it is beneficial for the district heating provider to lower the supply and/or return temperatures in the network, at least for part of the year. In combined heat and power generation (CHP) a lower supply temperature means that the electricity yield increases. In this context, it is important to consider that conventional absorption chillers are designed to run on 120 deg C heat. However,they can work on heat with temperature as low as 80 deg C if a chiller with a large enough generator area is used, although this has a negative impact on the dimensions of other components and leads ta lower coefficient of performance. For these reasons low temperature driven absorption chillers have been developed in recent years. Two concepts (from different manufacturers) are now available on the market. Factors that affect the choice of district heat-integrated cooling processes have been investigated in this study. Key system aspects that embody a holistic view on the production of heating, cooling and power are especially highlighted. Important tasks have been: To quantify the following effects on the design of an integrated cooling process: the temperatures in the district heating net, available cooling water temperature (to cool the absorber and condenser), electricity price, and the composition of the energy system (e.g. fuel and CHP or power-only mode of operation). To analyze the potential of the low temperature driven chiller concept with regards to energy and cost

  8. Experimental performance and parametric analysis of heat pipe heat exchanger for air conditioning application integrated with evaporative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Tushar S.; Lele, Mandar M.

    2017-11-01

    The experimental performance of different heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX) configurations using distilled water as the working fluid is reported in the present study. The three HPHX configurations in the present investigation include HPHX with single wick structure (HPHX 1), HPHX with composite wick structure (HPHX 2) and hybrid HPHX (HPHX 3) which is the combination of HPHX 1 and HPHX 2. The parameters considered for the parametric analysis of HPHX in all the three configurations are outdoor air dry bulb temperature entering the evaporator section of HPHX (OADBT), return air dry bulb temperature entering the condenser section of HPHX (RADBT), outdoor air velocity (Ve) and return air velocity (Vc). The OADBT is varied between 40 and 24 °C and the outdoor & return air velocities between 0.6 and 2.4 m/s. The parametric analysis of HPHX without evaporative cooling is studied for RADBT = 24 °C whereas RADBT is maintained at 20 °C for the parametric analysis of HPHX integrated with evaporative cooling. In comparison with HPHX without evaporative cooling, the performance of HPHX with evaporative cooling is enhanced by 17% for single wick structure (HPHX 1), 47% for composite wick structure (HPHX 2) and 59% for hybrid HPHX (HPHX 3) for OADBT = 40 °C and at Ve = Vc of 0.6 m/s. The results of the experimental analysis highlights the benefits of HPHX integrated with evaporative cooling for achieving significant energy savings in air conditioning application.

  9. A robust pulsating heat pipe cooler for integrated high power LED chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lucang; Li, Ji; Zhou, Guohui

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) with specific pipe arrangement for high power LED cooling. Two CLPHPs were fabricated and charged with DI water and methanol, respectively. The effects of gravity force and working fluid on the heat transfer performance were investigated carefully. Results show that the water-CLPHP performed better than the methanol-CLPHP, with a minimum thermal resistance of 0.06 °C/W at a 220 W heat load under air natural convection situation. In addition, the gravity force can help the CLPHP starting up and enhance the robustness of the thermal transportation at steady state. Finally, the real application to cooling a 100 W LED chip indicates that the proposed CLPHP can meet the thermal control requirement for integrated high power LEDs. Nevertheless, the low cost and light weight of the proposed CLPHP heat sink are very suitable for the LED lighting devices.

  10. Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of Low and Medium Temperature District Heating Network Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    In this paper, energetic and exergetic approaches were applied to an exemplary low temperature district heating (LTDH) network with supply/return water temperature at 55oC/25 oC. The small LTDH network is annexed to a large medium temperature district heating (MTDH) network. The LTDH network can ...... will reduce the amount of water supply from the MTDH network and improve the system energy conversion efficiency. Through the simulation, the system energetic and exergetic efficiencies based on the two network integration approaches were calculated and evaluated.......In this paper, energetic and exergetic approaches were applied to an exemplary low temperature district heating (LTDH) network with supply/return water temperature at 55oC/25 oC. The small LTDH network is annexed to a large medium temperature district heating (MTDH) network. The LTDH network can...

  11. [Moderation-integrated-balance presupposition of Chinese medicine compound and pharmacological problems in traditional Chinese drug research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun-Ning

    2017-03-01

    The moderation-integrated-balance presupposition (MIBP) of Chinese medicine compound was first proposed in this paper based on the review of function characteristics and action principles of Chinese medicine compound. Furthermore, the pharmacological problems of traditional Chinese drug research were discussed in details. The results were of important value in accelerating the transformation of traditional Chinese medicine compound, and constructing the new drug innovation and review system for traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Real-time impact of power balancing on power system operation with large scale integration of wind power

    OpenAIRE

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Giannopoulos, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Highly wind power integrated power system requires continuous active power regulation to tackle the power imbalances resulting from the wind power forecast errors. The active power balance is maintained in real-time with the automatic generation control and also from the control room, where regulating power bids are activated manually. In this article, an algorithm is developed to simulate the activation of regulating power bids, as performed in the control room, during power imbalance betwee...

  13. An integrative water balance model framework for a changing glaciated catchment in the Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkhan, Fabian; Huggel, Christian; García Hernández, Javier; Fluixá-Sanmartín, Javier; Seidel, Jochen; Muñoz Asmat, Randy

    2017-04-01

    In the Santa River catchment [SRC] (Cordillera Blanca, Andes of Peru), human livelihoods strongly depend on year-round streamflow from glaciers and reservoirs, particularly in the dry season and in adjacent arid lowlands. Perennial glacial streamflow represents a buffer to water shortages, annual discharge variability and river contamination levels. However, climate change impacts, consecutive glacier shrinkage as well as new irrigated agriculture and hydropower schemes, population growth and thus water allocation might increase water scarcity in several areas of the SRC. This situation exerts further pressure and conflict potential over water resources and stresses the need to analyze both water supply and demand trends in a multidisciplinary and interlinked manner. In this context, an integrative glacio-hydrological framework was developed based on the Glacier and Snow Melt (GSM) and SOil CONTribution (SOCONT) models using the semi-distributed free software RS MINERVE. This water balance model incorporates hydroclimatic, socioeconomic and hydraulic objects and data at daily scale (with several gaps) for the last 50 years (1965-2015). A particular challenge in this context represents the poor data availability both in quantity and quality. Therefore, the hydroclimatic dataset to be used had to be carefully selected and data gaps were filled applying a statistical copula-based approach. The socioeconomic dataset of water demand was elaborated using several assumptions based on further census information and experiences from other projects in the region. Reservoirs and hydropower models were linked with additional hydraulic data. In order to increase model performance within a complex topography of the 11660 km2 SRC, the area was divided into 22 glaciated (GSM) and 42 non-glaciated (SOCONT) subcatchment models. Additionally, 382 elevation bands at 300 m interval were created and grouped into 22 different calibration zones for the whole SRC. The model was calibrated

  14. Application of integral equation theory to analyze stability of electric field in multimode microwave heating cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhengming; Hong, Tao; Chen, Fangyuan; Zhu, Huacheng; Huang, Kama

    2017-10-01

    Microwave heating uniformity is mainly dependent on and affected by electric field. However, little study has paid attention to its stability characteristics in multimode cavity. In this paper, this problem is studied by the theory of Freedholm integral equation. Firstly, Helmholtz equation and the electric dyadic Green's function are used to derive the electric field integral equation. Then, the stability of electric field is demonstrated as the characteristics of solutions to Freedholm integral equation. Finally, the stability characteristics are obtained and verified by finite element calculation. This study not only can provide a comprehensive interpretation of electric field in multimode cavity but also help us make better use of microwave energy.

  15. Heat integration in multipurpose batch plants using a robust scheduling framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seid, ER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available in pro- duction makespan. Morrison et al. [17] developed a user-friendly software package known as Optimal Batch Integration (OBI). Chen and Chang [18] integrated the task scheduling and heat recovery problems into a unified framework for multipurpose... performed. The Green Brew- ery concept has shown a saving potential of over 5000 ton/y fossil CO2 emissions from thermal energy supply for the three brew- eries that were closely considered. Becker [39] applied time average energy integration approach to a...

  16. Heat integration of an ethanol polygeneration plant based on lignocellulose: Comparing weak acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis; Energiintegrerat etanolkombinat baserat paa lignocellulosa - Jaemfoerelse mellan svagsyrahydrolys och enzymhydrolys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Marcus; Nordman, Roger; Taherzadeh, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    Plants for bioethanol production have been planned in several cities in Sweden, including Boraas. This report provides answers to general questions regarding how such a facility's energy demand is affected by the external integration with a heat and power plant and the internal energy integration between process units. Heat integration of a bioethanol plant means that energy is reused as much as is technically possible; this sets a practical minimum level for the energy demand of the plant. In the study, ethanol production from cellulose has been simulated using Aspen Plus. Weak acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis have been simulated, each with 50,000 and 100,000 tonnes of ethanol per year, resulting in four simulation cases. In all cases, heat integration is evaluated using pinch analysis. The steam in the ethanol plant has been covered by steam from a heat and power plant similar to that found today in Boraas. It is important to note that the energy quotas reported here includes energy use for upgrading the residual products. This leads to lower energy quotas than would be the case if the upgrading of residuals were allocated outside of the ethanol production. The conclusions from the project are: - The steam demand of the ethanol plant leads to a reduction in both the electricity and heat production of the heat and power plant. For the weak acid hydrolysis, the electricity loss is relatively high, 26-98%, which will affect the revenue significantly. The loss of electricity production is lower for the enzymatic process: 11-47%. - The difference in decreased electricity between the theoretical case of heating the raw material and the two alternative heating cases is about a factor of two, so the design of the heating of raw material is extremely important. - The reduced heat output of the power plant can, in most cases, be balanced by the surplus heat from the ethanol plant, but to completely balance the shortage, heat over 100 deg C must be used

  17. Effect of integrated forage rotation and manure management on yield, nutrient balance and soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Tomasoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a field experiment established in 1995 and still on going. It is located in Lodi, in the irrigated lowlands of Lombardy, Northern Italy. The experiment compares two rotations: the annual double cropping system, Italian ryegrass + silage maize (R1; and the 6-year rotation, in which three years of double crop Italian ryegrass + silage maize are followed by three years of alfalfa harvested for hay (R6 Each rotation have received two types of dairy manure: i farmyard manure (FYM; ii semi-liquid manure (SLM. The intent was to apply to each unit land area the excreta produced by the number of adult dairy cows sustained, in terms of net energy, by the forage produced in each rotation, corresponding to about 6 adult cows ha-1 for R1 and 4 adult cows ha-1 for R6. Manure was applied with (N1 or without (N0 an extra supply of mineral N in the form of urea. The objectives of this study were: i to assess whether the recycling of two types of manure in two forage rotation systems can sustain crop yields in the medium and long term without additional N fertilization; ii to evaluate the nutrient balance of these integrated forage rotations and manure management systems; iii to compare the effects of farmyard manure and semi-liquid manure on soil organic matter. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased yield of silage maize by 19% and alfalfa by 23%, while Italian ryegrass was not influenced by the manure treatment. Yet, silage maize produced 6% more in rotation R6 compared to rotation R1. The mineral nitrogen fertilization increased yield of Italian ryegrass by 11% and of silage maize by 10%. Alfalfa, not directly fertilized with mineral nitrogen, was not influenced by the nitrogen applied to the other crops in rotation. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased soil organic matter (SOM by +37 % for the rotation R1, and by +20% for the rotation R6. Conversely, no significant difference on SOM was observed

  18. The heat budget of the Ross drainage basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1987-01-01

    Integration of the thermodynamic equation over an entire drainage basin yields a fairly simple expression for the steady-state heat balance. This stems from the fact that dissipative heating can be calculated directly from the release of gravitational energy. When mass balance, surface

  19. Long-term influence of feeding barley treated with lactic acid and heat on performance and energy balance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Leonhard; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Humer, Elke; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief M; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2017-02-01

    The study evaluated the long-term influence of feeding ground barley treated with lactic acid (LA) alone or with LA and heat on performance, energy and protein balance in dairy cows. Thirty cows were fed three diets differing in the treatment of barley grain, either unprocessed ground barley (Control), ground barley steeped in 1% LA at room temperature (LA-treated barley) or ground barley steeped in 1% LA with an additional heating at 55°C (LAH-treated barley). Cows were studied from week 3 to 17 post-partum. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and composition and body weight (BW) were measured daily. Estimated energy and protein balances were calculated and blood samples were collected three times during the experiment and analysed for common metabolites of energy and lipid metabolism. Digestibility of different treated barley and other dietary ingredients was investigated in vivo using four wethers. The treatment of barley with LA and LAH increased the digestibility of organic matter (OM) by approximately 5% and the content of metabolisable energy by 0.5-0.6 MJ/kg DM. Data showed no effect of feeding diets containing LA- or LAH-treated barley at 39% of DM on overall DMI, BW, BW change, milk production and composition and on the blood variables studied. Diet influenced the estimated balances of net energy of lactation (p balances. In conclusion, feeding diets containing LA- or LAH-treated barley had no influence on performance, milk composition and blood metabolites, but LA treatment without heat seems to improve the energy balance of cows.

  20. Integrated Combined Heat and Power System Dispatch Considering Electrical and Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxiang Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wind power has achieved great development in Northern China, but abundant wind power is dissipated, rather than utilized, due to inflexible electricity production of combined heat and power (CHP units. In this paper, an integrated CHP system consisting of CHP units, wind power plants, and condensing power plants is investigated to decouple the power and heat production on both the power supply side and heat supply side, by incorporating electrical energy storage (EES and thermal energy storage (TES. Then the integrated CHP system dispatch (ICHPSD model is formulated to reach the target of reducing wind power curtailment and primary energy consumption. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed ICHPSD model are verified by the six-bus system, and the simulation results show that EES has a better effect on wind power integration than TES. The annual net benefits by incorporating EES and TES increase with increasing wind penetration, but they gradually approach saturation. Introducing both EES and TES can largely increase the amount of wind power integration and improve the operation efficiency of the system.

  1. Effect of supplementing pasteurized milk balancer products to heat-treated whole milk on the growth and health of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosson, K M; Hopkins, B A; Washburn, S P; Davidson, S; Smith, G; Earleywine, T; Ma, C

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the growth and health effects of supplementing heat-treated whole milk with pasteurized milk balancer products in calf-feeding programs. All calves were removed from their dams at birth (d 0), fed 3.8L of heat-treated colostrum, and received assigned treatments from d 1 until weaning at d 56. Calves were weighed and skeletal measurements taken every 7 d from d 0 until 56. Average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (FE) were calculated. In experiment 1, 80 Holstein heifer calves were used to investigate the effects of supplementing 2 levels of heat-treated whole milk with or without a pasteurized all-milk balancer. Four dietary treatments (n=20) were used. Calves receiving milk (M) and milk plus balancer (M+B) were fed 3.8L of milk divided into 2 equal feedings daily. Calves fed increased milk (IM) and increased milk plus balancer (IM+B) received 3.8L of milk divided into 2 equal feedings from d 1 to 14, 5.7L from d 15 to 42, and 2.85L fed once daily from d 43 to 56. Treatments M+B and IM+B included pasteurized all-milk balancer fed at a rate of 0.23kg per 3.8L of milk. In experiment 2, 72 Holstein heifer calves were used to investigate the effects of supplementing either a pasteurized all-milk balancer or a pasteurized protein-blend milk balancer. Three dietary treatments (n=24) were used. Calves were fed 3.8L of milk divided into 2 equal feedings from d 1 to 14 and 5.7L from d 15 to 56. Treatment IM did not include any supplements. Balancer was added to IM+B and increased milk plus protein-blend balancer (IM+PB). Balancer was supplemented at a rate of 0.23kg per 3.8L of milk. In experiment 1, calves fed IM+B had greater average body weight (BW) and average daily gain compared with calves given other treatments. Calves fed 5.7L of milk had greater FE than those fed 3.8L regardless of balancer added. In experiment 2, calves fed IM+B and IM+PB had greater BW when compared with calves given M. Calves fed IM+PB had

  2. Effect of fetch length on latent heat flux data accuracy calculated by Bowen ratio energy balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozníková, Gabriela; Fischer, Milan; Trnka, Miroslav; Orság, Matěj; Kučera, Jiří; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2013-04-01

    Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) is one of the most widely used indirect methods for deriving latent heat (LE) and sensible heat fluxes. The BREB technique relies on net radiation, ground heat flux, and air temperature and humidity gradients measurements. Whilst the first two mentioned can be practically considered as point measurements, the source area of temperature and humidity gradients is at least one order of magnitudes larger. Therefore, the horizontal, homogeneous and extensive area is necessary prerequisite for correct flux determination by BREB method. An ideal fetch for BREB has been reported to be within 10 to 200 times the height of upper measuring level above zero plane displacement. This broad range is a result of different atmospheric stratifications and surface roughness, but the fetch to height ratio 100:1 has become generally acknowledged as a rule of thumb. In this study, data from four different BREB systems above various covers (two poplar plantations, grassland and turf grass field) will be used to calculate and analyse LE for different fetches. Data were recorded in Domanínek near Bystřice nad Pernštejnem in Czech-Moravian highlands where two BREB systems have measured above poplar plantation and turf grass since summer 2008 until present and two more systems have been placed above grassland and another poplar plantation at the beginning of 2011 and have measured until present time. During the measurements changing wind direction limited the fetch of particular BREB systems on the sites. That is why LE calculated for particular fetch lengths will be split into three categories - fetch classes ("good", "medium", and "bad") according to prevailing wind direction and corresponding fetch. These categories will be delimited using the simple footprint model. Fetches with more than 75% of the measured entities coming from the area of interest will be considered as the "good" ones. The "medium" class will contain fetches with 50-75% of the flux

  3. Comparison of tissue heat balance- and thermal dissipation-derived sap flow measurements in ring-porous oaks and a pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Heidi J; Schäfer, Karina V R

    2012-01-01

    Sap flow measurements have become integral in many physiological and ecological investigations. A number of methods are used to estimate sap flow rates in trees, but probably the most popular is the thermal dissipation (TD) method because of its affordability, relatively low power consumption, and ease of use. However, there have been questions about the use of this method in ring-porous species and whether individual species and site calibrations are needed. We made concurrent measurements of sap flow rates using TD sensors and the tissue heat balance (THB) method in two oak species (Quercus prinus Willd. and Quercus velutina Lam.) and one pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). We also made concurrent measurements of sap flow rates using both 1 and 2-cm long TD sensors in both oak species. We found that both the TD and THB systems tended to match well in the pine individual, but sap flow rates were underestimated by 2-cm long TD sensors in five individuals of the two ring-porous oak species. Underestimations of 20-35% occurred in Q. prinus even when a "Clearwater" correction was applied to account for the shallowness of the sapwood depth relative to the sensor length and flow rates were underestimated by up to 50% in Q. velutina. Two centimeter long TD sensors also underestimated flow rates compared with 1-cm long sensors in Q. prinus, but only at large flow rates. When 2-cm long sensor data in Q. prinus were scaled using the regression with 1-cm long data, daily flow rates matched well with the rates measured by the THB system. Daily plot level transpiration estimated using TD sap flow rates and scaled 1 cm sensor data averaged about 15% lower than those estimated by the THB method. Therefore, these results suggest that 1-cm long sensors are appropriate in species with shallow sapwood, however more corrections may be necessary in ring-porous species.

  4. Maintaining Balance: The Increasing Role of Energy Storage for Renewable Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenclik, Derek; Denholm, Paul; Chalamala, Babu

    2017-11-01

    For nearly a century, global power systems have focused on three key functions: generating, transmitting, and distributing electricity as a real-time commodity. Physics requires that electricity generation always be in real-time balance with load-despite variability in load on time scales ranging from subsecond disturbances to multiyear trends. With the increasing role of variable generation from wind and solar, the retirement of fossil-fuel-based generation, and a changing consumer demand profile, grid operators are using new methods to maintain this balance.

  5. Off-Balance: The Integration of Physical Education Content Learning and Irish Language Learning in English-Medium Primary Schools in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Chróinín, Déirdre; Ní Mhurchú, Siobhán; Ó Ceallaigh, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased attention to integrated approaches has resulted from demands to prioritise literacy learning while maintaining a balanced curriculum in primary schools. Limited empirical evidence to support integrated approaches to teaching physical education (PE) exists. This study explored the integration of PE content learning and the learning of…

  6. An integrative review of Tai Chi research: an alternative form of physical activity to improve balance and prevent falls in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooton, Angela Conrad

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to analyze the current research literature on Tai Chi (TC) and its potential effect on balance and prevention of falls in older adults. The evidence for improving balance is somewhat conflicting because few research studies identify which balance exercises are effective. The question of how TC achieves improvements in balance remains. To promote functional independence and improve quality of life in the later years of one's life, it is important to improve balance and prevent falls in older adults. TC poses challenges related to the complexity of the practice. By reviewing the current research literature on TC focusing on balance and falls in older adults, strategies may be developed to incorporate TC to improve balance and modify the known risk factors for falling. This article also discusses potential applications and limitations of the current research.

  7. Cardiovascular disease-induced thermal responses during passive heat stress: an integrated computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiancheng; Noda, Shigeho; Himeno, Ryutaro; Liu, Hao

    2016-11-01

    The cardiovascular system plays a crucial role in human thermoregulation; cardiovascular diseases may lead to significantly degrading the thermoregulation ability for patients during exposure to heat stress. To evaluate the thermal responses of patients with common chronic cardiovascular diseases, we here propose an integrated computational model by coupling a two-node thermoregulation model with a closed-loop, multi-compartment, lumped-parameter cardiovascular model. This bioheat transfer model is validated, capable to predict cardiovascular functions and thermal responses under varying environmental conditions. Our results demonstrate that the cardiovascular disease-induced reduction in cardiac output and skin blood flow causes extra elevation in core temperature during hyperthermic challenges. In addition, a combination of aging, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases shows a pronounced increase in core temperature during heat exposure, which implies that such combined effect may increase the risk of heat-related morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Modelling and control of heat-integrated distillation columns: An industrial case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Johansen, Kristoffer; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    of energy wasted increases, questioning the economics of implementation of heat integration. Modelling is the foremost tool in assessment of chemical process dynamics. In the case of distillation, an extensive literature deals with classic distillation columns whereas much less has been investigated...... in the industrial case is composed of two distillation columns in series (operated at 3.5 and 1.5 bar) for recovery of ethanol from a pseudo-binary mixture (heavy key water). Heat recovery is carried out both backward (from the two bottoms flow to the feed) and forward (from the first condensate to the second......Energy requirements of distillation processes account for a large percentage of the total energy consumption of the chemical industry. Hence, strategies for heat recovery have been extensively implemented in industrial processes during the last decades. However, operation (including start...

  9. The lateral hypothalamus : A site for integration of nutrient and fluid balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Gertjan; Evers, Simon S.; Guidotti, Stefano; Thornton, Simon N.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.; Nyakas, Csaba

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews seemingly obligatory relations between nutrient and fluid balance. A relatively novel neuronal pathway involving interplay between acetylcholine and the melanocortins, alpha MSH and AGRP in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) of the hypothalamus projecting to the lateral hypothalamus (LH)

  10. Experimental investigation on AC unit integrated with sensible heat storage (SHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N. A.; Amin, N. A. M.; Majid, M. S. A.; Hussin, A.; Zhubir, S.

    2017-10-01

    The growth in population and economy has increases the energy demand and raises the concerns over the sustainable energy source. Towards the sustainable development, energy efficiency in buildings has become a prime objective. In this paper, the integration of thermal energy storage was studied. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the performance of an air conditioning unit integrated with sensible heat storage (SHS) system. The results were compared to the conventional AC systems in the terms of average electricity usage, indoor temperature and the relative humidity inside the experimented room (cabin container). Results show that the integration of water tank as an SHS reduces the electricity usage by 5%, while the integration of well-insulated water tank saves up to 8% of the electricity consumption.

  11. Development of alternative heat supply concepts. An integrated approach; Aufbau alternativer Waermeversorgungskonzepte. Waermeversorgung aus einem Guss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mischke, Matthias; Pinnau, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Piossek, Mario [Progenius Ingenieure Dresden GbR (Germany); Arnold, Frank [Enso - Energie Sachsen Ost AG, Dresden (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Enso Energie Sachsen Ost AG is a regional utility of the electricity and gas market. Impending gas sales decreases, increasing energy prices and the poor financial situation of many communities caused them to initiate the project ''Enso-Kommunal-Effizienz''. Among other projects, an integrated heat supply concept is being developed for the town of Goeda in eastern Sachsen, in which many supply partners will participate. (orig.)

  12. Estimation of annual heat flux balance at the sea surface from sst (NOAA-satellite and ships drift data off southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimine Ikeda

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to study the possibility of estimating the heat flux balance at the sea surface from GOSSTCOMP (Global Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Computation developed by NOAA/NESS, USA, and sea surface current data based from ships drift information obtained from Pilot Charts, published by the Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação (DHN, Brazilian Navy. The annual mean value of the heat flux balance at the sea surface off southeast Brazil for 1977, is estimated from data on the balance between the heat transported by the currents and that transported by eddy diffusion for each volume defined as 2º x 2º (Lat. x Long. square with a constant depth equivalent to an oceanic mixed layer, 100 m thick. Results show several oceanic areas where there are net flows of heat from atmosphere towards the sea surface. In front of Rio de Janeiro the heat flow was downward and up to 70 ly day-1 and is probably related to the upwellirug phenomenon normally occurring in that area. Another coastal area between Lat. 25ºS to 28ºS indicated an downward flow up to 50 ly day-1; and for an area south of Lat. 27ºS, Long. 040ºW - 048ºW an downward flow up to 200 ly day-1, where the transfer was probably due to the cold water of a nortward flux from the Falkland (Malvinas Current. Results also show several oceanic areas where net flows of heat (of about -100 ly day-1 were toward the atmosphere. In the oceanic areas Lat. 19ºS - 23ºS and Lat. 24ºS - 30ºS, the flows were probably due to the warm water of a southward flux of the Brazil Current. The resulting fluxes from the warm waters of the Brazil Current when compared with those from warm waters of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio, indicate that the Gulf Stream carries about 3.3 times and the Kuroshio 1.7 times more heat than the Brazil Current. These values agree with those of data available on the heat fluxes of the above mentioned Currents calculated by different methods (Budyko, 1974.

  13. FY 17 Q1 Commercial integrated heat pump with thermal storage milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The commercial integrated heat pump with thermal storage (AS-IHP) offers significant energy saving over a baseline heat pump with electric water heater. The saving potential is maximized when the AS-IHP serves coincident high water heating and high space cooling demands. A previous energy performance analysis showed that the AS-IHP provides the highest benefit in the hot-humid and hot-dry/mixed dry climate regions. Analysis of technical potential energy savings for these climate zones based on the BTO Market calculator indicated that the following commercial building market segments had the highest water heating loads relative to space cooling and heating loads education, food service, health care, lodging, and mercantile/service. In this study, we focused on these building types to conservatively estimate the market potential of the AS-IHP. Our analysis estimates maximum annual shipments of ~522,000 units assuming 100% of the total market is captured. An early replacement market based on replacement of systems in target buildings between 15 and 35 years old was estimated at ~136,000 units. Technical potential energy savings are estimated at ~0.27 quad based on the maximum market estimate, equivalent to ~13.9 MM Ton CO2 emissions reduction.

