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Sample records for heart-selective alternatively spliced

  1. Alternative splicing in ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempken, Frank

    2013-05-01

    Alternative splicing is a complex and regulated process, which results in mRNA with different coding capacities from a single gene. Extend and types of alternative splicing vary greatly among eukaryotes. In this review, I focus on alternative splicing in ascomycetes, which in general have significant lower extend of alternative splicing than mammals. Yeast-like species have low numbers of introns and consequently alternative splicing is lower compared to filamentous fungi. Several examples from single studies as well as from genomic scale analysis are presented, including a survey of alternative splicing in Neurospora crassa. Another focus is regulation by riboswitch RNA and alternative splicing in a heterologous system, along with putative protein factors involved in regulation.

  2. Alternative Splicing in CKD

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Megan; Oltean, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) has emerged in the postgenomic era as one of the main drivers of proteome diversity, with ���94% of multiexon genes alternatively spliced in humans. AS is therefore one of the main control mechanisms for cell phenotype, and is a process deregulated in disease. Numerous reports describe pathogenic mutations in splice factors, splice sites, or regulatory sequences. Additionally, compared with the physiologic state, disease often associates with an abnormal proportion o...

  3. Alternative Splicing in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Megan; Oltean, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) has emerged in the postgenomic era as one of the main drivers of proteome diversity, with ≥94% of multiexon genes alternatively spliced in humans. AS is therefore one of the main control mechanisms for cell phenotype, and is a process deregulated in disease. Numerous reports describe pathogenic mutations in splice factors, splice sites, or regulatory sequences. Additionally, compared with the physiologic state, disease often associates with an abnormal proportion of splice isoforms (or novel isoforms), without an apparent driver mutation. It is therefore essential to study how AS is regulated in physiology, how it contributes to pathogenesis, and whether we can manipulate faulty splicing for therapeutic advantage. Although the disease most commonly linked to deregulation of AS in several genes is cancer, many reports detail pathogenic splice variants in diseases ranging from neuromuscular disorders to diabetes or cardiomyopathies. A plethora of splice variants have been implicated in CKDs as well. In this review, we describe examples of these CKD-associated splice variants and ideas on how to manipulate them for therapeutic benefit. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. Chromatin and alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alló, M; Schor, I E; Muñoz, M J; de la Mata, M; Agirre, E; Valcárcel, J; Eyras, E; Kornblihtt, A R

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing affects more than 90% of human genes. Coupling between transcription and splicing has become crucial in the complex network underlying alternative splicing regulation. Because chromatin is the real template for nuclear transcription, changes in its structure, but also in the "reading" and "writing" of the histone code, could modulate splicing choices. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting these ideas, from the first proposal of chromatin affecting alternative splicing, performed 20 years ago, to the latest findings including genome-wide evidence that nucleosomes are preferentially positioned in exons. We focus on two recent reports from our laboratories that add new evidence to this field. The first report shows that a physiological stimulus such as neuron depolarization promotes intragenic histone acetylation (H3K9ac) and chromatin relaxation, causing the skipping of exon 18 of the neural cell adhesion molecule gene. In the second report, we show how specific histone modifications can be created at targeted gene regions as a way to affect alternative splicing: Using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), we increased the levels of H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 in the proximity of alternative exon 33 of the human fibronectin gene, favoring its inclusion into mature messenger RNA (mRNA) through a mechanism that recalls RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing.

  5. Intronic Alus influence alternative splicing.

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    Galit Lev-Maor

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the human transcriptome reveals higher levels of RNA editing than in any other organism tested to date. This is indicative of extensive double-stranded RNA (dsRNA formation within the human transcriptome. Most of the editing sites are located in the primate-specific retrotransposed element called Alu. A large fraction of Alus are found in intronic sequences, implying extensive Alu-Alu dsRNA formation in mRNA precursors. Yet, the effect of these intronic Alus on splicing of the flanking exons is largely unknown. Here, we show that more Alus flank alternatively spliced exons than constitutively spliced ones; this is especially notable for those exons that have changed their mode of splicing from constitutive to alternative during human evolution. This implies that Alu insertions may change the mode of splicing of the flanking exons. Indeed, we demonstrate experimentally that two Alu elements that were inserted into an intron in opposite orientation undergo base-pairing, as evident by RNA editing, and affect the splicing patterns of a downstream exon, shifting it from constitutive to alternative. Our results indicate the importance of intronic Alus in influencing the splicing of flanking exons, further emphasizing the role of Alus in shaping of the human transcriptome.

  6. Shaping the Arabidopsis Transcriptome through Alternative Splicing

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    Dorothee Staiger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is a molecular tool of the cell to generate more than one messenger RNA from the same gene. Through variable combinations of exons blueprints for different proteins are assembled from one and the same pre-messenger RNA, thus increasing the complexity of the proteome. Moreover, through alternative splicing different transcript variants with different stabilities and different regulatory motifs can be generated, leading to variation in the transcriptome. The importance of alternative splicing in plants has been increasingly recognized in the last decade. Alternative splicing has been found during abiotic and biotic stress and during development. Here, recent advancements in the understanding of alternative splicing in higher plants are presented. Mechanistic details and functional consequences of alternative splicing are discussed with a focus on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  7. Titin Diversity—Alternative Splicing Gone Wild

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    Wei Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Titin is an extremely large protein found in highest concentrations in heart and skeletal muscle. The single mammalian gene is expressed in multiple isoforms as a result of alternative splicing. Although titin isoform expression is controlled developmentally and in a tissue specific manner, the vast number of potential splicing pathways far exceeds those described in any other alternatively spliced gene. Over 1 million human splice pathways for a single individual can be potentially derived from the PEVK region alone. A new splicing pattern for the human cardiac N2BA isoform type has been found in which the PEVK region includes only the N2B type exons. The alterations in splicing and titin isoform expression in human heart disease provide impetus for future detailed study of the splicing mechanisms for this giant protein.

  8. Depolarization-mediated regulation of alternative splicing

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    Alok eSharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing in eukaryotes plays an important role in regulating gene expression by selectively including alternative exons. A wealth of information has been accumulated that explains how alternative exons are selected in a developmental stage- or tissue-specific fashion. However, our knowledge of how cells respond to environmental changes to alter alternative splicing is very limited. For example, although a number of alternative exons have been shown to be regulated by calcium level alterations, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. As calcium signaling in neurons plays a crucial role in essential neuronal functions such as learning and memory formation, it is important to understand how this process is regulated at every level in gene expression. The significance of the dynamic control of alternative splicing in response to changes of calcium levels has been largely unappreciated. In this communication, we will summarize the recent advances in calcium signaling-mediated alternative splicing that have provided some insights into the important regulatory mechanisms. In addition to describing the cis-acting RNA elements on the pre-mRNA molecules that respond to changes of intracellular calcium levels, we will summarize how splicing regulators change and affect alternative splicing in this process. We will also discuss a novel mode of calcium-mediated splicing regulation at the level of chromatin structure and transcription.

  9. Design of RNA-Binding Proteins: Manipulate Alternative Splicing in Human Cells with Artificial Splicing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Zefeng

    2016-01-01

    The majority of human genes undergo alternative splicing to produce multiple isoforms with distinct functions. The dysregulations of alternative splicing have been found to be closely associated with various human diseases; thus new approaches to modulate disease-associated splicing events will provide great therapeutic potentials. Here we report protocols for constructing novel artificial splicing factors that can be designed to specifically modulate alternative splicing of target genes. By following the method outlined in this protocol, it is possible to design and generate artificial splicing factors with diverse activities in regulating different types of alternative splicing. The artificial splicing factors can be used to change splicing of either minigenes or endogenous genes in cultured human cells, providing a new strategy to study the regulation of alternative splicing and function of alternatively spliced products.

  10. Splicing and alternative splicing in rice and humans

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    Zhiguo E

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a monocot gramineous crop, and one of the mostimportant staple foods. Rice is considered a model species formost gramineous crops. Extensive research on rice hasprovided critical guidance for other crops, such as maize andwheat. In recent years, climate change and exacerbated soildegradation have resulted in a variety of abiotic stresses, suchas greenhouse effects, lower temperatures, drought, floods,soil salinization and heavy metal pollution. As such, there isan extremely high demand for additional research, in order toaddress these negative factors. Studies have shown that thealternative splicing of many genes in rice is affected by stressconditions, suggesting that manipulation of the alternativesplicing of specific genes may be an effective approach for riceto adapt to abiotic stress. With the advancement ofmicroarrays, and more recently, next generation sequencingtechnology, several studies have shown that more than half ofthe genes in the rice genome undergo alternative splicing. Thismini-review summarizes the latest progress in the research ofsplicing and alternative splicing in rice, compared to splicingin humans. Furthermore, we discuss how additional studiesmay change the landscape of investigation of rice functionalgenomics and genetically improved rice. [BMB Reports 2013;46(9: 439-447

  11. Functional and evolutionary analysis of alternatively spliced genes is consistent with an early eukaryotic origin of alternative splicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Penny, David

    2007-01-01

    , and may therefore predate multicellularity, is still unknown. To better understand the origin and evolution of alternative splicing and its usage in diverse organisms, we studied alternative splicing in 12 eukaryotic species, comparing rates of alternative splicing across genes of different functional...... classes, cellular locations, intron/exon structures and evolutionary origins. RESULTS: For each species, we find that genes from most functional categories are alternatively spliced. Ancient genes (shared between animals, fungi and plants) show high levels of alternative splicing. Genes with products...... expressed in the nucleus or plasma membrane are generally more alternatively spliced while those expressed in extracellular location show less alternative splicing. We find a clear correspondence between incidence of alternative splicing and intron number per gene both within and between genomes. In general...

  12. Genomics of alternative splicing: evolution, development and pathophysiology.

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    Gamazon, Eric R; Stranger, Barbara E

    2014-06-01

    Alternative splicing is a major cellular mechanism in metazoans for generating proteomic diversity. A large proportion of protein-coding genes in multicellular organisms undergo alternative splicing, and in humans, it has been estimated that nearly 90 % of protein-coding genes-much larger than expected-are subject to alternative splicing. Genomic analyses of alternative splicing have illuminated its universal role in shaping the evolution of genomes, in the control of developmental processes, and in the dynamic regulation of the transcriptome to influence phenotype. Disruption of the splicing machinery has been found to drive pathophysiology, and indeed reprogramming of aberrant splicing can provide novel approaches to the development of molecular therapy. This review focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of alternative splicing brought about by the unprecedented explosive growth of genomic data and highlights the relevance of human splicing variation on disease and therapy.

  13. Stochastic principles governing alternative splicing of RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Jianfei Hu; Eli Boritz; William Wylie; Douek, Daniel C.

    2017-01-01

    Author summary Alternative RNA splicing within eukaryotic cells enables each gene to generate multiple different mature transcripts which further encode proteins with distinct or even opposing functions. The relative frequencies of the transcript isoforms generated by a particular gene are essential to the maintenance of normal cellular physiology; however, the underlying mechanisms and principles that govern these frequencies are unknown. We analyzed the frequency distribution of all transcr...

  14. The implications of alternative splicing in the ENCODE protein complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tress, Michael L.; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Frankish, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Alternative premessenger RNA splicing enables genes to generate more than one gene product. Splicing events that occur within protein coding regions have the potential to alter the biological function of the expressed protein and even to create new protein functions. Alternative splicing has been...

  15. Alternative Splicing and Subfunctionalization Generates Functional Diversity in Fungal Proteomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-López, Claudia; Lorenz, Michael C.; van Hoof, Ambro

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing is commonly used by the Metazoa to generate more than one protein from a gene. However, such diversification of the proteome by alternative splicing is much rarer in fungi. We describe here an ancient fungal alternative splicing event in which these two proteins are generated from a single alternatively spliced ancestral SKI7/HBS1 gene retained in many species in both the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. While the ability to express two proteins from a single SKI7/HBS1 gene is conserved in many fungi, the exact mechanism by which they achieve this varies. The alternative splicing was lost in Saccharomyces cerevisiae following the whole-genome duplication event as these two genes subfunctionalized into the present functionally distinct HBS1 and SKI7 genes. When expressed in yeast, the single gene from Lachancea kluyveri generates two functionally distinct proteins. Expression of one of these proteins complements hbs1, but not ski7 mutations, while the other protein complements ski7, but not hbs1. This is the first known case of subfunctionalization by loss of alternative splicing in yeast. By coincidence, the ancestral alternatively spliced gene was also duplicated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe with subsequent subfunctionalization and loss of splicing. Similar subfunctionalization by loss of alternative splicing in fungi also explains the presence of two PTC7 genes in the budding yeast Tetrapisispora blattae, suggesting that this is a common mechanism to preserve duplicate alternatively spliced genes. PMID:23516382

  16. Cauliflower mosaic virus Transcriptome Reveals a Complex Alternative Splicing Pattern.

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    Clément Bouton

    Full Text Available The plant pararetrovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV uses alternative splicing to generate several isoforms from its polycistronic pregenomic 35S RNA. This pro-cess has been shown to be essential for infectivity. Previous works have identified four splice donor sites and a single splice acceptor site in the 35S RNA 5' region and suggested that the main role of CaMV splicing is to downregulate expression of open reading frames (ORFs I and II. In this study, we show that alternative splicing is a conserved process among CaMV isolates. In Cabb B-JI and Cabb-S isolates, splicing frequently leads to different fusion between ORFs, particularly between ORF I and II. The corresponding P1P2 fusion proteins expressed in E. coli interact with viral proteins P2 and P3 in vitro. However, they are detected neither during infection nor upon transient expression in planta, which suggests rapid degradation after synthesis and no important biological role in the CaMV infectious cycle. To gain a better understanding of the functional relevance of 35S RNA alternative splicing in CaMV infectivity, we inactivated the previously described splice sites. All the splicing mutants were as pathogenic as the corresponding wild-type isolate. Through RT-PCR-based analysis we demonstrate that CaMV 35S RNA exhibits a complex splicing pattern, as we identify new splice donor and acceptor sites whose selection leads to more than thirteen 35S RNA isoforms in infected turnip plants. Inactivating splice donor or acceptor sites is not lethal for the virus, since disrupted sites are systematically rescued by the activation of cryptic and/or seldom used splice sites. Taken together, our data depict a conserved, complex and flexible process, involving multiple sites, that ensures splicing of 35S RNA.

  17. Regulation of alternative splicing in human obesity loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Dorota; Käkelä, Pirjo; Nikkola, Elina; Venesmaa, Sari; Ilves, Imre; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Karhunen, Leila; Kuusisto, Johanna; Gylling, Helena; Pajukanta, Päivi; Laakso, Markku; Pihlajamäki, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Multiple obesity susceptibility loci have been identified by genome-wide association studies, yet the mechanisms by which these loci influence obesity remain unclear. Alternative splicing could contribute to obesity by regulating the transcriptomic and proteomic diversity of genes in these loci. Based on a database search, 72 of the 136 genes at the 13 obesity loci encoded multiple protein isoforms. Thus, alternative splicing of these genes in adipose tissue samples was analyzed from the Metabolic Syndrome in Men population-based study and from two weight loss intervention studies (surgical and very low calorie diet). Alternative splicing was confirmed in 11 genes with PCR capillary electrophoresis in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Interestingly, differential splicing of TRA2B, BAG6, and MSH5 was observed between lean individuals with normoglycemia and overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. Of these genes, we detected fat depot-dependent splicing of TRA2B and BAG6 and weight loss-induced regulation of MSH5 splicing in the intervention studies. Finally, body mass index was a major determinant of TRA2B, BAG6, and MSH5 splicing in the combined data. This study provides evidence for alternative splicing in obesity loci, suggesting that alternative splicing at least in part mediates the obesity-associated risk in these loci. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Alternative Splicing of STAT3 Is Affected by RNA Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lior; Abutbul-Amitai, Mor; Paret, Gideon; Nevo-Caspi, Yael

    2017-05-01

    A-to-I RNA editing, carried out by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, is an epigenetic phenomenon of posttranscriptional modifications on pre-mRNA. RNA editing in intronic sequences may influence alternative splicing of flanking exons. We have previously shown that conditions that induce editing result in elevated expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), preferentially the alternatively-spliced STAT3β isoform. Mechanisms regulating alternative splicing of STAT3 have not been elucidated. STAT3 undergoes A-to-I RNA editing in an intron residing in proximity to the alternatively spliced exon. We hypothesized that RNA editing plays a role in regulating alternative splicing toward STAT3β. In this study we extend our observation connecting RNA editing to the preferential induction of STAT3β expression. We study the involvement of ADAR1 in STAT3 editing and reveal the connection between editing and alternative splicing of STAT3. Deferoaxamine treatment caused the induction in STAT3 RNA editing and STAT3β expression. Silencing ADAR1 caused a decrease in STAT3 editing and expression with a preferential decrease in STAT3β. Cells transfected with a mutated minigene showed preferential splicing toward the STAT3β transcript. Editing in the STAT3 intron is performed by ADAR1 and affects STAT3 alternative splicing. These results suggest that RNA editing is one of the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of STAT3β.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

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    Thomas Julie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide computational analysis of alternative splicing (AS in several flowering plants has revealed that pre-mRNAs from about 30% of genes undergo AS. Chlamydomonas, a simple unicellular green alga, is part of the lineage that includes land plants. However, it diverged from land plants about one billion years ago. Hence, it serves as a good model system to study alternative splicing in early photosynthetic eukaryotes, to obtain insights into the evolution of this process in plants, and to compare splicing in simple unicellular photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic eukaryotes. We performed a global analysis of alternative splicing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using its recently completed genome sequence and all available ESTs and cDNAs. Results Our analysis of AS using BLAT and a modified version of the Sircah tool revealed AS of 498 transcriptional units with 611 events, representing about 3% of the total number of genes. As in land plants, intron retention is the most prevalent form of AS. Retained introns and skipped exons tend to be shorter than their counterparts in constitutively spliced genes. The splice site signals in all types of AS events are weaker than those in constitutively spliced genes. Furthermore, in alternatively spliced genes, the prevalent splice form has a stronger splice site signal than the non-prevalent form. Analysis of constitutively spliced introns revealed an over-abundance of motifs with simple repetitive elements in comparison to introns involved in intron retention. In almost all cases, AS results in a truncated ORF, leading to a coding sequence that is around 50% shorter than the prevalent splice form. Using RT-PCR we verified AS of two genes and show that they produce more isoforms than indicated by EST data. All cDNA/EST alignments and splice graphs are provided in a website at http://combi.cs.colostate.edu/as/chlamy. Conclusions The extent of AS in Chlamydomonas that we observed is much

  20. Alternative splicing of CD200 is regulated by an exonic splicing enhancer and SF2/ASF.

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    Chen, Zhiqi; Ma, Xuezhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Hu, Jim; Gorczynski, Reginald M

    2010-10-01

    CD200, a type I membrane glycoprotein, plays an important role in prevention of inflammatory disorders, graft rejection, autoimmune diseases and spontaneous fetal loss. It also regulates tumor immunity. A truncated CD200 (CD200(tr)) resulting from alternative splicing has been identified and characterized as a functional antagonist to full-length CD200. Thus, it is important to explore the mechanism(s) controlling alternative splicing of CD200. In this study, we identified an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) located in exon 2, which is a putative binding site for a splicing regulatory protein SF2/ASF. Deletion or mutation of the ESE site decreased expression of the full-length CD200. Direct binding of SF2/ASF to the ESE site was confirmed by RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Knockdown of expression of SF2/ASF resulted in the same splicing pattern as seen after deletion or mutation of the ESE, whereas overexpression of SF2/ASF increased expression of the full-length CD200. In vivo studies showed that viral infection reversed the alternative splicing pattern of CD200 with increased expression of SF2/ASF and the full-length CD200. Taken together, our data suggest for the first time that SF2/ASF regulates the function of CD200 by controlling CD200 alternative splicing, through direct binding to an ESE located in exon 2 of CD200.

  1. Spliced leader trapping reveals widespread alternative splicing patterns in the highly dynamic transcriptome of Trypanosoma brucei.

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    Daniel Nilsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Trans-splicing of leader sequences onto the 5'ends of mRNAs is a widespread phenomenon in protozoa, nematodes and some chordates. Using parallel sequencing we have developed a method to simultaneously map 5'splice sites and analyze the corresponding gene expression profile, that we term spliced leader trapping (SLT. The method can be applied to any organism with a sequenced genome and trans-splicing of a conserved leader sequence. We analyzed the expression profiles and splicing patterns of bloodstream and insect forms of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. We detected the 5' splice sites of 85% of the annotated protein-coding genes and, contrary to previous reports, found up to 40% of transcripts to be differentially expressed. Furthermore, we discovered more than 2500 alternative splicing events, many of which appear to be stage-regulated. Based on our findings we hypothesize that alternatively spliced transcripts present a new means of regulating gene expression and could potentially contribute to protein diversity in the parasite. The entire dataset can be accessed online at TriTrypDB or through: http://splicer.unibe.ch/.

  2. Identification of common genetic variation that modulates alternative splicing.

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    Jeremy Hull

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of genes is an efficient means of generating variation in protein function. Several disease states have been associated with rare genetic variants that affect splicing patterns. Conversely, splicing efficiency of some genes is known to vary between individuals without apparent ill effects. What is not clear is whether commonly observed phenotypic variation in splicing patterns, and hence potential variation in protein function, is to a significant extent determined by naturally occurring DNA sequence variation and in particular by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. In this study, we surveyed the splicing patterns of 250 exons in 22 individuals who had been previously genotyped by the International HapMap Project. We identified 70 simple cassette exon alternative splicing events in our experimental system; for six of these, we detected consistent differences in splicing pattern between individuals, with a highly significant association between splice phenotype and neighbouring SNPs. Remarkably, for five out of six of these events, the strongest correlation was found with the SNP closest to the intron-exon boundary, although the distance between these SNPs and the intron-exon boundary ranged from 2 bp to greater than 1,000 bp. Two of these SNPs were further investigated using a minigene splicing system, and in each case the SNPs were found to exert cis-acting effects on exon splicing efficiency in vitro. The functional consequences of these SNPs could not be predicted using bioinformatic algorithms. Our findings suggest that phenotypic variation in splicing patterns is determined by the presence of SNPs within flanking introns or exons. Effects on splicing may represent an important mechanism by which SNPs influence gene function.

  3. Regulation of Apoptosis by Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwerk, Christian; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    .... A large number of apoptotic factors are regulated via alternative splicing, a process that allows for the production of discrete protein isoforms with often distinct functions from a common mRNA precursor...

  4. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

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    Zodwa Dlamini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets.

  5. Alternative splicing regulation of APP exon 7 by RBFox proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shafiul; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Tsukahara, Toshifumi

    2014-12-01

    RBFox proteins are well-known alternative splicing regulators. We have shown previously that during neuronal differentiation of P19 cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid and cell aggregation, RBFox1 shows markedly increased temporal expression. To find its key splicing regulation, we examined the effect of RBFox1 on 33 previously reported and validated neuronal splicing events of P19 cells. We observed that alternative splicing of three genes, specifically, amyloid precursor protein (APP), disks large homolog 3 (DLG3), and G protein, alpha activating activity polypeptide O (GNAO1), was altered by transient RBFox1 expression in HEK293 and HeLa cells. Moreover, an RBFox1 mutant (RBFox1FA) that was unable to bind the target RNA sequence ((U)GCAUG) did not induce these splicing events. APP generates amyloid beta peptides that are involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, and therefore we examined APP alternative splicing regulation by RBFox1 and other splicing regulators. Our results indicated that RBFox proteins promote the skipping of APP exon 7, but not the inclusion of exon 8. We made APP6789 minigenes and observed that two (U)GCAUG sequences, located upstream of exon 7 and in exon 7, functioned to induce skipping of exon 7 by RBFox proteins. Overall, RBFox proteins may shift APP from exon 7 containing isoforms, APP770 and APP751, toward the exon 7 lacking isoform, APP695, which is predominant in neural tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution of alternative splicing regulation: changes in predicted exonic splicing regulators are not associated with changes in alternative splicing levels in primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Roy, Scott William

    2009-01-01

    of interspecific differences in these elements on the evolution of alternative splicing levels has not yet been investigated at genomic level. Here we study the effect of interspecific differences in predicted exonic splicing regulators (ESRs) on exon inclusion levels in human and chimpanzee. For this purpose, we...... compiled and studied comprehensive datasets of predicted ESRs, identified by several computational and experimental approaches, as well as microarray data for changes in alternative splicing levels between human and chimpanzee. Surprisingly, we found no association between changes in predicted ESRs...... and changes in alternative splicing levels. This observation holds across different ESR exon positions, exon lengths, and 5' splice site strengths. We suggest that this lack of association is mainly due to the great importance of context for ESR functionality: many ESR-like motifs in primates may have little...

  7. Auxiliary splice factor U2AF26 and transcription factor Gfi1 cooperate directly in regulating CD45 alternative splicing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyd, F.; Dam, G.B. ten; Moroy, T.

    2006-01-01

    By alternative splicing, different isoforms of the transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase CD45 are generated that either enhance or limit T cell receptor signaling. We report here that CD45 alternative splicing is regulated by cooperative action of the splice factor U2AF26 and the transcription factor

  8. Revealing the Determinants of Widespread Alternative Splicing Perturbation in Cancer

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    Yongsheng Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly appreciated that alternative splicing plays a key role in generating functional specificity and diversity in cancer. However, the mechanisms by which cancer mutations perturb splicing remain unknown. Here, we developed a network-based strategy, DrAS-Net, to investigate more than 2.5 million variants across cancer types and link somatic mutations with cancer-specific splicing events. We identified more than 40,000 driver variant candidates and their 80,000 putative splicing targets deregulated in 33 cancer types and inferred their functional impact. Strikingly, tumors with splicing perturbations show reduced expression of immune system-related genes and increased expression of cell proliferation markers. Tumors harboring different mutations in the same gene often exhibit distinct splicing perturbations. Further stratification of 10,000 patients based on their mutation-splicing relationships identifies subtypes with distinct clinical features, including survival rates. Our work reveals how single-nucleotide changes can alter the repertoires of splicing isoforms, providing insights into oncogenic mechanisms for precision medicine.

  9. Width of gene expression profile drives alternative splicing.

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    Daniel Wegmann

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing generates an enormous amount of functional and proteomic diversity in metazoan organisms. This process is probably central to the macromolecular and cellular complexity of higher eukaryotes. While most studies have focused on the molecular mechanism triggering and controlling alternative splicing, as well as on its incidence in different species, its maintenance and evolution within populations has been little investigated. Here, we propose to address these questions by comparing the structural characteristics as well as the functional and transcriptional profiles of genes with monomorphic or polymorphic splicing, referred to as MS and PS genes, respectively. We find that MS and PS genes differ particularly in the number of tissues and cell types where they are expressed.We find a striking deficit of PS genes on the sex chromosomes, particularly on the Y chromosome where it is shown not to be due to the observed lower breadth of expression of genes on that chromosome. The development of a simple model of evolution of cis-regulated alternative splicing leads to predictions in agreement with these observations. It further predicts the conditions for the emergence and the maintenance of cis-regulated alternative splicing, which are both favored by the tissue specific expression of splicing variants. We finally propose that the width of the gene expression profile is an essential factor for the acquisition of new transcript isoforms that could later be maintained by a new form of balancing selection.

  10. Roles of alternative splicing in modulating transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Wang, Yang; Rao, Xi; Wang, Yue; Feng, Weixing; Liang, Hong; Liu, Yunlong

    2017-10-03

    The ability of a transcription factor to regulate its targets is modulated by a variety of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Alternative splicing can modulate gene function by adding or removing certain protein domains, and therefore affect the activity of protein. Reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks using gene expression profiles has proven valuable in dissecting the logical relationships among multiple proteins during the transcriptional regulation. However, it is unclear whether alternative splicing of certain proteins affects the activity of other transcription factors. In order to investigate the roles of alternative splicing during transcriptional regulation, we constructed a statistical model to infer whether the alternative splicing events of modulator proteins can affect the ability of key transcription factors in regulating the expression levels of their transcriptional targets. We tested our strategy in KIRC (Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma) using the RNA-seq data downloaded from TCGA (the Cancer Genomic Atlas). We identified 828of modulation relationships between the splicing levels of modulator proteins and activity levels of transcription factors. For instance, we found that the activity levels of GR (glucocorticoid receptor) protein, a key transcription factor in kidney, can be influenced by the splicing status of multiple proteins, including TP53, MDM2 (mouse double minute 2 homolog), RBM14 (RNA-binding protein 14) and SLK (STE20 like kinase). The influenced GR-targets are enriched by key cancer-related pathways, including p53 signaling pathway, TR/RXR activation, CAR/RXR activation, G1/S checkpoint regulation pathway, and G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation pathway. Our analysis suggests, for the first time, that exon inclusion levels of certain regulatory proteins can affect the activities of many transcription factors. Such analysis can potentially unravel a novel mechanism of how splicing variation influences the cellular

  11. Conditional control of alternative splicing through light-triggered splice-switching oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, James; Liu, Qingyang; Uprety, Rajendra; Samanta, Subhas; Tsang, Michael; Juliano, Rudolph L; Deiters, Alexander

    2015-03-18

    The spliceosome machinery is composed of several proteins and multiple small RNA molecules that are involved in gene regulation through the removal of introns from pre-mRNAs in order to assemble exon-based mRNA containing protein-coding sequences. Splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) are genetic control elements that can be used to specifically control the expression of genes through correction of aberrant splicing pathways. A current limitation with SSO methodologies is the inability to achieve conditional control of their function paired with high spatial and temporal resolution. We addressed this limitation through site-specific installation of light-removable nucleobase-caging groups as well as photocleavable backbone linkers into synthetic SSOs. This enables optochemical OFF → ON and ON → OFF switching of their activity and thus precise control of alternative splicing. The use of light as a regulatory element allows for tight spatial and temporal control of splice switching in mammalian cells and animals.

  12. Resolving deconvolution ambiguity in gene alternative splicing

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    Hubbell Earl

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many gene structures it is impossible to resolve intensity data uniquely to establish abundances of splice variants. This was empirically noted by Wang et al. in which it was called a "degeneracy problem". The ambiguity results from an ill-posed problem where additional information is needed in order to obtain an unique answer in splice variant deconvolution. Results In this paper, we analyze the situations under which the problem occurs and perform a rigorous mathematical study which gives necessary and sufficient conditions on how many and what type of constraints are needed to resolve all ambiguity. This analysis is generally applicable to matrix models of splice variants. We explore the proposal that probe sequence information may provide sufficient additional constraints to resolve real-world instances. However, probe behavior cannot be predicted with sufficient accuracy by any existing probe sequence model, and so we present a Bayesian framework for estimating variant abundances by incorporating the prediction uncertainty from the micro-model of probe responsiveness into the macro-model of probe intensities. Conclusion The matrix analysis of constraints provides a tool for detecting real-world instances in which additional constraints may be necessary to resolve splice variants. While purely mathematical constraints can be stated without error, real-world constraints may themselves be poorly resolved. Our Bayesian framework provides a generic solution to the problem of uniquely estimating transcript abundances given additional constraints that themselves may be uncertain, such as regression fit to probe sequence models. We demonstrate the efficacy of it by extensive simulations as well as various biological data.

  13. Aberrant and alternative splicing in skeletal system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin; Tang, Liling

    2013-10-01

    The main function of skeletal system is to support the body and help movement. A variety of factors can lead to skeletal system disease, including age, exercise, and of course genetic makeup and expression. Pre-mRNA splicing plays a crucial role in gene expression, by creating multiple protein variants with different biological functions. The recent studies show that several skeletal system diseases are related to pre-mRNA splicing. This review focuses on the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease. On the one hand, splice site mutation that leads to aberrant splicing often causes genetic skeletal system disease, like COL1A1, SEDL and LRP5. On the other hand, alternative splicing without genomic mutation may generate some marker protein isoforms, for example, FN, VEGF and CD44. Therefore, understanding the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease will aid in uncovering the mechanism of disease and contribute to the future development of gene therapy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Global genome splicing analysis reveals an increased number of alternatively spliced genes with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sofía A; Grochová, Diana; McKenna, Tomás; Borate, Bhavesh; Trivedi, Niraj S; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a key regulatory mechanism for the development of different tissues; however, not much is known about changes to alternative splicing during aging. Splicing events may become more frequent and widespread genome-wide as tissues age and the splicing machinery stringency decreases. Using skin, skeletal muscle, bone, thymus, and white adipose tissue from wild-type C57BL6/J male mice (4 and 18 months old), we examined the effect of age on splicing by AS analysis of the differential exon usage of the genome. The results identified a considerable number of AS genes in skeletal muscle, thymus, bone, and white adipose tissue between the different age groups (ranging from 27 to 246 AS genes corresponding to 0.3-3.2% of the total number of genes analyzed). For skin, skeletal muscle, and bone, we included a later age group (28 months old) that showed that the number of alternatively spliced genes increased with age in all three tissues (P aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome was performed. The results show that expression of the mutant protein, progerin, is associated with an impaired developmental splicing. As progerin accumulates, the number of genes with AS increases compared to in wild-type skin. Our results indicate the existence of a mechanism for increased AS during aging in several tissues, emphasizing that AS has a more important role in the aging process than previously known. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Conserved and species-specific alternative splicing in mammalian genomes

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    Favorov Alexander V

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing has been shown to be one of the major evolutionary mechanisms for protein diversification and proteome expansion, since a considerable fraction of alternative splicing events appears to be species- or lineage-specific. However, most studies were restricted to the analysis of cassette exons in pairs of genomes and did not analyze functionality of the alternative variants. Results We analyzed conservation of human alternative splice sites and cassette exons in the mouse and dog genomes. Alternative exons, especially minor-isofom ones, were shown to be less conserved than constitutive exons. Frame-shifting alternatives in the protein-coding regions are less conserved than frame-preserving ones. Similarly, the conservation of alternative sites is highest for evenly used alternatives, and higher when the distance between the sites is divisible by three. The rate of alternative-exon and site loss in mouse is slightly higher than in dog, consistent with faster evolution of the former. The evolutionary dynamics of alternative sites was shown to be consistent with the model of random activation of cryptic sites. Conclusion Consistent with other studies, our results show that minor cassette exons are less conserved than major-alternative and constitutive exons. However, our study provides evidence that this is caused not only by exon birth, but also lineage-specific loss of alternative exons and sites, and it depends on exon functionality.

  16. Alternative Splicing Regulates Targeting of Malate Dehydrogenase in Yarrowia lipolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabran, Philomène; Rossignol, Tristan; Gaillardin, Claude; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Neuvéglise, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a major mechanism contributing to the proteome complexity of most eukaryotes, especially mammals. In less complex organisms, such as yeasts, the numbers of genes that contain introns are low and cases of alternative splicing (AS) with functional implications are rare. We report the first case of AS with functional consequences in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The splicing pattern was found to govern the cellular localization of malate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the central carbon metabolism. This ubiquitous enzyme is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle in mitochondria and in the glyoxylate cycle, which takes place in peroxisomes and the cytosol. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, three genes encode three compartment-specific enzymes. In contrast, only two genes exist in Y. lipolytica. One gene (YlMDH1, YALI0D16753g) encodes a predicted mitochondrial protein, whereas the second gene (YlMDH2, YALI0E14190g) generates the cytosolic and peroxisomal forms through the alternative use of two 3′-splice sites in the second intron. Both splicing variants were detected in cDNA libraries obtained from cells grown under different conditions. Mutants expressing the individual YlMdh2p isoforms tagged with fluorescent proteins confirmed that they localized to either the cytosolic or the peroxisomal compartment. PMID:22368181

  17. Alternative splicing of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor pre-mRNA: cloning and characterization of two alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kraaij (Robert); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractGlycoprotein hormone receptors contain a large extracellular domain that is encoded by multiple exons, facilitating the possibility of expressing alternatively spliced transcripts. We have cloned two new splice variants of the rat follicle-stimulating

  18. Widespread evolutionary conservation of alternatively spliced exons in caenorhabditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob L; Penny, David

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) contributes to increased transcriptome and proteome diversity in various eukaryotic lineages. Previous studies showed low levels of conservation of alternatively spliced (cassette) exons within mammals and within dipterans. We report a strikingly different pattern...... in Caenorhabditis nematodes-more than 92% of cassette exons from Caenorhabditis elegans are conserved in Caenorhabditis briggsae and/or Caenorhabditis remanei. High levels of conservation extend to minor-form exons (present in a minority of transcripts) and are particularly pronounced for exons showing complex...... patterns of splicing. The functionality of the vast majority of cassette exons is underscored by various other features. We suggest that differences in conservation between lineages reflect differences in levels of functionality and further suggest that these differences are due to differences in intron...

  19. Alternative splice variants of the human PD-1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Ohm-Laursen, Line; Barington, Torben

    2005-01-01

    PD-1 is an immunoregulatory receptor expressed on the surface of activated T cells, B cells, and monocytes. We describe four alternatively spliced PD-1 mRNA transcripts (PD-1Deltaex2, PD-1Deltaex3, PD-1Deltaex2,3, and PD-1Deltaex2,3,4) in addition to the full length isoform. PD-1Deltaex2 and PD-1......Deltaex3 are generated by alternative splicing where exon 2 (extracellular IgV-like domain) and exon 3 (transmembrane domain) respectively are spliced out. PD-1Deltaex3 is therefore likely to encode a soluble form of PD-1. PD-1Deltaex2,3 lacks exon 2 and 3. These three variants have unaffected open...

  20. Development of a novel splice array platform and its application in the identification of alternative splice variants in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez-Roman Javier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays strategies, which allow for the characterization of thousands of alternative splice forms in a single test, can be applied to identify differential alternative splicing events. In this study, a novel splice array approach was developed, including the design of a high-density oligonucleotide array, a labeling procedure, and an algorithm to identify splice events. Results The array consisted of exon probes and thermodynamically balanced junction probes. Suboptimal probes were tagged and considered in the final analysis. An unbiased labeling protocol was developed using random primers. The algorithm used to distinguish changes in expression from changes in splicing was calibrated using internal non-spliced control sequences. The performance of this splice array was validated with artificial constructs for CDC6, VEGF, and PCBP4 isoforms. The platform was then applied to the analysis of differential splice forms in lung cancer samples compared to matched normal lung tissue. Overexpression of splice isoforms was identified for genes encoding CEACAM1, FHL-1, MLPH, and SUSD2. None of these splicing isoforms had been previously associated with lung cancer. Conclusions This methodology enables the detection of alternative splicing events in complex biological samples, providing a powerful tool to identify novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cancer and other pathologies.

  1. Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2008-11-07

    In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

  2. Global Genetic Robustness of the Alternative Splicing Machinery in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yang; Breitling, Rainer; Snoek, L. Basten; van der Velde, K. Joeri; Swertz, Morris A.; Riksen, Joost; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Borevitz, J.

    Alternative splicing is considered a major mechanism for creating multicellular diversity from a limited repertoire of genes. Here, we performed the first study of genetic variation controlling alternative splicing patterns by comprehensively identifying quantitative trait loci affecting the

  3. Cloning, expression and alternative splicing of the novel isoform of hTCP11 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yong-xin; Zhang, Si-zhong; Wu, Qia-qing

    2003-01-01

    To identify a novel isoform of hTCP11 gene and investigate its expression and alternative splicing.......To identify a novel isoform of hTCP11 gene and investigate its expression and alternative splicing....

  4. Splicing Express: a software suite for alternative splicing analysis using next-generation sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E. Kroll

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. Alternative splicing events (ASEs are prevalent in the transcriptome of eukaryotic species and are known to influence many biological phenomena. The identification and quantification of these events are crucial for a better understanding of biological processes. Next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have allowed deep characterization of transcriptomes and made it possible to address these issues. ASEs analysis, however, represents a challenging task especially when many different samples need to be compared. Some popular tools for the analysis of ASEs are known to report thousands of events without annotations and/or graphical representations. A new tool for the identification and visualization of ASEs is here described, which can be used by biologists without a solid bioinformatics background.Results. A software suite named Splicing Express was created to perform ASEs analysis from transcriptome sequencing data derived from next-generation DNA sequencing platforms. Its major goal is to serve the needs of biomedical researchers who do not have bioinformatics skills. Splicing Express performs automatic annotation of transcriptome data (GTF files using gene coordinates available from the UCSC genome browser and allows the analysis of data from all available species. The identification of ASEs is done by a known algorithm previously implemented in another tool named Splooce. As a final result, Splicing Express creates a set of HTML files composed of graphics and tables designed to describe the expression profile of ASEs among all analyzed samples. By using RNA-Seq data from the Illumina Human Body Map and the Rat Body Map, we show that Splicing Express is able to perform all tasks in a straightforward way, identifying well-known specific events.Availability and Implementation.Splicing Express is written in Perl and is suitable to run only in UNIX-like systems. More details can be found at: http://www.bioinformatics-brazil.org/splicingexpress.

  5. Control of human papillomavirus gene expression by alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sheila V; Faizo, Arwa Ali A

    2017-03-02

    Human papillomaviruses possess circular double stranded DNA genomes of around 8kb in size from which multiple mRNAs are synthesized during an infectious life cycle. Although at least three viral promoters are used to initiate transcription, viral mRNAs are largely the product of processing of pre-mRNAs by alternative splicing and polyadenylation. The HPV life cycle and viral gene expression are tightly linked to differentiation of the epithelium the virus infects: there is an orchestrated production of viral mRNAs and proteins. In this review we describe viral mRNA expression and the roles of the SR and hnRNP proteins that respectively positively and negatively regulate splicing. We discuss HPV regulation of splicing factors and detail the evidence that the papillomavirus E2 protein has splicing-related activities. We highlight the possibility that HPV-mediated control of splicing in differentiating epithelial cells may be necessary to accomplish the viral replication cycle. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Deciphering the plant splicing code: Experimental and computational approaches for predicting alternative splicing and splicing regulatory elements

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    Anireddy S.N. Reddy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive alternative splicing (AS of precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs in multicellular eukaryotes increases the protein-coding capacity of a genome and allows novel ways to regulate gene expression. In fowering plants, up to 48% of intron-containing genes exhibit AS. However, the full extent of AS in plants is not yet known, as only a few high throughput RNA-Seq studies have been performed. As the cost of obtaining RNA-Seq reads continues to fall, it is anticipated that huge amounts of plant sequence data will accumulate and help in obtaining a more complete picture of AS in plants. Although it is not an onerous task to obtain hundreds of millions of reads using high throughput sequencing technologies, computational tools to accurately predict and visualize AS are still being developed and refined. This review will discuss the tools to predict and visualize transcriptome-wide AS in plants using short reads and highlight their limitations. Comparative studies of AS events between plants and animals have revealed that there are major differences in the most prevalent types of AS events, suggesting that plants and animals differ in the way they recognize exons and introns. Extensive studies have been performed in animals to identify cis-elements involved in regulating AS, especially in exon skipping. However, such studies are in their infancy in plants. Here, we review the current state of research on splicing regulatory elements (SREs and briefly discuss emerging experimental and computational tools to identify cis-elements involved in regulation of AS in plants. The availability of curated alternative splice forms in plants makes it possible to use computational tools to predict SREs involved in AS regulation, which can then be verified experimentally. Such studies will permit identification of plant-specific features involved in AS regulation and contribute to deciphering the splicing code in plants.

  7. Alternative Splicing of G9a Regulates Neuronal Differentiation

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    Ana Fiszbein

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin modifications are critical for the establishment and maintenance of differentiation programs. G9a, the enzyme responsible for histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation in mammalian euchromatin, exists as two isoforms with differential inclusion of exon 10 (E10 through alternative splicing. We find that the G9a methyltransferase is required for differentiation of the mouse neuronal cell line N2a and that E10 inclusion increases during neuronal differentiation of cultured cells, as well as in the developing mouse brain. Although E10 inclusion greatly stimulates overall H3K9me2 levels, it does not affect G9a catalytic activity. Instead, E10 increases G9a nuclear localization. We show that the G9a E10+ isoform is necessary for neuron differentiation and regulates the alternative splicing pattern of its own pre-mRNA, enhancing E10 inclusion. Overall, our findings indicate that by regulating its own alternative splicing, G9a promotes neuron differentiation and creates a positive feedback loop that reinforces cellular commitment to differentiation.

  8. ASF/SF2-like maize pre-mRNA splicing factors affect splice site utilization and their transcripts are alternatively spliced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huirong; Gordon-Kamm, William J; Lyznik, L Alexander

    2004-09-15

    Three ASF/SF2-like alternative splicing genes from maize were identified, cloned, and analyzed. Each of these genes (zmSRp30, zmSRp31, and zmSRp32) contains two RNA binding domains, a signature sequence SWQDLKD, and a characteristic serine/ariginine-rich domain. There is a strong structural similarity to the human ASF/SF2 splicing factor and to the Arabidopsis atSRp34/p30 proteins. Similar to ASF/SF2-like genes in other organisms, the maize pre-mRNA messages are alternatively spliced. They are differentially expressed in maize tissues with relatively uniform levels of zmSRp30 and zmSRp31 messages being observed throughout the plant, while zmSRp32 messages preferentially accumulated in the meristematic regions. Overexpression of zmSRp32 in maize cells leads to the enhanced selection of weak 5' intron splice sites during the processing of pre-mRNA molecules. Overexpression of the zmSRp31 or zmSRp32 gene affects regulation of wheat dwarf virus rep gene pre-mRNA splicing, presumably by interacting with the weak 5' splice site, CCGU. Our results suggest that the described genes are functional homologues of the human ASF/SF2 alternative splicing factor and they indicate a diversity of the ASF/SF2-like alternative splicing factors in monocot plant cells.

  9. Alternative splicing variations in mouse CAPS2: differential expression and functional properties of splicing variants

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    Furuichi Teiichi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ca2+-dependent activator protein 2 (CAPS2/CADPS2 is a secretory vesicle-associated protein involved in the release of neurotrophin. We recently reported that an aberrant, alternatively spliced CAPS2 mRNA that lacks exon 3 (CAPS2Δexon3 is detected in some patients with autism. Splicing variations in mouse CAPS2 and their expression and functions remain unclear. Results In this study, we defined 31 exons in the mouse CAPS2 gene and identified six alternative splicing variants, CAPS2a-f. CAPS2a is an isoform lacking exons 22 and 25, which encode part of the Munc13-1-homologous domain (MHD. CAPS2b lacks exon 25. CAPS2c lacks exons 11 and 22. CAPS2d, 2e, and 2f have C-terminal deletions from exon 14, exon 12, and exon 5, respectively. On the other hand, a mouse counterpart of CAPS2Δexon3 was not detected in the mouse tissues tested. CAPS2b was expressed exclusively in the brain, and the other isoforms were highly expressed in the brain, but also in some non-neural tissues. In the brain, all isoforms showed predominant expression patterns in the cerebellum. In the developing cerebellum, CAPS2b showed an up-regulated expression pattern, whereas the other isoforms exhibited transiently peaked expression patterns. CAPS2 proteins were mostly recovered in soluble fractions, but some were present in membrane fractions, except for CAPS2c and 2f, both of which lack the PH domain, suggesting that the PH domain is important for membrane association. In contrast to CAPS2a and 2b, CAPS2c showed slightly decreased BDNF-releasing activity, which is likely due to the C-terminal truncation of the PH domain in CAPS2c. Conclusion This study indicates that, in mouse, there are six splicing variants of CAPS2 (CAPS2a-f, and that these are subdivided into two groups: a long form containing the C-terminal MHD and a short form lacking the C-terminal MHD. These results demonstrate that the splicing variations correlate with their expression patterns and

  10. Investigation of tissue-specific human orthologous alternative splice events in pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Salicio, Susanna Cirera

    2010-01-01

    investigated alternative splice events detected in humans, in orthologous pig genes. A total of 17 genes with predicted exon skipping events were selected for further studies. The splice events for the selected genes were experimentally verified using real-time quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR) with splice......Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA can contribute to differences between tissues or cells either by regulating gene expression or creating proteins with various functions encoded by one gene. The number of investigated alternative splice events in pig has so far been limited. In this study we have...

  11. Expression of alternatively spliced sodium channel alpha-subunit genes. Unique splicing patterns are observed in dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Christopher K; Castle, John; Garrett-Engele, Philip; Armour, Christopher D; Kan, Zhengyan; Tsinoremas, Nicholas; Johnson, Jason M

    2004-10-29

    Molecular medicine requires the precise definition of drug targets, and tools are now in place to provide genome-wide information on the expression and alternative splicing patterns of any known gene. DNA microarrays were used to monitor transcript levels of the nine well-characterized alpha-subunit sodium channel genes across a broad range of tissues from cynomolgus monkey, a non-human primate model. Alternative splicing of human transcripts for a subset of the genes that are expressed in dorsal root ganglia, SCN8A (Na(v)1.6), SCN9A (Na(v)1.7), and SCN11A (Na(v)1.9) was characterized in detail. Genomic sequence analysis among gene family paralogs and between cross-species orthologs suggested specific alternative splicing events within transcripts of these genes, all of which were experimentally confirmed in human tissues. Quantitative PCR revealed that certain alternative splice events are uniquely expressed in dorsal root ganglia. In addition to characterization of human transcripts, alternatively spliced sodium channel transcripts were monitored in a rat model for neuropathic pain. Consistent down-regulation of all transcripts was observed, as well as significant changes in the splicing patterns of SCN8A and SCN9A.

  12. Functions for fission yeast splicing factors SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 in alternative splice-site choice and stress-specific regulated splicing.

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    Geetha Melangath

    Full Text Available Budding yeast spliceosomal factors ScSlu7 and ScPrp18 interact and mediate intron 3'ss choice during second step pre-mRNA splicing. The fission yeast genome with abundant multi-intronic transcripts, degenerate splice signals and SR proteins is an apt unicellular fungal model to deduce roles for core spliceosomal factors in alternative splice-site choice, intron retention and to study the cellular implications of regulated splicing. From our custom microarray data we deduce a stringent reproducible subset of S. pombe alternative events. We examined the role of factors SpSlu7 or SpPrp18 for these splice events and investigated the relationship to growth phase and stress. Wild-type log and stationary phase cells showed ats1+ exon 3 skipped and intron 3 retained transcripts. Interestingly the non-consensus 5'ss in ats1+ intron 3 caused SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 dependent intron retention. We validated the use of an alternative 5'ss in dtd1+ intron 1 and of an upstream alternative 3'ss in DUF3074 intron 1. The dtd1+ intron 1 non-canonical 5'ss yielded an alternative mRNA whose levels increased in stationary phase. Utilization of dtd1+ intron 1 sub-optimal 5' ss required functional SpPrp18 and SpSlu7 while compromise in SpSlu7 function alone hampered the selection of the DUF3074 intron 1 non canonical 3'ss. We analysed the relative abundance of these splice isoforms during mild thermal, oxidative and heavy metal stress and found stress-specific splice patterns for ats1+ and DUF3074 intron 1 some of which were SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 dependent. By studying ats1+ splice isoforms during compromised transcription elongation rates in wild-type, spslu7-2 and spprp18-5 mutant cells we found dynamic and intron context-specific effects in splice-site choice. Our work thus shows the combinatorial effects of splice site strength, core splicing factor functions and transcription elongation kinetics to dictate alternative splice patterns which in turn serve as an additional

  13. Alternative splicing of CNOT7 diversifies CCR4-NOT functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapat, Clément; Chettab, Kamel; Simonet, Pierre; Wang, Peng; De La Grange, Pierre; Le Romancer, Muriel; Corbo, Laura

    2017-08-21

    The CCR4-associated factor CAF1, also called CNOT7, is a catalytic subunit of the CCR4-NOT complex, which has been implicated in all aspects of the mRNA life cycle, from mRNA synthesis in the nucleus to degradation in the cytoplasm. In human cells, alternative splicing of the CNOT7 gene yields a second CNOT7 transcript leading to the formation of a shorter protein, CNOT7 variant 2 (CNOT7v2). Biochemical characterization indicates that CNOT7v2 interacts with CCR4-NOT subunits, although it does not bind to BTG proteins. We report that CNOT7v2 displays a distinct expression profile in human tissues, as well as a nuclear sub-cellular localization compared to CNOT7v1. Despite a conserved DEDD nuclease domain, CNOT7v2 is unable to degrade a poly(A) tail in vitro and preferentially associates with the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT1 to regulate its activity. Using both in vitro and in cellulo systems, we have also demonstrated that CNOT7v2 regulates the inclusion of CD44 variable exons. Altogether, our findings suggest a preferential involvement of CNOT7v2 in nuclear processes, such as arginine methylation and alternative splicing, rather than mRNA turnover. These observations illustrate how the integration of a splicing variant inside CCR4-NOT can diversify its cell- and tissue-specific functions. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Alternatively spliced neuronal nitric oxide synthase mediates penile erection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, K. Joseph; Sezen, Sena F.; Champion, Hunter C.; Crone, Julie K.; Palese, Michael A.; Huang, Paul L.; Sawa, Akira; Luo, Xiaojiang; Musicki, Biljana; Snyder, Solomon H.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2006-01-01

    A key role for nitric oxide (NO) in penile erection is well established, but the relative roles of the neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) versus endothelial forms of NOS are not clear. nNOS- and endothelial NOS-deficient mice maintain erectile function and reproductive capacity, questioning the importance of NO. Alternatively, residual NO produced by shorter transcripts in the nNOS−/− animals might suffice for normal physiologic function. We show that the β splice variant of nNOS elicits normal erection despite a decrease in stimulus-response characteristics and a 5-fold increased sensitivity to the NOS inhibitor, l-NAME. Residual nNOSβ generates only 10% of the normal NO level in vitro but produces citrulline and diaphorase staining reflecting in vivo NOS activity in pelvic ganglion nerves that is comparable to WT animals. Thus, alternatively spliced forms of nNOS are major mediators of penile erection and so may be targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:16488973

  15. Coding potential of the products of alternative splicing in human.

    KAUST Repository

    Leoni, Guido

    2011-01-20

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of the human genome has revealed that as much as an order of magnitude more of the genomic sequence is transcribed than accounted for by the predicted and characterized genes. A number of these transcripts are alternatively spliced forms of known protein coding genes; however, it is becoming clear that many of them do not necessarily correspond to a functional protein. RESULTS: In this study we analyze alternative splicing isoforms of human gene products that are unambiguously identified by mass spectrometry and compare their properties with those of isoforms of the same genes for which no peptide was found in publicly available mass spectrometry datasets. We analyze them in detail for the presence of uninterrupted functional domains, active sites as well as the plausibility of their predicted structure. We report how well each of these strategies and their combination can correctly identify translated isoforms and derive a lower limit for their specificity, that is, their ability to correctly identify non-translated products. CONCLUSIONS: The most effective strategy for correctly identifying translated products relies on the conservation of active sites, but it can only be applied to a small fraction of isoforms, while a reasonably high coverage, sensitivity and specificity can be achieved by analyzing the presence of non-truncated functional domains. Combining the latter with an assessment of the plausibility of the modeled structure of the isoform increases both coverage and specificity with a moderate cost in terms of sensitivity.

  16. Chapter 1. Regulation of HIV-1 alternative RNA splicing and its role in virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, C Martin

    2009-01-01

    Over 40 different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mRNA species, both completely and incompletely spliced, are produced by alternative splicing of the primary viral RNA transcript. In addition, about half of the viral RNA remains unspliced and is transported to the cytoplasm where it is used both as mRNA and as genomic RNA. In general, the identities of the completely and incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNA species are determined by the proximity of the open reading frames to the 5'-end of the mRNAs. The relative abundance of the mRNAs encoding the HIV-1 gene products is determined by the frequency of splicing at the different alternative 3'-splice sites. This chapter will highlight studies showing how HIV-1 uses exon definition to control the level of splicing at each of its 3'-splice sites through a combination of positively acting exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) elements, negatively acting exonic and intronic splicing silencer elements (ESS and ISS elements, respectively), and the 5'-splice sites of the regulated exons. Each of these splicing elements represent binding sites for cellular factors whose levels in the infected cell can determine the dominance of the positive or negative elements on HIV-1 alternative splicing. Both mutations of HIV-1 splicing elements and overexpression or inhibition of cellular splicing factors that bind to these elements have been used to show that disruption of regulated splicing inhibits HIV-1 replication. These studies have provided strong rationale for the investigation and development of antiviral drugs that specifically inhibit HIV-1 RNA splicing.

  17. Periostin shows increased evolutionary plasticity in its alternatively spliced region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoersch Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periostin (POSTN is a secreted extracellular matrix protein of poorly defined function that has been related to bone and heart development as well as to cancer. In human and mouse, it is known to undergo alternative splicing in its C-terminal region, which is devoid of known protein domains. Differential expression of periostin, sometimes of specific splicing isoforms, is observed in a broad range of human cancers, including breast, pancreatic, and colon cancer. Here, we combine genomic and transcriptomic sequence data from vertebrate organisms to study the evolution of periostin and particularly of its C-terminal region. Results We found that the C-terminal part of periostin is markedly more variable among vertebrates than the rest of periostin in terms of exon count, length, and splicing pattern, which we interpret as a consequence of neofunctionalization after the split between periostin and its paralog transforming growth factor, beta-induced (TGFBI. We also defined periostin's sequential 13-amino acid repeat units - well conserved in teleost fish, but more obscure in higher vertebrates - whose secondary structure is predicted to be consecutive beta strands. We suggest that these beta strands may mediate binding interactions with other proteins through an extended beta-zipper in a manner similar to the way repeat units in bacterial cell wall proteins have been reported to bind human fibronectin. Conclusions Our results, obtained with the help of the increasingly large collection of complete vertebrate genomes, document the evolutionary plasticity of periostin's C-terminal region, and for the first time suggest a basis for its functional role.

  18. Alternatively spliced tissue factor is not sufficient for embryonic development.

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    Susanna H M Sluka

    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF triggers blood coagulation and is translated from two mRNA splice isoforms, encoding membrane-anchored full-length TF (flTF and soluble alternatively-spliced TF (asTF. The complete knockout of TF in mice causes embryonic lethality associated with failure of the yolk sac vasculature. Although asTF plays roles in postnatal angiogenesis, it is unknown whether it activates coagulation sufficiently or makes previously unrecognized contributions to sustaining integrity of embryonic yolk sac vessels. Using gene knock-in into the mouse TF locus, homozygous asTF knock-in (asTFKI mice, which express murine asTF in the absence of flTF, exhibited embryonic lethality between day 9.5 and 10.5. Day 9.5 homozygous asTFKI embryos expressed asTF protein, but no procoagulant activity was detectable in a plasma clotting assay. Although the α-smooth-muscle-actin positive mesodermal layer as well as blood islands developed similarly in day 8.5 wild-type or homozygous asTFKI embryos, erythrocytes were progressively lost from disintegrating yolk sac vessels of asTFKI embryos by day 10.5. These data show that in the absence of flTF, asTF expressed during embryonic development has no measurable procoagulant activity, does not support embryonic vessel stability by non-coagulant mechanisms, and fails to maintain a functional vasculature and embryonic survival.

  19. Fluorescence Reporter-Based Genome-Wide RNA Interference Screening to Identify Alternative Splicing Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ashish; Green, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a regulated process that leads to inclusion or exclusion of particular exons in a pre-mRNA transcript, resulting in multiple protein isoforms being encoded by a single gene. With more than 90 % of human genes known to undergo alternative splicing, it represents a major source for biological diversity inside cells. Although in vitro splicing assays have revealed insights into the mechanisms regulating individual alternative splicing events, our global understanding of alternative splicing regulation is still evolving. In recent years, genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screening has transformed biological research by enabling genome-scale loss-of-function screens in cultured cells and model organisms. In addition to resulting in the identification of new cellular pathways and potential drug targets, these screens have also uncovered many previously unknown mechanisms regulating alternative splicing. Here, we describe a method for the identification of alternative splicing regulators using genome-wide RNAi screening, as well as assays for further validation of the identified candidates. With modifications, this method can also be adapted to study the splicing regulation of pre-mRNAs that contain two or more splice isoforms.

  20. An EMT-driven alternative splicing program occurs in human breast cancer and modulates cellular phenotype.

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    Irina M Shapiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a mechanism important for embryonic development, plays a critical role during malignant transformation. While much is known about transcriptional regulation of EMT, alternative splicing of several genes has also been correlated with EMT progression, but the extent of splicing changes and their contributions to the morphological conversion accompanying EMT have not been investigated comprehensively. Using an established cell culture model and RNA-Seq analyses, we determined an alternative splicing signature for EMT. Genes encoding key drivers of EMT-dependent changes in cell phenotype, such as actin cytoskeleton remodeling, regulation of cell-cell junction formation, and regulation of cell migration, were enriched among EMT-associated alternatively splicing events. Our analysis suggested that most EMT-associated alternative splicing events are regulated by one or more members of the RBFOX, MBNL, CELF, hnRNP, or ESRP classes of splicing factors. The EMT alternative splicing signature was confirmed in human breast cancer cell lines, which could be classified into basal and luminal subtypes based exclusively on their EMT-associated splicing pattern. Expression of EMT-associated alternative mRNA transcripts was also observed in primary breast cancer samples, indicating that EMT-dependent splicing changes occur commonly in human tumors. The functional significance of EMT-associated alternative splicing was tested by expression of the epithelial-specific splicing factor ESRP1 or by depletion of RBFOX2 in mesenchymal cells, both of which elicited significant changes in cell morphology and motility towards an epithelial phenotype, suggesting that splicing regulation alone can drive critical aspects of EMT-associated phenotypic changes. The molecular description obtained here may aid in the development of new diagnostic and prognostic markers for analysis of breast cancer progression.

  1. An EMT-driven alternative splicing program occurs in human breast cancer and modulates cellular phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Irina M; Cheng, Albert W; Flytzanis, Nicholas C; Balsamo, Michele; Condeelis, John S; Oktay, Maja H; Burge, Christopher B; Gertler, Frank B

    2011-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a mechanism important for embryonic development, plays a critical role during malignant transformation. While much is known about transcriptional regulation of EMT, alternative splicing of several genes has also been correlated with EMT progression, but the extent of splicing changes and their contributions to the morphological conversion accompanying EMT have not been investigated comprehensively. Using an established cell culture model and RNA-Seq analyses, we determined an alternative splicing signature for EMT. Genes encoding key drivers of EMT-dependent changes in cell phenotype, such as actin cytoskeleton remodeling, regulation of cell-cell junction formation, and regulation of cell migration, were enriched among EMT-associated alternatively splicing events. Our analysis suggested that most EMT-associated alternative splicing events are regulated by one or more members of the RBFOX, MBNL, CELF, hnRNP, or ESRP classes of splicing factors. The EMT alternative splicing signature was confirmed in human breast cancer cell lines, which could be classified into basal and luminal subtypes based exclusively on their EMT-associated splicing pattern. Expression of EMT-associated alternative mRNA transcripts was also observed in primary breast cancer samples, indicating that EMT-dependent splicing changes occur commonly in human tumors. The functional significance of EMT-associated alternative splicing was tested by expression of the epithelial-specific splicing factor ESRP1 or by depletion of RBFOX2 in mesenchymal cells, both of which elicited significant changes in cell morphology and motility towards an epithelial phenotype, suggesting that splicing regulation alone can drive critical aspects of EMT-associated phenotypic changes. The molecular description obtained here may aid in the development of new diagnostic and prognostic markers for analysis of breast cancer progression.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of SRSF10-regulated alternative splicing by deep sequencing of chicken transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexia Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Splicing factor SRSF10 is known to function as a sequence-specific splicing activator that is capable of regulating alternative splicing both in vitro and in vivo. We recently used an RNA-seq approach coupled with bioinformatics analysis to identify the extensive splicing network regulated by SRSF10 in chicken cells. We found that SRSF10 promoted both exon inclusion and exclusion. Functionally, many of the SRSF10-verified alternative exons are linked to pathways of response to external stimulus. Here we describe in detail the experimental design, bioinformatics analysis and GO/pathway enrichment analysis of SRSF10-regulated genes to correspond with our data in the Gene Expression Omnibus with accession number GSE53354. Our data thus provide a resource for studying regulation of alternative splicing in vivo that underlines biological functions of splicing regulatory proteins in cells.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing in rice and comparative analyses with Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mount Stephen M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, genomic sequencing efforts were finished for Oryza sativa (cultivated rice and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis. Additionally, these two plant species have extensive cDNA and expressed sequence tag (EST libraries. We employed the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments (PASA to identify and analyze alternatively spliced isoforms in both species. Results A comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing was performed in rice that started with >1.1 million publicly available spliced ESTs and over 30,000 full length cDNAs in conjunction with the newly enhanced PASA software. A parallel analysis was performed with Arabidopsis to compare and ascertain potential differences between monocots and dicots. Alternative splicing is a widespread phenomenon (observed in greater than 30% of the loci with transcript support and we have described nine alternative splicing variations. While alternative splicing has the potential to create many RNA isoforms from a single locus, the majority of loci generate only two or three isoforms and transcript support indicates that these isoforms are generally not rare events. For the alternate donor (AD and acceptor (AA classes, the distance between the splice sites for the majority of events was found to be less than 50 basepairs (bp. In both species, the most frequent distance between AA is 3 bp, consistent with reports in mammalian systems. Conversely, the most frequent distance between AD is 4 bp in both plant species, as previously observed in mouse. Most alternative splicing variations are localized to the protein coding sequence and are predicted to significantly alter the coding sequence. Conclusion Alternative splicing is widespread in both rice and Arabidopsis and these species share many common features. Interestingly, alternative splicing may play a role beyond creating novel combinations of transcripts that expand the proteome. Many isoforms will presumably have negative

  4. Heat shock activates splicing at latent alternative 5' splice sites in nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Yuval; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is essential for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes and is fundamental in development and cancer, and involves the selection of a consensus sequence that defines the 5' splice site (5'SS). Human introns harbor multiple sequences that conform to the 5'SS consensus, which are not used under normal growth conditions. Under heat shock conditions, splicing at such intronic latent 5'SSs occurred in thousands of human transcripts, resulting in pre-maturely terminated aberrant proteins. Here we performed a survey of the C. elegans genome, showing that worm's introns contain latent 5'SSs, whose use for splicing would have resulted in pre-maturely terminated mRNAs. Splicing at these latent 5'SSs could not be detected under normal growth conditions, while heat shock activated latent splicing in a number of tested C. elegans transcripts. Two scenarios could account for the lack of latent splicing under normal growth conditions (i) Splicing at latent 5'SSs do occur, but the nonsense mRNAs thus formed are rapidly and efficiently degraded (e.g. by NMD); and (ii) Splicing events at intronic latent 5'SSs are suppressed. Here we support the second scenario, because, nematode smg mutants that are devoid of NMD-essential factors, did not show latent splicing under normal growth conditions. Hence, these experiments together with our previous experiments in mammalian cells, indicate the existence of a nuclear quality control mechanism, termed Suppression Of Splicing (SOS), which discriminates between latent and authentic 5'SSs in an open reading frame dependent manner, and allows splicing only at the latter. Our results show that SOS is an evolutionary conserved mechanism, probably shared by most eukaryotes.

  5. Spatio-temporal and dynamic regulation of neurofascin alternative splicing in mouse cerebellar neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoko; Ayukawa, Noriko; Okada, Chisa; Tanaka, Masami; Takekoshi, Susumu; Iijima, Yoko; Iijima, Takatoshi

    2017-09-12

    Alternative splicing is crucial for molecular diversification, which greatly contributes to the complexity and specificity of neural functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Neurofascin (NF) is a polymorphic cell surface protein that has a number of splicing isoforms. As the alternative splicing of the neurofascin gene (Nfasc) is developmentally regulated, NF isoforms have distinct functions in immature and mature brains. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the alternative splicing of Nfasc in neurons are not yet understood. Here, we demonstrate that, alongside developmental regulation, Nfasc alternative splicing is spatially controlled in the mouse brain. We then identified distinct Nfasc splicing patterns at the cell-type level in the cerebellum, with Nfasc186 being expressed in Purkinje cells and absent from granule cells (GCs). Furthermore, we show that high K+-induced depolarization triggers a shift in splicing from Nfasc140 to Nfasc186 in cerebellar GCs. Finally, we identified a neural RNA-binding protein, Rbfox, as a key player in neural NF isoform selection, specifically controlling splicing at exons 26-29. Together, our results show that Nfasc alternative splicing is spatio-temporally and dynamically regulated in cerebellar neurons. Our findings provide profound insight into the mechanisms underlying the functional diversity of neuronal cell-adhesive proteins in the mammalian CNS.

  6. Tissue-specific alternative splicing of Tak1 is conserved in deuterostomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Julian P; Vignal, Emmanuel; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Fort, Philippe; Tazi, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing allows organisms to rapidly modulate protein functions to physiological changes and therefore represents a highly versatile adaptive process. We investigated the conservation of the evolutionary history of the "Fox" family of RNA-binding splicing factors (RBFOX) as well as the conservation of regulated alternative splicing of the genes they control. We found that the RBFOX proteins are conserved in all metazoans examined. In humans, Fox proteins control muscle-specific alternative splicing of many genes but despite the conservation of splicing factors, conservation of regulation of alternative splicing has never been demonstrated between man and nonvertebrate species. Therefore, we studied 40 known Fox-regulated human exons and found that 22 had a tissue-specific splicing pattern in muscle and heart. Of these, 11 were spliced in the same tissue-specific manner in mouse tissues and 4 were tissue-specifically spliced in muscle and heart of the frog Xenopus laevis. The inclusion of two of these alternative exons was also downregulated during tadpole development. Of the 40 in the starting set, the most conserved alternative splicing event was in the transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-activated kinase Tak1 (MAP3K7) as this was also muscle specific in urochordates and in Ambulacraria, the most ancient deuterostome clade. We found exclusion of the muscle-specific exon of Tak1 was itself under control of TGF beta in cell culture and consistently that TGF beta caused an upregulation of Fox2 (RBFOX2) expression. The alternative exon, which codes for an in-frame 27 amino acids between the kinase and known regulatory domain of TAK1, contains conserved features in all organisms including potential phosphorylation sites and likely has an important conserved function in TGF beta signaling and development. This study establishes that deuterostomes share a remarkable conserved physiological process that involves a splicing factor and expression of tissue

  7. Alternative splicing in colon, bladder, and prostate cancer identified by exon-array analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Kasper; Sørensen, Karina D.; Brems-Eskildsen, Anne Sofie

    2008-01-01

    from colon, urinary bladder, and prostate. We identified 2069 candidate alternative splicing events between normal tissue samples from colon, bladder, and prostate and selected 15 splicing events for RT-PCR validation, 10 of which were successfully validated by RT-PCR and sequencing. Furthermore 23, 19......, and 18 candidate tumor-specific splicing alterations in colon, bladder, and prostate, respectively, were selected for RT-PCR validation on an independent set of 81 normal and tumor tissue samples. In total, seven genes with tumor-specific splice variants were identified (ACTN1, CALD1, COL6A3, LRRFIP2....... In conclusion, we identified and validated alternative splicing between normal tissue samples from colon, bladder, and prostate in addition to cancer-specific splicing events in colon, bladder, and prostate cancer that may have diagnostic and prognostic implications....

  8. The emerging role of alternative splicing in senescence and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Mathieu; Chabot, Benoit

    2017-10-01

    Deregulation of precursor mRNA splicing is associated with many illnesses and has been linked to age-related chronic diseases. Here we review recent progress documenting how defects in the machinery that performs intron removal and controls splice site selection contribute to cellular senescence and organismal aging. We discuss the functional association linking p53, IGF-1, SIRT1, and ING-1 splice variants with senescence and aging, and review a selection of splicing defects occurring in accelerated aging (progeria), vascular aging, and Alzheimer's disease. Overall, it is becoming increasingly clear that changes in the activity of splicing factors and in the production of key splice variants can impact cellular senescence and the aging phenotype. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Alternative splicing acting as a bridge in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kemin; Salamov, Asaf; Kuo, Alan; Aerts, Andrea L; Kong, Xiangyang; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) regulates diverse cellular and developmental functions through alternative protein structures of different isoforms. Alternative exons dominate AS in vertebrates; however, very little is known about the extent and function of AS in lower eukaryotes. To understand the role of introns in gene evolution, we examined AS from a green algal and five fungal genomes using a novel EST-based gene-modeling algorithm (COMBEST). AS from each genome was classified with COMBEST that maps EST sequences to genomes to build gene models. Various aspects of AS were analyzed through statistical methods. The interplay of intron 3n length, phase, coding property, and intron retention (RI) were examined with Chi-square testing. With 3 to 834 times EST coverage, we identified up to 73% of AS in intron-containing genes and found preponderance of RI among 11 types of AS. The number of exons, expression level, and maximum intron length correlated with number of AS per gene (NAG), and intron-rich genes suppressed AS. Genes with AS were more ancient, and AS was conserved among fungal genomes. Among stopless introns, non-retained introns (NRI) avoided, but major RI preferred 3n length. In contrast, stop-containing introns showed uniform distribution among 3n, 3n+1, and 3n+2 lengths. We found a clue to the intron phase enigma: it was the coding function of introns involved in AS that dictates the intron phase bias. Majority of AS is non-functional, and the extent of AS is suppressed for intron-rich genes. RI through 3n length, stop codon, and phase bias bridges the transition from functionless to functional alternative isoforms.

  10. Decreased alternative splicing of estrogen receptor-α mRNA in the Alzheimer's disease brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishunina, Tatjana A.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we identified 62 estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) mRNA splice variants in different human brain areas of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control cases and classified them into 12 groups. Forty-eight of these splice forms were identified for the first time. The distribution of alternatively

  11. Differential recruitment of nuclear receptor coactivators may determine alternative RNA splice site choice in target genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auboeuf, Didier; Dowhan, Dennis H.; Kang, Yun Kyoung; Larkin, Kimberly; Lee, Jae Woon; Berget, Susan M.; O'Malley, Bert W.

    2004-01-01

    The biological consequences of steroid hormone-mediated transcriptional activation of target genes might be difficult to predict because alternative splicing of a single neosynthesized precursor RNA can result in production of different protein isoforms with opposite biological activities. Therefore, an important question to address is the manner in which steroid hormones affect the splicing of their target gene transcripts. In this report, we demonstrate that individual steroid hormones had different and opposite effects on alternative splicing decisions, stimulating the production of different spliced variants produced from genes driven by steroid hormone-dependent promoters. Steroid hormone transcriptional effects are mediated by steroid hormone receptor coregulators that also modify alternative splicing decisions. Our data suggest that activated steroid hormone receptors recruit coregulators to the target promoter that participate in both the production and the splicing of the target gene transcripts. Because different coregulators activating transcription can have opposite effects on alternative splicing decisions, we conclude that the precise nature of the transcriptional coregulators recruited by activated steroid receptors, depending on the promoter and cellular contexts, may play a major role in regulating the nature of the spliced variants produced from certain target genes in response to steroid hormones. PMID:14982999

  12. Ancient nature of alternative splicing and functions of introns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kemin; Salamov, Asaf; Kuo, Alan; Aerts, Andrea; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-21

    Using four genomes: Chamydomonas reinhardtii, Agaricus bisporus, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Sporotricum thermophile with EST coverage of 2.9x, 8.9x, 29.5x, and 46.3x respectively, we identified 11 alternative splicing (AS) types that were dominated by intron retention (RI; biased toward short introns) and found 15, 35, 52, and 63percent AS of multiexon genes respectively. Genes with AS were more ancient, and number of AS correlated with number of exons, expression level, and maximum intron length of the gene. Introns with tendency to be retained had either stop codons or length of 3n+1 or 3n+2 presumably triggering nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), but introns retained in major isoforms (0.2-6percent of all introns) were biased toward 3n length and stop codon free. Stopless introns were biased toward phase 0, but 3n introns favored phase 1 that introduced more flexible and hydrophilic amino acids on both ends of introns which would be less disruptive to protein structure. We proposed a model in which minor RI intron could evolve into major RI that could facilitate intron loss through exonization.

  13. Alternative splicing regulated by butyrate in bovine epithelial cells.

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    Sitao Wu

    Full Text Available As a signaling molecule and an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs, butyrate exerts its impact on a broad range of biological processes, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to its critical role in energy metabolism in ruminants. This study examined the effect of butyrate on alternative splicing in bovine epithelial cells using RNA-seq technology. Junction reads account for 11.28 and 12.32% of total mapped reads between the butyrate-treated (BT and control (CT groups. 201,326 potential splicing junctions detected were supported by ≥ 3 junction reads. Approximately 94% of these junctions conformed to the consensus sequence (GT/AG while ~3% were GC/AG junctions. No AT/AC junctions were observed. A total of 2,834 exon skipping events, supported by a minimum of 3 junction reads, were detected. At least 7 genes, their mRNA expression significantly affected by butyrate, also had exon skipping events differentially regulated by butyrate. Furthermore, COL5A3, which was induced 310-fold by butyrate (FDR <0.001 at the gene level, had a significantly higher number of junction reads mapped to Exon#8 (Donor and Exon#11 (Acceptor in BT. This event had the potential to result in the formation of a COL5A3 mRNA isoform with 2 of the 69 exons missing. In addition, 216 differentially expressed transcript isoforms regulated by butyrate were detected. For example, Isoform 1 of ORC1 was strongly repressed by butyrate while Isoform 2 remained unchanged. Butyrate physically binds to and inhibits all zinc-dependent HDACs except HDAC6 and HDAC10. Our results provided evidence that butyrate also regulated deacetylase activities of classical HDACs via its transcriptional control. Moreover, thirteen gene fusion events differentially affected by butyrate were identified. Our results provided a snapshot into complex transcriptome dynamics regulated by butyrate, which will facilitate our understanding of the biological effects of butyrate and other HDAC

  14. Splicing reporter mice revealed the evolutionally conserved switching mechanism of tissue-specific alternative exon selection.

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    Akihide Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Since alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is essential for generating tissue-specific diversity in proteome, elucidating its regulatory mechanism is indispensable to understand developmental process or tissue-specific functions. We have been focusing on tissue-specific regulation of mutually exclusive selection of alternative exons because this implies the typical molecular mechanism of alternative splicing regulation and also can be good examples to elicit general rule of "splice code". So far, mutually exclusive splicing regulation has been explained by the outcome from the balance of multiple regulators that enhance or repress either of alternative exons discretely. However, this "balance" model is open to questions of how to ensure the selection of only one appropriate exon out of several candidates and how to switch them. To answer these questions, we generated an original bichromatic fluorescent splicing reporter system for mammals using fibroblast growth factor-receptor 2 (FGFR2 gene as model. By using this splicing reporter, we demonstrated that FGFR2 gene is regulated by the "switch-like" mechanism, in which key regulators modify the ordered splice-site recognition of two mutually exclusive exons, eventually ensure single exon selection and their distinct switching. Also this finding elucidated the evolutionally conserved "splice code," in which combination of tissue-specific and broadly expressed RNA binding proteins regulate alternative splicing of specific gene in a tissue-specific manner. These findings provide the significant cue to understand how a number of spliced genes are regulated in various tissue-specific manners by a limited number of regulators, eventually to understand developmental process or tissue-specific functions.

  15. Genetic variations and alternative splicing. The Glioma associated oncogene 1, GLI1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eZaphiropoulos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional regulatory process that is attaining stronger recognition as a modulator of gene expression. Alternative splicing occurs when the primary RNA transcript is differentially processed into more than one mature RNAs. This is the result of a variable definition/inclusion of the exons, the sequences that are excised from the primary RNA to form the mature RNAs. Consequently, RNA expression can generate a collection of differentially spliced RNAs, which may distinctly influence subsequent biological events, such as protein synthesis or other biomolecular interactions. Still the mechanisms that control exon definition and exon inclusion are not fully clarified. This mini-review highlights advances in this field as well as the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in affecting splicing decisions. The Glioma associated oncogene 1, GLI1, is taken as an example in addressing the role of nucleotide substitutions for splicing regulation.

  16. Mechanisms of activation and repression by the alternative splicing factors RBFOX1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuying; Zhang, Zuo; Fregoso, Oliver; Krainer, Adrian R

    2012-02-01

    RBFOX1 and RBFOX2 are alternative splicing factors that are predominantly expressed in the brain and skeletal muscle. They specifically bind the RNA element UGCAUG, and regulate alternative splicing positively or negatively in a position-dependent manner. The molecular basis for the position dependence of these and other splicing factors on alternative splicing of their targets is not known. We explored the mechanisms of RBFOX splicing activation and repression using an MS2-tethering assay. We found that the Ala/Tyr/Gly-rich C-terminal domain is sufficient for exon activation when tethered to the downstream intron, whereas both the C-terminal domain and the central RRM are required for exon repression when tethered to the upstream intron. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified hnRNP H1, RALY, and TFG as proteins that specifically interact with the C-terminal domain of RBFOX1 and RBFOX2. RNA interference experiments showed that hnRNP H1 and TFG modulate the splicing activity of RBFOX1/2, whereas RALY had no effect. However, TFG is localized in the cytoplasm, and likely modulates alternative splicing indirectly.

  17. Alternative splicing of a group II intron in a surface layer protein gene in Clostridium tetani

    OpenAIRE

    McNeil, Bonnie A.; Simon, Dawn M; Zimmerly, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes and retroelements found in bacteria, and are thought to have been the ancestors of nuclear pre-mRNA introns. Whereas nuclear introns undergo prolific alternative splicing in some species, group II introns are not known to carry out equivalent reactions. Here we report a group II intron in the human pathogen Clostridium tetani, which undergoes four alternative splicing reactions in vivo. Together with unspliced transcript, five mRNAs are produced, each encoding a...

  18. Alternative splicing, a new target to block cellular gene expression by poliovirus 2A protease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Enrique, E-mail: ealvarez@cbm.uam.es [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Nicolas Cabrera, 1 Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Castello, Alfredo; Carrasco, Luis; Izquierdo, Jose M. [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Nicolas Cabrera, 1 Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Novel role for poliovirus 2A protease as splicing modulator. {yields} Poliovirus 2A protease inhibits the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. {yields} Poliovirus 2A protease blocks the second catalytic step of splicing. -- Abstract: Viruses have developed multiple strategies to interfere with the gene expression of host cells at different stages to ensure their own survival. Here we report a new role for poliovirus 2A{sup pro} modulating the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. Expression of 2A{sup pro} potently inhibits splicing of reporter genes in HeLa cells. Low amounts of 2A{sup pro} abrogate Fas exon 6 skipping, whereas higher levels of protease fully abolish Fas and FGFR2 splicing. In vitro splicing of MINX mRNA using nuclear extracts is also strongly inhibited by 2A{sup pro}, leading to accumulation of the first exon and the lariat product containing the unspliced second exon. These findings reveal that the mechanism of action of 2A{sup pro} on splicing is to selectively block the second catalytic step.

  19. Alternative Splicing in Breast Cancer and the Potential Development of Therapeutic Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Martínez-Montiel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is a key molecular mechanism now considered as a hallmark of cancer that has been associated with the expression of distinct isoforms during the onset and progression of the disease. The leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide is breast cancer, and even when the role of alternative splicing in this type of cancer has been established, the function of this mechanism in breast cancer biology is not completely decoded. In order to gain a comprehensive view of the role of alternative splicing in breast cancer biology and development, we summarize here recent findings regarding alternative splicing events that have been well documented for breast cancer evolution, considering its prognostic and therapeutic value. Moreover, we analyze how the response to endocrine and chemical therapies could be affected due to alternative splicing and differential expression of variant isoforms. With all this knowledge, it becomes clear that targeting alternative splicing represents an innovative approach for breast cancer therapeutics and the information derived from current studies could guide clinical decisions with a direct impact in the clinical advances for breast cancer patients nowadays.

  20. Alternate trans splicing in Trypanosoma equiperdum: implications for splice site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layden, R E; Eisen, H

    1988-03-01

    We examined the structures of the 5' ends of mRNAs encoding variant surface glycoprotein 78 (VSG-78) and VSG-1(78) in Trypanosoma equiperdum. Several mRNA species were found for each gene, and all contained the 35-base miniexon (or spliced leader) sequence attached at different positions on their 5' ends. Thus, the generation of multiple messages for each VSG occurred by attachment of the miniexon at one of several 3' splice acceptor sites. The frequency with which individual splice sites were used varied from less than 1 to 95% of the RNA produced from a particular gene. We propose that the miniexon RNA and RNA from the VSG genes may interact via base pairing and that this in part specifies the use of particular acceptor sites. Sequences complementary to the miniexon primary transcript, termed the "med-comp site," were found in both genes and in several published sequences. Splice sites were most often used if they were the first site 3' of the med-comp site and contained a high pyrimidine content in the bases preceding the AG acceptor signal.

  1. High qualitative and quantitative conservation of alternative splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Irimia, Manuel; Mørk, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an important contributor to proteome diversity and is regarded as an explanatory factor for the relatively low number of human genes compared with less complex animals. To assess the evolutionary conservation of AS and its developmental regulation, we have investigated...... the qualitative and quantitative expression of 21 orthologous alternative splice events through the development of 2 nematode species separated by 85-110 Myr of evolutionary time. We demonstrate that most of these alternative splice events present in Caenorhabditis elegans are conserved in Caenorhabditis briggsae...... mechanisms controlling AS are to a large extent conserved during the evolution of Caenorhabditis. This strong conservation indicates that both major and minor splice forms have important functional roles and that the relative quantities in which they are expressed are crucial. Our results therefore suggest...

  2. Genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing events in Hordeum vulgare: Highlighting retention of intron-based splicing and its possible function through network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Bahman; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem; Ebrahimi Khaksefidi, Reyhaneh; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-11-30

    In this study, using homology mapping of assembled expressed sequence tags against the genomic data, we identified alternative splicing events in barley. Results demonstrated that intron retention is frequently associated with specific abiotic stresses. Network analysis resulted in discovery of some specific sub-networks between miRNAs and transcription factors in genes with high number of alternative splicing, such as cross talk between SPL2, SPL10 and SPL11 regulated by miR156 and miR157 families. To confirm the alternative splicing events, elongation factor protein (MLOC_3412) was selected followed by experimental verification of the predicted splice variants by Semi quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Our novel integrative approach opens a new avenue for functional annotation of alternative splicing through regulatory-based network discovery. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation and characterization of alternatively spliced variants of the mouse sigma1 receptor gene, Sigmar1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Pan

    Full Text Available The sigma1 receptor acts as a chaperone at the endoplasmic reticulum, associates with multiple proteins in various cellular systems, and involves in a number of diseases, such as addiction, pain, cancer and psychiatric disorders. The sigma1 receptor is encoded by the single copy SIGMAR1 gene. The current study identifies five alternatively spliced variants of the mouse sigma1 receptor gene using a polymerase chain reaction cloning approach. All the splice variants are generated by exon skipping or alternative 3' or 5' splicing, producing the truncated sigma1 receptor. Similar alternative splicing has been observed in the human SIGMAR1 gene based on the molecular cloning or genome sequence prediction, suggesting conservation of alternative splicing of SIGMAR1 gene. Using quantitative polymerase chain reactions, we demonstrate differential expression of several splice variants in mouse tissues and brain regions. When expressed in HEK293 cells, all the splice variants fail to bind sigma ligands, implicating that each truncated region in these splice variants is important for ligand binding. However, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP study in HEK293 cells co-transfected with tagged constructs reveals that all the splice variants maintain their ability to physically associate with a mu opioid receptor (mMOR-1, providing useful information to correlate the motifs/sequences necessary for their physical association. Furthermore, a competition Co-IP study showed that all the variants can disrupt in a dose-dependent manner the dimerization of the original sigma1 receptor with mMOR-1, suggesting a potential dominant negative function and providing significant insights into their function.

  4. Lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon promotes glioblastoma progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarese, Roberto; Harsh, Griffith R.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Bug, Eva; Maticzka, Daniel; Reichardt, Wilfried; Dombrowski, Stephen M.; Miller, Tyler E.; Masilamani, Anie P.; Dai, Fangping; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hadler, Michael; Scholtens, Denise M.; Yu, Irene L.Y.; Beck, Jürgen; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Costa, Fabrizio; Baxan, Nicoleta; Pfeifer, Dietmar; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Backofen, Rolf; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Duarte, Christine W.; He, Xiaolin; Prinz, Marco; Chandler, James P.; Vogel, Hannes; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rich, Jeremy N.; Carro, Maria S.; Bredel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical for the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet the role of this process in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily conserved, alternative exons that represent only a minority of the total alternative exons identified. Many of these conserved exons have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Here, we determined that lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched cassette exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor annexin A7 (ANXA7) diminishes endosomal targeting of the EGFR oncoprotein, consequently enhancing EGFR signaling during brain tumor progression. ANXA7 exon splicing was mediated by the ribonucleoprotein PTBP1, which is normally repressed during neuronal development. PTBP1 was highly expressed in glioblastomas due to loss of a brain-enriched microRNA (miR-124) and to PTBP1 amplification. The alternative ANXA7 splicing trait was present in precursor cells, suggesting that glioblastoma cells inherit the trait from a potential tumor-initiating ancestor and that these cells exploit this trait through accumulation of mutations that enhance EGFR signaling. Our data illustrate that lineage-specific splicing of a tissue-regulated alternative exon in a constituent of an oncogenic pathway eliminates tumor suppressor functions and promotes glioblastoma progression. This paradigm may offer a general model as to how tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms can reprogram normal developmental processes into oncogenic ones. PMID:24865424

  5. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase regulation by DNA methylation, transcription factor binding and alternative splicing (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avin, Brittany A; Umbricht, Christopher B; Zeiger, Martha A

    2016-12-01

    The catalytic subunit of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), plays an essential role in telomere maintenance to oppose cellular senescence and, is highly regulated in normal and cancerous cells. Regulation of hTERT occurs through multiple avenues, including a unique pattern of CpG promoter methylation and alternative splicing. Promoter methylation affects the binding of transcription factors, resulting in changes in expression of the gene. In addition to expression level changes, changes in promoter binding can affect alternative splicing in a cotranscriptional manner. The alternative splicing of hTERT results in either the full length transcript which can form the active telomerase complex with hTR, or numerous inactive isoforms. Both regulation strategies are exploited in cancer to activate telomerase, however, the exact mechanism is unknown. Therefore, unraveling the link between promoter methylation status and alternative splicing for hTERT could expose yet another level of hTERT regulation. In an attempt to provide insight into the cellular control of active telomerase in cancer, this review will discuss our current perspective on CpG methylation of the hTERT promoter region, summarize the different forms of alternatively spliced variants, and examine examples of transcription factor binding that affects splicing.

  6. Alternative splicing modulated by genetic variants demonstrates accelerated evolution regulated by highly conserved proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Hua Esther; Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lin, Xianzhi; Chan, Tak-Ming; Wang, Rena; Xiao, Xinshu

    2016-04-01

    Identification of functional genetic variants and elucidation of their regulatory mechanisms represent significant challenges of the post-genomic era. A poorly understood topic is the involvement of genetic variants in mediating post-transcriptional RNA processing, including alternative splicing. Thus far, little is known about the genomic, evolutionary, and regulatory features of genetically modulated alternative splicing (GMAS). Here, we systematically identified intronic tag variants for genetic modulation of alternative splicing using RNA-seq data specific to cellular compartments. Combined with our previous method that identifies exonic tags for GMAS, this study yielded 622 GMAS exons. We observed that GMAS events are highly cell type independent, indicating that splicing-altering genetic variants could have widespread function across cell types. Interestingly, GMAS genes, exons, and single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) all demonstrated positive selection or accelerated evolution in primates. We predicted that GMAS SNVs often alter binding of splicing factors, with SRSF1 affecting the most GMAS events and demonstrating global allelic binding bias. However, in contrast to their GMAS targets, the predicted splicing factors are more conserved than expected, suggesting that cis-regulatory variation is the major driving force of splicing evolution. Moreover, GMAS-related splicing factors had stronger consensus motifs than expected, consistent with their susceptibility to SNV disruption. Intriguingly, GMAS SNVs in general do not alter the strongest consensus position of the splicing factor motif, except the more than 100 GMAS SNVs in linkage disequilibrium with polymorphisms reported by genome-wide association studies. Our study reports many GMAS events and enables a better understanding of the evolutionary and regulatory features of this phenomenon. © 2016 Hsiao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Proteins Associated with the Exon Junction Complex Also Control the Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle, Laetitia; Cloutier, Alexandre; Toutant, Johanne; Shkreta, Lulzim; Thibault, Philippe; Durand, Mathieu; Garneau, Daniel; Gendron, Daniel; Lapointe, Elvy; Couture, Sonia; Le Hir, Hervé; Klinck, Roscoe; Elela, Sherif Abou; Prinos, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Several apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-x, are alternatively spliced to produce isoforms with opposite functions. We have used an RNA interference strategy to map the regulatory landscape controlling the expression of the Bcl-x splice variants in human cells. Depleting proteins known as core (Y14 and eIF4A3) or auxiliary (RNPS1, Acinus, and SAP18) components of the exon junction complex (EJC) improved the production of the proapoptotic Bcl-xS splice variant. This effect was not seen when we depleted EJC proteins that typically participate in mRNA export (UAP56, Aly/Ref, and TAP) or that associate with the EJC to enforce nonsense-mediated RNA decay (MNL51, Upf1, Upf2, and Upf3b). Core and auxiliary EJC components modulated Bcl-x splicing through different cis-acting elements, further suggesting that this activity is distinct from the established EJC function. In support of a direct role in splicing control, recombinant eIF4A3, Y14, and Magoh proteins associated preferentially with the endogenous Bcl-x pre-mRNA, interacted with a model Bcl-x pre-mRNA in early splicing complexes, and specifically shifted Bcl-x alternative splicing in nuclear extracts. Finally, the depletion of Y14, eIF4A3, RNPS1, SAP18, and Acinus also encouraged the production of other proapoptotic splice variants, suggesting that EJC-associated components are important regulators of apoptosis acting at the alternative splicing level. PMID:22203037

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Modulation of Alternative Splicing by the Biguanide Metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Laustriat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Major physiological changes are governed by alternative splicing of RNA, and its misregulation may lead to specific diseases. With the use of a genome-wide approach, we show here that this splicing step can be modified by medication and demonstrate the effects of the biguanide metformin, on alternative splicing. The mechanism of action involves AMPK activation and downregulation of the RBM3 RNA-binding protein. The effects of metformin treatment were tested on myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1, a multisystemic disease considered to be a spliceopathy. We show that this drug promotes a corrective effect on several splicing defects associated with DM1 in derivatives of human embryonic stem cells carrying the causal mutation of DM1 as well as in primary myoblasts derived from patients. The biological effects of metformin were shown to be compatible with typical therapeutic dosages in a clinical investigation involving diabetic patients. The drug appears to act as a modifier of alternative splicing of a subset of genes and may therefore have novel therapeutic potential for many more diseases besides those directly linked to defective alternative splicing.

  9. Alternative splicing of neuronal differentiation factor TRF2 regulated by HNRNPH1/H2

    OpenAIRE

    Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Zhang, Peisu; Panda, Amaresh C.; Kim, Jiyoung; Maudsley, Stuart; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Yang, Xiaoling; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Motiño, Omar; Hutchison, Emmette R.; Mattson, Mark P.; Gorospe, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    During neuronal differentiation, use of an alternative splice site on the rat telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) mRNA generates a short TRF2 protein isoform (TRF2-S) capable of derepressing neuronal genes. However, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) controlling this splicing event are unknown. Here, using affinity pull-down analysis, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H1 and H2(HNRNPH) as RBPs specifically capable of interacting with the spliced RNA segment (exon 7) of T...

  10. Characterization and alternative splicing of the complex I 19-kD subunit in Dunaliella salina: expression and mutual correlation of splice variants under diverse stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Jin, Nan; Xu, Hui; Liu, Yi; Zhu, Wei Hua; Li, Xin Ran; Qiao, Dai Rong; Cao, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Complex I is the first enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It extracts energy from NADH, which is produced by the oxidation of sugars and fats, and traps the energy by virtue of a potential difference or voltage across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Herein, the genomic sequence and four splice variants encoding the complex I 19-kD subunit were isolated from Dunaliella salina. There were four transcripts coding for the complex I 19-kD subunit due to alternative splicing in algae, and the four transcripts were translated to two protein isoforms with varying C-terminals. We report the splicing pattern in the 3'-region of the D. salina 19-kD subunit, in which three of the exons (5, 6, and 7) could be alternatively spliced. Moreover, we found that four alternatively spliced variants were subject to coordinated transcription in response to different stresses by real-time quantitative PCR.

  11. Robust detection of alternative splicing in a population of single cells

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Joshua D; Hu, Yin; Prins, Jan F.

    2016-01-01

    Single cell RNA-seq experiments provide valuable insight into cellular heterogeneity but suffer from low coverage, 3? bias and technical noise. These unique properties of single cell RNA-seq data make study of alternative splicing difficult, and thus most single cell studies have restricted analysis of transcriptome variation to the gene level. To address these limitations, we developed SingleSplice, which uses a statistical model to detect genes whose isoform usage shows biological variation...

  12. Unmasking alternative splicing inside protein-coding exons defines exitrons and their role in proteome plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Yamile; Höpfler, Markus; Ayatollahi, Zahra; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) diversifies transcriptomes and proteomes and is widely recognized as a key mechanism for regulating gene expression. Previously, in an analysis of intron retention events in Arabidopsis, we found unusual AS events inside annotated protein-coding exons. Here, we also identify such AS events in human and use these two sets to analyse their features, regulation, functional impact, and evolutionary origin. As these events involve introns with features of both introns and protein-coding exons, we name them exitrons (exonic introns). Though exitrons were detected as a subset of retained introns, they are clearly distinguishable, and their splicing results in transcripts with different fates. About half of the 1002 Arabidopsis and 923 human exitrons have sizes of multiples of 3 nucleotides (nt). Splicing of these exitrons results in internally deleted proteins and affects protein domains, disordered regions, and various post-translational modification sites, thus broadly impacting protein function. Exitron splicing is regulated across tissues, in response to stress and in carcinogenesis. Intriguingly, annotated intronless genes can be also alternatively spliced via exitron usage. We demonstrate that at least some exitrons originate from ancestral coding exons. Based on our findings, we propose a "splicing memory" hypothesis whereby upon intron loss imprints of former exon borders defined by vestigial splicing regulatory elements could drive the evolution of exitron splicing. Altogether, our studies show that exitron splicing is a conserved strategy for increasing proteome plasticity in plants and animals, complementing the repertoire of AS events. © 2015 Marquez et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. ESRP1 Mutations Cause Hearing Loss due to Defects in Alternative Splicing that Disrupt Cochlear Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohacek, Alex M; Bebee, Thomas W; Tilton, Richard K; Radens, Caleb M; McDermott-Roe, Chris; Peart, Natoya; Kaur, Maninder; Zaykaner, Michael; Cieply, Benjamin; Musunuru, Kiran; Barash, Yoseph; Germiller, John A; Krantz, Ian D; Carstens, Russ P; Epstein, Douglas J

    2017-11-06

    Alternative splicing contributes to gene expression dynamics in many tissues, yet its role in auditory development remains unclear. We performed whole-exome sequencing in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and identified pathogenic mutations in Epithelial Splicing-Regulatory Protein 1 (ESRP1). Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells showed alternative splicing defects that were restored upon repair of an ESRP1 mutant allele. To determine how ESRP1 mutations cause hearing loss, we evaluated Esrp1(-/-) mouse embryos and uncovered alterations in cochlear morphogenesis, auditory hair cell differentiation, and cell fate specification. Transcriptome analysis revealed impaired expression and splicing of genes with essential roles in cochlea development and auditory function. Aberrant splicing of Fgfr2 blocked stria vascularis formation due to erroneous ligand usage, which was corrected by reducing Fgf9 gene dosage. These findings implicate mutations in ESRP1 as a cause of SNHL and demonstrate the complex interplay between alternative splicing, inner ear development, and auditory function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CUG-BP1 regulates RyR1 ASI alternative splicing in skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yinglong; Wang, Huiwen; Wei, Bin; Guo, Yuting; Gu, Lei; Yang, Zhiguang; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Yanyun; Yuan, Qi; Zhao, Gang; Ji, Guangju

    2015-11-04

    RNA binding protein is identified as an important mediator of aberrant alternative splicing in muscle atrophy. The altered splicing of calcium channels, such as ryanodine receptors (RyRs), plays an important role in impaired excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling in muscle atrophy; however, the regulatory mechanisms of ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) alternative splicing leading to skeletal muscle atrophy remains to be investigated. In this study we demonstrated that CUG binding protein 1 (CUG-BP1) was up-regulated and the alternative splicing of RyR1 ASI (exon70) was aberrant during the process of neurogenic muscle atrophy both in human patients and mouse models. The gain and loss of function experiments in vivo demonstrated that altered splicing pattern of RyR1 ASI was directly mediated by an up-regulated CUG-BP1 function. Furthermore, we found that CUG-BP1 affected the calcium release activity in single myofibers and the extent of atrophy was significantly reduced upon gene silencing of CUG-BP1 in atrophic muscle. These findings improve our understanding of calcium signaling related biological function of CUG-BP1 in muscle atrophy. Thus, we provide an intriguing perspective of involvement of mis-regulated RyR1 splicing in muscular disease.

  15. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing switches modulate gene expression in late erythropoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Miki L.; Clark, Tyson A.; Gee, Sherry L.; Kang, Jeong-Ah; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Wickrema, Amittha; Conboy, John G.

    2009-02-03

    Differentiating erythroid cells execute a unique gene expression program that insures synthesis of the appropriate proteome at each stage of maturation. Standard expression microarrays provide important insight into erythroid gene expression but cannot detect qualitative changes in transcript structure, mediated by RNA processing, that alter structure and function of encoded proteins. We analyzed stage-specific changes in the late erythroid transcriptome via use of high-resolution microarrays that detect altered expression of individual exons. Ten differentiation-associated changes in erythroblast splicing patterns were identified, including the previously known activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 splicing. Six new alternative splicing switches involving enhanced inclusion of internal cassette exons were discovered, as well as 3 changes in use of alternative first exons. All of these erythroid stage-specific splicing events represent activated inclusion of authentic annotated exons, suggesting they represent an active regulatory process rather than a general loss of splicing fidelity. The observation that 3 of the regulated transcripts encode RNA binding proteins (SNRP70, HNRPLL, MBNL2) may indicate significant changes in the RNA processing machinery of late erythroblasts. Together, these results support the existence of a regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing program that is critical for late erythroid differentiation.

  16. Alternate splicing of transcripts shape macrophage response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Kalam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional reprogramming of macrophages upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection is widely studied; however, the significance of alternate splicing (AS in shaping cellular responses to mycobacterial infections is not yet appreciated. Alternate splicing can influence transcript stability or structure, function and localization of corresponding proteins thereby altering protein stoichiometry and physiological consequences. Using comprehensive analysis of a time-series RNA-seq data obtained from human macrophages infected with virulent or avirulent strains of Mtb, we show extensive remodeling of alternate splicing in macrophage transcriptome. The global nature of this regulation was evident since genes belonging to functional classes like trafficking, immune response, autophagy, redox and metabolism showed marked departure in the pattern of splicing in the infected macrophages. The systemic perturbation of splicing machinery in the infected macrophages was apparent as genes involved at different stages of spliceosome assembly were also regulated at the splicing level. Curiously there was a considerable increase in the expression of truncated/non-translatable variants of several genes, specifically upon virulent infections. Increased expression of truncated transcripts correlated with a decline in the corresponding protein levels. We verified the physiological relevance for one such candidate gene RAB8B; whose truncated variant gets enriched in H37Rv infected cells. Upon tweaking relative abundance of longer or shorter variants of RAB8B transcripts by specialized transduction, mycobacterial targeting to lysosomes could be promoted or blocked respectively, which also resulted in corresponding changes in the bacterial survival. Our results show RAB8B recruitment to the mycobacterial phagosomes is required for phagosome maturation. Thus the abundance of truncated RAB8B variant helps virulent Mtb survival by limiting the RAB8B levels in the

  17. Alternatively spliced Spalax heparanase inhibits extracellular matrix degradation, tumor growth, and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Nicola J.; Avivi, Aaron; Shafat, Itay; Edovitsky, Evgeny; Zcharia, Eyal; Ilan, Neta; Vlodavsky, Israel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2009-01-01

    Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that degrades heparan sulfate (HS) at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Heparanase is expressed mainly by cancer cells, and its expression is correlated with increased tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Here, we report the cloning of a unique splice variant (splice 36) of heparanase from the subterranean blind mole rat (Spalax). This splice variant results from skipping part of exon 3, exons 4 and 5, and part of exon 6 and functions as a dominant negative to the wild-type enzyme. It inhibits HS degradation, suppresses glioma tumor growth, and decreases experimental B16–BL6 lung colonization in a mouse model. Intriguingly, Spalax splice variant 7 of heparanase (which results from skipping of exon 7) is devoid of enzymatic activity, but unlike splice 36 it enhances tumor growth. Our results demonstrate that alternative splicing of heparanase regulates its enzymatic activity and might adapt the heparanase function to the fluctuating normoxic–hypoxic subterranean environment that Spalax experiences. Development of anticancer drugs designed to suppress tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis is a major challenge, of which heparanase inhibition is a promising approach. We anticipate that the heparanase splicing model, evolved during 40 million years of Spalacid adaptation to underground life, would pave the way for the development of heparanase-based therapeutic modalities directed against angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. PMID:19164514

  18. Computational Analysis of an Evolutionarily Conserved VertebrateMuscle Alternative Splicing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Debopriya; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Marr,Henry; Yamamoto, Miki L.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Arribere, Josh; Minovitsky,Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Blume, John E.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-06-15

    A novel exon microarray format that probes gene expression with single exon resolution was employed to elucidate critical features of a vertebrate muscle alternative splicing program. A dataset of 56 microarray-defined, muscle-enriched exons and their flanking introns were examined computationally in order to investigate coordination of the muscle splicing program. Candidate intron regulatory motifs were required to meet several stringent criteria: significant over-representation near muscle-enriched exons, correlation with muscle expression, and phylogenetic conservation among genomes of several vertebrate orders. Three classes of regulatory motifs were identified in the proximal downstream intron, within 200nt of the target exons: UGCAUG, a specific binding site for Fox-1 related splicing factors; ACUAAC, a novel branchpoint-like element; and UG-/UGC-rich elements characteristic of binding sites for CELF splicing factors. UGCAUG was remarkably enriched, being present in nearly one-half of all cases. These studies suggest that Fox and CELF splicing factors play a major role in enforcing the muscle-specific alternative splicing program, facilitating expression of a set of unique isoforms of cytoskeletal proteins that are critical to muscle cell differentiation. Supplementary materials: There are four supplementary tables and one supplementary figure. The tables provide additional detailed information concerning the muscle-enriched datasets, and about over-represented oligonucleotide sequences in the flanking introns. The supplementary figure shows RT-PCR data confirming the muscle-enriched expression of exons predicted from the microarray analysis.

  19. Naturally occurring BRCA2 alternative mRNA splicing events in clinically relevant samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fackenthal, James D; Yoshimatsu, Toshio; Zhang, Bifeng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the two principal tumour suppressor genes associated with inherited high risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Genetic testing of BRCA1/2 will often reveal one or more sequence variants of uncertain clinical significance, some of which may affect normal splicing...... patterns and thereby disrupt gene function. mRNA analyses are therefore among the tests used to interpret the clinical significance of some genetic variants. However, these could be confounded by the appearance of naturally occurring alternative transcripts unrelated to germline sequence variation...... or defects in gene function. To understand which novel splicing events are associated with splicing mutations and which are part of the normal BRCA2 splicing repertoire, a study was undertaken by members of the Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium...

  20. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Redal, María Ana [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Medicina Experimental, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Muñoz, Manuel J., E-mail: mmunoz@fbmc.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  1. Alternative splicing of a group II intron in a surface layer protein gene in Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Bonnie A; Simon, Dawn M; Zimmerly, Steven

    2014-02-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes and retroelements found in bacteria, and are thought to have been the ancestors of nuclear pre-mRNA introns. Whereas nuclear introns undergo prolific alternative splicing in some species, group II introns are not known to carry out equivalent reactions. Here we report a group II intron in the human pathogen Clostridium tetani, which undergoes four alternative splicing reactions in vivo. Together with unspliced transcript, five mRNAs are produced, each encoding a distinct surface layer protein isoform. Correct fusion of exon reading frames requires a shifted 5' splice site located 8 nt upstream of the canonical boundary motif. The shifted junction is accomplished by an altered IBS1-EBS1 pairing between the intron and 5' exon. Growth of C. tetani under a variety of conditions did not result in large changes in alternative splicing levels, raising the possibility that alternative splicing is constitutive. This work demonstrates a novel type of gene organization and regulation in bacteria, and provides an additional parallel between group II and nuclear pre-mRNA introns.

  2. Fine-scale variation and genetic determinants of alternative splicing across individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Coulombe-Huntington

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, thanks to the increasing throughput of new technologies, we have begun to explore the full extent of alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS in the human transcriptome. This is unveiling a vast layer of complexity in isoform-level expression differences between individuals. We used previously published splicing sensitive microarray data from lymphoblastoid cell lines to conduct an in-depth analysis on splicing efficiency of known and predicted exons. By combining publicly available AS annotation with a novel algorithm designed to search for AS, we show that many real AS events can be detected within the usually unexploited, speculative majority of the array and at significance levels much below standard multiple-testing thresholds, demonstrating that the extent of cis-regulated differential splicing between individuals is potentially far greater than previously reported. Specifically, many genes show subtle but significant genetically controlled differences in splice-site usage. PCR validation shows that 42 out of 58 (72% candidate gene regions undergo detectable AS, amounting to the largest scale validation of isoform eQTLs to date. Targeted sequencing revealed a likely causative SNP in most validated cases. In all 17 incidences where a SNP affected a splice-site region, in silico splice-site strength modeling correctly predicted the direction of the micro-array and PCR results. In 13 other cases, we identified likely causative SNPs disrupting predicted splicing enhancers. Using Fst and REHH analysis, we uncovered significant evidence that 2 putative causative SNPs have undergone recent positive selection. We verified the effect of five SNPs using in vivo minigene assays. This study shows that splicing differences between individuals, including quantitative differences in isoform ratios, are frequent in human populations and that causative SNPs can be identified using in silico predictions. Several cases affected disease-relevant genes and

  3. Self-regulated alternative splicing at the AHNAK locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morrée, Antoine; Droog, Marjolein; Grand Moursel, Laure; Bisschop, Ilona J M; Impagliazzo, Antonietta; Frants, Rune R; Klooster, Rinse; van der Maarel, Silvère M

    2012-01-01

    AHNAK is a 700-kDa protein involved in cytoarchitecture and calcium signaling. It is secondarily reduced in muscle of dysferlinopathy patients and accumulates in muscle of calpainopathy patients, both affected by a muscular dystrophy. AHNAK directly interacts with dysferlin. This interaction is lost on cleavage of AHNAK by the protease calpain 3, explaining the molecular observations in patients. Currently, little is known of AHNAK regulation. We describe the self-regulation of multiple mRNA transcripts emanating from the AHNAK locus in muscle cells. We show that the AHNAK gene consists of a 17-kb exon flanked by multiple small exons. This genetic structure is shared by AHNAK2 and Periaxin, which share a common ancestor. Two major AHNAK transcripts are differentially expressed during muscle differentiation that encode for a small (17-kDa) and a large (700-kDa) protein isoform. These proteins interact in the cytoplasm, but the small AHNAK is also present in the nucleus. During muscle differentiation the small AHNAK is strongly increased, thereby establishing a positive feedback loop to regulate mRNA splicing of its own locus. A small 17-kDa isoform of Periaxin similarly traffics between the cytoplasm and the nucleus to regulate mRNA splicing. Thus, AHNAK constitutes a novel mechanism in post-transcriptional control of gene expression.

  4. Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing is critical for zebrafish cardiac and skeletal muscle function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Thomas L.; Arribere, Joshua A.; Geurts, Paul A.; Exner, Cameron R. T.; McDonald, Kent L.; Dill, Kariena K.; Marr, Henry L.; Adkar, Shaunak S.; Garnett, Aaron T.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Conboy, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Rbfox RNA binding proteins are implicated as regulators of phylogenetically-conserved alternative splicing events important for muscle function. To investigate the function of rbfox genes, we used morpholino-mediated knockdown of muscle-expressed rbfox1l and rbfox2 in zebrafish embryos. Single and double morphant embryos exhibited changes in splicing of overlapping sets of bioinformatically-predicted rbfox target exons, many of which exhibit a muscle-enriched splicing pattern that is conserved in vertebrates. Thus, conservation of intronic Rbfox binding motifs is a good predictor of Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing. Morphology and development of single morphant embryos was strikingly normal; however, muscle development in double morphants was severely disrupted. Defects in cardiac muscle were marked by reduced heart rate and in skeletal muscle by complete paralysis. The predominance of wavy myofibers and abnormal thick and thin filaments in skeletal muscle revealed that myofibril assembly is defective and disorganized in double morphants. Ultra-structural analysis revealed that although sarcomeres with electron dense M- and Z-bands are present in muscle fibers of rbfox1l/rbox2 morphants, they are substantially reduced in number and alignment. Importantly, splicing changes and morphological defects were rescued by expression of morpholino-resistant rbfox cDNA. Additionally, a target-blocking MO complementary to a single UGCAUG motif adjacent to an rbfox target exon of fxr1 inhibited inclusion in a similar manner to rbfox knockdown, providing evidence that Rbfox regulates the splicing of target exons via direct binding to intronic regulatory motifs. We conclude that Rbfox proteins regulate an alternative splicing program essential for vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle function. PMID:21925157

  5. Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing is critical for zebrafish cardiac and skeletal muscle functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Thomas L; Arribere, Joshua A; Geurts, Paul A; Exner, Cameron R T; McDonald, Kent L; Dill, Kariena K; Marr, Henry L; Adkar, Shaunak S; Garnett, Aaron T; Amacher, Sharon L; Conboy, John G

    2011-11-15

    Rbfox RNA binding proteins are implicated as regulators of phylogenetically-conserved alternative splicing events important for muscle function. To investigate the function of rbfox genes, we used morpholino-mediated knockdown of muscle-expressed rbfox1l and rbfox2 in zebrafish embryos. Single and double morphant embryos exhibited changes in splicing of overlapping sets of bioinformatically-predicted rbfox target exons, many of which exhibit a muscle-enriched splicing pattern that is conserved in vertebrates. Thus, conservation of intronic Rbfox binding motifs is a good predictor of Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing. Morphology and development of single morphant embryos were strikingly normal; however, muscle development in double morphants was severely disrupted. Defects in cardiac muscle were marked by reduced heart rate and in skeletal muscle by complete paralysis. The predominance of wavy myofibers and abnormal thick and thin filaments in skeletal muscle revealed that myofibril assembly is defective and disorganized in double morphants. Ultra-structural analysis revealed that although sarcomeres with electron dense M- and Z-bands are present in muscle fibers of rbfox1l/rbox2 morphants, they are substantially reduced in number and alignment. Importantly, splicing changes and morphological defects were rescued by expression of morpholino-resistant rbfox cDNA. Additionally, a target-blocking MO complementary to a single UGCAUG motif adjacent to an rbfox target exon of fxr1 inhibited inclusion in a similar manner to rbfox knockdown, providing evidence that Rbfox regulates the splicing of target exons via direct binding to intronic regulatory motifs. We conclude that Rbfox proteins regulate an alternative splicing program essential for vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle functions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Cell Type-specific Alternative Splicing Governs Cell Fate in the Developing Cerebral Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochang; Chen, Ming Hui; Wu, Xuebing; Kodani, Andrew; Fan, Jean; Doan, Ryan; Ozawa, Manabu; Ma, Jacqueline; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Reiter, Jeremy F.; Black, Douglas L.; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Sharp, Phillip A.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Alternative splicing is prevalent in the mammalian brain. To interrogate the functional role of alternative splicing in neural development, we analyzed purified neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and neurons from developing cerebral cortices, revealing hundreds of differentially spliced exons that preferentially alter key protein domains—especially in cytoskeletal proteins—and can harbor disease-causing mutations. We show that Ptbp1 and Rbfox proteins antagonistically govern the NPC-to-neuron transition by regulating neuron-specific exons. While Ptbp1 maintains apical progenitors partly through suppressing a poison exon of Flna in NPCs, Rbfox proteins promote neuronal differentiation by switching Ninein from a centrosomal splice form in NPCs to a non-centrosomal isoform in neurons. We further uncover an intronic human mutation within a PTBP1 binding site that disrupts normal skipping of the FLNA poison exon in NPCs and causes a brain-specific malformation. Our study indicates that dynamic control of alternative splicing governs cell fate in cerebral cortical development. PMID:27565344

  7. Cell-Type-Specific Alternative Splicing Governs Cell Fate in the Developing Cerebral Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochang; Chen, Ming Hui; Wu, Xuebing; Kodani, Andrew; Fan, Jean; Doan, Ryan; Ozawa, Manabu; Ma, Jacqueline; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Reiter, Jeremy F; Black, Douglas L; Kharchenko, Peter V; Sharp, Phillip A; Walsh, Christopher A

    2016-08-25

    Alternative splicing is prevalent in the mammalian brain. To interrogate the functional role of alternative splicing in neural development, we analyzed purified neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and neurons from developing cerebral cortices, revealing hundreds of differentially spliced exons that preferentially alter key protein domains-especially in cytoskeletal proteins-and can harbor disease-causing mutations. We show that Ptbp1 and Rbfox proteins antagonistically govern the NPC-to-neuron transition by regulating neuron-specific exons. Whereas Ptbp1 maintains apical progenitors partly through suppressing a poison exon of Flna in NPCs, Rbfox proteins promote neuronal differentiation by switching Ninein from a centrosomal splice form in NPCs to a non-centrosomal isoform in neurons. We further uncover an intronic human mutation within a PTBP1-binding site that disrupts normal skipping of the FLNA poison exon in NPCs and causes a brain-specific malformation. Our study indicates that dynamic control of alternative splicing governs cell fate in cerebral cortical development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. m(6)A potentiates Sxl alternative pre-mRNA splicing for robust Drosophila sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussmann, Irmgard U; Bodi, Zsuzsanna; Sanchez-Moran, Eugenio; Mongan, Nigel P; Archer, Nathan; Fray, Rupert G; Soller, Matthias

    2016-12-08

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most common internal modification of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) and is decoded by YTH domain proteins. The mammalian mRNA m(6)A methylosome is a complex of nuclear proteins that includes METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3), METTL14, WTAP (Wilms tumour 1-associated protein) and KIAA1429. Drosophila has corresponding homologues named Ime4 and KAR4 (Inducer of meiosis 4 and Karyogamy protein 4), and Female-lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d) and Virilizer (Vir). In Drosophila, fl(2)d and vir are required for sex-dependent regulation of alternative splicing of the sex determination factor Sex lethal (Sxl). However, the functions of m(6)A in introns in the regulation of alternative splicing remain uncertain. Here we show that m(6)A is absent in the mRNA of Drosophila lacking Ime4. In contrast to mouse and plant knockout models, Drosophila Ime4-null mutants remain viable, though flightless, and show a sex bias towards maleness. This is because m(6)A is required for female-specific alternative splicing of Sxl, which determines female physiognomy, but also translationally represses male-specific lethal 2 (msl-2) to prevent dosage compensation in females. We further show that the m(6)A reader protein YT521-B decodes m(6)A in the sex-specifically spliced intron of Sxl, as its absence phenocopies Ime4 mutants. Loss of m(6)A also affects alternative splicing of additional genes, predominantly in the 5' untranslated region, and has global effects on the expression of metabolic genes. The requirement of m(6)A and its reader YT521-B for female-specific Sxl alternative splicing reveals that this hitherto enigmatic mRNA modification constitutes an ancient and specific mechanism to adjust levels of gene expression.

  9. Alternate Method for Determination of Glue-line Tensile Strength of Spliced Veneers in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Král

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality control is a crucial part of any manufacturing unit, as it assures compliance to established standards as well as maintenance of product quality for internal management purposes. Quality control of spliced veneer in Czech wood based industries is mainly based on ČSN 49 2315 and ČSN 49 2320 standards, which rely on measurement of crack length in finished product. This method has been satisfactorily used since 1985 but requirements of wood based industry has changed a lot in these years. We propose an alternate method for mesurement of tensile strength of spliced veneers. Samples of specified size spliced were taken as mentioned in details and they were subjected to tensile stength measurement. An addtional adhesive tape was used to avoid intra-material fibres disjointing, so that inter-material tensile strength can be measured for spliced veneers. This test can be used for on – site optimization of splicing machine units as well as regular quality control of spliced venners.

  10. Alternative Splicing in Plant Genes: A Means of Regulating the Environmental Fitness of Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xudong; Cao, Ying; Ma, Ligeng

    2017-02-20

    Gene expression can be regulated through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Transcription in eukaryotes produces pre-mRNA molecules, which are processed and spliced post-transcriptionally to create translatable mRNAs. More than one mRNA may be produced from a single pre-mRNA by alternative splicing (AS); thus, AS serves to diversify an organism's transcriptome and proteome. Previous studies of gene expression in plants have focused on the role of transcriptional regulation in response to environmental changes. However, recent data suggest that post-transcriptional regulation, especially AS, is necessary for plants to adapt to a changing environment. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of AS during plant development in response to environmental changes. We suggest that alternative gene splicing is a novel means of regulating the environmental fitness of plants.

  11. DBIRD complex integrates alternative mRNA splicing with RNA polymerase II transcript elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Close, Pierre; East, Philip; Dirac-Svejstrup, A Barbara

    2012-01-01

    and help to integrate transcript elongation with mRNA splicing remain unclear. Here we characterize the human interactome of chromatin-associated mRNP particles. This led us to identify deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) and ZNF326 (which we call ZNF-protein interacting with nuclear mRNPs and DBC1 (ZIRD......)) as subunits of a novel protein complex--named DBIRD--that binds directly to RNAPII. DBIRD regulates alternative splicing of a large set of exons embedded in (A + T)-rich DNA, and is present at the affected exons. RNA-interference-mediated DBIRD depletion results in region-specific decreases in transcript...... elongation, particularly across areas encompassing affected exons. Together, these data indicate that the DBIRD complex acts at the interface between mRNP particles and RNAPII, integrating transcript elongation with the regulation of alternative splicing....

  12. Changes in Alternative Splicing as Pharmacodynamic Markers for Sudemycin D6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Thurman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to define pharmacodynamic markers for sudemycin D6, an experimental cancer drug that changes alternative splicing in human blood. Methods: Blood samples from 12 donors were incubated with sudemycin D6 for up to 24 hours, and at several time points total RNA from lymphocytes was prepared and the pre-messenger RNA (mRNA splicing patterns were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Similar to immortalized cells, blood lymphocytes change alternative splicing due to sudemycin D6 treatment. However, lymphocytes in blood respond slower than immortalized cultured cells. Conclusions: Exon skipping in the DUSP11 and SRRM1 pre-mRNAs are pharmacodynamic markers for sudemycin D6 treatment and show effects beginning at 9 hours after treatment.

  13. Estrogen receptor beta impacts hormone-induced alternative mRNA splicing in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dago, Dougba Noel; Scafoglio, Claudio; Rinaldi, Antonio; Memoli, Domenico; Giurato, Giorgio; Nassa, Giovanni; Ravo, Maria; Rizzo, Francesca; Tarallo, Roberta; Weisz, Alessandro

    2015-05-09

    Estrogens play an important role in breast cancer (BC) development and progression; when the two isoforms of the estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ) are co-expressed each of them mediate specific effects of these hormones in BC cells. ERβ has been suggested to exert an antagonist role toward the oncogenic activities of ERα, and for this reason it is considered an oncosuppressor. As clinical evidence regarding a prognostic role for this receptor subtype in hormone-responsive BC is still limited and conflicting, more knowledge is required on the biological functions of ERβ in cancer cells. We have previously described the ERβ and ERα interactomes from BC cells, identifying specific and distinct patterns of protein interactions for the two receptors. In particular, we identified factors involved in mRNA splicing and maturation as important components of both ERα and ERβ pathways. Guided by these findings, here we performed RNA sequencing to investigate in depth the differences in the early transcriptional events and RNA splicing patterns induced by estradiol in cells expressing ERα alone or ERα and ERβ. Exon skipping was the most abundant splicing event in the post-transcriptional regulation by estradiol. We identified several splicing events induced by ERα alone and by ERα+ERβ, demonstrating for the first time that ERβ significantly affects estrogen-induced splicing in BC cells, as revealed by modification of a subset of ERα-dependent splicing by ERβ, as well as by the presence of splicing isoforms only in ERβ+cells. In particular, we observed that ERβ+BC cell lines exhibited around 2-fold more splicing events than the ERβ- cells. Interestingly, we identified putative direct targets of ERβ-mediated alternative splicing by correlating the genomic locations of ERβ and ERα binding sites with estradiol-induced differential splicing in the corresponding genes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ERβ significantly affects estrogen

  14. A functional alternative splicing mutation in AIRE gene causes autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junyu; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liao, Yong; Guo, Luo; Wang, Honglian; He, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Xing, Qinghe

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a rare autosomal recessive disease defined by the presence of two of the three conditions: mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease. Loss-of-function mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene have been linked to APS-1. Here we report mutational analysis and functional characterization of an AIRE mutation in a consanguineous Chinese family with APS-1. All exons of the AIRE gene and adjacent exon-intron sequences were amplified by PCR and subsequently sequenced. We identified a homozygous missense AIRE mutation c.463G>A (p.Gly155Ser) in two siblings with different clinical features of APS-1. In silico splice-site prediction and minigene analysis were carried out to study the potential pathological consequence. Minigene splicing analysis and subsequent cDNA sequencing revealed that the AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the splice donor of intron 3, causing alternative pre-mRNA splicing by intron 3 retention. Furthermore, the aberrant AIRE transcript was identified in a heterozygous carrier of the c.463G>A mutation. The aberrant intron 3-retaining transcript generated a truncated protein (p.G155fsX203) containing the first 154 AIRE amino acids and followed by 48 aberrant amino acids. Therefore, our study represents the first functional characterization of the alternatively spliced AIRE mutation that may explain the pathogenetic role in APS-1.

  15. Eukaryotic TPP riboswitch regulation of alternative splicing involving long-distance base pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sanshu; Breaker, Ronald R

    2013-03-01

    Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) riboswitches are found in organisms from all three domains of life. Examples in bacteria commonly repress gene expression by terminating transcription or by blocking ribosome binding, whereas most eukaryotic TPP riboswitches are predicted to regulate gene expression by modulating RNA splicing. Given the widespread distribution of eukaryotic TPP riboswitches and the diversity of their locations in precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs), we sought to examine the mechanism of alternative splicing regulation by a fungal TPP riboswitch from Neurospora crassa, which is mostly located in a large intron separating protein-coding exons. Our data reveal that this riboswitch uses a long-distance (∼530-nt separation) base-pairing interaction to regulate alternative splicing. Specifically, a portion of the TPP-binding aptamer can form a base-paired structure with a conserved sequence element (α) located near a 5' splice site, which greatly increases use of this 5' splice site and promotes gene expression. Comparative sequence analyses indicate that many fungal species carry a TPP riboswitch with similar intron architecture, and therefore the homologous genes in these fungi are likely to use the same mechanism. Our findings expand the scope of genetic control mechanisms relying on long-range RNA interactions to include riboswitches.

  16. A functional alternative splicing mutation in AIRE gene causes autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1 is a rare autosomal recessive disease defined by the presence of two of the three conditions: mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease. Loss-of-function mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene have been linked to APS-1. Here we report mutational analysis and functional characterization of an AIRE mutation in a consanguineous Chinese family with APS-1. All exons of the AIRE gene and adjacent exon-intron sequences were amplified by PCR and subsequently sequenced. We identified a homozygous missense AIRE mutation c.463G>A (p.Gly155Ser in two siblings with different clinical features of APS-1. In silico splice-site prediction and minigene analysis were carried out to study the potential pathological consequence. Minigene splicing analysis and subsequent cDNA sequencing revealed that the AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the splice donor of intron 3, causing alternative pre-mRNA splicing by intron 3 retention. Furthermore, the aberrant AIRE transcript was identified in a heterozygous carrier of the c.463G>A mutation. The aberrant intron 3-retaining transcript generated a truncated protein (p.G155fsX203 containing the first 154 AIRE amino acids and followed by 48 aberrant amino acids. Therefore, our study represents the first functional characterization of the alternatively spliced AIRE mutation that may explain the pathogenetic role in APS-1.

  17. Alternatively Spliced Human TREK-1 Variants Alter TREK-1 Channel Function and Localization1

    OpenAIRE

    Cowles, Chad L.; Wu, Yi-Ying; Barnett, Scott D.; Lee, Michael T; Burkin, Heather R.; Buxton, Iain L. O.

    2015-01-01

    TREK-1, an outward-rectifying potassium channel activated by stretch, is found in the myometrium of pregnant women. Decreased expression of TREK-1 near term suggests that TREK-1 may contribute to uterine quiescence during gestation. Five alternatively spliced TREK-1 variants were identified in the myometrium of mothers who delivered spontaneously preterm (

  18. A high quality Arabidopsis transcriptome for accurate transcript-level analysis of alternative splicing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Runxuan

    2017-04-05

    Alternative splicing generates multiple transcript and protein isoforms from the same gene and thus is important in gene expression regulation. To date, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is the standard method for quantifying changes in alternative splicing on a genome-wide scale. Understanding the current limitations of RNA-seq is crucial for reliable analysis and the lack of high quality, comprehensive transcriptomes for most species, including model organisms such as Arabidopsis, is a major constraint in accurate quantification of transcript isoforms. To address this, we designed a novel pipeline with stringent filters and assembled a comprehensive Reference Transcript Dataset for Arabidopsis (AtRTD2) containing 82,190 non-redundant transcripts from 34 212 genes. Extensive experimental validation showed that AtRTD2 and its modified version, AtRTD2-QUASI, for use in Quantification of Alternatively Spliced Isoforms, outperform other available transcriptomes in RNA-seq analysis. This strategy can be implemented in other species to build a pipeline for transcript-level expression and alternative splicing analyses.