  14. Heat pump centered integrated community energy systems. System development, Franklin Research Center interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, R E; Lorsch, H G; Werden, R G

    1979-02-01

    The concept of a heat pump centered integrated community energy system (HP-ICES) was explored based on a reference community located in the Northeast with a population of 10,000. Engineering and economic analyses were performed for the HP-ICES and for conventional heating/cooling systems. Sensitivity analyses were used to determine variations in results from changes in: community size; community energy density; waste heat utilization; energy cost escalation; maintenance and operating personnel; and central HP-ICES ownership. The effect of each of the critical parameters on the economic viability of HP-ICES is shown. Conditions of equal 20-year life cycle costs for HP-ICES and for conventional systems are given. If little or no waste heat is available from nearby industrial installations, high community energy density rates (corresponding to urban conditions) are required for economic viability of HP-ICES. If large amounts of waste heat are available, even relatively loosely built-up communities look promising provided the system is owned by the municipality. If the system is owned and operated by a shareholder-owned public utility, either the community energy density must be high, or large quantities of waste heat must be available, or electricity and oil costs must escalate rapidly during the life of the system to assure economic competitiveness with conventional systems. All HP-ICES use significantly less resource energy than conventional systems. For the baseline system analyzed, HP-ICES use 26% to 40% less resource energy than conventional systems during the heating season and 19% less energy during the peak cooling period. The annual resource energy saving for the HP-ICES is 22% to 34%. It is estimated that the HP-ICES concept is applicable to an average of 500 new communities to be constructed during the 1985--2000 period. The probable resource energy saving during that time period is 1.25 x 10/sup 15/ Btu.

  15. Thermal storage in a heat pump heated living room floor for urban district power balancing - effects on thermal comfort, energy loss and costs for residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; de Wit, J.B.; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch smart grid demonstration project Meppelenergie, the effects of controlled thermal energy storage within the floor heating structure of a living room by a heat pump are investigated. Storage possibilities are constrained by room operative and floor temperatures. Simulations indicate

  16. Importancia estratégica del cuadro integral del mando en la gestión empresarial, Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López Bonilla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El modelo de Balanced Scorecard o Tablero Integral de Mando, es una poderosa herramienta de planeación estratégica que permite a la empresa moderna crear y controlar sus propios indicadores de gestión relacionados dentro de cuatro perspectivas, a saber: Financiera, Procesos Internos, Cliente y Formación y Crecimiento, entrelazándolos con la misión, la visión y contemplando los aspectos internos - externos que puedan afectar la cadena de valor de la organización

  17. Saying more with less? Disclosure conciseness, completeness and balance in Integrated Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Melloni (Gaia); A. Caglio (Ariela); P.M. Perego (Paolo)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe Integrated Reporting Framework of 2013 represents the latest international attempt to connect a firm's financial and sustainability (i.e., environmental, social and governance) performance in one company report. An Integrated Report (IR) should communicate "concisely" about how a

  18. The balancing problem of distributed generation and the integration of different renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the results of analyses of large- scale integration of wind power, photo voltaic and wave power into a Danish reference energy system......The article presents the results of analyses of large- scale integration of wind power, photo voltaic and wave power into a Danish reference energy system...

  19. The balancing problem of distrubuted generation and the integration of different renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the results of analyses of large-scale integration of wind power, photo voltaic and wave power into a Danish reference energy system.......The article presents the results of analyses of large-scale integration of wind power, photo voltaic and wave power into a Danish reference energy system....

  20. APPLYING THE HEAT INTEGRATION IN ORDER TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS MINIMIZATION IN DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Javid, A. Emamzadeh, A. A. Hamidi, A. Arjmandzadeh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the close relationship between the energy and environmental problems, recovering technology and optimizing energy consumption have a major role in environment protection by minimization the atmospheric pollutants such as SOX, COX, NOX. This minimization may decrease the greenhouse effect, and the ozone layer destruction. On the other hand, optimization of Energy consumption and its recovering may minimize the water and hot oil consumption at the heat exchangers (reboilers and condensers in petroleum distillation columns, specially. The present research has been performed about the kerosene pre-fractionation unit of one of the country's oil refineries. This system includes two distillation columns with a simple arrangement. Considering that the distillation section consumes a great deal of energy in the chemical and petroleum industries, hence studying the ways in which we may decrease this consumption is of great importance. One of these retrofit solutions is the heat integration, which is going to be presented in this research with a different idea from the other previous methods. This method makes it possible to add a shell and tube heat exchanger for performing a part of condensation and evaporation operation which can decrease the heat duties of reboilers and one of the condensers. To this end , the distillation columns were studied in the process and then the proposed model of columns arrangement were simulated by heat integration with all input and output streams using the Aspen Plus software, version 11.1 and the Rad Frac model in this software. The result has showed itself as a save of 14.26%, 10.86% and 14.26% in energy, water and hot oil consumption, respectively. On the other hand this system will decrease emission of SO2 and CO2 to atmosphere, 28 kg/h and 837 kg/h, respectively.

  1. Computation of dynamic operating balancing reserve for wind power integration for the time-horizon 1-48 hours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemenlis, N.; Huneault, M. [IREQ, Varennes, QC (Canada); Robitaille, A. [Hydro-Quebec Production, Dir. Planification de la production eolienne, Direction Generale, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Integrating wind power into the operations-planning horizon of 1 to 48 hours ahead, a challenge facing utilities is how to cope with wind forecast uncertainties, in addition to existing inherent uncertainties of load forecast errors and unavailability of generation. Utilities counter forecast uncertainties by maintaining operational reserves to ensure a high level of reliability to the system. With the advent of wind generation, additional reserves are required to cover the incremental uncertainties. In this paper, we fine tune a methodology for calculating additional balancing reserves which had reproduced accurately only an average scenario. Here, several wind forecast errors distributions are introduced corresponding to different wind forecast levels. These distributions are approximated by gamma-like distributions with time-varying parameters. The results show that modeling uncertainties as a function of wind generation levels impacts significantly the balancing reserves and associated risk, and justifies the necessity to veer towards a dynamic computation of dynamic balancing reserves that consider the imminent wind generation forecast. (orig.)

  2. Interactive balance training integrating sensor-based visual feedback of movement performance: a pilot study in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Michael; Grewal, Gurtej S; Honarvar, Bahareh; Schwenk, Stefanie; Mohler, Jane; Khalsa, Dharma S; Najafi, Bijan

    2014-12-13

    Wearable sensor technology can accurately measure body motion and provide incentive feedback during exercising. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness and user experience of a balance training program in older adults integrating data from wearable sensors into a human-computer interface designed for interactive training. Senior living community residents (mean age 84.6) with confirmed fall risk were randomized to an intervention (IG, n = 17) or control group (CG, n = 16). The IG underwent 4 weeks (twice a week) of balance training including weight shifting and virtual obstacle crossing tasks with visual/auditory real-time joint movement feedback using wearable sensors. The CG received no intervention. Outcome measures included changes in center of mass (CoM) sway, ankle and hip joint sway measured during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) balance test at baseline and post-intervention. Ankle-hip postural coordination was quantified by a reciprocal compensatory index (RCI). Physical performance was quantified by the Alternate-Step-Test (AST), Timed-up-and-go (TUG), and gait assessment. User experience was measured by a standardized questionnaire. After the intervention sway of CoM, hip, and ankle were reduced in the IG compared to the CG during both EO and EC condition (p = .007-.042). Improvement was obtained for AST (p = .037), TUG (p = .024), fast gait speed (p = . 010), but not normal gait speed (p = .264). Effect sizes were moderate for all outcomes. RCI did not change significantly. Users expressed a positive training experience including fun, safety, and helpfulness of sensor-feedback. Results of this proof-of-concept study suggest that older adults at risk of falling can benefit from the balance training program. Study findings may help to inform future exercise interventions integrating wearable sensors for guided game-based training in home- and community environments. Future studies should evaluate the

  3. PV-to-EV schemes for photovoltaics integration and power balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, J.; Niemi, R.; Lund, P.D. [Aalto Univ. School of Science, Espoo-Otaniemi (Finland). New Energy Technologies Group

    2012-07-01

    In this paper the combined energy system effects from combined integrated schemes of renewable electricity (PV) and electrified vehicles (EV) are investigated. The analyses include optimized control of EVs, effects of large EV fleets on electricity price, and PV-EV integration. Key results show that optimal control strategy of EV may yield a 7 % improvement to the electric mileage. With these strategies, the market price of electricity market would be marginally affected by large EV schemes. Optimized EV-schemes would also enable PV integration into the electric system with minimal grid impact. (orig.)

  4. Energy Balance of Biogas Production from Microalgae: Effect of Harvesting Method, Multiple Raceways, Scale of Plant and Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Milledge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously-developed mechanistic energy balance model for production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass grown in open raceway systems was used to consider the energetic viability of a number of scenarios, and to explore some of the most critical parameters affecting net energy production. The output demonstrated that no single harvesting method of those considered (centrifugation, settlement or flocculation produced an energy output sufficiently greater than operational energy inputs to make microalgal biogas production energetically viable. Combinations of harvesting methods could produce energy outputs 2.3–3.4 times greater than the operational energy inputs. Electrical energy to power pumps, mixers and harvesting systems was 5–8 times greater than the heating energy requirement. If the energy to power the plant is generated locally in a combined heat and power unit, a considerable amount of “low grade” heat will be available that is not required by the process, and for the system to show a net operational energy return this must be exploited. It is concluded that the production of microalgal biogas may be energetically viable, but it is dependent on the effective use of the heat generated by the combustion of biogas in combined heat and power units to show an operational energy return.

  5. An integral transform solution for unsteady compressible heat transfer in fluids near their thermodynamic critical point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de B. Alves Leonardo S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical thermodynamic model for near critical heat transfer is an integral-differential equation with constant coefficients. It is similar to the heat equation, except for a source term containing the time derivative of the bulk temperature. Despite its simple form, analytical methods required the use of approximations to generate solutions for it, such as an approximate Fourier transformation or a numerical Laplace inversion. Recently, the Generalized Integral Transform Technique or GITT has been successfully applied to this problem, providing a highly accurate analytical solution for it and a new expression of its relaxation time. Nevertheless, very small temperature differences, on the order of mK, have to be imposed so that constant thermal properties can be assumed very close to the critical point. The present paper generalizes this study by relaxing its restriction and accounting for the strong dependence on temperature and pressure of supercritical fluid properties, demonstrating that a the GITT can be applied to realistic nonlinear unsteady compressible heat transfer in fluids with diverging thermal properties and b temperature and pressure have opposite effects on all properties, but their variation causes no additional thermo-acoustic effect, increasing the validity range of the constant property model.

  6. Measuring Knowledge Management Performance in Organizations: An Integrative Framework of Balanced Scorecard and Fuzzy Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Lyu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of knowledge management (KM, the KM performance evaluation tries to find out the key factors restraining the enhancement of the enterprises' performance. This paper investigates the feasibility of the balanced scorecard (BSC method in enterprise knowledge management and then proposes a simplified and applicable performance evaluation model based on the BSC approach. Finally, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE is used to evaluate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed model. The result shows that the model is useful for evaluating the performance of KM in enterprises.

  7. An Approach to Integrating Tactical Decision-Making in Industrial Maintenance Balance Scorecards Using Principal Components Analysis and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Rodríguez-Padial

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty of demand has led production systems to become increasingly complex; this can affect the availability of the machines and thus their maintenance. Therefore, it is necessary to adequately manage the information that facilitates decision-making. This paper presents a system for making decisions related to the design of customized maintenance plans in a production plant. This paper addresses this tactical goal and aims to provide greater knowledge and better predictions by projecting reliable behavior in the medium-term, integrating this new functionality into classic Balance Scorecards, and making it possible to extend their current measuring function to a new aptitude: predicting evolution based on historical data. In the proposed Custom Balance Scorecard design, an exploratory data phase is integrated with another analysis and prediction phase using Principal Component Analysis algorithms and Machine Learning that uses Artificial Neural Network algorithms. This new extension allows better control over the maintenance function of an industrial plant in the medium-term with a yearly horizon taken over monthly intervals which allows the measurement of the indicators of strategic productive areas and the discovery of hidden behavior patterns in work orders. In addition, this extension enables the prediction of indicator outcomes such as overall equipment efficiency and mean time to failure.

  8. Heat pump centered integrated community energy systems: system development. Georgia Institute of Technology interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, D W; Trammel, B C; Dixit, B S; McCurry, D C; Rindt, B A

    1979-02-01

    Heat Pump Centered-Integrated Community Energy Systems (HP-ICES) show the promise of utilizing low-grade thermal energy for low-quality energy requirements such as space heating and cooling. The Heat Pump - Wastewater Heat Recovery (HP-WHR) scheme is one approach to an HP-ICES that proposes to reclaim low-grade thermal energy from a community's wastewater effluent. The concept of an HP-WHR system is developed, the potential performance and economics of such a system is evaluated and the potential for application is examined. A thermodynamic performance analysis of a hypothetical system projects an overall system coefficient of performance (C.O.P.) of from 2.181 to 2.264 for wastewater temperatures varying from 50/sup 0/F to 80/sup 0/F. Primary energy source savings from the implementation of this system is projected to be 5.014 QUADS, or the energy equivalent of 687 millions tons of coal, from 1980 to the year 2000. Economic analysis shows the HP-WHR scheme to be cost-competitive, on the basis of a net present value life cycle cost comparison, with conventional residential and light commercial HVAC systems.

  9. Smart Wireless Sensors Integrated in Clothing: an Electrocardiography System in a Shirt Powered Using Human Body Heat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vladimir Leonov; Tom Torfs; Chris Van Hoof; Ruud J M Vullers

    2009-01-01

      A wireless electrocardiography system is integrated in an office-style shirt. The device is powered by a thermoelectric generator that converts natural heat flow from the body into electrical power...

  10. Estimation of non-linear continuous time models for the heat exchange dynamics of building integrated photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik; Bloem, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    heat interchanges are non-linear effects and represent significant contributions in a variety of components such as photovoltaic integrated facades or roofs and those using these effects as passive cooling strategies, etc. Since models are approximations of the physical system and data is encumbered...... that a description of the non-linear heat transfer is essential. The resulting model is a non-linear first order stochastic differential equation for the heat transfer of the PV component....

  11. Heat

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to make heat by rubbing your hands together? Why does an ice cube melt when you hold it? In this title, students will conduct experiments to help them understand what heat is. Kids will also investigate concepts such as which materials are good at conducting heat and which are the best insulators. Using everyday items that can easily be found around the house, students will transform into scientists as they carry out step-by-step experiments to answer interesting questions. Along the way, children will pick up important scientific skills. Heat includes seven experiments with detailed, age-appropriate instructions, surprising facts and background information, a "conclusions" section to pull all the concepts in the book together, and a glossary of science words. Colorful, dynamic designs and images truly put the FUN into FUN-damental Experiments.

  12. A Comprehensive Study of a Micro-Channel Heat Sink Using Integrated Thin-Film Temperature Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jiejun; He, Jian; Wu, Chuangui; Luo, Wenbo; Shuai, Yao; Zhang, Wanli; Chen, Xiancai; Zhang, Jian; Lin, Jia

    2018-01-19

    A micro-channel heat sink is a promising cooling method for high power integrated circuits (IC). However, the understanding of such a micro-channel device is not sufficient, because the tools for studying it are very limited. The details inside the micro-channels are not readily available. In this letter, a micro-channel heat sink is comprehensively studied using the integrated temperature sensors. The highly sensitive thin film temperature sensors can accurately monitor the temperature change in the micro-channel in real time. The outstanding heat dissipation performance of the micro-channel heat sink is proven in terms of maximum temperature, cooling speed and heat resistance. The temperature profile along the micro-channel is extracted, and even small temperature perturbations can be detected. The heat source formed temperature peak shifts towards the flow direction with the increasing flow rate. However, the temperature non-uniformity is independent of flow rate, but solely dependent on the heating power. Specific designs for minimizing the temperature non-uniformity are necessary. In addition, the experimental results from the integrated temperature sensors match the simulation results well. This can be used to directly verify the modeling results, helping to build a convincing simulation model. The integrated sensor could be a powerful tool for studying the micro-channel based heat sink.

  13. Comparative ex vivo study on humidifying function of three speaking valves with integrated heat and moisture exchanger for tracheotomised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, C.; Lansaat, L.; Muller, S.H.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assessment of humidifying function of tracheotomy speaking valves with integrated heat and moisture exchanger. Design Ex vivo measurement of water exchange and storage capacity of three tracheotomy speaking valves: Humidiphon Plus, Spiro and ProTrach DualCare (with two different heat and

  14. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2016-02-05

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  15. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump System Development – Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ally, Moonis R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uselton, R. B. [Lennox Industries, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Between October 2007 and September 2017, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lennox Industries, Inc. (Lennox) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. The Lennox AS-IHP concept consisted of a high-efficiency air-source heat pump (ASHP) for space heating and cooling services and a separate heat pump water heater/dehumidifier (WH/DH) module for domestic water heating and dehumidification (DH) services. A key feature of this system approach with the separate WH/DH is capability to pretreat (i.e., dehumidify) ventilation air and dedicated whole-house DH independent of the ASHP. Two generations of laboratory prototype WH/DH units were designed, fabricated, and lab tested. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the US Department of Energy/ORNL heat pump design model (Rice 1992; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al. 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps served as the input to TRNSYS (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2010) to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (i.e., a combination of an ASHP with a seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of 13 and resistance water heater with an energy factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings (based on use of a two-speed ASHP and the second-generation WH/DH prototype for the AS-IHP), while providing space conditioning, water heating, and dehumidification for a tight, well-insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at three US locations, ranged from 33 to 36%, averaging 35%, relative to the baseline system. The lowest savings were seen at the cold-climate Chicago location. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced by about 50 to 60% relative to a resistance WH.

  16. Process integration and waste heat recovery in Lithuanian and Danish industry. Final report phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The present document forms the Final Report for the first phase of the project `Process Integration and Waste Heat Recovery in Lithuanian and Danish Industry`. The project is carried out in the period 1995-1998 in a co-operation between the COWI offices in Lyngby and Vilnius, The Technical University of Denmark (Institute for Energetics), Kaunas University of Technology (CIPAI) and Vilnius Technical University, financed by The Danish Ministry of Energy`s EFP-95-programme, Lithuanian Energy Agency as well as the participants. The first phase of the project has comprised the establishment of the CIPAI centre (Centre for Industrial Process Analysis and Integration) at Kaunas University of Technology, training and knowledge transfer as well as elaboration of 6 industrial case-studies within the area of `Process Integration and waste Heat Recovery`. The second phase of the project has comprised R and D activities in this area in order to present general conclusions from the project as well as to present new and improved methods and tools for PI-analysis. The aim of the Final Report for the first phase of the project is to summarise project activities and the achieved results from case-studies and from the operation of the CIPAI-centre in general. (au)

  17. Testing direct and interactive effects of tree size, stand competition, water balance, heat, and freezing on probability of mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hember, R. A.; Kurz, W. A.; Coops, N. C.

    2016-12-01

    Water stress affects rates of tree mortality in diverse ways. In a previous study, we included standardized water-balance variables as predictors in conventional models of individual-tree mortality drawing on over 8 million observations for 64 North American tree species. We found that probability of tree mortality (Pm) was related to soil-water content (Ws) and/or reference evapotranspiration (ETref) in over 90 percent of the species samples and that sensitivity to water-balance variables was typically mediated by tree height (h) and aridity class (AC) of the site. Here we expand on the model-building exercise to test the additional hypotheses that: (1) sensitivity of Pm of short trees to water-balance variables increases with stand-level biomass of larger trees (BLS) due to competition among trees for access to soil water; (2) sensitivity of Pm to water-balance variables increases with temperature (T) due either to higher respiration or error in the expression of ETref and (3) sensitivity of Pm to water-balance variables increases with the number of days with frost (DWF) due to decreasing hydraulic conductance associated either with occurrence or avoidance of freezing-induced embolism. We describe whether the hypotheses are supported and how the modifications influence predictions of net ecosystem biomass production (NEBP) of North American forests over 1951-2014.

  18. Removal efficiency and balance of nitrogen in a recirculating aquaculture system integrated with constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fei; Liang, Wei; Yu, Tao; Cheng, Shui P; He, Feng; Wu, Zhen B

    2011-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) balance for aquaculture is an important aspect, especially in China, and it is attributed to the eutrophication in many freshwater bodies. In recent years, constructed wetlands (CWs) have been widely used in wastewater treatment and ecosystem restoration. A recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) consisting of CWs and 4 fish ponds was set up in Wuhan, China. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings were fed for satiation daily for 168 days with 2 diets containing 5.49 % and 6.53 % nitrogen, respectively. The objectives of this study were to investigate the N budget in the RAS, and try to find out the feasibility of controlling N accumulation in the fish pond. It is expected that the study can provide a mass balance for the fate of N in the eco-friendly treatment system to avoid eutrophication. The results showed that the removal rates of ammonia (NH(+)(4)-N), sum of nitrate & nitrite (NO(-)(X)-N), and total nitrogen (TN) by the CWs were 20-55%, 38-84 % and 39-57 %, respectively. Denitrification in the CWs was the main pathway of nitrogen loss (41.67 %). Nitrogen accumulation in pond water and sediment accounted for 3.39 % and 12.65 % of total nitrogen loss, respectively. The nitrogen removal efficiency and budget showed that the CW could be used to control excessive nitrogen accumulation in fish ponds. From the viewpoint of the nitrogen pollution control, the RAS combined with the constructed wetland can be applied to ensure the sustainable development for aquaculture.

  19. Doppler lidar observations of sensible heat flux and intercomparisons with a ground-based energy balance station and WRF model output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Davis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During the Convective and Orographically induced Precipitation Study (COPS, a scanning Doppler lidar was deployed at Achern, Baden-Wüttemberg, Germany from 13th June to 16th August 2007. Vertical velocity profiles ('rays' through the boundary layer were measured every 3 seconds with vertical profiles of horizontal wind velocity being derived from performing azimuth scans every 30 minutes. During Intense Observation Periods radiosondes were launched from the site. In this paper, a case study of convective boundary layer development on 15th July 2007 is investigated. Estimates of eddy dissipation rate are made from the vertically pointing lidar data and used as one input to the velocity-temperature co-variance equation to estimate sensible heat flux. The sensible heat flux values calculated from Doppler lidar data are compared with a surface based energy balance station and output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model.

  20. Optimal Operation and Stabilising Control of the Concentric Heat-Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Skogestad, Sigurd; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    A systematic control structure design method is applied on the concentric heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) separating benzene and toluene. A degrees of freedom analysis is provided for identifying potential manipulated and controlled variables. Optimal operation is mapped and active...... constraints are identified for constructing the supervisory control layer. The fundamental problem of obtaining a stabilising control structure is addressed resulting in the regulatory control layer design. A supervisory control layer is devised and combined with the regulatory control layer. The control...

  1. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2007-07-01

    This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

  2. Learning Science in an Integrated Classroom: Finding Balance through Theoretical Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Leonie J.; Venville, Grady; Wallace, John

    2011-01-01

    The central thesis of this paper is that the learning of science in integrated curricular contexts requires a broader theoretical framework than is typically adopted by researchers and teachers. The common practice of interpreting science learning in terms of conceptual and procedural understandings in such contexts is problematized through an…

  3. Integrated emission management for cost optimal EGR-SCR balancing in diesels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Mentink, P.R.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    The potential of a cost-based optimization method is experimentally demonstrated on a Euro-VI heavy-duty diesel engine. Based on the actual engine-aftertreatment state, this model-based Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy minimizes operational (fuel and AdBlue) costs within emission

  4. Inter-organizational collaboration projects in the public sector: a balance between integration and demarcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfström, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    For several years, the development of the Swedish public sector has been accompanied by a discussion about inter-organizational collaboration, which has been examined in several national experiments. The experience, however, indicates significant difficulties in implementing collaboration in local authorities' regular activities. This article argues that organizing inter-organizational collaboration in projects tends to be counterproductive, since the purpose of this collaboration is to increase the integration of local authorities. This article is based on case studies of three different collaboration projects. Each project is analyzed in relation to the way collaboration is organized within the project and how the relationship to the local authorities' activities is designed. The outcome of these studies shows that while collaboration projects increase integration between the responsible authorities, the integration stays within the projects. This is due to the fact that the projects were designed as units separate from the responsible authorities. As a result, the collaboration that occurs in the projects is not implemented in the local authorities' activities, and the viability of the increased integration of different responsible authorities does not extend beyond the projects. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Heating Quality and Stability of Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Fatty Acid-Balanced Oil in Comparison with Other Blended Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The heating performance of enzyme-assisted aqueous processing-extracted blended oil (EAEPO, hexane-extracted blended oil (HEBO, and three kinds of blended oils was investigated by varying the heating times. Oil degradation was monitored by analysis of the acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, color, and trans-fatty acid composition. The fatty acid ratios of EAEPO, HEBO, and the three kinds of blended oils were very similar (0.27 : 1.03 : 0.96, 0.27 : 1.08 : 1.16, 0.27 : 0.65 : 0.8, 0.27 : 0.6 : 0.84, and 0.27 : 0.61 : 0.79, resp.. The AV and color increased in proportion to the heating time for all the oils. There was a rapid increase in the PV and p-AV of EAEPO and HEBO after heating for only 1 h, whereas the other three blended oils showed a rapid increase after heating for 2 h or 6 h. Despite the highest trans-fatty acid content found for HEBO, this content was relatively low and remained low up to a heating time of 8 h. It was found that after heating, a fatty acid ratio relatively close to its ideal value (0.27 : 0.48 : 0.49 was maintained by EAEPO, which indicates that EAEPO is tolerant to heat treatment and is suitable for maintaining a healthy diet.

  6. Energy Management through Heat Integration: a Simple Algorithmic Approach for Introducing Pinch Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser A. Al-Azri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinch analysis is a methodology used for minimizing energy and material consumption in engineering processes. It features the identification of the pinch point and minimum external resources. Two common established approaches are used to identify these features: the graphical approach and the algebraic method, which are time-consuming and susceptible to human and calculation errors when used for a large number of process streams. This paper presents an algorithmic procedure to heat integration based on the algebraic approach. The algorithmic procedure is explained in a didactical manner to introduce pinch analysis for students and novice researchers in the field. Matlab code is presented, which is also intended for developing a Matlab toolbox for process integration.

  7. Integration of heat treatment of wood with cogeneration production and district heating; Vaermebehandling av trae integrerad med kraftvaermeproduktion och fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delin, Lennart; Essen, Henrik (AaF, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    Heat treatment of wood changes the properties of wood so that the moisture uptake is reduced and the wood movements are reduced at variations in the ambient air humidity. The wood gets an increased resistance to rot and can therefore replace impregnated wood in certain applications. Heat treated wood is however not suitable for direct contact with soil. The strength is also reduced by heat treatment, so it is not recommended for supporting constructions. No additives whatsoever are used in the treatment, so the heat treated wood is very advantageous from an environmental point of view. The wood is dried completely at the heat treatment and heated to about 200 deg C. The question has hence been put, if it is advantageous to collocate a heat treatment plant with district heating or a power cogeneration plant. The aim of the study is to assess the value of such a collocation. Existing heat treatment plants are both few and small and the calculations have hence been made for how a large plant could be designed. A market study is included to assess the market for this type of plants. This shows that the present market for heat treated wood is very small. A full scale treatment plant of the type discussed in this study could probably not be built, since even single plants of this size would require a too large part of the market. The potential to replace impregnated wood is on the other hand very large. The cost for large scale heat treatment should be significantly lower than for impregnated wood and the cost for handling hazardous waste (which impregnated wood is classified as) is also removed. There should therefore be a potential for a future much larger volume of heat treated wood. The study shows that the energetic profit of collocation of a heat treatment plant for wood with district heating or power cogeneration plants is of lower importance. Maximally about 0.5 MSEK/year can be saved for a 25 000 m3/year plant. The initial drying of all sawn lumber has much more

  8. Predictors of Memory in Healthy Aging: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Balance and Fornix White Matter Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K.; Paul, Erick J.; Zwilling, Chris E.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that age and disease-related decline in cognition depends not only upon degeneration in brain structure and function, but also on dietary intake and nutritional status. Memory, a potential preclinical marker of Alzheimer?s disease, is supported by white matter integrity in the brain and dietary patterns high in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the extent to which memory is supported by specific omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty aci...

  9. SUPPORT OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND BALANCED SCORECARD IN THE INTEGRATION OF NORMATIVE, STRATEGIC AND OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Živojinović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the problems of strategy implementation, as well as problems of external adaptation and internal integration in the enterprise, through the prism of the application of advanced management concepts, primarily - the quality management system (QMS and the balanced scorecard (BSC, leads to the opportunity to increase the integration of organizational levels of decision making and management. Understanding the support of the QMS and BSC in relationship coordination - business strategy, organizational structure and culture, is reflected in the integration and process management dimensions: 1 the existence of a hierarchical order of the strategic actions (from vision and mission, to strategy and objectives, to key success factors and key performance indicators, 2 action of various coordination mechanisms, formalization and standardization of the organizational structure and process and 3 consistent understanding and values of members of the organization, which provides efficient control of behavior, coordination and implementation of policy and company goals. Implementation of concepts of QMS and BSC will provide greater compatibility and coherence of the normative, strategic and operational management, which will lead to more successful business, enterprise development and the satisfaction of all stakeholders.