  19. An Alternate Splicing Variant of the Human Telomerase Catalytic Subunit Inhibits Telomerase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Yi

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase, a cellular reverse transcriptase, adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends. In normal human somatic cells, telomerase is repressed and telomeres progressively shorten, leading to proliferative senescence. Introduction of the telomerase (hTERT cDNA is sufficient to produce telomerase activity and immortalize normal human cells, suggesting that the repression of telomerase activity is transcriptional. The telomerase transcript has been shown to have at least six alternate splicing sites (four insertion sites and two deletion sites, and variants containing both or either of the deletion sites are present during development and in a panel of cancer cell lines we surveyed. One deletion (β site and all four insertions cause premature translation terminations, whereas the other deletion (α site is 36 by and lies within reverse transcriptase (RT motif A, suggesting that this deletion variant may be a candidate as a dominant-negative inhibitor of telomerase. We have cloned three alternately spliced hTERT variants that contain the α,β or both α and,β deletion sites. These alternate splicing variants along with empty vector and wild-type hTERT were introduced into normal human fibroblasts and several telomerase-positive immortal and tumor cell lines. Expression of the α site deletion variant (hTERT α− construct was confirmed by Western blotting. We found that none of the three alternate splicing variants reconstitutes telomerase activity in fibroblasts. However, hTERT α− inhibits telomerase activities in telomerase-positive cells, causes telomere shortening and eventually cell death. This alternately spliced dominant-negative variant may be important in understanding telomerase regulation during development, differentiation and in cancer progression.

  20. PP1γ functionally augments the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ through interaction with ASF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Cao, Wenwen; Liao, Rujia; Wang, Jia; Wang, Yuzhe; Tong, Lijuan; Chen, Xiangfan; Zhu, Weizhong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-15

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase δ (CaMKIIδ) are upregulated in heart disorders. Alternative splicing factor (ASF), a major splice factor for CaMKIIδ splicing, can be regulated by both protein kinase and phosphatase. Here we determine the role of PP1 isoforms in ASF-mediated splicing of CaMKIIδ in cells. We found that 1) PP1γ, but not α or β isoform, enhanced the splicing of CaMKIIδ in HEK293T cells; 2) PP1γ promoted the function of ASF, evidenced by the existence of ASF-PP1γ association as well as the PP1γ overexpression- or silencing-mediated change in CaMKIIδ splicing in ASF-transfected HEK293T cells; 3) CaMKIIδ splicing was promoted by overexpression of PP1γ and impaired by application of PP1 inhibitor 1 (I1PP1) or pharmacological inhibitor tautomycetin in primary cardiomyocytes; 4) CaMKIIδ splicing and enhancement of ASF-PP1γ association induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion (OGD/R) were potentiated by overexpression of PP1γ and suppressed by inhibition of PP1γ with I1PP1 or tautomycetin in primary cardiomyocytes; 5) functionally, overexpression and inhibition of PP1γ, respectively, potentiated or suppressed the apoptosis and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which were associated with the enhanced activity of CaMKII in OGD/R-stimulated cardiomyocytes; and 6) CaMKII was required for the OGD/R induced- and PP1γ exacerbated-apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, evidenced by a specific inhibitor of CaMKII KN93, but not its structural analog KN92, attenuating the apoptosis and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in OGD/R and PP1γ-treated cells. In conclusion, our results show that PP1γ promotes the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ through its interacting with ASF, exacerbating OGD/R-triggered apoptosis in primary cardiomyocytes.

  1. Identification and characterization of alternative splice variants of the mouse Trek2/Kcnk10 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkovic, Kelsey; Wickman, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels underlie leak or background potassium conductances in many cells. The Trek subfamily of K2P channels, which includes Trek1/Kcnk2 and Trek2/Kcnk10 and has been implicated in depression, nociception, and cognition, exhibits complex regulation and can modulate cell excitability in response to a wide array of stimuli. While alternative translation initiation and alternative splicing contribute to the structural and functional diversity of Trek1, the impact of pos...

  2. Global Gene Expression Profiling and Alternative Splicing Events during the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Cartilage Endplate-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain (LBP is a very prevalent disease and degenerative disc diseases (DDDs usually account for the LBP. However, the pathogenesis of DDDs is complicated and difficult to elucidate. Alternative splicing is a sophisticated regulatory process which greatly increases cellular complexity and phenotypic diversity of eukaryotic organisms. In addition, the cartilage endplate-derived stem cells have been discovered and identified by our research group. In this paper, we continue to investigate gene expression profiling and alternative splicing events during chondrogenic differentiation of cartilage endplate-derived stem cells. We adopted Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 (HTA 2.0 to compare the transcriptional and splicing changes between the control and differentiated samples. RT-PCR and quantitative PCR are used to validate the microarray results. The GO and KEGG pathway analysis was also performed. After bioinformatics analysis of the data, we detected 1953 differentially expressed genes. In terms of alternative splicing, the Splicing Index algorithm was used to select alternatively spliced genes. We detected 4411 alternatively spliced genes. GO and KEGG pathway analysis also revealed several functionally involved biological processes and signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the alternative splicing mechanisms in chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells on a genome-wide scale.

  3. A Bioinformatics-Based Alternative mRNA Splicing Code that May Explain Some Disease Mutations Is Conserved in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen; Cingolani, Pablo; Zeeberg, Barry R; Ruden, Douglas M

    2017-01-01

    Deep sequencing of cDNAs made from spliced mRNAs indicates that most coding genes in many animals and plants have pre-mRNA transcripts that are alternatively spliced. In pre-mRNAs, in addition to invariant exons that are present in almost all mature mRNA products, there are at least 6 additional types of exons, such as exons from alternative promoters or with alternative polyA sites, mutually exclusive exons, skipped exons, or exons with alternative 5' or 3' splice sites. Our bioinformatics-based hypothesis is that, in analogy to the genetic code, there is an "alternative-splicing code" in introns and flanking exon sequences, analogous to the genetic code, that directs alternative splicing of many of the 36 types of introns. In humans, we identified 42 different consensus sequences that are each present in at least 100 human introns. 37 of the 42 top consensus sequences are significantly enriched or depleted in at least one of the 36 types of introns. We further supported our hypothesis by showing that 96 out of 96 analyzed human disease mutations that affect RNA splicing, and change alternative splicing from one class to another, can be partially explained by a mutation altering a consensus sequence from one type of intron to that of another type of intron. Some of the alternative splicing consensus sequences, and presumably their small-RNA or protein targets, are evolutionarily conserved from 50 plant to animal species. We also noticed the set of introns within a gene usually share the same splicing codes, thus arguing that one sub-type of splicesosome might process all (or most) of the introns in a given gene. Our work sheds new light on a possible mechanism for generating the tremendous diversity in protein structure by alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs.

  4. LRRTM3 Regulates Excitatory Synapse Development through Alternative Splicing and Neurexin Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Um

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The four members of the LRRTM family (LRRTM1-4 are postsynaptic adhesion molecules essential for excitatory synapse development. They have also been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we focus on LRRTM3, showing that two distinct LRRTM3 variants generated by alternative splicing regulate LRRTM3 interaction with PSD-95, but not its excitatory synapse-promoting activity. Overexpression of either LRRTM3 variant increased excitatory synapse density in dentate gyrus (DG granule neurons, whereas LRRTM3 knockdown decreased it. LRRTM3 also controlled activity-regulated AMPA receptor surface expression in an alternative splicing-dependent manner. Furthermore, Lrrtm3-knockout mice displayed specific alterations in excitatory synapse density, excitatory synaptic transmission and excitability in DG granule neurons but not in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Lastly, LRRTM3 required only specific splice variants of presynaptic neurexins for their synaptogenic activity. Collectively, our data highlight alternative splicing and differential presynaptic ligand utilization in the regulation of LRRTMs, revealing key regulatory mechanisms for excitatory synapse development.

  5. Rbfox proteins regulate alternative mRNA splicing through evolutionarily conserved RNA bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovci, Michael T; Ghanem, Dana; Marr, Henry; Arnold, Justin; Gee, Sherry; Parra, Marilyn; Liang, Tiffany Y; Stark, Thomas J; Gehman, Lauren T; Hoon, Shawn; Massirer, Katlin B; Pratt, Gabriel A; Black, Douglas L; Gray, Joe W; Conboy, John G; Yeo, Gene W

    2013-12-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) enables programmed diversity of gene expression across tissues and development. We show here that binding in distal intronic regions (>500 nucleotides (nt) from any exon) by Rbfox splicing factors important in development is extensive and is an active mode of splicing regulation. Similarly to exon-proximal sites, distal sites contain evolutionarily conserved GCATG sequences and are associated with AS activation and repression upon modulation of Rbfox abundance in human and mouse experimental systems. As a proof of principle, we validated the activity of two specific Rbfox enhancers in KIF21A and ENAH distal introns and showed that a conserved long-range RNA-RNA base-pairing interaction (an RNA bridge) is necessary for Rbfox-mediated exon inclusion in the ENAH gene. Thus we demonstrate a previously unknown RNA-mediated mechanism for AS control by distally bound RNA-binding proteins.

  6. Analyzing alternative splicing data of splice junction arrays from Parkinson patients' leukocytes before and after deep brain stimulation as compared with control donors

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    Lilach Soreq

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies so far examined alternative splicing alterations in blood cells of neurodegenerative disease patients, particularly Parkinson's disease (PD. Prototype junction microarrays interrogate known human genome junctions and enable characterization of alternative splicing events; however, the analysis is not straightforward and different methods can be used to estimate junction-specific alternative splicing events (some of which can also be applied for analyzing RNA sequencing junction-level data. In this study, we characterized alternative splicing changes in blood leukocyte samples from Parkinson's patients prior to, and following deep brain stimulation (DBS treatment; both on stimulation and following 1 h off electrical stimulation. Here, we describe in detail analysis approaches for junction microarrays and provide suggestions for further analyses to delineate transcript level effects of the observed alterations as well as detection of microRNA binding sites and protein domains in the alternatively spliced target regions spanning across both untranslated and the coding regions of the targets. The raw expression data files are publically available in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database (accession number: GSE37591 and in Synapse, and can be re-analyzed. The results may be useful for designing of future experiments and cross correlations with other datasets from PD or patients having other neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Microbial and Natural Metabolites That Inhibit Splicing: A Powerful Alternative for Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Murrieta, Nora Hilda; Martínez-Montiel, Mónica; Gaspariano-Cholula, Mayra Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, genes are frequently interrupted with noncoding sequences named introns. Alternative splicing is a nuclear mechanism by which these introns are removed and flanking coding regions named exons are joined together to generate a message that will be translated in the cytoplasm. This mechanism is catalyzed by a complex machinery known as the spliceosome, which is conformed by more than 300 proteins and ribonucleoproteins that activate and regulate the precision of gene expression when assembled. It has been proposed that several genetic diseases are related to defects in the splicing process, including cancer. For this reason, natural products that show the ability to regulate splicing have attracted enormous attention due to its potential use for cancer treatment. Some microbial metabolites have shown the ability to inhibit gene splicing and the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition is being studied for future applications. Here, we summarize the main types of natural products that have been characterized as splicing inhibitors, the recent advances regarding molecular and cellular effects related to these molecules, and the applications reported so far in cancer therapeutics. PMID:27610372

  8. Integrative Genome-wide Analysis Reveals Cooperative Regulation of Alternative Splicing by hnRNP Proteins

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    Stephanie C. Huelga

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how RNA binding proteins control the splicing code is fundamental to human biology and disease. Here, we present a comprehensive study to elucidate how heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle (hnRNP proteins, among the most abundant RNA binding proteins, coordinate to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS in human cells. Using splicing-sensitive microarrays, crosslinking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq, and cDNA sequencing, we find that more than half of all AS events are regulated by multiple hnRNP proteins and that some combinations of hnRNP proteins exhibit significant synergy, whereas others act antagonistically. Our analyses reveal position-dependent RNA splicing maps, in vivo consensus binding sites, a surprising level of cross- and autoregulation among hnRNP proteins, and the coordinated regulation by hnRNP proteins of dozens of other RNA binding proteins and genes associated with cancer. Our findings define an unprecedented degree of complexity and compensatory relationships among hnRNP proteins and their splicing targets that likely confer robustness to cells.

  9. Myocardial alternative RNA splicing and gene expression profiling in early stage hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

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    Marco Ricci

    Full Text Available Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS is a congenital defect characterized by underdevelopment of the left ventricle and pathological compensation of the right ventricle. If untreated, HLHS is invariably lethal due to the extensive increase in right ventricular workload and eventual failure. Despite the clinical significance, little is known about the molecular pathobiological state of HLHS. Splicing of mRNA transcripts is an important regulatory mechanism of gene expression. Tissue specific alterations of this process have been associated with several cardiac diseases, however, transcriptional signature profiles related to HLHS are unknown. In this study, we performed genome-wide exon array analysis to determine differentially expressed genes and alternatively spliced transcripts in the right ventricle (RV of six neonates with HLHS, compared to the RV and left ventricle (LV from non-diseased control subjects. In HLHS, over 180 genes were differentially expressed and 1800 were differentially spliced, leading to changes in a variety of biological processes involving cell metabolism, cytoskeleton, and cell adherence. Additional hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that differential gene expression and mRNA splicing patterns identified in HLHS are unique compared to non-diseased tissue. Our findings suggest that gene expression and mRNA splicing are broadly dysregulated in the RV myocardium of HLHS neonates. In addition, our analysis identified transcriptome profiles representative of molecular biomarkers of HLHS that could be used in the future for diagnostic and prognostic stratification to improve patient outcome.

  10. Microbial and Natural Metabolites That Inhibit Splicing: A Powerful Alternative for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Martínez-Montiel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, genes are frequently interrupted with noncoding sequences named introns. Alternative splicing is a nuclear mechanism by which these introns are removed and flanking coding regions named exons are joined together to generate a message that will be translated in the cytoplasm. This mechanism is catalyzed by a complex machinery known as the spliceosome, which is conformed by more than 300 proteins and ribonucleoproteins that activate and regulate the precision of gene expression when assembled. It has been proposed that several genetic diseases are related to defects in the splicing process, including cancer. For this reason, natural products that show the ability to regulate splicing have attracted enormous attention due to its potential use for cancer treatment. Some microbial metabolites have shown the ability to inhibit gene splicing and the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition is being studied for future applications. Here, we summarize the main types of natural products that have been characterized as splicing inhibitors, the recent advances regarding molecular and cellular effects related to these molecules, and the applications reported so far in cancer therapeutics.

  11. Integrative genome-wide analysis reveals cooperative regulation of alternative splicing by hnRNP proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelga, Stephanie C; Vu, Anthony Q; Arnold, Justin D; Liang, Tiffany Y; Liu, Patrick P; Yan, Bernice Y; Donohue, John Paul; Shiue, Lily; Hoon, Shawn; Brenner, Sydney; Ares, Manuel; Yeo, Gene W

    2012-02-23

    Understanding how RNA binding proteins control the splicing code is fundamental to human biology and disease. Here, we present a comprehensive study to elucidate how heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle (hnRNP) proteins, among the most abundant RNA binding proteins, coordinate to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) in human cells. Using splicing-sensitive microarrays, crosslinking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq), and cDNA sequencing, we find that more than half of all AS events are regulated by multiple hnRNP proteins and that some combinations of hnRNP proteins exhibit significant synergy, whereas others act antagonistically. Our analyses reveal position-dependent RNA splicing maps, in vivo consensus binding sites, a surprising level of cross- and autoregulation among hnRNP proteins, and the coordinated regulation by hnRNP proteins of dozens of other RNA binding proteins and genes associated with cancer. Our findings define an unprecedented degree of complexity and compensatory relationships among hnRNP proteins and their splicing targets that likely confer robustness to cells.

  12. Alternative Splicing of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor IgIII Loops in Cancer

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    Klaus Holzmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of the IgIII loop of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs 1–3 produces b- and c-variants of the receptors with distinctly different biological impact based on their distinct ligand-binding spectrum. Tissue-specific expression of these splice variants regulates interactions in embryonic development, tissue maintenance and repair, and cancer. Alterations in FGFR2 splicing are involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition that produces invasive, metastatic features during tumor progression. Recent research has elucidated regulatory factors that determine the splice choice both on the level of exogenous signaling events and on the RNA-protein interaction level. Moreover, methodology has been developed that will enable the in depth analysis of splicing events during tumorigenesis and provide further insight on the role of FGFR 1–3 IIIb and IIIc in the pathophysiology of various malignancies. This paper aims to summarize expression patterns in various tumor types and outlines possibilities for further analysis and application.

  13. Verification of predicted alternatively spliced Wnt genes reveals two new splice variants (CTNNB1 and LRP5 and altered Axin-1 expression during tumour progression

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    Reich Jens G

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Splicing processes might play a major role in carcinogenesis and tumour progression. The Wnt pathway is of crucial relevance for cancer progression. Therefore we focussed on the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway in order to validate the expression of sequences predicted as alternatively spliced by bioinformatic methods. Splice variants of its key molecules were selected, which may be critical components for the understanding of colorectal tumour progression and may have the potential to act as biological markers. For some of the Wnt pathway genes the existence of splice variants was either proposed (e.g. β-Catenin and CTNNB1 or described only in non-colon tissues (e.g. GSK3β or hitherto not published (e.g. LRP5. Results Both splice variants – normal and alternative form – of all selected Wnt pathway components were found to be expressed in cell lines as well as in samples derived from tumour, normal and healthy tissues. All splice positions corresponded totally with the bioinformatical prediction as shown by sequencing. Two hitherto not described alternative splice forms (CTNNB1 and LRP5 were detected. Although the underlying EST data used for the bioinformatic analysis suggested a tumour-specific expression neither a qualitative nor a significant quantitative difference between the expression in tumour and healthy tissues was detected. Axin-1 expression was reduced in later stages and in samples from carcinomas forming distant metastases. Conclusion We were first to describe that splice forms of crucial genes of the Wnt-pathway are expressed in human colorectal tissue. Newly described splicefoms were found for β-Catenin, LRP5, GSK3β, Axin-1 and CtBP1. However, the predicted cancer specificity suggested by the origin of the underlying ESTs was neither qualitatively nor significant quantitatively confirmed. That let us to conclude that EST sequence data can give adequate hints for the existence of alternative splicing

  14. Different alternative splicing patterns are subject to opposite selection pressure for protein reading frame preservation

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    Chuang Trees-Juen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing (AS has been regarded capable of altering selection pressure on protein subsequences. Particularly, the frequency of reading frame preservation (FRFP, as a measure of selection pressure, has been reported to be higher in alternatively spliced exons (ASEs than in constitutively spliced exons (CSEs. However, recently it has been reported that different ASE types – simple and complex ASEs – may be subject to opposite selection forces. Therefore, it is necessary to re-evaluate the evolutionary effects of such splicing patterns on frame preservation. Results Here we show that simple and complex ASEs, respectively, have higher and lower FRFPs than CSEs. Since complex ASEs may alter the ends of their flanking exons, the selection pressure on frame preservation is likely relaxed in this ASE type. Furthermore, conservation of the ASE/CSE splicing pattern increases the FRFPs of simple ASEs but decreases those of complex ASEs. Contrary to the well-recognized concept of strong selection pressure on conserved ASEs for protein reading frame preservation, our results show that conserved complex ASEs are relaxed from such pressure and the frame-disrupting effect caused by the insertion of complex ASEs can be offset by compensatory changes in their flanking exons. Conclusion In this study, we find that simple and complex ASEs undergo opposite selection pressure for protein reading frame preservation, with CSEs in-between. Simple ASEs have much higher FRFPs than complex ones. We further find that the FRFPs of complex ASEs coupled with flanking exons are close to those of simple ASEs, indicating that neighboring exons of an ASE may evolve in a coordinated way to avoid protein dysfunction. Therefore, we suggest that evolutionary analyses of AS should take into consideration the effects of different splicing patterns and the joint effects of multiple AS events.

  15. The Role of Alternative Splicing and Differential Gene Expression in Cichlid Adaptive Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pooja; Börger, Christine; More, Heather; Sturmbauer, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Species diverge eco-morphologically through the continuous action of natural selection on functionally important structures, producing alternative adaptive morphologies. In cichlid fishes, the oral and pharyngeal jaws are such key structures. Adaptive variation in jaw morphology contributes to trophic specialization, which is hypothesized to fuel their rapid speciation in the East African Great Lakes. Much is known about the genes involved in cichlid jaw and craniofacial development. However, it is still unclear what salient sources of variation gave rise to trophic-niche specialization, facilitating adaptive radiation. Here, we explore two sources of transcriptional variation that may underlie species-specific disparities in jaw morphology. Using whole transcriptome RNA-sequencing, we analyze differences in gene expression and alternative splicing, at the end of postlarval development, in fully functional jaws of six species of cichlids from the Lake Tanganyika tribe Tropheini. Our data reveal a surprisingly high degree of alternative splicing events compared with gene expression differences among species and trophic types. This suggests that differential trophic adaptation of the jaw apparatus may have been shaped by transcriptional rewiring of splicing as well as gene expression variation during the rapid radiation of the Tropheini. Specifically, genes undergoing splicing across most species were found to be enriched for pharyngeal jaw gene ontology terms. Overall, jaw transcriptional patterns at postlarval developmental stage were highly dynamic and species-specific. In conclusion, this work indicates that shifts in alternative splicing could have played a more important role in cichlid adaptive radiation, and possibly adaptive radiation in general, than currently recognized. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Alternative splicing factor ASF/SF2 is down regulated in inflamed muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Z; Shaibani, A; Li, Y-P; Yan, Y; Zhang, S; Yang, Y; Yang, F; Wang, H; Yang, X-F

    2006-08-01

    In our recent studies, alternative splicing has been shown to have a major role in inflammation and autoimmune muscle diseases. To examine the novel hypothesis that the expression of an essential alternative splicing factor, alternative splicing factor 2 (ASF/SF2), is modulated in muscle inflammation. ASF/SF2 expression in muscle biopsy samples from eight patients with inflammatory myopathy and six non-myositic controls was determined by using western blot with anti-ASF/SF2 antibodies. To further elucidate the mechanism of reduced ASF/SF2 expression in inflamed muscle, differentiated C2C12 myotubes were stimulated with proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), followed by western blot analysis of ASF/SF2 expression. ASF/SF2 expression in the muscle biopsy samples from patients with inflammatory myopathy was found to be lower (mean of relative densitometric units 41.1 (2SD 20.7)) than that of the non-myositic controls (mean of relative densitometric units 76.7 (39.6); pASF/SF2 expression was seen to be significantly down regulated (sevenfold) in C2C12 myotubes compared with expression variations in the beta-actin control (0.62-fold; mean 1.22 (0.40); pASF/SF2 is down regulated in autoimmune inflammatory myositis-potentially via a TNFalpha-mediated pathway. The development of (1) novel autoantigen isoform microarrays for disease diagnosis and prognosis; (2) novel autoantigen-tolerising treatments for autoimmune diseases; and (3) novel splicing-redirection treatments can be facilitated by the ongoing study of alternative splicing of autoantigen transcripts.

  17. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A regulates the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ.

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    Qingqing Gu

    Full Text Available Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK IIδ is predominantly expressed in the heart. There are three isoforms of CaMKIIδ resulting from the alternative splicing of exons 14, 15, and 16 of its pre-mRNA, which is regulated by the splicing factor SF2/ASF. Inclusion of exons 15 and 16 or of exon 14 generates δA or δB isoform. The exclusion of all three exons gives rise to δC isoform, which is selectively increased in pressure-overload-induced hypertrophy. Overexpression of either δB or δC induces hypertrophy and heart failure, suggesting their specific role in the pathogenesis of hypertrophy and heart failure. It is well known that the β-adrenergic-cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA pathway is implicated in heart failure. To determine the role of PKA in the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ, we constructed mini-CaMKIIδ genes and used these genes to investigate the regulation of the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ by PKA in cultured cells. We found that PKA promoted the exclusion of exons 14, 15, and 16 of CaMKIIδ, resulting in an increase in δC isoform. PKA interacted with and phosphorylated SF2/ASF, and enhanced SF2/ASF's activity to promote the exclusion of exons 14, 15, and 16 of CaMKIIδ, leading to a further increase in the expression of δC isoform. These findings suggest that abnormality in β-adrenergic-PKA signaling may contribute to cardiomyopathy and heart failure through dysregulation in the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ exons 14, 15, and 16 and up-regulation of CaMKIIδC.

  18. SnoI, a novel alternatively spliced isoform of the ski protooncogene homolog, sno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-White, S

    1993-09-25

    We have cloned and sequenced a novel human isoform of sno, snoI for insertion. SnoI contains 1330 nucleotides inserted in place of 7 nucleotides of the snoN mRNA. Sno is a member of the ski protooncogene family, which has been implicated in muscle development. The two previously known sno alternatively spliced isoforms are snoN (684 amino acids), and snoA (415 amino acids); snoI encodes a truncated isoform of 399 amino acids (44,298 MW). Southern blot experiments show that snoI contains a third alternative exon from the sno gene; a single sno gene can express all three isoforms of sno by alternative splicing. All three isoforms contain the region that is most similar to the ski proto-oncogene. The relationship between snoI and snoN is analogous to that between delta fosB and fosB, where a truncated form of the fosB transcription factor is produced by alternative splicing. We find conservation of human snoI-specific sequences in several mammalian species, in monkey, dog, cow, rabbit and pig, but not in rodents, whereas the common portion of the sno gene is conserved in all vertebrate species tested. SnoN, snoA, and ski mRNAs accumulate in many human tissues including skeletal muscle; the snoI alternative mRNA accumulates more specifically in skeletal muscle. SnoI is also expressed in rhabdomyosarcoma tumor, a tumor that contains differentiated skeletal muscle. The tissue-specific alternative splicing of human snoI, an mRNA in the ski/sno gene family, and the presence of sno mRNAs in muscle are consistent with a proposed role for the sno oncogene in muscle gene regulation.

  19. Alternative Splicing of P/Q-Type Ca2+ Channels Shapes Presynaptic Plasticity

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    Agnes Thalhammer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is prominent in the mammalian brain, where it is thought to expand proteome diversity. For example, alternative splicing of voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGCC α1 subunits can generate thousands of isoforms with differential properties and expression patterns. However, the impact of this molecular diversity on brain function, particularly on synaptic transmission, which crucially depends on VGCCs, is unclear. Here, we investigate how two major splice isoforms of P/Q-type VGCCs (Cav2.1[EFa/b] regulate presynaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons. We find that the efficacy of P/Q-type VGCC isoforms in supporting synaptic transmission is markedly different, with Cav2.1[EFa] promoting synaptic depression and Cav2.1[EFb] synaptic facilitation. Following a reduction in network activity, hippocampal neurons upregulate selectively Cav2.1[EFa], the isoform exhibiting the higher synaptic efficacy, thus effectively supporting presynaptic homeostatic plasticity. Therefore, the balance between VGCC splice variants at the synapse is a key factor in controlling neurotransmitter release and presynaptic plasticity.

  20. A novel frameshift mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene is rescued by alternative messenger RNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Andrew D; Kyle, Campbell V

    Type I hyperlipoproteinemia, manifesting as chylomicronemia and severe hypertriglyceridemia, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder usually caused by mutations in the lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL). We sought to determine whether mutations in LPL could explain the clinical indications of a patient presenting with pancreatitis and hypertriglyceridemia. Coding regions of LPL were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by nucleotide sequencing. The LPL messenger RNA transcript was also analyzed to investigate whether alternative splicing was occurring. The patient was homozygous for the mutation c.767_768insTAAATATT in exon 5 of the LPL gene. This mutation is predicted to result in either a truncated nonfunctional LPL, or alternatively a new 5' donor splice site may be used, resulting in a full-length LPL with an in-frame deletion of 3 amino acids. Analysis of messenger RNA from the patient showed that the new splice site is used in vivo. Homozygosity for a mutation in the LPL gene was consistent with the clinical findings. Use of the new splice site created by the insertion mutation rescues an otherwise damaging frameshift mutation, resulting in expression of an almost full-length LPL that is predicted to be partially functional. The patient therefore has a less severe form of type I hyperlipoproteinemia than would be expected if she lacked any functional LPL. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A study of alternative splicing in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Gilchrist, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    -Danish Pig Genome project has been assembled with publicly available ESTs and made available in the PigEST database. Using the Distiller package 2,515 EST clusters with candidate alternative isoforms were identified in the EST data with high confidence. In agreement with general observations in human...

  2. Alternative splicing and extensive RNA editing of human TPH2 transcripts.

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    Maik Grohmann

    Full Text Available Brain serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission plays a key role in the regulation of mood and has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5-HT. Recently, we discovered a second TPH isoform (TPH2 in vertebrates, including man, which is predominantly expressed in brain, while the previously known TPH isoform (TPH1 is primarly a non-neuronal enzyme. Overwhelming evidence now points to TPH2 as a candidate gene for 5-HT-related psychiatric disorders. To assess the role of TPH2 gene variability in the etiology of psychiatric diseases we performed cDNA sequence analysis of TPH2 transcripts from human post mortem amygdala samples obtained from individuals with psychiatric disorders (drug abuse, schizophrenia, suicide and controls. Here we show that TPH2 exists in two alternatively spliced variants in the coding region, denoted TPH2a and TPH2b. Moreover, we found evidence that the pre-mRNAs of both splice variants are dynamically RNA-edited in a mutually exclusive manner. Kinetic studies with cell lines expressing recombinant TPH2 variants revealed a higher activity of the novel TPH2B protein compared with the previously known TPH2A, whereas RNA editing was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of both TPH2 splice variants. Therefore, our results strongly suggest a complex fine-tuning of central nervous system 5-HT biosynthesis by TPH2 alternative splicing and RNA editing. Finally, we present molecular and large-scale linkage data evidencing that deregulated alternative splicing and RNA editing is involved in the etiology of psychiatric diseases, such as suicidal behaviour.

  3. Cold-dependent alternative splicing of a Jumonji C domain-containing gene MtJMJC5 in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yingfang; Wu, Xiaopei; Liu, Demei; Song, Shengjing; Liu, Dengcai; Wang, Haiqing

    2016-05-27

    Histone methylation is an epigenetic modification mechanism that regulates gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Jumonji C domain-containing demethylases are involved in removal of methyl groups at lysine or arginine residues. The JmjC domain-only member, JMJ30/JMJD5 of Arabidopsis, is a component of the plant circadian clock. Although some plant circadian clock genes undergo alternative splicing in response to external cues, there is no evidence that JMJ30/JMJD5 is regulated by alternative splicing. In this study, the expression of an Arabidopsis JMJ30/JMJD5 ortholog in Medicago truncatula, MtJMJC5, in response to circadian clock and abiotic stresses were characterized. The results showed that MtJMJC5 oscillates with a circadian rhythm, and undergoes cold specifically induced alternative splicing. The cold-induced alternative splicing could be reversed after ambient temperature returning to the normal. Sequencing results revealed four alternative splicing RNA isoforms including a full-length authentic protein encoding variant, and three premature termination condon-containing variants due to alternative 3' splice sites at the first and second intron. Under cold treatment, the variants that share a common 3' alternative splicing site at the second intron were intensively up-regulated while the authentic protein encoding variant and the premature termination condon-containing variant only undergoing a 3' alternative splicing at the first intron were down regulated. Although all the premature termination condon-harboring alternative splicing variants were sensitive to nonsense-mediated decay, the premature termination codon-harboring alternative splicing variants sharing the 3' alternative splicing site at the second intron showed less sensitivity than the one only containing the 3' alternative slicing site at the first intron under cold treatment. These results suggest that the cold-dependent alternative splicing of MtJMJC5 is likely a species or genus

  4. Cartography of neurexin alternative splicing mapped by single-molecule long-read mRNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treutlein, Barbara; Gokce, Ozgun; Quake, Stephen R; Südhof, Thomas C

    2014-04-01

    Neurexins are evolutionarily conserved presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that are essential for normal synapse formation and synaptic transmission. Indirect evidence has indicated that extensive alternative splicing of neurexin mRNAs may produce hundreds if not thousands of neurexin isoforms, but no direct evidence for such diversity has been available. Here we use unbiased long-read sequencing of full-length neurexin (Nrxn)1α, Nrxn1β, Nrxn2β, Nrxn3α, and Nrxn3β mRNAs to systematically assess how many sites of alternative splicing are used in neurexins with a significant frequency, and whether alternative splicing events at these sites are independent of each other. In sequencing more than 25,000 full-length mRNAs, we identified a novel, abundantly used alternatively spliced exon of Nrxn1α and Nrxn3α (referred to as alternatively spliced sequence 6) that encodes a 9-residue insertion in the flexible hinge region between the fifth LNS (laminin-α, neurexin, sex hormone-binding globulin) domain and the third EGF-like sequence. In addition, we observed several larger-scale events of alternative splicing that deleted multiple domains and were much less frequent than the canonical six sites of alternative splicing in neurexins. All of the six canonical events of alternative splicing appear to be independent of each other, suggesting that neurexins may exhibit an even larger isoform diversity than previously envisioned and comprise thousands of variants. Our data are consistent with the notion that α-neurexins represent extracellular protein-interaction scaffolds in which different LNS and EGF domains mediate distinct interactions that affect diverse functions and are independently regulated by independent events of alternative splicing.

  5. The second RNA-binding domain of the human splicing factor ASF/SF2 is the critical domain controlling adenovirus E1A alternative 5'-splice site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauksaite, Vita; Akusjärvi, Göran

    2004-07-15

    The human splicing factor ASF/SF2 (alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2) is modular in structure with two RNA-binding domains (RBD1 and RBD2) and a C-terminal domain rich in arginine-serine dipeptide repeats. ASF/SF2 is an essential splicing factor that also functions as an important regulator of alternative splicing. In adenovirus E1A (early region 1A) alternative pre-mRNA splicing, ASF/SF2 functions as a strong inducer of proximal 5'-splice-site selection, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we tested the functional role of individual domains of ASF/SF2 in alternative splicing in vitro. We show that ASF/SF2-RBD2 is the critical domain controlling E1A alternative splicing. In fact, RBD2 alone is sufficient to mimic the activity of the full-length ASF/SF2 protein as an inducer of proximal 5'-splice-site selection in vitro. The RBD2 domain induces a switch to E1A-proximal 5'-splice-site usage by repressing distal 12 S splicing and simultaneously stimulates proximal 13 S splicing. In contrast, the ASF/SF2-RBD1 domain has a more general splicing enhancer phenotype and appears to stimulate preferentially cap-proximal 5'-splice-site selection. Furthermore, the SWQDLKD motif, which is conserved in all SR proteins (serine/arginine-rich proteins) containing two RBDs, and the ribonucleoprotein-1-type RNA recognition motif were both found to be necessary for the alternative splice-site-switching activity of ASF/SF2. The RNP-1 motif was necessary for efficient RNA binding, whereas the SWQDLKD motif most probably contributes by functioning as a surface-mediating critical protein-protein contact during spliceosome assembly.

  6. Modulation of KCNQ1 alternative splicing regulates cardiac IKs and action potential repolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Rudy, Yoram; Po-Yuan, Phd; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Cui, Jianmin

    2013-08-01

    Slow delayed-rectifier potassium current (IKs) channels, made of the pore-forming KCNQ1 and auxiliary KCNE1 subunits, play a key role in determining action potential duration (APD) in cardiac myocytes. The consequences of drug-induced KCNQ1 splice alteration remain unknown. To study the modulation of KCNQ1 alternative splicing by amiloride and the consequent changes in IKs and action potentials (APs) in ventricular myocytes. Canine endocardial, midmyocardial, and epicardial ventricular myocytes were isolated. Levels of KCNQ1a and KCNQ1b as well as a series of splicing factors were quantified by using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The effect of amiloride-induced changes in the KCNQ1b/total KCNQ1 ratio on AP was measured by using whole-cell patch clamp with and without isoproterenol. With 50 μmol/L of amiloride for 6 hours, KCNQ1a at transcriptional and translational levels increased in midmyocardial myocytes but decreased in endo- and epicardial myocytes. Likewise, changes in splicing factors in midmyocardial were opposite to that in endo- and epicardial myocytes. In midmyocardial myocytes amiloride shortened APD and decreased isoproterenol-induced early afterdepolarizations significantly. The same amiloride-induced effects were demonstrated by using human ventricular myocyte model for AP simulations under beta-adrenergic stimulation. Moreover, amiloride reduced the transmural dispersion of repolarization in pseudo-electrocardiogram. Amiloride regulates IKs and APs with transmural differences and reduces arrhythmogenicity through the modulation of KCNQ1 splicing. We suggested that the modulation of KCNQ1 splicing may help prevent arrhythmia. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expanded alternative splice isoform profiling of the mouse Cav3.1/α1G T-type calcium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Wayne L

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing of low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels contributes to the molecular and functional diversity mediating complex network oscillations in the normal brain. Transcript scanning of the human CACNA1G gene has revealed the presence of 11 regions within the coding sequence subjected to alternative splicing, some of which enhance T-type current. In mouse models of absence epilepsy, elevated T-type calcium currents without clear increases in channel expression are found in thalamic neurons that promote abnormal neuronal synchronization. To test whether enhanced T-type currents in these models reflect pathogenic alterations in channel splice isoforms, we determined the extent of alternative splicing of mouse Cacna1g transcripts and whether evidence of altered transcript splicing could be detected in mouse absence epilepsy models. Results Transcript scanning of the murine Cacna1g gene detected 12 regions encoding alternative splice isoforms of Cav3.1/α1G T-type calcium channels. Of the 12 splice sites, six displayed homology to the human CACNA1G splice sites, while six novel mouse-specific splicing events were identified, including one intron retention, three alternative acceptor sites, one alternative donor site, and one exon exclusion. In addition, two brain region-specific alternative splice patterns were observed in the cerebellum. Comparative analyses of brain regions from four monogenic absence epilepsy mouse models with altered thalamic T-type currents and wildtype controls failed to reveal differences in Cacna1g splicing patterns. Conclusion The determination of six novel alternative splice sites within the coding region of the mouse Cacna1g gene greatly expands the potential biophysical diversity of voltage-gated T-type channels in the mouse central nervous system. Although alternative splicing of Cav3.1/α1G channels does not explain the enhancement of T-type current identified in four mouse

  8. Alternative splicing generates novel Fads3 transcript in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ji Yao; Qin, Xia; Park, Hui Gyu; Kim, Ellen; Liu, Guowen; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Fads3 is the third member of the fatty acid desaturase gene cluster; with at least eight evolutionarily conserved alternative transcripts (AT), having no clearly established function as are known for FADS2 and FADS1. Here we present identification of a novel Fads3 transcript in mice (Fads3AT9), characterize Fads3AT9 expression in mouse tissues and evaluate correlations with metabolite profiles. Total RNA obtained from mouse tissues is reverse-transcribed into cDNA and used as template for PCR...

  9. Ecotype dependent expression and alternative splicing of epithiospecifier protein (ESP) in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissen, R; Hyldbakk, E; Wang, C-W V; Sørmo, C G; Rossiter, J T; Bones, A M

    2012-03-01

    Epithiospecifier protein (ESP) is responsible for diverting glucosinolate hydrolysis from the generation of isothiocyanates to that of epithionitriles or nitriles, and thereby negatively affects the ability of the plant to defend itself against certain insects. Despite this important role of ESP, little is known about its expression in plant tissues and the regulation thereof. We therefore investigated ESP expression by qPCR and Western blot in different organs during the growth cycle of the two Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Col-0 and Mt-0. Besides the fact that ESP transcript and protein levels were revealed to be much higher in Mt-0 than in Col-0 in all cases, our qPCR results also indicated that ESP expression is regulated differently in the two A. thaliana ecotypes. No ESP protein was detected by Western blot in any organ or developmental stage for Col-0. During the assays an alternative splice variant of ESP was identified in Col-0, but not Mt-0, leading to a mis-spliced transcript which could explain the low expression levels of ESP in the former ecotype. Analysis of genomic sequences containing the ESP splice sites, of ESP protein level and ESP activity from seven A. thaliana ecotypes showed a positive correlation between the presence of a non-canonical 5' splice site for ESP and the absence of detectable ESP protein levels and ESP activity. When analysing the expression of both transcript variants in Col-0 after treatment with methyl jasmonate, a condition known to "induce ESP", it was indeed the alternative splice variant that was preferentially induced.

  10. Alternative Splicing: A Potential Source of Functional Innovation in the Eukaryotic Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing (AS is a common posttranscriptional process in eukaryotic organisms, by which multiple distinct functional transcripts are produced from a single gene. The release of the human genome draft revealed a much smaller number of genes than anticipated. Because of its potential role in expanding protein diversity, interest in alternative splicing has been increasing over the last decade. Although recent studies have shown that 94% human multiexon genes undergo AS, evolution of AS and thus its potential role in functional innovation in eukaryotic genomes remain largely unexplored. Here we review available evidence regarding the evolution of AS prevalence and functional role. In addition we stress the need to correct for the strong effect of transcript coverage in AS detection and set out a strategy to ultimately elucidate the extent of the role of AS in functional innovation on a genomic scale.

  11. Rbfox2-coordinated alternative splicing of Mef2d and Rock2 controls myoblast fusion during myogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Christopher S.; Kalsotra, Auinash; Scavuzzo, Marissa A.; Curk, Tomaz; Ule, Jernej; Li, Wei; Cooper, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Alternative splicing plays important regulatory roles during periods of physiological change. During development a large number of genes coordinately express protein isoform transitions regulated by alternative splicing, however, the mechanisms that coordinate splicing and the functional integration of the resultant tissue-specific protein isoforms are typically unknown. Here we show that the conserved Rbfox2 RNA binding protein regulates 30% of the splicing transitions observed during myogenesis and is required for the specific step of myoblast fusion. Integration of Rbfox2-dependent splicing outcomes from RNA-seq with Rbfox2 iCLIP data identified Mef2d and Rock2 as Rbfox2 splicing targets. Restored activities of Mef2d and Rock2 rescued myoblast fusion in Rbfox2 depleted cultures demonstrating functional cooperation of protein isoforms generated by coordinated alterative splicing. The results demonstrate that coordinated alternative splicing by a single RNA binding protein modulates transcription (Mef2d) and cell signaling (Rock2) programs to drive tissue-specific functions (cell fusion) to promote a developmental transition. PMID:25087874

  12. Structural basis for regulation of GPR56/ADGRG1 by its alternatively spliced extracellular domains

    OpenAIRE

    Salzman, Gabriel S.; Ackerman, Sarah D.; Ding, Chen; Koide, Akiko; Leon, Katherine; Luo, Rong; Stoveken, Hannah M.; Fernandez, Celia G.; Tall, Gregory G.; Piao, Xianhua; Monk, Kelly R.; Koide, Shohei; Araç, Demet

    2016-01-01

    Adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) play critical roles in diverse neurobiological processes including brain development, synaptogenesis, and myelination. aGPCRs have large alternatively spliced extracellular regions (ECRs) that likely mediate intercellular signaling; however, the precise roles of ECRs remain unclear. The aGPCR GPR56/ADGRG1 regulates both oligodendrocyte and cortical development. Accordingly, human GPR56 mutations cause myelination defects and brain malformations. H...

  13. Unmasking alternative splicing inside protein-coding exons defines exitrons and their role in proteome plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Marquez, Yamile; Höpfler, Markus; Ayatollahi, Zahra; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) diversifies transcriptomes and proteomes and is widely recognized as a key mechanism for regulating gene expression. Previously, in an analysis of intron retention events in Arabidopsis, we found unusual AS events inside annotated protein-coding exons. Here, we also identify such AS events in human and use these two sets to analyse their features, regulation, functional impact, and evolutionary origin. As these events involve introns with features of both introns and...

  14. Characterization of an insect heterodimeric voltage-gated sodium channel with unique alternative splicing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Pei, Yu-Xia; Lei, Wei; Wang, Ke-Yi; Shang, Feng; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Recent discovery of the heterodimeric voltage-gated sodium channels (Na v ) in two aphid species, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae, aroused interest in exploring whether this kind of channel is conserved for aphids. Herewith, we aim to provide evidence for the conservation of heterodimeric Na v s in aphids and investigate whether they have unique splicing patterns. We found that the only identifiable Na v from Toxoptera citricida consisted of two subunits, forming a heterodimeric Na v , which carried an atypical "DENS" ion selectivity filter and a conventional "MFM" inactivation gate, confirming the heterodimeric Na v s' conservation within aphids. These unique heterodimeric channels may form a new Na v subfamily, specific to aphids. A more ancient member of four-domain Na v homolog was well preserved in T. citricida, carrying a typical "DEEA" and "MFL" motif. The presence of "DENS" in mammalian Na x s and "DEKT" in a fungus Na v suggested that the heterodimeric Na v s may still preserve Na + permeability. Sequencing 46 clones from nymphs and adults exposed unique splicing patterns for this heterodimeric Na v from T. citricida, revealing 7 alternatively spliced exons, evidencing that exon 5 was no longer unique to Bombyx mori, and exon k/l was semi-mutually exclusive. Two previously undescribed optional exons and a SNP site seemingly unique to aphids were identified. In conclusion, the dimeric Na v s might form a new aphids-specific heterodimeric N a v subfamily. This dimeric Na v from T. citricida was characterized with distinguishable alternative splicing modes, exemplified by the discovery of two novel alternative exons and unique usage patterns of alternative exons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Follicle stimulating hormone modulates ovarian stem cells through alternately spliced receptor variant FSH-R3

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Hiren; Bhartiya, Deepa; Parte, Seema; Gunjal, Pranesh; Yedurkar, Snehal; Bhatt, Mithun

    2013-01-01

    Background We have earlier reported that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) modulates ovarian stem cells which include pluripotent, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and their immediate descendants ?progenitors? termed ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs), lodged in adult mammalian ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). FSH may exert pleiotropic actions through its alternatively spliced receptor isoforms. Four isoforms of FSH receptors (FSHR) are reported in literature of which FSH-R1 and FS...

  16. High resolution analysis of the human transcriptome: detection of extensive alternative splicing independent of transcriptional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouet Fabien

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercially available microarrays have been used in many settings to generate expression profiles for a variety of applications, including target selection for disease detection, classification, profiling for pharmacogenomic response to therapeutics, and potential disease staging. However, many commercially available microarray platforms fail to capture transcript diversity produced by alternative splicing, a major mechanism for driving proteomic diversity through transcript heterogeneity. Results The human Genome-Wide SpliceArray™ (GWSA, a novel microarray platform, utilizes an existing probe design concept to monitor such transcript diversity on a genome scale. The human GWSA allows the detection of alternatively spliced events within the human genome through the use of exon body and exon junction probes to provide a direct measure of each transcript, through simple calculations derived from expression data. This report focuses on the performance and validation of the array when measured against standards recently published by the Microarray Quality Control (MAQC Project. The array was shown to be highly quantitative, and displayed greater than 85% correlation with the HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array at the gene level while providing more extensive coverage of each gene. Almost 60% of splice events among genes demonstrating differential expression of greater than 3 fold also contained extensive splicing alterations. Importantly, almost 10% of splice events within the gene set displaying constant overall expression values had evidence of transcript diversity. Two examples illustrate the types of events identified: LIM domain 7 showed no differential expression at the gene level, but demonstrated deregulation of an exon skip event, while erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 -like 3 was differentially expressed and also displayed deregulation of a skipped exon isoform. Conclusion Significant changes were detected independent of

  17. Regulation of Neurexin 1[beta] Tertiary Structure and Ligand Binding through Alternative Splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Kaiser C.; Kuczynska, Dorota A.; Wu, Irene J.; Murray, Beverly H.; Sheckler, Lauren R.; Rudenko, Gabby (Michigan)

    2008-08-04

    Neurexins and neuroligins play an essential role in synapse function, and their alterations are linked to autistic spectrum disorder. Interactions between neurexins and neuroligins regulate inhibitory and excitatory synaptogenesis in vitro through a splice-insert signaling code. In particular, neurexin 1{beta} carrying an alternative splice insert at site SS{number_sign}4 interacts with neuroligin 2 (found predominantly at inhibitory synapses) but much less so with other neuroligins (those carrying an insert at site B and prevalent at excitatory synapses). The structure of neurexin 1{beta}+SS{number_sign}4 reveals dramatic rearrangements to the 'hypervariable surface', the binding site for neuroligins. The splice insert protrudes as a long helix into space, triggers conversion of loop {beta}10-{beta}11 into a helix rearranging the binding site for neuroligins, and rearranges the Ca{sup 2+}-binding site required for ligand binding, increasing its affinity. Our structures reveal the mechanism by which neurexin 1{beta} isoforms acquire neuroligin splice isoform selectivity.

  18. Acute Effects of Light on Alternative Splicing in Light-Grown Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Estefania; Sanchez, Sabrina E; Romanowski, Andres; Schlaen, Ruben G; Sanchez-Lamas, Maximiliano; Cerdán, Pablo D; Yanovsky, Marcelo J

    2016-01-01

    Light modulates plant growth and development to a great extent by regulating gene expression programs. Here, we evaluated the effect of light on alternative splicing (AS) in light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana plants using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). We found that an acute light pulse given in the middle of the night, a treatment that simulates photoperiod lengthening, affected AS events corresponding to 382 genes. Some of these AS events were associated with genes involved in primary metabolism and stress responses, which may help to adjust metabolic and physiological responses to seasonal changes. We also found that several core clock genes showed changes in AS in response to the light treatment, suggesting that light regulation of AS may play a role in clock entrainment. Finally, we found that many light-regulated AS events were associated with genes encoding RNA processing proteins and splicing factors, supporting the idea that light regulates this posttranscriptional regulatory layer through AS regulation of splicing factors. Interestingly, the effect of a red-light pulse on AS of a gene encoding a splicing factor was not impaired in a quintuple phytochrome mutant, providing unequivocal evidence that nonphotosensory photoreceptors control AS in light-grown plants. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  19. Alternative Splicing of Neuronal Differentiation Factor TRF2 Regulated by HNRNPH1/H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Grammatikakis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During neuronal differentiation, use of an alternative splice site on the rat telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2 mRNA generates a short TRF2 protein isoform (TRF2-S capable of derepressing neuronal genes. However, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs controlling this splicing event are unknown. Here, using affinity pull-down analysis, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H1 and H2(HNRNPH as RBPs specifically capable of interacting with the spliced RNA segment (exon 7 of Trf2 pre-mRNA. HNRNPH proteins prevent the production of the short isoform of Trf2 mRNA, as HNRNPH silencing selectively elevates TRF2-S levels. Accordingly, HNRNPH levels decline while TRF2-S levels increase during neuronal differentiation. In addition, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of hnRNPH2 selectively accelerates the NGF-triggered differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma cells into neurons. In sum, HNRNPH is a splicing regulator of Trf2 pre-mRNA that prevents the expression of TRF2-S, a factor implicated in neuronal differentiation.

  20. Alternative Splicing of Neuronal Differentiation Factor TRF2 Regulated by HNRNPH1/H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Zhang, Peisu; Panda, Amaresh C; Kim, Jiyoung; Maudsley, Stuart; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Yang, Xiaoling; Martindale, Jennifer L; Motiño, Omar; Hutchison, Emmette R; Mattson, Mark P; Gorospe, Myriam

    2016-05-03

    During neuronal differentiation, use of an alternative splice site on the rat telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) mRNA generates a short TRF2 protein isoform (TRF2-S) capable of derepressing neuronal genes. However, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) controlling this splicing event are unknown. Here, using affinity pull-down analysis, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H1 and H2(HNRNPH) as RBPs specifically capable of interacting with the spliced RNA segment (exon 7) of Trf2 pre-mRNA. HNRNPH proteins prevent the production of the short isoform of Trf2 mRNA, as HNRNPH silencing selectively elevates TRF2-S levels. Accordingly, HNRNPH levels decline while TRF2-S levels increase during neuronal differentiation. In addition, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of hnRNPH2 selectively accelerates the NGF-triggered differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma cells into neurons. In sum, HNRNPH is a splicing regulator of Trf2 pre-mRNA that prevents the expression of TRF2-S, a factor implicated in neuronal differentiation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A new retroelement constituted by a natural alternatively spliced RNA of murine replication-competent retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzet, Laurent; Battini, Jean Luc; Bernard, Eric; Thibert, Valerie; Mougel, Marylène

    2003-09-15

    Replication of simple retroviruses depends on the recruitment of a single large primary transcript toward splicing, transport/packaging and translation regulations. In this respect, we studied the novel SD' 4.4 kb RNA of murine leukemia retroviruses (MLV) which results from alternative splicing of the primary transcript. We showed that SD' RNA was required for optimal replication since expression of a pre-spliced SD' RNA trans-complemented the impaired infectivity of a SD'-defective mutant. We monitored the fate of this novel transcript throughout early and late events of the viral life cycle. SD' RNA was specifically incorporated into virions demonstrating that the unspliced RNA was not the unique viral RNA present in virions. Furthermore, SD' RNA was reverse transcribed and its DNA copy integrated into the host genome, thus constituting a new splice donor-associated retroelement (SDARE) in infected cells. Finally, we showed that SD' mRNA encoded a 50 kDa polyprotein, and to a lower extent an additional 60 kDa polyprotein, which harbored Gag and integrase domains.

  2. Changes in Alternative Splicing in Apis Mellifera Bees Fed Apis Cerana Royal Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yuan Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera is a social insect characterized by caste differentiation in which the queen bee and worker bees display marked differences in morphology, behavior, reproduction, and longevity despite their identical genomes. The main causative factor in caste differentiation is the food fed to queen larvae, termed royal jelly (RJ. Alternative splicing (AS is an important RNA-mediated post-transcriptional process in eukaryotes. Here we report AS changes in A. mellifera after being fed either A. mellifera RJ or A. cerana RJ. The results demonstrated that the RJ type affected 4 types of AS in adult A. mellifera: exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5’ splice sites, and alternative 3’splice sites. After feeding with A. cerana RJ, AS occurred in many genes in adult A. mellifera that encode proteins involved in development, growth, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and substance metabolism. This study provides the first evidence that heterospecific RJ can influence the AS of many genes related to honey bee development and growth.

  3. Systematically differentiating functions for alternatively spliced isoforms through integrating RNA-seq data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridvan Eksi

    Full Text Available Integrating large-scale functional genomic data has significantly accelerated our understanding of gene functions. However, no algorithm has been developed to differentiate functions for isoforms of the same gene using high-throughput genomic data. This is because standard supervised learning requires 'ground-truth' functional annotations, which are lacking at the isoform level. To address this challenge, we developed a generic framework that interrogates public RNA-seq data at the transcript level to differentiate functions for alternatively spliced isoforms. For a specific function, our algorithm identifies the 'responsible' isoform(s of a gene and generates classifying models at the isoform level instead of at the gene level. Through cross-validation, we demonstrated that our algorithm is effective in assigning functions to genes, especially the ones with multiple isoforms, and robust to gene expression levels and removal of homologous gene pairs. We identified genes in the mouse whose isoforms are predicted to have disparate functionalities and experimentally validated the 'responsible' isoforms using data from mammary tissue. With protein structure modeling and experimental evidence, we further validated the predicted isoform functional differences for the genes Cdkn2a and Anxa6. Our generic framework is the first to predict and differentiate functions for alternatively spliced isoforms, instead of genes, using genomic data. It is extendable to any base machine learner and other species with alternatively spliced isoforms, and shifts the current gene-centered function prediction to isoform-level predictions.

  4. Eye development under the control of SRp55/B52-mediated alternative splicing of eyeless.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Fic

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The genetic programs specifying eye development are highly conserved during evolution and involve the vertebrate Pax-6 gene and its Drosophila melanogaster homolog eyeless (ey. Here we report that the SR protein B52/SRp55 controls a novel developmentally regulated splicing event of eyeless that is crucial for eye growth and specification in Drosophila. B52/SRp55 generates two isoforms of eyeless differing by an alternative exon encoding a 60-amino-acid insert at the beginning of the paired domain. The long isoform has impaired ability to trigger formation of ectopic eyes and to bind efficiently Eyeless target DNA sequences in vitro. When over-produced in the eye imaginal disc, this isoform induces a small eye phenotype, whereas the isoform lacking the alternative exon triggers eye over-growth and strong disorganization. Our results suggest that B52/SRp55 splicing activity is used during normal eye development to control eye organogenesis and size through regulation of eyeless alternative splicing.

  5. Cloning and characterization of a novel alternatively spliced transcript of the human CHD7 putative helicase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa Ricardo G

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CHD7 (Chromodomain Helicase DNA binding protein 7 gene encodes a member of the chromodomain family of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes. Mutations in the CHD7 gene are found in individuals with CHARGE, a syndrome characterized by multiple birth malformations in several tissues. CHD7 was identified as a binding partner of PBAF complex (Polybromo and BRG Associated Factor containing complex playing a central role in the transcriptional reprogramming process associated to the formation of multipotent migratory neural crest, a transient cell population associated with the genesis of various tissues. CHD7 is a large gene containing 38 annotated exons and spanning 200 kb of genomic sequence. Although genes containing such number of exons are expected to have several alternative transcripts, there are very few evidences of alternative transcripts associated to CHD7 to date indicating that alternative splicing associated to this gene is poorly characterized. Findings Here, we report the cloning and characterization by experimental and computational studies of a novel alternative transcript of the human CHD7 (named CHD7 CRA_e, which lacks most of its coding exons. We confirmed by overexpression of CHD7 CRA_e alternative transcript that it is translated into a protein isoform lacking most of the domains displayed by the canonical isoform. Expression of the CHD7 CRA_e transcript was detected in normal liver, in addition to the DU145 human prostate carcinoma cell line from which it was originally isolated. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the splicing event associated to the CHD7 CRA_e alternative transcript is functional. The characterization of the CHD7 CRA_e novel isoform presented here not only sets the basis for more detailed functional studies of this isoform, but, also, contributes to the alternative splicing annotation of the CHD7 gene and the design of future functional studies aimed at the elucidation of the

  6. Transformation of eEF1B[delta] into heat-shock response transcription factor by alternative splicing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taku Kaitsuka; Kazuhito Tomizawa; Masayuki Matsushita

    2011-01-01

    .... Here, we show that eukaryotic elongation factor 1Bδ (eEF1Bδ) changes its structure and function from a translation factor into a heat-shock response transcription factor by alternative splicing...

  7. Novel RNA structural features of an alternatively splicing group II intron from Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Bonnie A; Zimmerly, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes in bacterial and organellar genomes that function as self-splicing introns and as retroelements. Previously, we reported that the group II intron C.te.I1 of Clostridium tetani alternatively splices in vivo to produce five distinct coding mRNAs. Accurate fusion of upstream and downstream reading frames requires a shifted 5' splice site located 8 nt upstream of the usual 5' GUGYG motif. This site is specified by the ribozyme through an altered intron/exon-binding site 1 (IBS1-EBS1) pairing. Here we use mutagenesis and self-splicing assays to investigate in more detail the significance of the structural features of the C.te.I1 ribozyme. The shifted 5' splice site is shown to be affected by structures in addition to IBS1-EBS1, and unlike other group II introns, C.te.I1 appears to require a spacer between IBS1 and the GUGYG motif. In addition, the mechanism of 3' exon recognition is modified from the ancestral IIB mechanism to a IIA-like mechanism that appears to be longer than the typical single base-pair interaction and may extend up to 4 bp. The novel ribozyme properties that have evolved for C.te.I1 illustrate the plasticity of group II introns in adapting new structural and catalytic properties that can be utilized to affect gene expression. © 2014 McNeil and Zimmerly; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  8. Alternative Splicing Generates Different 5′ UTRs in OCT4B Variants

    OpenAIRE

    Poursani, Ensieh M.; Mehravar, Majid; Shahryari, Alireza; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Mohammad Soltani, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Background: The human OCT4 gene, responsible for pluripotency and self-renewal of Embryonic Stem (ES) and Embryonic Carcinoma (EC) cells, can generate several transcripts (OCT4A, OCT4B-variant 2, OCT4B-variant 3, OCT4B-variant 5, OCT4B1, OCT4 B2 and OCT4B3) by alternative splicing and alternative promoters. OCT4A that is responsible for ES and EC cell stemness properties is transcribed from a promoter upstream of Exon1a in those cells. The OCT4B group variants (OCT4B-variant2, OCT4B-variant3,...

  9. Alternative Splicing of the RAGE Cytoplasmic Domain Regulates Cell Signaling and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Joel; Maiguel, Dony; Hudson, Barry I.

    2013-01-01

    The Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand receptor present on most cell types. Upregulation of RAGE is seen in a number of pathological states including, inflammatory and vascular disease, dementia, diabetes and various cancers. We previously demonstrated that alternative splicing of the RAGE gene is an important mechanism which regulates RAGE signaling through the production of soluble ligand decoy isoforms. However, no studies have identified any alternative splice variants within the intracellular region of RAGE, a region critical for RAGE signaling. Herein, we have cloned and characterized a novel splice variant of RAGE that has a truncated intracellular domain (RAGEΔICD). RAGEΔICD is prevalent in both human and mouse tissues including lung, brain, heart and kidney. Expression of RAGEΔICD in C6 glioma cells impaired RAGE-ligand induced signaling through various MAP kinase pathways including ERK1/2, p38 and SAPK/JNK. Moreover, RAGEΔICD significantly affected tumor cell properties through altering cell migration, invasion, adhesion and viability in C6 glioma cells. Furthermore, C6 glioma cells expressing RAGEΔICD exhibited drastic inhibition on tumorigenesis in soft agar assays. Taken together, these data indicate that RAGEΔICD represents a novel endogenous mechanism to regulate RAGE signaling. Significantly, RAGEΔICD could play an important role in RAGE related disease states through down regulation of RAGE signaling. PMID:24260107

  10. Design of a high-throughput assay for alternative splicing using polymerase colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, J D; Souvenir, R M; Zhang, W; Mitra, R D

    2004-01-01

    We propose an assay to detect and quantify alternative splicing simultaneously for numerous genes in a pool of cellular mRNA. The assay exploits polymerase colonies, a recently developed method for sampling and amplifying large numbers of individual transcript molecules into discrete spots on a gel. The proposed assay combines the advantages of microarrays for transcript quantitation with the sensitivity and precision of methods based on counting single transcript molecules. Given a collection of spots s(i), each containing an unknown splice variant of some known gene G(i), we design a series of hybridizations to short oligonucleotide probes to determine in parallel which exons of G(i) are present in every spot s(i). We give algorithms to minimize the cost of such designs.

  11. Muscleblind-like 1 (Mbnl1) regulates pre-mRNA alternative splicing during terminal erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Albert W; Shi, Jiahai; Wong, Piu; Luo, Katherine L; Trepman, Paula; Wang, Eric T; Choi, Heejo; Burge, Christopher B; Lodish, Harvey F

    2014-07-24

    The scope and roles of regulated isoform gene expression during erythroid terminal development are poorly understood. We identified hundreds of differentiation-associated isoform changes during terminal erythropoiesis. Sequences surrounding cassette exons of skipped exon events are enriched for motifs bound by the Muscleblind-like (MBNL) family of splicing factors. Knockdown of Mbnl1 in cultured murine fetal liver erythroid progenitors resulted in a strong block in erythroid differentiation and disrupted the developmentally regulated exon skipping of Ndel1 mRNA, which is bound by MBNL1 and critical for erythroid terminal proliferation. These findings reveal an unanticipated scope of the alternative splicing program and the importance of Mbnl1 during erythroid terminal differentiation. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. Distinct Types of Disorder in the Human Proteome: Functional Implications for Alternative Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, Magali; Sun, Mark; Irimia, Manuel; Bellay, Jeremy; Myers, Chad L.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Kim, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered regions have been associated with various cellular processes and are implicated in several human diseases, but their exact roles remain unclear. We previously defined two classes of conserved disordered regions in budding yeast, referred to as “flexible” and “constrained” conserved disorder. In flexible disorder, the property of disorder has been positionally conserved during evolution, whereas in constrained disorder, both the amino acid sequence and the property of disorder have been conserved. Here, we show that flexible and constrained disorder are widespread in the human proteome, and are particularly common in proteins with regulatory functions. Both classes of disordered sequences are highly enriched in regions of proteins that undergo tissue-specific (TS) alternative splicing (AS), but not in regions of proteins that undergo general (i.e., not tissue-regulated) AS. Flexible disorder is more highly enriched in TS alternative exons, whereas constrained disorder is more highly enriched in exons that flank TS alternative exons. These latter regions are also significantly more enriched in potential phosphosites and other short linear motifs associated with cell signaling. We further show that cancer driver mutations are significantly enriched in regions of proteins associated with TS and general AS. Collectively, our results point to distinct roles for TS alternative exons and flanking exons in the dynamic regulation of protein interaction networks in response to signaling activity, and they further suggest that alternatively spliced regions of proteins are often functionally altered by mutations responsible for cancer. PMID:23633940

  13. Functional characterisation of an intron retaining K+ transporter of barley reveals intron-mediated alternate splicing

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, K.

    2015-01-01

    Intron retention in transcripts and the presence of 5 and 3 splice sites within these introns mediate alternate splicing, which is widely observed in animals and plants. Here, functional characterisation of the K+ transporter, HvHKT2;1, with stably retained introns from barley (Hordeum vulgare) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and transcript profiling in yeast and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is presented. Expression of intron-retaining HvHKT2;1 cDNA (HvHKT2;1-i) in trk1, trk2 yeast strain defective in K+ uptake restored growth in medium containing hygromycin in the presence of different concentrations of K+ and mediated hypersensitivity to Na+. HvHKT2;1-i produces multiple transcripts via alternate splicing of two regular introns and three exons in different compositions. HKT isoforms with retained introns and exon skipping variants were detected in relative expression analysis of (i) HvHKT2;1-i in barley under native conditions, (ii) in transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing HvHKT2;1-i, and (iii) in trk1, trk2 yeast expressing HvHKT2;1-i under control of an inducible promoter. Mixed proportions of three HKT transcripts: HvHKT2;1-e (first exon region), HvHKT2;1-i1 (first intron) and HvHKT2;1-i2 (second intron) were observed. The variation in transcript accumulation in response to changing K+ and Na+ concentrations was observed in both heterologous and plant systems. These findings suggest a link between intron-retaining transcripts and different splice variants to ion homeostasis, and their possible role in salt stress.

  14. Genomic organization and the tissue distribution of alternatively spliced isoforms of the mouse Spatial gene

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    Mattei Marie-Geneviève

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stromal component of the thymic microenvironment is critical for T lymphocyte generation. Thymocyte differentiation involves a cascade of coordinated stromal genes controlling thymocyte survival, lineage commitment and selection. The "Stromal Protein Associated with Thymii And Lymph-node" (Spatial gene encodes a putative transcription factor which may be involved in T-cell development. In the testis, the Spatial gene is also expressed by round spermatids during spermatogenesis. Results The Spatial gene maps to the B3-B4 region of murine chromosome 10 corresponding to the human syntenic region 10q22.1. The mouse Spatial genomic DNA is organised into 10 exons and is alternatively spliced to generate two short isoforms (Spatial-α and -γ and two other long isoforms (Spatial-δ and -ε comprising 5 additional exons on the 3' site. Here, we report the cloning of a new short isoform, Spatial-β, which differs from other isoforms by an additional alternative exon of 69 bases. This new exon encodes an interesting proline-rich signature that could confer to the 34 kDa Spatial-β protein a particular function. By quantitative TaqMan RT-PCR, we have shown that the short isoforms are highly expressed in the thymus while the long isoforms are highly expressed in the testis. We further examined the inter-species conservation of Spatial between several mammals and identified that the protein which is rich in proline and positive amino acids, is highly conserved. Conclusions The Spatial gene generates at least five alternative spliced variants: three short isoforms (Spatial-α, -β and -γ highly expressed in the thymus and two long isoforms (Spatial-δ and -ε highly expressed in the testis. These alternative spliced variants could have a tissue specific function.

  15. A FRET-based assay for characterization of alternative splicing events using peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ana M; Rausell, Laura; Aguado, Begoña; Perez-Alonso, Manuel; Artero, Rubén

    2009-09-01

    We describe a quantitative method for detecting RNA alternative splicing variants that combines in situ hybridization of fluorescently labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes with confocal microscopy Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The use of PNA probes complementary to sequences flanking a given splice junction allows to specifically quantify, within the cell, the RNA isoform generating such splice junction by FRET measure. As a proof of concept we analyzed two alternative splicing events originating from lymphocyte antigen 6 (LY6) complex, locus G5B (LY6G5B) pre-mRNA. These are characterized by the removal of the first intron (Fully Spliced Isoform, FSI) or by retention of such intron (Intron-Retained Isoform, IRI). The use of PNA probe pairs labeled with donor (Cy3) and acceptor (Cy5) fluorophores, suitable to FRET, flanking FSI and IRI specific splice junctions specifically detected both mRNA isoforms in HeLa cells. We have observed that the method works efficiently with probes 5-11 nt apart. The data supports that this FRET-based PNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FP-FISH) method offers a conceptually new approach for characterizing at the subcellular level not only splice variant isoform structure, location and dynamics but also potentially a wide variety of close range RNA-RNA interactions.

  16. Alternative splicing of iodothyronine deiodinases in pituitary adenomas. Regulation by oncoprotein SF2/ASF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekielko-Witkowska, Agnieszka; Kedzierska, Hanna; Poplawski, Piotr; Wojcicka, Anna; Rybicka, Beata; Maksymowicz, Maria; Grajkowska, Wieslawa; Matyja, Ewa; Mandat, Tomasz; Bonicki, Wieslaw; Nauman, Pawel

    2013-06-01

    Pituitary tumors belong to the group of most common neoplasms of the sellar region. Iodothyronine deiodinase types 1 (DIO1) and 2 (DIO2) are enzymes contributing to the levels of locally synthesized T3, a hormone regulating key physiological processes in the pituitary, including its development, cellular proliferation, and hormone secretion. Previous studies revealed that the expression of deiodinases in pituitary tumors is variable and, moreover, there is no correlation between mRNA and protein products of the particular gene, suggesting the potential role of posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms. In this work we hypothesized that one of such mechanisms could be the alternative splicing. Therefore, we analyzed expression and sequences of DIO1 and DIO2 splicing variants in 30 pituitary adenomas and 9 non-tumorous pituitary samples. DIO2 mRNA was expressed as only two mRNA isoforms. In contrast, nine splice variants of DIO1 were identified. Among them, five were devoid of exon 3. In silico sequence analysis of DIO1 revealed multiple putative binding sites for splicing factor SF2/ASF, of which the top-ranked sites were located in exon 3. Silencing of SF2/ASF in pituitary tumor GH3 cells resulted in change of ratio between DIO1 isoforms with or without exon 3, favoring the expression of variants without exon 3. The expression of SF2/ASF mRNA in pituitary tumors was increased when compared with non-neoplastic control samples. In conclusion, we provide a new mechanism of posttranscriptional regulation of DIO1 and show deregulation of DIO1 expression in pituitary adenoma, possibly resulting from disturbed expression of SF2/ASF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. T cell receptor V[alpha] gene segment with alternate splicing in the junctional region

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    Marche, P.N.; Six, A.; Gahery, H.; Gris-Liebe, C.; Cazenave, P.A.; Jouvin-Marche, E. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France))

    1993-11-15

    The locus encoding mouse TCR-[alpha] chain includes approximately 100 V[alpha] gene segments that can be organized in about 20 structural subfamilies. Southern blot analysis of a T cell line derived from the BALB/c strain, M5T, has indicated that both [alpha] loci were rearranged, as assessed by the deletion of the [delta] locus, and that the V[alpha] gene-segment involved in one of the rearrangements did not belong to any of the V[alpha] subfamilies already described. Transcripts of TCR-[alpha] chains from the M5T line were cloned after cDNA synthesis and anchored-polymerase chain reaction, revealing a V[alpha] gene segment of an as yet unidentified subfamily, V[alpha]5T. Molecular cloning of germ-line V[alpha]5T gene segments has shown that this subfamily contained two members, one of them being a pseudogene. The two members were located to each extremity of the [alpha] locus associated with a member of the V[alpha]13 and V[alpha]BWB subfamilies. Analysis of transcripts bearing the V[alpha]5T gene segment in the M5T line as well as in thymocytes has revealed that J[alpha] are frequently absent. This is due to an alternate donor splice site generated at the V[alpha]5T-J[alpha] junction that leads to a splicing from the end of V[alpha]5T to C[alpha] instead of the J[alpha] to C[alpha] conventional splicing. The impact of J[alpha] spliced-out transcripts on the allelic exclusion process is discussed. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  18. T cell receptor V alpha gene segment with alternate splicing in the junctional region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marche, P N; Six, A; Gahéry, H; Gris-Liebe, C; Cazenave, P A; Jouvin-Marche, E

    1993-11-15

    The locus encoding mouse TCR-alpha chain includes approximately 100 V alpha gene segments that can be organized in about 20 structural subfamilies. Southern blot analysis of a T cell line derived from the BALB/c strain, M5T, has indicated that both alpha loci were rearranged, as assessed by the deletion of the delta locus, and that the V alpha gene segment involved in one of the rearrangements did not belong to any of the V alpha subfamilies already described. Transcripts of TCR-alpha chains from the M5T line were cloned after cDNA synthesis and anchored-polymerase chain reaction, revealing a V alpha gene segment of an as yet unidentified subfamily, V alpha 5T. Molecular cloning of germ-line V alpha 5T gene segments has shown that this subfamily contained two members, one of them being a pseudogene. The two members were located to each extremity of the alpha locus associated with a member of the V alpha 13 and V alpha BWB subfamilies. Analysis of transcripts bearing the V alpha 5T gene segment in the M5T line as well as in thymocytes has revealed that J alpha are frequently absent. This is due to an alternate donor splice site generated at the V alpha 5T-J alpha junction that leads to a splicing from the end of V alpha 5T to C alpha instead of the J alpha to C alpha conventional splicing. The impact of J alpha spliced-out transcripts on the allelic exclusion process is discussed.

  19. The Cancer Exome Generated by Alternative mRNA Splicing Dilutes Predicted HLA Class I Epitope Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stranzl, Thomas; Larsen, Mette Voldby; Lund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    is frequently observed in various types of cancer. Down-regulation of genes related to HLA class I antigen processing has been observed in several cancer types, leading to fewer HLA class I antigens on the cell surface. Here, we use a peptidome wide analysis of predicted alternative splice forms, based......Several studies have shown that cancers actively regulate alternative splicing. Altered splicing mechanisms in cancer lead to cancer-specific transcripts different from the pool of transcripts occurring only in healthy tissue. At the same time, altered presentation of HLA class I epitopes...... on a publicly available database, to show that peptides over-represented in cancer splice variants comprise significantly fewer predicted HLA class I epitopes compared to peptides from normal transcripts. Peptides over-represented in cancer transcripts are in the case of the three most common HLA class I...

  20. Alternative splicing and differential subcellular localization of the rat FGF antisense gene product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casson Alan G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GFG/NUDT is a nudix hydrolase originally identified as the product of the fibroblast growth factor-2 antisense (FGF-AS gene. While the FGF-AS RNA has been implicated as an antisense regulator of FGF-2 expression, the expression and function of the encoded GFG protein is largely unknown. Alternative splicing of the primary FGF-AS mRNA transcript predicts multiple GFG isoforms in many species including rat. In the present study we focused on elucidating the expression and subcellular distribution of alternatively spliced rat GFG isoforms. Results RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed tissue-specific GFG mRNA isoform expression and subcellular distribution of GFG immunoreactivity in cytoplasm and nuclei of a wide range of normal rat tissues. FGF-2 and GFG immunoreactivity were co-localized in some, but not all, tissues examined. Computational analysis identified a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS in the N-terminus of three previously described rGFG isoforms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and subcellular fractionation analysis revealed that all rGFG isoforms bearing the MTS were specifically targeted to mitochondria whereas isoforms and deletion mutants lacking the MTS were localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Mutation and deletion analysis confirmed that the predicted MTS was necessary and sufficient for mitochondrial compartmentalization. Conclusion Previous findings strongly support a role for the FGF antisense RNA as a regulator of FGF2 expression. The present study demonstrates that the antisense RNA itself is translated, and that protein isoforms resulting form alternative RNA splicing are sorted to different subcellular compartments. FGF-2 and its antisense protein are co-expressed in many tissues and in some cases in the same cells. The strong conservation of sequence and genomic organization across animal species suggests important functional significance to the physical association of these transcript

  1. Human sex hormone-binding globulin gene expression- multiple promoters and complex alternative splicing

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    Rosner William

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG regulates free sex steroid concentrations in plasma and modulates rapid, membrane based steroid signaling. SHBG is encoded by an eight exon-long transcript whose expression is regulated by a downstream promoter (PL. The SHBG gene was previously shown to express a second major transcript of unknown function, derived from an upstream promoter (PT, and two minor transcripts. Results We report that transcriptional expression of the human SHBG gene is far more complex than previously described. PL and PT direct the expression of at least six independent transcripts each, resulting from alternative splicing of exons 4, 5, 6, and/or 7. We mapped two transcriptional start sites downstream of PL and PT, and present evidence for a third SHBG gene promoter (PN within the neighboring FXR2 gene; PN regulates the expression of at least seven independent SHBG gene transcripts, each possessing a novel, 164-nt first exon (1N. Transcriptional expression patterns were generated for human prostate, breast, testis, liver, and brain, and the LNCaP, MCF-7, and HepG2 cell lines. Each expresses the SHBG transcript, albeit in varying abundance. Alternative splicing was more pronounced in the cancer cell lines. PL- PT- and PN-derived transcripts were most abundant in liver, testis, and prostate, respectively. Initial findings reveal the existence of a smaller immunoreactive SHBG species in LNCaP, MCF-7, and HepG2 cells. Conclusion These results extend our understanding of human SHBG gene transcription, and raise new and important questions regarding the role of novel alternatively spliced transcripts, their function in hormonally responsive tissues including the breast and prostate, and the role that aberrant SHBG gene expression may play in cancer.

  2. Alternative Splicing of Rice WRKY62 and WRKY76 Transcription Factor Genes in Pathogen Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiqin; Chen, Xujun; Liang, Xiaoxing; Zhou, Xiangui; Yang, Fang; Liu, Jia; He, Sheng Yang; Guo, Zejian

    2016-06-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors (TFs) functions as transcriptional activators or repressors in various signaling pathways. In this study, we discovered that OsWRKY62 and OsWRKY76, two genes of the WRKY IIa subfamily, undergo constitutive and inducible alternative splicing. The full-length OsWRKY62.1 and OsWRKY76.1 proteins formed homocomplexes and heterocomplexes, and the heterocomplex dominates in the nuclei when analyzed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transgenic overexpression of OsWRKY62.1 and OsWRKY76.1 in rice (Oryza sativa) enhanced plant susceptibility to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the leaf blight bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae, whereas RNA interference and loss-of-function knockout plants exhibited elevated resistance. The dsOW62/76 and knockout lines of OsWRKY62 and OsWRKY76 also showed greatly increased expression of defense-related genes and the accumulation of phytoalexins. The ratio of full-length versus truncated transcripts changed in dsOW62/76 plants as well as in response to pathogen infection. The short alternative OsWRKY62.2 and OsWRKY76.2 isoforms could interact with each other and with full-length proteins. OsWRKY62.2 showed a reduced repressor activity in planta, and two sequence determinants required for the repressor activity were identified in the amino terminus of OsWRKY62.1. The amino termini of OsWRKY62 and OsWRKY76 splice variants also showed reduced binding to the canonical W box motif. These results not only enhance our understanding of the DNA-binding property, the repressor sequence motifs, and the negative feedback regulation of the IIa subfamily of WRKYs but also provide evidence for alternative splicing of WRKY TFs during the plant defense response. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. SnoI, a novel alternatively spliced isoform of the ski protooncogene homolog, sno.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson-White, S

    1993-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced a novel human isoform of sno, snoI for insertion. SnoI contains 1330 nucleotides inserted in place of 7 nucleotides of the snoN mRNA. Sno is a member of the ski protooncogene family, which has been implicated in muscle development. The two previously known sno alternatively spliced isoforms are snoN (684 amino acids), and snoA (415 amino acids); snoI encodes a truncated isoform of 399 amino acids (44,298 MW). Southern blot experiments show that snoI contains a thi...

  4. Functional analysis of alternative splicing of the FLOWERING LOCUS T orthologous gene in Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yachao; Sun, Jing; Cao, Peipei; Zhang, Rong; Fu, Qike; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Jiang, Jiafu

    2016-01-01

    As the junction of floral development pathways, the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein called 'florigen' plays an important role in the process of plant flowering through signal integration. We isolated four transcripts encoding different isoforms of a FT orthologous gene CmFTL1, from Chrysanthemum morifolium cultivar 'Jimba'. Sequence alignments suggested that the four transcripts are related to the intron 1. Expression analysis showed that four alternative splicing (AS) forms of CmFTL1 varied depending on the developmental stage of the flower. The functional complement experiment using an Arabidopsis mutant ft-10 revealed that the archetypal and AS forms of CmFTL1 had the function of complementing late flower phenotype in different levels. In addition, transgenic confirmation at transcript level showed CmFTL1 and CmFTL1ast coexist in the same tissue type at the same developmental stage, indicating a post-transcriptional modification of CmFTL1 in Arabidopsis. Moreover, ectopic expression of different AS forms in chrysanthemum resulted in the development of multiple altered phenotypes, varying degrees of early flowering. We found that an alternative splicing form (CmFTL1-astE134) without the exon 2 lacked the ability causing the earlier flower phenotype. The evidence in this study indicates that complex alternative processing of CmFTL1 transcripts in C. morifolium may be associated with flowering regulation and hold some potential for biotechnical engineering to create early-flowering phenotypes in ornamental cultivars.

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis of Heat-Sensitive Alternative Splicing in Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung-Yun; Lin, Wen-Dar; Tu, Shih-Long

    2014-06-01

    Plant growth and development are constantly influenced by temperature fluctuations. To respond to temperature changes, different levels of gene regulation are modulated in the cell. Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism increasing transcriptome complexity and proteome diversity. Although genome-wide studies have revealed complex AS patterns in plants, whether AS impacts the stress defense of plants is not known. We used heat shock (HS) treatments at nondamaging temperature and messenger RNA sequencing to obtain HS transcriptomes in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Data analysis identified a significant number of novel AS events in the moss protonema. Nearly 50% of genes are alternatively spliced. Intron retention (IR) is markedly repressed under elevated temperature but alternative donor/acceptor site and exon skipping are mainly induced, indicating differential regulation of AS in response to heat stress. Transcripts undergoing heat-sensitive IR are mostly involved in specific functions, which suggests that plants regulate AS with transcript specificity under elevated temperature. An exonic GAG-repeat motif in these IR regions may function as a regulatory cis-element in heat-mediated AS regulation. A conserved AS pattern for HS transcription factors in P. patens and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) reveals that heat regulation for AS evolved early during land colonization of green plants. Our results support that AS of specific genes, including key HS regulators, is fine-tuned under elevated temperature to modulate gene regulation and reorganize metabolic processes. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Genome-wide analyses of alternative splicing in plants: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbazuk, W Brad; Fu, Yan; McGinnis, Karen M

    2008-09-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) creates multiple mRNA transcripts from a single gene. While AS is known to contribute to gene regulation and proteome diversity in animals, the study of its importance in plants is in its early stages. However, recently available plant genome and transcript sequence data sets are enabling a global analysis of AS in many plant species. Results of genome analysis have revealed differences between animals and plants in the frequency of alternative splicing. The proportion of plant genes that have one or more alternative transcript isoforms is approximately 20%, indicating that AS in plants is not rare, although this rate is approximately one-third of that observed in human. The majority of plant AS events have not been functionally characterized, but evidence suggests that AS participates in important plant functions, including stress response, and may impact domestication and trait selection. The increasing availability of plant genome sequence data will enable larger comparative analyses that will identify functionally important plant AS events based on their evolutionary conservation, determine the influence of genome duplication on the evolution of AS, and discover plant-specific cis-elements that regulate AS. This review summarizes recent analyses of AS in plants, discusses the importance of further analysis, and suggests directions for future efforts.

  7. Divergent Expression and Metabolic Functions of Human Glucuronosyltransferases through Alternative Splicing

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    Michèle Rouleau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of cellular homeostasis and xenobiotic detoxification is mediated by 19 human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs encoded by ten genes that comprise the glucuronidation pathway. Deep RNA sequencing of major metabolic organs exposes a substantial expansion of the UGT transcriptome by alternative splicing, with variants representing 20% to 60% of canonical transcript expression. Nearly a fifth of expressed variants comprise in-frame sequences that may create distinct structural and functional features. Follow-up cell-based assays reveal biological functions for these alternative UGT proteins. Some isoforms were found to inhibit or induce inactivation of drugs and steroids in addition to perturbing global cell metabolism (energy, amino acids, nucleotides, cell adhesion, and proliferation. This work highlights the biological relevance of alternative UGT expression, which we propose increases protein diversity through the evolution of metabolic regulators from specific enzymes.

  8. Divergent Expression and Metabolic Functions of Human Glucuronosyltransferases through Alternative Splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Michèle; Tourancheau, Alan; Girard-Bock, Camille; Villeneuve, Lyne; Vaucher, Jonathan; Duperré, Anne-Marie; Audet-Delage, Yannick; Gilbert, Isabelle; Popa, Ion; Droit, Arnaud; Guillemette, Chantal

    2016-09-27

    Maintenance of cellular homeostasis and xenobiotic detoxification is mediated by 19 human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs) encoded by ten genes that comprise the glucuronidation pathway. Deep RNA sequencing of major metabolic organs exposes a substantial expansion of the UGT transcriptome by alternative splicing, with variants representing 20% to 60% of canonical transcript expression. Nearly a fifth of expressed variants comprise in-frame sequences that may create distinct structural and functional features. Follow-up cell-based assays reveal biological functions for these alternative UGT proteins. Some isoforms were found to inhibit or induce inactivation of drugs and steroids in addition to perturbing global cell metabolism (energy, amino acids, nucleotides), cell adhesion, and proliferation. This work highlights the biological relevance of alternative UGT expression, which we propose increases protein diversity through the evolution of metabolic regulators from specific enzymes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Abnormalities in alternative splicing of angiogenesis-related genes and their role in HIV-related cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mthembu NN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonkululeko N Mthembu,1 Zukile Mbita,2 Rodney Hull,1 Zodwa Dlamini1 1Research, Innovation and Engagements, Mangosuthu University of Technology, Durban, 2Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Limpopo, Sovenga, South Africa Abstract: Alternative splicing of mRNA leads to an increase in proteome biodiversity by allowing the generation of multiple mRNAs, coding for multiple protein isoforms of various structural and functional properties from a single primary pre-mRNA transcript. The protein isoforms produced are tightly regulated in normal development but are mostly deregulated in various cancers. In HIV-infected individuals with AIDS, there is an increase in aberrant alternative splicing, resulting in an increase in HIV/AIDS-related cancers, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and cervical cancer. This aberrant splicing leads to abnormal production of protein and is caused by mutations in cis-acting elements or trans-acting factors in angiogenesis-related genes. Restoring the normal regulation of alternative splicing of angiogenic genes would alter the expression of protein isoforms and may confer normal cell physiology in patients with these cancers. This review highlights the abnormalities in alternative splicing of angiogenesis-related genes and their implication in HIV/AIDS-related cancers. This allows us to gain an insight into the pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS-related cancer and in turn elucidate the therapeutic potential of alternatively spliced genes in HIV/AIDS-related malignancies. Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor, oncogenic viruses, hypoxia induced factor 1, Kaposi’s sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, therapies targeting alternative splicing

  10. ASF/SF2-regulated CaMKIIdelta alternative splicing temporally reprograms excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangdong; Yang, Dongmei; Ding, Jian-Hua; Wang, Wang; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Dalton, Nancy D; Wang, Huan-You; Bermingham, John R; Ye, Zhen; Liu, Forrest; Rosenfeld, Michael G; Manley, James L; Ross, John; Chen, Ju; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Cheng, Heping; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2005-01-14

    The transition from juvenile to adult life is accompanied by programmed remodeling in many tissues and organs, which is key for organisms to adapt to the demand of the environment. Here we report a novel regulated alternative splicing program that is crucial for postnatnal heart remodeling in the mouse. We identify the essential splicing factor ASF/SF2 as a key component of the program, regulating a restricted set of tissue-specific alternative splicing events during heart remodeling. Cardiomyocytes deficient in ASF/SF2 display an unexpected hypercontraction phenotype due to a defect in postnatal splicing switch of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase IIdelta (CaMKIIdelta) transcript. This failure results in mistargeting of the kinase to sarcolemmal membranes, causing severe excitation-contraction coupling defects. Our results validate ASF/SF2 as a fundamental splicing regulator in the reprogramming pathway and reveal the central contribution of ASF/SF2-regulated CaMKIIdelta alternative splicing to functional remodeling in developing heart.

  11. A CaMK IV responsive RNA element mediates depolarization-induced alternative splicing of ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J; Black, D L

    2001-04-19

    Calcium regulation of gene expression is critical for the long-lasting activity-dependent changes in cellular electrical properties that underlie important physiological functions such as learning and memory. Cellular electrical properties are diversified through the extensive alternative splicing of ion channel pre-messenger RNAs; however, the regulation of splicing by cell signalling pathways has not been well explored. Here we show that depolarization of GH3 pituitary cells represses splicing of the STREX exon in BK potassium channel transcripts through the action of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs). Overexpressing constitutively active CaMK IV, but not CaMK I or II, specifically decreases STREX inclusion in the mRNA. This decrease is prevented by mutations in particular RNA repressor sequences. Transferring 54 nucleotides from the 3' splice site upstream of STREX to a heterologous gene is sufficient to confer CaMK IV repression on an otherwise constitutive exon. These experiments define a CaMK IV-responsive RNA element (CaRRE), which mediates the alternative splicing of ion channel pre-mRNAs. The CaRRE presents a unique molecular target for inducing long-term adaptive changes in cellular electrical properties. It also provides a model system for dissecting the effect of signal transduction pathways on alternative splicing.

  12. A structured RNA in hepatitis B virus post-transcriptional regulatory element represses alternative splicing in a sequence-independent and position-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Xie, Mao-Hua; Liu, Wei; Yang, Bo; Yang, Fan; Huang, Jingang; Huang, Jie; Wu, Qijia; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Yi

    2011-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcripts are subjected to multiple splicing decisions, but the mechanism of splicing regulation remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a well-investigated alternative splicing reporter to dissect splicing regulatory elements residing in the post-transcriptional regulatory element (PRE) of HBV. A strong intronic splicing silencer (ISS) with a minimal functional element of 105 nucleotides (referred to as PRE-ISS) was identified and, interestingly, both the sense and antisense strands of the element were found to strongly suppress alternative splicing in multiple human cell lines. PRE-ISS folds into a double-hairpin structure, in which substitution mutations disrupting the double-hairpin structure abolish the splicing silencer activity. Although it harbors two previously identified binding sites for polypyrimidine tract binding protein, PRE-ISS represses splicing independent of this protein. The silencing function of PRE-ISS exhibited a strong position dependence, decreasing with the distance from affected splice sites. PRE-ISS does not belong to the intronic region of any HBV splicing variants identified thus far, preventing the testing of this intronic silencer function in the regulation of HBV splicing. These findings, together with the identification of multiple sense-antisense ISSs in the HBV genome, support the hypothesis that a sequence-independent and structure-dependent regulatory mechanism may have evolved to repress cryptic splice sites in HBV transcripts, thereby preventing their aberrant splicing during viral replication in the host. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  13. PMD patient mutations reveal a long-distance intronic interaction that regulates PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Taube, Jennifer R.; Sperle, Karen; Banser, Linda; Seeman, Pavel; Cavan, Barbra Charina V.; Garbern, James Y.; Hobson, Grace M.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing of the proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1) produces two forms, PLP1 and DM20, due to alternative use of 5′ splice sites with the same acceptor site in intron 3. The PLP1 form predominates in central nervous system RNA. Mutations that reduce the ratio of PLP1 to DM20, whether mutant or normal protein is formed, result in the X-linked leukodystrophy Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). We investigated the ability of sequences throughout PLP1 intron 3 to regulate alternative sp...

  14. Tracking the evolution of alternatively spliced exons within the Dscam family

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    Vision Todd J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dscam gene in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, contains twenty-four exons, four of which are composed of tandem arrays that each undergo mutually exclusive alternative splicing (4, 6, 9 and 17, potentially generating 38,016 protein isoforms. This degree of transcript diversity has not been found in mammalian homologs of Dscam. We examined the molecular evolution of exons within this gene family to locate the point of divergence for this alternative splicing pattern. Results Using the fruit fly Dscam exons 4, 6, 9 and 17 as seed sequences, we iteratively searched sixteen genomes for homologs, and then performed phylogenetic analyses of the resulting sequences to examine their evolutionary history. We found homologs in the nematode, arthropod and vertebrate genomes, including homologs in several vertebrates where Dscam had not been previously annotated. Among these, only the arthropods contain homologs arranged in tandem arrays indicative of mutually exclusive splicing. We found no homologs to these exons within the Arabidopsis, yeast, tunicate or sea urchin genomes but homologs to several constitutive exons from fly Dscam were present within tunicate and sea urchin. Comparing the rate of turnover within the tandem arrays of the insect taxa (fruit fly, mosquito and honeybee, we found the variants within exons 4 and 17 are well conserved in number and spatial arrangement despite 248–283 million years of divergence. In contrast, the variants within exons 6 and 9 have undergone considerable turnover since these taxa diverged, as indicated by deeply branching taxon-specific lineages. Conclusion Our results suggest that at least one Dscam exon array may be an ancient duplication that predates the divergence of deuterostomes from protostomes but that there is no evidence for the presence of arrays in the common ancestor of vertebrates. The different patterns of conservation and turnover among the Dscam exon arrays

  15. Genome-wide analysis of immune activation in human T and B cells reveals distinct classes of alternatively spliced genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy A Grigoryev

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA is a mechanism that increases the protein diversity of a single gene by differential exon inclusion/exclusion during post-transcriptional processing. While alternative splicing is established to occur during lymphocyte activation, little is known about the role it plays during the immune response. Our study is among the first reports of a systematic genome-wide analysis of activated human T and B lymphocytes using whole exon DNA microarrays integrating alternative splicing and differential gene expression. Purified human CD2(+ T or CD19(+ B cells were activated using protocols to model the early events in post-transplant allograft immunity and sampled as a function of time during the process of immune activation. Here we show that 3 distinct classes of alternatively spliced and/or differentially expressed genes change in an ordered manner as a function of immune activation. We mapped our results to function-based canonical pathways and demonstrated that some are populated by only one class of genes, like integrin signaling, while other pathways, such as purine metabolism and T cell receptor signaling, are populated by all three classes of genes. Our studies augment the current view of T and B cell activation in immunity that has been based exclusively upon differential gene expression by providing evidence for a large number of molecular networks populated as a function of time and activation by alternatively spliced genes, many of which are constitutively expressed.

  16. Fine-tuning and autoregulation of the intestinal determinant and tumor suppressor homeobox gene CDX2 by alternative splicing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balbinot, Camille; Vanier, Marie; Armant, Olivier; Nair, Asmaa; Penichon, Julien; Soret, Christine; Martin, Elisabeth; Saandi, Thoueiba; Reimund, Jean-Marie; Deschamps, Jacqueline; Beck, Felix; Domon-Dell, Claire; Gross, Isabelle; Duluc, Isabelle; Freund, Jean-Noël

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, we uncovered a variant of the CDX2 homeobox gene, a major regulator of the development and homeostasis of the gut epithelium, also involved in cancer. This variant, miniCDX2, is generated by alternative splicing coupled to alternative translation initiation,

  17. Alternative splicing affects the targeting sequence of peroxisome proteins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chuanjing; Gao, Yuefang; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Xiaomin; Gao, Fuli; Gao, Hongbo

    2017-07-01

    A systematic analysis of the Arabidopsis genome in combination with localization experiments indicates that alternative splicing affects the peroxisomal targeting sequence of at least 71 genes in Arabidopsis. Peroxisomes are ubiquitous eukaryotic cellular organelles that play a key role in diverse metabolic functions. All peroxisome proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and target to peroxisomes mainly through two types of targeting signals: peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) and PTS2. Alternative splicing (AS) is a process occurring in all eukaryotes by which a single pre-mRNA can generate multiple mRNA variants, often encoding proteins with functional differences. However, the effects of AS on the PTS1 or PTS2 and the targeting of the protein were rarely studied, especially in plants. Here, we systematically analyzed the genome of Arabidopsis, and found that the C-terminal targeting sequence PTS1 of 66 genes and the N-terminal targeting sequence PTS2 of 5 genes are affected by AS. Experimental determination of the targeting of selected protein isoforms further demonstrated that AS at both the 5' and 3' region of a gene can affect the inclusion of PTS2 and PTS1, respectively. This work underscores the importance of AS on the global regulation of peroxisome protein targeting.

  18. A computational method for studying the relation between alternative splicing and DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zejun; Wei, Xiaona; Hildebrandt, Andreas; Schmidt, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism in eukaryotes that expands the transcriptome and proteome significantly. It plays an important role in a number of biological processes. Understanding its regulation is hence an important challenge. Recently, increasing evidence has been collected that supports an involvement of intragenic DNA methylation in the regulation of alternative splicing. The exact mechanisms of regulation, however, are largely unknown, and speculated to be complex: different methylation profiles might exist, each of which could be associated with a different regulation mechanism. We present a computational technique that is able to determine such stable methylation patterns and allows to correlate these patterns with inclusion propensity of exons. Pattern detection is based on dynamic time warping (DTW) of methylation profiles, a sophisticated similarity measure for signals that can be non-trivially transformed. We design a flexible self-organizing map approach to pattern grouping. Exemplary application on available data sets indicates that stable patterns which correlate non-trivially with exon inclusion do indeed exist. To improve the reliability of these predictions, further studies on larger data sets will be required. We have thus taken great care that our software runs efficiently on modern hardware, so that it can support future studies on large-scale data sets. PMID:26365234

  19. DNA methylation dynamics, metabolic fluxes, gene splicing, and alternative phenotypes in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret, Sylvain; Kucharski, Robert; Pellegrini, Matteo; Feng, Suhua; Jacobsen, Steven E; Robinson, Gene E; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2012-03-27

    In honey bees (Apis mellifera), the development of a larva into either a queen or worker depends on differential feeding with royal jelly and involves epigenomic modifications by DNA methyltransferases. To understand the role of DNA methylation in this process we sequenced the larval methylomes in both queens and workers. We show that the number of differentially methylated genes (DMGs) in larval head is significantly increased relative to adult brain (2,399 vs. 560) with more than 80% of DMGs up-methylated in worker larvae. Several highly conserved metabolic and signaling pathways are enriched in methylated genes, underscoring the connection between dietary intake and metabolic flux. This includes genes related to juvenile hormone and insulin, two hormones shown previously to regulate caste determination. We also tie methylation data to expressional profiling and describe a distinct role for one of the DMGs encoding anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), an important regulator of metabolism. We show that alk is not only differentially methylated and alternatively spliced in Apis, but also seems to be regulated by a cis-acting, anti-sense non-protein-coding transcript. The unusually complex regulation of ALK in Apis suggests that this protein could represent a previously unknown node in a process that activates downstream signaling according to a nutritional context. The correlation between methylation and alternative splicing of alk is consistent with the recently described mechanism involving RNA polymerase II pausing. Our study offers insights into diet-controlled development in Apis.

  20. Multiple non-coding exons and alternative splicing in the mouse Mas protooncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenina, Natalia; Böhme, Ilka; Bader, Michael; Walther, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The Mas protooncogene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor with the common seven transmembrane domains, expressed mainly in the testis and brain. We provided evidence that Mas is a functional angiotensin-(1-7) receptor and can interact with the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor. The gene is transcriptionally regulated during development in the brain and testis, but its structure was unresolved. In this study we used 5'- and 3'-RACE, RT-PCR, and RNase-protection assays to elucidate the complete Mas gene structure and organization. We identified 12 exons in the mouse Mas gene with 11 in the 5' untranslated mRNA, which can be alternatively spliced. We also showed that Mas transcription can start from 4 tissue-specific promoters, whereby testis-specific Mas mRNA is transcribed from two upstream promoters, and the expression of Mas in the brain starts from two downstream promoters. Alternative splicing and multiple promoter usage result in at least 12 Mas transcripts in which different 5' untranslated regions are fused to a common coding sequence. Moreover, termination of Mas mRNA is regulated by two different polyadenylation signals. The gene spans approximately 27 kb, and the longest detected mRNA contains 2,451 bp. Thus, our results characterize the Mas protooncogene as the gene with the most complex gene structure of all described members of the gene family coding for G protein-coupled receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptional regulation and alternative splicing cooperate in muscle fiber-type specification in flies and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spletter, Maria L; Schnorrer, Frank

    2014-02-01

    Muscles coordinate body movements throughout the animal kingdom. Each skeletal muscle is built of large, multi-nucleated cells, called myofibers, which are classified into several functionally distinct types. The typical fiber-type composition of each muscle arises during development, and in mammals is extensively adjusted in response to postnatal exercise. Understanding how functionally distinct muscle fiber-types arise is important for unraveling the molecular basis of diseases from cardiomyopathies to muscular dystrophies. In this review, we focus on recent advances in Drosophila and mammals in understanding how muscle fiber-type specification is controlled by the regulation of transcription and alternative splicing. We illustrate the cooperation of general myogenic transcription factors with muscle fiber-type specific transcriptional regulators as a basic principle for fiber-type specification, which is conserved from flies to mammals. We also examine how regulated alternative splicing of sarcomeric proteins in both flies and mammals can directly instruct the physiological and biophysical differences between fiber-types. Thus, research in Drosophila can provide important mechanistic insight into muscle fiber specification, which is relevant to homologous processes in mammals and to the pathology of muscle diseases. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional diversification of sea urchin ABCC1 (MRP1) by alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökirmak, Tufan; Campanale, Joseph P; Reitzel, Adam M; Shipp, Lauren E; Moy, Gary W; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-06-01

    The multidrug resistance protein (MRP) family encodes a diverse repertoire of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters with multiple roles in development, disease, and homeostasis. Understanding MRP evolution is central to unraveling their roles in these diverse processes. Sea urchins occupy an important phylogenetic position for understanding the evolution of vertebrate proteins and have been an important invertebrate model system for study of ABC transporters. We used phylogenetic analyses to examine the evolution of MRP transporters and functional approaches to identify functional forms of sea urchin MRP1 (also known as SpABCC1). SpABCC1, the only MRP homolog in sea urchins, is co-orthologous to human MRP1, MRP3, and MRP6 (ABCC1, ABCC3, and ABCC6) transporters. However, efflux assays revealed that alternative splicing of exon 22, a region critical for substrate interactions, could diversify functions of sea urchin MRP1. Phylogenetic comparisons also indicate that while MRP1, MRP3, and MRP6 transporters potentially arose from a single transporter in basal deuterostomes, alternative splicing appears to have been the major mode of functional diversification in invertebrates, while duplication may have served a more important role in vertebrates. These results provide a deeper understanding of the evolutionary origins of MRP transporters and the potential mechanisms used to diversify their functions in different groups of animals. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Splice-mediated Variants of Proteins (SpliVaP – data and characterization of changes in signatures among protein isoforms due to alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaraj Thangavel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often the case that mammalian genes are alternatively spliced; the resulting alternate transcripts often encode protein isoforms that differ in amino acid sequences. Changes among the protein isoforms can alter the cellular properties of proteins. The effect can range from a subtle modulation to a complete loss of function. Results (i We examined human splice-mediated protein isoforms (as extracted from a manually curated data set, and from a computationally predicted data set for differences in the annotation for protein signatures (Pfam domains and PRINTS fingerprints and we characterized the differences & their effects on protein functionalities. An important question addressed relates to the extent of protein isoforms that may lack any known function in the cell. (ii We present a database that reports differences in protein signatures among human splice-mediated protein isoform sequences. Conclusion (i Characterization: The work points to distinct sets of alternatively spliced genes with varying degrees of annotation for the splice-mediated protein isoforms. Protein molecular functions seen to be often affected are those that relate to: binding, catalytic, transcription regulation, structural molecule, transporter, motor, and antioxidant; and the processes that are often affected are nucleic acid binding, signal transduction, and protein-protein interactions. Signatures are often included/excluded and truncated in length among protein isoforms; truncation is seen as the predominant type of change. Analysis points to the following novel aspects: (a Analysis using data from the manually curated Vega indicates that one in 8.9 genes can lead to a protein isoform of no "known" function; and one in 18 expressed protein isoforms can be such an "orphan" isoform; the corresponding numbers as seen with computationally predicted ASD data set are: one in 4.9 genes and one in 9.8 isoforms. (b When swapping of signatures occurs

  4. Understanding alternative splicing of Cav1.2 calcium channels for a new approach towards individualized medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ping; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2010-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, angina pectoris, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and supraventricular tachycardia. CCBs selectively inhibit the inward flow of calcium ions through voltage-gated calcium channels, particularly Cav1.2, that are expressed in the cardiovascular system. Changes to the molecular structure of Cav1.2 channels could affect sensitivity of the channels to blockade by CCBs. Recently, extensive alternative splicing was found in Cav1.2 channels that generated wide phenotypic variations. Cardiac and smooth muscles express slightly different, but functionally important Cav1.2 splice variants. Alternative splicing could also modulate the gating properties of the channels and giving rise to different responses to inhibition by CCBs. Importantly, alternative splicing of Cav1.2 channels may play an important role to influence the outcome of many cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, the understanding of how alternative splicing impacts Cav1.2 channels pharmacology in various diseases and different organs may provide the possibility for individualized therapy with minimal side effects. PMID:23554629

  5. A DNMT3B alternatively spliced exon and encoded peptide are novel biomarkers of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailesh Gopalakrishna-Pillai

    Full Text Available A major obstacle in human stem cell research is the limited number of reagents capable of distinguishing pluripotent stem cells from partially differentiated or incompletely reprogrammed derivatives. Although human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs express numerous alternatively spliced transcripts, little attention has been directed at developing splice variant-encoded protein isoforms as reagents for stem cell research. In this study, several genes encoding proteins involved in important signaling pathways were screened to detect alternatively spliced transcripts that exhibited differential expression in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs relative to spontaneously differentiated cells (SDCs. Transcripts containing the alternatively spliced exon 10 of the de novo DNA methyltransferase gene, DNMT3B, were identified that are expressed in PSCs. To demonstrate the utility and superiority of splice variant specific reagents for stem cell research, a peptide encoded by DNMT3B exon 10 was used to generate an antibody, SG1. The SG1 antibody detects a single DNMT3B protein isoform that is expressed only in PSCs but not in SDCs. The SG1 antibody is also demonstrably superior to other antibodies at distinguishing PSCs from SDCs in mixed cultures containing both pluripotent stem cells and partially differentiated derivatives. The tightly controlled down regulation of DNMT3B exon 10 containing transcripts (and exon 10 encoded peptide upon spontaneous differentiation of PSCs suggests that this DNMT3B splice isoform is characteristic of the pluripotent state. Alternatively spliced exons, and the proteins they encode, represent a vast untapped reservoir of novel biomarkers that can be used to develop superior reagents for stem cell research and to gain further insight into mechanisms controlling stem cell pluripotency.

  6. Regulatory mechanisms for 3'-end alternative splicing and polyadenylation of the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, GFAP, transcript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blechingberg, Jenny; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2007-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP, forms the intermediate cytoskeleton in cells of the glial lineage. Besides the common GFAP alpha transcript, the GFAP epsilon and GFAP kappa transcripts are generated by alternative mRNA 3'-end processing. Here we use a GFAP minigene to characterize...... molecular mechanisms participating in alternative GFAP expression. Usage of a polyadenylation signal within the alternatively spliced exon 7a is essential to generate the GFAP kappa and GFAP kappa transcripts. The GFAP kappa mRNA is distinct from GFAP epsilon mRNA given that it also includes intron 7a...... (PTB) protein enhanced both exon 7a polyadenylation and exon 7a splicing. Finally, increasing transcription by the VP16 trans-activator did not affect the frequency of use of the exon 7a polyadenylation signal whereas the exon 7a splicing frequency was decreased. Our data suggest a model...

  7. Proteogenomic analysis reveals alternative splicing and translation as part of the abscisic acid response in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fu-Yuan; Chen, Mo-Xian; Ye, Neng-Hui; Shi, Lu; Ma, Kai-Long; Yang, Jing-Fang; Cao, Yun-Ying; Zhang, Youjun; Yoshida, Takuya; Fernie, Alisdair R; Fan, Guang-Yi; Wen, Bo; Zhou, Ruo; Liu, Tie-Yuan; Fan, Tao; Gao, Bei; Zhang, Di; Hao, Ge-Fei; Xiao, Shi; Liu, Ying-Gao; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-08-01

    In eukaryotes, mechanisms such as alternative splicing (AS) and alternative translation initiation (ATI) contribute to organismal protein diversity. Specifically, splicing factors play crucial roles in responses to environment and development cues; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well investigated in plants. Here, we report the parallel employment of short-read RNA sequencing, single molecule long-read sequencing and proteomic identification to unravel AS isoforms and previously unannotated proteins in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Combining the data from the two sequencing methods, approximately 83.4% of intron-containing genes were alternatively spliced. Two AS types, which are referred to as alternative first exon (AFE) and alternative last exon (ALE), were more abundant than intron retention (IR); however, by contrast to AS events detected under normal conditions, differentially expressed AS isoforms were more likely to be translated. ABA extensively affects the AS pattern, indicated by the increasing number of non-conventional splicing sites. This work also identified thousands of unannotated peptides and proteins by ATI based on mass spectrometry and a virtual peptide library deduced from both strands of coding regions within the Arabidopsis genome. The results enhance our understanding of AS and alternative translation mechanisms under normal conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A G-rich element forms a G-quadruplex and regulates BACE1 mRNA alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisette, Jean-François; Montagna, Daniel R; Mihailescu, Mihaela-Rita; Wolfe, Michael S

    2012-06-01

    β-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the transmembrane aspartyl protease that catalyzes the first cleavage step in the proteolysis of the APP to the amyloid β-protein (Aβ), a process involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. BACE1 pre-mRNA undergoes complex alternative splicing, the regulation of which is not well understood. We identified a G-rich sequence within exon 3 of BACE1 involved in controlling splice site selection. Mutation of the G-rich sequence decreased use of the normal 5' splice site of exon 3, which leads to full-length and proteolytically active BACE1, and increased use of an alternative splice site, which leads to a shorter, essentially inactive isoform. Nuclease protection assays, nuclear magnetic resonance, and circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that this sequence folds into a G-quadruplex structure. Several proteins were identified as capable of binding to the G-rich sequence, and one of these, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H, was found to regulate BACE1 exon 3 alternative splicing and in a manner dependent on the G-rich sequence. Knockdown of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H led to a decrease in the full-length BACE1 mRNA isoform as well as a decrease in Aβ production from APP, suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic approaches to Alzheimer's disease. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. Genetic variations regulate alternative splicing in the 5' untranslated regions of the mouse glioma-associated oncogene 1, Gli1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaphiropoulos Peter G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing is one of the key mechanisms that generate biological diversity. Even though alternative splicing also occurs in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs of mRNAs, the understanding of the significance and the regulation of these variations is rather limited. Results We investigated 5' UTR mRNA variants of the mouse Gli1 oncogene, which is the terminal transcriptional effector of the Hedgehog (HH signaling pathway. In addition to identifying novel transcription start sites, we demonstrated that the expression ratio of the Gli1 splice variants in the 5' UTR is regulated by the genotype of the mouse strain analyzed. The GT allele, which contains the consensus intronic dinucleotides at the 5' splice site of intron 1B, favors exon 1B inclusion, while the GC allele, having a weaker 5' splice site sequence, promotes exon 1B skipping. Moreover, the alternative Gli1 5' UTRs had an impact on translational capacity, with the shorter and the exon 1B-skipped mRNA variants being most effective. Conclusions Our findings implicate novel, genome-based mechanisms as regulators of the terminal events in the mouse HH signaling cascade.

  10. Identification of Alternative Splicing and Fusion Transcripts in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoonki; Kim, Woo Jin; Bang, Chi Young; Lee, Jae Cheol; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2016-04-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death. Alterations in gene sequence, structure, and expression have an important role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. Fusion genes and alternative splicing of cancer-related genes have the potential to be oncogenic. In the current study, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate potential fusion genes and alternative splicing in non-small cell lung cancer. RNA was isolated from lung tissues obtained from 86 subjects with lung cancer. The RNA samples from lung cancer and normal tissues were processed with RNA-seq using the HiSeq 2000 system. Fusion genes were evaluated using Defuse and ChimeraScan. Candidate fusion transcripts were validated by Sanger sequencing. Alternative splicing was analyzed using multivariate analysis of transcript sequencing and validated using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. RNA-seq data identified oncogenic fusion genes EML4-ALK and SLC34A2-ROS1 in three of 86 normal-cancer paired samples. Nine distinct fusion transcripts were selected using DeFuse and ChimeraScan; of which, four fusion transcripts were validated by Sanger sequencing. In 33 squamous cell carcinoma, 29 tumor specific skipped exon events and six mutually exclusive exon events were identified. ITGB4 and PYCR1 were top genes that showed significant tumor specific splice variants. In conclusion, RNA-seq data identified novel potential fusion transcripts and splice variants. Further evaluation of their functional significance in the pathogenesis of lung cancer is required.

  11. Integrating Omics and Alternative Splicing Reveals Insights into Grape Response to High Temperature1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianfu; Liu, Xinna; Liu, Guotian; Li, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the primary abiotic stresses that limit crop production. Grape (Vitis vinifera) is a cultivated fruit with high economic value throughout the world, with its growth and development often influenced by high temperature. Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread phenomenon increasing transcriptome and proteome diversity. We conducted high-temperature treatments (35°C, 40°C, and 45°C) on grapevines and assessed transcriptomic (especially AS) and proteomic changes in leaves. We found that nearly 70% of the genes were alternatively spliced under high temperature. Intron retention (IR), exon skipping, and alternative donor/acceptor sites were markedly induced under different high temperatures. Among all differential AS events, IR was the most abundant up- and down-regulated event. Moreover, the occurrence frequency of IR events at 40°C and 45°C was far higher than at 35°C. These results indicated that AS, especially IR, is an important posttranscriptional regulatory event during grape leaf responses to high temperature. Proteomic analysis showed that protein levels of the RNA-binding proteins SR45, SR30, and SR34 and the nuclear ribonucleic protein U1A gradually rose as ambient temperature increased, which revealed a reason why AS events occurred more frequently under high temperature. After integrating transcriptomic and proteomic data, we found that heat shock proteins and some important transcription factors such as MULTIPROTEIN BRIDGING FACTOR1c and HEAT SHOCK TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR A2 were involved mainly in heat tolerance in grape through up-regulating transcriptional (especially modulated by AS) and translational levels. To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence for grape leaf responses to high temperature at simultaneous transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and translational levels. PMID:28049741

  12. Integrating Omics and Alternative Splicing Reveals Insights into Grape Response to High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianfu; Liu, Xinna; Liu, Chonghuai; Liu, Guotian; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Lijun

    2017-02-01

    Heat stress is one of the primary abiotic stresses that limit crop production. Grape (Vitis vinifera) is a cultivated fruit with high economic value throughout the world, with its growth and development often influenced by high temperature. Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread phenomenon increasing transcriptome and proteome diversity. We conducted high-temperature treatments (35°C, 40°C, and 45°C) on grapevines and assessed transcriptomic (especially AS) and proteomic changes in leaves. We found that nearly 70% of the genes were alternatively spliced under high temperature. Intron retention (IR), exon skipping, and alternative donor/acceptor sites were markedly induced under different high temperatures. Among all differential AS events, IR was the most abundant up- and down-regulated event. Moreover, the occurrence frequency of IR events at 40°C and 45°C was far higher than at 35°C. These results indicated that AS, especially IR, is an important posttranscriptional regulatory event during grape leaf responses to high temperature. Proteomic analysis showed that protein levels of the RNA-binding proteins SR45, SR30, and SR34 and the nuclear ribonucleic protein U1A gradually rose as ambient temperature increased, which revealed a reason why AS events occurred more frequently under high temperature. After integrating transcriptomic and proteomic data, we found that heat shock proteins and some important transcription factors such as MULTIPROTEIN BRIDGING FACTOR1c and HEAT SHOCK TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR A2 were involved mainly in heat tolerance in grape through up-regulating transcriptional (especially modulated by AS) and translational levels. To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence for grape leaf responses to high temperature at simultaneous transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and translational levels. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Structural Basis for Regulation of GPR56/ADGRG1 by Its Alternatively Spliced Extracellular Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Gabriel S; Ackerman, Sarah D; Ding, Chen; Koide, Akiko; Leon, Katherine; Luo, Rong; Stoveken, Hannah M; Fernandez, Celia G; Tall, Gregory G; Piao, Xianhua; Monk, Kelly R; Koide, Shohei; Araç, Demet

    2016-09-21

    Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) play critical roles in diverse neurobiological processes including brain development, synaptogenesis, and myelination. aGPCRs have large alternatively spliced extracellular regions (ECRs) that likely mediate intercellular signaling; however, the precise roles of ECRs remain unclear. The aGPCR GPR56/ADGRG1 regulates both oligodendrocyte and cortical development. Accordingly, human GPR56 mutations cause myelination defects and brain malformations. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the GPR56 ECR, the first structure of any complete aGPCR ECR, in complex with an inverse-agonist monobody, revealing a GPCR-Autoproteolysis-Inducing domain and a previously unidentified domain that we term Pentraxin/Laminin/neurexin/sex-hormone-binding-globulin-Like (PLL). Strikingly, PLL domain deletion caused increased signaling and characterizes a GPR56 splice variant. Finally, we show that an evolutionarily conserved residue in the PLL domain is critical for oligodendrocyte development in vivo. Thus, our results suggest that the GPR56 ECR has unique and multifaceted regulatory functions, providing novel insights into aGPCR roles in neurobiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An extensive program of periodic alternative splicing linked to cell cycle progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Daniel; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan; Weatheritt, Robert; Wang, Yang; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Wang, Zefeng

    2016-01-01

    Progression through the mitotic cell cycle requires periodic regulation of gene function at the levels of transcription, translation, protein-protein interactions, post-translational modification and degradation. However, the role of alternative splicing (AS) in the temporal control of cell cycle is not well understood. By sequencing the human transcriptome through two continuous cell cycles, we identify ~1300 genes with cell cycle-dependent AS changes. These genes are significantly enriched in functions linked to cell cycle control, yet they do not significantly overlap genes subject to periodic changes in steady-state transcript levels. Many of the periodically spliced genes are controlled by the SR protein kinase CLK1, whose level undergoes cell cycle-dependent fluctuations via an auto-inhibitory circuit. Disruption of CLK1 causes pleiotropic cell cycle defects and loss of proliferation, whereas CLK1 over-expression is associated with various cancers. These results thus reveal a large program of CLK1-regulated periodic AS intimately associated with cell cycle control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10288.001 PMID:27015110

  15. Alternative Splicing Generates Different Parkin Protein Isoforms: Evidences in Human, Rat, and Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Scuderi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2 gene mutations are the most frequent causes of autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson’s disease and juvenile Parkinson disease. Parkin deficiency has also been linked to other human pathologies, for example, sporadic Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, autism, and cancer. PARK2 primary transcript undergoes an extensive alternative splicing, which enhances transcriptomic diversification. To date several PARK2 splice variants have been identified; however, the expression and distribution of parkin isoforms have not been deeply investigated yet. Here, the currently known PARK2 gene transcripts and relative predicted encoded proteins in human, rat, and mouse are reviewed. By analyzing the literature, we highlight the existing data showing the presence of multiple parkin isoforms in the brain. Their expression emerges from conflicting results regarding the electrophoretic mobility of the protein, but it is also assumed from discrepant observations on the cellular and tissue distribution of parkin. Although the characterization of each predicted isoforms is complex, since they often diverge only for few amino acids, analysis of their expression patterns in the brain might account for the different pathogenetic effects linked to PARK2 gene mutations.

  16. H-DBAS: human-transcriptome database for alternative splicing: update 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sakate, Ryuichi; Sato, Yoshiharu; Gojobori, Takashi; Imanishi, Tadashi; Sugano, Sumio

    2010-01-01

    H-DBAS (http://h-invitational.jp/h-dbas/) is a specialized database for human alternative splicing (AS) based on H-Invitational full-length cDNAs. In this update, for better annotations of AS events, we correlated RNA-Seq tag information to the AS exons and splice junctions. We generated a total of 148,376,598 RNA-Seq tags from RNAs extracted from cytoplasmic, nuclear and polysome fractions. Analysis of the RNA-Seq tags allowed us to identify 90,900 exons that are very likely to be used for protein synthesis. On the other hand, 254 AS junctions of human RefSeq transcripts are unique to nuclear RNA and may not have any translational consequences. We also present a new comparative genomics viewer so that users can empirically understand the evolutionary turnover of AS. With the unique experimental data closely connected with intensively curated cDNA information, H-DBAS provides a unique platform for the analysis of complex AS.

  17. A dual-specificity isoform of the protein kinase inhibitor PKI produced by alternate gene splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Priyadarsini; Walsh, Donal A

    2002-03-15

    We have previously shown that the protein kinase inhibitor beta (PKIbeta) form of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor exists in multiple isoforms, some of which are specific inhibitors of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, whereas others also inhibit the cGMP-dependent enzyme [Kumar, Van Patten and Walsh (1997), J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20011-20020]. We have now demonstrated that the switch from a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-specific inhibitor to one with dual specificity arises as a consequence of alternate gene splicing. We have confirmed using bacterially produced pure protein that a single inhibitor species has dual specificity for both PKA and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), inhibiting each with very high and closely similar inhibitory potencies. The gene splicing converted a protein with 70 amino acids into one of 109 amino acids, and did not change the inhibitory potency to PKA, but changed it from a protein that had no detectable PKG inhibitory activity to one that now inhibited PKG in the nanomolar range.

  18. Alternative Splicing of CHEK2 and Codeletion with NF2 Promote Chromosomal Instability in Meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wei Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of the NF2 gene on chromosome 22q are thought to initiate tumorigenesis in nearly 50% of meningiomas, and 22q deletion is the earliest and most frequent large-scale chromosomal abnormality observed in these tumors. In aggressive meningiomas, 22q deletions are generally accompanied by the presence of large-scale segmental abnormalities involving other chromosomes, but the reasons for this association are unknown. We find that large-scale chromosomal alterations accumulate during meningioma progression primarily in tumors harboring 22q deletions, suggesting 22q-associated chromosomal instability. Here we show frequent codeletion of the DNA repair and tumor suppressor gene, CHEK2, in combination with NF2 on chromosome 22q in a majority of aggressive meningiomas. In addition, tumor-specific splicing of CHEK2 in meningioma leads to decreased functional Chk2 protein expression. We show that enforced Chk2 knockdown in meningioma cells decreases DNA repair. Furthermore, Chk2 depletion increases centrosome amplification, thereby promoting chromosomal instability. Taken together, these data indicate that alternative splicing and frequent codeletion of CHEK2 and NF2 contribute to the genomic instability and associated development of aggressive biologic behavior in meningiomas.

  19. Alternative splicing variants of human Fbx4 disturb cyclin D1 proteolysis in human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Jie; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tu, Jing [Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun, Shiqin [College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University-Daqing, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319 (China); Chen, Xiangmei, E-mail: xm_chen6176@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu, Fengmin [Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • The expression of Fbx4 was significantly lower in HCC tissues. • Novel splicing variants of Fbx4 were identified. • These novel variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cells. • The novel Fbx4 isoforms could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. • These isoforms showed less capability for cyclin D1 binding and degradation. - Abstract: Fbx4 is a specific substrate recognition component of SCF ubiquitin ligases that catalyzes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of cyclin D1 and Trx1. Two isoforms of human Fbx4 protein, the full length Fbx4α and the C-terminal truncated Fbx4β have been identified, but their functions remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that the mRNA level of Fbx4 was significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues. More importantly, we identified three novel splicing variants of Fbx4: Fbx4γ (missing 168–245nt of exon1), Fbx4δ (missing exon6) and a N-terminal reading frame shift variant (missing exon2). Using cloning sequencing and RT-PCR, we demonstrated these novel splice variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cell lines than that in normal tissues. When expressed in Sk-Hep1 and NIH3T3 cell lines, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ and Fbx4δ could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Concordantly, these isoforms could disrupt cyclin D1 degradation and therefore increase cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, unlike the full-length isoform Fbx4α that mainly exists in cytoplasm, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ, and Fbx4δ locate in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Since cyclin D1 degradation takes place in cytoplasm, the nuclear distribution of these Fbx4 isoforms may not be involved in the down-regulation of cytoplasmic cyclin D1. These results define the impact of alternative splicing on Fbx4 function, and suggest that the attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by these novel Fbx4 isoforms provides a new insight for aberrant

  20. Genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing of pre-mRNA under salt stress in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Feng

    2014-06-04

    Background: Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) is an important gene regulation process that potentially regulates many physiological processes in plants, including the response to abiotic stresses such as salt stress.Results: To analyze global changes in AS under salt stress, we obtained high-coverage (~200 times) RNA sequencing data from Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings that were treated with different concentrations of NaCl. We detected that ~49% of all intron-containing genes were alternatively spliced under salt stress, 10% of which experienced significant differential alternative splicing (DAS). Furthermore, AS increased significantly under salt stress compared with under unstressed conditions. We demonstrated that most DAS genes were not differentially regulated by salt stress, suggesting that AS may represent an independent layer of gene regulation in response to stress. Our analysis of functional categories suggested that DAS genes were associated with specific functional pathways, such as the pathways for the responses to stresses and RNA splicing. We revealed that serine/arginine-rich (SR) splicing factors were frequently and specifically regulated in AS under salt stresses, suggesting a complex loop in AS regulation for stress adaptation. We also showed that alternative splicing site selection (SS) occurred most frequently at 4 nucleotides upstream or downstream of the dominant sites and that exon skipping tended to link with alternative SS.Conclusions: Our study provided a comprehensive view of AS under salt stress and revealed novel insights into the potential roles of AS in plant response to salt stress. 2014 Ding et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  1. PMD patient mutations reveal a long-distance intronic interaction that regulates PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Jennifer R; Sperle, Karen; Banser, Linda; Seeman, Pavel; Cavan, Barbra Charina V; Garbern, James Y; Hobson, Grace M

    2014-10-15

    Alternative splicing of the proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1) produces two forms, PLP1 and DM20, due to alternative use of 5' splice sites with the same acceptor site in intron 3. The PLP1 form predominates in central nervous system RNA. Mutations that reduce the ratio of PLP1 to DM20, whether mutant or normal protein is formed, result in the X-linked leukodystrophy Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). We investigated the ability of sequences throughout PLP1 intron 3 to regulate alternative splicing using a splicing minigene construct transfected into the oligodendrocyte cell line, Oli-neu. Our data reveal that the alternative splice of PLP1 is regulated by a long-distance interaction between two highly conserved elements that are separated by 581 bases within the 1071-base intron 3. Further, our data suggest that a base-pairing secondary structure forms between these two elements, and we demonstrate that mutations of either element designed to destabilize the secondary structure decreased the PLP1/DM20 ratio, while swap mutations designed to restore the structure brought the PLP1/DM20 ratio to near normal levels. Sequence analysis of intron 3 in families with clinical symptoms of PMD who did not have coding-region mutations revealed mutations that segregated with disease in three families. We showed that these patient mutations, which potentially destabilize the secondary structure, also reduced the PLP1/DM20 ratio. This is the first report of patient mutations causing disease by disruption of a long-distance intronic interaction controlling alternative splicing. This finding has important implications for molecular diagnostics of PMD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Long Non-Coding RNA and Alternative Splicing Modulations in Parkinson's Leukocytes Identified by RNA Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreq, Lilach; Guffanti, Alessandro; Salomonis, Nathan; Simchovitz, Alon; Israel, Zvi; Bergman, Hagai; Soreq, Hermona

    2014-01-01

    The continuously prolonged human lifespan is accompanied by increase in neurodegenerative diseases incidence, calling for the development of inexpensive blood-based diagnostics. Analyzing blood cell transcripts by RNA-Seq is a robust means to identify novel biomarkers that rapidly becomes a commonplace. However, there is lack of tools to discover novel exons, junctions and splicing events and to precisely and sensitively assess differential splicing through RNA-Seq data analysis and across RNA-Seq platforms. Here, we present a new and comprehensive computational workflow for whole-transcriptome RNA-Seq analysis, using an updated version of the software AltAnalyze, to identify both known and novel high-confidence alternative splicing events, and to integrate them with both protein-domains and microRNA binding annotations. We applied the novel workflow on RNA-Seq data from Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' leukocytes pre- and post- Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) treatment and compared to healthy controls. Disease-mediated changes included decreased usage of alternative promoters and N-termini, 5′-end variations and mutually-exclusive exons. The PD regulated FUS and HNRNP A/B included prion-like domains regulated regions. We also present here a workflow to identify and analyze long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) via RNA-Seq data. We identified reduced lncRNA expression and selective PD-induced changes in 13 of over 6,000 detected leukocyte lncRNAs, four of which were inversely altered post-DBS. These included the U1 spliceosomal lncRNA and RP11-462G22.1, each entailing sequence complementarity to numerous microRNAs. Analysis of RNA-Seq from PD and unaffected controls brains revealed over 7,000 brain-expressed lncRNAs, of which 3,495 were co-expressed in the leukocytes including U1, which showed both leukocyte and brain increases. Furthermore, qRT-PCR validations confirmed these co-increases in PD leukocytes and two brain regions, the amygdala and substantia

  3. MAISTAS: a tool for automatic structural evaluation of alternative splicing products.

    KAUST Repository

    Floris, Matteo

    2011-04-15

    MOTIVATION: Analysis of the human genome revealed that the amount of transcribed sequence is an order of magnitude greater than the number of predicted and well-characterized genes. A sizeable fraction of these transcripts is related to alternatively spliced forms of known protein coding genes. Inspection of the alternatively spliced transcripts identified in the pilot phase of the ENCODE project has clearly shown that often their structure might substantially differ from that of other isoforms of the same gene, and therefore that they might perform unrelated functions, or that they might even not correspond to a functional protein. Identifying these cases is obviously relevant for the functional assignment of gene products and for the interpretation of the effect of variations in the corresponding proteins. RESULTS: Here we describe a publicly available tool that, given a gene or a protein, retrieves and analyses all its annotated isoforms, provides users with three-dimensional models of the isoform(s) of his/her interest whenever possible and automatically assesses whether homology derived structural models correspond to plausible structures. This information is clearly relevant. When the homology model of some isoforms of a gene does not seem structurally plausible, the implications are that either they assume a structure unrelated to that of the other isoforms of the same gene with presumably significant functional differences, or do not correspond to functional products. We provide indications that the second hypothesis is likely to be true for a substantial fraction of the cases. AVAILABILITY: http://maistas.bioinformatica.crs4.it/.