  10. REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN WEST AFRICA (1960-2015: BALANCE AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Alpha Diallo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks, through a historical analysis of the regional West African integration process, to reaffirm the pioneering region in terms of socio-economic integration, political and cultural, but also to highlight the persistence of the difficulties and challenges of the political unity consolidation in the region, especially after the internalization of colonial boundaries. The article has set the goal to understand why, despite the enormous efforts and several attempts, the pan-Africanist dream of autonomy, unity and development is still below expectations? It starts with the hypothesis that the difficulties are historical in nature (colonial heritage and structural linked to difficult relationship between the internal processes of statebuilding and the inclusion of it in the international system dominated by capitalist imperialism of the colonial and neo-colonial countries. Namely, the low speed of the economic integration process, political and socio-cultural process and especially the lack of autonomy is closely tied to unfinished independence processes due to endogenous and exogenous factors.

  11. Electrolyzer Performance Analysis of an Integrated Hydrogen Power System for Greenhouse Heating. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse containing an integrated system of photovoltaic panels, a water electrolyzer, fuel cells and a geothermal heat pump was set up to investigate suitable solutions for a power system based on solar energy and hydrogen, feeding a self-sufficient, geothermal-heated greenhouse. The electricity produced by the photovoltaic source supplies the electrolyzer; the manufactured hydrogen gas is held in a pressure tank. In these systems, the electrolyzer is a crucial component; the technical challenge is to make it work regularly despite the irregularity of the solar source. The focus of this paper is to study the performance and the real energy efficiency of the electrolyzer, analyzing its operational data collected under different operating conditions affected by the changeable solar radiant energy characterizing the site where the experimental plant was located. The analysis of the measured values allowed evaluation of its suitability for the agricultural requirements such as greenhouse heating. On the strength of the obtained result, a new layout of the battery bank has been designed and exemplified to improve the performance of the electrolyzer. The evaluations resulting from this case study may have a genuine value, therefore assisting in further studies to better understand these devices and their associated technologies.

  12. Integral transform solution of natural convection in a square cavity with volumetric heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. An

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The generalized integral transform technique (GITT is employed to obtain a hybrid numerical-analytical solution of natural convection in a cavity with volumetric heat generation. The hybrid nature of this approach allows for the establishment of benchmark results in the solution of non-linear partial differential equation systems, including the coupled set of heat and fluid flow equations that govern the steady natural convection problem under consideration. Through performing the GITT, the resulting transformed ODE system is then numerically solved by making use of the subroutine DBVPFD from the IMSL Library. Therefore, numerical results under user prescribed accuracy are obtained for different values of Rayleigh numbers, and the convergence behavior of the proposed eigenfunction expansions is illustrated. Critical comparisons against solutions produced by ANSYS CFX 12.0 are then conducted, which demonstrate excellent agreement. Several sets of reference results for natural convection with volumetric heat generation in a bi-dimensional square cavity are also provided for future verification of numerical results obtained by other researchers.

  13. Market integration of responsive customers : application to energy and balancing markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, C.; Valencia, I.; Alcazar, M. [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Inst. of Energy Engineering; Gabaldon, A.; Escriva, G. [Univ. Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Demand response management methods are now being adopted by many deregulated electric utilities. This article presented details of a method designed to create offers and bids for large electricity customers. The method was developed to analyze daily and monthly energy consumption rates and participation in energy and ancillary service markets in Spain. A simulation was used to analyze day-ahead, inter-daily, and balancing scenarios. Peak demand in winter and summer months was characterized. Energy consumption was analyzed for different demand packages related to air conditioning, outdoor lighting, indoor lighting, and other domestic loads. Prices for each package were calculated in order to assess demand reduction capabilities. Differences between real consumption levels and energy prices bought at real-time prices were compared. An overview of Spanish electricity market structures was provided. Results of the study showed that electricity customers may benefit from participating in demand response programs. It was concluded that lower prices obtained during periods of low electricity production outweighed the higher costs of peak electricity periods. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  14. Risk coordination in the computation of operating balancing reserves for wind power integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemenlis, N.; Huneault, M. [IREQ, Varennes, QC (Canada); Robitaille, A. [Hydro-Quebec Production, Montreal, QC (Canada). Dir. Planification de la production eolienne, Direction generale

    2011-07-01

    Recently, with the advent of wind generation, utilities acknowledged that they must modify their operating reserve levels to mitigate the effects of the combined inherent uncertainties. In our previous work, we presented a methodology to compute balancing reserves (BRs), for the time-horizon of 1-48 hours ahead, based on a short term reliability criterion called risk. Our methodology allowed the computation of dynamic reserves but the risk target was treated as an input. It was pointed out that these reserves have an economic value. Maintaining BRs using stand-by capacity comes at a cost, which may be split into three components: a fixed cost for maintaining capacity for BRs, a variable cost when they are deployed and an opportunity costs of power not sold to maintain the reserves beyond useful levels. Here we undertake a study of the problem of establishing adequate risk targets for the computation of BRs, and consequently of determining the amount of unused power capacity that could be freed for sale on export markets. The problem is essentially formulated as an economic problem in the particular HQ context. The solution results in a trade-off between the sale revenues and the expected cost of reserves. (orig.)

  15. Influence of visual control, conduction, and central integration on static and dynamic balance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, P P; Jeandel, C; Perrin, C A; Béné, M C

    1997-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreased balance abilities, resulting in an increased risk of fall. In order to appreciate the visual, somatosensory, and central signals involved in balance control, sophisticated methods of posturography assessment have been developed, using static and dynamic tests, eventually associated with electromyographic measurements. We applied such methods to a population of healthy older adults in order to appreciate the respective importance of each of these sensorial inputs in aging individuals. Posture control parameters were recorded on a force-measuring platform in 41 healthy young (age 28.5 +/- 5.9 years) and 50 older (age 69.8 +/- 5.9 years) adults, using a static test and two dynamic tests performed by all individuals first with eyes open, then with eyes closed. The distance covered by the center of foot pressure, sway area, and anteroposterior oscillations were significantly higher, with eyes open or closed, in older people than in young subjects. Significant differences were noted in dynamic tests with longer latency responses in the group of old people. Dynamic recordings in a sinusoidal test had a more regular pattern when performed eyes open in both groups and evidenced significantly greater instability in old people. These data suggest that vision remains important in maintaining postural control while conduction and central integration become less efficient with age.

  16. Integrating flux balance analysis into kinetic models to decipher the dynamic metabolism of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyang Feng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 sequentially utilizes lactate and its waste products (pyruvate and acetate during batch culture. To decipher MR-1 metabolism, we integrated genome-scale flux balance analysis (FBA into a multiple-substrate Monod model to perform the dynamic flux balance analysis (dFBA. The dFBA employed a static optimization approach (SOA by dividing the batch time into small intervals (i.e., ∼400 mini-FBAs, then the Monod model provided time-dependent inflow/outflow fluxes to constrain the mini-FBAs to profile the pseudo-steady-state fluxes in each time interval. The mini-FBAs used a dual-objective function (a weighted combination of "maximizing growth rate" and "minimizing overall flux" to capture trade-offs between optimal growth and minimal enzyme usage. By fitting the experimental data, a bi-level optimization of dFBA revealed that the optimal weight in the dual-objective function was time-dependent: the objective function was constant in the early growth stage, while the functional weight of minimal enzyme usage increased significantly when lactate became scarce. The dFBA profiled biologically meaningful dynamic MR-1 metabolisms: 1. the oxidative TCA cycle fluxes increased initially and then decreased in the late growth stage; 2. fluxes in the pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis were stable in the exponential growth period; and 3. the glyoxylate shunt was up-regulated when acetate became the main carbon source for MR-1 growth.

  17. Transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan techniques into integrative movement therapy—Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuzhong Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tai Ji Quan, developed as a martial art, has traditionally served multiple purposes, including self-defense, competition/performance, and health promotion. With respect to health, the benefits historically and anecdotally associated with Tai Ji Quan are now being supported by scientific and clinical research, with mounting evidence indicating its potential value in preventing and managing various diseases and improving well-being and quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. The research findings produced to date have both public health significance and clinical relevance. However, because of its roots in the martial arts, transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan movements and training approaches into contemporary therapeutic programs and functional applications is needed to maximize its ultimate utility. This paper addresses this issue by introducing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, a functional therapy that involves the use of Tai Ji Quan principles and Yang-style-based movements to form an innovative, contemporary therapeutic approach that integrates motor, sensory, and cognitive components to improve postural control, gait, and mobility for older adults and those who have neurodegenerative movement impairments. It provides a synergy of traditional and contemporary Tai Ji Quan practice with the ultimate goal of improving balance and gait, enhancing performance of daily functional tasks, and reducing incidence of falls among older adults.

  18. Balanced evaluation of energy systems: development of an integration model between use and energy generation; Avaliacao balanceada de sistemas energeticos: desenvolvimento de um modelo de integracao entre uso e geracao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marins, Karin Regina de Castro [Universidade do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: kmarins@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The present theme treats of urban and environment planning through an integrated approach. Developed as master of science dissertation, the project included the development of a balanced evaluation of energy systems, having in mind the efficient, potentialize initiatives of both sides. In the system of 'Energy use' strategies for energy efficiency in residential and commercial buildings from urban, architecture solutions were included. In {sup e}nergy generation{sup ,} urban centralized systems and distributed generation systems were included. Electricity, environmental heating and refrigeration were considered, excepting peaks in the daily consumption. The model involve quantitative evaluation modules and graphical interfaces, giving support to development of project and decision making processes, demonstrating the advantages of the integrated approach.

  19. Fuel processing in integrated micro-structured heat-exchanger reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, G.; Schürer, J.; Tiemann, D.; Wichert, M.; Zapf, R.; Hessel, V.; Löwe, H.

    Micro-structured fuel processors are under development at IMM for different fuels such as methanol, ethanol, propane/butane (LPG), gasoline and diesel. The target application are mobile, portable and small scale stationary auxiliary power units (APU) based upon fuel cell technology. The key feature of the systems is an integrated plate heat-exchanger technology which allows for the thermal integration of several functions in a single device. Steam reforming may be coupled with catalytic combustion in separate flow paths of a heat-exchanger. Reactors and complete fuel processors are tested up to the size range of 5 kW power output of a corresponding fuel cell. On top of reactor and system prototyping and testing, catalyst coatings are under development at IMM for numerous reactions such as steam reforming of LPG, ethanol and methanol, catalytic combustion of LPG and methanol, and for CO clean-up reactions, namely water-gas shift, methanation and the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide. These catalysts are investigated in specially developed testing reactors. In selected cases 1000 h stability testing is performed on catalyst coatings at weight hourly space velocities, which are sufficiently high to meet the demands of future fuel processing reactors.

  20. Allowable peak heat-up cladding temperature for spent fuel integrity during interim-dry storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Nam Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate allowable peak cladding temperature and hoop stress for maintenance of cladding integrity during interim-dry storage and subsequent transport, zirconium alloy cladding tubes were hydrogen-charged to generate 250 ppm and 500 ppm hydrogen contents, simulating spent nuclear fuel degradation. The hydrogen-charged specimens were heated to four peak temperatures of 250°C, 300°C, 350°C, and 400°C, and then cooled to room temperature at cooling rates of 0.3 °C/min under three tensile hoop stresses of 80 MPa, 100 MPa, and 120 MPa. The cool-down specimens showed that high peak heat-up temperature led to lower hydrogen content and that larger tensile hoop stress generated larger radial hydride fraction and consequently lower plastic elongation. Based on these out-of-pile cladding tube test results only, it may be said that peak cladding temperature should be limited to a level < 250°C, regardless of the cladding hoop stress, to ensure cladding integrity during interim-dry storage and subsequent transport.

  1. The Association between Organisational Commitment And Corporate Social Responsibility-Environmental Performance Within an Integrated Sustainability Balanced Scorecard Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Rae

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether organisational commitment is associated with organisations‘CSR performance within sustainability aspects of their internal process. A structural equation model (SEM tested two sequential direct associations between: (1 senior management employees‘ affective and continuance organisational commitment and organisations‘ conventional value-creating internal processes; (2 conventional value-creating internal processes and organisations‘ CSR performance within sustainability value-creating internal process. The SEM results show an indirect association between affective commitment and CSR performance within sustainability value-creating internal process, which is mediated by the conventional value-creating internal processes. The findings support an integrated sustainability internal process within a sustainability balanced scorecard (SBSC as depicted in Kaplan and Norton‘s strategy map. Organisations may develop internal processes that promote CSR outcome characteristics when employees possess higher levels of affective organisational commitment. Future research could investigate a broader  range of environmental outcomes within CSR performance.

  2. Mass-energy balance analysis for estimation of light energy conversion in an integrated system of biological H2 production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Gavrisheva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated an integrated system of biological H2 production, which includes the accumulation of biomass of autotrophic microalgae, dark fermentation of biomass, and photofermentation of the dark fermentation effluent. Particular emphasis was placed on the estimation of the conversion efficiency of light into hydrogen energy at each stage of this system. For this purpose, the mass and energy balance regularities were applied. The efficiency of the energy transformation from light into the microalgal biomass did not exceed 5%. The efficiency of the energy transformation from biomass to biological H2 during the dark fermentation stage stood at about 0.3%. The photofermentation stage using the model fermentation effluent could improve this estimation to 11%, resulting in an overall efficiency 0.55%. Evidently, this scheme is counterproductive for light energy bioconversion due to numerous intermediate steps even if the best published data would be taken into account.

  3. Thermoregulation and heat balance in the dik-dik antelope (Rhynchotragus kirki): a field and laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, J M; Maloiy, G M

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in the field to study the physiological responses of dik-dik antelope to direct solar radiation and shade. The results were compared to those obtained in the laboratory. The rates of metabolic heat production when the animals were exposed either to the sun or the shade were identical. Dik-dik antelopes lost about 50% more heat evaporatively when exposed to the sun compared to the shade at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 28 degrees C or a Ta of 40 degrees C in a climatic chamber. Heat storage in the laboratory at Ta 40 degrees C or at Ta 28 degrees C in the shade accounted for between 30 and 35% of the total heat production. The corresponding value in the sun was 55%. The net rate of heat gain under the sun was four times greater than under shade at 28 degrees C or in the laboratory at 40 degrees C. Behavioural mechanisms for avoidance of high insolation must constitute important adaptations that the dik-dik uses to avoid dehydration and dependence on drinking water in their natural environment.

  4. Assessment of integration of different biomass gasification alternatives in a district-heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, E.; Ahlgren, E.O. [Department of Energy and Environment, Energy Systems Technology, Division of Energy Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    With increasingly stringent CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets, incentives for efficient use of limited biomass resources increase. Technologies for gasification of biomass may then play a key role given their potential for high electrical efficiency and multiple outputs; not only electricity but also bio transport fuels and district heat. The aim of this study is to assess the economic consequences and the potential for CO{sub 2} reduction of integration of a biomass gasification plant into a district-heating (DH) system. The study focuses on co-location with an existing natural gas combined cycle heat and power plant in the municipal DH system of Goeteborg, Sweden. The analysis is carried out using a systems modelling approach. The so-called MARTES model is used. MARTES is a simulating, DH systems supply model with a detailed time slice division. The economic robustness of different solutions is investigated by using different sets of parameters for electricity price, fuel prices and policy tools. In this study, it is assumed that not only tradable green certificates for electricity but also tradable green certificates for transport fuels exist. The economic results show strong dependence on the technical solutions and scenario assumptions but in most cases a stand-alone SNG-polygeneration plant with district-heat delivery is the cost-optimal solution. Its profitability is strongly dependent on policy tools and the price relation between biomass and fossil fuels. Finally, the results show that operation of the biomass gasification plants reduces the (DH) system's net emissions of CO{sub 2}. (author)

  5. Heat pump centered integrated community energy systems: system development. Georgia Institute of Technology final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, D.W.; Trammell, B.C.; Dixit, B.S.; McCurry, D.C.; Rindt, B.A.

    1979-12-01

    Heat Pump Centered-Integrated Community Energy Systems (HP-ICES) show the promise of utilizing low-grade thermal energy for low-quality energy requirements such as space heating and cooling. The Heat Pump - Wastewater Heat Recovery (HP-WHR) scheme is one approach to an HP-ICES that proposes to reclaim low-grade thermal energy from a community's wastewater effluent. This report develops the concept of an HP-WHR system, evaluates the potential performance and economics of such a system, and examines the potential for application. A thermodynamic performance analysis of a hypothetical system projects an overall system Coefficient of Performance (C.O.P.) of from 2.181 to 2.264 for waste-water temperatures varying from 50/sup 0/F to 80/sup 0/F. Primary energy source savings from the nationwide implementation of this system is projected to be 6.0 QUADS-fuel oil, or 8.5 QUADS - natural gas, or 29.7 QUADS - coal for the period 1980 to 2000, depending upon the type and mix of conventional space conditioning systems which could be displaced with the HP-WHR system. Site-specific HP-WHR system designs are presented for two application communities in Georgia. Performance analyses for these systems project annual cycle system C.O.P.'s of 2.049 and 2.519. Economic analysis on the basis of a life cycle cost comparison shows one site-specific system design to be cost competitive in the immediate market with conventional residential and light commercial HVAC systems. The second site-specific system design is shown through a similar economic analysis to be more costly than conventional systems due mainly to the current low energy costs for natural gas. It is anticipated that, as energy costs escalate, this HP-WHR system will also approach the threshold of economic viability.

  6. Using MathCad to Evaluate Exact Integral Formulations of Spacecraft Orbital Heats for Primitive Surfaces at Any Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckney, John

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of high speed computing Monte Carlo ray tracing techniques has become the preferred method for evaluating spacecraft orbital heats. Monte Carlo has its greatest advantage where there are many interacting surfaces. However Monte Carlo programs are specialized programs that suffer from some inaccuracy, long calculation times and high purchase cost. A general orbital heating integral is presented here that is accurate, fast and runs on MathCad, a generally available engineering mathematics program. The integral is easy to read, understand and alter. The integral can be applied to unshaded primitive surfaces at any orientation. The method is limited to direct heating calculations. This integral formulation can be used for quick orbit evaluations and spot checking Monte Carlo results.

  7. Effects of a Balanced Translocation between Chromosomes 1 and 11 Disrupting the DISC1 Locus on White Matter Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C Whalley

    Full Text Available Individuals carrying rare, but biologically informative genetic variants provide a unique opportunity to model major mental illness and inform understanding of disease mechanisms. The rarity of such variations means that their study involves small group numbers, however they are amongst the strongest known genetic risk factors for major mental illness and are likely to have large neural effects. DISC1 (Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 is a gene containing one such risk variant, identified in a single Scottish family through its disruption by a balanced translocation of chromosomes 1 and 11; t(1;11 (q42.1;q14.3.Within the original pedigree, we examined the effects of the t(1;11 translocation on white matter integrity, measured by fractional anisotropy (FA. This included family members with (n = 7 and without (n = 13 the translocation, along with a clinical control sample of patients with psychosis (n = 34, and a group of healthy controls (n = 33.We report decreased white matter integrity in five clusters in the genu of the corpus callosum, the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, acoustic radiation and fornix. Analysis of the mixed psychosis group also demonstrated decreased white matter integrity in the above regions. FA values within the corpus callosum correlated significantly with positive psychotic symptom severity.We demonstrate that the t(1;11 translocation is associated with reduced white matter integrity in frontal commissural and association fibre tracts. These findings overlap with those shown in affected patients with psychosis and in DISC1 animal models and highlight the value of rare but biologically informative mutations in modeling psychosis.

  8. BALANCED SCORECARD PARA EMPRENDEDORES: DESDE EL MODELO CANVAS AL CUADRO DE MANDO INTEGRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ MANUEL SÁNCHEZ VÁZQUEZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El Cuadro de Mando Integral (BSC y el modelo Canvas pueden enlazarse como herramientas complementarias para los emprendedores. La primera desarrolla objetivos y medidas operativas en cuatro perspectivas principales para alcanzar la misión y estrategia. La segunda ha supuesto una (re-evolución en la generación de modelos de negocio, estableciendo nueve apartados que reflejan su lógica. En el artículo se desarrolla un modelo de trabajo que, partiendo de la necesidad de dispo - ner de un BSC, relaciona su diseño con la información recogida previamente en el modelo Canvas, señalando su mutua necesidad.

  9. Tipping Points and Balancing Acts: Grand Challenges and Synergistic Opportunities of Integrating Research and Education, Science and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, M. S.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    thousands of US high schools that integrate climate science and solutions in a way that inspires and informs youth, and similar programs exist internationally. Other approaches to prepare vulnerable communities, especially young people, for natural hazards and human-induced environmental change include programs such as Plan International's "Child Centered Disaster Risk Reduction- Building Resilience Through Participation," and their "Weathering the Storm" project, focusing on integrating the needs of teenage girls with climate change adaptation and risk reduction. While minimizing global environmental and climate change is crucial, these and related programs that weave research with education, science with solutions offer the potential for addressing the "Grand Challenges" by better preparing for societal and environmental tipping points through a more balanced and integrated approach to addressing change."

  10. ROBOT-ASSISTED VS SENSORY INTEGRATION TRAINING IN TREATING GAIT AND BALANCE DYSFUNCTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS:A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuisa eGandolfi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive research on both healthy subjects and patients with central nervous damage has elucidated a crucial role of postural adjustment reactions and central sensory integration processes in generating and shaping locomotors function, respectively. Whether robotic-assisted gait devices might improve these functions in Multiple sclerosis (MS patients is not fully investigated in literature.Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of robot-assisted gait training (RAGT and sensory integration balance training (SIBT in improving walking and balance performance in patients with MS. Methods: Twenty-two patients with MS (EDSS: 1.5-6.5 were randomly assigned to two groups. The RAGT group (n= 12 underwent end-effector system training. The SIBT group (n=10 underwent specific balance exercises. Each patient received twelve 50-minutes treatment sessions (2 days/week. A blinded rater evaluated patients before and after treatment as well as 1 month posttreatment. Primary outcomes were walking speed and Berg Balance Scale. Secondary outcomes were the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Sensory Organization Balance Test, Stabilometric Assessment, Fatigue Severity Scale, cadence, step length, single and double support time, Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54. Results: Between groups comparisons showed no significant differences on primary and secondary outcome measures over time. Within group comparisons showed significant improvements in both groups on the Berg Balance Scale (P=.001. Changes approaching significance were found on gait speed (P=.07 only in the RAGT group. Significant changes in balance task-related domains during standing and walking conditions were found in the SIBT group.Conclusion: Balance disorders in patients with MS may be ameliorated by RAGT and by SIBT.

  11. Integrated production and distribution analysis in District Heating-systems; Samverkande produktions och distributionsanalys i fjaerrvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossing, Ola [HydroRam, Goeteborg (Sweden); Johnsson, John [Profu, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    During the last 10-15 years detailed models for analysing district heating production and distribution has been developed. However, detailed analysis of district heating is in many cases a combined production and distribution issue. The high complexity in both areas has lead to a situation with separate tools for analysis. The consequence of this is that the calculations have, in some cases, been incomplete or even incorrect. Examples of miscalculations are that production calculations in complex systems in many cases give unrealistic production schedules due to the distribution restrictions. On the other hand most distribution calculations do not give economical results. Through integration of production and distribution analyses the analyst is given possibility to verify the production calculation from a distributions perspective and to reach a more realistic result. In order to evaluate the advantage of, and possibilities for, co-operation between the two areas, we have analysed the district heating system of Goeteborg, which is a district heating system of high complexity. The calculations have been made with a production model (Martes) and a distribution model (PFC-SF). The possibility to establish integrated analysis has been evaluated through analysing different technical measures for minimizing the influence of a distribution restriction between the western and eastern part of Goeteborg. The project shows that integrated analysis could be done with a high degree of accuracy and in an effective way. In the project six different measures for minimizing the influences of the distribution restriction was identified. These measures were ranked on an economic basis through the integrated analyses. The change of cost was varied between a cost decrease of seven million SEK/year (increases differential pressure) to a cost increases of 32 million SEK/year (increased supply temperature). The cost reduction of the other measures varied between four and seven million

  12. Proportional and Integral Thermal Control System for Large Scale Heating Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Van Tran

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) Flight Loads Laboratory is a unique national laboratory that supports thermal, mechanical, thermal/mechanical, and structural dynamics research and testing. A Proportional Integral thermal control system was designed and implemented to support thermal tests. A thermal control algorithm supporting a quartz lamp heater was developed based on the Proportional Integral control concept and a linearized heating process. The thermal control equations were derived and expressed in terms of power levels, integral gain, proportional gain, and differences between thermal setpoints and skin temperatures. Besides the derived equations, user's predefined thermal test information generated in the form of thermal maps was used to implement the thermal control system capabilities. Graphite heater closed-loop thermal control and graphite heater open-loop power level were added later to fulfill the demand for higher temperature tests. Verification and validation tests were performed to ensure that the thermal control system requirements were achieved. This thermal control system has successfully supported many milestone thermal and thermal/mechanical tests for almost a decade with temperatures ranging from 50 F to 3000 F and temperature rise rates from -10 F/s to 70 F/s for a variety of test articles having unique thermal profiles and test setups.

  13. Advanced variable speed air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) development - CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ally, Moonis Raza [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Between August 2011 and September 2015, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nordyne, LLC (now Nortek Global HVAC LLC, NGHVAC) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. Two generations of laboratory prototype systems were designed, fabricated, and lab-tested during 2011-2013. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, or HPDM, (Rice 1991; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps were the input to the TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) system to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of 13 SEER air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater with Energy Factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a tight, well insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 46 to 61%, averaging 52%, relative to the baseline system (lowest savings at the cold-climate Chicago location). Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 62 to 76% relative to resistance WH. Based on these lab prototype test and analyses results a field test prototype was designed and fabricated by NGHVAC. The unit was installed in a 2400 ft2 (223 m2) research house in Knoxville, TN and field tested from May 2014 to April 2015. Based on the demonstrated field performance of the AS-IHP prototype and estimated performance of a baseline system operating under the same loads and weather conditions, it was estimated that the prototype would achieve ~40% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite. The estimated WH savings were >60% and SC mode savings were >50%. But estimated SH savings were only about 20%. It is believed that had the test

  14. Hierarchical organization, integrations in biology and cancer, balance loss, and a question on modernism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harguindey, S; Katin, M; Edgerton, F; Takita, H

    1981-09-01

    The hierarchical organization of biological processes is considered in the light of universal interrelationships of each and every factor affecting open systems such as human life. The maintenance of health and/or the production of disease are viewed at different levels of biological organization as related to the dualistic concept. The relative effects of environmental versus genetic tendencies in the pathogenesis of "disease" are mathematically formulated as related to time and location. Psychological determinants are considered as cause and as consequence of the onset of somatic disease. The multifactorial aspects of chronic pathology are seen in relation to dominant tendencies in life and in medical sciences, as well as to individual factors. The "non-specificity" of some aspects of cancer as related to "Adaptation" is advanced. Doubts are raised regarding the ultimate value of modern technological achievements and overspecialization per se, as well as on the lines followed by modern trends in the organization of cancer research. Finally, the increasing need for progressive thoughtful integration versus increasing specialization is stressed.

  15. W-026 integrated engineering cold run operational test report for balance of plant (BOP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-02-24

    This Cold Run test is designed to demonstrate the functionality of systems necessary to move waste drums throughout the plant using approved procedures, and the compatibility of these systems to function as an integrated process. This test excludes all internal functions of the gloveboxes. In the interest of efficiency and support of the facility schedule, the initial revision of the test (rev 0) was limited to the following: Receipt and storage of eight overpacked drums, four LLW and four TRU; Receipt, routing, and staging of eleven empty drums to the process area where they will be used later in this test; Receipt, processing, and shipping of two verification drums (Route 9); Receipt, processing, and shipping of two verification drums (Route 1). The above listed operations were tested using the rev 0 test document, through Section 5.4.25. The document was later revised to include movement of all staged drums to and from the LLW and TRU process and RWM gloveboxes. This testing was performed using Sections 5.5 though 5.11 of the rev 1 test document. The primary focus of this test is to prove the functionality of automatic operations for all mechanical and control processes listed. When necessary, the test demonstrates manual mode operations as well. Though the gloveboxes are listed, only waste and empty drum movement to, from, and between the gloveboxes was tested.

  16. Identification of heat risk patterns in the U.S. National Capital Region by integrating heat stress and related vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Christoph; Özceylan, Dilek

    2013-06-01

    The increase in the number and severity of weather extremes (including excessive heat) potentially associated with climate change has highlighted the needs for research into risk assessment and risk reduction measures. Extreme heat events, the focus of this paper, have been consistently reported as the leading cause of weather-related mortality in the United States in recent years. In order to fully understand impact potentials and analyze risk in its individual components both the spatially and temporally varying patterns of heat and the multidimensional characteristics of vulnerability have to be considered. In this paper we present a composite index aggregating these factors to assess heat related risk for the U.S. National Capital Region in 2010. The study reveals how risk patterns are in part driven by the geographic variations of vulnerability, generally showing a clear difference between high-risk urban areas and wide areas of low risk in the suburban and rural environments. This pattern is particularly evident for the core center of the study area around the District of Columbia, which is largely characterized by high index values despite not having experienced the peak of the heat stress as compared to other regions in the metropolitan area. The article aims to set a framework for local-level heat stress risk assessment that can provide valuable input and decision support for climate adaptation planning as well as emergency managers aiming at risk reduction and optimization of resource distribution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrical heat pumps - a renewable energy? What is the environmental balance of electrical heat pumps in comparison to other heating systems?; Elektrische Waermepumpen - eine erneuerbare Energie? Wie ist die Umweltbilanz elektrischer Waermepumpen im Vergleich zu anderen Heizungssystemen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuberth, Jens; Kaschenz, Helmut [Umweltbundesamt Dessau (Germany). Fachgebiet I 2.4 Energieeffizienz

    2008-05-29

    Electrical heat pumps deliver energy for the heating of buildings whereby relatively ambient heat from soil, water or air is increased on a usable temperature level. In this case, electrical power is used. Electrical heat pumps do not only use renewable environmental energy, but also electricity from not-renewable sources of energy. An installation and a correct adjustment of a heat meter are recommended. The calculation of production costs should consider not only the operating cost, but also all resulting costs in a total cost calculation. Electrical heat pumps offer a high discharge of the environment, if electric power effectively is produced. In this case, electrical heat pumps can exceed also fuel cells.

  18. From Modules to a Generator: An Integrated Heat Exchanger Concept for Car Applications of a Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Henry

    2016-03-01

    A heat exchanger concept for a thermoelectric generator with integrated planar modules for passenger car applications is introduced. The module housings, made of deep drawn stainless steel sheet metal, are brazed onto the exhaust gas channel to achieve an optimal heat transfer on the hot side of the modules. The cooling side consists of winding fluid channels, which are mounted directly onto the cold side of the modules. Only a thin foil separates the cooling media from the modules for an almost direct heat contact on the cooling side. Thermoelectric generators with up to 20 modules made of PbTe and Bi2Te3, respectively, are manufactured and tested on a hot gas generator to investigate electrical power output and performance of the thermoelectric generator. The proof of concept of the light weight heat exchanger design made of sheet metal with integrated modules is positively accomplished.

  19. Quantifying canal leakage rates using a mass-balance approach and heat-based hydraulic conductivity estimates in selected irrigation canals, western Nebraska, 2007 through 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Andersen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The water supply in areas of the North Platte River Basin in the Nebraska Panhandle has been designated as fully appropriated or overappropriated by the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (NDNR). Enacted legislation (Legislative Bill 962) requires the North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD) and the NDNR to develop an Integrated Management Plan (IMP) to balance groundwater and surface-water supply and demand in the NPNRD. A clear understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems is critical for the development of a successful IMP. The primary source of groundwater recharge in parts of the NPNRD is from irrigation canal leakage. Because canal leakage constitutes a large part of the hydrologic budget, spatially distributing canal leakage to the groundwater system is important to any management strategy. Surface geophysical data collected along selected reaches of irrigation canals has allowed for the spatial distribution of leakage on a relative basis; however, the actual magnitude of leakage remains poorly defined. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NPNRD, established streamflow-gaging stations at upstream and downstream ends from two selected canal reaches to allow a mass-balance approach to be used to calculate daily leakage rates. Water-level and sediment temperature data were collected and simulated at three temperature monitoring sites to allow the use of heat as a tracer to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of canal bed sediment. Canal-leakage rates were estimated by applying Darcy's Law to modeled vertical hydraulic conductivity and either the estimated or measured hydraulic gradient. This approach will improve the understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of canal leakage in varying geologic settings identified in capacitively coupled resistivity surveys. The high-leakage potential study reach of the Tri-State Canal had two streamflow-gaging stations and two temperature monitoring

  20. Integration of Americium Heat Source into the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Erich; Quinn, Richard

    2014-08-01

    The Lockheed Martin developed Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) design uses similar technology as proposed for the European Space Agency (ESA) Radioisotope Power System (RPS) development program but different isotopes. The RPS uses americium, 241Am isotope, while the ASRG uses plutonium, 238Pu isotope. The 238Pu isotope provides four times greater thermal output per kilogram than the 241Am isotope. Lockheed Martin performed an internally funded feasibility assessment that determined integration of a 241Am fueled heat source into the ASRG is achievable with no changes to ASRG technology and only structural and volumetric design considerations required. Lockheed Martin is interested in developing collaborative partnerships with the United Kingdom (UK) for the ESA RPS development program.

  1. Numerical analysis of solar updraft power plant integrated with external heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurybi Mohammed A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries started to adopt clean energy sources, where solar energy is the first priority. Solar chimney power plant was selected in this study as a system which converts solar thermal energy to electrical power. In this research, hybrid solar chimney power plant model has been proposed as a day and night functional integrated system using external heat source to enhance the system performance and cover the setback of solar absence at night and cloudy days. With the help of ANSYS Fluent software, three-dimensional steady-state of Navier-Stokes and energy equations have been solved. Realized k–∊ two equation turbulent model equations and discrete ordinates (DO radiation model equations were solved for the conventional model. The results were validated using experimental measurements. Afterward, the influence of thermal enhancing channels installation on the system performance was predicted and analysed in hybrid mode. The simulation results showed that this system could enhance the plant during the day. Percentage of enhancement was 10% and 14% for velocity and temperature respectively, and the power output percentage enhancement was 18% when the solar intensity was 1000 W/m2, and external heat source mass flow rate and the temperature for each channels was 0.015 Kg/s and 100°C respectively, in comparison with the conventional model.

  2. Exact triple integrals of beam functions. [in application of Galerkin method to heat and mass transfer problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, B. S.; Rosenberger, F.

    1982-01-01

    Definite triple integrals encountered in applying the Galerkin method to the problem of heat and mass transfer across rectangular enclosures are discussed. Rather than evaluating them numerically, the technique described by Reid and Harris (1958) was extended to obtain the exact solution of the integrals. In the process, four linear simultaneous equations with triple integrals as unknowns were obtained. These equations were then solved exactly to obtain the closed form solution. Since closed form representations of this type have been shown to be useful in solving nonlinear hydrodynamic problems by series expansion, the integrals are presented here in general form.

  3. Effect of Palm Cooling with Negative Pressure on Heat Balance During Exercise in a Hot, Dry Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-15

    conditions until their core temperature (pill or rectal) reached 38.5oC. A venous blood sample (5 mL) was obtained from an antecubital vein...Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 71:939-945, 2000. Livingstone SD, RW Nolan, SW Cattroll. Heat loss caused by immersing the hands in water. Aviat... Space Environ. Med. 60:1166-1171, 1989. McNair, P. M., Lorr, M. & Droppleman, L. F. POMS manual (2nd ed.). San Diego: San Diego Educational and

  4. Latent/sensible heat and water stress retrieval performances of the SPARSE dual-source energy balance model over irrigated and rainfed agricultural crops using eddy covariance, sap flow and extra-large aperture scintillometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, G.; Bahir, M.; Delogu, E.; Mougenot, B.; Bousbih, S.; Raimbault, B.; Fanise, P.; Saadi, S.; Chebbi, W.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Rivalland, V.; Lagouarde, J. P.; Olioso, A.

    2016-12-01

    Evapotranspiration is an important component of the water cycle, especially in semi-arid lands. Its quantification is crucial for a sustainable management of scarce water resources. Evapotranspiration at large scales is often estimated through integrated water balance models forced by distributed meteorological forcing. This forcing includes irrigation inputs from surface and groundwater uptakes. Those amounts are largely unknown at most scales, including the regional scale, i.e. the working scale of institutional stakeholders. An alternative way to quantify evapotranspiration is to exploit the available surface temperature data from remote sensing as a signature of the surface energy balance. This work evaluates the SPARSE model (http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/19/4653/2015/) forced by in-situ or MODIS surface temperatures. SPARSE is built on the same rationale as the widely used TSEB model. Its new features involve state-of-the art resistance formulations as well as the possibility to run the model in two modes: a retrieval mode to simulate evaporation and transpiration from TIR data, and a prescribed mode which simulates potential evaporation and transpiration rates. This enables to simulate not only actual fluxes but also surface and plant water stress. It ensures also an increased robustness through bounding the actual fluxes by the corresponding potential rates. A wide range of flux datasets acquired over rainfed and irrigated crops in temperate, Mediterranean and semi-arid regions are used to check the robustness of both stress levels and evapotranspiration retrievals. Two flux datasets are relevant for assessing the performance of the MODIS scale retrievals. One is an extensive rainfed oliveyard with very low (7%) vegetation cover. For this site, evapotranspiration from eddy covariance (EC) as well as transpiration from sapflow measurements are available to check the accuracy of evaporation and transpiration components computed by SPARSE. A second

  5. A 2 x 2 imaging MIMO system based on LED Visible Light Communications employing space balanced coding and integrated PIN array reception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiehui; Xu, Yinfan; Shi, Jianyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a 2 x 2 imaging Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO)-Visible Light Communication (VLC) system by employing Space Balanced Coding (SBC) based on two RGB LEDs and integrated PIN array reception. We experimentally demonstrated 1.4-Gbit/s VLC transmission at a distance of 2.5 m...

  6. Energy efficiency of acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) recovery by heat-integrated distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisales Diaz, Victor Hugo; Olivar Tost, Gerard

    2018-03-01

    Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) is an alternative biofuel. However, the energy requirement of ABE recovery by distillation is considered elevated (> 15.2 MJ fuel/Kg-ABE), due to the low concentration of ABE from fermentation broths (between 15 and 30 g/l). In this work, to reduce the energy requirements of ABE recovery, four processes of heat-integrated distillation were proposed. The energy requirements and economic evaluations were performed using the fermentation broths of several biocatalysts. Energy requirements of the processes with four distillation columns and three distillation columns were similar (between 7.7 and 11.7 MJ fuel/kg-ABE). Double-effect system (DED) with four columns was the most economical process (0.12-0.16 $/kg-ABE). ABE recovery from dilute solutions by DED achieved energy requirements between 6.1 and 8.7 MJ fuel/kg-ABE. Vapor compression distillation (VCD) reached the lowest energy consumptions (between 4.7 and 7.3 MJ fuel/kg-ABE). Energy requirements for ABE recovery DED and VCD were lower than that for integrated reactors. The energy requirements of ABE production were between 1.3- and 2.0-fold higher than that for alternative biofuels (ethanol or isobutanol). However, the energy efficiency of ABE production was equivalent than that for ethanol and isobutanol (between 0.71 and 0.76) because of hydrogen production in ABE fermentation.

  7. Integrated Energy and Emission Management for Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery Using Dynamic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willems Frank

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rankine-cycle Waste Heat Recovery (WHR systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine and WHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel engine with WHR system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing online the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue consumption. Contrary to other control studies, the proposed control strategy optimizes overall engine-aftertreatment-WHR system performance and deals with emission constraints. From simulations, the potential of this IPC strategy is demonstrated over a World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC using a high-fidelity simulation model. These results are compared with a state-of-the-art baseline engine control strategy. By applying the IPC strategy, an additional 2.6% CO2 reduction is achieved compare to the baseline strategy, while meeting the tailpipe NOx emission limit. In addition, the proposed low-level WHR controller is shown to deal with the cold start challenges.

  8. Simulation and experimental study of solar-absorption heat transformer integrating with two-stage high temperature vapor compression heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattaporn Chaiyat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, simulation and experiment studies of a 10 kW solar H2O–LiBr absorption heat transformer (AHT integrating with a two-stage vapor compression heat pump (VCHP were carried out. The whole system was named as compression/absorption heat transformer (CAHT. The VCHP was used to recover rejected heat at the AHT condenser which was transferred back to the AHT evaporator at a higher temperature. The AHT unit took solar heat from a set of flat-plate solar collectors in parallel connection. R-134a and R-123 were refrigerants in the VCHP cycle. From the simulation, the total cycle coefficient (COP of the solar-CAHT was 0.71 compared with 0.49 of the normal solar-AHT. From the experiment, the total cycle COPs of the solar-CAHT and the solar-AHT were 0.62 and 0.39, respectively. The experimental results were lower than those of the simulated models due to the oversize of the experimental compressor. The annual expense of the solar-CAHT was found to be 5113 USD which was lower than 5418 USD of the solar-AHT. So it could be concluded that the modified unit was beneficial than the normal unit in terms of energy efficiency and economic expense.

  9. Integral staggered point-matching method for millimeter-wave reflective diffraction gratings on electron cyclotron heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Donghui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Huang, Mei [Southwestern Institute of Physics, 610041 Chengdu (China); Wang, Zhijiang, E-mail: wangzj@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Zhang, Feng [Southwestern Institute of Physics, 610041 Chengdu (China); Zhuang, Ge [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The integral staggered point-matching method for design of polarizers on the ECH systems is presented. • The availability of the integral staggered point-matching method is checked by numerical calculations. • Two polarizers are designed with the integral staggered point-matching method and the experimental results are given. - Abstract: The reflective diffraction gratings are widely used in the high power electron cyclotron heating systems for polarization strategy. This paper presents a method which we call “the integral staggered point-matching method” for design of reflective diffraction gratings. This method is based on the integral point-matching method. However, it effectively removes the convergence problems and tedious calculations of the integral point-matching method, making it easier to be used for a beginner. A code is developed based on this method. The calculation results of the integral staggered point-matching method are compared with the integral point-matching method, the coordinate transformation method and the low power measurement results. It indicates that the integral staggered point-matching method can be used as an optional method for the design of reflective diffraction gratings in electron cyclotron heating systems.

  10. Effects of radiational heating at low air temperature on water balance, cold tolerance, and visible injury of red spruce foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J L; Amundson, R G

    1992-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that winter needle mortality in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) is increased by exposure to direct solar radiation, possibly as a result of photo-oxidative damage, accelerated winter desiccation, or reduced cold tolerance due to heating of sun-exposed needles. In an experiment at controlled subfreezing air temperatures of -10 to -20 degrees C, visible radiation was less effective than infrared radiation in producing needle desiccation and visible injury during freeze-thaw cycles. However, visible radiation produced a red-brown color in injured needles, similar to natural winter injury, whereas injured needles exposed to infrared radiation were yellow and injured needles kept in darkness were dark brown. Thus, visible radiation was necessary to produce the red-brown color of damaged needles, but not the injury itself. Needle desiccation was not strongly correlated with visible injury, but the pattern of variation in visible injury among trees and the positive correlation between electrolyte leakage and visible injury suggested that freezing damage following freeze-thaw cycles might cause the visible injury. This was confirmed by a second experiment that showed loss of cold hardiness in needles thawed by radiational heating for six consecutive days. Even with a constant nighttime temperature of -10 degrees C, six days of radiational heating of needles to above freezing caused a small (2.8 degrees C) mean decrease in needle cold tolerance, as measured by electrolyte leakage. Continuous darkness at -10 degrees C for six days resulted in an estimated 5.6 degrees C mean increase in needle cold tolerance. Freezing injury stimulated desiccation: cooling at 4 degrees C h(-1) to -43 or -48 degrees C increased the dehydration rate of isolated shoots by a factor of two to three during the first day after thawing. Within three days at 15 to 22 degrees C and 50% relative humidity, the mean water content of these shoots fell to 60% or lower, compared to

  11. Integrating the context-appropriate balanced attention model and reinforcement sensitivity theory: Towards a domain-general personality process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael D; Jackson, Chris J; Walker, Benjamin R; O'Connor, Peter J; Gardiner, Elliroma

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 40 years or more the personality literature has been dominated by trait models based on the Big Five (B5). Trait-based models describe personality at the between-person level but cannot explain the within-person mental mechanisms responsible for personality. Nor can they adequately account for variations in emotion and behavior experienced by individuals across different situations and over time. An alternative, yet understated, approach to personality architecture can be found in neurobiological theories of personality, most notably reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST). In contrast to static trait-based personality models like the B5, RST provides a more plausible basis for a personality process model, namely, one that explains how emotions and behavior arise from the dynamic interaction between contextual factors and within-person mental mechanisms. In this article, the authors review the evolution of a neurobiologically based personality process model based on RST, the response modulation model and the context-appropriate balanced attention model. They argue that by integrating this complex literature, and by incorporating evidence from personality neuroscience, one can meaningfully explain personality at both the within- and between-person levels. This approach achieves a domain-general architecture based on RST and self-regulation that can be used to align within-person mental mechanisms, neurobiological systems and between-person measurement models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The development of an integrated Indonesian health care model using Kano's model, quality function deployment and balanced scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonny, Zagloed, Teuku Yuri M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to present an integrated health care model for Indonesian health care industry. Based on previous researches, there are two health care models in the industry such as decease- and patient-centered care models. In their developments, the patient-centered care model is widely applied due to its capability in reducing cost and improving quality simultaneously. However, there is still no comprehensive model resulting in cost reduction, quality improvement, patient satisfaction and hospital profitability simultaneously. Therefore, this research is intended to develop that model. In doing so, first, a conceptual model using Kano's Model, Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is developed to generate several important elements of the model as required by stakeholders. Then, a case study of an Indonesian hospital is presented to evaluate the validity of the model using correlation analysis. As a result, it can be concluded that the model is validated implying several managerial insights among its elements such as l) leadership (r=0.85) and context of the organization (r=0.77) improve operations; 2) planning (r=0.96), support process (r=0.87) and continual improvement (r=0.95) also improve operations; 3) operations improve customer satisfaction (r=0.89) and financial performance (r=0.93) and 4) customer satisfaction improves the financial performance (0.98).

  13. Integrasi Personal Balanced Scorecard, Psikologi Integral, dan Positive Organization Behaviour/ Scholarship sebagai Pendekatan Komprehensif di Perusahaan/Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlaila Effendy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinerja suatu organisasi diukur dari physical assets, financial capital dan human capital. Organisasi memerlukan sistem yang tepat dalam meningkatkan kinerja.Tujuan Performance Management System yang diterapkan dalam organisasi adalah untuk mengoptimalkan potensi individu, tim, pemimpin, dan organisasi. Pendekatan komprehensif diperlukan untuk dapat mengoptimalkan potensi dan pencapaian kinerja yang optimal.PBSC adalahperformance management system dengan pendekatan perspektif finance dan non finance serta mengintegrasikan dengan formulasi strategi (visi, misi organisasi, tujuan organisasi dengan tujuan departemen dan tujuan karyawan. PBSC adalah konsep baru dengan pendekatan personal,baik terkait perusahaan maupun bukan terkait pekerjaansebagai ukuran diri. Pengembangan suatu organisasi yang terintegrasi adalah adanya kesadaran individu-individu dalam organisasi yang memunculkan personal meaning atau kebermaknaan diri di dalam organisasi, sehingga akan membentuk budaya organisasi dan iklim organisasi yang efektif dan harmoni. Penerapan Positive Organization Behavior dan Positive Organization Scholarship pada organisasi akan membangun Positive Emotional Climate dan Organization Relational Strength. Pendekatan secara integratif antara Personal Balance Scorecard, Positive Organizational Scholarship, Positive Organizational Behavior dan Psikologi Integral akan memperkuat kinerja organisasi dan memiliki kesempatan menuju organisasi Positif . Individu dalam organisasi akan memiliki vitalitas dan mengalami flow, dan organisasimemiliki flourishing

  14. EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS ON BLOOD ACID-BASE BALANCE AND MINERAL CONTENT IN GUINEA FOWLS WHEN DRINKING WATER TREATED WITH MAGNETIC FIELD WAS USED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata GŁOWIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 24-hour heat stress on blood acid-base balance parameters and mineral content in guinea fowls when drinking water treated with magnetic field was used. The maximum environmental temperature at the end of the present experiment was 32oC. The relative humidity was maintained at 55% (±2. Blood samples were collected from birds three times: in the 1st, 12th and 24th hour of stress. Exposure to heat stress significantly increased blood bicarbonate ion concentration (HCO3 -, content of buffer alkali (BB and decreased shortage of alkali (BE but only in the 12th hour of stress. In the level of oxygen pressure (pO2 and percentage of oxygen content (O2sat in the 12th and 24th hour of the experiment statistically high significant decrease occurred. In consequence of high environmental temperature the statistically significant decrease of sodium was found. No changes in the level of potassium and chlorine ions in guinea fowls watered magnetized water occurred.

  15. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems: System development summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calm, J. M.

    1980-02-01

    An introduction to district heating systems employing heat pumps to enable use of low temperature energy sources is presented. These systems operate as thermal utilities to provide space heating and may also supply space cooling, service water heating, and other thermal services. Otherwise wasted heat from industrial and commercial processes, natural sources including solar and geothermal heat, and heat stored on an annual cycle from summer cooling may be effectively utilized by the systems described. More than one quarter of the energy consumed in the United States is used to heat and cool buildings and to heat service water. Natural gas and oil provide approximately 83% of this energy. The systems described show potential to reduce net energy consumption for these services by 20 to 50% and to allow fuel substitution with less scarce resources not practical in smaller, individual building systems. Seven studies performed for the system development phase are summarized.

  16. The role of large‐scale heat pumps for short term integration of renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Blarke, Morten; Hansen, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    In this report the role of large-scale heat pumps in a future energy system with increased renewable energy is presented. The main concepts for large heat pumps in district heating systems are outlined along with the development for heat pump refrigerants. The development of future heat pump...... of biomass consumption as base load in the energy system. Large heat pumps may also contribute to developing future smart energy systems as they can create flexibility between the electricity and heating/cooling sectors. A case study of Denmark in 2020 indicates that large heat pumps can increase fuel...... savings with increased wind power and may additionally lead to economic savings in the range of 1,500-1,700 MDKK in total in the period until 2020. Furthermore, the energy system efficiency may be increased due to large heat pumps replacing boiler production. Finally data sheets for large-scale ammonium...

  17. Power generation plant integrating concentrated solar power receiver and pressurized heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakadjian, Bartev B; Flynn, Thomas J; Hu, Shengteng; Velazquez-Vargas, Luis G; Maryamchik, Mikhail

    2016-10-04

    A power plant includes a solar receiver heating solid particles, a standpipe receiving solid particles from the solar receiver, a pressurized heat exchanger heating working fluid by heat transfer through direct contact with heated solid particles flowing out of the bottom of the standpipe, and a flow path for solid particles from the bottom of the standpipe into the pressurized heat exchanger that is sealed by a pressure P produced at the bottom of the standpipe by a column of heated solid particles of height H. The flow path may include a silo or surge tank comprising a pressure vessel connected to the bottom of the standpipe, and a non-mechanical valve. The power plant may further include a turbine driven by heated working fluid discharged from the pressurized heat exchanger, and a compressor driven by the turbine.

  18. Results of surface heat balance and active soil layer observations at the Tiksi Hydrometeorological Observatory and the Research Station "Ice Base "Cape Baranova"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makshtas, Alexander; Laurila, Tuomas; Grachev, Andrey; Uttal, Taneil; Bogorodsky, Peter; Kustov, Vasilii; Timachev, Valery; Makhotina, Irina; Crepinsek, Sara; Aurela, Mika

    2017-04-01

    Based on meteorological measurements collected from 2013-2016 at HMO Tiksi and the Bolshevik Island, estimates of the components of the surface heat balance have been calculated. A number of methods which utilize different parameterizations and measurement strategies are compared. A description is provided of methods for determining turbulent heat fluxes that use recently developed parameterizations of the turbulent energy-mass transfer processes. Results are presented showing a remarkably large range between the magnitude and sign of the latent heat fluxes that occur during the summer; these appear to result from the specifics of the atmospheric humidity in the near surface layer as well as the characteristics of the underlying soil at the two sites. A comparison of temperature regimes of the active soil layer measured at four different areas of the tundra in HMO Tiksi region shows significant differences for sites separated by no more than 1 km and influenced by common atmospheric conditions. Differences between tundra areas covered by vegetation and tundra areas with shale (typical also for the Bolshevik Island) is clearly evident. In rocky areas the amplitude of seasonal temperature variation has twice the magnitude and the duration of the zero curtain effect (a measure of the energy transfer between the atmosphere and underlying surface) is attenuated by a factor of 3-7 times. To provide context for the direct observations the active layer temperature structure and thaw depths for the sand/gravel/clay soils observed at Tiksi and the Bolshevik island are modeling and trends are calculated for 1950-2012. This study is supported by CNTP 1.5.3.3 of Roshydromet and Project 2017-14-588-0005-003 of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation

  19. The National Integrated Heat Health Information System (NIHHIS) as a Learning System for Extreme Heat: Evolving Future Resilience from Present Climate Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H.; Trtanj, J.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Higgins, W.

    2016-12-01

    There is presently no consensus indicator for the effect of extreme heat on human health. At the early warning timescale, a variety of approaches to setting temperature thresholds (minimum, maximum, time-lagged) or more complex approaches (Heat Index, Thermal Comfort, etc...) for issuing alerts and warnings have been recommended by literature and implemented, leading to much heterogeneity. At longer timescales, efforts have been made to quantify potential future health outcomes using climate projections, but nonstationarity of the climate system, economy, and demography may invalidate many of the assumptions which were necessarily made in these studies. Furthermore, in our pursuit of developing the best models and indicators to represent the impacts of climate extremes, perhaps we have not paid enough attention to what makes them policy-relevant, responsive to changing assumptions, and targeted at elements that can actually be predicted. In response to this concern, a comprehensive approach to improving the impactfulness of these indicators is underway as part of the National Integrated Heat Health Information System (NIHHIS), which was initiated by NOAA and CDC, but has grown to include many other federal agency and non-governmental partners. NIHHIS is a framework that integrates what we know about extreme heat and health outcomes within a learning system - simultaneously informing early warning and long-term risk reduction prior to, during, and while recovering from extreme heat events. NIHHIS develops impactful evolutionary responses to climate extremes. Through ongoing regional engagements, we are applying the lessons of impact modeling studies to create learning systems in the Southwest, Northeast, Midwest, and soon other regions of the U.S. This session will provide a view of this process as it has been carried out in the Southwest region - focused on the transboundary (US-Mexico) region around El Paso, Texas, and the NIHHIS approach to indicators overall.

  20. A balanced calibration of water quantity and quality by multi-objective optimization for integrated water system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Shao, Quanxi; Taylor, John A.