  4. SIRT1 Undergoes Alternative Splicing in a Novel Auto-Regulatory Loop with p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Cian J.; Ahmed, Shafiq U.; Ford, Jack; Warnock, Lorna J.; Li, Han; Serrano, Manuel; Milner, Jo

    2010-01-01

    Background The NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is a nutrient-sensitive coordinator of stress-tolerance, multiple homeostatic processes and healthspan, while p53 is a stress-responsive transcription factor and our paramount tumour suppressor. Thus, SIRT1-mediated inhibition of p53 has been identified as a key node in the common biology of cancer, metabolism, development and ageing. However, precisely how SIRT1 integrates such diverse processes remains to be elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report that SIRT1 is alternatively spliced in mammals, generating a novel SIRT1 isoform: SIRT1-ΔExon8. We show that SIRT1-ΔExon8 is expressed widely throughout normal human and mouse tissues, suggesting evolutionary conservation and critical function. Further studies demonstrate that the SIRT1-ΔExon8 isoform retains minimal deacetylase activity and exhibits distinct stress sensitivity, RNA/protein stability, and protein-protein interactions compared to classical SIRT1-Full-Length (SIRT1-FL). We also identify an auto-regulatory loop whereby SIRT1-ΔExon8 can regulate p53, while in reciprocal p53 can influence SIRT1 splice variation. Conclusions/Significance We characterize the first alternative isoform of SIRT1 and demonstrate its evolutionary conservation in mammalian tissues. The results also reveal a new level of inter-dependency between p53 and SIRT1, two master regulators of multiple phenomena. Thus, previously-attributed SIRT1 functions may in fact be distributed between SIRT1 isoforms, with important implications for SIRT1 functional studies and the current search for SIRT1-activating therapeutics to combat age-related decline. PMID:20975832

  5. Rbfox proteins regulate alternative splicing of neuronal sodium channel SCN8A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Janelle E; Drews, Valerie L; Jones, Julie M; Dugas, Jason C; Barres, Ben A; Meisler, Miriam H

    2012-02-01

    The SCN8A gene encodes the voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.6, a major channel in neurons of the CNS and PNS. SCN8A contains two alternative exons,18N and 18A, that exhibit tissue specific splicing. In brain, the major SCN8A transcript contains exon 18A and encodes the full-length sodium channel. In other tissues, the major transcript contains exon 18N and encodes a truncated protein, due to the presence of an in-frame stop codon. Selection of exon 18A is therefore essential for generation of a functional channel protein, but the proteins involved in this selection have not been identified. Using a 2.6 kb Scn8a minigene containing exons 18N and 18A, we demonstrate that co-transfection with Fox-1 or Fox-2 initiates inclusion of exon 18A. This effect is dependent on the consensus Fox binding site located 28 bp downstream of exon 18A. We examined the alternative splicing of human SCN8A and found that the postnatal switch to exon 18A is completed later than 10 months of age. In purified cell populations, transcripts containing exon 18A predominate in neurons but are not present in oligodendrocytes or astrocytes. Transcripts containing exon 18N appear to be degraded by nonsense-mediated decay in HEK cells. Our data indicate that RBFOX proteins contribute to the cell-specific expression of Na(v)1.6 channels in mature neurons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A method for identifying alternative or cryptic donor splice sites within gene and mRNA sequences. Comparisons among sequences from vertebrates, echinoderms and other groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Katherine M; Florea, Liliana D; Smith, L Courtney

    2009-07-16

    As the amount of genome sequencing data grows, so does the problem of computational gene identification, and in particular, the splicing signals that flank exon borders. Traditional methods for identifying splicing signals have been created and optimized using sequences from model organisms, mostly vertebrate and yeast species. However, as genome sequencing extends across the animal kingdom and includes various invertebrate species, the need for mechanisms to recognize splice signals in these organisms increases as well. With that aim in mind, we generated a model for identifying donor and acceptor splice sites that was optimized using sequences from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. This model was then used to assess the possibility of alternative or cryptic splicing within the highly variable immune response gene family known as 185/333. A donor splice site model was generated from S. purpuratus sequences that incorporates non-adjacent dependences among positions within the 9 nt splice signal and uses position weight matrices to determine the probability that the site is used for splicing. The Purpuratus model was shown to predict splice signals better than a similar model created from vertebrate sequences. Although the Purpuratus model was able to correctly predict the true splice sites within the 185/333 genes, no evidence for alternative or trans-gene splicing was observed. The data presented herein describe the first published analyses of echinoderm splice sites and suggest that the previous methods of identifying splice signals that are based largely on vertebrate sequences may be insufficient. Furthermore, alternative or trans-gene splicing does not appear to be acting as a diversification mechanism in the 185/333 gene family.

  7. A method for identifying alternative or cryptic donor splice sites within gene and mRNA sequences. Comparisons among sequences from vertebrates, echinoderms and other groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Liliana D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the amount of genome sequencing data grows, so does the problem of computational gene identification, and in particular, the splicing signals that flank exon borders. Traditional methods for identifying splicing signals have been created and optimized using sequences from model organisms, mostly vertebrate and yeast species. However, as genome sequencing extends across the animal kingdom and includes various invertebrate species, the need for mechanisms to recognize splice signals in these organisms increases as well. With that aim in mind, we generated a model for identifying donor and acceptor splice sites that was optimized using sequences from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. This model was then used to assess the possibility of alternative or cryptic splicing within the highly variable immune response gene family known as 185/333. Results A donor splice site model was generated from S. purpuratus sequences that incorporates non-adjacent dependences among positions within the 9 nt splice signal and uses position weight matrices to determine the probability that the site is used for splicing. The Purpuratus model was shown to predict splice signals better than a similar model created from vertebrate sequences. Although the Purpuratus model was able to correctly predict the true splice sites within the 185/333 genes, no evidence for alternative or trans-gene splicing was observed. Conclusion The data presented herein describe the first published analyses of echinoderm splice sites and suggest that the previous methods of identifying splice signals that are based largely on vertebrate sequences may be insufficient. Furthermore, alternative or trans-gene splicing does not appear to be acting as a diversification mechanism in the 185/333 gene family.

  8. Human peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase transcripts derived by alternative mRNA splicing of an unreported exon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, M D; Jones, J E; Treston, A M

    1995-10-03

    We are characterizing the alternatively spliced human peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (hPAM)-encoding mRNA transcripts expressed by human cells. Reverse transcription coupled to the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to identify four alternatively spliced variants that differ in the region joining the two catalytic domains. Two of the transcripts represent previously reported splice variants differentiated by the presence (hPAM-A) or absence (hPAM-B) of a 321-nucleotide (nt) linker (optional exon A) which in the rat produce functionally distinct enzymes. Different mRNAs represent two splice variants, hPAM-C and hPAM-D, that show the presence of an exon unreported for PAM in any other species. This new exon, designated exon C, is 54 nt in length, encodes an 18-amino-acid (aa) peptide containing a conserved dibasic aa endoproteolytic processing motif, and is located 3' of exon A in human genomic DNA. We propose that cell-specific regulation of mRNA splicing would provide a mechanism for control of prohormone activation by these variants of the PAM enzyme.

  9. ABERRANT SPLICING OF A BRAIN-ENRICHED ALTERNATIVE EXON ELIMINATES TUMOR SUPPRESSOR FUNCTION AND PROMOTES ONCOGENE FUNCTION DURING BRAIN TUMORIGENESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredel, Markus; Ferrarese, Roberto; Harsh, Griffith R.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Bug, Eva; Maticzka, Daniel; Reichardt, Wilfried; Masilamani, Anie P.; Dai, Fangping; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hadler, Michael; Scholtens, Denise M.; Yu, Irene L.Y.; Beck, Jürgen; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Costa, Fabrizio; Baxan, Nicoleta; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Elverfeldt, Dominik v.; Backofen, Rolf; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Duarte, Christine W.; He, Xiaolin; Prinz, Marco; Chandler, James P.; Vogel, Hannes; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rich, Jeremy N.; Carro, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue-specific alternative splicing is known to be critical to emergence of tissue identity during development, yet its role in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionary-conserved, alternative exons, which represent only a minority of total alternative exons. Many, however, have functional features that influence activity in signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Given that tissue-specific splicing has a determinative role in brain development and the enrichment of genes containing tissue-specific exons for proteins with roles in signaling and development, it is thus plausible that changes in such exons could rewire normal neurogenesis towards malignant transformation. METHODS: We used integrated molecular genetic and cell biology analyses, computational biology, animal modeling, and clinical patient profiles to characterize the effect of aberrant splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor Annexin A7 (ANXA7) on oncogene regulation and brain tumorigenesis. RESULTS: We show that aberrant splicing of a tissue-specific cassette exon in ANXA7 diminishes endosomal targeting and consequent termination of the signal of the EGFR oncoprotein during brain tumorigenesis. Splicing of this exon is mediated by the ribonucleoprotein Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein 1 (PTBP1), which is normally repressed during brain development but, we find, is excessively expressed in glioblastomas through either gene amplification or loss of a neuron-specific microRNA, miR-124. Silencing of PTBP1 attenuates both malignancy and angiogenesis in a stem cell-derived glioblastoma animal model characterized by a high native propensity to generate tumor endothelium or vascular pericytes to support tumor growth. We show that EGFR amplification and PTBP1 overexpression portend a similarly poor clinical outcome, further highlighting the importance of PTBP1-mediated activation of EGFR

  10. RNA-seq analysis reveals new gene models and alternative splicing in the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.; Waalwijk, C.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Tang, D.; Lee, van der T.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The genome of Fusarium graminearum has been sequenced and annotated previously, but correct gene annotation remains a challenge. In addition, posttranscriptional regulations, such as alternative splicing and RNA editing, are poorly understood in F. graminearum. Here we took advantage of

  11. Identification and analysis of alternative splicing events in Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Luis P; Ramírez, Mario; Barbazuk, William B; Hernández, Georgina

    2017-08-22

    The vast diversification of proteins in eukaryotic cells has been related with multiple transcript isoforms from a single gene that result in alternative splicing (AS) of primary transcripts. Analysis of RNA sequencing data from expressed sequence tags and next generation RNA sequencing has been crucial for AS identification and genome-wide AS studies. For the identification of AS events from the related legume species Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max, 157 and 88 publicly available RNA-seq libraries, respectively, were analyzed. We identified 85,570 AS events from P. vulgaris in 72% of expressed genes and 134,316 AS events in 70% of expressed genes from G. max. These were categorized in seven AS event types with intron retention being the most abundant followed by alternative acceptor and alternative donor, representing ~75% of all AS events in both plants. Conservation of AS events in homologous genes between the two species was analyzed where an overrepresentation of AS affecting 5'UTR regions was observed for certain types of AS events. The conservation of AS events was experimentally validated for 8 selected genes, through RT-PCR analysis. The different types of AS events also varied by relative position in the genes. The results were consistent in both species. The identification and analysis of AS events are first steps to understand their biological relevance. The results presented here from two related legume species reveal high conservation, over ~15-20 MY of divergence, and may point to the biological relevance of AS.

  12. Resveratrol, by modulating RNA processing factor levels, can influence the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Andrea Markus

    Full Text Available Alternative pre-mRNA splicing defects can contribute to, or result from, various diseases, including cancer. Aberrant mRNAs, splicing factors and other RNA processing factors have therefore become targets for new therapeutic interventions. Here we report that the natural polyphenol resveratrol can modulate alternative splicing in a target-specific manner. We transfected minigenes of several alternatively spliceable primary mRNAs into HEK293 cells in the presence or absence of 1, 5, 20 and 50 µM resveratrol and measured exon levels by semi-quantitative PCR after separation by agarose gel electrophoresis. We found that 20 µg/ml and 50 µg/ml of resveratrol affected exon inclusion of SRp20 and SMN2 pre-mRNAs, but not CD44v5 or tau pre-mRNAs. By Western blotting and immunofluorescence we showed that this effect may be due to the ability of resveratrol to change the protein level but not the localization of several RNA processing factors. The processing factors that increased significantly were ASF/SF2, hnRNPA1 and HuR, but resveratrol did not change the levels of RBM4, PTBP1 and U2AF35. By means of siRNA-mediated knockdown we depleted cells of SIRT1, regarded as a major target of resveratrol, and showed that the effect on splicing was not dependent on SIRT1. Our results suggest that resveratrol might be an attractive small molecule to treat diseases in which aberrant splicing has been implicated, and justify more extensive research on the effects of resveratrol on the splicing machinery.

  13. Impairment of alternative splice sites defining a novel gammaretroviral exon within gag modifies the oncogenic properties of Akv murine leukemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette Balle; Lund, Anders Henrik; Kunder, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    leukemia virus seem to have no influence on the disease-inducing potential of this virus. In the present study we investigate the splice pattern as well as the possible effects of mutating the alternative splice sites on the oncogenic properties of the B-lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. RESULTS...... to be associated with specific tumor diagnoses or individual viral mutants. CONCLUSION: We present here the first example of a doubly spliced transcript within the group of gammaretroviruses, and we show that mutation of the alternative splice sites that define this novel RNA product change the oncogenic potential...

  14. Identification of alternatively spliced TIMP-1 mRNA in cancer cell lines and colon cancer tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usher, Pernille Autzen; Sieuwerts, A.M.; Bartels, Annette

    2007-01-01

    TIMP-1 is a promising new candidate as a prognostic marker in colorectal and breast cancer. We now describe the discovery of two alternatively spliced variants of TIMP-1 mRNA. The two variants lacking exon 2 (del-2) and 5 (del-5), respectively, were identified in human cancer cell lines by RT......-PCR. The del-2 variant was, furthermore, detected in extracts from 12 colorectal cancer tissue samples. By western blotting additional bands of lower molecular mass than full-length TIMP-1 were identified in tumor tissue, but not in plasma samples obtained from cancer patients. The two splice variants of TIMP...

  15. Splicing Regulation in Neurologic Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Licatalosi, Donny D; Darnell, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    .... It is becoming evident that alternative splicing plays a particularly important role in neurologic disease, which is perhaps not surprising given the important role splicing plays in generating...

  16. Alternatively Spliced Human TREK-1 Variants Alter TREK-1 Channel Function and Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Chad L; Wu, Yi-Ying; Barnett, Scott D; Lee, Michael T; Burkin, Heather R; Buxton, Iain L O

    2015-11-01

    TREK-1, an outward-rectifying potassium channel activated by stretch, is found in the myometrium of pregnant women. Decreased expression of TREK-1 near term suggests that TREK-1 may contribute to uterine quiescence during gestation. Five alternatively spliced TREK-1 variants were identified in the myometrium of mothers who delivered spontaneously preterm (TREK-1 variants could interfere with TREK-1 function or expression. To investigate a potential role for these variants, immunofluorescence, cell surface assays, Western blots, and patch clamp were employed to study TREK-1 and TREK-1 variants expressed in HEK293T cells. The results of this study demonstrate that coexpression of TREK-1 with TREK-1 variants alters TREK-1 expression and suppresses channel function. Each variant affected TREK-1 in a disparate manner. In HEK293T cells coexpressing TREK-1 and each variant, TREK-1 membrane expression was diminished with compartmentalization inside the cell. When expressed alone, individual variants displayed channel properties that were significantly decreased compared to full-length TREK-1. In coexpression studies using patch clamp, basal TREK-1 currents were reduced by ∼64% (4.3 vs. 12.0 pA/pF) on average at 0 mV when coexpressed with each variant. TREK-1 currents that were activated by intracellular acidosis were reduced an average of ∼77% (21.4 vs. 94.5 pA/pF) at 0 mV when cells were transfected with TREK-1 and any one of the splice variants. These data correlate the presence of TREK-1 variants to reduced TREK-1 activity, suggesting a pathological role for TREK-1 variants in preterm labor. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  17. Alternatively Spliced Human TREK-1 Variants Alter TREK-1 Channel Function and Localization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Chad L.; Wu, Yi-Ying; Barnett, Scott D.; Lee, Michael T.; Burkin, Heather R.; Buxton, Iain L.O.

    2015-01-01

    TREK-1, an outward-rectifying potassium channel activated by stretch, is found in the myometrium of pregnant women. Decreased expression of TREK-1 near term suggests that TREK-1 may contribute to uterine quiescence during gestation. Five alternatively spliced TREK-1 variants were identified in the myometrium of mothers who delivered spontaneously preterm (TREK-1 variants could interfere with TREK-1 function or expression. To investigate a potential role for these variants, immunofluorescence, cell surface assays, Western blots, and patch clamp were employed to study TREK-1 and TREK-1 variants expressed in HEK293T cells. The results of this study demonstrate that coexpression of TREK-1 with TREK-1 variants alters TREK-1 expression and suppresses channel function. Each variant affected TREK-1 in a disparate manner. In HEK293T cells coexpressing TREK-1 and each variant, TREK-1 membrane expression was diminished with compartmentalization inside the cell. When expressed alone, individual variants displayed channel properties that were significantly decreased compared to full-length TREK-1. In coexpression studies using patch clamp, basal TREK-1 currents were reduced by ∼64% (4.3 vs. 12.0 pA/pF) on average at 0 mV when coexpressed with each variant. TREK-1 currents that were activated by intracellular acidosis were reduced an average of ∼77% (21.4 vs. 94.5 pA/pF) at 0 mV when cells were transfected with TREK-1 and any one of the splice variants. These data correlate the presence of TREK-1 variants to reduced TREK-1 activity, suggesting a pathological role for TREK-1 variants in preterm labor. PMID:26400398

  18. Alternative splicing of the AGAMOUS orthologous gene in double flower of Magnolia stellata (Magnoliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Xiong; Ma, Jiang; Song, Yi; Chen, Fa-Ju

    2015-12-01

    Magnolia stellata is a woody ornamental shrub with more petaloid tepals than related plants from family Magnoliaceae. Recent studies revealed that expression changes in an AGAMOUS (AG) orthologous gene could resulted in double flowers with increased numbers of petals. We isolated three transcripts encoding different isoforms of a single AG orthologous gene, MastAG, mastag_2 and mastag_3, from M. stellata. Sequence alignments and Southern blot analyses suggested that MastAG was a single-copy gene in M. stellata genomes, and that mastag_2 and mastag_3 were abnormally spliced isoforms of MastAG. An 144bp exon skipping in MastAG results in the truncated mastag_2 protein lacking the completely I domain and 18 aa of the K1 subdomain, whereas an 165bp exon skipping of MastAG produces a truncated mastag_3 protein lacking 6 aa of the K3 subdomain and the completely C terminal region. Expression analyses showed that three alternative splicing (AS) isoforms expressed only in developing stamens and carpels. Functional analyses revealed that MastAG could mimic the endogenous AG to specify carpel identity, but failed to regulate stamen development in an Arabidopsis ag-1 mutant. Moreover, the key domain or subdomain deletions represented by mastag_2 and mastag_3 resulted in loss of C-function. However, ectopic expression of mastag_2 in Arabidopsis produced flowers with sepals converted into carpeloid organs, but without petals and stamens, whereas ectopic expression of mastag_3 in Arabidopsis could mimic the flower phenotype of the ag mutant and produced double flowers with homeotic transformation of stamens into petals and carpels into another ag flower. Our results also suggest that mastag_3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create multi-petal phenotypes in commercial ornamental cultivars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of recurrent regulated alternative splicing events across human solid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danan-Gotthold, Miri; Golan-Gerstl, Regina; Eisenberg, Eli; Meir, Keren; Karni, Rotem; Levanon, Erez Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that involves aberrant gene expression regulation. Discriminating the modified expression patterns driving tumor biology from the many that have no or little contribution is important for understanding cancer molecular basis. Recurrent deregulation patterns observed in multiple cancer types are enriched for such driver events. Here, we studied splicing alterations in hundreds of matched tumor and normal RNA-seq samples of eight solid cancer types. We found hundreds of cassette exons for which splicing was altered in multiple cancer types and identified a set of highly frequent altered splicing events. Specific splicing regulators, including RBFOX2, MBNL1/2 and QKI, appear to account for many splicing alteration events in multiple cancer types. Together, our results provide a first global analysis of regulated splicing alterations in cancer and identify common events with a potential causative role in solid tumor development. PMID:25908786

  20. Alternative Splicing of L-type CaV1.2 Calcium Channels: Implications in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available L-type Cav1.2 calcium channels are the major pathway for Ca2+ influx to initiate the contraction of smooth and cardiac muscles. Alteration of Cav1.2 channel function has been implicated in multiple cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional mechanism that expands Cav1.2 channel structures to modify function, pharmacological and biophysical property such as calcium/voltage-dependent inactivation (C/VDI, or to influence its post-translational modulation by interacting proteins such as Galectin-1. Alternative splicing has generated functionally diverse Cav1.2 isoforms that can be developmentally regulated in the heart, or under pathophysiological conditions such as in heart failure. More importantly, alternative splicing of certain exons of Cav1.2 has been reported to be regulated by splicing factors such as RNA-binding Fox-1 homolog 1/2 (Rbfox 1/2, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTBP1 and RNA-binding motif protein 20 (RBM20. Understanding how Cav1.2 channel function is remodelled in disease will provide better information to guide the development of more targeted approaches to discover therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Alternative Splicing of L-type CaV1.2 Calcium Channels: Implications in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-24

    L-type Cav1.2 calcium channels are the major pathway for Ca2+ influx to initiate the contraction of smooth and cardiac muscles. Alteration of Cav1.2 channel function has been implicated in multiple cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional mechanism that expands Cav1.2 channel structures to modify function, pharmacological and biophysical property such as calcium/voltage-dependent inactivation (C/VDI), or to influence its post-translational modulation by interacting proteins such as Galectin-1. Alternative splicing has generated functionally diverse Cav1.2 isoforms that can be developmentally regulated in the heart, or under pathophysiological conditions such as in heart failure. More importantly, alternative splicing of certain exons of Cav1.2 has been reported to be regulated by splicing factors such as RNA-binding Fox-1 homolog 1/2 (Rbfox 1/2), polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTBP1) and RNA-binding motif protein 20 (RBM20). Understanding how Cav1.2 channel function is remodelled in disease will provide better information to guide the development of more targeted approaches to discover therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases.

  2. G to A substitution in 5{prime} donor splice site of introns 18 and 48 of COL1A1 gene of type I collagen results in different splicing alternatives in osteogenesis imperfecta type I cell strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willing, M.; Deschenes, S. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We have identified a G to A substitution in the 5{prime} donor splice site of intron 18 of one COL1A1 allele in two unrelated families with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I. A third OI type I family has a G to A substitution at the identical position in intron 48 of one COL1A1 allele. Both mutations abolish normal splicing and lead to reduced steady-state levels of mRNA from the mutant COL1A1 allele. The intron 18 mutation leads to both exon 18 skipping in the mRNA and to utilization of a single alternative splice site near the 3{prime} end of exon 18. The latter results in deletion of the last 8 nucleotides of exon 18 from the mRNA, a shift in the translational reading-frame, and the creation of a premature termination codon in exon 19. Of the potential alternative 5{prime} splice sites in exon 18 and intron 18, the one utilized has a surrounding nucleotide sequence which most closely resembles that of the natural splice site. Although a G to A mutation was detected at the identical position in intron 48 of one COL1A1 allele in another OI type I family, nine complex alternative splicing patterns were identified by sequence analysis of cDNA clones derived from fibroblast mRNA from this cell strain. All result in partial or complete skipping of exon 48, with in-frame deletions of portions of exons 47 and/or 49. The different patterns of RNA splicing were not explained by their sequence homology with naturally occuring 5{prime} splice sites, but rather by recombination between highly homologous exon sequences, suggesting that we may not have identified the major splicing alternative(s) in this cell strain. Both G to A mutations result in decreased production of type I collagen, the common biochemical correlate of OI type I.

  3. Alternative splicing in the human cytochrome P450IIB6 gene generates a high level of aberrant messages

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    Miles, J.S.; McLaren, A.W.; Wolf, C.R. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Edinburgh (England))

    1989-10-25

    Polymorphisms within the human cytochrome P450 system can have severe clinical consequences and have been associated with adverse drug side effects and susceptibility to environmentally linked disease such as cancer. Aberrant splicing of cytochrome P450 mRNA has been proposed as a potential mechanism for these polymorphisms. The authors have isolated aberrantly, as well as normally, spliced mRNAs (cDNAs) from the human P450IIB6 gene which either contain part of intron 5 and lack exon 8 or which contain a 58-bp fragment (exon 8A) instead of exon 8. Sequence analysis of the P450IIB6 gene demonstrates the presence of cryptic splice sites in intron 8 which will account for the generation of exon 8A. The mRNAs were therefore generated by alternative splicing. These data gain significance as the mRNAs will not encode a functional P450 enzyme and appear to represent a high proportion of the P450IIB6 mRNA population. Analysis of mRNA from fifteen individual human livers and cDNA libraries constructed from a variety of human tissues using the polymerase chain reaction shows that the aberrant splicing occurs in all cells and all individuals tested. This suggests a high level of infidelity in the processing of P450IIB6 mRNAs and demonstrates that the presence of abnormal transcripts does not imply the presence of a functionally inactive gene.

  4. Alternative splicing modulates diltiazem sensitivity of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle Cav1.2 calcium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng Yu; Liao, Ping; Wang, Jue Jin; Yu, De Jie; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: As a calcium channel blocker, diltiazem acts mainly on the voltage-gated calcium channels, Cav1.2, for its beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, angina and/or supraventricular arrhythmias. However, the effects of diltiazem on different isoforms of Cav1.2 channels expressed in heart and vascular smooth muscles remain to be investigated. Here, we characterized the effects of diltiazem on the splice variants of Cav1.2 channels, predominant in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles. Experimental approach: Cardiac and smooth muscle isoforms of Cav1.2 channels were expressed in human embryonic kidney cells and their electrophysiological properties were characterized using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Key results: Under closed-channel and use-dependent block (0.03 Hz), cardiac splice variant Cav1.2CM was less sensitive to diltiazem than two major smooth muscle splice variants, Cav1.2SM and Cav1.2b. Cav1.2CM has a more positive half-inactivation potential than the smooth muscle channels, and diltiazem shifted it less to negative potential. Additionally, the current decay was slower in Cav1.2CM channels. When we modified alternatively spliced exons of cardiac Cav1.2CM channels into smooth muscle exons, we found that all three loci contribute to the different diltiazem sensitivity between cardiac and smooth muscle splice isoforms. Conclusions and implications: Alternative splicing of Cav1.2 channels modifies diltiazem sensitivity in the heart and blood vessels. Gating properties altered by diltiazem are different in the three channels. PMID:20649567

  5. Deciphering Transcriptome and Complex Alternative Splicing Transcripts in Mammary Gland Tissues from Cows Naturally Infected with Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Yang, Chun Hong; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Yan; Li, Rong Ling; Wang, Chang Fa; Zhong, Ji Feng; Huang, Jin Ming

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) contributes to the complexity of the mammalian proteome and plays an important role in diseases, including infectious diseases. The differential AS patterns of these transcript sequences between the healthy (HS3A) and mastitic (HS8A) cows naturally infected by Staphylococcus aureus were compared to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying mastitis resistance and susceptibility. In this study, using the Illumina paired-end RNA sequencing method, 1352 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with higher than twofold changes were found in the HS3A and HS8A mammary gland tissues. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses revealed that the cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction pathway is the most significantly enriched pathway. Approximately 16k annotated unigenes were respectively identified in two libraries, based on the bovine Bos taurus UMD3.1 sequence assembly and search. A total of 52.62% and 51.24% annotated unigenes were alternatively spliced in term of exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5′ splicing and alternativesplicing. Additionally, 1,317 AS unigenes were HS3A-specific, whereas 1,093 AS unigenes were HS8A-specific. Some immune-related genes, such as ITGB6, MYD88, ADA, ACKR1, and TNFRSF1B, and their potential relationships with mastitis were highlighted. From Chromosome 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14, 17, and 20, 3.66% (HS3A) and 5.4% (HS8A) novel transcripts, which harbor known quantitative trait locus associated with clinical mastitis, were identified. Many DEGs in the healthy and mastitic mammary glands are involved in immune, defense, and inflammation responses. These DEGs, which exhibit diverse and specific splicing patterns and events, can endow dairy cattle with the potential complex genetic resistance against mastitis. PMID:27459697

  6. Evidence that talin alternative splice variants from Ciona intestinalis have different roles in cell adhesion

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    McCann Richard O

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Talins are large, modular cytoskeletal proteins found in animals and amoebozoans such as Dictyostelium discoideum. Since the identification of a second talin gene in vertebrates, it has become increasingly clear that vertebrate Talin1 and Talin2 have non-redundant roles as essential links between integrins and the actin cytoskeleton in distinct plasma membrane-associated adhesion complexes. The conserved C-terminal I/LWEQ module is important for talin function. This structural element mediates the interaction of talins with F-actin. The I/LWEQ module also targets mammalian Talin1 to focal adhesion complexes, which are dynamic multicomponent assemblies required for cell adhesion and cell motility. Although Talin1 is essential for focal adhesion function, Talin2 is not targeted to focal adhesions. The nonvertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis has only one talin gene, but alternative splicing of the talin mRNA produces two proteins with different C-terminal I/LWEQ modules. Thus, C. intestinalis contains two talins, Talin-a and Talin-b, with potentially different activities, despite having only one talin gene. Results We show here that, based on their distribution in cDNA libraries, Talin-a and Talin-b are differentially expressed during C. intestinalis development. The I/LWEQ modules of the two proteins also have different affinities for F-actin. Consistent with the hypothesis that Talin-a and Talin-b have different roles in cell adhesion, the distinct I/LWEQ modules of Talin-a and Talin-b possess different subcellular targeting determinants. The I/LWEQ module of Talin-a is targeted to focal adhesions, where it most likely serves as the link between integrin and the actin cytoskeleton. The Talin-b I/LWEQ module is not targeted to focal adhesions, but instead preferentially labels F-actin stress fibers. These different properties of C. intestinalis the Talin-a and Talin-b I/LWEQ modules mimic the differences between mammalian

  7. HIV-1 infection induces changes in expression of cellular splicing factors that regulate alternative viral splicing and virus production in macrophages

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    Purcell Damian FJ

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages are important targets and long-lived reservoirs of HIV-1, which are not cleared of infection by currently available treatments. In the primary monocyte-derived macrophage model of infection, replication is initially productive followed by a decline in virion output over ensuing weeks, coincident with a decrease in the levels of the essential viral transactivator protein Tat. We investigated two possible mechanisms in macrophages for regulation of viral replication, which appears to be primarily regulated at the level of tat mRNA: 1 differential mRNA stability, used by cells and some viruses for the rapid regulation of gene expression and 2 control of HIV-1 alternative splicing, which is essential for optimal viral replication. Results Following termination of transcription at increasing times after infection in macrophages, we found that tat mRNA did indeed decay more rapidly than rev or nef mRNA, but with similar kinetics throughout infection. In addition, tat mRNA decayed at least as rapidly in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Expression of cellular splicing factors in uninfected and infected macrophage cultures from the same donor showed an inverse pattern over time between enhancing factors (members of the SR family of RNA binding proteins and inhibitory factors (members of the hnRNP family. While levels of the SR protein SC35 were greatly up-regulated in the first week or two after infection, hnRNPs of the A/B and H groups were down-regulated. Around the peak of virus production in each culture, SC35 expression declined to levels in uninfected cells or lower, while the hnRNPs increased to control levels or above. We also found evidence for increased cytoplasmic expression of SC35 following long-term infection. Conclusion While no evidence of differential regulation of tat mRNA decay was found in macrophages following HIV-1 infection, changes in the balance of cellular splicing factors which regulate alternative

  8. SRSF3 represses the expression of PDCD4 protein by coordinated regulation of alternative splicing, export and translation

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    Park, Seung Kuk; Jeong, Sunjoo, E-mail: sjsj@dankook.ac.kr

    2016-02-05

    Gene expression is regulated at multiple steps, such as transcription, splicing, export, degradation and translation. Considering diverse roles of SR proteins, we determined whether the tumor-related splicing factor SRSF3 regulates the expression of the tumor-suppressor protein, PDCD4, at multiple steps. As we have reported previously, knockdown of SRSF3 increased the PDCD4 protein level in SW480 colon cancer cells. More interestingly, here we showed that the alternative splicing and the nuclear export of minor isoforms of pdcd4 mRNA were repressed by SRSF3, but the translation step was unaffected. In contrast, only the translation step of the major isoform of pdcd4 mRNA was repressed by SRSF3. Therefore, overexpression of SRSF3 might be relevant to the repression of all isoforms of PDCD4 protein levels in most types of cancer cell. We propose that SRSF3 could act as a coordinator of the expression of PDCD4 protein via two mechanisms on two alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms.

  9. Cross-Talk between Alternatively Spliced UGT1A Isoforms and Colon Cancer Cell Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet-Delage, Yannick; Rouleau, Michèle; Rouleau, Mélanie; Roberge, Joannie; Miard, Stéphanie; Picard, Frédéric; Têtu, Bernard; Guillemette, Chantal

    2017-03-01

    Alternative splicing at the human glucuronosyltransferase 1 gene locus (UGT1) produces alternate isoforms UGT1A_i2s that control glucuronidation activity through protein-protein interactions. Here, we hypothesized that UGT1A_i2s function as a complex protein network connecting other metabolic pathways with an influence on cancer cell metabolism. This is based on a pathway enrichment analysis of proteomic data that identified several high-confidence candidate interaction proteins of UGT1A_i2 proteins in human tissues-namely, the rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis pyruvate kinase (PKM), which plays a critical role in cancer cell metabolism and tumor growth. The partnership of UGT1A_i2 and PKM2 was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation in the HT115 colon cancer cells and was supported by a partial colocalization of these two proteins. In support of a functional role for this partnership, depletion of UGT1A_i2 proteins in HT115 cells enforced the Warburg effect, with a higher glycolytic rate at the expense of mitochondrial respiration, and led to lactate accumulation. Untargeted metabolomics further revealed a significantly altered cellular content of 58 metabolites, including many intermediates derived from the glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways. These metabolic changes were associated with a greater migration potential. The potential relevance of our observations is supported by the down-regulation of UGT1A_i2 mRNA in colon tumors compared with normal tissues. Alternate UGT1A variants may thus be part of the expanding compendium of metabolic pathways involved in cancer biology directly contributing to the oncogenic phenotype of colon cancer cells. Findings uncover new aspects of UGT functions diverging from their transferase activity. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Identification of a chemical inhibitor for nuclear speckle formation: Implications for the function of nuclear speckles in regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurogi, Yutaro; Matsuo, Yota; Mihara, Yuki; Yagi, Hiroaki; Shigaki-Miyamoto, Kaya; Toyota, Syukichi; Azuma, Yuko [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Igarashi, Masayuki [Laboratory of Disease Biology, Institute of Microbial Chemistry, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0021 (Japan); Tani, Tokio, E-mail: ttani@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • We identified tubercidin as a compound inducing aberrant formation of the speckles. • Tubercidin causes delocalization of poly (A){sup +}RNAs from nuclear speckles. • Tubercidin induces dispersion of splicing factors from nuclear speckles. • Tubercidin affects alternative pre-mRNA splicing. • Nuclear speckles play a role in regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing. - Abstract: Nuclear speckles are subnuclear structures enriched with RNA processing factors and poly (A){sup +} RNAs comprising mRNAs and poly (A){sup +} non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Nuclear speckles are thought to be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, such as pre-mRNA splicing. By screening 3585 culture extracts of actinomycetes with in situ hybridization using an oligo dT probe, we identified tubercidin, an analogue of adenosine, as an inhibitor of speckle formation, which induces the delocalization of poly (A){sup +} RNA and dispersion of splicing factor SRSF1/SF2 from nuclear speckles in HeLa cells. Treatment with tubercidin also decreased steady-state MALAT1 long ncRNA, thought to be involved in the retention of SRSF1/SF2 in nuclear speckles. In addition, we found that tubercidin treatment promoted exon skipping in the alternative splicing of Clk1 pre-mRNA. These results suggest that nuclear speckles play a role in modulating the concentration of splicing factors in the nucleoplasm to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing.

  11. Cell type-restricted activity of hnRNPM promotes breast cancer metastasis via regulating alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yilin; Gao, Xin D; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Huang, Huilin; Tan, Haiyan; Ahn, Jaegyoon; Reinke, Lauren M; Peter, Marcus E; Feng, Yue; Gius, David; Siziopikou, Kalliopi P; Peng, Junmin; Xiao, Xinshu; Cheng, Chonghui

    2014-06-01

    Tumor metastasis remains the major cause of cancer-related death, but its molecular basis is still not well understood. Here we uncovered a splicing-mediated pathway that is essential for breast cancer metastasis. We show that the RNA-binding protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (hnRNPM) promotes breast cancer metastasis by activating the switch of alternative splicing that occurs during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Genome-wide deep sequencing analysis suggests that hnRNPM potentiates TGFβ signaling and identifies CD44 as a key downstream target of hnRNPM. hnRNPM ablation prevents TGFβ-induced EMT and inhibits breast cancer metastasis in mice, whereas enforced expression of the specific CD44 standard (CD44s) splice isoform overrides the loss of hnRNPM and permits EMT and metastasis. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the ubiquitously expressed hnRNPM acts in a mesenchymal-specific manner to precisely control CD44 splice isoform switching during EMT. This restricted cell-type activity of hnRNPM is achieved by competition with ESRP1, an epithelial splicing regulator that binds to the same cis-regulatory RNA elements as hnRNPM and is repressed during EMT. Importantly, hnRNPM is associated with aggressive breast cancer and correlates with increased CD44s in patient specimens. These findings demonstrate a novel molecular mechanism through which tumor metastasis is endowed by the hnRNPM-mediated splicing program. © 2014 Xu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Alarin but not its alternative-splicing form, GALP (Galanin-like peptide) has antimicrobial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Akihiro, E-mail: a-wada@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Bacteriology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Wong, Pooi-Fong [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Hojo, Hironobu [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Institute of Glycoscience, Tokai University, Kanagawa 2591292 (Japan); Hasegawa, Makoto [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, Shiga 5260829 (Japan); Ichinose, Akitoyo [Electron Microscopy Shop Central Laboratory, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Llanes, Rafael [Institute Pedro Kouri, Havana (Cuba); Kubo, Yoshinao [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Senba, Masachika [Department of Pathology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Ichinose, Yoshio [Kenya Research Station, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan)

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: • Alarin inhibits the growth of E. coli but not S. aureus. • Alarin’s potency is comparable to LL-37 in inhibiting the growth of E. coli. • Alarin can cause bacterial membrane blebbing. • Alalin does not induce hemolysis on erythrocytes. -- Abstract: Alarin is an alternative-splicing form of GALP (galanin-like peptide). It shares only 5 conserved amino acids at the N-terminal region with GALP which is involved in a diverse range of normal brain functions. This study seeks to investigate whether alarin has additional functions due to its differences from GALP. Here, we have shown using a radial diffusion assay that alarin but not GALP inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli (strain ML-35). The conserved N-terminal region, however, remained essential for the antimicrobial activity of alarin as truncated peptides showed reduced killing effect. Moreover, alarin inhibited the growth of E. coli in a similar potency as human cathelicidin LL-37, a well-studied antimicrobial peptide. Electron microscopy further showed that alarin induced bacterial membrane blebbing but unlike LL-37, it did not cause hemolysis of erythrocytes. In addition, alarin is only active against the gram-negative bacteria, E. coli but not the gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, these data suggest that alarin has potentials as an antimicrobial and should be considered for the development in human therapeutics.

  13. An integrative framework identifies alternative splicing events in colorectal cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, Andrea; Pizzini, Silvia; Perilli, Lisa; Esposito, Giovanni; Mocellin, Simone; Nitti, Donato; Zanovello, Paola; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Mandruzzato, Susanna

    2014-02-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a common mechanism which creates diverse RNA isoforms from a single gene, potentially increasing protein variety. Growing evidence suggests that this mechanism is closely related to cancer progression. In this study, whole transcriptome analysis was performed with GeneChip Human exon 1.0 ST Array from 80 samples comprising 23 normal colon mucosa, 30 primary colorectal cancer and 27 liver metastatic specimens from 46 patients, to identify AS events in colorectal cancer progression. Differentially expressed genes and exons were estimated and AS events were reconstructed by combining exon-level analyses with AltAnalyze algorithms and transcript-level estimations (MMBGX probabilistic method). The number of AS genes in the transition from normal colon mucosa to primary tumor was the most abundant, but fell considerably in the next transition to liver metastasis. 206 genes with probable AS events in colon cancer development and progression were identified, that are involved in processes and pathways relevant to tumor biology, as cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Several AS events in VCL, CALD1, B3GNT6 and CTHRC1 genes, differentially expressed during tumor development were validated, at RNA and at protein level. Taken together, these results demonstrate that cancer-specific AS is common in early phases of colorectal cancer natural history. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Alternative splicing determines the interaction of SMRT isoforms with nuclear receptor-DNA complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faist, Flavie; Short, Stephen; Kneale, G Geoff; Sharpe, Colin R

    2009-06-01

    Signalling by small molecules, such as retinoic acid, is mediated by heterodimers comprising a class II nuclear receptor and an RXR (retinoid X receptor) subunit. The receptors bind to DNA response elements and act as ligand-dependent transcription factors, but, in the absence of signal, the receptors bind the co-repressors SMRT [silencing mediator for RAR (retinoic acid receptor) and TR (thyroid hormone receptor)] and NCoR (nuclear receptor co-repressor) and repress gene expression. Alternative splicing of the SMRT transcript in mammals generates six isoforms containing 1, 2 or 3 CoRNR (co-repressor for nuclear receptor) box motifs which are responsible for the interactions with nuclear receptors. We show that human cell lines express all six SMRT isoforms and then determine the binding affinity of mouse SMRT isoforms for RAR/RXR and three additional class II nuclear receptor-DNA complexes. This approach demonstrates the importance of the full complement of CoRNR boxes within each SMRT protein, rather than the identity of individual CoRNR boxes, in directing the interaction of SMRT with nuclear receptors. Each class of SMRT isoform displays a distinct feature, as the 1-box isoform discriminates between DNA response elements, the 2-box isoforms promote high-affinity binding to TR complexes and the 3-box isoforms show differential binding to nuclear receptors. Consequently, the differential deployment of SMRT isoforms observed in vivo could significantly expand the regulatory capacity of nuclear receptor signalling.

  15. Structural Insights into RNA Recognition by the Alternate-Splicing Regulator CUG-Binding Protein 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Teplova; J Song; H Gaw; A Teplov; D Patel

    2011-12-31

    CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) regulates multiple aspects of nuclear and cytoplasmic mRNA processing, with implications for onset of myotonic dystrophy. CUGBP1 harbors three RRM domains and preferentially targets UGU-rich mRNA elements. We describe crystal structures of CUGBP1 RRM1 and tandem RRM1/2 domains bound to RNAs containing tandem UGU(U/G) elements. Both RRM1 in RRM1-RNA and RRM2 in RRM1/2-RNA complexes use similar principles to target UGU(U/G) elements, with recognition mediated by face-to-edge stacking and water-mediated hydrogen-bonding networks. The UG step adopts a left-handed Z-RNA conformation, with the syn guanine recognized through Hoogsteen edge-protein backbone hydrogen-bonding interactions. NMR studies on the RRM1/2-RNA complex establish that both RRM domains target tandem UGUU motifs in solution, whereas filter-binding assays identify a preference for recognition of GU over AU or GC steps. We discuss the implications of CUGBP1-mediated targeting and sequestration of UGU(U/G) elements on pre-mRNA alternative-splicing regulation, translational regulation, and mRNA decay.

  16. Immunoglobulin superfamily receptors: cis-interactions, intracellular adapters and alternative splicing regulate adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brümmendorf, T; Lemmon, V

    2001-10-01

    The immunoglobulin domain is a module found in vertebrates and invertebrates. Its ability to form linear rods when deployed in series, combined with its propensity to bind specifically to other proteins has made it ideal for building cell surface receptors and cell adhesion molecules. These features have resulted in the incorporation of immunoglobulin domains into many hundreds of cell surface molecules. Recently three major advances have been made in understanding immunoglobulin receptors. One is the recognition that their intracellular binding partners are likely to link to multiple cell surface molecules, allowing cross-talk or oligomeric complex formation. A second, but related phenomenon, is their participation in cis-interactions on the extracellular surface that regulate signaling or adhesion. The third is the dramatic ability to form dozens to thousands of different isoforms via alternative splicing. Although antibodies may have been the first example of immunoglobulin-domain-containing proteins using cis-interactions to form receptor like molecules, and the grandest instance of diversity production from limited genetic material, these are clearly old ideas in this superfamily.

  17. MITA/STING and Its Alternative Splicing Isoform MRP Restrict Hepatitis B Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhui; Zhao, Kaitao; Su, Xi; Lu, Lu; Zhao, He; Zhang, Xianwen; Wang, Yun; Wu, Chunchen; Chen, Jizheng; Zhou, Yuan; Hu, Xue; Wang, Yanyi; Lu, Mengji; Chen, Xinwen; Pei, Rongjuan

    2017-01-01

    An efficient clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) requires the coordinated work of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. MITA/STING, an adapter protein of the innate immune signaling pathways, plays a key role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA virus infection. Previously, we identified an alternatively spliced isoform of MITA/STING, called MITA-related protein (MRP), and found that MRP could specifically block MITA-mediated interferon (IFN) induction while retaining the ability to activate NF-κB. Here, we asked whether MITA/STING and MRP were able to control the HBV replication. Both MITA/STING and MRP significantly inhibited HBV replication in vitro. MITA overexpression stimulated IRF3-IFN pathway; while MRP overexpression activated NF-κB pathway, suggesting these two isoforms may inhibit HBV replication through different ways. Using a hydrodynamic injection (HI) mouse model, we found that HBV replication was reduced following MITA/STING and MRP expression vectors in mice and was enhanced by the knockout of MITA/STING (MITA/STING-/-). The HBV specific humoral and CD8+ T cell responses were impaired in MITA/STING deficient mice, suggesting the participation of MITA/STING in the initiation of host adaptive immune responses. In summary, our data suggest that MITA/STING and MRP contribute to HBV control via modulation of the innate and adaptive responses.

  18. Misregulation of Alternative Splicing in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghui Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the human MECP2 gene cause Rett syndrome (RTT, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder that predominantly affects girls. Despite decades of work, the molecular function of MeCP2 is not fully understood. Here we report a systematic identification of MeCP2-interacting proteins in the mouse brain. In addition to transcription regulators, we found that MeCP2 physically interacts with several modulators of RNA splicing, including LEDGF and DHX9. These interactions are disrupted by RTT causing mutations, suggesting that they may play a role in RTT pathogenesis. Consistent with the idea, deep RNA sequencing revealed misregulation of hundreds of splicing events in the cortex of Mecp2 knockout mice. To reveal the functional consequence of altered RNA splicing due to the loss of MeCP2, we focused on the regulation of the splicing of the flip/flop exon of Gria2 and other AMPAR genes. We found a significant splicing shift in the flip/flop exon toward the flop inclusion, leading to a faster decay in the AMPAR gated current and altered synaptic transmission. In summary, our study identified direct physical interaction between MeCP2 and splicing factors, a novel MeCP2 target gene, and established functional connection between a specific RNA splicing change and synaptic phenotypes in RTT mice. These results not only help our understanding of the molecular function of MeCP2, but also reveal potential drug targets for future therapies.

  19. The effects of multiple features of alternatively spliced exons on the KA/KS ratio test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Feng-Chi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of alternatively spliced exons (ASEs is of primary interest because these exons are suggested to be a major source of functional diversity of proteins. Many exon features have been suggested to affect the evolution of ASEs. However, previous studies have relied on the KA/KS ratio test without taking into consideration information sufficiency (i.e., exon length > 75 bp, cross-species divergence > 5% of the studied exons, leading to potentially biased interpretations. Furthermore, which exon feature dominates the results of the KA/KS ratio test and whether multiple exon features have additive effects have remained unexplored. Results In this study, we collect two different datasets for analysis – the ASE dataset (which includes lineage-specific ASEs and conserved ASEs and the ACE dataset (which includes only conserved ASEs. We first show that information sufficiency can significantly affect the interpretation of relationship between exons features and the KA/KS ratio test results. After discarding exons with insufficient information, we use a Boolean method to analyze the relationship between test results and four exon features (namely length, protein domain overlapping, inclusion level, and exonic splicing enhancer (ESE frequency for the ASE dataset. We demonstrate that length and protein domain overlapping are dominant factors, and they have similar impacts on test results of ASEs. In addition, despite the weak impacts of inclusion level and ESE motif frequency when considered individually, combination of these two factors still have minor additive effects on test results. However, the ACE dataset shows a slightly different result in that inclusion level has a marginally significant effect on test results. Lineage-specific ASEs may have contributed to the difference. Overall, in both ASEs and ACEs, protein domain overlapping is the most dominant exon feature while ESE frequency is the weakest one in affecting

  20. Alternative Splicing Suggests Extended Function of PEX26 in Peroxisome Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Sabine; Cajigas, Ivelisse; Morrell, James; Obie, Cassandra; Steel, Gary; Gould, Stephen J.; Valle, David

    2005-01-01

    Matsumoto and colleagues recently identified PEX26 as the gene responsible for complementation group 8 of the peroxisome biogenesis disorders and showed that it encodes an integral peroxisomal membrane protein with a single C-terminal transmembrane domain and a cytosolic N-terminus that interacts with the PEX1/PEX6 heterodimer through direct binding to the latter. They proposed that PEX26 functions as the peroxisomal docking factor for the PEX1/PEX6 heterodimer. Here, we identify new PEX26 disease alleles, localize the PEX6-binding domain to the N-terminal half of the protein (aa 29–174), and show that, at the cellular level, PEX26 deficiency impairs peroxisomal import of both PTS1- and PTS2-targeted matrix proteins. Also, we find that PEX26 undergoes alternative splicing to produce several splice forms—including one, PEX26-Δex5, that maintains frame and encodes an isoform lacking the transmembrane domain of full-length PEX26 (PEX26-FL). Despite its cytosolic location, PEX26-Δex5 rescues peroxisome biogenesis in PEX26-deficient cells as efficiently as does PEX26-FL. To test our observation that a peroxisomal location is not required for PEX26 function, we made a chimeric protein (PEX26-Mito) with PEX26 as its N-terminus and the targeting segment of a mitochondrial outer membrane protein (OMP25) at its C-terminus. We found PEX26-Mito localized to the mitochondria and directed all detectable PEX6 and a fraction of PEX1 to this extraperoxisomal location; yet PEX26-Mito retains the full ability to rescue peroxisome biogenesis in PEX26-deficient cells. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that a peroxisomal localization of PEX26 and PEX6 is not required for their function and that the interaction of PEX6 with PEX1 is dynamic. This model predicts that, once activated in an extraperoxisomal location, PEX1 moves to the peroxisome and completes the function of the PEX1/6 heterodimer. PMID:15858711

  1. Abiotic Stresses Cause Differential Regulation of Alternative Splice Forms of GATA Transcription Factor in Rice

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    Priyanka Gupta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The GATA gene family is one of the most conserved families of transcription factors, playing a significant role in different aspects of cellular processes, in organisms ranging from fungi to angiosperms. GATA transcription factors are DNA-binding proteins, having a class IV zinc-finger motif CX2CX17−20CX2C followed by a highly basic region and are known to bind a consensus sequence WGATAR. In plants, GATAs are known to be involved in light-dependent gene regulation and nitrate assimilation. However, a comprehensive analysis of these GATA gene members has not yet been highlighted in rice when subjected to environmental stresses. In this study, we present an overview of the GATA gene family in rice (OsGATA in terms of, their chromosomal distribution, domain architecture, and phylogeny. Our study has revealed the presence of 28 genes, encoding 35 putative GATA transcription factors belonging to seven subfamilies in the rice genome. Transcript abundance analysis in contrasting genotypes of rice—IR64 (salt sensitive and Pokkali (salt tolerant, for individual GATA members indicated their differential expression in response to various abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, and exogenous ABA. One of the members of subfamily VII—OsGATA23a, emerged as a multi-stress responsive transcription factor giving elevated expression levels in response to salinity and drought. ABA also induces expression of OsGATA23a by 35 and 55-folds in IR64 and Pokkali respectively. However, OsGATA23b, an alternative splice variant of OsGATA23 did not respond to above-mentioned stresses. Developmental regulation of the OsGATA genes based on a publicly available microarray database showed distinct expression patterns for most of the GATA members throughout different stages of rice development. Altogether, our results suggest inherent roles of diverse OsGATA factors in abiotic stress signaling and also throw some light on the tight regulation of the spliced variants of

  2. Structure of the human laminin {gamma}2 chain gene (LAMC2): Alternative splicing with different tissue distribution of two transcripts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airenne, T.; Haakana, H.; Kallunki, T. [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)] [and others

    1996-02-15

    This article discusses the exon-intron structure and tissue distribution of the laminin {gamma}2 chain (LAMC2) gene, which is mutated in some cases of junctional epidermolysis bullosa. The article also discusses the transcription and splicing of this gene, which result in alternative uses of the last two exons of the gene. The different tissue distributions of the transcripts indicate different functions for the gene in vivo. 36 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Persistent detection of alternatively spliced BCR‐ABL variant results in a failure to achieve deep molecular response

    OpenAIRE

    Yuda, Junichiro; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Odawara, Jun; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Semba, Yuichiro; Hayashi, Masayasu; Miyamura, Koichi; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Yamamoto, Kazuhito; Taniwaki, Masafumi; Akashi, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) may sequentially induce TKI‐resistant BCR‐ABL mutants in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Conventional PCR monitoring of BCR‐ABL is an important indicator to determine therapeutic intervention for preventing disease progression. However, PCR cannot separately quantify amounts of BCR‐ABL and its mutants, including alternatively spliced BCR‐ABL with an insertion of 35 intronic nucleotides ( BCR‐ ABL I ns35bp ) between ABL exons 8 and 9, which intro...

  4. Rbfox proteins regulate tissue-specific alternative splicing of Mef2D required for muscle differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runfola, Valeria; Sebastian, Soji; Dilworth, F Jeffrey; Gabellini, Davide

    2015-02-15

    Among the Mef2 family of transcription factors, Mef2D is unique in that it undergoes tissue-specific splicing to generate an isoform that is essential for muscle differentiation. However, the mechanisms mediating this muscle-specific processing of Mef2D remain unknown. Using bioinformatics, we identified Rbfox proteins as putative modulators of Mef2D muscle-specific splicing. Accordingly, we found direct and specific Rbfox1 and Rbfox2 binding to Mef2D pre-mRNA in vivo. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that Rbfox1 and Rbfox2 cooperate in promoting Mef2D splicing and subsequent myogenesis. Thus, our findings reveal a new role for Rbfox proteins in regulating myogenesis through activation of essential muscle-specific splicing events. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Expression analysis of an evolutionarily conserved alternative splicing factor, Sfrs10, in age-related macular degeneration.

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    Devi Krishna Priya Karunakaran

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly population. Hypoxic stress created in the micro-environment of the photoreceptors is thought to be the underlying cause that results in the pathophysiology of AMD. However, association of AMD with alternative splicing mediated gene regulation is not well explored. Alternative Splicing is one of the primary mechanisms in humans by which fewer protein coding genes are able to generate a vast proteome. Here, we investigated the expression of a known stress response gene and an alternative splicing factor called Serine-Arginine rich splicing factor 10 (Sfrs10. Sfrs10 is a member of the serine-arginine (SR rich protein family and is 100% identical at the amino acid level in most mammals. Immunoblot analysis on retinal extracts from mouse, rat, and chicken showed a single immunoreactive band. Further, immunohistochemistry on adult mouse, rat and chicken retinae showed pan-retinal expression. However, SFRS10 was not detected in normal human retina but was observed as distinct nuclear speckles in AMD retinae. This is in agreement with previous reports that show Sfrs10 to be a stress response gene, which is upregulated under hypoxia. The difference in the expression of Sfrs10 between humans and lower mammals and the upregulation of SFRS10 in AMD is further reflected in the divergence of the promoter sequence between these species. Finally, SFRS10+ speckles were independent of the SC35+ SR protein speckles or the HSF1+ stress granules. In all, our data suggests that SFRS10 is upregulated and forms distinct stress-induced speckles and might be involved in AS of stress response genes in AMD.

  6. Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing in Mammals and Teleost Fish: A Effective Strategy for the Regulation of Immune Responses Against Pathogen Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming Xian; Zhang, Jie

    2017-07-15

    Pre-mRNA splicing is the process by which introns are removed and the protein coding elements assembled into mature mRNAs. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing provides an important source of transcriptome and proteome complexity through selectively joining different coding elements to form mRNAs, which encode proteins with similar or distinct functions. In mammals, previous studies have shown the role of alternative splicing in regulating the function of the immune system, especially in the regulation of T-cell activation and function. As lower vertebrates, teleost fish mainly rely on a large family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from various invading pathogens. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of alternative splicing of piscine PRRs including peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and their downstream signaling molecules, compared to splicing in mammals. We also discuss what is known and unknown about the function of splicing isoforms in the innate immune responses against pathogens infection in mammals and teleost fish. Finally, we highlight the consequences of alternative splicing in the innate immune system and give our view of important directions for future studies.

  7. Seed Dormancy in Arabidopsis Requires Self-Binding Ability of DOG1 Protein and the Presence of Multiple Isoforms Generated by Alternative Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Kazumi Nakabayashi; Melanie Bartsch; Jia Ding; Soppe, Wim J. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis protein DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) is a key regulator of seed dormancy, which is a life history trait that determines the timing of seedling emergence. The amount of DOG1 protein in freshly harvested seeds determines their dormancy level. DOG1 has been identified as a major dormancy QTL and variation in DOG1 transcript levels between accessions contributes to natural variation for seed dormancy. The DOG1 gene is alternatively spliced. Alternative splicing increases the tran...

  8. Identification of Coilin Mutants in a Screen for Enhanced Expression of an Alternatively Spliced GFP Reporter Gene in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Tatsuo; Lin, Wen-Dar; Fu, Jason L; Wu, Ming-Tsung; Yang, Ho-Wen; Lin, Shih-Shun; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2016-08-01

    Coilin is a marker protein for subnuclear organelles known as Cajal bodies, which are sites of various RNA metabolic processes including the biogenesis of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Through self-associations and interactions with other proteins and RNA, coilin provides a structural scaffold for Cajal body formation. However, despite a conspicuous presence in Cajal bodies, most coilin is dispersed in the nucleoplasm and expressed in cell types that lack these organelles. The molecular function of coilin, particularly of the substantial nucleoplasmic fraction, remains uncertain. We identified coilin loss-of-function mutations in a genetic screen for mutants showing either reduced or enhanced expression of an alternatively spliced GFP reporter gene in Arabidopsis thaliana The coilin mutants feature enhanced GFP fluorescence and diminished Cajal bodies compared with wild-type plants. The amount of GFP protein is several-fold higher in the coilin mutants owing to elevated GFP transcript levels and more efficient splicing to produce a translatable GFP mRNA. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing data from two distinct coilin mutants revealed a small, shared subset of differentially expressed genes, many encoding stress-related proteins, and, unexpectedly, a trend toward increased splicing efficiency. These results suggest that coilin attenuates splicing and modulates transcription of a select group of genes. The transcriptional and splicing changes observed in coilin mutants are not accompanied by gross phenotypic abnormalities or dramatically altered stress responses, supporting a role for coilin in fine tuning gene expression. Our GFP reporter gene provides a sensitive monitor of coilin activity that will facilitate further investigations into the functions of this enigmatic protein. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Neuron-specific splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Nor Hakimah Ab; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Tsukahara, Toshifumi

    2017-03-22

    During pre-mRNA splicing events, introns are removed from the pre-mRNA, and the remaining exons are connected together to form a single continuous molecule. Alternative splicing is a common mechanism for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. More than 90% of human genes are known to undergo alternative splicing. The most common type of alternative splicing is exon skipping, which is also known as cassette exon. Other known alternative splicing events include alternative 5' splice sites, alternative 3' splice sites, intron retention, and mutually exclusive exons. Alternative splicing events are controlled by regulatory proteins responsible for both positive and negative regulation. In this review, we focus on neuronal splicing regulators and discuss several notable regulators in depth. In addition, we have also included an example of splicing regulation mediated by the RBFox protein family. Lastly, as previous studies have shown that a number of splicing factors are associated with neuronal diseases such as Alzheime's disease (AD) and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), here we consider their importance in neuronal diseases wherein the underlying mechanisms have yet to be elucidated.

  10. Comparative transcriptomics uncovers alternative splicing and molecular marker development in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaobo; Xu, Liang; Liang, Dongyi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhu, Yuelin; Jiang, Haiyan; Tang, Mingjia; Liu, Liwang

    2017-07-03

    Alternative splicing (AS) plays important roles in gene expression and proteome diversity. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (InDel) are abundant polymorphisms and co-dominant inheritance markers, which have been widely used in germplasm identification, genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection in plants. So far, however, little information is available on utilization of AS events and development of SNP and InDel markers from transcriptome in radish. In this study, three radish transcriptome datasets were collected and aligned to the reference radish genome. A total of 56,530 AS events were identified from three radish genotypes with intron retention (IR) being the most frequent AS type, which accounted for 59.4% of the total expressed genes in radish. In all, 22,412 SNPs and 9436 InDels were identified with an average frequency of 1 SNP/17.9 kb and 1 InDel/42.5 kb, respectively. A total of 43,680 potential SSRs were identified in 31,604 assembled unigenes with a density of 1 SSR/2.5 kb. The ratio of SNPs with nonsynonymous/synonymous mutations was 1.05:1. Moreover, 35 SNPs and 200 InDels were randomly selected and validated by Sanger sequencing, 83.9% of the SNPs and 70% of the InDels exhibited polymorphism among these three genotypes. In addition, the 15 SNPs and 125 InDels were found to be unevenly distributed on 9 linkage groups. Furthermore, 40 informative InDel markers were successfully used for the genetic diversity analysis on 32 radish accessions. These results would not only provide new insights into transcriptome complexity and AS regulation, but also furnish large amount of molecular marker resources for germplasm identification, genetic mapping and further genetic improvement of radish in breeding programs.

  11. Population genetics of duplicated alternatively spliced exons of the Dscam gene in Daphnia and Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brites

    Full Text Available In insects and crustaceans, the Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam occurs in many different isoforms. These are produced by mutually exclusive alternative splicing of dozens of tandem duplicated exons coding for parts or whole immunoglobulin (Ig domains of the Dscam protein. This diversity plays a role in the development of the nervous system and also in the immune system. Structural analysis of the protein suggested candidate epitopes where binding to pathogens could occur. These epitopes are coded by regions of the duplicated exons and are therefore diverse within individuals. Here we apply molecular population genetics and molecular evolution analyses using Daphnia magna and several Drosophila species to investigate the potential role of natural selection in the divergence between orthologs of these duplicated exons among species, as well as between paralogous exons within species. We found no evidence for a role of positive selection in the divergence of these paralogous exons. However, the power of this test was low, and the fact that no signs of gene conversion between paralogous exons were found suggests that paralog diversity may nonetheless be maintained by selection. The analysis of orthologous exons in Drosophila and in Daphnia revealed an excess of non-synonymous polymorphisms in the epitopes putatively involved in pathogen binding. This may be a sign of balancing selection. Indeed, in Dr. melanogaster the same derived non-synonymous alleles segregate in several populations around the world. Yet other hallmarks of balancing selection were not found. Hence, we cannot rule out that the excess of non-synonymous polymorphisms is caused by segregating slightly deleterious alleles, thus potentially indicating reduced selective constraints in the putative pathogen binding epitopes of Dscam.

  12. Multiphasic and Dynamic Changes in Alternative Splicing during Induction of Pluripotency Are Coordinated by Numerous RNA-Binding Proteins

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    Benjamin Cieply

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing (AS plays a critical role in cell fate transitions, development, and disease. Recent studies have shown that AS also influences pluripotency and somatic cell reprogramming. We profiled transcriptome-wide AS changes that occur during reprogramming of fibroblasts to pluripotency. This analysis revealed distinct phases of AS, including a splicing program that is unique to transgene-independent induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. Changes in the expression of AS factors Zcchc24, Esrp1, Mbnl1/2, and Rbm47 were demonstrated to contribute to phase-specific AS. RNA-binding motif enrichment analysis near alternatively spliced exons provided further insight into the combinatorial regulation of AS during reprogramming by different RNA-binding proteins. Ectopic expression of Esrp1 enhanced reprogramming, in part by modulating the AS of the epithelial specific transcription factor Grhl1. These data represent a comprehensive temporal analysis of the dynamic regulation of AS during the acquisition of pluripotency.

  13. Cloning and characterization of the mouse Mcoln1 gene reveals an alternatively spliced transcript not seen in humans

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    Stahl Stefanie

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe neurologic and ophthalmologic abnormalities. Recently the MLIV gene, MCOLN1, has been identified as a new member of the transient receptor potential (TRP cation channel superfamily. Here we report the cloning and characterization of the mouse homologue, Mcoln1, and report a novel splice variant that is not seen in humans. Results The human and mouse genes display a high degree of synteny. Mcoln1 shows 91% amino acid and 86% nucleotide identity to MCOLN1. Also, Mcoln1 maps to chromosome 8 and contains an open reading frame of 580 amino acids, with a transcript length of approximately 2 kb encoded by 14 exons, similar to its human counterpart. The transcript that results from murine specific alternative splicing encodes a 611 amino acid protein that differs at the c-terminus. Conclusions Mcoln1 is highly similar to MCOLN1, especially in the transmembrane domains and ion pore region. Also, the late endosomal/lysosomal targeting signal is conserved, supporting the hypothesis that the protein is localized to these vesicle membranes. To date, there are very few reports describing species-specific splice variants. While identification of Mcoln1 is crucial to the development of mouse models for MLIV, the fact that there are two transcripts in mice suggests an additional or alternate function of the gene that may complicate phenotypic assessment.