    2016-07-01

    Due to the high interactions among multiple processes in integrated water system models, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to achieve reasonable solutions for all objectives by using the traditional step-by-step calibration. In many cases, water quantity and quality are equally important but their objectives in model calibration usually conflict with each other, so it is not a good practice to calibrate one after another. In this study, a combined auto-calibration multi-process approach was proposed for the integrated water system model (HEQM) using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. This ensures that the model performance among inseparable or interactive processes could be balanced by users based on the Pareto front. The Huai River Basin, a highly regulated and heavily polluted region of China, was selected as a case study. The hydrological and water quality parameters of HEQM were calibrated simultaneously based on the observed series of runoff and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N) concentrations. The results were compared with those of the step-by-step calibration to demonstrate the rationality and feasibility of the multi-objective approach. The results showed that a Pareto optimal front was formed and could be divided into three clear sections based on the elastic coefficient of model performance between NH4-N and runoff, i.e., the dominated section for NH4-N improvement, the trade-off section between NH4-N and runoff, and the dominated section for runoff improvement. The trade-off of model performance between runoff and NH4-N concentration was clear. The results of the step-by-step calibration fell in the dominated section for NH4-N improvement, where just the optimum of the runoff simulation was achieved with a large potential to improve NH4-N simulation without a significant degradation of the runoff simulation. The overall optimal solutions for all the simulations appeared in the trade-off section. Therefore, the Pareto front provided different

  1. Recovery of flue gas energy in heat-integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants using the contact economizer system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, VA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available (flue gas) stream of a heat-integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) design of the Elcogas plant adopted from previous studies. The underlying support for this idea was the direct relationship between efficiency of the IGCC and the boiler feedwater...

  2. Integration of 100% heat pumps and electric vehicles in the low voltage distribution network: A Danish case story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Nan; You, Shi; Segerberg, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The existing electricity infrastructure may to a great extent limit a high penetration of micro-sized Distributed Energy Rescores (DERs), due to physical bottlenecks, e.g. load capacities of cables and transformers and voltage limitations. In this study, integration impacts of heat pumps (HPs...

  3. Intelligent Integration between Human Simulated Intelligence and Expert Control Technology for the Combustion Process of Gas Heating Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to being poor in control quality of the combustion process of gas heating furnace, this paper explored a sort of strong robust control algorithm in order to improve the control quality of the combustion process of gas heating furnace. The paper analyzed the control puzzle in the complex combustion process of gas heating furnace, summarized the cybernetics characteristic of the complex combustion process, researched into control strategy of the uncertainty complex control process, discussed the control model of the complex process, presented a sort of intelligent integration between human-simulated intelligence and expert control technology, and constructed the control algorithm for the combustion process controlling of gas heating furnace. The simulation results showed that the control algorithm proposed in the paper is not only better in dynamic and steady quality of the combustion process, but also obvious in energy saving effect, feasible, and effective in control strategy.

  4. Heat Exchange in a Liquid with Energy Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, A. V.; Kudinov, I. V.; Dovgyallo, A. I.; Kudinov, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    A method of analytical solution of the problem on the heat exchange in a liquid moving in a tube with dissipation of its energy at the first-kind boundary conditions, i.e., under the conditions of heat shock at the walls of the tube, was developed on the basis of the integral method of heat balance. The approach proposed involves the introduction of an additional desired function and additional boundary conditions, which allows one to reduce the solution of the partial differential equation to the integral ordinary differential equation for the additional desired function determined by only the longitudinal space variable. In this method there is no need to perform integration of the differential equation with respect to the transverse coordinate, involving the use of the heat-balance integral, which enables it to be used for solving the problem on the heat exchange in a medium with variable physical properties as well as nonlinear boundary-value problems.

  5. Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

    2008-06-18

    The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the

  6. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    To date, physical-mathematical modeling processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction is considered to be the most appropriate tool for obtaining reliable estimates of water and heat balance components of large territories. The model of these processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) developed for vegetation period is destined for simulating soil water content W, evapotranspiration Ev, vertical latent LE and heat fluxes from land surface as well as vertically distributed soil temperature and moisture, soil surface Tg and foliage Tf temperatures, and land surface skin temperature (LST) Ts. The model is suitable for utilizing remote sensing data on land surface and meteorological conditions. In the study these data have been obtained from measurements by scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/geostationary satellites Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3). The heterogeneity of the land surface and meteorological conditions has been taken into account in the model by using soil and vegetation characteristics as parameters and meteorological characteristics as input variables. Values of these characteristics have been determined from ground observations and remote sensing information. So, AVHRR data have been used to build the estimates of effective land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, vegetation-air temperature (temperature at the vegetation level) Ta, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, the leaf area index LAI, and precipitation. From MODIS data the values of LST Tls, Å, NDVI, LAI have been derived. From SEVIRI data there have been retrieved Tls, E, Ta, NDVI, LAI and precipitation. All named retrievals covered the vast territory of the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region located in the steppe-forest zone of European Russia. This territory with coordinates 49°30'-54°N, 31°-43°E and a total area of 227,300 km2 has been chosen for investigation. It has been carried out for years 2009

  7. Integration of a magnetocaloric heat pump in a low-energy residential building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johra, Hicham

    2018-01-01

    The EnovHeat project aims at developing an innovative heat pump system based on the magnetocaloric effect and active magnetic regenerator technology to provide for the heating needs of a single family house in Denmark. Unlike vapor-compression devices, magnetocaloric heat pumps use the reversible...... magnetocaloric effect of a solid refrigerant to build a cooling/heating cycle. It has the potential for high coefficient of performance, more silent operation and efficient part-load control. After presenting the operation principles of the magnetocaloric device and the different models used in the current...... heat pump can deliver 2600 W of heating power with an appreciable average seasonal system COP of 3.93. On variable part-load operation with a simple fluid flow controller, it can heat up an entire house with an average seasonal system COP of 1.84....

  8. The use of fuel cells in the district heating networks; Einsatz von Brennstoffzellen in Fernwaermenetzen. Integration von Brennstoffzellen in Fernwaermenetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, S.

    2003-04-01

    Because of the one-sided location of power plants, hydraulic restrictions occure at large district heating networks like the one in Hamburg. Those restrictions (pressure and/or flow velocity) hinder a further extension of the network. These restrictions may be reduced or removed by the use of decentralized energy generations with power-and-heat-integration, like fuel cells. From the six different types of fuel cells, the PEMFC, the MCFC and the SOFC were chosen for the use at the district heating network. The usable temperature of the PEMFC does not correspond to the temperature of the network (136 C). So it has to be integrated at the secondary side, that means the customer side, which causes some problems. Even on the secondary side you can't receive the temperature (80 to 110 C) with a PEMFC. The pressure of the circulation should not exceed 3 bar and the temperature spread over the fuel cell is too low, so you have to heat the recoil to reach the maximum usable temperature of the PEMFC. Last but not least, you need an additional storage, to increase the annual operation period. The MCFC and SOFC can be integrated without any problems. You just need a heat exchanger for the exhaust. There are no deviations with parameters of the network. The fuel cell can supply the consumer or the network with heat. Relative to the economic efficiency, the PEMFC does not obtain any profits, wether with todays cost neither with future costs. Because the costs for the integration are too high and the payments for current and heat too low. Against that, the MCFC and SOFC obtain profiles, but with future costs. In general, you can only use the MCFC and SOFC for the district heating network, because of the temperature and the easy integration. (orig.) [German] Neue Technologien, wie Brennstoffzellen und Mikrogasturbinen, werden derzeit in der Industrie verstaerkt voran getrieben. Der Einsatz von Brennstoffzellen in Fernwaermenetzen stellt dabei eine Moeglichkeit dar, wobei die

  9. Energy and exergy evaluation of an integrated solar heat pipe wall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The rate of increasing in temperature of air becomes negligible after 30 heat pipes and the trend of the thermal efficiency is descending with increasing heat pipes. The results also indicate that at a cold winter day of January, the proposed system with a 20 heat pipe collector shows maximum energy and exergy efficiency of ...

  10. Integration of Heat Pumps in Distribution Grids: Economic Motivation for Grid Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Toersche, Hermen; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Electric heat pumps combined with heat buffers are important elements in smart grids since they together allow to shift the consumption of electricity in time. In this paper the effects of different control algorithms for heat pumps on the investment costs for distribution grids are investigated.

  11. Integration of heat pumps in distribution grids: economic motivation for grid control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Toersche, Hermen; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Electric heat pumps combined with heat buffers are important elements in smart grids since they together allow to shift the consumption of electricity in time. In this paper the effects of different control algorithms for heat pumps on the investment costs for distribution grids are investigated.

  12. Heat training increases exercise capacity in hot but not in temperate conditions: a mechanistic counter-balanced cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Stefanie; Flück, Daniela; Hüppin, Fabienne; Stravs, Alexander; Hilty, Matthias P; Lundby, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to determine the mechanisms facilitating exercise performance in hot conditions following heat training. In a counter-balanced order, seven males (V̇o2max 61.2 ± 4.4 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) were assigned to either 10 days of 90-min exercise training in 18 or 38°C ambient temperature (30% relative humidity) applying a cross-over design. Participants were tested for V̇o2max and 30-min time trial performance in 18 (T18) and 38°C (T38) before and after training. Blood volume parameters, sweat output, cardiac output (Q̇), cerebral perfusion (i.e., middle cerebral artery velocity [MCAvmean]), and other variables were determined. Before one set of exercise tests in T38, blood volume was acutely expanded by 538 ± 16 ml with an albumin solution (T38A) to determine the role of acclimatization induced hypervolemia on exercise performance. We furthermore hypothesized that heat training would restore MCAvmean and thereby limit centrally mediated fatigue. V̇o2max and time trial performance were equally reduced in T38 and T38A (7.2 ± 1.6 and 9.3 ± 2.5% for V̇o2max; 12.8 ± 2.8 and 12.9 ± 2.8% for time trial). Following heat training both were increased in T38 (9.6 ± 2.1 and 10.4 ± 3.1%, respectively), whereas both V̇o2max and time trial performance remained unchanged in T18. As expected, heat training augmented plasma volume (6 ± 2%) and mean sweat output (26 ± 6%), whereas sweat [Na(+)] became reduced by 19 ± 7%. In T38 Q̇max remained unchanged before (21.3 ± 0.6 l/min) to after (21.7 ± 0.5 l/min) training, whereas MCAvmean was increased by 13 ± 10%. However, none of the observed adaptations correlated with the concomitant observed changes in exercise performance. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Effects of dietary electrolyte balance and addition of electrolyte-betaine supplements in feed or water on performance, acid-base balance and water retention in heat-stressed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, M A M; Downing, J

    2015-04-01

    The effects of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) and electrolyte-betaine (El-Be) supplements on heat-stressed broiler performance, acid-base balance and water retention were evaluated during the period 31-40 d of age in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. A total of 240 broilers were assigned to 6 treatment groups each with 8 replicates of 5 birds per cage and were exposed to cyclic high temperature (32 - 24 ± 1°C). Birds were provided with diets having DEB of either 180 or 220 mEq/kg. El-Be supplements were either added to the diet, water or not added to either of them to complete the array of 6 treatment groups. An additional 80 birds were kept at thermoneutral temperature (20 ± 1°C) and were provided with tap water and diets with DEB of either 180 or 220 mEq/kg to serve as negative controls. Exposure to high temperature depressed growth performance, increased rectal temperature and decreased potassium (K(+)) retention. In high-temperature room, birds fed on diets with DEB of 220 mEq/kg tended to increase BW from 35-40 d of age. However, at thermoneutral temperature, broilers fed on diets with DEB of 220 mEq/kg increased K(+) retention. Adding El-Be supplements in feed or water improved feed conversion ratio (FCR), enhanced water consumption and increased K(+) and sodium (Na(+)) retention. Interactions between DEB and El-Be supplements tended to affect body weight gain and FCR during the periods 35-40 and 31-40 d of age, respectively. It is suggested that when using a diet with DEB of 180 mEq/kg, adding the El-Be supplements in drinking water was more beneficial than in feed. Adding the supplements in feed or water was equally useful when using DEB of 220 mEq/kg.

  14. MILP model for integrated balancing and sequencing mixed-model two-sided assembly line with variable launching interval and assignment restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, N. I. L. Mohd; Ahmad, R.; Zainuddin, Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    This research explores the Mixed-Model Two-Sided Assembly Line (MMTSAL). There are two interrelated problems in MMTSAL which are line balancing and model sequencing. In previous studies, many researchers considered these problems separately and only few studied them simultaneously for one-sided line. However in this study, these two problems are solved simultaneously to obtain more efficient solution. The Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model with objectives of minimizing total utility work and idle time is generated by considering variable launching interval and assignment restriction constraint. The problem is analysed using small-size test cases to validate the integrated model. Throughout this paper, numerical experiment was conducted by using General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS) with the solver CPLEX. Experimental results indicate that integrating the problems of model sequencing and line balancing help to minimise the proposed objectives function.

  15. Design and Economic Potential of an Integrated High-Temperature Fuel Cell and Absorption Chiller Combined Cooling, Heat, and Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford, Kyle S.

    Clean distributed generation power plants can provide a much needed balance to our energy infrastructure in the future. A high-temperature fuel cell and an absorption chiller can be integrated to create an ideal combined cooling, heat, and power system that is efficient, quiet, fuel flexible, scalable, and environmentally friendly. With few real-world installations of this type, research remains to identify the best integration and operating strategy and to evaluate the economic viability and market potential of this system. This thesis informs and documents the design of a high-temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller demonstration system at a generic office building on the University of California, Irvine (UCI) campus. This work details the extension of prior theoretical work to a financially-viable power purchase agreement (PPA) with regard to system design, equipment sizing, and operating strategy. This work also addresses the metering and monitoring for the system showcase and research and details the development of a MATLAB code to evaluate the economics associated with different equipment selections, building loads, and economic parameters. The series configuration of a high-temperature fuel cell, heat recovery unit, and absorption chiller with chiller exhaust recirculation was identified as the optimal system design for the installation in terms of efficiency, controls, ducting, and cost. The initial economic results show that high-temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller systems are already economically competitive with utility-purchased generation, and a brief case study of a southern California hospital shows that the systems are scalable and viable for larger stationary power applications.

  16. Structural integrity assessment of intermediate heat exchanger in the HTTR. Based on results of rise-to-power test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Tachibana, Yukio; Nakagawa, Shigeaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    A helium/helium intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is an essential component for demonstration of future nuclear process heat utilization of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The IHX with a heat capacity of 10 MW has 96 helically-coiled heat transfer tubes. Structural design for the IHX had been conducted through elastic-creep analysis of superalloy Hastelloy XR components such as heat transfer tubes and center pipe. In the HTTR rise-to-power test, it was clarified that temperature of the coolant in the IHX at the reactor scrams changes more rapidly than expected in the design. Effects of the IHX coolant temperature change, at anticipated reactor scram from the full power of 30 MW at high temperature test operation, on structural integrity of the heat transfer tubes and the lower reducer of the center pipe were investigated analytically based on the coolant temperature data obtained from the rise-to-power test. As results of the assessment, it was confirmed that cumulative principal creep strain, cumulative creep and fatigue damage factor of the IHX components during 10{sup 5} h of the HTTR lifetime should be below the allowable limits, which are established in the high-temperature structural design code for the HTGR Class 1 components. (author)

  17. Stem heat balance method to estimate transpiration of young orange and mango plants Balanço de calor caulinar para estimativa da transpiração de plantas jovens de laranja e manga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M. Vellame

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as its main objective the evaluation of the heat balance method in young orange and mango plants under protected environment. The work was carried out at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, Cruz das Almas, BA. Later on, estimates of sap flow were conducted for two mango plants cultivated in pots of 15 and 50 L installed on weighting platforms of 45 and 140 kg; sap flow was determined in three orange plants, two of which were also installed on weighing platforms. The values of sap flow were compared to the transpiration measured by lysimeters at integrated intervals of 1, 2, 4 and 24 h. The heat balance method showed good precision for estimating daily transpiration (R² = 0.95 and R² = 0.90, accompaning the availability of energy in the system, underestimating on average 4.6% of the daily transpiration in orange plants and overestimating in about 0.3% the daily transpiration of mango plants under conditions of good water supply. The heat balance method underestimated by 16% the transpiration in orange under conditions of water deficit.Com o presente estudo se objetivou avaliar o método de balanço de calor em plantas jovens de laranja e manga em ambiente protegido. O trabalho foi conduzido na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA. Realizaram-se estimativas de fluxo de seiva em duas plantas de manga plantadas em vasos de 15 e 50 L, instalados sobre plataformas de pesagem de 45 e 140 kg; posteriormente, o fluxo de seiva foi determinado em três plantas de laranja, duas também instaladas em lisímetros de pesagem. Os valores de fluxo de seiva obtidos foram comparados com a transpiração medida pelos lisímetros em intervalos de integração de 1, 2, 4 e 24 h. O método do balanço de calor mostrou-se preciso na estimativa da transpiração diária (R² = 0,95 e R² = 0,90, que acompanhou a disponibilidade de energia do sistema, subestimando em média, 4,6% a transpiração diária em plantas de laranja e

  18. Green heating system: characteristics and illustration with multi-criteria optimization of an integrated energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongtao Li; Burer, M.; Favrat, D.; Marechal, F. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab. for Industrial Energy Systems; Zhiping Song [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Power Engineering

    2004-02-01

    The characteristics of a 'green heating system', synonymous with an 'environmentally friendly heating system', are academically defined from the total energy systems' point of view, using the concept of 'reversible mode of heating' in the context of current and future technical, economic and environmental protection. The exergy-based Specific Consumption Analysis approach is used to quantitatively evaluate the influence of subsystems' exergy efficiencies on the overall performance of a heating system. Through a case study in the city of Beijing, it is shown that heating fuel specific consumption and the associated emissions can be dramatically reduced as a result of the implementation of a reversible mode of heating system. A multi-criteria optimization process based on a new evolutionary multi-objective algorithm is undertaken to investigate the trade-off between cost and environmental performances associated with such a system. (Author)

  19. Integrated BMS-MMC Balancing Technique Highlighted by a Novel Space-Vector Based Approach for BEVs Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brando

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new mathematical model of modular multilevel converters for battery electric vehicles with space-vectors enabling a critical analysis of cell balancing for the battery management system. In particular, the requirements for power balancing and the actual number of degrees of freedom of the control are investigated. The paper shows that the traditional approach of cell balancing is a special case of the proposed control methodology. Numerical analyses with Matlab/Simulink™ highlight the reasons of the slow response of the standard balancing technique for specific operating conditions of the battery electric vehicle. The paper suggests potential improvements that could be introduced through the proposed generalised approach.

  20. Molten pool-lower head integrity. Heat transfer models including advanced numerical simulations (DNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.M.; Bonnet, J.M.; Bernaz, L. [CEA Grenoble (France)

    2001-07-01

    Extensive studies have been performed to investigate the heat transfer within a molten corium pool (homogeneous, stratified and with miscibility gap): Synthesis of heat transfer correlations in molten pool (homogeneous and stratified), Focusing effect in stratified metal layer, DNS analysis of Rayleigh Benard instabilities at the top boundary; interpretation of the different convection regimes and exponents affecting the Rayleigh number in the heat transfer correlations, Molten pool model for corium presenting a miscibility gap. Condition for de-stratification. (authors)

  1. Integrated Physiological Mechanisms of Exercise Performance, Adaptation, and Maladaptation to Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Hypohydration effects on thermoregulation during moderate exercise in the cold . Eur J Appl Physiol 92: 565-570, 2004. 201. Kenefick RW, Sawka MN. Heat...regarding human thermoregulation and acclimation to heat stress (216, 220, 359), cardiovascular and endocrine adjust- ments (120, 192), and heat stroke... thermoregulation because of their motivation to complete a task or win in athletics; or with prac- tice/experience develop strategies of managing these cues to

  2. Cuadro de Mando Integral (Balanced ScoreCard) una posible aplicación en Bibliotecas Universitarias.

    OpenAIRE

    Nardi, Alejandra Marcela

    2005-01-01

    This presentation introduces basic concepts of the Performance Measurement Model (Balanced ScoreCard) developed in 1990 by David Norton and Robert Kaplan. The model is located inside in the strategic administration according to the optics of Arthur Thompson. The balanced scorecard suggests that we view the organization from four perspectives. An example of the library´s activity is included. The case of the Library Deakin University Geelong - Australia is exposed.

  3. INTEGRATION OF SWOT-BALANCE SCORECARD TO FORMULATE STRATEGIC PLANNING IN THE TECHNOLOGY AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Suharno

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the method of preparation of a comprehensive strategic planning model for technology and vocational education. For this purpose, the quantitative SWOT method has been utilizedilizes been usebeen used and incorporated with the Balanced Score Card. The steps taken during this study were: first, conducting a SWOT analysis quantitatively; second, using the Balanced Score Card to define the strategic issues and to decide the successful procedure. The object of this study was t...

  4. Investigation of the energy-based theory of runoff in arctic regions with a hydrological model that couples the heat and water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, W. L.; Endrizzi, S.; Marsh, P.

    2010-12-01

    Runoff production is strongly dependent on the ground-thawing process in most arctic and subarctic permafrost regions covered by taiga and tundra, where the ground contains a relatively thin (i.e. 0.05-1.0 m) organic layer, overlying mineral sediment. The organic layer is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity, in contrast to the lower hydraulic conductivity of the underlying mineral sediment. As a consequence, hillslope drainage occurs predominantly below the ground surface, and, in particular, between the relatively impermeable frost table and the ground surface. In addition, in the first 0.2-0.3 m below the surface, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the organic soil decreases by approximately 2 orders of magnitude with increasing depth. Early in the thaw period, when the frost table is still relatively close to the ground surface, lateral flow therefore occurs in the portion of the active layer with highest hydraulic conductivity. Later in the thaw season, as a result of the deepening of the frost table, the lateral flow rate is substantially lower since horizontal drainage occurs through the portion of soil with low hydraulic conductivity. This process has been conceptualized as the energy-based theory of runoff, and can only be investigated with a model that couples the heat and water flow equations in the soil. The GEOtop distributed hydrological model is a grid-based model with a complete surface energy balance scheme that accounts for variations in both the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat, as well as for variations in radiant fluxes. The model also has a coupled subsurface heat and water flux scheme that is able to route water and energy both vertically between a large number of soil layers, and horizontally between grids. The model has been applied and tested with satisfying results in 3 different basins in the Canadian Arctic: Trail Valley Creek (NWT) located just North of treeline in the Mackenzie delta, Big Lake (NWT) in

  5. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    This thesis presents the development of energy system for simulation, techno-economic optimization and design of a quad-generation energy system based on biomass gasification. An efficient way of reducing CO2 emission from the environment is by increasing the use of biomass in the energy sector......, it possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system...... in this study. The overall aim of this work is to provide a complete assessment of the technical potential of biomass gasification for local heat and power supply in Denmark and replace of natural gas for the production. This study also finds and defines the future areas of research in the gasification...

  6. Integrating Waste Heat from CO2 Removal and Coal-Fired Flue Gas to Increase Plant Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvin, Nick [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Kowalczyk, Joseph [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2017-04-01

    In project DE-FE0007525, Southern Company Services demonstrated heat integration methods for the capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide produced from pulverized coal combustion. A waste heat recovery technology (termed High Efficiency System) from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America was integrated into an existing 25-MW amine-based CO2 capture process (Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery Process®1) at Southern Company’s Plant Barry to evaluate improvements in the energy performance of the pulverized coal plant and CO2 capture process. The heat integration system consists of two primary pieces of equipment: (1) the CO2 Cooler which uses product CO2 gas from the capture process to heat boiler condensate, and (2) the Flue Gas Cooler which uses air heater outlet flue gas to further heat boiler condensate. Both pieces of equipment were included in the pilot system. The pilot CO2 Cooler used waste heat from the 25-MW CO2 capture plant (but not always from product CO2 gas, as intended). The pilot Flue Gas Cooler used heat from a slipstream of flue gas taken from downstream of Plant Barry’s air heater. The pilot also included a 0.25-MW electrostatic precipitator. The 25-MW High Efficiency System operated for approximately six weeks over a four month time period in conjunction with the 25-MW CO2 capture facility at Plant Barry. Results from the program were used to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of full-scale implementation of this technology. The test program quantified energy efficiency improvements to a host power plant that could be realized due to the High Efficiency System. Through the execution of this project, the team verified the integrated operation of the High Efficiency System and Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery Process®. The ancillary benefits of the High Efficiency System were also quantified, including reduced water consumption

  7. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) integrated with earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) for space heating/cooling of adobe house in New Delhi (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chel, Arvind; Tiwari, G.N. [Center for Energy Studies (CES), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2010-03-15

    This paper deals with an experimental outdoor annual performance evaluation of 2.32 kW{sub P} photovoltaic (PV) power system located at solar energy park in New Delhi composite climatic conditions. This PV system operates the daily electrical load nearly 10 kW h/day which comprises of various applications such as electric air blower of an earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) used for heating/cooling of adobe house, ceiling fan, fluorescent tube-light, computer, submersible water pump, etc. The outdoor efficiencies, power generated and lost in PV system components were determined using hourly experimental measured data for 1 year on typical clear day in each month. These realistic data are useful for design engineers for outdoor assessment of PV system components. The energy conservation, mitigation of CO{sub 2} emission and carbon credit potential of the existing PV integrated EAHE system is presented in this paper. Also, the energy payback time (EPBT) and unit cost of electricity were determined for both stand-alone PV (SAPV) and building roof integrated PV (BIPV) systems. (author)

  8. Key issues in the microchemical systems-based methanol fuel processor: Energy density, thermal integration, and heat loss mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Keyur; Besser, R. S.

    Microreactor technology is a promising approach in harnessing the high energy density of hydrocarbons and is being used to produce hydrogen-rich gases by reforming of methanol and other liquid hydrocarbons. However, on-demand H 2 generation for miniature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems has been a bottleneck problem, which has limited the development and demonstration of the PEMFC for high-performance portable power. A number of crucial challenges exist for the realization of practical portable fuel processors. Among these, the management of heat in a compact format is perhaps the most crucial challenge for portable fuel processors. In this study, a silicon microreactor-based catalytic methanol steam reforming reactor was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated in the context of complete thermal integration to understand this critical issue and develop a knowledge base required to rationally design and integrate the microchemical components of a fuel processor. Detailed thermal and reaction experiments were carried out to demonstrate the potential of microreactor-based on-demand H 2 generation. Based on thermal characterization experiments, the heat loss mechanisms and effective convective heat coefficients from the planar microreactor structure were determined and suggestions were made for scale up and implementation of packaging schemes to reduce different modes of heat losses.

  9. Optimal integration of energy at the Combined Energy Plant in Norrkoeping -Integration of steam, hot water and district heat to biogas plants; Optimal integrering av energianvaendningen vid energikombinatet i Norrkoeping -Integrering av aanga, hetvatten och fjaerrvaerme till biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Goldschmidt, Barbara; Uddgren, Roger

    2010-09-15

    The background of this report is to investigate and highlight the benefits of establishing a biogas plant nearby a combined energy plant where steam and district heat is available. By using heat from the combined energy plant, more biogas can be produced as vehicle fuel instead of being used as fuel to heat the digester, the biogas upgrading plant or the dryer. The project's objective is to analyze where it is interesting with integration of heat to the biogas plant and to compare alternative technologies and possible integration options. The stakeholders of the study are industries with access to organic matter for biogas production and heat producers who can deliver thermal energy into biogas plants. The project was implemented by collection of information from the Haendeloe combined energy plant outside Norrkoeping where there is a cogeneration plant, an ethanol plant and a biogas plant. Case studies for the study have been carried out with proposals regarding how heat flows from the power plant and ethanol plant can be further integrated with the biogas plant. As case studies, both the current design of the biogas plant, as well as a fictional case in which half of all distillery residues was digested, have been evaluated. The case studies show that in today's biogas plant it is not economical to replace the existing biogas upgrading unit with water absorption to chemical absorption. The upgrading cost with water absorption at today's smaller facility is 0.11 kr/kWh and in order to obtain the same total cost of chemical absorption a steam price of 0.15 kr/kWh is required. For large gas flows, chemical absorption is an advantage since the technology is more suitable for upscaling in comparison with water absorption that must be delivered in multiple lines. Nevertheless, a possibility to recover waste heat from chemical absorption is necessary if the technology shall be competitive. If waste heat from both water absorption and chemical absorption

  10. Performance Analysis of an Integrated Heat Pump with Air-Conditioning System for the Existing Hospital Building Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a complete evaluation procedure of energy-saving and efficiency improvement for a large-scale hospital retrofit project has been established and successfully validated in Taiwan. The retrofit scheme, in integrating the alternative hot water system, namely, a water source heat pump (WSHP, with the existing HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning system, enables the capability to meet the cooling and hot water demand simultaneously with a larger safety margin as well as saving energy. In addition, it has been found that the integrated system provides a new source for cooling which can be utilized as a system redundancy in avoiding system shutdown. This is very useful when considering in specific areas in the hospital, such as intensive care unit, or operation rooms, where cooling should not be interrupted on any occasion. In this study, it is validated that the coefficient of performance (COP of the newly added WSHP system, under heating and cooling mode, is 3.62 and 2.62, respectively. The recorded annual cost reduction by this integrated system is $102,564, with a payback of 1.2 years. The hospital after retrofit has been operating safer, with more redundancy, and more energy-efficient which warrants tremendous potential for implementation in the industry.