  14. Alternative Splicing at C Terminus of CaV1.4 Calcium Channel Modulates Calcium-dependent Inactivation, Activation Potential, and Current Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gregory Ming Yeong; Yu, Dejie; Wang, Juejin; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The CaV1.4 voltage-gated calcium channel is predominantly expressed in the retina, and mutations to this channel have been associated with human congenital stationary night blindness type-2. The L-type CaV1.4 channel displays distinct properties such as absence of calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and slow voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI) due to the presence of an autoinhibitory domain (inhibitor of CDI) in the distal C terminus. We hypothesized that native CaV1.4 is subjected to extensive alternative splicing, much like the other voltage-gated calcium channels, and employed the transcript scanning method to identify alternatively spliced exons within the CaV1.4 transcripts isolated from the human retina. In total, we identified 19 alternative splice variations, of which 16 variations have not been previously reported. Characterization of the C terminus alternatively spliced exons using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology revealed a splice variant that exhibits robust CDI. This splice variant arose from the splicing of a novel alternate exon (43*) that can be found in 13.6% of the full-length transcripts screened. Inclusion of exon 43* inserts a stop codon that truncates half the C terminus. The CaV1.4 43* channel exhibited robust CDI, a larger current density, a hyperpolarized shift in activation potential by ∼10 mV, and a slower VDI. Through deletional experiments, we showed that the inhibitor of CDI was responsible for modulating channel activation and VDI, in addition to CDI. Calcium currents in the photoreceptors were observed to exhibit CDI and are more negatively activated as compared with currents elicited from heterologously expressed full-length CaV1.4. Naturally occurring alternative splice variants may in part contribute to the properties of the native CaV1.4 channels. PMID:22069316

  15. High-throughput binding analysis determines the binding specificity of ASF/SF2 on alternatively spliced human pre-mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Brian; Levin, J; Thompson, William A; Fairbrother, William G

    2010-03-01

    High-throughput immunoprecipitation studies of transcription factors and splicing factors have revolutionized the fields of transcription and splicing. Recent location studies on Nova1/2 and Fox2 have identified a set of cellular targets of these splicing factors. One problem with identifying binding sites for splicing factors arises from the transient role of RNA in gene expression. The primary role of most splicing factors is to bind pre-mRNA co-transcriptionally and participate in the extremely rapid process of splice site selection and catalysis. Pre-mRNA is a labile species with a steady state level that is three orders of magnitude less abundant than mRNA. As many splicing factors also bind mRNA to some degree, these substrates tend to dominate the output of location studies. Here we present an in-vitro method for screening RNA protein interactions that circumvents these problems. We screen approximately 4000 alternatively spliced exons and the entire Hepatitis C genome for binding of ASF/SF2, the only splicing factor demonstrated to function as an oncogene. From the pre-mRNA sequences returned in this screen we discovered physiologically relevant ASF recognition element motifs. ASF binds two motifs: a C-rich and a purine rich motif. Comparisons with similar data derived from the hnRNP protein PTB reveals little overlap between strong PTB and ASF/SF2 sites. We illustrate how this method could be employed to screen disease alleles with the set of small molecules that have been shown to alter splicing in search for therapies for splicing diseases.

  16. CD82 suppresses CD44 alternative splicing-dependent melanoma metastasis by mediating U2AF2 ubiquitination and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pu; Feng, Shan; Liu, Gentao; Wang, Heyong; Fu, Ailing; Zhu, Huifeng; Ren, Qiao; Wang, Bochu; Xu, Xingran; Bai, Huiyuan; Dong, Cheng

    2016-09-22

    Melanoma is one of the most lethal forms of skin cancer because of its early metastatic spread. The variant form of CD44 (CD44v), a cell surface glycoprotein, is highly expressed on metastatic melanoma. The mechanisms of regulation of CD44 alternative splicing in melanoma and its pathogenic contributions are so far poorly understood. Here, we investigated the expression level of CD44 in a large set of melanocytic lesions at different stages. We found that the expression of CD44v8-10 and a splicing factor, U2AF2, is significantly increased during melanoma progression, whereas CD82/KAI1, a tetraspanin family of tumor suppressor, is reduced in metastatic melanoma. CD44v8-10 and U2AF2 expression levels, which are negatively correlated with CD82 levels, are markedly elevated in primary melanoma compared with dysplastic nevi and further increased in metastatic melanoma. We also showed that patients with higher CD44v8-10 and U2AF2 expression levels tended to have shorter survival. By using both in vivo and in vitro assays, we demonstrated that CD82 inhibits the production of CD44v8-10 on melanoma. Mechanistically, U2AF2 is a downstream target of CD82 and in malignant melanoma facilitates CD44v8-10 alternative splicing. U2AF2-mediated CD44 isoform switch is required for melanoma migration in vitro and lung and liver metastasis in vivo. Notably, overexpression of CD82 suppresses U2AF2 activity by inducing U2AF2 ubiquitination. In addition, our data suggested that enhancement of melanoma migration by U2AF2-dependent CD44v8-10 splicing is mediated by Src/focal adhesion kinase/RhoA activation and formation of stress fibers, as well as CD44-E-selectin binding reinforcement. These findings uncovered a hitherto unappreciated function of CD82 in severing the linkage between U2AF2-mediated CD44 alternative splicing and cancer aggressiveness, with potential prognostic and therapeutic implications in melanoma.

  17. Identification of novel alternative splicing events in the huntingtin gene and assessment of the functional consequences using structural protein homology modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alis C; Mort, Matthew; Elliston, Lyn; Thomas, Rhian M; Brooks, Simon P; Dunnett, Stephen B; Jones, Lesley

    2014-04-03

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a pathological CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the large multi-exon gene, huntingtin (HTT). Although multiple pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed for HD, there is increasing interest in the RNA processing of the HTT gene. In mammals, most multi-exon genes are alternatively spliced; however, few alternative transcripts have been described for HTT. Given the numerous protein bands detected in mouse and human brain tissue by Western blotting using anti-huntingtin antibodies, we examined whether alternative splicing of HTT may account for some of these fragments. Using RT-PCR in mouse brain, we detected two novel splice variants of Htt that lacked the 111-bp exon 29 (Htt∆ex29) or retained a 57-bp portion of intron 28 (Htt(+57)in28) via use of a cryptic splice site. The alternative transcripts were present in wild-type and homozygous Hdh(Q150/Q150) mouse brain at all ages and in all brain regions and peripheral tissues studied. Differential splicing of Htt∆ex29 was found in the cerebellum of Hdh(Q150/Q150) mice with a significant reduction in transcript levels in mutant animals. In human brain, we detected similar splice variants lacking exons 28 and 29. The ability of alternatively spliced transcripts to encode different protein isoforms with individual functions in the cell, combined with the known role of splicing in disease, renders these novel transcripts of interest in the context of HD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Follicle stimulating hormone modulates ovarian stem cells through alternately spliced receptor variant FSH-R3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiren; Bhartiya, Deepa; Parte, Seema; Gunjal, Pranesh; Yedurkar, Snehal; Bhatt, Mithun

    2013-01-01

    We have earlier reported that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) modulates ovarian stem cells which include pluripotent, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and their immediate descendants 'progenitors' termed ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs), lodged in adult mammalian ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). FSH may exert pleiotropic actions through its alternatively spliced receptor isoforms. Four isoforms of FSH receptors (FSHR) are reported in literature of which FSH-R1 and FSH-R3 have biological activity. Present study was undertaken to identify FSHR isoforms mediating FSH action on ovarian stem cells, using sheep OSE cells culture as the study model. Cultures of sheep OSE cells (a mix of epithelial cells, VSELs, OGSCs and few contaminating red blood cells) were established with and without FSH 5IU/ml treatment. Effect of FSH treatment on self-renewal of VSELs and their differentiation into OGSCs was studied after 15 hrs by qRT-PCR using markers specific for VSELs (Oct-4A, Sox-2) and OGSCs (Oct-4). FSH receptors and its specific transcripts (R1 and R3) were studied after 3 and 15 hrs of FSH treatment by immunolocalization, in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR. FSHR and OCT-4 were also immuno-localized on sheep ovarian sections, in vitro matured follicles and early embryos. FSH treatment resulted in increased stem cells self-renewal and clonal expansion evident by the appearance of stem cell clusters. FSH receptors were expressed on ovarian stem cells whereas the epithelial cells were distinctly negative. An increase in R3 mRNA transcripts was noted after 3 hrs of FSH treatment and was reduced to basal levels by 15 hrs, whereas R1 transcript expression remained unaffected. Both FSHR and OCT-4 were immuno-localized in nuclei of stem cells, showed nuclear or ooplasmic localization in oocytes of primordial follicles and in cytoplasm of granulosa cells in growing follicles. FSH modulates ovarian stem cells via FSH-R3 to undergo potential self-renewal, clonal

  19. Dynamic ASXL1 Exon Skipping and Alternative Circular Splicing in Single Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Koh

    Full Text Available Circular RNAs comprise a poorly understood new class of noncoding RNA. In this study, we used a combination of targeted deletion, high-resolution splicing detection, and single-cell sequencing to deeply probe ASXL1 circular splicing. We found that efficient circular splicing required the canonical transcriptional start site and inverted AluSx elements. Sequencing-based interrogation of isoforms after ASXL1 overexpression identified promiscuous linear splicing between all exons, with the two most abundant non-canonical linear products skipping the exons that produced the circular isoforms. Single-cell sequencing revealed a strong preference for either the linear or circular ASXL1 isoforms in each cell, and found the predominant exon skipping product is frequently co-expressed with its reciprocal circular isoform. Finally, absolute quantification of ASXL1 isoforms confirmed our findings and suggests that standard methods overestimate circRNA abundance. Taken together, these data reveal a dynamic new view of circRNA genesis, providing additional framework for studying their roles in cellular biology.

  20. Tissue-specific alternative splicing and expression of ATP1B2 gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Na+-K+-ATPase is an essential transport enzyme expressed in all animal tissues, where it generates ion gradients to maintain membrane potential and drive the transport of other solutes. It also balances metabolism and body temperature. In this study, the characterization of three novel bovine ATP1B2 splice variants, ...

  1. Dynamic changes in neurexins' alternative splicing: role of Rho-associated protein kinases and relevance to memory formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rozic

    Full Text Available The three neurexins genes (NRXN1/2/3 encode polymorphic synaptic membrane proteins that are involved in cognitive functioning. Neurexins' selectivity of function is presumably conferred through differential use of 2 promoters and 5 alternative splicing sites (SS#1/2/3/4/5. In day-old rat brain neurons grown in culture, activation (depolarization induces reversible, calcium dependent, repression of NRXN2α SS#3 insert. The effects of depolarization on NRXN1/2/3α splicing and biochemical pathways mediating them were further studied in these neurons. NRXN1/2/3α splicing in the course of memory formation in vivo was also explored, using fear conditioning paradigm in rats in which the animals were trained to associate an aversive stimulus (electrical shock with a neutral context (a tone, resulting in the expression of fear responses to the neutral context.In the cultured neurons depolarization induced, beside NRXN2α SS#3, repression of SS#3 and SS#4 exons in NRXN3α but not NRXN1α. The repressions were mediated by the calcium/protein kinase C/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK pathway. Fear conditioning induced significant and transient repressions of the NRXN1/2/3α SS#4 exons in the rat hippocampus. ROCK inhibition prior to training attenuated the behavioral fear response, the NRXN1/2/3α splicing repressions and subsequent recovery and the levels of excitatory (PSD95 and inhibitory (gephyrin synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. No such effects were observed in the prefrontal cortex. Significant correlations existed between the fear response and hippocampal NRXN3α and NRXN2α SS#4 inserts as well as PSD95 protein levels. Hippocampal NRXN1α SS#4 insert and gephyrin levels did not correlate with the behavioral response but were negatively correlated with each other.These results show for the first time dynamic, experience related changes in NRXN1/2/3α alternative splicing in the rat brain and a role for ROCK in them. Specific neurexins

  2. Intron-Mediated Alternative Splicing of WOOD-ASSOCIATED NAC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1B Regulates Cell Wall Thickening during Fiber Development in Populus Species1[W

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    Zhao, Yunjun; Sun, Jiayan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism involved in regulating the development of multicellular organisms. Although many genes in plants undergo alternative splicing, little is understood of its significance in regulating plant growth and development. In this study, alternative splicing of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factor (PtrWNDs), PtrWND1B, is shown to occur exclusively in secondary xylem fiber cells. PtrWND1B is expressed with a normal short-transcript PtrWND1B-s as well as its alternative long-transcript PtrWND1B-l. The intron 2 structure of the PtrWND1B gene was identified as a critical sequence that causes PtrWND1B alternative splicing. Suppression of PtrWND1B expression specifically inhibited fiber cell wall thickening. The two PtrWND1B isoforms play antagonistic roles in regulating cell wall thickening during fiber cell differentiation in Populus spp. PtrWND1B-s overexpression enhanced fiber cell wall thickening, while overexpression of PtrWND1B-l repressed fiber cell wall thickening. Alternative splicing may enable more specific regulation of processes such as fiber cell wall thickening during wood formation. PMID:24394777

  3. Impairment of alternative splice sites defining a novel gammaretroviral exon within gag modifies the oncogenic properties of Akv murine leukemia virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintanilla-Martinez Leticia

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations of an alternative splice donor site located within the gag region has previously been shown to broaden the pathogenic potential of the T-lymphomagenic gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus, while the equivalent mutations in the erythroleukemia inducing Friend murine leukemia virus seem to have no influence on the disease-inducing potential of this virus. In the present study we investigate the splice pattern as well as the possible effects of mutating the alternative splice sites on the oncogenic properties of the B-lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. Results By exon-trapping procedures we have identified a novel gammaretroviral exon, resulting from usage of alternative splice acceptor (SA' and splice donor (SD' sites located in the capsid region of gag of the B-cell lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. To analyze possible effects in vivo of this novel exon, three different alternative splice site mutant viruses, mutated in either the SA', in the SD', or in both sites, respectively, were constructed and injected into newborn inbred NMRI mice. Most of the infected mice (about 90% developed hematopoietic neoplasms within 250 days, and histological examination of the tumors showed that the introduced synonymous gag mutations have a significant influence on the phenotype of the induced tumors, changing the distribution of the different types as well as generating tumors of additional specificities such as de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL and histiocytic sarcoma. Interestingly, a broader spectrum of diagnoses was made from the two single splice-site mutants than from as well the wild-type as the double splice-site mutant. Both single- and double-spliced transcripts are produced in vivo using the SA' and/or the SD' sites, but the mechanisms underlying the observed effects on oncogenesis remain to be clarified. Likewise, analyses of provirus integration sites in tumor tissues, which identified

  4. Fox-2 Splicing Factor Binds to a Conserved Intron Motif to PromoteInclusion of Protein 4.1R Alternative Exon 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponthier, Julie L.; Schluepen, Christina; Chen, Weiguo; Lersch,Robert A.; Gee, Sherry L.; Hou, Victor C.; Lo, Annie J.; Short, Sarah A.; Chasis, Joel A.; Winkelmann, John C.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-03-01

    Activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 (E16) inclusion during erythropoiesis represents a physiologically important splicing switch that increases 4.1R affinity for spectrin and actin. Previous studies showed that negative regulation of E16 splicing is mediated by the binding of hnRNP A/B proteins to silencer elements in the exon and that downregulation of hnRNP A/B proteins in erythroblasts leads to activation of E16 inclusion. This paper demonstrates that positive regulation of E16 splicing can be mediated by Fox-2 or Fox-1, two closely related splicing factors that possess identical RNA recognition motifs. SELEX experiments with human Fox-1 revealed highly selective binding to the hexamer UGCAUG. Both Fox-1 and Fox-2 were able to bind the conserved UGCAUG elements in the proximal intron downstream of E16, and both could activate E16 splicing in HeLa cell co-transfection assays in a UGCAUG-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of Fox-2 expression, achieved with two different siRNA sequences resulted in decreased E16 splicing. Moreover, immunoblot experiments demonstrate mouse erythroblasts express Fox-2, but not Fox-1. These findings suggest that Fox-2 is a physiological activator of E16 splicing in differentiating erythroid cells in vivo. Recent experiments show that UGCAUG is present in the proximal intron sequence of many tissue-specific alternative exons, and we propose that the Fox family of splicing enhancers plays an important role in alternative splicing switches during differentiation in metazoan organisms.

  5. New Modularity of DAP-Kinases: Alternative Splicing of the DRP-1 Gene Produces a ZIPk-Like Isoform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoval, Yishay; Berissi, Hanna; Kimchi, Adi; Pietrokovski, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    DRP-1 and ZIPk are two members of the Death Associated Protein Ser/Thr Kinase (DAP-kinase) family, which function in different settings of cell death including autophagy. DAP kinases are very similar in their catalytic domains but differ substantially in their extra-catalytic domains. This difference is crucial for the significantly different modes of regulation and function among DAP kinases. Here we report the identification of a novel alternatively spliced kinase isoform of the DRP-1 gene, termed DRP-1β. The alternative splicing event replaces the whole extra catalytic domain of DRP-1 with a single coding exon that is closely related to the sequence of the extra catalytic domain of ZIPk. As a consequence, DRP-1β lacks the calmodulin regulatory domain of DRP-1, and instead contains a leucine zipper-like motif similar to the protein binding region of ZIPk. Several functional assays proved that this new isoform retained the biochemical and cellular properties that are common to DRP-1 and ZIPk, including myosin light chain phosphorylation, and activation of membrane blebbing and autophagy. In addition, DRP-1β also acquired binding to the ATF4 transcription factor, a feature characteristic of ZIPk but not DRP-1. Thus, a splicing event of the DRP-1 produces a ZIPk like isoform. DRP-1β is highly conserved in evolution, present in all known vertebrate DRP-1 loci. We detected the corresponding mRNA and protein in embryonic mouse brains and in human embryonic stem cells thus confirming the in vivo utilization of this isoform. The discovery of module conservation within the DAPk family members illustrates a parsimonious way to increase the functional complexity within protein families. It also provides crucial data for modeling the expansion and evolution of DAP kinase proteins within vertebrates, suggesting that DRP-1 and ZIPk most likely evolved from their ancient ancestor gene DAPk by two gene duplication events that occurred close to the emergence of vertebrates

  6. New modularity of DAP-kinases: alternative splicing of the DRP-1 gene produces a ZIPk-like isoform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishay Shoval

    Full Text Available DRP-1 and ZIPk are two members of the Death Associated Protein Ser/Thr Kinase (DAP-kinase family, which function in different settings of cell death including autophagy. DAP kinases are very similar in their catalytic domains but differ substantially in their extra-catalytic domains. This difference is crucial for the significantly different modes of regulation and function among DAP kinases. Here we report the identification of a novel alternatively spliced kinase isoform of the DRP-1 gene, termed DRP-1β. The alternative splicing event replaces the whole extra catalytic domain of DRP-1 with a single coding exon that is closely related to the sequence of the extra catalytic domain of ZIPk. As a consequence, DRP-1β lacks the calmodulin regulatory domain of DRP-1, and instead contains a leucine zipper-like motif similar to the protein binding region of ZIPk. Several functional assays proved that this new isoform retained the biochemical and cellular properties that are common to DRP-1 and ZIPk, including myosin light chain phosphorylation, and activation of membrane blebbing and autophagy. In addition, DRP-1β also acquired binding to the ATF4 transcription factor, a feature characteristic of ZIPk but not DRP-1. Thus, a splicing event of the DRP-1 produces a ZIPk like isoform. DRP-1β is highly conserved in evolution, present in all known vertebrate DRP-1 loci. We detected the corresponding mRNA and protein in embryonic mouse brains and in human embryonic stem cells thus confirming the in vivo utilization of this isoform. The discovery of module conservation within the DAPk family members illustrates a parsimonious way to increase the functional complexity within protein families. It also provides crucial data for modeling the expansion and evolution of DAP kinase proteins within vertebrates, suggesting that DRP-1 and ZIPk most likely evolved from their ancient ancestor gene DAPk by two gene duplication events that occurred close to the

  7. Alternative splicing of Arabidopsis IBR5 pre-mRNA generates two IBR5 isoforms with distinct and overlapping functions.

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    Thilanka Jayaweera

    Full Text Available The INDOLE-3-BUTYRIC ACID RESPONSE5 (IBR5 gene encodes a dual specificity phosphatase that regulates plant auxin responses. IBR5 has been predicted to generate two transcripts through alternative splicing, but alternative splicing of IBR5 has not been confirmed experimentally. The previously characterized ibr5-1 null mutant exhibits many auxin related defects such as auxin insensitive primary root growth, defective vascular development, short stature and reduced lateral root development. However, whether all these defects are caused by the lack of phosphatase activity is not clear. Here we describe two new auxin insensitive IBR5 alleles, ibr5-4, a catalytic site mutant, and ibr5-5, a splice site mutant. Characterization of these new mutants indicates that IBR5 is post-transcriptionally regulated to generate two transcripts, AT2G04550.1 and AT2G04550.3, and consequently two IBR5 isoforms, IBR5.1 and IBR5.3. The IBR5.1 isoform exhibits phosphatase catalytic activity that is required for both proper degradation of Aux/IAA proteins and auxin-induced gene expression. These two processes are independently regulated by IBR5.1. Comparison of new mutant alleles with ibr5-1 indicates that all three mutant alleles share many phenotypes. However, each allele also confers distinct defects implicating IBR5 isoform specific functions. Some of these functions are independent of IBR5.1 catalytic activity. Additionally, analysis of these new mutant alleles suggests that IBR5 may link ABP1 and SCF(TIR1/AFBs auxin signaling pathways.

  8. Alternative splice isoforms of small conductance calcium-activated SK2 channels differ in molecular interactions and surface levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Elizabeth Storer; Pirone, Antonella; Cox, Daniel H; Duncan, R Keith; Jacob, Michele H

    2014-01-01

    Small conductance Ca2+-sensitive potassium (SK2) channels are voltage-independent, Ca2+-activated ion channels that conduct potassium cations and thereby modulate the intrinsic excitability and synaptic transmission of neurons and sensory hair cells. In the cochlea, SK2 channels are functionally coupled to the highly Ca2+ permeant α9/10-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at olivocochlear postsynaptic sites. SK2 activation leads to outer hair cell hyperpolarization and frequency-selective suppression of afferent sound transmission. These inhibitory responses are essential for normal regulation of sound sensitivity, frequency selectivity, and suppression of background noise. However, little is known about the molecular interactions of these key functional channels. Here we show that SK2 channels co-precipitate with α9/10-nAChRs and with the actin-binding protein α-actinin-1. SK2 alternative splicing, resulting in a 3 amino acid insertion in the intracellular 3′ terminus, modulates these interactions. Further, relative abundance of the SK2 splice variants changes during developmental stages of synapse maturation in both the avian cochlea and the mammalian forebrain. Using heterologous cell expression to separately study the 2 distinct isoforms, we show that the variants differ in protein interactions and surface expression levels, and that Ca2+ and Ca2+-bound calmodulin differentially regulate their protein interactions. Our findings suggest that the SK2 isoforms may be distinctly modulated by activity-induced Ca2+ influx. Alternative splicing of SK2 may serve as a novel mechanism to differentially regulate the maturation and function of olivocochlear and neuronal synapses. PMID:24394769

  9. Cell motility is controlled by SF2/ASF through alternative splicing of the Ron protooncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigna, Claudia; Giordano, Silvia; Shen, Haihong; Benvenuto, Federica; Castiglioni, Fabio; Comoglio, Paolo Maria; Green, Michael R; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2005-12-22

    Ron, the tyrosine kinase receptor for the Macrophage-stimulating protein, is involved in cell dissociation, motility, and matrix invasion. DeltaRon, a constitutively active isoform that confers increased motility to expressing cells, is generated through the skipping of exon 11. We show that abnormal accumulation of DeltaRon mRNA occurs in breast and colon tumors. Skipping of exon 11 is controlled by a silencer and an enhancer of splicing located in the constitutive exon 12. The strength of the enhancer parallels the relative abundance of DeltaRon mRNA and depends on a sequence directly bound by splicing factor SF2/ASF. Overexpression and RNAi experiments demonstrate that SF2/ASF, by controlling the production of DeltaRon, activates epithelial to mesenchymal transition leading to cell locomotion. The effect of SF2/ASF overexpression is reverted by specific knockdown of DeltaRon mRNA. This demonstrates a direct link between SF2/ASF-regulated splicing and cell motility, an activity important for embryogenesis, tissue formation, and tumor metastasis.

  10. Phosphorylation status of the Kep1 protein alters its affinity for its protein binding partner alternative splicing factor ASF/SF2.

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    Robard, Cécile; Daviau, Alex; Di Fruscio, Marco

    2006-11-15

    Mutations in the Drosophila kep1 gene, encoding a single maxi KH (K homology) domain-containing RNA-binding protein, result in a reduction of fertility in part due to the disruption of the apoptotic programme during oogenesis. This disruption is concomitant with the appearance of an alternatively spliced mRNA isoform encoding the inactive caspase dredd. We generated a Kep1 antibody and have found that the Kep1 protein is present in the nuclei of both the follicle and nurse cells during all stages of Drosophila oogenesis. We have shown that the Kep1 protein is phosphorylated in ovaries induced to undergo apoptosis following treatment with the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin. We have also found that the Kep1 protein interacts specifically with the SR (serine/arginine-rich) protein family member ASF/SF2 (alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2). This interaction is independent of the ability of Kep1 to bind RNA, but is dependent on the phosphorylation of the Kep1 protein, with the interaction between Kep1 and ASF/SF2 increasing in the presence of activated Src. Using a CD44v5 alternative splicing reporter construct, we observed 99% inclusion of the alternatively spliced exon 5 following kep1 transfection in a cell line that constitutively expresses activated Src. This modulation in splicing was not observed in the parental NIH 3T3 cell line in which we obtained 7.5% exon 5 inclusion following kep1 transfection. Our data suggest a mechanism of action in which the in vivo phosphorylation status of the Kep1 protein affects its affinity towards its protein binding partners and in turn may allow for the modulation of alternative splice site selection in Kep1-ASF/SF2-dependent target genes.

  11. Sam68 regulates EMT through alternative splicing-activated nonsense-mediated mRNA decay of the SF2/ASF proto-oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valacca, Cristina; Bonomi, Serena; Buratti, Emanuele; Pedrotti, Simona; Baralle, Francisco Ernesto; Sette, Claudio; Ghigna, Claudia; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2010-10-04

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reversal (MET) are crucial cell plasticity programs that act during development and tumor metastasis. We have previously shown that the splicing factor and proto-oncogene SF2/ASF impacts EMT/MET through production of a constitutively active splice variant of the Ron proto-oncogene. Using an in vitro model, we now show that SF2/ASF is also regulated during EMT/MET by alternative splicing associated with the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway (AS-NMD). Overexpression and small interfering RNA experiments implicate the splicing regulator Sam68 in AS-NMD of SF2/ASF transcripts and in the choice between EMT/MET programs. Moreover, Sam68 modulation of SF2/ASF splicing appears to be controlled by epithelial cell-derived soluble factors that act through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway to regulate Sam68 phosphorylation. Collectively, our results reveal a hierarchy of splicing factors that integrate splicing decisions into EMT/MET programs in response to extracellular stimuli.

  12. Dietary Fat Quantity and Type Induce Transcriptome-Wide Effects on Alternative Splicing of Pre-mRNA in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

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    Black, Adam J; Ravi, Suhana; Jefferson, Leonard S; Kimball, Scot R; Schilder, Rudolf J

    2017-09-01

    Background: Fat-enriched diets produce metabolic changes in skeletal muscle, which in turn can mediate changes in gene regulation.Objective: We examined the high-fat-diet-induced changes in skeletal muscle gene expression by characterizing variations in pre-mRNA alternative splicing.Methods: Affymetrix Exon Array analysis was performed on the transcriptome of the gastrocnemius/plantaris complex of male obesity-prone Sprague-Dawley rats fed a 10% or 60% fat (lard) diet for 2 or 8 wk. The validation of exon array results was focused on troponin T (Tnnt3). Tnnt3 splice form analyses were extended in studies of rats fed 10% or 30% fat diets across 1- to 8-wk treatment periods and rats fed 10% or 45% fat diets with fat sources from lard or mono- or polyunsaturated fats for 2 wk. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to measure body composition.Results: Consumption of a 60% fat diet for 2 or 8 wk resulted in alternative splicing of 668 and 726 pre-mRNAs, respectively, compared with rats fed a 10% fat diet. Tnnt3 transcripts were alternatively spliced in rats fed a 60% fat diet for either 2 or 8 wk. The high-fat-diet-induced changes in Tnnt3 alternative splicing were observed in rats fed a 30% fat diet across 1- to 8-wk treatment periods. Moreover, this effect depended on fat type, because Tnnt3 alternative splicing occurred in response to 45% fat diets enriched with lard but not in response to diets enriched with mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fat mass (a proxy for obesity as measured by NMR) did not differ between groups in any study.Conclusions: Rat skeletal muscle responds to overconsumption of dietary fat by modifying gene expression through pre-mRNA alternative splicing. Variations in Tnnt3 alternative splicing occur independently of obesity and are dependent on dietary fat quantity and suggest a role for saturated fatty acids in the high-fat-diet-induced modifications in Tnnt3 alternative splicing. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. The role of alternative splicing coupled to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Paulo J; Menezes, Juliane; Romão, Luísa

    2017-10-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) affects gene expression as it generates proteome diversity. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a surveillance pathway that recognizes and selectively degrades mRNAs carrying premature translation-termination codons (PTCs), preventing the production of truncated proteins that could result in disease. Several studies have also implicated NMD in the regulation of steady-state levels of physiological mRNAs. In addition, it is known that several regulated AS events do not lead to generation of protein products, as they lead to transcripts that carry PTCs and thus, they are committed to NMD. Indeed, an estimated one-third of naturally occurring, alternatively spliced mRNAs is targeted for NMD, being AS coupled to NMD (AS-NMD) an efficient strategy to regulate gene expression. In this review, we will focus on how AS mechanism operates and how can be coupled to NMD to fine-tune gene expression levels. Furthermore, we will demonstrate the physiological significance of the interplay among AS and NMD in human disease, such as cancer and neurological disorders. The understanding of how AS-NMD orchestrates expression of vital genes is of utmost importance for the advance in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alternative splicing produces two transcripts encoding female-biased pheromone subfamily receptors in the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella

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    Stephen F Garczynski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Insect odorant receptors are key sensors of environmental odors and members of the lepidopteran pheromone receptor subfamily are thought to play important roles in mate finding by recognizing sex pheromones. Much research has been done to identify putative pheromone receptors in lepidopteran males, but little attention has been given to female counterparts. In this study, degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed against a conserved amino acid region in the C-terminus of lepidopteran pheromone receptors were used in 3’ RACE reactions to identify candidate pheromone receptors expressed in the antennae of female navel orangeworm. Two near full-length transcripts of 1469 nt and 1302 nt encoding the complete open reading frames for proteins of 446 and 425 amino acids, respectively, were identified. Based on BLAST homology and phylogenetic analyses, the putative proteins encoded by these transcripts are members of the lepidopteran pheromone receptor subfamily. Characterization of these transcripts indicates that they are alternatively spliced products of a single gene. Tissue expression studies indicate that the transcripts are female-biased with detection mainly in female antennae. To the best of our knowledge, these transcripts represent the first detection of alternatively spliced female-biased members of the lepidopteran pheromone receptor subfamily.

  15. Integrated analysis of differential expression and alternative splicing of non-small cell lung cancer based on RNA sequencing.

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    Li, Zulei; Zhao, Kai; Tian, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Numerous diagnosis and treatment methods have been proposed, and the prognosis of NSCLC has improved to a certain extent. However, the mechanisms of NSCLC remain largely unknown, and additional studies are required. In the present study, the RNA sequencing dataset of NSCLC was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). The clean reads obtained from the raw data were mapped to the University of California Santa Cruz human genome (hg19), based on TopHat, and were assembled into transcripts via Cufflink. The differential expression (DE) and differential alternative splicing (DAS) genes were screened out through Cuffdiff and rMATS, respectively. The significantly enriched gene ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were obtained through the Database of Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Different numbers of DE and DAS genes were identified in different types of NSCLC samples, but a number of common functions and pathways were obtained, including biological processes associated with abnormal immune and cell activity. GO terms and pathways associated with substance metabolism, including the insulin signaling pathway and oxidative phosphorylation, were enriched in DAS genes rather than DE genes. Integrated analysis of differential expression and alternative splicing may be helpful in understanding the mechanisms of NSCLC, in addition to its early diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Powdery mildew-induced Mla mRNAs are alternatively spliced and contain multiple upstream open reading frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halterman, Dennis A; Wei, Fusheng; Wise, Roger P

    2003-02-01

    In barley (Hordeum vulgare), the Mla13 powdery mildew resistance gene confers Rar1-dependent, AvrMla13-specific resistance to Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We have identified cDNA and genomic copies of Mla13 and used this coiled-coil nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein-encoding gene as a model for the regulation of host resistance to obligate biotrophic fungi in cereals. We demonstrate quantitatively that a rapid increase in the accumulation of Mla transcripts and transcripts of the Mla-signaling genes, Rar1 and Sgt1, is triggered between 16 and 20 h post inoculation, the same time frame that haustoria of avirulent Bgh make contact with the host cell plasma membrane. An abundance of Mla13 cDNAs revealed five classes of transcript leader regions containing two alternatively spliced introns and up to three upstream open reading frames (uORFs). Alternative splicing of introns in the transcript leader region results in a different number of uORFs and variability in the size of uORF2. These results indicate that regulation of Mla transcript accumulation is not constitutive and that induction is coordinately controlled by recognition-specific factors. The sudden increase in specific transcript levels could account for the rapid defense response phenotype conferred by Mla6 and Mla13.

  17. Powdery Mildew-Induced Mla mRNAs Are Alternatively Spliced and Contain Multiple Upstream Open Reading Frames1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halterman, Dennis A.; Wei, Fusheng; Wise, Roger P.

    2003-01-01

    In barley (Hordeum vulgare), the Mla13 powdery mildew resistance gene confers Rar1-dependent, AvrMla13-specific resistance to Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We have identified cDNA and genomic copies of Mla13 and used this coiled-coil nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein-encoding gene as a model for the regulation of host resistance to obligate biotrophic fungi in cereals. We demonstrate quantitatively that a rapid increase in the accumulation of Mla transcripts and transcripts of the Mla-signaling genes, Rar1 and Sgt1, is triggered between 16 and 20 h post inoculation, the same time frame that haustoria of avirulent Bgh make contact with the host cell plasma membrane. An abundance of Mla13 cDNAs revealed five classes of transcript leader regions containing two alternatively spliced introns and up to three upstream open reading frames (uORFs). Alternative splicing of introns in the transcript leader region results in a different number of uORFs and variability in the size of uORF2. These results indicate that regulation of Mla transcript accumulation is not constitutive and that induction is coordinately controlled by recognition-specific factors. The sudden increase in specific transcript levels could account for the rapid defense response phenotype conferred by Mla6 and Mla13. PMID:12586880

  18. Conserved functional antagonism of CELF and MBNL proteins controls stem cell-specific alternative splicing in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, Jordi; Irimia, Manuel; Ayoub, Salah; Orejuela, Marta Rodriguez; Zywitza, Vera; Jens, Marvin; Tapial, Javier; Ray, Debashish; Morris, Quaid; Hughes, Timothy R; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

    2016-08-09

    In contrast to transcriptional regulation, the function of alternative splicing (AS) in stem cells is poorly understood. In mammals, MBNL proteins negatively regulate an exon program specific of embryonic stem cells; however, little is known about the in vivo significance of this regulation. We studied AS in a powerful in vivo model for stem cell biology, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We discover a conserved AS program comprising hundreds of alternative exons, microexons and introns that is differentially regulated in planarian stem cells, and comprehensively identify its regulators. We show that functional antagonism between CELF and MBNL factors directly controls stem cell-specific AS in planarians, placing the origin of this regulatory mechanism at the base of Bilaterians. Knockdown of CELF or MBNL factors lead to abnormal regenerative capacities by affecting self-renewal and differentiation sets of genes, respectively. These results highlight the importance of AS interactions in stem cell regulation across metazoans.

  19. Comparative analysis of serine/arginine-rich proteins across 27 eukaryotes: insights into sub-family classification and extent of alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale N Richardson

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing (AS of pre-mRNA is a fundamental molecular process that generates diversity in the transcriptome and proteome of eukaryotic organisms. SR proteins, a family of splicing regulators with one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs at the N-terminus and an arg/ser-rich domain at the C-terminus, function in both constitutive and alternative splicing. We identified SR proteins in 27 eukaryotic species, which include plants, animals, fungi and "basal" eukaryotes that lie outside of these lineages. Using RNA recognition motifs (RRMs as a phylogenetic marker, we classified 272 SR genes into robust sub-families. The SR gene family can be split into five major groupings, which can be further separated into 11 distinct sub-families. Most flowering plants have double or nearly double the number of SR genes found in vertebrates. The majority of plant SR genes are under purifying selection. Moreover, in all paralogous SR genes in Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and maize, one of the two paralogs is preferentially expressed throughout plant development. We also assessed the extent of AS in SR genes based on a splice graph approach (http://combi.cs.colostate.edu/as/gmap_SRgenes. AS of SR genes is a widespread phenomenon throughout multiple lineages, with alternative 3' or 5' splicing events being the most prominent type of event. However, plant-enriched sub-families have 57%-88% of their SR genes experiencing some type of AS compared to the 40%-54% seen in other sub-families. The SR gene family is pervasive throughout multiple eukaryotic lineages, conserved in sequence and domain organization, but differs in gene number across lineages with an abundance of SR genes in flowering plants. The higher number of alternatively spliced SR genes in plants emphasizes the importance of AS in generating splice variants in these organisms.

  20. spliceR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitting-Seerup, Kristoffer; Porse, Bo Torben; Sandelin, Albin

    2014-01-01

    RNA-seq data is currently underutilized, in part because it is difficult to predict the functional impact of alternate transcription events. Recent software improvements in full-length transcript deconvolution prompted us to develop spliceR, an R package for classification of alternative splicing...

  1. MDS shows a higher expression of hTERT and alternative splice variants in unactivated T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Wu, Lei; Sun, Houfang; Ren, Xiubao; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K; Yang, Lili

    2016-11-01

    Telomere instability and telomerase reactivation are believed to play an important role in the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Abnormal enzymatic activity of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and its alternative splice variants have been reported to account for deregulated telomerase function in many cancers. In this study, we aim to compare the differences in expression of hTERT and hTERT splice variants, as well as telomere length and telomerase activity in unstimulated T-cells between MDS subgroups and healthy controls. Telomere length in MDS cases was significantly shorter than controls (n = 20, pMDS using World Health Organization classification (WHO subgroups versus control: RARS, p= 0.009; RCMD, p=0.0002; RAEB1/2, p=0.004, respectively) and the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS subgroups: Low+Int-1, pMDS patients (n=20) had significantly higher telomerase activity (p=0.002), higher total hTERT mRNA levels (p=0.001) and hTERT α+β- splice variant expression (pMDS (r=0.58, p=0.007). This data is in sharp contrast to data published previously by our group showing a reduction in telomerase and hTERT mRNA in MDS T-cells after activation. In conclusion, this study provides additional insight into hTERT transcript patterns and activity in peripheral T-cells of MDS patients. Additional studies are necessary to better understand the role of this pathway in MDS development and progression.

  2. Alternative mRNA Splicing from the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) Gene Generates Isoforms with Distinct Subcellular mRNA Localization Patterns in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune; Daugaard, Tina Fuglsang; Holm, Ida E

    2013-01-01

    The intermediate filament network of astrocytes includes Glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap) as a major component. Gfap mRNA is alternatively spliced resulting in generation of different protein isoforms where Gfapa is the most predominant isoform. The Gfapd isoform is expressed in proliferating......RNA localization patterns were dependent on the different 39-exon sequences included in Gfapd and Gfapa mRNA. The presented results show that alternative Gfap mRNA splicing results in isoform-specific mRNA localization patterns with resulting different local mRNA concentration ratios which have potential...

  3. Alternative splicing events are a late feature of pathology in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bäumer, Dirk; Lee, Sheena; Nicholson, George; Davies, Joanna L; Parkinson, Nicholas J; Murray, Lyndsay M; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Ansorge, Olaf; Davies, Kay E; Talbot, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    .... Widespread splicing abnormalities have recently been reported at end-stage in a mouse model of SMA, leading to the proposition that disruption of efficient splicing is the primary mechanism of motor neuron death...

  4. Transcriptomic insights into the alternative splicing-mediated adaptation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to host niches: autophagy-related gene 8 as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei-Xia; Ding, Jin-Li; Gao, Yang; Peng, Yue-Jin; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) regulates various biological processes in fungi by extending the cellular proteome. However, comprehensive studies investigating AS in entomopathogenic fungi are lacking. Based on transcriptome data obtained via dual RNA-seq, the first overview of AS events was developed for Beauveria bassiana growing in an insect haemocoel. The AS was demonstrated for 556 of 8840 expressed genes, accounting for 5.4% of the total genes in B. bassiana. Intron retention was the most abundant type of AS, accounting for 87.1% of all splicing events and exon skipping events were rare, only accounting for 2.0% of all events. Functional distribution analysis indicated an association between alternatively spliced genes and several physiological processes. Notably, B. bassiana autophagy-related gene 8 (BbATG8), an indispensable gene for autophagy, was spliced at an alternative 5' splice site to generate two transcripts (BbATG8-α and BbATG8-β). The BbATG8-α transcript was necessary for fungal autophagy and oxidation tolerance, while the BbATG8-β transcript was not. These two transcripts differentially contributed to the formation of conidia or blastospores as well as fungal virulence. Thus, AS acts as a powerful post-transcriptional regulatory strategy in insect mycopathogens and significantly mediates fungal transcriptional adaption to host niches. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Integrative analyses of RNA editing, alternative splicing, and expression of young genes in human brain transcriptome by deep RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Ye, Ling-Qun; Li, Yan; Sun, Yan-Bo; Shao, Yi; Chen, Chunyan; Zhu, Zhu; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Yong E; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Next-generation RNA sequencing has been successfully used for identification of transcript assembly, evaluation of gene expression levels, and detection of post-transcriptional modifications. Despite these large-scale studies, additional comprehensive RNA-seq data from different subregions of the human brain are required to fully evaluate the evolutionary patterns experienced by the human brain transcriptome. Here, we provide a total of 6.5 billion RNA-seq reads from different subregions of the human brain. A significant correlation was observed between the levels of alternative splicing and RNA editing, which might be explained by a competition between the molecular machineries responsible for the splicing and editing of RNA. Young human protein-coding genes demonstrate biased expression to the neocortical and non-neocortical regions during evolution on the lineage leading to humans. We also found that a significantly greater number of young human protein-coding genes are expressed in the putamen, a tissue that was also observed to have the highest level of RNA-editing activity. The putamen, which previously received little attention, plays an important role in cognitive ability, and our data suggest a potential contribution of the putamen to human evolution. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Spliceosomal protein U1A is involved in alternative splicing and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Jinbao

    2017-12-01

    Soil salinity is a significant threat to sustainable agricultural production worldwide. Plants must adjust their developmental and physiological processes to cope with salt stress. Although the capacity for adaptation ultimately depends on the genome, the exceptional versatility in gene regulation provided by the spliceosome-mediated alternative splicing (AS) is essential in these adaptive processes. However, the functions of the spliceosome in plant stress responses are poorly understood. Here, we report the in-depth characterization of a U1 spliceosomal protein, AtU1A, in controlling AS of pre-mRNAs under salt stress and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. The atu1a mutant was hypersensitive to salt stress and accumulated more reactive oxygen species (ROS) than the wild-type under salt stress. RNA-seq analysis revealed that AtU1A regulates AS of many genes, presumably through modulating recognition of 5′ splice sites. We showed that AtU1A is associated with the pre-mRNA of the ROS detoxification-related gene ACO1 and is necessary for the regulation of ACO1 AS. ACO1 is important for salt tolerance because ectopic expression of ACO1 in the atu1a mutant can partially rescue its salt hypersensitive phenotype. Our findings highlight the critical role of AtU1A as a regulator of pre-mRNA processing and salt tolerance in plants.

  7. Drosophila muscleblind is involved in troponin T alternative splicing and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vicente-Crespo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Muscleblind-like proteins (MBNL have been involved in a developmental switch in the use of defined cassette exons. Such transition fails in the CTG repeat expansion disease myotonic dystrophy due, in part, to sequestration of MBNL proteins by CUG repeat RNA. Four protein isoforms (MblA-D are coded by the unique Drosophila muscleblind gene.We used evolutionary, genetic and cell culture approaches to study muscleblind (mbl function in flies. The evolutionary study showed that the MblC protein isoform was readily conserved from nematods to Drosophila, which suggests that it performs the most ancestral muscleblind functions. Overexpression of MblC in the fly eye precursors led to an externally rough eye morphology. This phenotype was used in a genetic screen to identify five dominant suppressors and 13 dominant enhancers including Drosophila CUG-BP1 homolog aret, exon junction complex components tsunagi and Aly, and pro-apoptotic genes Traf1 and reaper. We further investigated Muscleblind implication in apoptosis and splicing regulation. We found missplicing of troponin T in muscleblind mutant pupae and confirmed Muscleblind ability to regulate mouse fast skeletal muscle Troponin T (TnnT3 minigene splicing in human HEK cells. MblC overexpression in the wing imaginal disc activated apoptosis in a spatially restricted manner. Bioinformatics analysis identified a conserved FKRP motif, weakly resembling a sumoylation target site, in the MblC-specific sequence. Site-directed mutagenesis of the motif revealed no change in activity of mutant MblC on TnnT3 minigene splicing or aberrant binding to CUG repeat RNA, but altered the ability of the protein to form perinuclear aggregates and enhanced cell death-inducing activity of MblC overexpression.Taken together our genetic approach identify cellular processes influenced by Muscleblind function, whereas in vivo and cell culture experiments define Drosophila troponin T as a new Muscleblind target, reveal a

  8. Evidence for the possible biological significance of the igf-1 gene alternative splicing in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassios ePhilippou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa, since it plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The IGF-I actions are mediated mainly via its binding to the type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR, however IGF-I signaling via insulin receptor (IR and hybrid IGF-I/IR is also evident. Different IGF-I mRNA splice variants, namely IGF-IEa, IGF-IEb and IGF-IEc, are expressed in human cells and tissues. These transcripts encode several IGF-I precursor proteins which contain the same bioactive product (mature IGF-I, however, they differ by the length of their signal peptides on the amino-terminal end and the structure of the extension peptides (E-peptides on the carboxy-terminal end. There is an increasing interest in the possible different role of the IGF-I transcripts and their respective non-(matureIGF-I products in the regulation of distinct biological activities. Moreover, there is strong evidence of a differential expression profile of the IGF-I splice variants in normal vs. PCa tissues and PCa cells, implying that the expression pattern of the various IGF-I transcripts and their respective protein products may possess different functions in cancer biology. Herein, the evidence that the IGF-IEc transcript regulates PCa growth via Ec-peptide specific and IGF-IR/IR-independent signaling is discussed.

  9. Lycopene-epsilon-cyclase pre-mRNA is alternatively spliced in Cara Cara navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Neng-Guo; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Deng, Xiu-xin

    2005-06-01

    Lycopene-epsilon-cyclase is one of the key enzymes related to alpha-carotene metabolism in plants. A full-length cDNA of 1300 bp encoding lycopene-epsilon-cyclase (Lyce) was generated from Cara Cara navel orange, a unique navel orange containing both lycopene and beta-carotene in its pulp, with little or no alpha-carotene. The gene had a 14 bp nucleotides deletion and caused a terminal mutation. DNA sequence corresponding to the deletion region revealed that two repeats of 6 bp (AGGTGT) were flanking the region in both Cara Cara and its original variety, Washington navel oranges, but a 2 bp (AT) insertion was only found in Cara Cara which explain the alternative splicing character of the gene.

  10. SRPK1 inhibition in prostate cancer: A novel anti-angiogenic treatment through modulation of VEGF alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrou, Athina; Oltean, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    Prostate cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer death in men around the world, regardless of intense research and development of novel therapies in the last 10 years. One of the new avenues that has been tested - inhibition of angiogenesis - has been disappointing so far in clinical studies in spite of strong evidence that determinants of angiogenesis (e.g. vascular endothelial growth factor) are strongly associated with disease progression. One of the reasons for these outcomes may be our poor understanding of the biology of angiogenesis in prostate cancer (and probably other cancers as well) resulting in inhibition of both detrimental and favourable molecules. We discuss here novel targeted and more specific approaches to inhibit angiogenesis in prostate cancer as well as a completely new therapeutic modality to do this - modulation of alternative splicing - that may be applicable to other molecules/biological processes as well. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Response of alternative splice isoforms of OsRad9 gene from Oryza sativa to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wang, Wenguo; Li, Fosheng; Wang, Qingwei; Wang, Shenghua; Xu, Ying; Chen, Fang

    2017-07-14

    Rad9 protein plays an important role in cell-cycle checkpoint signal transduction in human and yeast cells, but knowledge about Rad9 in plants is limited. This study reports that the Rad9 gene of rice can generate the transcript products OsRad9.1 and OsRad9.2 through alternative splicing. OsRad9.1, with all nine exons, is the main cell-cycle checkpoint protein involved in the response of rice to genotoxic stresses (ultraviolet radiation and antibiotic stress), environmental stresses (drought, salt, and heavy metal stress), and auxin stimuli (2,4-D, IAA, and IBA). Meanwhile, transcript isoform OsRad9.2, which lost exon7 and exon8, showed different preferential stimulation effects on these stresses and pollen development duration. These results might indicat that besides the monitoring and repair of DNA damage, Rad9 might involve in the development of pollen.

  12. Allelic variation, alternative splicing and expression analysis of Psy1 gene in Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodríguez-Suárez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The wild barley Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult. is a valuable source of genes for increasing carotenoid content in wheat. Tritordeums, the amphiploids derived from durum or common wheat and H. chilense, systematically show higher values of yellow pigment colour and carotenoid content than durum wheat. Phytoene synthase 1 gene (Psy1 is considered a key step limiting the carotenoid biosynthesis, and the correlation of Psy1 transcripts accumulation and endosperm carotenoid content has been demonstrated in the main grass species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyze the variability of Psy1 alleles in three lines of H. chilense (H1, H7 and H16 representing the three ecotypes described in this species. Moreover, we analyze Psy1 expression in leaves and in two seed developing stages of H1 and H7, showing mRNA accumulation patterns similar to those of wheat. Finally, we identify thirty-six different transcripts forms originated by alternative splicing of the 5' UTR and/or exons 1 to 5 of Psy1 gene. Transcripts function is tested in a heterologous complementation assay, revealing that from the sixteen different predicted proteins only four types (those of 432, 370, 364 and 271 amino acids, are functional in the bacterial system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The large number of transcripts originated by alternative splicing of Psy1, and the coexistence of functional and non functional forms, suggest a fine regulation of PSY activity in H. chilense. This work is the first analysis of H. chilense Psy1 gene and the results reported here are the bases for its potential use in carotenoid enhancement in durum wheat.

  13. Alternative splice variants in TIM barrel proteins from human genome correlate with the structural and evolutionary modularity of this versatile protein fold.

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    Adrián Ochoa-Leyva

    Full Text Available After the surprisingly low number of genes identified in the human genome, alternative splicing emerged as a major mechanism to generate protein diversity in higher eukaryotes. However, it is still not known if its prevalence along the genome evolution has contributed to the overall functional protein diversity or if it simply reflects splicing noise. The (βα8 barrel or TIM barrel is one of the most frequent, versatile, and ancient fold encountered among enzymes. Here, we analyze the structural modifications present in TIM barrel proteins from the human genome product of alternative splicing events. We found that 87% of all splicing events involved deletions; most of these events resulted in protein fragments that corresponded to the (βα2, (βα4, (βα5, (βα6, and (βα7 subdomains of TIM barrels. Because approximately 7% of all the splicing events involved internal β-strand substitutions, we decided, based on the genomic data, to design β-strand and α-helix substitutions in a well-studied TIM barrel enzyme. The biochemical characterization of one of the chimeric variants suggests that some of the splice variants in the human genome with β-strand substitutions may be evolving novel functions via either the oligomeric state or substrate specificity. We provide results of how the splice variants represent subdomains that correlate with the independently folding and evolving structural units previously reported. This work is the first to observe a link between the structural features of the barrel and a recurrent genetic mechanism. Our results suggest that it is reasonable to expect that a sizeable fraction of splice variants found in the human genome represent structurally viable functional proteins. Our data provide additional support for the hypothesis of the origin of the TIM barrel fold through the assembly of smaller subdomains. We suggest a model of how nature explores new proteins through alternative splicing as a mechanism to

  14. A statistical method for the detection of alternative splicing using RNA-seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep sequencing of transcriptome (RNA-seq provides unprecedented opportunity to interrogate plausible mRNA splicing patterns by mapping RNA-seq reads to exon junctions (thereafter junction reads. In most previous studies, exon junctions were detected by using the quantitative information of junction reads. The quantitative criterion (e.g. minimum of two junction reads, although is straightforward and widely used, usually results in high false positive and false negative rates, owning to the complexity of transcriptome. Here, we introduced a new metric, namely Minimal Match on Either Side of exon junction (MMES, to measure the quality of each junction read, and subsequently implemented an empirical statistical model to detect exon junctions. When applied to a large dataset (>200M reads consisting of mouse brain, liver and muscle mRNA sequences, and using independent transcripts databases as positive control, our method was proved to be considerably more accurate than previous ones, especially for detecting junctions originated from low-abundance transcripts. Our results were also confirmed by real time RT-PCR assay. The MMES metric can be used either in this empirical statistical model or in other more sophisticated classifiers, such as logistic regression.

  15. Expression and Alternative Splicing of Classical and Nonclassical MHCI Genes in the Hippocampus and Neuromuscular Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetruashvily, Mazell M.; Melson, John W.; Park, Joseph J.; Peng, Xiaoyu; Boulanger, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) is a large gene family, with over 30 members in mouse. Some MHCIs are well-known for their critical roles in the immune response. Studies in mice which lack stable cell-surface expression of many MHCI proteins suggest that one or more MHCIs also play unexpected, essential roles in the establishment, function, and modification of neuronal synapses in the central nervous system (CNS). However, there is little information about which genes mediate MHCI’s effects in neurons. In this study, RT-PCR was used to simultaneously assess transcription of many MHCI genes in regions of the central and peripheral nervous system where MHCI has a known or suspected role. In the hippocampus, a part of the CNS where MHCI regulates synapse density, synaptic transmission, and plasticity, we found that more than a dozen MHCI genes are transcribed. Single-cell RT-PCR revealed that individual hippocampal neurons can express more than one MHCI gene, and that the MHCI gene expression profile of CA1 pyramidal neurons differs significantly from that of CA3 pyramidal neurons or granule cells of the dentate gyrus. MHCI gene expression was also assessed at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) where MHCI plays a role in neuronal regeneration, and could potentially influence developmental synapse elimination. Four MHCI genes are expressed at the NMJ at an age when synapse elimination is occurring in three different muscles. Several MHCI mRNA splice variants were detected in hippocampus, but not at the NMJ. Together, these results establish the first profile of MHCI gene expression at the developing NMJ, and demonstrate that MHCI gene expression is under tight spatial and temporal regulation in the nervous system. They also identify more than a dozen MHCIs that could play important roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PMID:26802536

  16. Global identification of alternative splicing via comparative analysis of SMRT- and Illumina-based RNA-seq in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongping; Dai, Cheng; Hu, Chungen; Liu, Zhongchi; Kang, Chunying

    2017-04-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a key post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism, yet little information is known about its roles in fruit crops. Here, AS was globally analyzed in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca genome with RNA-seq data derived from different stages of fruit development. The AS landscape was characterized and compared between the single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) and Illumina RNA-seq platform. While SMRT has a lower sequencing depth, it identifies more genes undergoing AS (57.67% of detected multiexon genes) when it is compared with Illumina (33.48%), illustrating the efficacy of SMRT in AS identification. We investigated different modes of AS in the context of fruit development; the percentage of intron retention (IR) is markedly reduced whereas that of alternative acceptor sites (AA) is significantly increased post-fertilization when compared with pre-fertilization. When all the identified transcripts were combined, a total of 66.43% detected multiexon genes in strawberry undergo AS, some of which lead to a gain or loss of conserved domains in the gene products. The work demonstrates that SMRT sequencing is highly powerful in AS discovery and provides a rich data resource for later functional studies of different isoforms. Further, shifting AS modes may contribute to rapid changes of gene expression during fruit set. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. AtRTD2: A Reference Transcript Dataset for accurate quantification of alternative splicing and expression changes in Arabidopsis thaliana RNA-seq data

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Runxuan

    2016-05-06

    Background Alternative splicing is the major post-transcriptional mechanism by which gene expression is regulated and affects a wide range of processes and responses in most eukaryotic organisms. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) can generate genome-wide quantification of individual transcript isoforms to identify changes in expression and alternative splicing. RNA-seq is an essential modern tool but its ability to accurately quantify transcript isoforms depends on the diversity, completeness and quality of the transcript information. Results We have developed a new Reference Transcript Dataset for Arabidopsis (AtRTD2) for RNA-seq analysis containing over 82k non-redundant transcripts, whereby 74,194 transcripts originate from 27,667 protein-coding genes. A total of 13,524 protein-coding genes have at least one alternatively spliced transcript in AtRTD2 such that about 60% of the 22,453 protein-coding, intron-containing genes in Arabidopsis undergo alternative splicing. More than 600 putative U12 introns were identified in more than 2,000 transcripts. AtRTD2 was generated from transcript assemblies of ca. 8.5 billion pairs of reads from 285 RNA-seq data sets obtained from 129 RNA-seq libraries and merged along with the previous version, AtRTD, and Araport11 transcript assemblies. AtRTD2 increases the diversity of transcripts and through application of stringent filters represents the most extensive and accurate transcript collection for Arabidopsis to date. We have demonstrated a generally good correlation of alternative splicing ratios from RNA-seq data analysed by Salmon and experimental data from high resolution RT-PCR. However, we have observed inaccurate quantification of transcript isoforms for genes with multiple transcripts which have variation in the lengths of their UTRs. This variation is not effectively corrected in RNA-seq analysis programmes and will therefore impact RNA-seq analyses generally. To address this, we have tested different genome

  18. Co-option of the piRNA Pathway for Germline-Specific Alternative Splicing of C. elegans TOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Barberán-Soler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many eukaryotic genes contain embedded antisense transcripts and repetitive sequences of unknown function. We report that male germline-specific expression of an antisense transcript contained in an intron of C. elegans Target of Rapamycin (TOR, let-363 is associated with (1 accumulation of endo-small interfering RNAs (siRNAs against an embedded Helitron transposon and (2 activation of an alternative 3′ splice site of TOR. The germline-specific Argonaute proteins PRG-1 and CSR-1, which participate in self/nonself RNA recognition, antagonistically regulate the generation of these endo-siRNAs, TOR mRNA levels, and 3′ splice-site selection. Supply of exogenous double-stranded RNA against the region of sense/antisense overlap reverses changes in TOR expression and splicing and suppresses the progressive multigenerational sterility phenotype of prg-1 mutants. We propose that recognition of a “nonself” intronic transposon by endo-siRNAs/the piRNA system provides physiological regulation of expression and alternative splicing of a host gene that, in turn, contributes to the maintenance of germline function across generations.

  19. Alternative splicing of exon 17 and a missense mutation in exon 20 of the insulin receptor gene in two brothers with a novel syndrome of insulin resistance (congenital fiber-type disproportion myopathy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorwerk, P; Christoffersen, C T; Müller, J

    1999-01-01

    to be compound heterozygotes for mutations in the IR gene. The maternal allele was alternatively spliced in exon 17 due to a point mutation in the -1 donor splice site of the exon. The abnormal skipping of exon 17 shifts the amino acid reading frame and leads to a truncated IR, missing the entire tyrosine kinase...

  20. Alternative Splicing of EZH2 pre-mRNA by SF3B3 Contributes to the Tumorigenic Potential of Renal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Xiao, Haibing; Zeng, Jin; Yu, Gan; Zhou, Hui; Huang, Chunhua; Yao, Weimin; Xiao, Wei; Hu, Junhui; Guan, Wei; Wu, Lily; Huang, Jiaoti; Huang, Qihong; Xu, Hua; Ye, Zhangqun

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: Deregulation or mutation of the EZH2 gene causes various tumors, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Although several splice variants of EZH2 have been identified, little is known about how EZH2 splicing is regulated or the contribution of alternative splicing to its protumorigenic functions.Experimental Design: We conducted RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and IHC techniques to examine EZH2 and its alternative splicing transcript expression in renal cancer tissue and renal cancer cell lines. Proliferation, migration, clonogenicity, and tumorigenicity of renal cancer cells either exhibiting knockdown of EZH2 or its splicing factor SF3B3 were assessed by CCK8, Transwell assay, and murine xenograft experiments.Results: We found that the inclusion of alternative EZH2 exon 14 was significantly increased in ccRCC samples and renal cancer cell lines. In ccRCC lines, enforced expression of EZH2Δ14 inhibited, and EZH2 promoted, cell growth, migration, proliferation, and tumorigenicity in a xenograft model. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that EZH2Δ14 isoform functions as a dominant-negative inhibitor of full-length EZH2. Coexpression of EZH2Δ14 variant with full-length EZH2 not only abrogated DAB2IP and HOXA9 suppression but also inhibited EZH2-driven tumorigenesis. Strikingly, the splicing factor SF3B3 stimulates inclusion of exon14 and has pro-proliferative activity. Importantly, the upregulation of SF3B3 expression observed in clinical ccRCC samples parallels the increased inclusion of EZH2 exon14, and the SF3B3 level is associated with higher tumor stage and poor overall survival.Conclusions: These results suggest SF3B3 as a key regulator of EZH2 pre-mRNA splicing and SF3B3 may represent a novel prognostic factor and potential therapeutic target in ccRCC. Clin Cancer Res; 23(13); 3428-41. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Differential regulation of translation and endocytosis of alternatively spliced forms of the type II bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalem, Ayelet R.; Marom, Barak; Shapira, Keren E.; Hirschhorn, Tal; Preisler, Livia; Paarmann, Pia; Knaus, Petra; Henis, Yoav I.; Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The expression and function of transforming growth factor-β superfamily receptors are regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms. The type II BMP receptor (BMPRII) is expressed as two alternatively spliced forms, a long and a short form (BMPRII-LF and –SF, respectively), which differ by an ∼500 amino acid C-terminal extension, unique among TGF-β superfamily receptors. Whereas this extension was proposed to modulate BMPRII signaling output, its contribution to the regulation of receptor expression was not addressed. To map regulatory determinants of BMPRII expression, we compared synthesis, degradation, distribution, and endocytic trafficking of BMPRII isoforms and mutants. We identified translational regulation of BMPRII expression and the contribution of a 3’ terminal coding sequence to this process. BMPRII-LF and -SF differed also in their steady-state levels, kinetics of degradation, intracellular distribution, and internalization rates. A single dileucine signal in the C-terminal extension of BMPRII-LF accounted for its faster clathrin-mediated endocytosis relative to BMPRII-SF, accompanied by mildly faster degradation. Higher expression of BMPRII-SF at the plasma membrane resulted in enhanced activation of Smad signaling, stressing the potential importance of the multilayered regulation of BMPRII expression at the plasma membrane. PMID:26739752

  2. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Ae Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone.

  3. Regulation of human neurotropic JC virus replication by alternative splicing factor SF2/ASF in glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Khalili, Kamel

    2011-01-31

    The human neurotropic virus, JC virus (JCV), is the etiologic agent of the fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) that is seen primarily in immunodeficient individuals. Productive infection of JCV occurs only in glial cells, and this restriction is, to a great extent, due to the activation of the viral promoter that has cell type-specific characteristics. Earlier studies led to the hypothesis that glial-specific activation of the JCV promoter is mediated through positive and negative transcription factors that control reactivation of the JCV genome under normal physiological conditions and suppress its activation in non-glial cells. Using a variety of virological and molecular biological approaches, we demonstrate that the alternative splicing factor SF2/ASF has the capacity to exert a negative effect on transcription of the JCV promoter in glial cells through direct association with a specific DNA sequence within the viral enhancer/promoter region. Our results show that down-regulation of SF2/ASF in fetal and adult glial cells increases the level of JCV gene expression and its replication indicating that negative regulation of the JCV promoter by SF2/ASF may control reactivation of JCV replication in brain. Our results establish a new regulatory role for SF2/ASF in controlling gene expression at the transcriptional level.