  11. Windows with an improved energy balance of 30%

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    carried out in the project. The large glass distance helps to reduce the traditional thermal bridge effect of the spacer and the integrated frame leads to an increase in transmitted solar energy. Furthermore, a controlled air exchange in case of pressure differences between the enclosures in the glazing......The aim of the project has been to investigate and to develop thermally improved windows based on an evaluation of the energy balance of the window, i.e. the total influence of the window on the energy consumption for space heating. The energy balance is the net heat flow per window area which...... been developed, which combines the results from several different building types and building orientations. The energy balance of the reference window has been calculated to -50 kWh/m2 window area, i.e. the refence window accounts for a net energy consumption for space heating of 50 kWh/m2 window area...

  12. An isotope heat source integrated with a 7 kW/e/ to 25 kW/e/ Brayton cycle space power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R. L.; Graham, J. W.; Coombs, M. G.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1972-01-01

    The power system described is intended for applications in a manned space mission. The Isotope Reentry Vehicle (IRV) developed is considered together with the Heat Source (HS), the Heat Source Heat Exchanger and the Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Module. Other subjects discussed include the IRV/Brayton cycle spacecraft integration concept, abort and deorbit mechanization, emergency cooling methods, and crew shielding requirements. Mounting and integration for the IRV is to a large degree controlled by nuclear safety requirements. Another major factor in the installation concept is the type of emergency cooling or passive heat dump mode used in rejection of HS energy.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Integrated Waste Heat Utilization Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants Based on In-Depth Boiler-Turbine Integration and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the system-level heat integration, three retrofit concepts of waste heat recovery via organic Rankine cycle (ORC, in-depth boiler-turbine integration, and coupling of both are proposed, analyzed and comprehensively compared in terms of thermodynamic and economic performances. For thermodynamic analysis, exergy analysis is employed with grand composite curves illustrated to identify how the systems are fundamentally and quantitatively improved, and to highlight key processes for system improvement. For economic analysis, annual revenue and investment payback period are calculated based on the estimation of capital investment of each component to identify the economic feasibility and competitiveness of each retrofit concept proposed. The results show that the in-depth boiler-turbine integration achieves a better temperature match of heat flows involved for different fluids and multi-stage air preheating, thus a significant improvement of power output (23.99 MW, which is much larger than that of the system with only ORC (6.49 MW. This is mainly due to the limitation of the ultra-low temperature (from 135 to 75 °C heat available from the flue gas for ORC. The thermodynamic improvement is mostly contributed by the reduction of exergy destruction within the boiler subsystem, which is eventually converted to mechanical power; while the exergy destruction within the turbine system is almost not changed for the three concepts. The selection of ORC working fluids is performed to maximize the power output. Due to the low-grade heat source, the cycle with R11 offers the largest additional net power generation but is not significantly better than the other preselected working fluids. Economically, the in-depth boiler-turbine integration is the most economic completive solution with a payback period of only 0.78 year. The ORC concept is less attractive for a sole application due to a long payback time (2.26 years. However, by coupling both

  14. Dynamic Energy Balance: An Integrated Framework for Discussing Diet and Physical Activity in Obesity Prevention—Is it More than Eating Less and Exercising More?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Lindsay, Anne R.; Hongu, Nobuko; Houtkooper, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic nature of energy balance, and the interrelated and synergistic roles of diet and physical activity (PA) on body weight, will enable nutrition educators to be more effective in implementing obesity prevention education. Although most educators recognize that diet and PA are important for weight management, they may not fully understand their impact on energy flux and how diet alters energy expenditure and energy expenditure alters diet. Many nutrition educators have little training in exercise science; thus, they may not have the knowledge essential to understanding the benefits of PA for health or weight management beyond burning calories. This paper highlights the importance of advancing nutrition educators’ understanding about PA, and its synergistic role with diet, and the value of incorporating a dynamic energy balance approach into obesity-prevention programs. Five key points are highlighted: (1) the concept of dynamic vs. static energy balance; (2) the role of PA in weight management; (3) the role of PA in appetite regulation; (4) the concept of energy flux; and (5) the integration of dynamic energy balance into obesity prevention programs. The rationale for the importance of understanding the physiological relationship between PA and diet for effective obesity prevention programming is also reviewed. PMID:28825615

  15. Dynamic Energy Balance: An Integrated Framework for Discussing Diet and Physical Activity in Obesity Prevention-Is it More than Eating Less and Exercising More?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Lindsay, Anne R; Hongu, Nobuko; Houtkooper, Linda

    2017-08-19

    Understanding the dynamic nature of energy balance, and the interrelated and synergistic roles of diet and physical activity (PA) on body weight, will enable nutrition educators to be more effective in implementing obesity prevention education. Although most educators recognize that diet and PA are important for weight management, they may not fully understand their impact on energy flux and how diet alters energy expenditure and energy expenditure alters diet. Many nutrition educators have little training in exercise science; thus, they may not have the knowledge essential to understanding the benefits of PA for health or weight management beyond burning calories. This paper highlights the importance of advancing nutrition educators' understanding about PA, and its synergistic role with diet, and the value of incorporating a dynamic energy balance approach into obesity-prevention programs. Five key points are highlighted: (1) the concept of dynamic vs. static energy balance; (2) the role of PA in weight management; (3) the role of PA in appetite regulation; (4) the concept of energy flux; and (5) the integration of dynamic energy balance into obesity prevention programs. The rationale for the importance of understanding the physiological relationship between PA and diet for effective obesity prevention programming is also reviewed.

  16. Vehicle Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Model with Integrated Thermal Load Leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    advantages that make them particularly attractive for mobile applications including being lightweight , solid- state, and passive. This has the potential for...recovery from automobile engine. Energy. 2010;35:1447–1454. 14 12. Ceraianu MO, Gontean A. Parasitic elements modelling in thermoelectric...JP, Sampath S. Heat transfer modeling and geometry optimization of TEG for automobile applications. Proceedings of the ASME Summer Heat Transfer

  17. Simulation of the water balance of boreal watersheds of northeastern British Columbia, Canada using MIKE SHE, an integrated hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadzadesahraei, S.; Déry, S.; Rex, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Northeastern British Columbia (BC) is undergoing rapid development for oil and gas extraction, largely depending on subsurface hydraulic fracturing (fracking), which relies on available freshwater. Even though this industrial activity has made substantial contributions to regional and provincial economies, it is important to ensure that sufficient and sustainable water supplies are available for all those dependent on the resource, including ecological systems. Further, BC statistics predict that the northeastern region's population will increase by 30% over the next 25 years, thereby amplifying the demands of domestic and industrial water usage. Hence, given the increasing demands for surface water in the complex wetlands of northeastern BC, obtaining accurate long-term water balance information is of vital importance. Thus, this study aims to simulate the 1979-2014 water balance at two boreal watersheds using the MIKE SHE model. More specifically, this research intends to quantify the historical, and regional, water budgets and their associated hydrological processes at two boreal watersheds—the Coles Lake and Tsea Lake watersheds—in northeastern BC. The development of coupled groundwater and surface water model of these watersheds are discussed. The model setup, calibration process, and results are presented, focusing on the water balance of boreal watersheds. Hydrological components within these watersheds are quantified through a combination of intensive fieldwork, observational data, analysis and numerical modeling. The output from the model provides important information for decision makers to manage water resources in northeastern BC. Keywords: Northeastern BC; boreal watershed; water balance; MIKE SHE hydrological model.

  18. A Simplified Model of Human Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health into a Mass Balance Team Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Allen H. J.; Dimiduk, Kathryn; Daniel, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We present a simplified human alcohol metabolism model for a mass balance team project. Students explore aspects of engineering in biotechnology: designing/modeling biological systems, testing the design/model, evaluating new conditions, and exploring cutting-edge "lab-on-a-chip" research. This project highlights chemical engineering's impact on…

  19. Otimizando o componente farmacológico da terapia integrada da vertigem Optimizing the pharmacological component of integrated balance therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Malavasi Ganança

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A farmacoterapia é opção importante no tratamento das vestibulopatias periféricas. OBJETIVO: Identificar a medicação que otimiza a terapia integrada da vertigem (TIV na doença de Ménière e em outras vestibulopatias periféricas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo de casos em que pacientes com doença de Ménière ou outras vestibulopatias periféricas receberam TIV com betaistina, cinarizina, clonazepam, flunarizina, Ginkgo biloba ou sem medicação durante 120 dias. RESULTADOS: Na doença de Ménière, TIV com qualquer um dos medicamentos foi mais eficaz do que TIV sem medicação, após 60 dias; a betaistina foi mais efetiva que todas as outras drogas, após 60 e 120 dias. Nas outras vestibulopatias periféricas, diferenças significantes foram observadas entre TIV com betaistina, cinarizina, clonazepam ou flunarizina e TIV sem medicação após 60 dias e todas as drogas foram mais efetivas que TIV sem medicação após 120 dias; betaistina, cinarizina ou clonazepam foram igualmente efetivos e betaistina foi mais efetiva que flunarizina e Ginkgo biloba. Os tratamentos foram bem tolerados. CONCLUSÕES: TIV incluindo medicação é mais efetiva que sem medicação na doença de Ménière ou em outras vestibulopatias periféricas. Betaistina foi o medicamento mais efetivo na doença de Ménière e tão eficaz quanto cinarizina ou clonazepam em outras vestibulopatias periféricas.Drug treatment is an important option for the treatment of peripheral vestibular diseases. AIM: To identify the drug component associated with optimal integrated balance therapy (IBT for Ménière’s disease or other peripheral vestibular disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of a series of patients with Ménière’s disease patients or patients with other peripheral vestibular disorders that received IBT involving either no medication or betahistine, cinnarizine, clonazepam, flunarizine or Ginkgo biloba during 120 days. RESULTS: In Ménière’s disease

  20. Integration of solar heat storage in the ground floor; Bygningsintegreret varmelagring af solvarme i terraendaek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzmann, P.; Holck, O.; Svendsen, S.

    2001-07-01

    In this report the thermal properties of heat storage of solar heating in floors is examined. The floor examined is built using two decks, where the lower can be used for heat storage. It is the purpose of the work that has been carried out, to be able to quantify the potential for a reduction of the heating demand in a house, through the use of heat storage of solar heating. The report starts out with an introduction to the problem that is to be examined, namely to perform detailed calculations of the temperature and heat flows in floors. A description of the theory for the implementation of the model for solar collector, solar tank, floor, foundation and control strategies, can be found. The model described here has been implemented into the programming language Matlab and Simulink. Especially the model of the floor is described in great detail. The section begins with a description of the floor construction. It is then described how the floor construction is implemented into a detailed finite element model, and converted into a less detailed RC-model, where the temperature is calculated only in a few points. Each of the points had a heat capacity, and between the points a thermal resistance is included. The reason for using a RC-model is, that it proved impossible to do yearly calculations using the finite element model because of unacceptably long calculation times. Instead the procedure for the conversion between the two models is shown. After the conversion results from the two methods are compared to estimate the error introduced by this conversion to a less detailed model. The two methods are found to differ only by around 5%. The coefficients to be used in the RC-model are shown for seven different layouts of the floor concerning pipe spacing, distribution of insulation, thickness of heat storage layer and type of heat storage layer (sand or concrete). A number of different control strategies for the distribution of flow in solar tank and heat storage

  1. Assessing the impacts of droughts and heat waves at thermoelectric power plants in the United States using integrated regression, thermodynamic, and climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Cook

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent droughts and heat waves have revealed the vulnerability of some power plants to effects from higher temperature intake water for cooling. In this evaluation, we develop a methodology for predicting whether power plants are at risk of violating thermal pollution limits. We begin by developing a regression model of average monthly intake temperatures for open loop and recirculating cooling pond systems. We then integrate that information into a thermodynamic model of energy flows within each power plant to determine the change in cooling water temperature that occurs at each plant and the relationship of that water temperature to other plants in the river system. We use these models together with climate change models to estimate the monthly effluent temperature at twenty-six power plants in the Upper Mississippi River Basin and Texas between 2015 and 2035 to predict which ones are at risk of reaching thermal pollution limits. The intake model shows that two plants could face elevated intake temperatures between 2015 and 2035 compared to the 2010–2013 baseline. In general, a rise in ambient cooling water temperature of 1 °C could cause a drop in power output of 0.15%–0.5%. The energy balance shows that twelve plants might exceed state summer effluent limits.

  2. Integration of bio-fired gas turbines in combined heat and power generation; Integrering av biogaseldad gasturbin i kraftvaermeanlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genrup, Magnus; Jonshagen, Klas

    2011-01-15

    The aim of the project was to perform a pre-study of the potential to introduce a biofired gas turbine into the pre-heater train of a district heating plant. The incentive for the work is the desire (and political drivers) to increase bio-fuel usage in heat and power production. Sweden has also ratified the EU treaty of having 20 percent renewable in the system before 2020. There are several options at the hand but locally produced biofuels from either gasification or biological processes can be fired in a gas turbine. The size of the gas turbine is limited by shear size of the fuel plant and raw-material transport issues. Today, the maximum electrical efficiency for large-scale advanced plants is on the order of 60 percent. This level is, however, not feasible for smaller size units and one can expect much lower levels. Another possibility is to re-power an existing plant and use the exhaust heat from the gas turbine. Either to produce steam in a heat recovery steam generator, heat boiler combustion air (and variants) or to reduce pre-heater extraction through by-passing the pre-heaters. Previous studies have shown that one could expect very high efficiency levels if the heat could be utilized in the feed water to the boiler. This is typically coupled to the admission pressure level and super-critical plant may have feed water temperature exceeding 300 deg C. The aim of this project was to investigate the potential from introducing this technology into a certain typical Swedish/Nordic turbine based district heating plant. A typical plant has modest admission data (compared to an ultra super-critical plant), hence lower final feed water temperature. A lower final temperature makes it more troublesome to effectively use the exhaust heat from the gas turbine. A further improvement is possible by introducing reheat. There are several practical limitations, where the most severe is the need to extract the full turbine flow and induce it after the reheater. The only

  3. Optimizing the Costs of Solid Sorbent-Based CO2 Capture Process Through Heat Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon [Ada-Es, Inc., Highlands Ranch, CO (United States)

    2016-03-18

    The focus of this project was the ADAsorb™ CO2 Capture Process, a temperature-swing adsorption process that incorporates a three-stage fluidized bed as the adsorber and a single-stage fluidized bed as the regenerator. ADAsorb™ system was designed, fabricated, and tested under DOE award DEFE0004343. Two amine-based sorbents were evaluated in conjunction with the ADAsorb™ process: “BN”, an ion-exchange resin; and “OJ”, a metal organic framework (MOF) sorbent. Two cross heat exchanger designs were evaluated for use between the adsorber and regenerator: moving bed and fluidized bed. The fluidized bed approach was rejected fairly early in the project because the additional electrical load to power blowers or fans to overcome the pressure drop required for fluidization was estimated to be nominally three times the electrical power that could be generated from the steam saved through the use of the cross heat exchanger. The Energy Research Center at Lehigh University built and utilized a process model of the ADAsorb™ capture process and integrated this model into an existing model of a supercritical PC power plant. The Lehigh models verified that, for the ADAsorb™ system, the largest contributor to parasitic power was lost electrical generation, which was primarily electric power which the host plant could not generate due to the extraction of low pressure (LP) steam for sorbent heating, followed by power for the CO2 compressor and the blower or fan power required to fluidize the adsorber and regenerator. Sorbent characteristics such as the impacts of moisture uptake, optimized adsorption and regeneration temperature, and sensitivity to changes in pressure were also included in the modeling study. Results indicate that sorbents which adsorb more than 1-2% moisture by weight are unlikely to be cost competitive unless they have an extremely high CO2 working capacity that well exceeds 15% by weight. Modeling also revealed

  4. Techno-economic Assessment of Integrated Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Combined Heat and Power Production from Lignocellulose Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Magdeldin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste biomass as a mean for global carbon dioxide emissions mitigation remains under-utilized. This is mainly due to the low calorific value of virgin feedstock, characterized generally with high moisture content. Aqueous processing, namely hydrothermal liquefaction in subcritical water conditions, has been demonstrated experimentally to thermally densify solid lignocellulose into liquid fuels without the pre-requisite and energy consuming drying step. This study presents a techno-economic evaluation of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction system with downstream combined heat and power production from forest residues. The utilization of the liquefaction by-products and waste heat from the elevated processing conditions, coupled with the chemical upgrading of the feedstock enables the poly-generation of biocrude, electricity and district heat. The plant thermal efficiency increases by 3.5 to 4.6% compared to the conventional direct combustion case. The economic assessment showed that the minimum selling price of biocrude, based on present co-products market prices, hinders commercialization and ranges between 138 EUR to 178 EUR per MWh. A sensitivity analysis and detailed discussion on the techno-economic assessment results are presented for the different process integration and market case scenarios.

  5. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  6. Investigation of the Influence of Heat Balance Shifts on the Freeze Microstructure and Composition in Aluminum Smelting Bath System: Cryolite-CaF2-AlF3-Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Fallah-Mehrjardi, Ata; Shishin, Denis; Jak, Evgueni; Dorreen, Mark; Taylor, Mark

    2017-10-01

    In an aluminum electrolysis cell, the side ledge forms on side walls to protect it from the corrosive cryolitic bath. In this study, a series of laboratory analogue experiments have been carried out to investigate the microstructure and composition of side ledge (freeze linings) at different heat balance steady states. Three distinct layers are found in the freeze linings formed in the designed Cryolite-CaF2-AlF3-Al2O3 electrolyte system: a closed (columnar) crystalline layer, an open crystalline layer, and a sealing layer. This layered structure changes when the heat balance is shifted between different steady states, by melting or freezing the open crystalline layer. Phase chemistry of the freeze lining is studied in this paper to understand the side ledge formation process upon heat balance shifts. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) is used to characterize the microstructure and compositions of distinct phases existing in the freeze linings, which are identified as cryolite, chiolite, Ca-cryolite, and alumina. A freeze formation mechanism is further developed based on these microstructural/compositional investigations and also thermodynamic calculations through the software—FactSage. It is found that entrapped liquid channels exist in the open crystalline layer, assisting with the mass transfer between solidified crystals and bulk molten bath.

  7. Experimental study of an integral catalytic combustor: Heat exchanger for Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using catalytic combustion with heat removal for the Stirling engine to reduce exhaust emissions and also improve heat transfer to the working fluid was studied using spaced parallel plates. An internally air-cooled heat exchanger was placed between two noble metal catalytic plates. A preheated fuel-air mixture passed between the plates and reacted on the surface of the catalyzed plates. Heat was removed from the catalytic surface by radiation and convection to the aircooled heat exchangers to control temperature and minimize thermal nitrogen oxide emissions. Test conditions were inlet combustion air temperatures from 850 to 900 K, inlet velocities of about 10 m/s, equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 0.9, and pressures from 1.3x10 to the 5th power to 2.0x10 to the 5th power Pa. Propane fuel was used for all testing. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were measured. Nitrogen oxide emissions ranged from 1.7 to 3.3 g NO2/kg fuel. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and indicate that further investigation of the concept is warranted.

  8. Modeling and optimization of integrated exhaust gas recirculation and multi-stage waste heat recovery in marine engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidis, Fotis; Sørensen, Kim; Singh, Shobhana

    2017-01-01

    is optimized to utilize the maximum waste heat recovery. The Genetic algorithm and fmincon active-set algorithm are used to optimize the design and operation parameters for the two steam cycles. The optimization aims to find the theoretically optimal combination of the pressure levels and pinch......Waste heat recovery combined with exhaust gas recirculation is a promising technology that can address both the issue of NOx (nitrogen oxides) reduction and fuel savings by including a pressurized boiler. In the present study, a theoretical optimization of the performance of two different...... configurations of steam Rankine cycles, with integrated exhaust gas recirculation for a marine diesel engine, is presented. The first configuration employs two pressure levels and the second is configured with three-pressure levels. The models are developed in MATLAB based on the typical data of a large two...

  9. A performance analysis of integrated solid oxide fuel cell and heat recovery steam generator for IGFC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Lee, Jinwook; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for electricity generation. Sulfur-free syngas from a gas-cleaning unit serves as fuel for SOFC in integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plants. It converts the chemical energy of fuel gas directly into electric energy, thus high...... efficiencies can be achieved. The outputs from SOFC can be utilized by heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), which drives the steam turbine for electricity production. The SOFC stack model was developed using the process flow sheet simulator Aspen Plus, which is of the equilibrium type. Various ranges...... describes IGFC power plants, particularly the optimization of HRSG to improve the efficiency of the heat recovery from the SOFC exhaust gas and to maximize the power production in the steam cycle in the IGFC system. HRSG output from different pressure levels varies depending on the SOFC output. The steam...

  10. Modeling and optimization of integrated exhaust gas recirculation and multi-stage waste heat recovery in marine engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidis, Fotis; Sørensen, Kim; Singh, Shobhana

    2017-01-01

    configurations of steam Rankine cycles, with integrated exhaust gas recirculation for a marine diesel engine, is presented. The first configuration employs two pressure levels and the second is configured with three-pressure levels. The models are developed in MATLAB based on the typical data of a large two......-stroke marine diesel engine. A turbocharger model together with a blower, a pre-scrubber and a cooler for the exhaust gas recirculation line, are included. The steam turbine, depending on the configuration, is modeled as either a dual or triple pressure level turbine. The condensation and pre-heating process......Waste heat recovery combined with exhaust gas recirculation is a promising technology that can address both the issue of NOx (nitrogen oxides) reduction and fuel savings by including a pressurized boiler. In the present study, a theoretical optimization of the performance of two different...

  11. Trapping and rotating nanoparticles using a plasmonic nano-tweezer with an integrated heat sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Schonbrun, Ethan; Steinvurzel, Paul; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2011-09-13

    Although optical tweezers based on far-fields have proven highly successful for manipulating objects larger than the wavelength of light, they face difficulties at the nanoscale because of the diffraction-limited focused spot size. This has motivated interest in trapping particles with plasmonic nanostructures, as they enable intense fields confined to sub-wavelength dimensions. A fundamental issue with plasmonics, however, is Ohmic loss, which results in the water, in which the trapping is performed, being heated and to thermal convection. Here we demonstrate the trapping and rotation of nanoparticles using a template-stripped plasmonic nanopillar incorporating a heat sink. Our simulations predict an ~100-fold reduction in heating compared with previous designs. We further demonstrate the stable trapping of polystyrene particles, as small as 110 nm in diameter, which can be rotated around the nanopillar actively, by manual rotation of the incident linear polarization, or passively, using circularly polarized illumination.

  12. The use of Social Network Analysis to plan and implement integrated care goals through balance score cars system

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoccioni, Filippo; Pelagagge, Katy; Paglianiti, Palma; Orlandi, Giulia; Ceccarelli, Serena; Manini, Elisabetta; Guadagnini, Anna; Zozulenko, Anna; Donetti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Every governmental health institution in Italy implements its strategic annual plan though a balance score card system (BSC). The ASL (Azienda Sanitaria Locale) of Viterbo that coordinates the entire Viterbo province health system, including several hospitals, primary care districts, home care, veterinary activity, hygiene, vaccination, prevention and food and water control, is using a BSC tool to implement its strategic plan.The BSCs with specific targets and objectives are set...

  13. Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems: system development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubin, F S; Halfon, A; Herzog, P

    1979-08-01

    The ice-generating HP-ICES uses the heat of fusion of water as a heat source for the heat pump, thus converting the water into ice. The ice will be stored in a bin and used the following summer for cooling which, therefore, could be considered a by-product of heating. The annual overall Coefficient of Performance is expected to reach a value of 4.85 and related to source energy a value of 4.85 x 0.31 = 1.5. In a detailed case study on the Market Square project in Washington, D.C., it was found that for the HP-ICES the annual source energy input is about 60% and the life cycle annual average cost is 40% of the corresponding quantities for a conventional central system with equal heating and cooling capacity. The annual average operating and administration cost for the HP-ICES is less than 70% of the corresponding costs for the conventional system, while the first cost of the HP-ICES is about 70% larger than the first cost of the conventional system. With the values assumed for the discount rate, interest rate, etc., the return on investment was found to be about 15%, which gives a discounted payback period of about 6.7 years. For the Park Plaza in Boston, the annual source energy input for the HP-ICES is 35% and the energy cost is about 30% of the corresponding quantities for the conventional system. The annual average operating and administration cost for the HP-ICES is 4.5 times as great as the first cost for the conventional system. The return on investment is 13% and the payback is 8 years. These results show that the HP-ICES can be better both in energy usage and in life cycle cost than a conventional system of the same heating and cooling capacity, and holds great promise as an energy saving system.

  14. Regional Energy Planning Tool for Renewable Integrated Low-Energy District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy district heating systems, operating at low temperature of 55 °C as supply and 25°C as return, can be the energy solution as being the prevailing heating infrastructure in urban areas, considering future energy schemesaiming at increased exploitation of renewable energy sources together...... studies, one being Greater Copenhagen Area and the other Greater Toronto Area, in accordance with  various climate conditions and available resources in these locations, CO2 emission savings obtained with up to 880 and1,400 M tons, respectively....

  15. Existing and Past Methods of Test and Rating Standards Related to Integrated Heat Pump Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, Wayne R. [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01

    This report evaluates existing and past US methods of test and rating standards related to electrically operated air, water, and ground source air conditioners and heat pumps, 65,000 Btu/hr and under in capacity, that potentiality incorporate a potable water heating function. Two AHRI (formerly ARI) standards and three DOE waivers were identified as directly related. Six other AHRI standards related to the test and rating of base units were identified as of interest, as they would form the basis of any new comprehensive test procedure. Numerous other AHRI and ASHRAE component test standards were also identified as perhaps being of help in developing a comprehensive test procedure.

  16. High Temperature Heat Pump Integration using Zeotropic Working Fluids for Spray Drying Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zühlsdorf, Benjamin; Bühler, Fabian; Mancini, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of high temperature heat pumps in the industrial sector and demonstrates the approach of using zeotropic mixtures to enhance the overall efficiency. Many energy intensive processes in industry, such as drying processes, require heat at a temperature above 100 °C...... source and sink best possibly. Therefore, a set of six common working fluids is defined and the possible binary mixtures of these fluids are analyzed. The performance of the fluids is evaluated based on the energetic performance (COP) and the economic potential (NPV). The results show...

  17. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may also ... injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

  18. Simulación de operaciones y línea de balance: herramientas integradas para la toma de decisiones Simulation operations and line of balance: integrated tools for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlem Acevedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la implementación conjunta de la simulación de operaciones y de las líneas de balance como herramientas que contribuyen a mejorarla eficiencia de la planeación de proyectos de la construcción, donde su integración ha sido escasa en el ámbito nacional e internacional. El artículo exponelos resultados de la simulación de las actividades asociadas a la etapa de estructura, armado y fundida de muros y losa, en una edificación en altura. Se modela el sistema de acuerdo con la forma como se ejecuta el proyecto por parte de los constructores y con la ayuda de las líneas de balance se generandos escenarios alternativos con el fin de comparar los tiempos y los costos promedios de terminación del proyecto. En el primer escenario se aprovechala holgura hallada en el sistema actual con relación a los tiempos de iniciación de actividades, sin cambiar la cantidad de recursos humanos y de equipo. Ensegundo escenario, se aumenta levemente la cantidad de recursos humanos y se incrementa en un 25% la cantidad de equipo de formaletería para muros y losa. A partir de los resultados, las empresas disponen de una metodología para la planeación y la selección del escenario adecuado, de acuerdo con suconveniencia.This paper presents the joint implementation of the simulation of operations and lines of balance, as tools that help to improve the efficiency in construction project planning, where the integration of these tools has been scarce in the national and international field. This paper expounds the simulation results of the activities associated with the construction works of structure, assembly and casting of walls and slab, in a multi–story building. The construction system is modeled, according to the way it is done by the company, and with the help of the lines of balance, generating two alternative scenarios in order to compare the times and the average costs of project completion. The first scenario takes advantage

  19. Effect of calcium chelators on heat coagulation and heat-induced changes of concentrated micellar casein solutions: The role of calcium-ion activity and micellar integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de E.J.P.; Minor, M.; Snoeren, T.A.L.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Linden, van der E.