  4. An Alternatively Spliced Bifunctional Localization Signal Reprograms Human Shugoshin 1 to Protect Centrosomal Instead of Centromeric Cohesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Mohr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Separation of human sister chromatids involves the removal of DNA embracing cohesin ring complexes. Ring opening occurs by prophase-pathway-dependent phosphorylation and separase-mediated cleavage, with the former being antagonized at centromeres by Sgo1-dependent PP2A recruitment. Intriguingly, prophase pathway signaling and separase’s proteolytic activity also bring about centriole disengagement, whereas Sgo1 is again counteracting this licensing step of later centrosome duplication. Here, we demonstrate that alternative splice variants of human Sgo1 specifically and exclusively localize and function either at centromeres or centrosomes. A small C-terminal peptide encoded by exon 9 of SGO1 (CTS for centrosomal targeting signal of human Sgo1 is necessary and sufficient to drive centrosomal localization and simultaneously abrogate centromeric association of corresponding Sgo1 isoforms. Cohesin is shown to be a target of the prophase pathway at centrosomes and protected by Sgo1-PP2A. Accordingly, premature centriole disengagement in response to Sgo1 depletion is suppressed by blocking ring opening of an engineered cohesin.

  5. Out of frame peptides from BCR/ABL alternative splicing are immunogenic in HLA A2.1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casnici, C; Volpe, G; Lattuada, D; Crotta, K; Kuka, M; Panuzzo, C; Mastrotto, C; Tonon, G; Fazio, V M; Saglio, G; Marelli, O

    2009-04-08

    New, potentially tumor-specific antigens have been described in Bcr/Abl positive leukemias. Besides the main BCR/ABL hybrid fusion transcripts, a small number of transcripts derived from alternative splicing between BCR exons 1, 13, and 14 with ABL exons 4 and 5 have been identified. These variants are expressed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia patients. The transcriptional products were characterized at their C-terminus by a large amino acid portion derived from out of frame (OOF) reading of the ABL gene. This OOF peptide is expressed only in leukemic cells and has no homology with known human proteins. In order to study an in vivo model, three 39-amino acid peptides, each corresponding to a third of the whole human OOF peptide sequence, were tested for their capacity to elicit specific immune responses in HLA A2.1 transgenic mice. Peptides A and B, but not C, induced the production of specific antisera, while A and C induced the generation of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

  6. Evolution of the opossum major histocompatibility complex: evidence for diverse alternative splice patterns and low polymorphism among class I genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michelle L; Melman, Sandra D; Huntley, James; Miller, Robert D

    2009-09-01

    The opossum major histocompatibility complex (MHC) shares a similar organization with that of non-mammals while containing a diverse set of class I genes more like that of eutherian (placental) mammals. There are 11 class I loci in the opossum MHC region, seven of which are known to be transcribed. The previously described Monodelphis domestica (Modo)-UA1 and Modo-UG display characteristics consistent with their being classical and non-classical class I genes, respectively. Here we describe the characteristics of the remaining five transcribed class I loci (Modo-UE, -UK, -UI, -UJ and -UM). All five genes have peptide-binding grooves with low or no polymorphism, contain unpaired cysteines with the potential to produce homodimer formation and display genomic organizational features that would be unusual for classical class I loci. In addition, Modo-UJ and -UM were expressed in alternatively spliced mRNA forms, including a potentially soluble isoform of Modo-UJ. Thus, the MHC region of the opossum contains a single class I gene that is clearly classical and six other class I genes each with its own unique characteristics that probably perform roles other than or in addition to antigen presentation.

  7. Ryanodine receptor genes of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis: Molecular cloning, alternative splicing and expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y C; Sheng, C W; Casida, John E; Zhao, C Q; Han, Z J

    2017-01-01

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR) of the calcium release channel is the main target of anthranilic and phthalic diamide insecticides which have high selective insecticidal activity relative to mammalian toxicity. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Chilo suppressalis RyR (CsRyR) was isolated and characterized. The CsRyR mRNA has an open reading frame (ORF) of 15,387bp nucleotides, which encodes 5128 amino acids with GenBank ID: KR088972. Comparison of protein sequences showed that CsRyR shared high identities with other insects of 77-96% and lower identity to mammals and nematodes with only 42-45%. One alternative splicing site (KENLG) unique to Lepidoptera was found and two exclusive exons of CsRyR (I /II) were revealed. Spatial and temporal expression of CsRyR mRNA was at the highest relative level in 3rd instar larvae and head (including brain and muscle), and at the lowest expression level in egg and fat body. The expression levels of whole body CsRyR mRNA were increased remarkably after injection of 4th instar larvae with chlorantraniliprole at 0.004 to 0.4μg/g. This structural and functional information on CsRyR provides the basis for further understanding the selective action of chlorantraniliprole and possibly other diamide insecticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. RBFOX and PTBP1 proteins regulate the alternative splicing of micro-exons in human brain transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang I; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Haerty, Wilfried; Ponting, Chris P

    2015-01-01

    Ninety-four percent of mammalian protein-coding exons exceed 51 nucleotides (nt) in length. The paucity of micro-exons (≤ 51 nt) suggests that their recognition and correct processing by the splicing machinery present greater challenges than for longer exons. Yet, because thousands of human genes harbor processed micro-exons, specialized mechanisms may be in place to promote their splicing. Here, we survey deep genomic data sets to define 13,085 micro-exons and to study their splicing mechanisms and molecular functions. More than 60% of annotated human micro-exons exhibit a high level of sequence conservation, an indicator of functionality. While most human micro-exons require splicing-enhancing genomic features to be processed, the splicing of hundreds of micro-exons is enhanced by the adjacent binding of splice factors in the introns of pre-messenger RNAs. Notably, splicing of a significant number of micro-exons was found to be facilitated by the binding of RBFOX proteins, which promote their inclusion in the brain, muscle, and heart. Our analyses suggest that accurate regulation of micro-exon inclusion by RBFOX proteins and PTBP1 plays an important role in the maintenance of tissue-specific protein-protein interactions. © 2015 Li et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Revised genomic structure of the human ghrelin gene and identification of novel exons, alternative splice variants and natural antisense transcripts

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    Herington Adrian C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone expressed in a range of normal tissues and pathologies. It has been reported that the human ghrelin gene consists of five exons which span 5 kb of genomic DNA on chromosome 3 and includes a 20 bp non-coding first exon (20 bp exon 0. The availability of bioinformatic tools enabling comparative analysis and the finalisation of the human genome prompted us to re-examine the genomic structure of the ghrelin locus. Results We have demonstrated the presence of an additional novel exon (exon -1 and 5' extensions to exon 0 and 1 using comparative in silico analysis and have demonstrated their existence experimentally using RT-PCR and 5' RACE. A revised exon-intron structure demonstrates that the human ghrelin gene spans 7.2 kb and consists of six rather than five exons. Several ghrelin gene-derived splice forms were detected in a range of human tissues and cell lines. We have demonstrated ghrelin gene-derived mRNA transcripts that do not code for ghrelin, but instead may encode the C-terminal region of full-length preproghrelin (C-ghrelin, which contains the coding region for obestatin and a transcript encoding obestatin-only. Splice variants that differed in their 5' untranslated regions were also found, suggesting a role of these regions in the post-transcriptional regulation of preproghrelin translation. Finally, several natural antisense transcripts, termed ghrelinOS (ghrelin opposite strand transcripts, were demonstrated via orientation-specific RT-PCR, 5' RACE and in silico analysis of ESTs and cloned amplicons. Conclusion The sense and antisense alternative transcripts demonstrated in this study may function as non-coding regulatory RNA, or code for novel protein isoforms. This is the first demonstration of putative obestatin and C-ghrelin specific transcripts and these findings suggest that these ghrelin gene-derived peptides may also be produced independently of preproghrelin

  10. Deciphering alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay modulate expression in primary lymphoid tissues of birds infected with avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongyan

    2017-03-07

    Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) can lead to a loss in millions of dollars in poultry annually because of mortality and produce contamination. Studies have verified that many immune-related genes undergo changes in alternative splicing (AS), along with nonsense mediated decay (NMD), to regulate the immune system under different conditions. Therefore, the splicing profiles of primary lymphoid tissues with systemic APEC infection need to be comprehensively examined. Gene expression in RNAseq data were obtained for three different immune tissues (bone marrow, thymus, and bursa) from three phenotype birds (non-challenged, resistant, and susceptible birds) at two time points. Alternative 5' splice sites and exon skipping/inclusion were identified as the major alternative splicing events in avian primary immune organs under systemic APEC infection. In this study, we detected hundreds of differentially-expressed-transcript-containing genes (DETs) between different phenotype birds at 5 days post-infection (dpi). DETs, PSAP and STT3A, with NMD have important functions under systemic APEC infection. DETs, CDC45, CDK1, RAG2, POLR1B, PSAP, and DNASE1L3, from the same transcription start sites (TSS) indicate that cell death, cell cycle, cellular function, and maintenance were predominant in host under systemic APEC. With the use of RNAseq technology and bioinformatics tools, this study provides a portrait of the AS event and NMD in primary lymphoid tissues, which play critical roles in host homeostasis under systemic APEC infection. According to this study, AS plays a pivotal regulatory role in the immune response in chicken under systemic APEC infection via either NMD or alternative TSSs. This study elucidates the regulatory role of AS for the immune complex under systemic APEC infection.

  11. Alternatively Spliced Methionine Synthase in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: Cobalamin and GSH Dependence and Inhibitory Effects of Neurotoxic Metals and Thimerosal

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    Mostafa Waly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The folate and cobalamin (Cbl- dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS is highly sensitive to oxidation and its activity affects all methylation reactions. Recent studies have revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA in human brain and patient-derived fibroblasts. Here we show that MS mRNA in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells is alternatively spliced, resulting in three primary protein species, thus providing a useful model to examine cofactor dependence of these variant enzymes. MS activity was dependent upon methylcobalamin (MeCbl or the combination of hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM. OHCbl-based activity was eliminated by depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH but could be rescued by provision of either glutathionylcobalamin (GSCbl or MeCbl. Pretreatment of cells with lead, arsenic, aluminum, mercury, or the ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal lowered GSH levels and inhibited MS activity in association with decreased uptake of cysteine, which is rate-limiting for GSH synthesis. Thimerosal treatment decreased cellular levels of GSCbl and MeCbl. These findings indicate that the alternatively spliced form of MS expressed in SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells is sensitive to inhibition by thimerosal and neurotoxic metals, and lower GSH levels contribute to their inhibitory action.

  12. Novel forms of Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2: Generation by alternative translation initiation and mRNA splicing

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    Bernard Daniel J

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor (PITX gene family, particularly PITX1 and PITX2, play important roles in normal development and in differentiated cell functions. Three major isoforms of PITX2 were previously reported to be produced through both alternative mRNA splicing (PITX2A and PITX2B and alternative promoter usage (PITX2C. The proteins derived from these mRNAs contain identical homeodomain and carboxyl termini. Differences in the amino-termini of the proteins may confer functional differences in some contexts. Results Here, we report the identification of two novel PITX2 isoforms. First, we demonstrate that the Pitx2c mRNA generates two protein products, PITX2Cα and PITX2Cβ, via alternative translation initiation. Second, we identified a novel mRNA splice variant, Pitx2b2, which uses the same 5' splice donor in intron 2 as Pitx2b (hereafter referred to as Pitx2b1, but employs an alternative 3' splice acceptor, leading to an in-frame deletion of 39 base pairs relative to Pitx2b1. Pitx2b2 mRNA is expressed in both murine and human pituitary. The data show that in a murine gonadotrope cell line and adult murine pituitary what was previously thought to be PITX2B1 is actually PITX2Cβ, or perhaps PITX2B2. PITX2B1 is expressed at lower levels than previously thought. PITX2Cβ and PITX2B2 activate gonadotrope-specific gene promoter-reporters similarly to known PITX2 isoforms. Conclusion We have identified and characterized two novel isoforms of PITX2, generated by alternative translation initiation (PITX2Cβ and alternative mRNA splicing (PITX2B2. These proteins show similar DNA binding and trans-activation functions as other PITX2 isoforms in vitro, though their conservation across species suggests that they may play distinct, as yet unidentified, roles in vivo.

  13. Pinpointing retrovirus entry sites in cells expressing alternatively spliced receptor isoforms by single virus imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Marin, Mariana; Kondo, Naoyuki; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2014-06-16

    The majority of viruses enter host cells via endocytosis. Current knowledge of viral entry pathways is largely based upon infectivity measurements following genetic and/or pharmacological interventions that disrupt vesicular trafficking and maturation. Imaging of single virus entry in living cells provides a powerful means to delineate viral trafficking pathways and entry sites under physiological conditions. Here, we visualized single avian retrovirus co-trafficking with markers for early (Rab5) and late (Rab7) endosomes, acidification of endosomal lumen and the resulting viral fusion measured by the viral content release into the cytoplasm. Virus-carrying vesicles either merged with the existing Rab5-positive early endosomes or slowly accumulated Rab5. The Rab5 recruitment to virus-carrying endosomes correlated with acidification of their lumen. Viral fusion occurred either in early (Rab5-positive) or intermediate (Rab5- and Rab7-positive) compartments. Interestingly, different isoforms of the cognate receptor directed virus entry from distinct endosomes. In cells expressing the transmembrane receptor, viruses preferentially entered and fused with slowly maturing early endosomes prior to accumulation of Rab7. By comparison, in cells expressing the GPI-anchored receptor, viruses entered both slowly and quickly maturing endosomes and fused with early (Rab5-positive) and intermediate (Rab5- and Rab7-positive) compartments. Since the rate of low pH-triggered fusion was independent of the receptor isoform, we concluded that the sites of virus entry are determined by the kinetic competition between endosome maturation and viral fusion. Our findings demonstrate the ability of this retrovirus to enter cells via alternative endocytic pathways and establish infection by releasing its content from distinct endosomal compartments.

  14. Molecular Characterization, mRNA Expression and Alternative Splicing of Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Brown Citrus Aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Yi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptors (RyRs play a critical role in regulating the release of intracellular calcium, which enables them to be effectively targeted by the two novel classes of insecticides, phthalic acid diamides and anthranilic diamides. However, less information is available about this target site in insects, although the sequence and structure information of target molecules are essential for designing new control agents of high selectivity and efficiency, as well as low non-target toxicity. Here, we provided sufficient information about the coding sequence and molecular structures of RyR in T. citricida (TciRyR, an economically important pest. The full-length TciRyR cDNA was characterized with an open reading frame of 15,306 nucleotides, encoding 5101 amino acid residues. TciRyR was predicted to embrace all the hallmarks of ryanodine receptor, typically as the conserved C-terminal domain with consensus calcium-biding EF-hands (calcium-binding motif and six transmembrane domains, as well as a large N-terminal domain. qPCR analysis revealed that the highest mRNA expression levels of TciRyR were observed in the adults, especially in the heads. Alternative splicing in TciRyR was evidenced by an alternatively spliced exon, resulting from intron retention, which was different from the case of RyR in Myzus persicae characterized with no alternative splicing events. Diagnostic PCR analysis indicated that the splicing of this exon was not only regulated in a body-specific manner but also in a stage-dependent manner. Taken together, these results provide useful information for new insecticide design and further insights into the molecular basis of insecticide action.

  15. A novel role of fragile X mental retardation protein in pre-mRNA alternative splicing through RNA-binding protein 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin-Tao; Ye, Shun-Hua; Yang, Hai-Xuan; Zhou, Yong-Ting; Zhao, Qi-Hua; Sun, Wei-Wen; Gao, Mei-Mei; Yi, Yong-Hong; Long, Yue-Sheng

    2017-05-04

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an important RNA-binding protein responsible for fragile X syndrome, is involved in posttranscriptional control of gene expression that links with brain development and synaptic functions. Here, we reveal a novel role of FMRP in pre-mRNA alternative splicing, a general event of posttranscriptional regulation. Using co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays, we identified that FMRP interacts with an alternative-splicing-associated protein RNA-binding protein 14 (RBM14) in a RNA-dependent fashion, and the two proteins partially colocalize in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons. We show that the relative skipping/inclusion ratio of the micro-exon L in the Protrudin gene and exon 10 in the Tau gene decreased in the hippocampus of Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice. Knockdown of either FMRP or RBM14 alters the relative skipping/inclusion ratio of Protrudin and Tau in cultured Neuro-2a cells, similar to that in the Fmr1 KO mice. Furthermore, overexpression of FMRP leads to an opposite pattern of the splicing, which can be offset by RBM14 knockdown. RNA immunoprecipitation assays indicate that FMRP promotes RBM14's binding to the mRNA targets. In addition, overexpression of the long form of Protrudin or the short form of Tau promotes protrusion growth of the retinoic acid-treated, neuronal-differentiated Neuro-2a cells. Together, these data suggest a novel function of FMRP in the regulation of pre-mRNA alternative splicing through RBM14 that may be associated with normal brain function and FMRP-related neurological disorders. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphine and MK-801 administration leads to alternative NMDAR1 splicing and associated changes in reward seeking behavior and nociception on an operant orofacial assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ethan M.; Del Valle-Pinero, Arseima Y.; Suckow, Shelby K.; Nolan, Todd A.; Neubert, John K.; Caudle, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The NMDA receptor plays a large role in opioid-induced plastic changes in the nervous system. The expression levels of its NR1 subunit are altered dramatically by morphine but no changes in its alternative splicing have been reported. Changes in the splicing of the N1, C1, C2, and C2’ cassettes can alter the pharmacology and regulation of this receptor. Western blots run on brain tissue from rats made tolerant to morphine revealed altered splicing of the N1 cassettes in the accumbens and amygdala, and the C1 cassette in the amygdala and the dorsal hippocampus. After three days of withdrawal C2’-containing NR1 subunits were down-regulated in each of these areas. These were not due to acute doses of morphine and may represent long term alterations in drug-induced neuroplasticity. We also examined the effects of morphine tolerance on an operant orofacial nociception assay which forces an animal to endure an aversive heat stimulus in order to receive a sweet milk reward. Morphine decreased pain sensitivity as expected but also increased motivational reward seeking in this task. NMDAR antagonism potentiated this reward seeking behavior suggesting that instead of attenuating tolerance, MK-801 may actually alter the rewarding and/or motivational properties of morphine. When combined, MK-801 and morphine had an additive effect which led to altered splicing in the accumbens, amygdala, and the dorsal hippocampus. In conclusion, NR1 splicing may play a major role in the cognitive behavioral aspects especially in motivational reward seeking behaviors. PMID:22531378

  17. Characterization of the Ryanodine Receptor Gene With a Unique 3'-UTR and Alternative Splice Site From the Oriental Fruit Moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L N; Zhang, H J; Quan, L F; Yan, W T; Yue, Q; Li, Y Y; Qiu, G S

    2016-01-01

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR), the largest calcium channel protein, has been studied because of its key roles in calcium signaling in cells. Insect RyRs are molecular targets for novel diamide insecticides. The target has been focused widely because of the diamides with high activity against lepidopterous pests and safety for nontarget organisms. To study our understanding of effects of diamides on RyR, we cloned the RyR gene from the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, which is the most serious pest of stone and pome tree fruits throughout the world, to investigate the modulation of diamide insecticides on RyR mRNA expression in G. molesta (GmRyR). The full-length cDNAs of GmRyR contain a unique 3'-UTR with 625 bp and an open reading frame of 15,402 bp with a predicted protein consisting of 5,133 amino acids. GmRyR possessed a high level of overall amino acid homology with insect and vertebrate isoforms, with 77-92% and 45-47% identity, respectively. Furthermore, five alternative splice sites were identified in GmRyR. Diagnostic PCR showed that the inclusion frequency of one optional exon (f) differed between developmental stages, a finding only found in GmRyR. The lowest expression level of GmRyR mRNA was in larvae, the highest was in male pupae, and the relative expression level in male pupae was 25.67 times higher than that of in larvae. The expression level of GmRyR in the male pupae was 8.70 times higher than in female pupae, and that in male adults was 5.70 times higher than female adults. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Extensive Alternative Splicing Events in the Protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Xiaosu; Hao, Lili; Piao, Xianyu; Hou, Nan; Chen, Qijun

    2017-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS), as one of the most important topics in the post-genomic era, has been extensively studied in numerous organisms. However, little is known about the prevalence and characteristics of AS in Echinococcus species, which can cause significant health problems to humans and domestic animals. Based on high-throughput RNA-sequencing data, we performed a genome-wide survey of AS in two major pathogens of echinococcosis-Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. Our study revealed that the prevalence and characteristics of AS in protoscoleces of the two parasites were generally consistent with each other. A total of 6,826 AS events from 3,774 E. granulosus genes and 6,644 AS events from 3,611 E. multilocularis genes were identified in protoscolex transcriptomes, indicating that 33-36% of genes were subject to AS in the two parasites. Strikingly, intron retention instead of exon skipping was the predominant type of AS in Echinococcus species. Moreover, analysis of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway indicated that genes that underwent AS events were significantly enriched in multiple pathways mainly related to metabolism (e.g., purine, fatty acid, galactose, and glycerolipid metabolism), signal transduction (e.g., Jak-STAT, VEGF, Notch, and GnRH signaling pathways), and genetic information processing (e.g., RNA transport and mRNA surveillance pathways). The landscape of AS obtained in this study will not only facilitate future investigations on transcriptome complexity and AS regulation during the life cycle of Echinococcus species, but also provide an invaluable resource for future functional and evolutionary studies of AS in platyhelminth parasites.

  19. Transcript levels, alternative splicing and proteolytic cleavage of TFIIIA control 5S rRNA accumulation during Arabidopsis thaliana development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layat, Elodie; Cotterell, Sylviane; Vaillant, Isabelle; Yukawa, Yasushi; Tutois, Sylvie; Tourmente, Sylvette

    2012-07-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is critical for eukaryotic cells and requires coordinated synthesis of the protein and rRNA moieties of the ribosome, which are therefore highly regulated. 5S ribosomal RNA, an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and specifically requires transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA). To obtain insight into the regulation of 5S rRNA transcription, we have investigated the expression of 5S rRNA and the exon-skipped (ES) and exon-including (EI) TFIIIA transcripts, two transcript isoforms that result from alternative splicing of the TFIIIA gene, and TFIIIA protein amounts with respect to requirements for 5S rRNA during development. We show that 5S rRNA quantities are regulated through distinct but complementary mechanisms operating through transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of TFIIIA transcripts as well as at the post-translational level through proteolytic cleavage of the TFIIIA protein. During the reproductive phase, high expression of the TFIIIA gene together with low proteolytic cleavage contributes to accumulation of functional, full-length TFIIIA protein, and results in 5S rRNA accumulation in the seed. In contrast, just after germination, the levels of TFIIIA-encoding transcripts are low and stable. Full-length TFIIIA protein is undetectable, and the level of 5S rRNA stored in the embryo progressively decreases. After day 4, in correlation with the reorganization of 5S rDNA chromatin to a mature state, full-length TFIIIA protein with transcriptional activity accumulates and permits de novo transcription of 5S rRNA. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. The rare nonsense mutation in p53 triggers alternative splicing to produce a protein capable of inducing apoptosis.

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    Evgeny M Makarov

    Full Text Available P53 protein is more frequently mutated in human tumours compared with the other proteins. While the majority of the p53 mutations, especially within its DNA-binding domain, lead to the loss of the wild-type function, there are accumulating data demonstrating that the p53 mutants gain tumour promoting activities; the latter triggers a revitalised interest in functional analysis of the p53 mutants. A systematic screening for p53 mutations in surgical materials from patients with glioma revealed a 378C>G mutation that creates a stop codon at the position of amino acid residue 126. The mutation eliminates the recognition site for the restriction endonuclease Sca I that allowed us to carry out RFLP analysis of DNA extracted from the clinical samples and suggests that this mutation is more frequent than is documented in the p53 databases. Both the ECV-304 and EJ cell lines, that probably originate from the bladder carcinoma T24 cell line, were confirmed to contain the homozygous 378C>G mutation but were shown to produce the p53 protein of expected full-length size detected by Western blotting. We provide evidence that the 378C>G mutation generates an alternative 3' splice site (ss which is more often used instead of the authentic upstream 3' ss, driving the production of mRNA encoding the protein with the single amino acid deletion (p53ΔY126. Using endogenous expression, we demonstrated that the p53ΔY126 protein is nearly as active as the wild type protein in inducing the p21/Waf1 expression and apoptosis.

  1. TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of TRIMCyp in rhesus macaque, negatively modulates TRIM5α activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Lei [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Yan-Dong [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Biotechnology Institute of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Liu, Jian-Dong; Yu, Chang-Qing; Sun, Liu-Ke; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Xiaojun, E-mail: xjw@hvri.ac.cn [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou, Jian-Hua, E-mail: jianhua_uc@126.com [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Harbin Pharmaceutical Group Biovaccine Company, Harbin 150069 (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • TRIMe7-CypA expresses in rhesus and pig-tailed, but not long-tailed macaques. • TRIMe7-CypA does not show the restriction to a HIV-GFP report virus in vitro. • It acts as a negative modulator to TRIM5α likely by competitive inhibition. - Abstract: The existence of innate, host-specific restriction factors is a major obstacle to the development of nonhuman primate models for AIDS studies, and TRIM5α is one of the most important of these restriction factors. In recent years, a TRIM5 chimeric gene that was retrotransposed by a cyclophilin A (CypA) cDNA was identified in certain macaque species. The TRIM5α-CypA fusion protein, TRIMCyp, which was expressed in these monkeys, had lost its restriction ability toward HIV-1. We previously found that TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of the TRIMCyp transcripts, was expressed in pig-tailed and rhesus macaques but absent in long-tailed macaques. In this study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIMe7-CypA in the rhesus macaque (RhTRIMe7-CypA) was investigated. The over-expression of RhTRIMe7-CypA in CrFK, HeLa and HEK293T cells did not restrict the infection or replication of an HIV-1-GFP reporter virus in these cells. As a positive control, rhesus (rh)TRIM5α strongly inhibited the reporter virus. Intriguingly, the anti-HIV-1 activity of RhTRIM5α was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the co-repression of RhTRIMe7-CypA. Our data indicate that although the RhTRIMe7-CypA isoform does not appear to restrict HIV-1, it may act as a negative modulator of TRIM family proteins, presumably by competitive inhibition.

  2. Novel forms of Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2): Generation by alternative translation initiation and mRNA splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Daniel J; Hjalt Tord A; Lamba Pankaj

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Members of the Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor (PITX) gene family, particularly PITX1 and PITX2, play important roles in normal development and in differentiated cell functions. Three major isoforms of PITX2 were previously reported to be produced through both alternative mRNA splicing (PITX2A and PITX2B) and alternative promoter usage (PITX2C). The proteins derived from these mRNAs contain identical homeodomain and carboxyl termini. Differences in the amino-t...

  3. The dietary isothiocyanate sulforaphane modulates gene expression and alternative gene splicing in a PTEN null preclinical murine model of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Richard Y

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary or therapeutic interventions to counteract the loss of PTEN expression could contribute to the prevention of prostate carcinogenesis or reduce the rate of cancer progression. In this study, we investigate the interaction between sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, PTEN expression and gene expression in pre malignant prostate tissue. Results We initially describe heterogeneity in expression of PTEN in non-malignant prostate tissue of men deemed to be at risk of prostate cancer. We subsequently use the mouse prostate-specific PTEN deletion model, to show that sulforaphane suppresses transcriptional changes induced by PTEN deletion and induces additional changes in gene expression associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PTEN null tissue, but has no effect on transcription in wild type tissue. Comparative analyses of changes in gene expression in mouse and human prostate tissue indicate that similar changes can be induced in humans with a broccoli-rich diet. Global analyses of exon expression demonstrated that sulforaphane interacts with PTEN deletion to modulate alternative gene splicing, illustrated through a more detailed analysis of DMBT1 splicing. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of how diet may perturb changes in transcription induced by PTEN deletion, and the effects of diet on global patterns of alternative gene splicing. The study exemplifies the complex interaction between diet, genotype and gene expression, and the multiple modes of action of small bioactive dietary components.

  4. From insulin synthesis to secretion: Alternative splicing of type 2 ryanodine receptor gene is essential for insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hiroshi; Takasawa, Shin; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2017-10-01

    Increases in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in pancreatic islets, resulting from the Ca2+ mobilization from the intracellular source through the ryanodine receptor, are essential for insulin secretion by glucose. Cyclic ADP-ribose, a potent Ca2+ mobilizing second messenger synthesized from NAD+ by CD38, regulates the opening of ryanodine receptor. A novel ryanodine receptor mRNA (the islet-type ryanodine receptor) was found to be generated from the type 2 ryanodine receptor gene by the alternative splicing of exons 4 and 75. The islet-type ryanodine receptor mRNA is expressed in a variety of tissues such as pancreatic islets, cerebrum, cerebellum, and other neuro-endocrine cells, whereas the authentic type 2 ryanodine receptor mRNA (the heart-type ryanodine receptor) was found to be generated using GG/AG splicing of intron 75 and is expressed in the heart and the blood vessel. The islet-type ryanodine receptor caused a greater increase in the Ca2+ release by caffeine when expressed in HEK293 cells pre-treated with cyclic ADP-ribose, suggesting that the novel ryanodine receptor is an intracellular target for the CD38-cyclic ADP-ribose signal system in mammalian cells and that the tissue-specific alternative splicing of type 2 ryanodine receptor mRNA plays an important role in the functioning of the cyclic ADP-ribose-sensitive Ca2+ release. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The BRCA1-Δ11q Alternative Splice Isoform Bypasses Germline Mutations and Promotes Therapeutic Resistance to PARP Inhibition and Cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yifan; Bernhardy, Andrea J; Cruz, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    and therapeutic response. Cancer cell lines and tumors harboring mutations in exon 11 of BRCA1 express a BRCA1-Δ11q splice variant lacking the majority of exon 11. The introduction of frameshift mutations to exon 11 resulted in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay of full-length, but not the BRCA1-Δ11q isoform. CRISPR......Breast and ovarian cancer patients harboring BRCA1/2 germline mutations have clinically benefitted from therapy with PARP inhibitor (PARPi) or platinum compounds, but acquired resistance limits clinical impact. In this study, we investigated the impact of mutations on BRCA1 isoform expression...... carrying exon 11 mutations to PARPi treatment. Taken together, our results provided evidence that cancer cells employ a strategy to remove deleterious germline BRCA1 mutations through alternative mRNA splicing, giving rise to isoforms that retain residual activity and contribute to therapeutic resistance...

  6. Alternative-splicing in the exon-10 region of GABA(A receptor beta(2 subunit gene: relationships between novel isoforms and psychotic disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunyou Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in GABRB2, the gene for beta(2-subunit of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A receptor, have been associated with schizophrenia (SCZ and quantitatively correlated to mRNA expression and alternative splicing. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Expression of the Exon 10 region of GABRB2 from minigene constructs revealed this region to be an "alternative splicing hotspot" that readily gave rise to differently spliced isoforms depending on intron sequences. This led to a search in human brain cDNA libraries, and the discovery of two novel isoforms, beta(2S1 and beta(2S2, bearing variations in the neighborhood of Exon-10. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of postmortem brain samples showed increased beta(2S1 expression and decreased beta(2S2 expression in both SCZ and bipolar disorder (BPD compared to controls. Disease-control differences were significantly correlated with SNP rs187269 in BPD males for both beta(2S1 and beta(2S2 expressions, and significantly correlated with SNPs rs2546620 and rs187269 in SCZ males for beta(2S2 expression. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis indicated that Thr(365, a potential phosphorylation site in Exon-10, played a key role in determining the time profile of the ATP-dependent electrophysiological current run-down. CONCLUSION: This study therefore provided experimental evidence for the importance of non-coding sequences in the Exon-10 region in GABRB2 with respect to beta(2-subunit splicing diversity and the etiologies of SCZ and BPD.

  7. Tools to covisualize and coanalyze proteomic data with genomes and transcriptomes: validation of genes and alternative mRNA splicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Chi; Tay, Aidan; Aya, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    the validation of genes, where annotation or gene prediction is available, or the discovery of genes using a "virtual protein"-based unbiased approach. We illustrate this with a comprehensive proteogenomics analysis of two strains of Campylobacter concisus . For higher eukaryotes, the PG Nexus facilitates gene...... contigs, along with RNA-seq reads. This is done in the Integrated Genome Viewer (IGV). A Results Analyzer reports the precise base position where LC-MS/MS-derived peptides cover genes or gene isoforms, on the chromosomes or contigs where this occurs. In prokaryotes, the PG Nexus pipeline facilitates...... validation and supports the identification of mRNA splice junction boundaries and splice variants that are protein-coding. This is illustrated with an analysis of splice junctions covered by human phosphopeptides, and other examples of relevance to the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project. The PG Nexus...

  8. hnRNP A1 and hnRNP F modulate the alternative splicing of exon 11 of the insulin receptor gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Talukdar

    Full Text Available Exon 11 of the insulin receptor gene (INSR is alternatively spliced in a developmentally and tissue-specific manner. Linker scanning mutations in a 5' GA-rich enhancer in intron 10 identified AGGGA sequences that are important for enhancer function. Using RNA-affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified hnRNP F and hnRNP A1 binding to these AGGGA sites and also to similar motifs at the 3' end of the intron. The hnRNPs have opposite functional effects with hnRNP F promoting and hnRNP A1 inhibiting exon 11 inclusion, and deletion of the GA-rich elements eliminates both effects. We also observed specific binding of hnRNP A1 to the 5' splice site of intron 11. The SR protein SRSF1 (SF2/ASF co-purified on the GA-rich enhancer and, interestingly, also competes with hnRNP A1 for binding to the splice site. A point mutation -3U→C decreases hnRNP A1 binding, increases SRSF1 binding and renders the exon constitutive. Lastly, our data point to a functional interaction between hnRNP F and SRSF1 as a mutant that eliminates SRSF1 binding to exon 11, or a SRSF1 knockdown, which prevents the stimulatory effect of hnRNP F over expression.

  9. Sxl-Dependent, tra/tra2-Independent Alternative Splicing of the Drosophila melanogaster X-Linked Gene found in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Yang, Haiwang; Sturgill, David; Oliver, Brian; Rabinow, Leonard; Samson, Marie-Laure

    2015-10-28

    Somatic sexual determination and behavior in Drosophila melanogaster are under the control of a genetic cascade initiated by Sex lethal (Sxl). In the female soma, SXL RNA-binding protein regulates the splicing of transformer (tra) transcripts into a female-specific form. The RNA-binding protein TRA and its cofactor TRA2 function in concert in females, whereas SXL, TRA, and TRA2 are thought to not function in males. To better understand sex-specific regulation of gene expression, we analyzed male and female head transcriptome datasets for expression levels and splicing, quantifying sex-biased gene expression via RNA-Seq and qPCR. Our data uncouple the effects of Sxl and tra/tra2 in females in the-sex-biased alternative splicing of head transcripts from the X-linked locus found in neurons (fne), encoding a pan-neuronal RNA-binding protein of the ELAV family. We show that FNE protein levels are downregulated by Sxl in female heads, also independently of tra/tra2. We argue that this regulation may have important sexually dimorphic consequences for the regulation of nervous system development or function. Copyright © 2015 Sun et al.

  10. Regulation of the Alternative Splicing and Function of Cyclin T1 by the Serine-Arginine-Rich Protein ASF/SF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jieqiong; Gao, Guozhen; Hou, Panpan; Li, Chun-Mei; Guo, Deyin

    2017-11-01

    Positive transcription elongation factor-b (P-TEFb) is required for the release of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) from its pause near the gene promoters and thus for efficient proceeding to the transcription elongation. It consists of two core subunits-CDK9 and one of T-typed or K-typed cyclin, of which, cyclin T1/CDK9 is the major and most studied combination. We have previously identified a novel splice variant of cyclin T1, cyclin T1b, which negatively regulates the transcription elongation of HIV-1 genes as well as several host genes. In this study, we revealed the serine-arginine-rich protein, ASF/SF2, as a regulatory factor of the alternative splicing of cyclin T1 gene. ASF/SF2 promotes the production of cyclin T1b versus cyclin T1a and regulates the expression of cyclin T1-depedent genes at the transcription level. We further found that a cis-element on exon 8 is responsible for the skipping of exon 7 mediated by ASF/SF2. Collectively, ASF/SF2 is identified as a splicing regulator of cyclin T1, which contributes to the control of the subsequent transcription events. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4020-4032, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Functional SNPs of INCENP Affect Semen Quality by Alternative Splicing Mode and Binding Affinity with the Target Bta-miR-378 in Chinese Holstein Bulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Liu

    Full Text Available Inner centromere protein (INCENP plays an important role in mitosis and meiosis as the main member of chromosomal passenger protein complex (CPC. To investigate the functional markers of the INCENP gene associated with semen quality, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs g.19970 A>G and g.34078 T>G were identified and analyzed. The new splice variant INCENP-TV is characterized by the deletion of exon 12. The g.19970 A>G in the exonic splicing enhancer (ESE motif region results in an aberrant splice variant by constructing two minigene expression vectors using the pSPL3 exon capturing vector and transfecting vectors into MLTC-1 cells. INCENP-TV was more highly expressed than INCENP-reference in adult bull testes. The g.34078 T>G located in the binding region of bta-miR-378 could affect the expression of INCENP, which was verified by luciferase assay. To analyze comprehensively the correlation of SNPs with sperm quality, haplotype combinations constructed by g.19970 A>G and g.34078 T>G, as well as g.-692 C>T and g.-556 G>T reported in our previous studies, were analyzed. The bulls with H1H12 and H2H2 exhibited a higher ejaculate volume than those with H2H10 and H9H12, respectively (P G and g.34078 T>G in INCENP both of which appear to change the molecular and biological characteristics of the mRNA transcribed from the locus may serve as a biomarkers of male bovine fertility by affecting alternative splicing mode and binding affinity with the target bta-miR-378.

  12. A novel BAT3 sequence generated by alternative RNA splicing of exon 11B displays cell type-specific expression and impacts on subcellular localization.

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    Nadine Kämper

    Full Text Available The human lymphocyte antigen (HLA encoded BAT3/BAG6 recently attracted interest as a regulator of protein targeting and degradation, a function that could be exerted in the cytosol and in the nucleus. The BAT3 gene was described to consist of 25 exons. Diversity of transcripts can be generated by alternative RNA splicing, which may control subcellular distribution of BAT3.By cDNA sequencing we identified a novel alternatively spliced sequence of the BAT3 gene located between exons 11 and 12, which was designated as exon 11B. Using PCR and colony hybridization we identified six cDNA variants, which were produced by RNA splicing of BAT3 exons 5, 11B and 24. In four examined cell types the content of BAT3 splice variants was examined. Most of the cDNA clones from monocyte-derived dendritic cells contain exon 11B, whereas this sequence was almost absent in the B lymphoma Raji. Exon 5 was detected in most and exon 24 in approximately half of the cDNA clones. The subcellular distribution of endogenous BAT3 largely correlates with a cell type specific splicing pattern. In cells transfected with BAT3 variants, full-length and Δ24 BAT3 displayed nearly exclusive nuclear staining, whereas variants deleted of exon 11B showed substantial cytosolic expression. We show here that BAT3 is mainly expressed in the cytosol of Raji cells, while other cell types displayed both cytosolic and nuclear staining. Export of BAT3 from the nucleus to the cytosol is inhibited by treatment with leptomycin B, indicating that the Crm1 pathway is involved. Nuclear expression of BAT3 containing exon 11B suggests that this sequence plays a role for nuclear retention of the protein.Cell type-specific subcellular expression of BAT3 suggests distinct functions in the cytosol and in the nucleus. Differential expression of BAT3 variants may reconcile the multiple roles described for BAT3.

  13. Seed Dormancy in Arabidopsis Requires Self-Binding Ability of DOG1 Protein and the Presence of Multiple Isoforms Generated by Alternative Splicing.

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    Kazumi Nakabayashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis protein DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1 is a key regulator of seed dormancy, which is a life history trait that determines the timing of seedling emergence. The amount of DOG1 protein in freshly harvested seeds determines their dormancy level. DOG1 has been identified as a major dormancy QTL and variation in DOG1 transcript levels between accessions contributes to natural variation for seed dormancy. The DOG1 gene is alternatively spliced. Alternative splicing increases the transcriptome and proteome diversity in higher eukaryotes by producing transcripts that encode for proteins with altered or lost function. It can also generate tissue specific transcripts or affect mRNA stability. Here we suggest a different role for alternative splicing of the DOG1 gene. DOG1 produces five transcript variants encoding three protein isoforms. Transgenic dog1 mutant seeds expressing single DOG1 transcript variants from the endogenous DOG1 promoter did not complement because they were non-dormant and lacked DOG1 protein. However, transgenic plants overexpressing single DOG1 variants from the 35S promoter could accumulate protein and showed complementation. Simultaneous expression of two or more DOG1 transcript variants from the endogenous DOG1 promoter also led to increased dormancy levels and accumulation of DOG1 protein. This suggests that single isoforms are functional, but require the presence of additional isoforms to prevent protein degradation. Subsequently, we found that the DOG1 protein can bind to itself and that this binding is required for DOG1 function but not for protein accumulation. Natural variation for DOG1 binding efficiency was observed among Arabidopsis accessions and contributes to variation in seed dormancy.

  14. Wild-type alternatively spliced p53: binding to DNA and interaction with the major p53 protein in vitro and in cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Y.; Liu, Y; L. Lee; Miner, Z; Kulesz-Martin, M

    1994-01-01

    A p53 variant protein (p53as) generated from alternatively spliced p53 RNA is expressed in normal and malignant mouse cells and tissues, and p53as antigen activity is preferentially associated with the G2 phase of the cell cycle, suggesting that p53as and p53 protein may have distinct properties. Using p53as and p53 proteins translated in vitro, we now provide evidence that p53as protein has efficient sequence-specific DNA-binding ability. DNA binding by p53 protein is inefficient in comparis...

  15. An acute myeloid leukemia gene, AML1, regulates hemopoietic myeloid cell differentiation and transcriptional activation antagonistically by two alternative spliced forms.

    OpenAIRE

    T. Tanaka; Tanaka, K; Ogawa, S; Kurokawa, M.; Mitani, K; J. Nishida; Shibata, Y.; Yazaki, Y; Hirai, H.

    1995-01-01

    The AML1 gene on chromosome 21 is disrupted in the (8;21)(q22;q22) and (3;21)(q26;q22) translocations associated with myelogenous leukemias and encodes a DNA binding protein. From the AML1 gene, two representative forms of proteins, AML1a and AML1b, are produced by alternative splicing. Both forms have a DNA binding domain but, unlike AML1b, AML1a lacks a putative transcriptional activation domain. Here we demonstrate that overexpressed AML1a totally suppresses granulocytic differentiation an...

  16. GC content around splice sites affects splicing through pre-mRNA secondary structures

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    Chen Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing increases protein diversity by generating multiple transcript isoforms from a single gene through different combinations of exons or through different selections of splice sites. It has been reported that RNA secondary structures are involved in alternative splicing. Here we perform a genomic study of RNA secondary structures around splice sites in humans (Homo sapiens, mice (Mus musculus, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster, and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans to further investigate this phenomenon. Results We observe that GC content around splice sites is closely associated with the splice site usage in multiple species. RNA secondary structure is the possible explanation, because the structural stability difference among alternative splice sites, constitutive splice sites, and skipped splice sites can be explained by the GC content difference. Alternative splice sites tend to be GC-enriched and exhibit more stable RNA secondary structures in all of the considered species. In humans and mice, splice sites of first exons and long exons tend to be GC-enriched and hence form more stable structures, indicating the special role of RNA secondary structures in promoter proximal splicing events and the splicing of long exons. In addition, GC-enriched exon-intron junctions tend to be overrepresented in tissue-specific alternative splice sites, indicating the functional consequence of the GC effect. Compared with regions far from splice sites and decoy splice sites, real splice sites are GC-enriched. We also found that the GC-content effect is much stronger than the nucleotide-order effect to form stable secondary structures. Conclusion All of these results indicate that GC content is related to splice site usage and it may mediate the splicing process through RNA secondary structures.

  17. Alternative splicing events are a late feature of pathology in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

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    Dirk Bäumer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy is a severe motor neuron disease caused by inactivating mutations in the SMN1 gene leading to reduced levels of full-length functional SMN protein. SMN is a critical mediator of spliceosomal protein assembly, and complete loss or drastic reduction in protein leads to loss of cell viability. However, the reason for selective motor neuron degeneration when SMN is reduced to levels which are tolerated by all other cell types is not currently understood. Widespread splicing abnormalities have recently been reported at end-stage in a mouse model of SMA, leading to the proposition that disruption of efficient splicing is the primary mechanism of motor neuron death. However, it remains unclear whether splicing abnormalities are present during early stages of the disease, which would be a requirement for a direct role in disease pathogenesis. We performed exon-array analysis of RNA from SMN deficient mouse spinal cord at 3 time points, pre-symptomatic (P1, early symptomatic (P7, and late-symptomatic (P13. Compared to littermate control mice, SMA mice showed a time-dependent increase in the number of exons showing differential expression, with minimal differences between genotypes at P1 and P7, but substantial variation in late-symptomatic (P13 mice. Gene ontology analysis revealed differences in pathways associated with neuronal development as well as cellular injury. Validation of selected targets by RT-PCR confirmed the array findings and was in keeping with a shift between physiologically occurring mRNA isoforms. We conclude that the majority of splicing changes occur late in SMA and may represent a secondary effect of cell injury, though we cannot rule out significant early changes in a small number of transcripts crucial to motor neuron survival.

  18. CCA1 alternative splicing as a way of linking the circadian clock to temperature response in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Mi-Jeong; Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2012-01-01

    Most living organisms on the earth have the circadian clock to synchronize their biochemical processes and physiological activities with environmental changes to optimize their propagation and survival. CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) is one of the core clock components in Arabidopsis. Notably, it is also associated with cold acclimation. However, it is largely unknown how CCA1 activity is modulated by low temperatures. We found that the CCA1 activity is self-regulated by a splice variant ...

  19. Transcriptome analyses of the human retina identify unprecedented transcript diversity and 3.5 Mb of novel transcribed sequence via significant alternative splicing and novel genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The retina is a complex tissue comprised of multiple cell types that is affected by a diverse set of diseases that are important causes of vision loss. Characterizing the transcripts, both annotated and novel, that are expressed in a given tissue has become vital for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathology of disease. Results We sequenced RNA prepared from three normal human retinas and characterized the retinal transcriptome at an unprecedented level due to the increased depth of sampling provided by the RNA-seq approach. We used a non-redundant reference transcriptome from all of the empirically-determined human reference tracks to identify annotated and novel sequences expressed in the retina. We detected 79,915 novel alternative splicing events, including 29,887 novel exons, 21,757 3′ and 5′ alternate splice sites, and 28,271 exon skipping events. We also identified 116 potential novel genes. These data represent a significant addition to the annotated human transcriptome. For example, the novel exons detected increase the number of identified exons by 3%. Using a high-throughput RNA capture approach to validate 14,696 of these novel transcriptome features we found that 99% of the putative novel events can be reproducibly detected. Further, 15-36% of the novel splicing events maintain an open reading frame, suggesting they produce novel protein products. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first application of RNA capture to perform large-scale validation of novel transcriptome features. In total, these analyses provide extensive detail about a previously uncharacterized level of transcript diversity in the human retina. PMID:23865674

  20. Targeting a Single Alternative Polyadenylation Site Coordinately Blocks Expression of Androgen Receptor mRNA Splice Variants in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Etten, Jamie L; Nyquist, Michael; Li, Yingming; Yang, Rendong; Ho, Yeung; Johnson, Rachel; Ondigi, Olivia; Voytas, Daniel F; Henzler, Christine; Dehm, Scott M

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of male cancer deaths due to disease progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Androgen receptor (AR) splice variants including AR-V7 function as constitutively active transcription factors in CRPC cells, thereby promoting resistance to AR-targeted therapies. To date, there are no AR variant-specific treatments for CRPC. Here we report that the splicing of AR variants AR-V7 as well as AR-V1 and AR-V9 is regulated coordinately by a single polyadenylation signal in AR intron 3. Blocking this signal with morpholino technology or silencing of the polyadenylation factor CPSF1 caused a splice switch that inhibited expression of AR variants and blocked androgen-independent growth of CRPC cells. Our findings support the development of new therapies targeting the polyadenylation signal in AR intron 3 as a strategy to prevent expression of a broad array of AR variants in CRPC. Cancer Res; 77(19); 5228-35. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Computational prediction of splicing regulatory elements shared by Tetrapoda organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Churbanov, Alexander; Vo?echovsk?, Igor; Hicks, Chindo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Auxiliary splicing sequences play an important role in ensuring accurate and efficient splicing by promoting or repressing recognition of authentic splice sites. These cis-acting motifs have been termed splicing enhancers and silencers and are located both in introns and exons. They co-evolved into an intricate splicing code together with additional functional constraints, such as tissue-specific and alternative splicing patterns. We used orthologous exons extracted from t...

  2. Functional assessment of a novel COL4A5 splice region variant and immunostaining of plucked hair follicles as an alternative method of diagnosis in X-linked Alport syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Andrew F; Funk, Steven D; Alhamad, Tarek; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2017-06-01

    Many COL4A5 splice region variants have been described in patients with X-linked Alport syndrome, but few have been confirmed by functional analysis to actually cause defective splicing. We sought to demonstrate that a novel COL4A5 splice region variant in a family with Alport syndrome is pathogenic using functional studies. We also describe an alternative method of diagnosis. Targeted next-generation sequencing results of an individual with Alport syndrome were analyzed and the results confirmed by Sanger sequencing in family members. A splicing reporter minigene assay was used to examine the variant's effect on splicing in transfected cells. Plucked hair follicles from patients and controls were examined for collagen IV proteins using immunofluorescence microscopy. A novel splice region mutation in COL4A5, c.1780-6T>G, was identified and segregated with disease in this family. This variant caused frequent skipping of exon 25, resulting in a frameshift and truncation of collagen α5(IV) protein. We also developed and validated a new approach to characterize the expression of collagen α5(IV) protein in the basement membranes of plucked hair follicles. Using this approach we demonstrated reduced collagen α5(IV) protein in affected male and female individuals in this family, supporting frequent failure of normal splicing. Differing normal to abnormal transcript ratios in affected individuals carrying splice region variants may contribute to variable disease severity observed in Alport families. Examination of plucked hair follicles in suspected X-linked Alport syndrome patients may offer a less invasive alternative method of diagnosis and serve as a pathogenicity test for COL4A5 variants of uncertain significance.

  3. Alternative Splicing of AMPA subunits in Prefrontal Cortical Fields of Cynomolgus Monkeys following Chronic Ethanol Self-Administration

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    Glen eAcosta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional impairment of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex underlies deficits in executive control that characterize addictive disorders, including alcohol addiction. Previous studies indicate that alcohol alters glutamate neurotransmission and one substrate of these effects may be through the reconfiguration of the subunits constituting ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR complexes. Glutamatergic transmission is integral to cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical communication and alcohol-induced changes in the abundance of the receptor subunits and/or their splice variants may result in critical functional impairments of prefrontal cortex in alcohol dependence. To this end, the effects of chronic ethanol self-administration on glutamate receptor ionotropic AMPA (GRIA subunit variant and kainate (GRIK subunit mRNA expression were studied in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC of male cynomolgus monkeys. In DLPFC, total AMPA splice variant expression and total kainate receptor subunit expression were significantly decreased in alcohol drinking monkeys. Expression levels of GRIA3 flip and flop and GRIA4 flop mRNAs in this region were positively correlated with daily ethanol intake and blood ethanol concentrations averaged over the six months prior to necropsy. In OFC, AMPA subunit splice variant expression was reduced in the alcohol treated group. GRIA2 flop mRNA levels in this region were positively correlated with daily ethanol intake and blood ethanol concentrations averaged over the six months prior to necropsy. Results from these studies provide further evidence of transcriptional regulation of iGluR subunits in the primate brain following chronic alcohol self-administration. Additional studies examining the cellular localization of such effects in the framework of primate prefrontal cortical circuitry are warranted.

  4. Systematic profiling of poly(A+ transcripts modulated by core 3' end processing and splicing factors reveals regulatory rules of alternative cleavage and polyadenylation.

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    Wencheng Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA results in mRNA isoforms containing different 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs and/or coding sequences. How core cleavage/polyadenylation (C/P factors regulate APA is not well understood. Using siRNA knockdown coupled with deep sequencing, we found that several C/P factors can play significant roles in 3'UTR-APA. Whereas Pcf11 and Fip1 enhance usage of proximal poly(A sites (pAs, CFI-25/68, PABPN1 and PABPC1 promote usage of distal pAs. Strong cis element biases were found for pAs regulated by CFI-25/68 or Fip1, and the distance between pAs plays an important role in APA regulation. In addition, intronic pAs are substantially regulated by splicing factors, with U1 mostly inhibiting C/P events in introns near the 5' end of gene and U2 suppressing those in introns with features for efficient splicing. Furthermore, PABPN1 inhibits expression of transcripts with pAs near the transcription start site (TSS, a property possibly related to its role in RNA degradation. Finally, we found that groups of APA events regulated by C/P factors are also modulated in cell differentiation and development with distinct trends. Together, our results support an APA code where an APA event in a given cellular context is regulated by a number of parameters, including relative location to the TSS, splicing context, distance between competing pAs, surrounding cis elements and concentrations of core C/P factors.

  5. Alternative splicing alterations of Ca2+ handling genes are associated with Ca2+ signal dysregulation in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Massimo; Piacentini, Roberto; Masciullo, Marcella; Bianchi, Maria Laura Ester; Modoni, Anna; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Ricci, Enzo; Silvestri, Gabriella; Grassi, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    The pathogenesis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) has been related to the aberrant splicing of several genes, including those encoding for ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1), sarcoplasmatic/endoplasmatic Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) and α1S subunit of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (Cav 1.1). The aim of this study is to determine whether alterations of these genes are associated with changes in the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and signalling. We analysed the expression of RYR1, SERCA and Cav 1.1 and the intracellular Ca(2+) handling in cultured myotubes isolated from DM1, DM2 and control muscle biopsies by semiquantitative RT-PCR and confocal Ca(2+) imaging respectively. (i) The alternative splicing of RYR1, SERCA and Cav 1.1 was more severely affected in DM1 than in DM2 myotubes; (ii) DM1 myotubes exhibited higher resting intracellular Ca(2+) levels than DM2; (iii) the amplitude of intracellular Ca(2+) transients induced by sustained membrane depolarization was higher in DM1 myotubes than in controls, whereas DM2 showed opposite behaviour; and (iv) in both DM myotubes, Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum through RYR1 was lower than in controls. The aberrant splicing of RYR1, SERCA1 and Cav 1.1 may alter intracellular Ca(2+) signalling in DM1 and DM2 myotubes. The differing dysregulation of intracellular Ca(2+) handling in DM1 and DM2 may explain their distinct sarcolemmal hyperexcitabilities. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  6. Tissue-specific splicing factor gene expression signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Grosso; A.Q. Gomes (Anita); N.L. Barbosa-Morais (Nuno); S. Caldeira (Sandra); N.P. Thorne (Natalie); G. Grech (Godfrey); M.M. von Lindern (Marieke); M. Carmo-Fonseca (Maria)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe alternative splicing code that controls and coordinates the transcriptome in complex multicellular organisms remains poorly understood. It has long been argued that regulation of alternative splicing relies on combinatorial interactions between multiple proteins, and that

  7. Tissue-specific splicing factor gene expression signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grosso, Ana Rita; Gomes, Anita Q.; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L.; Caldeira, Sandra; Thorne, Natalie P.; Grech, Godfrey; von Lindern, Marieke; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The alternative splicing code that controls and coordinates the transcriptome in complex multicellular organisms remains poorly understood. It has long been argued that regulation of alternative splicing relies on combinatorial interactions between multiple proteins, and that tissue-specific

  8. Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1), a Gene Involved in X-Linked Intellectual Disability, Undergoes RNA Editing and Alternative Splicing during Human Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Alekos; Galeano, Federica; Locatelli, Franco; Bertini, Enrico; Zanni, Ginevra; Gallo, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) encodes for a Rho-GTPase-activating protein, important for dendritic morphogenesis and synaptic function. Mutations in this gene have been identified in patients with X-linked intellectual disability associated with cerebellar hypoplasia. ADAR enzymes are responsible for A-to-I RNA editing, an essential post-transcriptional RNA modification contributing to transcriptome and proteome diversification. Specifically, ADAR2 activity is essential for brain development and function. Herein, we show that the OPHN1 transcript undergoes post-transcriptional modifications such as A-to-I RNA editing and alternative splicing in human brain and other tissues. We found that OPHN1 editing is detectable already at the 18th week of gestation in human brain with a boost of editing at weeks 20 to 33, concomitantly with OPHN1 expression increase and the appearance of a novel OPHN1 splicing isoform. Our results demonstrate that multiple post-transcriptional events occur on OPHN1, a gene playing an important role in brain function and development. PMID:24637888

  9. Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1, a gene involved in X-linked intellectual disability, undergoes RNA editing and alternative splicing during human brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Barresi

    Full Text Available Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1 encodes for a Rho-GTPase-activating protein, important for dendritic morphogenesis and synaptic function. Mutations in this gene have been identified in patients with X-linked intellectual disability associated with cerebellar hypoplasia. ADAR enzymes are responsible for A-to-I RNA editing, an essential post-transcriptional RNA modification contributing to transcriptome and proteome diversification. Specifically, ADAR2 activity is essential for brain development and function. Herein, we show that the OPHN1 transcript undergoes post-transcriptional modifications such as A-to-I RNA editing and alternative splicing in human brain and other tissues. We found that OPHN1 editing is detectable already at the 18th week of gestation in human brain with a boost of editing at weeks 20 to 33, concomitantly with OPHN1 expression increase and the appearance of a novel OPHN1 splicing isoform. Our results demonstrate that multiple post-transcriptional events occur on OPHN1, a gene playing an important role in brain function and development.

  10. Nanospan, an alternatively spliced isoform of sarcospan, localizes to the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle and is absent in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Angela K; Miller, Gaynor; Capote, Joana; DiFranco, Marino; Solares-Pérez, Alhondra; Wang, Emily L; Heighway, Jim; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M; Vergara, Julio; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H

    2017-06-06

    Sarcospan (SSPN) is a transmembrane protein that interacts with the sarcoglycans (SGs) to form a tight subcomplex within the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex that spans the sarcolemma and interacts with laminin in the extracellular matrix. Overexpression of SSPN ameliorates Duchenne muscular dystrophy in murine models. Standard cloning approaches were used to identify nanospan, and nanospan-specific polyclonal antibodies were generated and validated. Biochemical isolation of skeletal muscle membranes and two-photon laser scanning microscopy were used to analyze nanospan localization in muscle from multiple murine models. Duchenne muscular dystrophy biopsies were analyzed by immunoblot analysis of protein lysates as well as indirect immunofluorescence analysis of muscle cryosections. Nanospan is an alternatively spliced isoform of sarcospan. While SSPN has four transmembrane domains and is a core component of the sarcolemmal dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, nanospan is a type II transmembrane protein that does not associate with the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. We demonstrate that nanospan is enriched in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) fractions and is not present in the T-tubules. SR fractions contain membranes from three distinct structural regions: a region flanking the T-tubules (triadic SR), a SR region across the Z-line (ZSR), and a longitudinal SR region across the M-line (LSR). Analysis of isolated murine muscles reveals that nanospan is mostly associated with the ZSR and triadic SR, and only minimally with the LSR. Furthermore, nanospan is absent from the SR of δ-SG-null (Sgcd-/-) skeletal muscle, a murine model for limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2F. Analysis of skeletal muscle biopsies from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients reveals that nanospan is preferentially expressed in type I (slow) fibers in both control and Duchenne samples. Furthermore, nanospan is significantly reduced in Duchenne biopsies. Alternative splicing of proteins from the SG

  11. Nanospan, an alternatively spliced isoform of sarcospan, localizes to the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle and is absent in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Angela K; Miller, Gaynor; Capote, Joana; DiFranco, Marino; Solares-Pérez, Alhondra; Wang, Emily L; Heighway, Jim; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M; Vergara, Julio; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H

    2017-01-01

    Sarcospan (SSPN) is a transmembrane protein that interacts with the sarcoglycans (SGs) to form a tight subcomplex within the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex that spans the sarcolemma and interacts with laminin in the extracellular matrix. Overexpression of SSPN ameliorates Duchenne muscular dystrophy in murine models. Standard cloning approaches were used to identify nanospan, and nanospan-specific polyclonal antibodies were generated and validated. Biochemical isolation of skeletal muscle membranes and two-photon laser scanning microscopy were used to analyze nanospan localization in muscle from multiple murine models. Duchenne muscular dystrophy biopsies were analyzed by immunoblot analysis of protein lysates as well as indirect immunofluorescence analysis of muscle cryosections. Nanospan is an alternatively spliced isoform of sarcospan. While SSPN has four transmembrane domains and is a core component of the sarcolemmal dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, nanospan is a type II transmembrane protein that does not associate with the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. We demonstrate that nanospan is enriched in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) fractions and is not present in the T-tubules. SR fractions contain membranes from three distinct structural regions: a region flanking the T-tubules (triadic SR), a SR region across the Z-line (ZSR), and a longitudinal SR region across the M-line (LSR). Analysis of isolated murine muscles reveals that nanospan is mostly associated with the ZSR and triadic SR, and only minimally with the LSR. Furthermore, nanospan is absent from the SR of δ-SG-null (Sgcd-/-) skeletal muscle, a murine model for limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2F. Analysis of skeletal muscle biopsies from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients reveals that nanospan is preferentially expressed in type I (slow) fibers in both control and Duchenne samples. Furthermore, nanospan is significantly reduced in Duchenne biopsies. Alternative splicing of proteins from the SG

  12. Preparation of Splicing Competent Nuclear Extract from Mammalian Cells and In Vitro Pre-mRNA Splicing Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassat, Maliheh; Shenasa, Hossein; Hertel, Klemens J

    2017-01-01

    The ability to perform in vitro splicing assays has paved the way for in-depth studies of the mechanisms and machinery involved in the process of splicing. The in vitro splicing assay is a valuable experimental approach that combines the complexity of the spliceosome and regulatory systems with the flexibility of performing endless splicing and alternative splicing reactions. Through the use of crude nuclear extract and radiolabeled pre-mRNA, spliced mRNAs can be visualized using autoradiography for downstream analysis. This chapter describes the necessary steps to perform an in vitro splicing reaction, including the generation of the key components necessary for the splicing reaction; nuclear extract.

  13. Involvement of Endocytosis and Alternative Splicing in the Formation of the Pathological Process in the Early Stages of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alieva, Anelya Kh.; Shadrina, Maria I.; Filatova, Elena V.; Karabanov, Aleksey V.; Illarioshkin, Sergey N.; Limborska, Svetlana A.; Slominsky, Petr A.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the one of most widespread neurodegenerative pathologies. Because of the impossibility of studying the endogenous processes that occur in the brain of patients with PD in the presymptomatic stage, the mechanisms that trigger the disease remain unknown. Thus, the identification of the processes that play an important role in the early stages of the disease in these patients is extremely difficult. In this context, we performed a whole-transcriptome analysis of the peripheral blood of untreated patients with stage 1 PD (Hoehn-Yahr scale). We demonstrated a significant change in the levels of transcripts included in the large groups of processes associated with the functioning of the immune system and cellular transport. Moreover, a significant change in the splicing of genes involved in cellular-transport processes was shown in our study. PMID:24804238

  14. MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated interaction between leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) and alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2 (ASF/SF2) affects mouse embryonic fibroblast senescence and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduci, Lorena; Simili, Marcella; Rizzo, Milena; Mercatanti, Alberto; Evangelista, Monica; Mariani, Laura; Rainaldi, Giuseppe; Pitto, Letizia

    2010-12-10

    Leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) is a transcriptional repressor, which by recruiting histone deacetylases specifically represses p19/ARF expression, thus behaving as an oncogene. Conversely, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), LRF inhibition causes aberrant p19ARF up-regulation resulting in proliferative defects and premature senescence. We have recently shown that LRF is controlled by microRNAs. Here we show that LRF acts on MEF proliferation and senescence/apoptosis by repressing miR-28 and miR-505, revealing a regulatory circuit where microRNAs (miRNAs) work both upstream and downstream of LRF. By analyzing miRNA expression profiles of MEF transfected with LRF-specific short interfering RNAs, we found that miR-28 and miR-505 are modulated by LRF. Both miRNAs are predicted to target alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2 (ASF/SF2), a serine/arginine protein essential for cell viability. In vertebrates, loss or inactivation of ASF/SF2 may result in genomic instability and induce G(2) cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We showed that miR-28 and miR-505 modulate ASF/SF2 by directly binding ASF/SF2 3'-UTR. Decrease in LRF causes a decrease in ASF/SF2, which depends on up-regulation of miR-28 and miR-505. Alteration of each of the members of the LRF/miR-28/miR-505/ASF/SF2 axis affects MEF proliferation and the number of senescent and apoptotic cells. Consistently, the axis is coordinately modulated as cell senescence increases with passages in MEF culture. In conclusion, we show that LRF-dependent miRNAs miR-28 and miR-505 control MEF proliferation and survival by targeting ASF/SF2 and suggest a central role of LRF-related miRNAs, in addition to the role of LRF-dependent p53 control, in cellular homeostasis.

  15. MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated Interaction between Leukemia/Lymphoma-related Factor (LRF) and Alternative Splicing Factor/Splicing Factor 2 (ASF/SF2) Affects Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast Senescence and Apoptosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduci, Lorena; Simili, Marcella; Rizzo, Milena; Mercatanti, Alberto; Evangelista, Monica; Mariani, Laura; Rainaldi, Giuseppe; Pitto, Letizia

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) is a transcriptional repressor, which by recruiting histone deacetylases specifically represses p19/ARF expression, thus behaving as an oncogene. Conversely, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), LRF inhibition causes aberrant p19ARF up-regulation resulting in proliferative defects and premature senescence. We have recently shown that LRF is controlled by microRNAs. Here we show that LRF acts on MEF proliferation and senescence/apoptosis by repressing miR-28 and miR-505, revealing a regulatory circuit where microRNAs (miRNAs) work both upstream and downstream of LRF. By analyzing miRNA expression profiles of MEF transfected with LRF-specific short interfering RNAs, we found that miR-28 and miR-505 are modulated by LRF. Both miRNAs are predicted to target alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2 (ASF/SF2), a serine/arginine protein essential for cell viability. In vertebrates, loss or inactivation of ASF/SF2 may result in genomic instability and induce G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We showed that miR-28 and miR-505 modulate ASF/SF2 by directly binding ASF/SF2 3′-UTR. Decrease in LRF causes a decrease in ASF/SF2, which depends on up-regulation of miR-28 and miR-505. Alteration of each of the members of the LRF/miR-28/miR-505/ASF/SF2 axis affects MEF proliferation and the number of senescent and apoptotic cells. Consistently, the axis is coordinately modulated as cell senescence increases with passages in MEF culture. In conclusion, we show that LRF-dependent miRNAs miR-28 and miR-505 control MEF proliferation and survival by targeting ASF/SF2 and suggest a central role of LRF-related miRNAs, in addition to the role of LRF-dependent p53 control, in cellular homeostasis. PMID:20923760

  16. An Interspecific Plant Hybrid Shows Novel Changes in Parental Splice Forms of Genes for Splicing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scascitelli, Moira; Cognet, Marie; Adams, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization plays an important role in plant adaptive evolution and speciation, and the process often results in phenotypic novelty. Hybrids can show changes in genome structure and gene expression compared with their parents including chromosomal rearrangments, changes in cytosine methylation, up- and downregulation of gene expression, and gene silencing. Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental aspect of the expression of many genes. However alternative splicing patterns have not been examined in multiple genes in an interspecific plant hybrid compared with its parents. Here we studied alternative splicing patterns in an interspecific Populus hybrid and its parents by assaying 40 genes using reverse transcription PCR. Most of the genes showed identical alternative splicing patterns between the parents and the hybrid. We found new alternative splicing variants present in the hybrid in two SR genes involved in the regulation of splicing and alternative splicing. The novel alternative splicing patterns included changes in donor and acceptor sites to create a new exon in one allele of PtRSZ22 in the hybrid and retention of an intron in both alleles of PtSR34a.1 in the hybrid, with effects on the function of the corresponding truncated proteins, if present. Our results suggest that novel alternative splicing patterns are present in a small percentage of genes in hybrids, but they could make a considerable impact on the expression of some genes. Changes in alternative splicing are likely to be an important component of the genetic changes that occur upon interspecific hybridization. PMID:20100939

  17. HnRNP A1/A2 and SF2/ASF regulate alternative splicing of interferon regulatory factor-3 and affect immunomodulatory functions in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong; Li, Yong; Ning, Jinying; Sun, Dan; Lin, Lianjun; Liu, Xinmin

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticule A1/A2 (hnRNP A1/A2) and splicing factor 2/alternative splicing factor (SF2/ASF) are pivotal for precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing. Interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) plays critical roles in host defense against viral and microbial infection. Truncated IRF-3 proteins resulting from alternative splicing have been identified and characterized as functional antagonists to full-length IRF-3. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism for splicing regulation of IRF-3 pre-mRNA and first reported the regulatory effect of hnRNP A1/A2 and SF2/ASF on IRF-3 splicing and activation. RNA interference-mediated depletion of hnRNP A1/A2 or SF2/ASF in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells increased exclusion of exons 2 and 3 of IRF-3 gene and reduced expression levels of IRF-3 protein and IRF-3 downstream effector molecules interferon-beta and CXCL10/IP-10. In addition, direct binding of hnRNP A1 and SF2/ASF to specific binding motifs in IRF-3 intron 1 was confirmed by RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Subsequent minigene splicing assay showed that IRF-3 minigenes with mutated hnRNPA 1/A2 or SF2/ASF binding motifs increased exclusion of exons 2 and 3. Moreover, knockdown of hnRNP A1/A2 or SF2/ASF in NSCLC cells reinforced phytohemagglutinin-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha release by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but suppressed that of interleukin-10 in NSCLC/PBMC co-cultures. Taken together, our results suggest that specific knockdown for hnRNP A1/A2 or SF2/ASF increase exclusion of exons 2 and 3 of IRF-3 pre-mRNA and influence immunomodulatory functions of human NSCLC cells.

  18. Age-dependent decrease and alternative splicing of methionine synthase mRNA in human cerebral cortex and an accelerated decrease in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Muratore

    Full Text Available The folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS is highly sensitive to cellular oxidative status, and lower MS activity increases production of the antioxidant glutathione, while simultaneously decreasing more than 200 methylation reactions, broadly affecting metabolic activity. MS mRNA levels in postmortem human cortex from subjects across the lifespan were measured and a dramatic progressive biphasic decrease of more than 400-fold from 28 weeks of gestation to 84 years was observed. Further analysis revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA, including deletion of folate-binding domain exons and age-dependent deletion of exons from the cap domain, which protects vitamin B12 (cobalamin from oxidation. Although three species of MS were evident at the protein level, corresponding to full-length and alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts, decreasing mRNA levels across the lifespan were not associated with significant changes in MS protein or methionine levels. MS mRNA levels were significantly lower in autistic subjects, especially at younger ages, and this decrease was replicated in cultured human neuronal cells by treatment with TNF-α, whose CSF levels are elevated in autism. These novel findings suggest that rather than serving as a housekeeping enzyme, MS has a broad and dynamic role in coordinating metabolism in the brain during development and aging. Factors adversely affecting MS activity, such as oxidative stress, can be a source of risk for neurological disorders across the lifespan via their impact on methylation reactions, including epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

  19. The AP2-like gene OitaAP2 is alternatively spliced and differentially expressed in inflorescence and vegetative tissues of the orchid Orchis italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemme, Marinella; Sica, Maria; Iazzetti, Giovanni; Gaudio, Luciano; Aceto, Serena

    2013-01-01

    The AP2/ERF proteins are plant-specific transcription factors involved in multiple regulatory pathways, from plant organ development to response to various environmental stresses. One of the mechanisms that regulates the AP2-like genes involves the microRNA miR172, which controls their activity at the post-transcriptional level. Extensive studies on AP2-like genes are available in many different species; however, in orchids, one of the largest plant families, studies are restricted to a few species, all belonging to the Epidendroideae subfamily. In the present study, we report the isolation of an AP2-like gene in the Mediterranean orchid Orchis italica (Orchidoideae). The OitaAP2 locus includes 10 exons and 9 introns, and its transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in the long OitaAP2 and the short OitaAP2_ISO isoforms, with the latter skipping exon 9. Both isoforms contain the conserved target site for miR172, whose action is demonstrated by the presence of cleaved OitaAP2 mRNA. The OitaAP2 and OitaAP2_ISO mRNAs are present in the tepals and lip before and after anthesis at different expression levels. In addition, the OitaAP2_ISO isoform is expressed in the ovary before pollination and in the root and stem. The isoform-specific expression pattern suggests a functional differentiation of the OitaAP2 alternatively spliced transcripts. The expression profile of miR172 is complementary to that of the OitaAP2 isoforms in inflorescence tissues before anthesis, whereas after anthesis and in ovary tissue before and after pollination, this relationship disappears, suggesting the existence of OitaAP2 inhibitory mechanisms in these tissues that differ from that involving miR172.

  20. Characterization of the cathepsin B gene and multiple mRNAs in human tissues: evidence for alternative splicing of cathepsin B pre-mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Q; Chan, S J; Bajkowski, A S; Steiner, D F; Frankfater, A

    1993-05-01

    We have cloned and characterized multiple messages for cathepsin B that differ in their 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) from human kidney and the hepatoma cell line HepG2. A comparison of these messages with the cloned human cathepsin B gene reveals that they arise by alternative splicing of a single gene. Processing at a cryptic intron donor site in exon 11 and splicing to exon 12 produces a 4.0-kb message with an alternate 3' UTR in addition to the 2.3-kb message described previously by Chan et al. (1986). Variable removal of exon 2 produces cathepsin B mRNAs which differ by 88 nucleotides in their 5'-UTRs. The ratio of the 2.3-kb to 4.0-kb transcript is about 2:1 in most of the tissues examined, but the ratio of mRNAs with variant 5' UTRs differs widely. Cathepsin B mRNAs lacking exon 2 are predominant in human tumors. In addition, human breast and colon carcinomas and a human melanoma contain a cathepsin B transcript that is also missing exon 3 encoding the signal peptide and 7 residues of the activation propeptide. An in vitro transcription/translation assay was used to demonstrate that this message could be translated from an internal methionine codon (residue 52), producing a 32-kD product lacking the signal peptide and more than half the propeptide. The transcription/translation assay also demonstrated that the variant messages differ in their rates of translation. The relative rates are about 8:2:1 for mRNA lacking exons 2 and 3 compared to mRNA lacking exon 2 and mRNA containing the full-length 5' end, respectively. These results suggest that the expression of cathepsin B in human tissues may be regulated in part at the level of mRNA processing.

  1. SplicePlot: a utility for visualizing splicing quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eric; Nance, Tracy; Montgomery, Stephen B

    2014-04-01

    RNA sequencing has provided unprecedented resolution of alternative splicing and splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL). However, there are few tools available for visualizing the genotype-dependent effects of splicing at a population level. SplicePlot is a simple command line utility that produces intuitive visualization of sQTLs and their effects. SplicePlot takes mapped RNA sequencing reads in BAM format and genotype data in VCF format as input and outputs publication-quality Sashimi plots, hive plots and structure plots, enabling better investigation and understanding of the role of genetics on alternative splicing and transcript structure. Source code and detailed documentation are available at http://montgomerylab.stanford.edu/spliceplot/index.html under Resources and at Github. SplicePlot is implemented in Python and is supported on Linux and Mac OS. A VirtualBox virtual machine running Ubuntu with SplicePlot already installed is also available.

  2. Clk/STY (cdc2-like kinase 1 and Akt regulate alternative splicing and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Li

    Full Text Available The development of adipocytes from their progenitor cells requires the action of growth factors signaling to transcription factors to induce the expression of adipogenic proteins leading to the accumulation of lipid droplets, induction of glucose transport, and secretion of adipokines signaling metabolic events throughout the body. Murine 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes sequentially express all the proteins necessary to become mature adipocytes throughout an 8-10 day process initiated by a cocktail of hormones. We examined the role of Clk/STY or Clk1, a cdc2-like kinase, in adipogenesis since it is known to be regulated by Akt, a pivotal kinase in development. Inhibition of Clk1 by a specific inhibitor, TG003, blocked alternative splicing of PKCβII and expression of PPARγ1 and PPARγ2. SiRNA depletion of Clk1 resulted in early expression of PKCβII and sustained PKCβI expression. Since Clk1 is a preferred Akt substrate, required for phosphorylation of splicing factors, mutation of Clk1 Akt phosphorylation sites was undertaken. Akt sites on Clk1 are in the serine/arginine-rich domain and not the kinase domain. Mutation of single and multiple sites resulted in dysregulation of PKCβII, PKCβI, and PPARγ1&2 expression. Additionally, adipogenesis was blocked as assessed by Oil Red O staining, adiponectin, and Glut1 and 4 expression. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Clk1 triple mutant cDNA, transfected into pre-adipocytes, resulted in excluding SRp40 (SFSR6 from co-localizing to the nucleus with PFS, a perispeckle specific protein. This study demonstrates the role of Akt and Clk1 kinases in the early differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to adipocytes.

  3. Characterization of the Wilson disease gene: Genomic organization; alternative splicing; structure/function predictions; and population frequencies of disease-specific mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, K.; Chernov, I.; Ross, B.M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The Wilson disease (WD) gene has recently been identified as a putative copper-transporting ATPase with high amino acid similarity with the Menkes disease (MNK) gene. We have further characterized the WD gene by extending the 5{prime}-coding and non-coding DNA sequence and elucidating the intron/exon structure and genomic organization. Analysis of RNA transcripts from liver, brain, kidney and placenta reveals extensive alternative splicing which may provide a mechanism to regulate the quantity of functional protein product. Comparative sequence analysis shows that WD and MNK belong to the sub-family of heavy metal-transporting ATPases with several characterizing features which include unique amino acid motifs and distinct N-terminal and C-terminal transmembrane structure. Our data indicate that the 600 amino acid metal binding portion of the WD and MNK proteins was formed by gene duplication events and splicing of the 6 metal binding domain segment to a common ancestral protein. We have raised a WD-specific anti-peptide antibody to the N-terminal region and are beginning to explore the cellular and intracellular location of the WD protein. The metal-binding segment of the WD protein has been expressed in E. coli and metal binding assays are underway to characterize this aspect of the protein`s function. We have identified numerous disease-specific mutations and developed a rapid {open_quotes}reverse dot blot{close_quotes} screening protocol to determine mutation frequencies in different populations. The most common mutation disrupts the characteristic SEHP motif and accounts for more than 40% of WD cases in North American, Russian, and Swedish populations. This mutation has not been observed in our limited Sicilian sample.

  4. Honey bee PTEN--description, developmental knockdown, and tissue-specific expression of splice-variants correlated with alternative social phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Navdeep S; Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Amdam, Gro V

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatase and TENsin (PTEN) homolog is a negative regulator that takes part in IIS (insulin/insulin-like signaling) and Egfr (epidermal growth factor receptor) activation in Drosophila melanogaster. IIS and Egfr signaling events are also involved in the developmental process of queen and worker differentiation in honey bees (Apis mellifera). Here, we characterized the bee PTEN gene homologue for the first time and begin to explore its potential function during bee development and adult life. Honey bee PTEN is alternatively spliced, resulting in three splice variants. Next, we show that the expression of PTEN can be down-regulated by RNA interference (RNAi) in the larval stage, when female caste fate is determined. Relative to controls, we observed that RNAi efficacy is dependent on the amount of PTEN dsRNA that is delivered to larvae. For larvae fed queen or worker diets containing a high amount of PTEN dsRNA, PTEN knockdown was significant at a whole-body level but lethal. A lower dosage did not result in a significant gene down-regulation. Finally, we compared same-aged adult workers with different behavior: nursing vs. foraging. We show that between nurses and foragers, PTEN isoforms were differentially expressed within brain, ovary and fat body tissues. All isoforms were expressed at higher levels in the brain and ovaries of the foragers. In fat body, isoform B was expressed at higher level in the nurse bees. Our results suggest that PTEN plays a central role during growth and development in queen- and worker-destined honey bees. In adult workers, moreover, tissue-specific patterns of PTEN isoform expression are correlated with differences in complex division of labor between same-aged individuals. Therefore, we propose that knowledge on the roles of IIS and Egfr activity in developmental and behavioral control may increase through studies of how PTEN functions can impact bee social phenotypes.

  5. Alternative splicing of exon 17 and a missense mutation in exon 20 of the insulin receptor gene in two brothers with a novel syndrome of insulin resistance (congenital fiber-type disproportion myopathy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorwerk, P; Christoffersen, C T; Müller, J

    1999-01-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) in two brothers with a rare syndrome of congenital muscle fiber type disproportion myopathy (CFTDM) associated with diabetes and severe insulin resistance was studied. By direct sequencing of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes both patients were found...... domain. In the correct spliced variant, the point mutation is silent and results in a normally translated IR. The paternal allele carries a missense mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain. All three cDNA variants were present in the lymphocytes of the patients. Purified IR from 293 cells overexpressing...... to be compound heterozygotes for mutations in the IR gene. The maternal allele was alternatively spliced in exon 17 due to a point mutation in the -1 donor splice site of the exon. The abnormal skipping of exon 17 shifts the amino acid reading frame and leads to a truncated IR, missing the entire tyrosine kinase...

  6. Splicing pattern - ASTRA | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us ASTRA Splicing pattern Data detail Data name Splicing pattern DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00371-0...04 Description of data contents The patterns of alternative splicing/transcriptional initiation Data file Fi...le name: astra_splicing_pattern.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/astra/LATEST/astra_splicing_pattern...ogodb/view/astra_splicing_pattern#en Data acquisition method For the five organisms (H. sapiens, M. musculus...apping data into bit arrays, detection of splicing patterns and distribution to t

  7. First Trimester Pregnancy Loss and the Expression of alternatively spliced NKp30 isoforms in Maternal Blood and Placental Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishai eShemesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate whether first trimester pregnancy loss is associated with differences in expression of NKp30 splice variants (isoforms in maternal peripheral blood or placental tissue. We conducted a prospective case-control study; a total of 33 women undergoing dilation and curettage due to first trimester pregnancy loss were further subdivided into groups with sporadic or recurrent pregnancy loss. The control group was comprised of women undergoing elective termination of pregnancy. The qPCR approach was employed to assess the relative expression of NKp30 isoforms as well as the total expression of NKp30 and NKp46 receptors between the selected groups. Results show that in both PBMC and placental tissue, NKp46 and NKp30 expression was mildly elevated in the pregnancy loss groups compared with the elective group. In particular, NKp46 elevation was significant. Moreover, expression analysis of NKp30 isoforms manifested a different profile between PBMC and the placenta. NKp30-a and NKp30-b isoforms in the placental tissue, but not in PBMC, showed a significant increase in the pregnancy loss groups compared with the elective group. Placental expression of NKp30 activating isoforms -a and -b in the pregnancy loss groups was negatively correlated with PLGF expression. In contrast, placental expression of these isoforms in the elective group was positively correlated with TNFα, IL-10 and VEGF-A expression. The altered expression of NKp30 activating isoforms in placental tissue from patients with pregnancy loss compared to the elective group and the different correlations with cytokine expression point to the involvement of NKp30-mediated function in pregnancy loss.

  8. Epilepsy caused by an abnormal alternative splicing with dosage effect of the SV2A gene in a chicken model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Douaud

    Full Text Available Photosensitive reflex epilepsy is caused by the combination of an individual's enhanced sensitivity with relevant light stimuli, such as stroboscopic lights or video games. This is the most common reflex epilepsy in humans; it is characterized by the photoparoxysmal response, which is an abnormal electroencephalographic reaction, and seizures triggered by intermittent light stimulation. Here, by using genetic mapping, sequencing and functional analyses, we report that a mutation in the acceptor site of the second intron of SV2A (the gene encoding synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A is causing photosensitive reflex epilepsy in a unique vertebrate model, the Fepi chicken strain, a spontaneous model where the neurological disorder is inherited as an autosomal recessive mutation. This mutation causes an aberrant splicing event and significantly reduces the level of SV2A mRNA in homozygous carriers. Levetiracetam, a second generation antiepileptic drug, is known to bind SV2A, and SV2A knock-out mice develop seizures soon after birth and usually die within three weeks. The Fepi chicken survives to adulthood and responds to levetiracetam, suggesting that the low-level expression of SV2A in these animals is sufficient to allow survival, but does not protect against seizures. Thus, the Fepi chicken model shows that the role of the SV2A pathway in the brain is conserved between birds and mammals, in spite of a large phylogenetic distance. The Fepi model appears particularly useful for further studies of physiopathology of reflex epilepsy, in comparison with induced models of epilepsy in rodents. Consequently, SV2A is a very attractive candidate gene for analysis in the context of both mono- and polygenic generalized epilepsies in humans.

  9. A novel link of HLA locus to the regulation of immunity and infection: NFKBIL1 regulates alternative splicing of human immune-related genes and influenza virus M gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jianbo; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Shibata, Hiroki; Arimura, Takuro; Yasunami, Michio; Kimura, Akinori

    2013-12-01

    HLA locus contains immune-related genes and genetically regulates immune responses against both foreign- and self-antigens in humans. Inhibitor of κB-like protein (IκBL), encoded by HLA-linked NFKBIL1, is a protein of unknown function, while genetic variations in NFKBIL1 are known to associate with the susceptibility to inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases. In this study, we found that IκBL suppressed exon exclusion in alternative splicing of human immune-related genes such as CD45. Yeast-two-hybrid screening and immunoprecipitation assay revealed molecular association of IκBL with CLK1, a serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase, which plays a role in the alternative splicing. Unexpectedly, we found that the regulation of alternative splicing in CD45 by IκBL was independent from the kinase activity of CLK1. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that an SR protein, ASF/SF2, bound both IκBL and CLK1 at the RNA-recognition motifs of ASF/SF2, implying a competition of IκBL and CLK1 on SR protein. In addition, IκBL was found to regulate the CLK1-dependent synthesis of M2 RNA, a splice variant of influenza A virus M gene. These observations suggest a functional involvement of IκBL in the regulation of alternative splicing in both human and viral genes, which is a novel link of HLA locus to the regulation of immunity and infection in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alternative splicing of Spg7, a gene involved in hereditary spastic paraplegia, encodes a variant of paraplegin targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum.

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    Giuseppe Mancuso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hereditary spastic paraplegia defines a group of genetically heterogeneous diseases characterized by weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs owing to retrograde degeneration of corticospinal axons. One autosomal recessive form of the disease is caused by mutation in the SPG7 gene. Paraplegin, the product of SPG7, is a component of the m-AAA protease, a high molecular weight complex that resides in the mitochondrial inner membrane, and performs crucial quality control and biogenesis functions in mitochondria. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show the existence in the mouse of a novel isoform of paraplegin, which we name paraplegin-2, encoded by alternative splicing of Spg7 through usage of an alternative first exon. Paraplegin-2 lacks the mitochondrial targeting sequence, and is identical to the mature mitochondrial protein. Remarkably, paraplegin-2 is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum. We find that paraplegin-2 exposes the catalytic domains to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, endogenous paraplegin-2 accumulates in microsomal fractions prepared from mouse brain and retina. Finally, we show that the previously generated mouse model of Spg7-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia is an isoform-specific knock-out, in which mitochondrial paraplegin is specifically ablated, while expression of paraplegin-2 is retained. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest a possible additional role of AAA proteases outside mitochondria and open the question of their implication in neurodegeneration.

  11. Identification of Fc alpha receptor (CD89) isoforms generated by alternative splicing that are differentially expressed between blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, C; Sibille, Y; Lehuen, A; Monteiro, R C

    1996-06-01

    One of the hallmarks of mucosal-host defense is the clearance of inhaled Ags by alveolar macrophages (AM) through interactions of IgA Abs and IgA Fc receptors (Fc alpha R). AM constitutively expressed Fc alpha R at lower levels than freshly isolated and in vitro-differentiated monocytes as determined by immunofluorescence using four anti-Fc alpha R mAb. SDS-PAGE analysis of iodinated cell surface proteins revealed that Fc alpha R on AM has an Mr of 50 to 65 kDa, slightly lower than that on monocytes (55-75 kDa). Treatment of AM Fc alpha R by N-glycanase gave rise to a protein core of 28 KDa, smaller than the 32-kDa backbone of blood monocytes. AM Fc alpha R molecules were unaffected by phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C treatment. Fc alpha R transcripts were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR using primers in the 5' and 3' regions of a U937 Fc alpha R cDNA. Three transcripts were amplified, cloned, and sequenced from AM and/or monocyte mRNA, the full length Fc alpha R and two alternatively spliced products corresponding to deletions of 66 and 288 nucleotides in the portion coding for the extracellular domain; they were named Fc alpha R a.1, a.2, and a.3, respectively. These PCR products were transcribed and translated in vitro into three proteins (Mr 32, 30, and 22 kDa, respectively), in which the 32- and 30-kDa species were immunoprecipitated by an anti-Fc alpha R mAb. The predicted size of the protein encoded by the Fc alpha R a.2 transcript without the leader peptide is Mr approximately 27,400, a value that is consistent with the Mr of AM Fc alpha R backbone. These results indicate that AM express at their surfaces a protein product of an alternatively spliced Fc alpha R transcript, the Fc alpha R a.2 isoform, that might have physiologic relevance in IgA-mediated host defense at mucosal sites.

  12. Molecular characteristics, mRNA expression, and alternative splicing of a ryanodine receptor gene in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel.

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    Guo-Rui Yuan

    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptors (RyRs are a distinct class of ligand-gated channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. The emergence of diamide insecticides, which selectively target insect RyRs, has promoted the study of insect RyRs. In the present study, the full-length RyR cDNA (BdRyR was cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, a serious pest of fruits and vegetables throughout East Asia and the Pacific Rim. The cDNA of BdRyR contains a 15,420-bp open reading frame encoding 5,140 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 582.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.38. BdRyR shows a high level of amino acid sequence identity (78 to 97% to other insect RyR isoforms. All common structural features of the RyRs are present in the BdRyR, including a well-conserved C-terminal domain containing consensus calcium-binding EF-hands and six transmembrane domains, and a large N-terminal domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that BdRyR was expressed at the lowest and highest levels in egg and adult, respectively, and that the BdRyR expression levels in the third instar larva, pupa and adult were 166.99-, 157.56- and 808.56-fold higher, respectively, than that in the egg. Among different adult body parts, the highest expression level was observed in the thorax compared with the head and abdomen. In addition, four alternative splice sites were identified in the BdRyR gene, with the first, ASI, being located in the central part of the predicted second spore lysis A/RyR domain. Diagnostic PCR analyses revealed that alternative splice variants were generated not only in a tissue-specific manner but also in a developmentally regulated manner. These results lay the foundation for further understanding the structural and functional properties of BdRyR, and the molecular mechanisms for target site resistance in B. dorsalis.

  13. Identification and functional evaluation of two STAT3 variants in grass carp: Implication for the existence of specific alternative splicing of STAT3 gene in teleost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Linyong; Zhou, Hong; Qin, Lei; Wei, He; Zhang, Anying; Yang, Kun; Wang, Xinyan

    2017-11-01

    A STAT family member, STAT3, becomes activated as a DNA binding protein in response to cytokines and growth factors. In teleost, STAT3 cDNA has been cloned and identified in a few species, but only a single STAT3 transcript is revealed in these studies. In the present study, two variants of STAT3 gene generated by alternative splicing were isolated from grass carp and nominated as STAT3α1 and STAT3α2 based on the homology with their mammalian orthologs. In particular, the homologs of STAT3α1/2 were also found in various fish species, including zebrafish, takifugu, tilapia, medaka and goldfish. Intriguingly, sequence alignment and genomic structure analysis revealed that fish STAT3α1/2 are generated through similar alternative splicing events, implying the potential physiological significance of generating STAT3 variants in fish. Grass carp STAT3α1/2 (gcSTAT3α1/2) were ubiquitously expressed although the transcript levels of STAT3α2 were markedly higher than STAT3α1 in all examined tissues. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that the expression patterns of these two variants were similar under the stimulation of immune stimuli. To reveal the role of gcSTAT3α1/2 in fish immunity, their phosphorylation and involvement in IL-17A/F1 mRNA expression were demonstrated in grass carp peripheral blood lymphocytes upon LPS or PHA challenge, providing evidence for the functional conservation of STAT3 signaling in fish. These findings also raise a question of whether both gcSTAT3α1/2 participate in transcriptional regulation in fish. Actually, our results showed that both of them had the ability to translocate into the nucleus upon activation, and to amplify IL-10 signaling, indicating the existence of STAT3 isoforms with functional redundancy in teleost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Constitutive homo- and hetero-oligomerization of TbetaRII-B, an alternatively spliced variant of the mouse TGF-beta type II receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnaveni, Manda S; Hansen, Jakob Lerche; Seeger, Werner

    2006-01-01

    , but the oligomerization pattern and dynamics of TbetaRII splice variants in live cells has not been demonstrated thus far. Using co-immunoprecipitation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), we demonstrate that the mouse TbetaRII receptor splice variant TbetaRII-B is capable of forming ligand...

  15. Transcription of mouse Sp2 yields alternatively spliced and sub-genomic mRNAs in a tissue- and cell type-specific fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haifeng; Nichols, Teresa D.; Horowitz, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    The Sp-family of transcription factors is comprised by nine members, Sp1-9, that share a highly-conserved DNA-binding domain. Sp2 is a poorly characterized member of this transcription factor family that is widely expressed in murine and human cell lines yet exhibits little DNA-binding or trans-activation activity in these settings. As a prelude to the generation of a “knock-out” mouse strain, we isolated a mouse Sp2 cDNA and performed a detailed analysis of Sp2 transcription in embryonic and adult mouse tissues. We report that (1) the 5′ untranslated region of Sp2 is subject to alternative splicing, (2) Sp2 transcription is regulated by at least two promoters that differ in their cell-type specificity, (3) one Sp2 promoter is highly active in nine mammalian cell lines and strains and is regulated by at least five discrete stimulatory and inhibitory elements, (4) a variety of sub-genomic messages are synthesized from the Sp2 locus in a tissue- and cell type-specific fashion and these transcripts have the capacity to encode a novel partial-Sp2 protein, and (5) RNA in situ hybridization assays indicate that Sp2 is widely expressed during mouse embryogenesis, particularly in the embryonic brain, and robust Sp2 expression occurs in neurogenic regions of the post-natal and adult brain. PMID:20353838

  16. The caste- and age-specific expression signature of honeybee heat shock genes shows an alternative splicing-dependent regulation of Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, Randi M

    2008-11-01

    I report the investigation of the age- and caste-specific expression patterns of eight genes involved in protein maintenance and repair in wing muscle tissue of the honeybee Apis mellifera. mRNA levels of seven heat shock genes and the protein repair gene pcmt (encoding L-isoaspartyl-O-methyltransferase) were measured in a comparative study of queens and ageing workers. Two hsp90 orthologs, transcribed from the same locus, showed different age- and caste-dependent expression patterns suggesting an alternative splicing-dependent regulatory mechanism. One transcript showed decreasing expression levels with worker age and four times higher levels in queens than workers on average, while the other variant had much higher and even expression levels. An hsp22-like gene was sevenfold upregulated in workers from the newly emerged-stage and showed an age-dependent decreasing slope for the subsequent stages. Honeybee ageing seems therefore not to be accompanied by increase in the heat shock response at the level of gene expression. The method used provides very sensitive measurements of a limited number of genes, and this study is one of the first of the regulation of expression of protein protection and repair genes during aging, performed in an un-manipulated model organisms living in a natural environment.

  17. A novel snRNA-like transcript affects amyloidogenesis and cell cycle progression through perturbation of Fe65L1 (APBB2) alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Ilaria; Vassallo, Irene; Nizzari, Mario; Russo, Debora; Costa, Delfina; Menichini, Paola; Poggi, Alessandro; Russo, Claudio; Dieci, Giorgio; Florio, Tullio; Cancedda, Ranieri; Pagano, Aldo

    2013-06-01

    FE65 proteins constitute a family of adaptors which modulates the processing of amyloid precursor protein and the consequent amyloid β production. Thus, they have been involved in the complex and partially unknown cascade of reactions at the base of Alzheimer's disease etiology. However, FE65 and FE65-like proteins may be linked to neurodegeneration through the regulation of cell cycle in post-mitotic neurons. In this work we disclose novel molecular mechanisms by which APBB2 can modulate APP processing. We show that APBB2 mRNA splicing, driven by the over-expression of a novel non-coding RNA named 45A, allow the generation of alternative protein forms endowed with differential effects on Aβ production, cell cycle control, and DNA damage response. 45A overexpression also favors cell transformation and tumorigenesis leading to a marked increase of malignancy of neuroblastoma cells. Therefore, our results highlight a novel regulatory pathway of considerable interest linking APP processing with cell cycle regulation and DNA-surveillance systems, that may represent a molecular mechanism to induce neurodegeneration in post-mitotic neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A de novo transcriptome assembly of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with predicted alternative splices, single nucleotide polymorphisms and transcript expression estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, S-H; Dunham, J P; Carey, B; Chang, P L; Li, F; Edman, R M; Fjeldsted, C; Scott, M J; Nuzhdin, S V; Tarone, Aaron M

    2012-04-01

    The blow fly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Meigen) is a nonmodel organism with no reference genome that is associated with numerous areas of research spanning the ecological, evolutionary, medical, veterinary and forensic sciences. To facilitate scientific discovery in this species, the transcriptome was assembled from more than six billion bases of Illumina and twenty-one million bases of 454 sequence derived from embryonic, larval, pupal, adult and larval salivary gland libraries. The assembly was carried out in a manner that enabled identification of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alternative splices, and that provided expression estimates for various life history stages and for salivary tissue. The assembled transcriptome was also used to identify transcribed transposable elements in L. sericata. The results of this study will enable blow fly biologists, dipterists and comparative genomicists to more rapidly develop and test molecular and genetic hypotheses, especially those regarding blow fly development and salivary gland biology. © 2012 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. FGFR2 exon IIIa and IIIc mutations in Crouzon, Jackson-Weiss, and Pfeiffer syndromes: Evidence for missense changes, insertions, and a deletion due to alternative RNA splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, G.A.; Przylepa, K.A.; Scott, A.F. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) mutations have been associated with the craniosynostotic conditions Crouzon, Jackson-Weiss, and Pfeiffer syndromes. Previously, mutations were described in the exons IIIa and IIIc, which form the extracellular, third immunoglobulin-like domain (IgM) and adjacent linker regions, both of which are normally involved in ligand binding. For all three conditions, mutations were found in exon IIIc. Only in Crouzon syndrome were mutations identified in exon IIIa. In this study, 39 cases with one of these three conditions were screened for exon IIIa or IIIc mutations. Eleven mutations are reported in 17 unrelated cases. Mutations in exon IIIa are identified for not only Crouzon but also Jackson-Weiss and Pfeiffer syndromes. Four mutations in either exon IIIa or exon IIIc reported only in Crouzon syndrome are present also in one of the other two syndromes. Two insertions, one in exon IIIa in a Crouzon syndrome patient and the other in exon IIIc in a Pfeiffer syndrome patient, were observed. The latter mutation has the same alternative RNA splicing effect as a reported synonymous mutation for Crouzon syndrome. A missense mutation was detected in one Pfeiffer syndrome family in which two members had craniosynostosis without limb anomalies. The inter- and intrafamilial variability in expression of FGFR2 mutations suggests that these three syndromes, presumed to be clinically distinct, are instead representative of a spectrum of related craniosynostotic and digital disorders. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A nonsense mutation in mouse Tardbp affects TDP43 alternative splicing activity and causes limb-clasping and body tone defects.

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    Thomas Ricketts

    Full Text Available Mutations in TARDBP, encoding Tar DNA binding protein-43 (TDP43, cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD. Attempts to model TDP43 dysfunction in mice have used knockouts or transgenic overexpressors, which have revealed the difficulties of manipulating TDP43, whose level is tightly controlled by auto-regulation. In a complementary approach, to create useful mouse models for the dissection of TDP43 function and pathology, we have identified a nonsense mutation in the endogenous mouse Tardbp gene through screening an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutant mouse archive. The mutation is predicted to cause a Q101X truncation in TDP43. We have characterised Tardbp(Q101X mice to investigate this mutation in perturbing TDP43 biology at endogenous expression levels. We found the Tardbp(Q101X mutation is homozygous embryonic lethal, highlighting the importance of TDP43 in early development. Heterozygotes (Tardbp(+/Q101X have abnormal levels of mutant transcript, but we find no evidence of the truncated protein and mice have similar full-length TDP43 protein levels as wildtype littermates. Nevertheless, Tardbp(+/Q101X mice have abnormal alternative splicing of downstream gene targets, and limb-clasp and body tone phenotypes. Thus the nonsense mutation in Tardbp causes a mild loss-of-function phenotype and behavioural assessment suggests underlying neurological abnormalities. Due to the role of TDP43 in ALS, we investigated potential interactions with another known causative gene, mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1. Tardbp(+/Q101X mice were crossed with the SOD1(G93Adl transgenic mouse model of ALS. Behavioural and physiological assessment did not reveal modifying effects on the progression of ALS-like symptoms in the double mutant progeny from this cross. In summary, the Tardbp(Q101X mutant mice are a useful tool for the dissection of TDP43 protein regulation, effects on splicing, embryonic development and neuromuscular

  1. Alternative splicing of the human gene SYBL1 modulates protein domain architecture of longin VAMP7/TI-VAMP, showing both non-SNARE and synaptobrevin-like isoforms

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    De Franceschi Nicola

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of intracellular vesicle trafficking is an ideal target to weigh the role of alternative splicing in shaping genomes to make cells. Alternative splicing has been reported for several Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment protein REceptors of the vesicle (v-SNAREs or of the target membrane (t-SNARES, which are crucial to intracellular membrane fusion and protein and lipid traffic in Eukaryotes. However, splicing has not yet been investigated in Longins, i.e. the most widespread v-SNAREs. Longins are essential in Eukaryotes and prototyped by VAMP7, Sec22b and Ykt6, sharing a conserved N-terminal Longin domain which regulates membrane fusion and subcellular targeting. Human VAMP7/TI-VAMP, encoded by gene SYBL1, is involved in multiple cell pathways, including control of neurite outgrowth. Results Alternative splicing of SYBL1 by exon skipping events results in the production of a number of VAMP7 isoforms. In-frame or frameshift coding sequence modifications modulate domain architecture of VAMP7 isoforms, which can lack whole domains or domain fragments and show variant or extra domains. Intriguingly, two main types of VAMP7 isoforms either share the inhibitory Longin domain and lack the fusion-promoting SNARE motif, or vice versa. Expression analysis in different tissues and cell lines, quantitative real time RT-PCR and confocal microscopy analysis of fluorescent protein-tagged isoforms demonstrate that VAMP7 variants have different tissue specificities and subcellular localizations. Moreover, design and use of isoform-specific antibodies provided preliminary evidence for the existence of splice variants at the protein level. Conclusions Previous evidence on VAMP7 suggests inhibitory functions for the Longin domain and fusion/growth promoting activity for the Δ-longin molecule. Thus, non-SNARE isoforms with Longin domain and non-longin SNARE isoforms might have somehow opposite regulatory functions

  2. Characterization of the Ryanodine Receptor Gene With a Unique 3′-UTR and Alternative Splice Site From the Oriental Fruit Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. N.; Zhang, H. J.; Quan, L. F.; Yan, W. T.; Yue, Q.; Li, Y. Y.; Qiu, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR), the largest calcium channel protein, has been studied because of its key roles in calcium signaling in cells. Insect RyRs are molecular targets for novel diamide insecticides. The target has been focused widely because of the diamides with high activity against lepidopterous pests and safety for nontarget organisms. To study our understanding of effects of diamides on RyR, we cloned the RyR gene from the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, which is the most serious pest of stone and pome tree fruits throughout the world, to investigate the modulation of diamide insecticides on RyR mRNA expression in G. molesta (GmRyR). The full-length cDNAs of GmRyR contain a unique 3′-UTR with 625 bp and an open reading frame of 15,402 bp with a predicted protein consisting of 5,133 amino acids. GmRyR possessed a high level of overall amino acid homology with insect and vertebrate isoforms, with 77–92% and 45–47% identity, respectively. Furthermore, five alternative splice sites were identified in GmRyR. Diagnostic PCR showed that the inclusion frequency of one optional exon (f) differed between developmental stages, a finding only found in GmRyR. The lowest expression level of GmRyR mRNA was in larvae, the highest was in male pupae, and the relative expression level in male pupae was 25.67 times higher than that of in larvae. The expression level of GmRyR in the male pupae was 8.70 times higher than in female pupae, and that in male adults was 5.70 times higher than female adults. PMID:28076278

  3. The rice cold-responsive calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK17 is regulated by alternative splicing and post-translational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecília Almadanim, M; Gonçalves, Nuno M; Rosa, Margarida T G; Alexandre, Bruno M; Cordeiro, André M; Rodrigues, Mafalda; Saibo, Nelson J M; Soares, Cláudio M; Romão, Célia V; Margarida Oliveira, M; Abreu, Isabel A

    2017-10-31

    Plant calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are key proteins implicated in calcium-mediated signaling pathways of a wide range of biological events in the organism. The action of each particular CDPK is strictly regulated by many mechanisms in order to ensure an accurate signal translation and the activation of the adequate response processes. In this work, we investigated the regulation of a CDPK involved in rice cold stress response, OsCPK17, to better understand its mode of action. We identified two new alternative splicing (AS) mRNA forms of OsCPK17 encoding truncated versions of the protein, missing the CDPK activation domain. We analyzed the expression patterns of all AS variants in rice tissues and examined their subcellular localization in onion epidermal cells. The results indicate that the AS of OsCPK17 putatively originates truncated forms of the protein with distinct functions, and different subcellular and tissue distributions. Additionally, we addressed the regulation of OsCPK17 by post-translational modifications in several in vitro experiments. Our analysis indicated that OsCPK17 activity depends on its structural rearrangement induced by calcium binding, and that the protein can be autophosphorylated. The identified phosphorylation sites mostly populate the OsCPK17 N-terminal domain. Exceptions are phosphosites T107 and S136 in the kinase domain and S558 in the C-terminal domain. These phosphosites seem conserved in CDPKs and may reflect a common regulatory mechanism for this protein family. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Alternative BCR/ABL splice variants in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias result in novel tumor-specific fusion proteins that may represent potential targets for immunotherapy approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Gisella; Cignetti, Alessandro; Panuzzo, Cristina; Kuka, Mirela; Vitaggio, Katiuscia; Brancaccio, Mara; Perrone, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Monica; Prato, Giuseppina; Fava, Milena; Geuna, Massimo; Pautasso, Marisa; Casnici, Claudia; Signori, Emanuela; Tonon, Giancarlo; Tarone, Guido; Marelli, Ornella; Fazio, Vito M; Saglio, Giuseppe

    2007-06-01

    Imatinib currently represents the standard treatment in the early chronic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), thanks to the high percentage of cytogenetic complete remission achieved, but it is yet unclear to what extent it can eradicate leukemia. Therefore, different vaccination strategies have been suggested, mainly based on the exploitment of the junctional peptides spanning the fusion region of the Bcr/Abl proteins. To identify new potential immunologic targets, 63 Philadelphia chromosome-positive patients and 6 BCR/ABL-positive cell lines were tested in nested reverse transcriptase PCR to detect the presence of BCR/ABL transcripts arising from the alternative splicing of the main BCR/ABL transcripts. We could detect BCR/ABL transcripts with junctions between BCR exon 1, 13, or 14 and ABL exon 4 in approximately 80% of patients and 84% of cell lines, beside the main fusion transcripts. Translation products of these transcripts were characterized at their COOH terminus by a large amino acid portion derived from the out of frame (OOF) reading of ABL gene. These proteins were detected in BCR/ABL-positive cell lines by immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. Finally, we determined whether OOF-specific CD8+ T cells could be found in the peripheral blood of CML patients and whether they could acquire effector function following in vitro sensitization with OOF-derived peptides predicted to bind to human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 and HLA-A3 molecules. We detected the presence of OOF-specific CD8+ T cells in four of four patients studied, and in one case, these T cells exhibited specific cytotoxic activity against both peptide-pulsed targets and autologous primary CML cells.

  5. Aberrant RNA splicing in cancer; expression changes and driver mutations of splicing factor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveen, A; Kilpinen, S; Ruusulehto, A; Lothe, R A; Skotheim, R I

    2016-05-12

    Alternative splicing is a widespread process contributing to structural transcript variation and proteome diversity. In cancer, the splicing process is commonly disrupted, resulting in both functional and non-functional end-products. Cancer-specific splicing events are known to contribute to disease progression; however, the dysregulated splicing patterns found on a genome-wide scale have until recently been less well-studied. In this review, we provide an overview of aberrant RNA splicing and its regulation in cancer. We then focus on the executors of the splicing process. Based on a comprehensive catalog of splicing factor encoding genes and analyses of available gene expression and somatic mutation data, we identify cancer-associated patterns of dysregulation. Splicing factor genes are shown to be significantly differentially expressed between cancer and corresponding normal samples, and to have reduced inter-individual expression variation in cancer. Furthermore, we identify enrichment of predicted cancer-critical genes among the splicing factors. In addition to previously described oncogenic splicing factor genes, we propose 24 novel cancer-critical splicing factors predicted from somatic mutations.

  6. Aberrant Splicing in Cancer: Mediators of Malignant Progression through an Imperfect Splice Program Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Felipe Andrés Cordero; Brígido, Paula Cristina; Moraes, Alberto Silva; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Although the efforts to understand the genetic basis of cancer allowed advances in diagnosis and therapy, little is known about other molecular bases. Splicing is a key event in gene expression, controlling the excision of introns decoded inside genes and being responsible for 80% of the proteome amplification through events of alternative splicing. Growing data from the last decade point to deregulation of splicing events as crucial in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Several alterations in splicing events were observed in cancer, caused by either missexpression of or detrimental mutations in some splicing factors, and appear to be critical in carcinogenesis and key events during tumor progression. Notwithstanding, it is difficult to determine whether it is a cause or consequence of cancer and/or tumorigenesis. Most reviews focus on the generated isoforms of deregulated splicing pattern, while others mainly summarize deregulated splicing factors observed in cancer. In this review, events associated with carcinogenesis and tumor progression mainly, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which is also implicated in alternative splicing regulation, will be progressively discussed in the light of a new perspective, suggesting that splicing deregulation mediates cell reprogramming in tumor progression by an imperfect shift of the splice program. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Alternative splicing of c-fos pre-mRNA: contribution of the rates of synthesis and degradation to the copy number of each transcript isoform and detection of a truncated c-Fos immunoreactive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pueyo Carmen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing is a widespread mechanism of gene expression regulation. Previous analyses based on conventional RT-PCR reported the presence of an unspliced c-fos transcript in several mammalian systems. Compared to the well-defined knowledge on the alternative splicing of fosB, the physiological relevance of the unspliced c-fos transcript in regulating c-fos expression remains largely unknown. This work aimed to investigate the functional significance of the alternative splicing c-fos pre-mRNA. Results A set of primers was designed to demonstrate that, whereas introns 1 and 2 are regularly spliced from primary c-fos transcript, intron 3 remains unspliced in part of total transcript molecules. Here, the two species are referred to as c-fos-2 (+ intron 3 and spliced c-fos (- intron 3 transcripts. Then, we used a quantitatively rigorous approach based on real-time PCR to provide, for the first time, the actual steady-state copy numbers of the two c-fos transcripts. We tested how the mouse-organ context and mouse-gestational age, the synthesis and turnover rates of the investigated transcripts, and the serum stimulation of quiescent cells modulate their absolute-expression profiles. Intron 3 generates an in-frame premature termination codon that predicts the synthesis of a truncated c-Fos protein. This prediction was evaluated by immunoaffinity chromatography purification of c-Fos proteins. Conclusion We demonstrate that: (i The c-fos-2 transcript is ubiquitously synthesized either in vivo or in vitro, in amounts that are higher or similar to those of mRNAs coding for other Fos family members, like FosB, ΔFosB, Fra-1 or Fra-2. (ii Intron 3 confers to c-fos-2 an outstanding destabilizing effect of about 6-fold. (iii Major determinant of c-fos-2 steady-state levels in cultured cells is its remarkably high rate of synthesis. (iv Rapid changes in the synthesis and/or degradation rates of both c-fos transcripts in serum

  8. Functional diversity of human basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TCF4 isoforms generated by alternative 5' exon usage and splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Sepp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcription factor 4 (TCF4 alias ITF2, E2-2, ME2 or SEF2 is a ubiquitous class A basic helix-loop-helix protein that binds to E-box DNA sequences (CANNTG. While involved in the development and functioning of many different cell types, recent studies point to important roles for TCF4 in the nervous system. Specifically, human TCF4 gene is implicated in susceptibility to schizophrenia and TCF4 haploinsufficiency is the cause of the Pitt-Hopkins mental retardation syndrome. However, the structure, expression and coding potential of the human TCF4 gene have not been described in detail. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we used human tissue samples to characterize human TCF4 gene structure and TCF4 expression at mRNA and protein level. We report that although widely expressed, human TCF4 mRNA expression is particularly high in the brain. We demonstrate that usage of numerous 5' exons of the human TCF4 gene potentially yields in TCF4 protein isoforms with 18 different N-termini. In addition, the diversity of isoforms is increased by alternative splicing of several internal exons. For functional characterization of TCF4 isoforms, we overexpressed individual isoforms in cultured human cells. Our analysis revealed that subcellular distribution of TCF4 isoforms is differentially regulated: Some isoforms contain a bipartite nuclear localization signal and are exclusively nuclear, whereas distribution of other isoforms relies on heterodimerization partners. Furthermore, the ability of different TCF4 isoforms to regulate E-box controlled reporter gene transcription is varied depending on whether one or both of the two TCF4 transcription activation domains are present in the protein. Both TCF4 activation domains are able to activate transcription independently, but act synergistically in combination. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, in this study we have described the inter-tissue variability of TCF4 expression in human and provided evidence

  9. The human peripheral benzodiazepine receptor gene: Cloning and characterization of alternative splicing in normal tissues and in a patient with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, D.; Miller, W.L. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Chang, Y.J.; Strauss, J.F. III (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1993-12-01

    The mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (mBzR) appears to be a key factor in the flow of cholesterol into mitochondia to permit the initiation of steroid hormone synthesis. The mBzR consists of three components; the 18-kDa component on the outer mitochondrial membrane appears to contain the benzodiazepine binding site, and is hence often termed the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR). Using a cloned human PBR cDNA as probe, the authors have cloned the human PBR gene. The 13-kb gene is divided into four exons, with exon 1 encoding only a short 5[prime] untranslated segment. The 5[prime] flanking DNA lacks TATA and CAAT boxes but contains a cluster of SP-1 binding sites, typical of [open quotes]housekeeping[close quotes] genes. The encoded PBR mRNA is alternately spliced into two forms: [open quotes]authentic[close quotes] PBR mRNA retains all four exons, while a short form termed PBR-S lacks exon 2. While PBR-S contains a 102-codon open reading frame with a typical initiator sequence, the reading frame differs from that of PBR, so that the encoded protein is unrelated to PBR. RT-PCR and RNase protection experiments confirm that both PBR and PBR-S are expressed in all tissues examined and that expression of PBR-S is about 10 times the level of PBR. Expression of PBR cDNA in pCMV5 vectors transfected into COS-1 cells resulted in increased binding of [[sup 3]H]PK11195, but expression of PBR-S did not. It has been speculated that patients with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, who cannot make any steroids, might have a genetic lesion in mBzR. RT-PCR analysis of testicular RNA from such a patient, sequencing of the cDNA, and blotting analysis of genomic DNA all indicate that the gene and mRNA for the PBR component of mBzR are normal in this disease. 36 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Characterization of the interferon genes in homozygous rainbow trout reveals two novel genes, alternate splicing and differential regulation of duplicated genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M.K.; Laing, K.J.; Woodson, J.C.; Thorgaard, G.H.; Hansen, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The genes encoding the type I and type II interferons (IFNs) have previously been identified in rainbow trout and their proteins partially characterized. These previous studies reported a single type II IFN (rtIFN-??) and three rainbow trout type I IFN genes that are classified into either group I (rtIFN1, rtIFN2) or group II (rtIFN3). In this present study, we report the identification of a novel IFN-?? gene (rtIFN-??2) and a novel type I group II IFN (rtIFN4) in homozygous rainbow trout and predict that additional IFN genes or pseudogenes exist in the rainbow trout genome. Additionally, we provide evidence that short and long forms of rtIFN1 are actively and differentially transcribed in homozygous trout, and likely arose due to alternate splicing of the first exon. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) assays were developed to systematically profile all of the rainbow trout IFN transcripts, with high specificity at an individual gene level, in na??ve fish and after stimulation with virus or viral-related molecules. Cloned PCR products were used to ensure the specificity of the qRT-PCR assays and as absolute standards to assess transcript abundance of each gene. All IFN genes were modulated in response to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a DNA vaccine based on the IHNV glycoprotein, and poly I:C. The most inducible of the type I IFN genes, by all stimuli tested, were rtIFN3 and the short transcript form of rtIFN1. Gene expression of rtIFN-??1 and rtIFN-??2 was highly up-regulated by IHNV infection and DNA vaccination but rtIFN-??2 was induced to a greater magnitude. The specificity of the qRT-PCR assays reported here will be useful for future studies aimed at identifying which cells produce IFNs at early time points after infection. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Alternate splicing of interleukin-1 receptor type II (IL1R2 in vitro correlates with clinical glucocorticoid responsiveness in patients with AIED.

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    Andrea Vambutas

    Full Text Available Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED is poorly characterized clinically, with no definitive laboratory test. All patients suspected of having AIED are given glucocorticoids during periods of acute hearing loss, however, only half initially respond, and still fewer respond over time.We hypothesized that AIED is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by dysfunctional peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC responses to a unique cochlear antigen(s. To test this hypothesis, we examined end-stage AIED patients undergoing cochlear implant surgery and compared autologous perilymph stimulated PBMC from AIED patients to controls. We determined that autologous perilymph from AIED patients was unable to induce expression of a long membrane-bound Interleukin-1 Receptor Type II (mIL1R2 transcript in PBMC as compared with controls, despite similar expression of the short soluble IL1R2 (sIL1R2 transcript (p<0.05. IL1R2 is a molecular decoy that traps interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta and does not initiate subsequent signaling events, thereby suppressing an inflammatory response. IL1R2 transcript length is regulated by alternate splicing, and the major inhibitory function is attributed to the full-length mIL1R2. In addition, IL1R2 expression is induced by dexamethasone.Separately, we prospectively examined patients with newer onset glucocorticoid-responsive AIED. Immediately prior to clinical treatment for acute deterioration of hearing thresholds, their PBMC demonstrated a robust induction of mIL1R2 in PBMC in response to dexamethasone in vitro that correlated with a clinical response to prednisone in vivo (p<0.0001 as measured by hearing restoration. In contrast, clinically steroid unresponsive patients demonstrated high basal levels of mIL1R2 in their PBMC and only minimally augmented expression in response to dexamethasone. Thus, induced expression of mIL1R2 appears to be a protective mechanism in hearing homeostasis and warrants further investigation in a

  12. Analysis of cellulose synthase genes from domesticated apple identifies collinear genes WDR53 and CesA8A: partial co-expression, bicistronic mRNA, and alternative splicing of CESA8A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Gea; Spadiut, Oliver; Kerschbamer, Christine; Giorno, Filomena; Baric, Sanja; Ezcurra, Inés

    2012-10-01

    Cellulose synthase (CesA) genes constitute a complex multigene family with six major phylogenetic clades in angiosperms. The recently sequenced genome of domestic apple, Malus×domestica, was mined for CesA genes, by blasting full-length cellulose synthase protein (CESA) sequences annotated in the apple genome against protein databases from the plant models Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa. Thirteen genes belonging to the six angiosperm CesA clades and coding for proteins with conserved residues typical of processive glycosyltransferases from family 2 were detected. Based on their phylogenetic relationship to Arabidopsis CESAs, as well as expression patterns, a nomenclature is proposed to facilitate further studies. Examination of their genomic organization revealed that MdCesA8-A is closely linked and co-oriented with WDR53, a gene coding for a WD40 repeat protein. The WDR53 and CesA8 genes display conserved collinearity in dicots and are partially co-expressed in the apple xylem. Interestingly, the presence of a bicistronic WDR53-CesA8A transcript was detected in phytoplasma-infected phloem tissues of apple. The bicistronic transcript contains a spliced intergenic sequence that is predicted to fold into hairpin structures typical of internal ribosome entry sites, suggesting its potential cap-independent translation. Surprisingly, the CesA8A cistron is alternatively spliced and lacks the zinc-binding domain. The possible roles of WDR53 and the alternatively spliced CESA8 variant during cellulose biosynthesis in M.×domestica are discussed.

  13. PCBP-1 regulates alternative splicing of the CD44 gene and inhibits invasion in human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Changhui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCBP1 (or alpha CP1 or hnRNP E1, a member of the PCBP family, is widely expressed in many human tissues and involved in regulation of transcription, transportation process, and function of RNA molecules. However, the role of PCBP1 in CD44 variants splicing still remains elusive. Results We found that enforced PCBP1 expression inhibited CD44 variants expression including v3, v5, v6, v8, and v10 in HepG2 cells, and knockdown of endogenous PCBP1 induced these variants splicing. Invasion assay suggested that PCBP1 played a negative role in tumor invasion and re-expression of v6 partly reversed the inhibition effect by PCBP1. A correlation of PCBP1 down-regulation and v6 up-regulation was detected in primary HCC tissues. Conclusions We first characterized PCBP1 as a negative regulator of CD44 variants splicing in HepG2 cells, and loss of PCBP1 in human hepatic tumor contributes to the formation of a metastatic phenotype.

  14. Accumulation of GC donor splice signals in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The GT dinucleotide in the first two intron positions is the most conserved element of the U2 donor splice signals. However, in a small fraction of donor sites, GT is replaced by GC. A substantial enrichment of GC in donor sites of alternatively spliced genes has been observed previously in human, nematode and Arabidopsis, suggesting that GC signals are important for regulation of alternative splicing. We used parsimony analysis to reconstruct evolution of donor splice sites and inferred 298 GT > GC conversion events compared to 40 GC > GT conversion events in primate and rodent genomes. Thus, there was substantive accumulation of GC donor splice sites during the evolution of mammals. Accumulation of GC sites might have been driven by selection for alternative splicing. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka and Anton Nekrutenko. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

  15. An A14U Substitution in the 3' Noncoding Region of the M Segment of Viral RNA Supports Replication of Influenza Virus with an NS1 Deletion by Modulating Alternative Splicing of M Segment mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Wang, Pui; Song, Wenjun; Lau, Siu-Ying; Liu, Siwen; Huang, Xiaofeng; Mok, Bobo Wing-Yee; Liu, Yen-Chin; Chen, Yixin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Chen, Honglin

    2015-10-01

    The NS1 protein of influenza virus has multiple functions and is a determinant of virulence. Influenza viruses with NS1 deletions (DelNS1 influenza viruses) are a useful tool for studying virus replication and can serve as effective live attenuated vaccines, but deletion of NS1 severely diminishes virus replication, hampering functional studies and vaccine production. We found that WSN-DelNS1 viruses passaged in cells consistently adapted to gain an A14U substitution in the 3' noncoding region of the M segment of viral RNA (vRNA) which restored replicative ability. DelNS1-M-A14U viruses cannot inhibit interferon expression in virus infected-cells, providing an essential model for studying virus replication in the absence of the NS1 protein. Characterization of DelNS1-M-A14U virus showed that the lack of NS1 has no apparent effect on expression of other viral proteins, with the exception of M mRNAs. Expression of the M transcripts, M1, M2, mRNA3, and mRNA4, is regulated by alternative splicing. The A14U substitution changes the splicing donor site consensus sequence of mRNA3, altering expression of M transcripts, with M2 expression significantly increased and mRNA3 markedly suppressed in DelNS1-M-A14U, but not DelNS1-M-WT, virus-infected cells. Further analysis revealed that the A14U substitution also affects promoter function during replication of the viral genome. The M-A14U mutation increases M vRNA synthesis in DelNS1 virus infection and enhances alternative splicing of M2 mRNA in the absence of other viral proteins. The findings demonstrate that NS1 is directly involved in influenza virus replication through modulation of alternative splicing of M transcripts and provide strategic information important to construction of vaccine strains with NS1 deletions. Nonstructural protein (NS1) of influenza virus has multiple functions. Besides its role in antagonizing host antiviral activity, NS1 is also believed to be involved in regulating virus replication, but

  16. MicroRNAs-10a and -10b contribute to retinoic acid-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and target the alternative splicing regulatory factor SFRS1 (SF2/ASF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer, Salvador; Mudduluru, Giridhar; Escamilla, Juan Manuel; Allgayer, Heike; Barettino, Domingo

    2011-02-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an emerging class of non-coding endogenous RNAs involved in multiple cellular processes, including cell differentiation. Treatment with retinoic acid (RA) results in neural differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. We wanted to elucidate whether miRNAs contribute to the gene expression changes induced by RA in neuroblastoma cells and whether miRNA regulation is involved in the transduction of the RA signal. We show here that RA treatment of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells results in profound changes in the expression pattern of miRNAs. Up to 42 different miRNA species significantly changed their expression (26 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated). Among them, the closely related miR-10a and -10b showed the most prominent expression changes. Induction of miR-10a and -10b by RA also could be detected in LA-N-1 neuroblastoma cells. Loss of function experiments demonstrated that miR-10a and -10b are essential mediators of RA-induced neuroblastoma differentiation and of the associated changes in migration, invasion, and in vivo metastasis. In addition, we found that the SR-family splicing factor SFRS1 (SF2/ASF) is a target for miR-10a -and -10b in HeLa and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We show here that changes in miR-10a and -10b expression levels may regulate SFRS1-dependent alternative splicing and translational functions. Taken together, our results give support to the idea that miRNA regulation plays a key role in RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. The discovery of SFRS1 as direct target of miR-10a and -10b supports the emerging functional interaction between two post-transcriptional mechanisms, microRNAs and splicing, in the neuronal differentiation context.

  17. Cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulate different transcriptional and alternative splicing networks in primary beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortis, Fernanda; Naamane, Najib; Flamez, Daisy

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cytokines contribute to pancreatic beta-cell death in type 1 diabetes. This effect is mediated by complex gene networks that remain to be characterized. We presently utilized array analysis to define the global expression pattern of genes, including spliced variants, modified by the cy......OBJECTIVE: Cytokines contribute to pancreatic beta-cell death in type 1 diabetes. This effect is mediated by complex gene networks that remain to be characterized. We presently utilized array analysis to define the global expression pattern of genes, including spliced variants, modified...... by the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta + interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha + IFN-gamma in primary rat beta-cells. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Fluorescence-activated cell sorter-purified rat beta-cells were exposed to IL-1beta + IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha + IFN-gamma for 6 or 24 h......-cells, with temporal differences in the number of genes modulated by IL-1beta + IFNgamma or TNF-alpha + IFN-gamma. These cytokine combinations induced differential expression of inflammatory response genes, which is related to differential induction of IFN regulatory factor-7. Both treatments decreased the expression...

  18. Splicing modulation therapy in the treatment of genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arechavala-Gomeza V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Arechavala-Gomeza,1 Bernard Khoo,2 Annemieke Aartsma-Rus3 1Neuromuscular Disorders Group, BioCruces Health Research Institute, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain; 2Endocrinology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK; 3Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: Antisense-mediated splicing modulation is a tool that can be exploited in several ways to provide a potential therapy for rare genetic diseases. This approach is currently being tested in clinical trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy. The present review outlines the versatility of the approach to correct cryptic splicing, modulate alternative splicing, restore the open reading frame, and induce protein knockdown, providing examples of each. Finally, we outline a possible path forward toward the clinical application of this approach for a wide variety of inherited rare diseases. Keywords: splicing, therapy, antisense oligonucleotides, cryptic splicing, alternative splicing

  19. Alternative splicing of the neurofibromatosis type 1 pre-mRNA is regulated by the muscleblind-like proteins and the CUG-BP and ELAV-like factors

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    Fleming Victoria A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing is often subjected to complex regulatory control that involves many protein factors and cis-acting RNA sequence elements. One major challenge is to identify all of the protein players and define how they control alternative expression of a particular exon in a combinatorial manner. The Muscleblind-like (MBNL and CUG-BP and ELAV-Like family (CELF proteins are splicing regulatory proteins, which function as antagonists in the regulation of several alternative exons. Currently only a limited number of common targets of MBNL and CELF are known that are antagonistically regulated by these two groups of proteins. Results Recently, we identified neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 exon 23a as a novel target of negative regulation by CELF proteins. Here we report that MBNL family members are positive regulators of this exon. Overexpression of MBNL proteins promote exon 23a inclusion in a low MBNL-expressing cell line, and simultaneous siRNA-mediated knockdown of MBNL1 and MBNL2 family members in a high MBNL-expressing cell line promotes exon 23a skipping. Importantly, these two groups of proteins antagonize each other in regulating inclusion of exon 23a. Furthermore, we analyzed the binding sites of these proteins in the intronic sequences upstream of exon 23a by UV cross-linking assays. We show that in vitro, in addition to the previously identified preferred binding sequence UGCUGU, the MBNL proteins need the neighboring sequences for optimal binding. Conclusion This study along with our previous work that demonstrated roles for Hu, CELF, and TIA-1 and TIAR proteins in the regulation of NF1 exon 23a establish that this exon is under tight, complex control.

  20. A small molecule drug promoting miRNA processing induces alternative splicing of MdmX transcript and rescues p53 activity in human cancer cells overexpressing MdmX protein.

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    Georgios Valianatos

    Full Text Available MdmX overexpression contributes to the development of cancer by inhibiting tumor suppressor p53. A switch in the alternative splicing of MdmX transcript, leading to the inclusion of exon 6, has been identified as the primary mechanism responsible for increased MdmX protein levels in human cancers, including melanoma. However, there are no approved drugs, which could translate these new findings into clinical applications. We analyzed the anti-melanoma activity of enoxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic inhibiting the growth of some human cancers in vitro and in vivo by promoting miRNA maturation