    2012-01-01

    There is general consensus that calcium chelators enhance heat stability in milk. However, they increase the heat stability to considerably different extents. For this reason, the effect of various calcium chelators on heat coagulation and heat-induced changes of concentrated micellar casein

  20. Effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation integration pattern and swiss ball training on pain and balance in elderly patients with chronic back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kim Jin; Je, Choi Won; Hwa, Seo Tae

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation integration pattern (PIP) and Swiss ball training on balance and pain in elderly patients with chronic low back pain. [Subjects] Participants were randomly assigned to a PIP training (n=24) and a Swiss ball training group (n=24). [Methods] The training was performed for 30 minutes per day, three times a week for 6 weeks. Outcome measures included the mean velocity in the X and Y directions using the Good Balance System(®), functional reach test, timed up and go test, and visual analogue scale. [Results] After completion of training, mean velocity in the X and Y direction, and the functional reach test, timed up and go test, and visual analogue scale results showed statistically significant improvements in the PIP and Swiss ball training groups. However, there was no significant difference in the functional reach test, timed up and go test, and visual analogue scale results between the two groups. [Conclusion] This study indicated that PIP training improved the balance ability of elderly patients with chronic low back pain.

  1. Integrated three-dimensional module heat exchanger for power electronics cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Kevin; Lustbader, Jason

    2013-09-24

    Embodiments discussed herein are directed to a power semiconductor packaging that removes heat from a semiconductor package through one or more cooling zones that are located in a laterally oriented position with respect to the semiconductor package. Additional embodiments are directed to circuit elements that are constructed from one or more modular power semiconductor packages.

  2. Field Demonstration of Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Reducing energy consumption in buildings is key to reducing or limiting the negative environmental impacts from the building sector. According to the United States (U.S.) Energy Information Administration (EIA), in 2013, commercial buildings consumed 18.1 quads of primary energy, which was 18.6% of the total U.S. primary energy consumption. The primary energy consumption in the commercial sector is projected to increase by 2.8 quads from 2013 to 2040, the second largest increase after the industrial sector. Further space heating, space cooling, and ventilation (HVAC) services accounted for 31% of the energy consumption in commercial buildings. The technical objective of this project is to demonstrate the capability of the new GS-IHP system to reduce overall energy use for space heating, space cooling, and water heating by at least 45% vs. a conventional electric RTU and electric WH in a light commercial building application. This project supports the DOE-Building Technologies Office (BTO) goals of reducing HVAC energy use by 20% and water heating by 60% by 2030.

  3. Holistic Modeling, Design & Analysis of Integrated Stirling and Auxiliary Clean Energy Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amrit Om

    The research revolves around the development of a model to design and analyze Stirling systems. Lack of a standard approach to study Stirling systems and difficulty in generalizing existing approaches pose stiff challenges. A stable mathematical model (integrated second order adiabatic and dynamic model) is devised and validated for general use. The research attempts to design compact combined heat and power (CHP) system to run on multiple biomass fuels and solar energy. Analysis is also carried out regarding the design of suitable auxiliary systems like thermal energy storage system, biomass moisture removal system and Fresnel solar collector for the CHP Stirling system.

  4. Thermal and mechanical effect during rapid heating of astroloy for improving structural integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popoolaa, A.P.I., E-mail: popoolaapi@tut.ac.za [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Oluwasegun, K.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Olorunniwo, O.E., E-mail: segun_nniwo@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Atanda, P.O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Aigbodion, V.S. [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2016-05-05

    The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astroloy(Turbine Disc alloy) a Powder metallurgy (PM) nickel base superalloy has been investigated. The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure of an inertia friction welded Astroloy were simulated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulation system. Detailed microstructural examination of the simulated TMAZ and HAZ and those present in actual inertial friction welded specimens showed that γ′ particles persisted during rapid heating up to a temperature where the formation of liquid is thermodynamically favoured, and subsequently re-solidified eutectically. The result obtained showed that forging during the thermo-mechanical simulation significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. This is attributable to strain-induced rapid isothermal dissolution of the constitutional liquation products within 150 μm from the centre of the forged sample. This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens. - Highlights: • The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astrology • The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ). • significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. • This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. • The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens.

  5. System integration of marketable subsystems. [for residential solar heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: systems integration of marketable subsystems; development, design, and building of site data acquisition subsystems; development and operation of the central data processing system; operation of the MSFC Solar Test Facility; and systems analysis.

  6. Applications of the Variational Integral in Iterative Numerical Solutions to the Stationary Heat Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    variational integ,:ral wa xnndas a -. e-thod of determining, whater thie finite-difference technrdiue or thie firnite-ele:.ent technmicue --ave a mrore...boundaries (Dirich- let boundary conditions). Other boundary conditions could produce a change in the integral that is to be extremized. A method of...t (n) HII!.( - , ___ i_(3.38) The difference between successive iterations was used to calculate the percent change in temperature I a")I t (n

  7. Active tuned mass damper in vehicles. Integrated mass and energy balance; Mechatronische Schwingungstilger in Fahrzeugen. Ganzheitliche Massen- und Energiebilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granzow, Sebastian

    2012-04-02

    The number of mechatronic automotive applications is growing rapidly and becoming more and more important. On the other hand, the automotive industry is faced with the ambitious challenge to significantly reduce CO{sub 2}-emissions. The vehicle mass is as a part of the driving resistance is a starting point. New innovative approaches are required for lightweight constructions. Taking the two aspects together, this leads inevitably to the question: Is it possible to support automotive lightweight construction by using mechatronic systems? The Mechatronic vibration absorber is a combination of a mechanical oscillating system with an electronically controllable force component. This allows a broadband and situation-dependent influence of vehicle vibration behavior. Mechatronic vibration absorbers are suitable to compensate a loss of riding comfort due to a reduction of the body mass. Essential for this is a multidisciplinary simulation environment. The mechatronic vibration absorber, including appropriate control systems, the nonlinear chassis and the elastic body characteristics, inclusive of mutual interactions are mapped in the simulation environment Matlab. In addition to the representation of the oscillating vehicle the determination of the total energy requirements is necessary. To achieve a CO{sub 2}-reduction target, the overall energy balance of lightweight and the electrical vibration absorber energy, which is offered by the vehicle, is required. The question of the real vibration absorber energy needs to be discussed in the context of the individual driving behavior. Ultimately, the overall energy balance is inherently dependent of the individual driving behavior.

  8. The Heat Exposure Integrated Deprivation Index (HEIDI): A data-driven approach to quantifying neighborhood risk during extreme hot weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstic, Nikolas; Yuchi, Weiran; Ho, Hung Chak; Walker, Blake B; Knudby, Anders J; Henderson, Sarah B

    2017-12-01

    Mortality attributable to extreme hot weather is a growing concern in many urban environments, and spatial heat vulnerability indexes are often used to identify areas at relatively higher and lower risk. Three indexes were developed for greater Vancouver, Canada using a pool of 20 potentially predictive variables categorized to reflect social vulnerability, population density, temperature exposure, and urban form. One variable was chosen from each category: an existing deprivation index, senior population density, apparent temperature, and road density, respectively. The three indexes were constructed from these variables using (1) unweighted, (2) weighted, and (3) data-driven Heat Exposure Integrated Deprivation Index (HEIDI) approaches. The performance of each index was assessed using mortality data from 1998-2014, and the maps were compared with respect to spatial patterns identified. The population-weighted spatial correlation between the three indexes ranged from 0.68-0.89. The HEIDI approach produced a graduated map of vulnerability, whereas the other approaches primarily identified areas of highest risk. All indexes performed best under extreme temperatures, but HEIDI was more useful at lower thresholds. Each of the indexes in isolation provides valuable information for public health protection, but combining the HEIDI approach with unweighted and weighted methods provides richer information about areas most vulnerable to heat. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficiently-cooled plasmonic amorphous silicon solar cells integrated with a nano-coated heat-pipe plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinan; Du, Yanping; Shum, Clifford; Cai, Boyuan; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Chen, Xi; Duck, Benjamin; Fell, Christopher; Zhu, Yonggang; Gu, Min

    2016-04-26

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) are emerging as a major alternative energy source. The cost of PV electricity depends on the efficiency of conversion of light to electricity. Despite of steady growth in the efficiency for several decades, little has been achieved to reduce the impact of real-world operating temperatures on this efficiency. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient cooling solution to the recently emerging high performance plasmonic solar cell technology by integrating an advanced nano-coated heat-pipe plate. This thermal cooling technology, efficient for both summer and winter time, demonstrates the heat transportation capability up to ten times higher than those of the metal plate and the conventional wickless heat-pipe plates. The reduction in temperature rise of the plasmonic solar cells operating under one sun condition can be as high as 46%, leading to an approximate 56% recovery in efficiency, which dramatically increases the energy yield of the plasmonic solar cells. This newly-developed, thermally-managed plasmonic solar cell device significantly extends the application scope of PV for highly efficient solar energy conversion.

  10. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450–1650 oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society. PMID:26558350

  11. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-11-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450-1650 oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society.

  12. Part I, FAB evaluation & application trials AFUE measurements: Part II, Integrated heating system (IHS) development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, R.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Fisher, L. [BNL Consultant, Colrain, MA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    An oil burner/boiler efficiency test stand has been set up in the BNL oil heat laboratory which can measure the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) of burner/boiler combinations in accordance with ASHRAE and DOE standards. Measurements include both steady state efficiencies and heat-up and cool-down characteristics so that cycling effects can be included in an estimate of seasonal average performance. In addition to AFUE measurements, the direct conversion of fuel energy content to enthalpy increase in the boiler water is monitored. The system is largely automated, with most control functions under computer control and data taken electronically and permanently recorded on disks for future reference. To date, a retention-head burner and a fan atomized burner (FAB) have been tested in a steel boiler, the latter operating at two different fuel flow rates. The results are presented below, and verify that the very tight construction of the FAB`s fan results in a significant decrease in off-cycle sensible heat losses. Tests were also performed on a center-flue water heater fired with a conventional retention-head burner and with an FAB. The tests conformed to DOE standard procedures for hot water heaters, and the results are discussed below.

  13. Effectiveness of heat-integrated methanol steam reformer and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack systems for portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrič, A.; Sekavčnik, M.; Hočevar, S.

    2014-12-01

    Efficiently combining proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack with methanol steam reformer (MSR) into a small portable system is still quite a topical issue. Using methanol as a fuel in PEMFC stack includes a series of chemical processes where each proceeds at a unique temperature. In a combined MSR-PEMFC-stack system with integrated auxiliary fuel processors (vaporizer, catalytic combustor, etc.) the processes are both endothermic and exothermic hence their proper thermal integration can help raising the system efficiency. A concept of such fully integrated and compact system is proposed in this study. Three separate systems are designed based on different PEMFC stacks and MSR. Low-temperature (LT) and conventional high-temperature (cHT) PEMFC stack characteristics are based on available data from suppliers. Also, a novel high-temperature (nHT) PEMFC stack is proposed because its operating temperature coincides with that of MSR. A comparative study of modelled systems is performed using a mass and energy balances zero-dimensional model, which is interdependently coupled to a physical model based on finite element method (FEM). The results indicate that a system with nHT PEMFC stack is feasible and has the potential to reach higher system efficiencies than systems with LT or cHT PEMFC stacks.

  14. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Solar Assisted Heat Pump Dryer Integrated with Biomass Furnace for Red Chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace has been designed and evaluated for drying red chillies, and drying kinetics of red chillies were evaluated. The red chillies were dried from 22 kg with moisture content of 4.26 db to moisture content of 0.08 db which needed 11 hours, with the average drying chamber temperature, drying chamber relative humidity, and an air mass flow rate of 70.5°C, 10.1%, and 0.124 kg/s, respectively, while the open sun drying needed 62 hours. Compared to open sun drying, this dryer yielded 82% saving in drying time. The drying rate, the specific moisture extraction rate, and thermal efficiency of the dryer were estimated in average to be about 1.57 kg/h, 0.14 kg/kWh, and 9.03%, respectively. Three mathematical models, the Newton, Henderson-Pabis, and Page models, were fitted to the experimental data on red chillies dried by solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace and open sun drying. The performance of these models was evaluated by comparing the coefficient of determination (R2, mean bias error (MBE, and root mean-square error (RMSE. The Page model gave the best results for representing drying kinetics of red chillies.

  15. Study of thermal threshold and counter-measures for human body in oceanic working environment. 1st Report. Heat balance model and heat storage index; Shonetsu kankyoka no kaiyo sagyo ni okeru netsuteki genkai to onnetsu taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Netsu shushi model to onnetsu shisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M.

    1996-12-31

    Identification was intended on effects of such thermal factors as metabolic amount, environmental temperature and humidity, and clothing resistance on human body temperatures during works under hot environments. Therefore, measurements were carried out on human skin temperatures, rectum temperatures and humidity inside clothing, while amount of motion, environmental temperature, and clothing are changed in a constant temperature room and under a sun irradiation environment. Furthermore, a heat balance model was prepared, which divides the objects into an outer shell layer whose temperature changes depending on the result of this experiment and into a core having constant temperature characteristics. An equation to derive skin temperatures was introduced from the model. The equation formulated a calculation formula for heat accumulation in human body, which can be used as a hot heat index. Relationship between thermal factors and heat storage amount was investigated to consider a thermal limit for a physical work. An equation to derive skin temperatures was confirmed capable of expressing general change in skin temperatures, being proved by comparison with experiments. Calculation formulas for amount of heat stored in human body were shown capable of expressing influence of different thermal factors, the expression being useful as a hot heat index. Calculating the human body heat storage is very largely affected by effect of sweat to dissipate heat, hence it is necessary to improve the accuracy including that for body temperature adjusting reactions. 17 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. TRMM Validation: Integration of TRMM Satellite and Ground-Validation Data to Determine Tropical Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houze, Robert A., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Steiner and Houze showed from ground validation data that the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite Precipitation Radar's (PR's) twice daily only sampling should lead to an uncertainty of approximately 20% in rain estimates. They further showed that the uncertainties are smallest at the 5-7.5 km level. Schumacher and Houze used Kwajalein ground validation data to show that the TRMM PR misses only 2.3% of the near surface rainfall but does not see 46% of the area where rain occurs, because of the 17 dBZ PR reflectivity threshold. Houze discusses how the TRMM data extend earlier tropical convective studies to global coverage of the vertical profile of latent heating via the TRMM PR''s ability to distinguish and globally map convective and stratiform precipitation. Process studies carried out under this TRMM grant Yuter and Houze and Yuter et al. studied ship-based radar observations in the tropical eastern Pacific ITCZ. The eastern Pacific precipitation process is different from the western Pacific (the COARE area); rain is heavier but the clouds are not as deep. These process differences may affect the ability to remotely sense precipitation accurately in the two regions. Satellite microwave data were able to detect the precipitation as long as the rain areas exceeded 10 km in dimension. However, the microwave algorithms had difficulty distinguishing light and heavy rain. Satellite IR algorithms only partially detected the rain because the tops of the smaller and more short-lived rain clouds were sometimes not cold enough for the IR algorithms to detect them. Houze et al. focused on the west Pacific precipitating mesoscale convective systems and showed how their precipitation and internal dynamics vary in relation to the slowly varying large-scale heating-driven circulation, which has a structure described by a combination of Kelvin and Rossby wave response to the near-equatorial convective heating constituted by the mesoscale convective systems. Ship and

  17. The non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus: an integration center for energy balance and stress adaption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis research was to test our hypothesis that the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW) serves as an integrating center linking energy metabolism with stress adaptation. We have shown indeed that the npEW receives information about stress stimuli and the peripheral

  18. Implementation of an integrated software system at MPEC Wroclaw. Heat accounting and customer management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, P. [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2002-10-01

    In 1997, the liberalisation of the energy market began in Poland with the introduction of a New Energy Law. At that time the Energy Regulation Office was established and new rules for tariff calculation were introduced, an obligation to bill charges based on indications of measuring equipment was instructed and the possibility to close contracts with individual customers was implemented. These circumstances caused specific implications for district heating companies in Poland. This paper concentrates on the problem of billing energy charges for individual customers. (orig.)

  19. The quest for balanced curriculum: The perceptions of secondary students and teachers who experienced an integrated art and science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Susan Lynn

    The purpose of this study was to describe how an integrated high school curriculum unit connecting the different subject areas of art and science could be used to give students a voice in the decisions about learning. Through the data generated I examined the obstacles of integrating curriculum in a traditionally subject-centered high school. Forty-one students, nineteen biology students in the ninth grade, and twenty-two art students ranging from the tenth grade through the twelfth grade, along with their two teachers and a student teacher, were the subjects of the research. An integrated curricular unit, "Genetic Robotics," was designed specifically for this research to enable students to integrate scientific and artistic processes such as communication skills, problem-solving, critical thinking, creativity and responsiveness to the aesthetic; thus empowering them for future learning. Semi-structured interviews, surveys, questionnaires, informal conversations, reaction journals, field observations, video tapes, and official documents from the school, provided the data for this research. Data were collected using a strategy of participant-observation. The constant comparative analysis method was employed to explore emerging themes. Oak Park students' adaptability to an integrated art and science unit was found to be limited because of their inability to conceptualize curricular structures that are different from the traditional ones to which they are accustomed. Students typically scored high on standardized proficiency tests and college entrance exams. Therefore, for them to experience an innovation that is not based on the memorize-and-recall mode of learning is to risk failure and many are unwilling to do so, especially the high achieving students.

  20. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy so...

  1. Performance Analysis of a Thermoelectric Solar Collector Integrated with a Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Therdyothin, A.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2013-07-01

    A novel heat pump system is proposed. A thermoelectric solar collector was coupled to a solar-assisted heat pump (TESC-HP) to work as an evaporator. The cooling effect of the system's refrigerant allowed the cold side of the system's thermoelectric modules to work at lower temperature, improving the conversion efficiency. The TESC-HP system mainly consisted of transparent glass, an air gap, an absorber plate that acted as a direct expansion-type collector/evaporator, an R-134a piston-type hermetic compressor, a water-cooled plate-type condenser, thermoelectric modules, and a water storage tank. Test results indicated that the TESC-HP has better coefficient of performance (COP) and conversion efficiency than the separate units. For the meteorological conditions in Mahasarakham, the COP of the TESC-HP system can reach 5.48 when the average temperature of 100 L of water is increased from 28°C to 40°C in 60 min with average ambient temperature of 32.5°C and average solar intensity of 815 W/m2, whereas the conversion efficiency of the TE power generator was around 2.03%.

  2. Integration and software for thermal test of heat rate sensors. [space shuttle external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.; Shrider, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    A minicomputer controlled radiant test facility is described which was developed and calibrated in an effort to verify analytical thermal models of instrumentation islands installed aboard the space shuttle external tank to measure thermal flight parameters during ascent. Software was provided for the facility as well as for development tests on the SRB actuator tail stock. Additional testing was conducted with the test facility to determine the temperature and heat flux rate and loads required to effect a change of color in the ET tank external paint. This requirement resulted from the review of photographs taken of the ET at separation from the orbiter which showed that 75% of the external tank paint coating had not changed color from its original white color. The paint on the remaining 25% of the tank was either brown or black, indicating that it had degraded due to heating or that the spray on form insulation had receded in these areas. The operational capability of the facility as well as the various tests which were conducted and their results are discussed.

  3. Nurse staffing and system integration and change indicators in acute care hospitals: evidence from a balanced scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillis Hall, Linda; Peterson, Jessica; Baker, G Ross; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Pink, George H; McKillop, Ian; Daniel, Imtiaz; Pedersen, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This study examined relationships between financial indicators for nurse staffing and organizational system integration and change indicators. These indicators, along with hospital location and type, were examined in relation to the nursing financial indicators. Results showed that different indicators predicted each of the outcome variables. Nursing care hours were predicted by the hospital type, geographic location, and the system. Both nursing and patient care hours were significantly related to dissemination and benchmarking of clinical data.

  4. New analyses of the sensory organization test compared to the clinical test of sensory integration and balance in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Cohen, Helen S; Peters, Brian T; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2013-09-01

    To determine whether the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) of the computerized dynamic posturography battery or the Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance (CTSIB) is more likely to indicate balance disorders in people with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Normal controls were compared to patients with unilateral BPPV of the posterior semicircular canal. Subjects performed tests with eyes open or closed on stable and unstable surfaces, with head still or with head moving at 0.33 Hz in pitch or yaw. Dependent variables were the percent time of the standard duration each subject could perform the task, the number of head motions made, and kinematic variables measured with head- and torso-mounted inertial motion units. Because equilibrium scores of control subjects improved significantly over repeated trials on SOT, patients were given only one trial per condition. For percent time between-group differences were found on CTSIB with eyes closed, on foam, head moving in yaw showing significantly reduced performance by BPPV subjects compared to controls. Compared to controls, patients made significantly fewer head movements on CTSIB, eyes closed, on foam, head still, in pitch and yaw. Kinematic data also differed between the groups on tests with eyes closed and unstable surfaces with different head movement combinations, indicating increased instability in BPPV patients. For screening, CTSIB with head movements is more likely than SOT to indicate balance deficits, especially when dependent measures include percent time as well as head movement counts and kinematic measures. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Itk-mediated integration of T cell receptor and cytokine signaling regulates the balance between Th17 and regulatory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Rodriguez, Julio; Wohlfert, Elizabeth A.; Handon, Robin; Meylan, Françoise; Wu, Julie Z.; Anderson, Stacie M.; Kirby, Martha R.; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2014-01-01

    A proper balance between Th17 and T regulatory cells (Treg cells) is critical for generating protective immune responses while minimizing autoimmunity. We show that the Tec family kinase Itk (IL2-inducible T cell kinase), a component of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways, influences this balance by regulating cross talk between TCR and cytokine signaling. Under both Th17 and Treg cell differentiation conditions, Itk−/− CD4+ T cells develop higher percentages of functional FoxP3+ cells, associated with increased sensitivity to IL-2. Itk−/− CD4+ T cells also preferentially develop into Treg cells in vivo. We find that Itk-deficient T cells exhibit reduced TCR-induced phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) targets, accompanied by downstream metabolic alterations. Surprisingly, Itk−/− cells also exhibit reduced IL-2–induced mTOR activation, despite increased STAT5 phosphorylation. We demonstrate that in wild-type CD4+ T cells, TCR stimulation leads to a dose-dependent repression of Pten. However, at low TCR stimulation or in the absence of Itk, Pten is not effectively repressed, thereby uncoupling STAT5 phosphorylation and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. Moreover, Itk-deficient CD4+ T cells show impaired TCR-mediated induction of Myc and miR-19b, known repressors of Pten. Our results demonstrate that Itk helps orchestrate positive feedback loops integrating multiple T cell signaling pathways, suggesting Itk as a potential target for altering the balance between Th17 and Treg cells. PMID:24534190

  6. THE ADDITION OF CAFFEINE IN EARLE’S BALANCED SALT SOLUTION MEDIA WITH WASHING UP METHOD INCREASE MEMBRANE INTEGRITY AND ACROSOMAL SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Satriyasa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: caffeine, a methylxanthine derivate, appears to inhibit phosphodiesterase, thereby inhibiting the break down of cAMP and increasing its concentration inside cell. This study aims to assess the effect of caffeine addition in Earles’s Balanced Salt Solution (EBSS on the increase in membrane integrity and acrosome reaction of spermatozoa using swim up method. Methods: This study was carried out at the Clinic of Sexology and Andrology, Sanglah Public Hospital at Denpasar Bali-Indonesia. This study was an experimental study using the design of pre and post test paired control group design. The samples were sperm specimens of eighteen infertile couple male or volunteers who were infertile with age ranged between 20-40 years old. The samples   were divided into two groups: treatment group (caffeine + EBSS and control group (EBSS. The data were analysed statistically by normality test (Kolmogorov - Smirnov Goodness of Fit Test, Homogeneity test, and Paired Student’s t test.  Results: The results showed that the caffeine addition in EBSS medium could increase significantly (p<0.05.  The integrity of the sperm membrane obtained were from 81.30 % to 86.60 % and acrosomal reaction from 82.60% to 89.60% evaluated by hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS. The conclusion of this study is that addition of caffeine in EBSS medium increases significantly membrane integrity and acrosomal reaction of the human sperm.

  7. Security-Oriented and Load-Balancing Wireless Data Routing Game in the Integration of Advanced Metering Infrastructure Network in Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fulin; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Jun Jason; Wei, Jiaolong; Zhang, Yingchen; Muljadi, Eduard; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    Ensuring flexible and reliable data routing is indispensable for the integration of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) networks, we propose a secure-oriented and load-balancing wireless data routing scheme. A novel utility function is designed based on security routing scheme. Then, we model the interactive security-oriented routing strategy among meter data concentrators or smart grid meters as a mixed-strategy network formation game. Finally, such problem results in a stable probabilistic routing scheme with proposed distributed learning algorithm. One contributions is that we studied that different types of applications affect the routing selection strategy and the strategy tendency. Another contributions is that the chosen strategy of our mixed routing can adaptively to converge to a new mixed strategy Nash equilibrium (MSNE) during the learning process in the smart grid.

  8. Optimal operation and stabilising control of the concentric heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Skogestad, Sigurd; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a systematic control configuration design procedure on the HIDiC with a reboiler. The application is illustrated through two case studies of industrial relevance, namely the separation of benzene/toluene and a multicomponent mixture of aromatic compounds. Re...... by controlling both column section pressures and the temperature profile in one of the sections, while the economic variables are controlled by cascade control loops. Guidelines for the design of both the regulatory control layer and the supervisory control layer are provided.......This paper presents the application of a systematic control configuration design procedure on the HIDiC with a reboiler. The application is illustrated through two case studies of industrial relevance, namely the separation of benzene/toluene and a multicomponent mixture of aromatic compounds....... Results of static optimisations and dynamic simulations are presented based on a realistic column model, which accounts for dynamic pressure drops and liquid holdups, dynamic energy balances and more. Using a decentralised control scheme, good stabilising and economic performance are achieved...

  9. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats.

  10. "Lives in the balance": The politics of integration in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storeng, Katerini T; Béhague, Dominique P

    2016-10-01

    A decade ago, the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH) was established to combat the growing fragmentation of global health action into uncoordinated, issue-specific efforts. Inspired by dominant global public-private partnerships for health, the PMNCH brought together previously competing advocacy coalitions for safe motherhood and child survival and attracted support from major donors, foundations and professional bodies. Today, its founders highlight its achievements in generating priority for 'MNCH', encouraging integrated health systems thinking and demonstrating the value of collaboration in global health endeavours. Against this dominant discourse on the success of the PMNCH, this article shows that rhetoric in support of partnership and integration often masks continued structural drivers and political dynamics that bias the global health field towards vertical goals. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article examines the Safe Motherhood Initiative's evolution into the PMNCH as a response to the competitive forces shaping the current global health field. Despite many successes, the PMNCH has struggled to resolve historically entrenched programmatic and ideological divisions between the maternal and child health advocacy coalitions. For the Safe Motherhood Initiative, the cost of operating within an extremely competitive policy arena has involved a partial renouncement of ambitions to broader social transformations in favour of narrower, but feasible and 'sellable' interventions. A widespread perception that maternal health remains subordinated to child health even within the Partnership has elicited self-protective responses from the safe motherhood contingent. Ironically, however, such responses may accentuate the kind of fragmentation to global health governance, financing and policy solutions that the Partnership was intended to challenge. The article contributes to the emerging critical ethnographic literature on global health

  11. Integrated Model of Balanced Score Card and Technology Component Measurement: A Strategic Perspective in Indonesia Biofuel Engineering Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukardi Sukardi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of biofuel as an ecofriendly energy alternative has a value chain problem in alignment policies between related parties. Identifiying its alignment, we make a strategic mapping by building integrated base scorecard, so the strategic target in the subsequent perspective layer can be developed more realistically. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM modeling was used to examine horizontal connection validity to show strong relation between objectives strategy, and it will be measured of constructed component on the internal process by Technology Coefficient Contribution indexes.

  12. Optimization of Biomass-Fuelled Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems Integrated with Subcritical or Transcritical Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Maraver; Sylvain Quoilin; Javier Royo

    2014-01-01

    This work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs), coupled with absorption or adsorption cooling units, for combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) generation from biomass combustion. Results were obtained by modelling with the main aim of providing optimization guidelines for the operating conditions of these types of systems, specifically the subcritical or transcritical ORC, when integrated in a CCHP system to supply typical heating and cooling deman...

  13. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers, Volumes 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Belle R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hines, J. Wesley [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lu, Baofu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-06-03

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001 September 2004. Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance.Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. Development of advanced signal processing methods using

  14. Determination of heat transfer parameters by use of finite integral transform and experimental data for regular geometric shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaghat, Mohammad Reza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    This article offers a study on estimation of heat transfer parameters (coefficient and thermal diffusivity) using analytical solutions and experimental data for regular geometric shapes (such as infinite slab, infinite cylinder, and sphere). Analytical solutions have a broad use in experimentally determining these parameters. Here, the method of Finite Integral Transform (FIT) was used for solutions of governing differential equations. The temperature change at centerline location of regular shapes was recorded to determine both the thermal diffusivity and heat transfer coefficient. Aluminum and brass were used for testing. Experiments were performed for different conditions such as in a highly agitated water medium ( T = 52 °C) and in air medium ( T = 25 °C). Then, with the known slope of the temperature ratio vs. time curve and thickness of slab or radius of the cylindrical or spherical materials, thermal diffusivity value and heat transfer coefficient may be determined. According to the method presented in this study, the estimated of thermal diffusivity of aluminum and brass is 8.395 × 10-5 and 3.42 × 10-5 for a slab, 8.367 × 10-5 and 3.41 × 10-5 for a cylindrical rod and 8.385 × 10-5 and 3.40 × 10-5 m2/s for a spherical shape, respectively. The results showed there is close agreement between the values estimated here and those already published in the literature. The TAAD% is 0.42 and 0.39 for thermal diffusivity of aluminum and brass, respectively.

  15. Heat-pump-centered Integrated Community Energy Systems: systems development, Consolidated Natural Gas Service Company. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Donakowski, T.D.; Foster, R.B.; Sala, D.L.; Tison, R.R.; Whaley, T.P.; Yudow, B.D.; Swenson, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    The Heat-Actuated Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy System (HAHP-ICES) utilizes a gas-fired, engine-driven, heat pump and commercial buildings, and offers several advantages over the more conventional equipment it is intended to supplant. The general non-site-specific application assumes a hypothetical community of one 59,000 ft/sup 2/ office building and five 24-unit, low-rise apartment buildings located in a region with a climate similar to Chicago. This community serves as a starting point - the base case - upon which various sensitivity analyses are performed and through which the performance characteristics of the HAHP are explored. The results of these analyses provided the selection criteria for the site-specific application of the HAHP-ICES concept to a real-world community. The site-specific community consists of 42 townhouses; five 120-unit, low-rise apartment buildings; five 104-unit high-rise apartment buildings; one 124,000 ft/sup 2/ office building; and a single 135,000 ft/sup 2/ retail building located in Monroeville, Pa. The base-case analyses confirmed that the HAHP-ICES has significant potentials for reducing the primary energy consumption and pollutant emissions associated with space conditioning when compared with a conventional system. Primary energy consumption was reduced by 30%, while emission reductions ranged from 39 to 77%. The results of the site-specific analysis indicate that reductions in energy consumption of between 15 and 22% are possible when a HAHP-ICES is selected as opposed to conventional HVAC equipment.

  16. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Residential Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems, Illinois and New York (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented Emerging Technology Programs. With support from PARR, NYSERDA and other partners, the project documented system performance and installations in Chicago and New York. Combi systems were found to save nearly 200 therms in cold climates at efficiencies between about 80% and 94%. Combi systems using third-party air handler units specially designed for condensing combi system operation performed better than the packaged integrated combi systems available for the project. Moreover, combi systems tended to perform poorly when the tankless water heaters operating at high turn-down ratios. Field tests for this study exposed installation deficiencies due to contractor unfamiliarity with the products and the complexity of field engineering and system tweaking to achieve high efficiencies. Widespread contractor education must be a key component to market expansion of combi systems. Installed costs for combi systems need to come down about 5% to 10% to satisfy total resource calculations for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. Greater sales volumes and contractor familiarity can drive costs down. More research is needed to determine how well heating systems such as traditional furnace/water heater, combis, and heat pumps compare in similar as-installed scenarios, but under controlled conditions.

  17. Mutant cartilage oligomeric matrix cartilage (COMP) compromises bone integrity, joint function and the balance between adipogenesis and osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustry, Francoise; Posey, Karen L; Maerz, Tristan; Baker, Kevin; Abraham, Annie M; Ambrose, Catherine G; Nobakhti, Sabah; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Bi, Xiaohong; Newton, Michael; Gawronski, Karissa; Remer, Lindsay; Veerisetty, Alka C; Hossain, Mohammad G; Chiu, Frankie; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2018-01-05

    Mutations in COMP (cartilage oligomeric matrix protein) cause severe long bone shortening in mice and humans. Previously, we showed that massive accumulation of misfolded COMP in the ER of growth plate chondrocytes in our MT-COMP mouse model of pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) causes premature chondrocyte death and loss of linear growth. Premature chondrocyte death results from activation of oxidative stress and inflammation through the CHOP-ER pathway and is reduced by removing CHOP or by anti-inflammatory or antioxidant therapies. Although the mutant COMP chondrocyte pathologic mechanism is now recognized, the effect of mutant COMP on bone quality and joint health (laxity) is largely unknown. Applying multiple analytic approaches, we describe a novel mechanism by which the deleterious consequences of mutant COMP retention results in upregulation of miR-223 disturbing the adipogenesis - osteogenesis balance. This results in reduction in bone mineral density, bone quality, mechanical strength and subchondral bone thickness. These, in addition to abnormal patterns of ossification at the ends of the femoral bones likely contribute to precocious osteoarthritis (OA) of the hips and knees in the MT-COMP mouse and PSACH. Moreover, joint laxity is compromised by abnormally thin ligaments. Altogether, these novel findings align with the PSACH phenotype of delayed ossification and bone age, extreme joint laxity and joint erosion, and extend our understanding of the underlying processes that affect bone in PSACH. These results introduce a novel finding that miR-223 is involved in the ossification defect in MT-COMP mice making it a therapeutic target. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Optimised heat recovery steam generators for integrated solar combined cycle plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterseim, Jürgen H.; Huschka, Karsten

    2017-06-01

    The cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is decreasing but, due to the cost differences and the currently limited value of energy storage, implementation of new facilities is still slow compared to photovoltaic systems. One recognized option to lower cost instantly is the hybridization of CSP with other energy sources, such as natural gas or biomass. Various references exist for the combination of CSP with natural gas in combined cycle plants, also known as Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) plants. One problem with current ISCC concepts is the so called ISCC crisis, which occurs when CSP is not contributing and cycle efficiency falls below efficiency levels of solely natural gas only fired combined cycle plants. This paper analyses current ISCC concepts and compares them with two optimised designs. The comparison is based on a Kuraymat type ISCC plant and shows that cycle optimization enables a net capacity increase of 1.4% and additional daily generation of up to 7.9%. The specific investment of the optimised Integrated Solar Combined Cycle plant results in a 0.4% cost increase, which is below the additional net capacity and daily generation increase.

  19. Integrated Metabolomics Study of the Milk of Heat-stressed Lactating Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Weiyu; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-04-06

    Heat stress (HS) damages the global dairy industry by reducing milk yields and quality, harming health, and damaging the reproduction of dairy cows, causing huge economic losses each year. However, an understanding of the physiological mechanism of HS lactating dairy cows remains elusive. Here, a metabolomics study using LC-MS and (1)H NMR spectroscopy was performed to analyze the metabolomic differences in the milk between HS-free and HS dairy cows, and discover diagnostic biomarkers and changes in the metabolic pathway. A total of 53 discriminating metabolites were significantly up- or down-regulated in the HS group compared with the HS-free group (P plasma, significant correlations between the levels of lactate, pyruvate, creatine, acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, trimethylamine, oleic acid, linoleic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine 16:0, and phosphatidylcholine 42:2 in milk and plasma were found, indicating that the blood-milk barrier became leaky and the levels of these 10 biomarkers in milk can reflect HS-induced metabolomic alterations in blood. These novel findings can support more in-depth research to elucidate the milk-based changes in metabolic pathways in HS lactating dairy cows.

  20. Conceptual designs and cost estimates of mechanical draft wet/dry and natural draft dry cooling systems using Curtiss-Wright integral fin-tube heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberski, R.J.; Bentz, J.C.

    1979-04-01

    This study was performed to establish a conceptual design and cost evaluation of an advanced technology mechanical draft wet/dry and natural draft dry cooling systems for large electric power plants using a high performance integral fin-tube heat transfer surface. This study was part of an overall DOE program to develop and demonstrate advanced concept cooling systems for large electric power plants. The results obtained show significant economic advantages compared to results previously published for conventional cooling systems. These advantages are due to the higher heat transfer and lower pressure loss which occur with the use of the selected multi-port integral fin-tubes.

  1. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis

  2. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001-September 2004. (1) Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. (2) Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. (3) Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. (4) Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. (5) Development of advanced signal

  3. HT-PEM Fuel Cell System with Integrated Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin

    This thesis presents two case studies on improving the efficiency and the loadfollowing capability of a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell system by the application of thermoelectric (TE) devices. TE generators (TEGs) are harnessed to recover the system exhaust gas...... power output on the subsystem design and performance were also systematically analyzed. The TEG subsystem configuration is optimized. The usefulness and convenience of the model are proved. TE coolers (TECs) are integrated into the methanol evaporator of the HT-PEM system for improving the whole system...... developed three-dimensional numerical model in ANSYS Fluent®. This thesis introduces the progress of this project in a cognitive order. The first chapter initially prepares the theory and characteristics of the fuel cell system and TE devices. Project motivations are conceived. Then similar studies existing...

  4. Integration of Ground and Multi-Resolution Satellite Data for Predicting the Water Balance of a Mediterranean Two-Layer Agro-Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Battista

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of site water budget is important in Mediterranean areas, where it represents a crucial factor affecting the quantity and quality of traditional crop production. This is particularly the case for spatially fragmented, multi-layer agricultural ecosystems such as olive groves, which are traditional cultivations of the Mediterranean basin. The current paper aims at demonstrating the effectiveness of spatialized meteorological data and remote sensing techniques to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ETA and the soil water content (SWC of an olive orchard in Central Italy. The relatively small size of this orchard (about 0.1 ha and its two-layer structure (i.e., olive trees and grasses require the integration of remotely sensed data with different spatial and temporal resolutions (Terra-MODIS, Landsat 8-OLI and Ikonos. These data are used to drive a recently proposed water balance method (NDVI-Cws and predict ETA and then site SWC, which are assessed through comparison with sap flow and soil wetness measurements taken in 2013. The results obtained indicate the importance of integrating satellite imageries having different spatio-temporal properties in order to properly characterize the examined olive orchard. More generally, the experimental evidences support the possibility of using widely available remotely sensed and ancillary datasets for the operational estimation of ETA and SWC in olive tree cultivation systems.

  5. Analytical and numerical treatment of the heat conduction equation obtained via time-fractional distributed-order heat conduction law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Želi, Velibor; Zorica, Dušan

    2018-02-01

    Generalization of the heat conduction equation is obtained by considering the system of equations consisting of the energy balance equation and fractional-order constitutive heat conduction law, assumed in the form of the distributed-order Cattaneo type. The Cauchy problem for system of energy balance equation and constitutive heat conduction law is treated analytically through Fourier and Laplace integral transform methods, as well as numerically by the method of finite differences through Adams-Bashforth and Grünwald-Letnikov schemes for approximation derivatives in temporal domain and leap frog scheme for spatial derivatives. Numerical examples, showing time evolution of temperature and heat flux spatial profiles, demonstrate applicability and good agreement of both methods in cases of multi-term and power-type distributed-order heat conduction laws.

  6. Quantifying Freshwater Mass Balance in the Central Tibetan Plateau by Integrating Satellite Remote Sensing, Altimetry, and Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsin Tseng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau (TP has been observed by satellite optical remote sensing, altimetry, and gravimetry for a variety of geophysical parameters, including water storage change. However, each of these sensors has its respective limitation in the parameters observed, accuracy and spatial-temporal resolution. Here, we utilized an integrated approach to combine remote sensing imagery, digital elevation model, and satellite radar and laser altimetry data, to quantify freshwater storage change in a twin lake system named Chibuzhang Co and Dorsoidong Co in the central TP, and compared that with independent observations including mass changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data. Our results show that this twin lake, located within the Tanggula glacier system, remained almost steady during 1973–2000. However, Dorsoidong Co has experienced a significant lake level rise since 2000, especially during 2000–2005, that resulted in the plausible connection between the two lakes. The contemporary increasing lake level signal at a rate of 0.89 ± 0.05 cm·yr−1, in a 2° by 2° grid equivalent water height since 2002, is higher than the GRACE observed trend at 0.41 ± 0.17 cm·yr−1 during the same time span. Finally, a down-turning trend or inter-annual variability shown in the GRACE signal is observed after 2012, while the lake level is still rising at a consistent rate.

  7. Handoff Triggering and Network Selection Algorithms for Load-Balancing Handoff in CDMA-WLAN Integrated Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jang-Sub

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel vertical handoff algorithm between WLAN and CDMA networks to enable the integration of these networks. The proposed vertical handoff algorithm assumes a handoff decision process (handoff triggering and network selection. The handoff trigger is decided based on the received signal strength (RSS. To reduce the likelihood of unnecessary false handoffs, the distance criterion is also considered. As a network selection mechanism, based on the wireless channel assignment algorithm, this paper proposes a context-based network selection algorithm and the corresponding communication algorithms between WLAN and CDMA networks. This paper focuses on a handoff triggering criterion which uses both the RSS and distance information, and a network selection method which uses context information such as the dropping probability, blocking probability, GoS (grade of service, and number of handoff attempts. As a decision making criterion, the velocity threshold is determined to optimize the system performance. The optimal velocity threshold is adjusted to assign the available channels to the mobile stations. The optimal velocity threshold is adjusted to assign the available channels to the mobile stations using four handoff strategies. The four handoff strategies are evaluated and compared with each other in terms of GOS. Finally, the proposed scheme is validated by computer simulations.

  8. Handoff Triggering and Network Selection Algorithms for Load-Balancing Handoff in CDMA-WLAN Integrated Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Qaraqe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel vertical handoff algorithm between WLAN and CDMA networks to enable the integration of these networks. The proposed vertical handoff algorithm assumes a handoff decision process (handoff triggering and network selection. The handoff trigger is decided based on the received signal strength (RSS. To reduce the likelihood of unnecessary false handoffs, the distance criterion is also considered. As a network selection mechanism, based on the wireless channel assignment algorithm, this paper proposes a context-based network selection algorithm and the corresponding communication algorithms between WLAN and CDMA networks. This paper focuses on a handoff triggering criterion which uses both the RSS and distance information, and a network selection method which uses context information such as the dropping probability, blocking probability, GoS (grade of service, and number of handoff attempts. As a decision making criterion, the velocity threshold is determined to optimize the system performance. The optimal velocity threshold is adjusted to assign the available channels to the mobile stations. The optimal velocity threshold is adjusted to assign the available channels to the mobile stations using four handoff strategies. The four handoff strategies are evaluated and compared with each other in terms of GOS. Finally, the proposed scheme is validated by computer simulations.

  9. Heat-Exchanger/Heat-Pipe Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, H. J.; Van Hagan, T. H.

    1987-01-01

    Monolithic assembly reliable and light in weight. Heat exchanger and evaporator ends of heat pipes integrated in monolithic halves welded together. Interface assembly connects heat exchanger of furnace, reactor, or other power source with heat pipes carrying heat to radiator or power-consuming system. One of several concepts proposed for nuclear power supplies aboard spacecraft, interface useful on Earth in solar thermal power systems, heat engines, and lightweight cooling systems.

  10. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (PDiet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (PDiet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (PDiet 2, but no differences were observed for G : F among pigs fed diets containing autoclaved

  11. Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Law; D. Turner; M. Goeckede

    2010-06-01

    GOAL: To develop and apply an approach to quantify and understand the regional carbon balance of the west coast states for the North American Carbon Program. OBJECTIVE: As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance. APPROACH: In performing the regional analysis, the research plan for the bottom-up approach uses a nested hierarchy of observations that include AmeriFlux data (i.e., net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from eddy covariance and associated biometric data), intermediate intensity inventories from an extended plot array partially developed from the PI's previous research, Forest Service FIA and CVS inventory data, time since disturbance, disturbance type, and cover type from Landsat developed in this study, and productivity estimates from MODIS algorithms. The BIOME-BGC model is used to integrate information from these sources and quantify C balance across the region. The inverse modeling approach assimilates flux data from AmeriFlux sites, high precision CO2 concentration data from AmeriFlux towers and four new calibrated CO2 sites

  12. Um modelo para a determinação do equilíbrio térmico de bovinos em ambientes tropicais A heat balance model for cattle in tropical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gomes da Silva

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma equação com base na teoria da transferência térmica foi apresentada para estimativa da termólise em bovinos expostos a um ambiente tropical especificado por temperatura e umidade do ar, radiação solar e vento. As variáveis do animal (taxa de sudação, temperatura retal, frequência respiratória, temperatura da superfície cutânea, coloração do pelame e peso corporal foram consideradas em conjunto com as variáveis ambientais (temperatura do ar e umidade, radiação solar, velocidade do vento e temperatura do globo. A equação permite a predição de: (1 o nível de termogênese metabólica necessária para equilibrar as perdas térmicas sob condições ambientais especificadas; (2 a combinação de fatores ambientais que proporcionam determinado fluxo de calor entre um dado animal e o seu ambiente.An equation based on heat transfer theory was presented to estimate the rate of heat loss from cattle exposed to a tropical environment, specified by the air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed. The animals' variables (sweating rate, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, surface temperature, haircoat color, and body weight were considered together with environmental variables (air temperature and humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, and globe temperature. The equation allows the prediction of (a the metabolic heat production level necessary to balance heat losses under specified environmental conditions; (b the combination of environmental factors that provide a determined heat flux between a given animal and its environment.

  13. The effects of water replacement by oral rehydration fluids with or without betaine supplementation on performance, acid-base balance, and water retention of heat-stressed broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, M A M; Downing, J

    2011-01-01

    Exposing broilers to a high temperature increases water and electrolyte K(+) and Na(+) excretion, which negatively affects the heat dissipation capacity and acid-base homeostasis, resulting in losses in growth performance. In this experiment, the efficacy of providing oral rehydration therapy and betaine on growth performance, acid-base balance, and water and electrolyte retention was evaluated. A total of 432 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb) were allocated to 72 metabolic cages and reared to 31 d of age under standard conditions. From 32 to 41 d of age, chicks were exposed to heat stress (ambient temperature, 32°C) and high RH (80 to 100% RH) for 9 h daily. The ameliorative effects of a 3 × 3 factorial array of treatments administered via drinking water were evaluated in 8 replicates of 6 chicks per cage for each treatment. Two oral rehydration therapy (ORT) fluids, based on either citrate or bicarbonate salts, were added to tap water. In addition, betaine was added to tap water at an inclusion rate of 0, 500, or 1,000 mg/L to complete the array of 9 liquid-based treatments. Growth performance was assessed at 32, 35, and 41 d of age. From 32 to 35 d of age, chicks receiving ORT fluids exhibited improved growth performance, water balance, and electrolyte (K(+), Na(+)) retention. In addition, the physiological response to stress was attenuated, as indicated by lower heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios and blood glucose concentrations relative to the negative controls. The addition of betaine at an inclusion rate of 500 mg/L improved BW gain. From d 36 to 41, treatments did not significantly influence growth performance, which suggests that chicks receiving tap water were able to compensate and adapt to the heat-stress conditions. The results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of providing ORT fluids and 500 mg of betaine/L were observed only during the first 4 d of heat exposure. After this period, adaptation to the heat appears to occur, and none of the

  14. Space and Terrestrial Power System Integration Optimization Code BRMAPS for Gas Turbine Space Power Plants With Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the difficult times the US and global economies are experiencing today, funds for the development of advanced fission reactors nuclear power systems for space propulsion and planetary surface applications are currently not available. However, according to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 the U.S. needs to invest in developing fission reactor technology for ground based terrestrial power plants. Such plants would make a significant contribution toward drastic reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. To accomplish this goal the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP) has been established by DOE under the Generation IV Nuclear Systems Initiative. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was designated as the lead in the development of VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas Reactor) technology to be integrated with MMW (multi-megawatt) helium gas turbine driven electric power AC generators. However, the advantages of transmitting power in high voltage DC form over large distances are also explored in the seminar lecture series. As an attractive alternate heat source the Liquid Fluoride Reactor (LFR), pioneered at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the mid 1960's, would offer much higher energy yields than current nuclear plants by using an inherently safe energy conversion scheme based on the Thorium --> U233 fuel cycle and a fission process with a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. The power plants are to be sized to meet electric power demand during peak periods and also for providing thermal energy for hydrogen (H2) production during "off peak" periods. This approach will both supply electric power by using environmentally clean nuclear heat which does not generate green house gases, and also provide a clean fuel H2 for the future, when, due to increased global demand and the decline in discovering new deposits, our supply of liquid fossil fuels will have been used up. This is

  15. Absorption heat pump integrated in an effluent purification system; Bomba de calor por absorcion integrada a un sistema de purificacion de efluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo, Socrates; Siqueiros, Javier; Heard, Christopher; Santoyo, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The results derived of the integration of an absorption heat pump to an industrial effluents purification system, are presented. The advantages of these heat pumps with respect to heat pumps by mechanical compression of vapor, as well as the advantages in using absorption heat pumps in simple distillation systems, are mentioned. Finally, a description is made of the equipment designed and built, as well as the results obtained in a preliminary test. [Espanol] Se presentan los resultados derivados de la integracion de una bomba de calor por absorcion a un sistema de purificacion de efluentes industriales. Se mencionan las ventajas de este tipo de bombas de calor con respecto a las de calor por compresion mecanica de vapor, asi como las ventajas de usar bombas de calor en sistemas de destilacion simple. Finalmente, se describe el equipo disenado y construido, asi como los resultados obtenidos de una prueba preliminar.

  16. A survey of membrane oxygenator heat-exchanger integrity testing at cardiac surgery centres in Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Matthew; Campbell, John

    2013-11-01

    Membrane oxygenator heat exchanger (HE) device failure is reported to be very low for both short- and long-term extracorporeal devices. All oxygenator manufacturers provide instructions for leak testing of their HE devices prior to patient use. In addition to these recommendations, since 2006 at Nottingham University Hospitals (NUH) we have also additionally pressure tested HE devices prior to use. We conducted a national survey of cardiac centers in Great Britain and Ireland to determine the methods undertaken in individual centers for validation of the integrity of HE devices. Furthermore, we also collected information on the routine maintenance techniques utilized within these centers to inhibit microbial growth in the water used in the heater-cooler units (HCUs). In total, 34 responses were collected from the 57 centers performing cardiac surgery, producing a response rate of 60%. Of the responding centers, 71% are adhering to manufacturer's recommended guidelines of circulating the water through the device for 5 minutes. Of these centers, 17% reported detecting a leak between the HE and membrane compartment of the oxygenator. In responding centers, 29% reported using the pressure test technique. In the centers utilizing pressure testing, 60% reported detecting a leak. This survey reports an association of a greater HE leak detection rate using the pressure test technique compared to using water testing in isolation (p = 0.034). We believe the pressure testing method provides the perfusionist with confidence in the integrity of the HE for short- and long-term circulatory support devices prior to use in both elective and emergency situations.

  17. Performance Analysis of Solar Assisted Fluidized Bed Dryer Integrated Biomass Furnace with and without Heat Pump for Drying of Paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performances of a solar assisted fluidized bed dryer integrated biomass furnace (SA-FBDIBF and a solar assisted heat pump fluidized bed dryer integrated biomass furnace (SAHP-FBDIBF for drying of paddy have been evaluated, and also drying kinetics of paddy were determined. The SA-FBDIBF and the SAHP-FBDIBF were used to dry paddy from 11 kg with moisture content of 32.85% db to moisture content of 16.29% db (14% wb under an air mass flow rate of 0.1037 kg/s within 29.73 minutes and 22.95 minutes, with average temperatures and relative humidities of 80.3°C and 80.9°C and 12.28% and 8.14%, respectively. The average drying rate, specific energy consumption, and specific moisture extraction rate were 0.043 kg/minute and 0.050 kg/minute, 5.454 kWh/kg and 4.763 kWh/kg, and 0.204 kg/kWh and 0.241 kg/kWh for SA-FBDIBF and SAHP-FBDIBF, respectively. In SA-FBDIBF and SAHP-FBDIBF, the dryer thermal efficiencies were average values of 12.28% and 15.44%; in addition, the pickup efficiencies were 33.55% and 43.84% on average, whereas the average solar and biomass fractions were 10.9% and 10.6% and 36.6% and 30.4% for SA-FBDIBF and SAHP-FBDIBF, respectively. The drying of paddy occurred in the falling rate period. The experimental dimensionless moisture content data were fitted to three mathematical models. Page’s model was found best to describe the drying behaviour of paddy.

  18. Energy balance in JET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Matthews

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss results from the study of the energy balance in JET based on calculated heating energies, radiated energy from bolometry and tile calorimetry. Recent data enables us to be more confident in the numbers used and to exclude certain possibilities but the overall energy imbalance which typically amounts to 25% of total input remains unexplained. This shows that caution is required in interpreting fractional radiated powers which are commonly used to measure the effectiveness of impurity seeded scenarios at reducing divertor heat load.

  19. Nutrient Balance at Integrated Nutrient Management on Lowland Rice Which is Dominated by 1:1 Clay Mineral for High Potential Rice Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Kasno

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The curve of the most recent production period of theintensification lowland rice was stating a levelling off. In the effort to increase the rice production, an improvementon intensification quality using a balance fertilizing concept was determined. The objective of this research was tostudy the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrient balance among the integrated nutrient management. The fieldexperiment was conducted in Margodadi and Mulyosari, Metro, Lampung, in dry season 2006. A randomized CompleteBlock Design was applied with ten treatments and three replications. The treatments combined of inorganic andorganic fertilizers. Phosphorus and potassium dosages and proportions were determined based on the previous researchheld in 2005, it were 100 kg SP-36 ha-1 and 80 kg KCl ha-1 in Mulyosari, and 130 kg SP-36 ha-1 and 120 kg KCl ha-1in Margodadi. At the beginning, 100 kg urea was added. The crop’s need of nitrogen was monitored using the LeafColor Chart every 7-10 days, starting from the 21st days after planting, up to the phase panical inisiation. Total ureafertilizer added was 300 kg ha-1. Organic matters consisting of 5 Mg ha-1 rice straw and 2 Mg ha-1 cow manure wereadded. Ammonium sulphate was added to provide 10 kg S ha-1 and by 5 minutes dying the seedlings on 0,05% ZnSO4solution before planting was intended to provide Zn nutrient. Micro nutrient Cu was provided by adding 5 kg ha-1CuSO4. The plot size was 5m x 5m, and Hybride Rice, PHB 71, was used as the plant indicator. Observation wasfocused on the weight of dry straw and yield and on analysing the nutrient content of straw and grain yield. The resultshowed that the weight of the yield increased from 7.44 to 7.93 Mg ha-1 by adding Cu in Mulyosari. The totalproduction of Hybride PHB 71 in the NPK treatment based on the Margodadi and Mulyosari nutrient status were 7.44and 7.00 Mg ha-1, respectively. Adding KCl 120 kg ha-1 in Margodadi and 80 kg ha-1 in Mulyosari was equal to

  20. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling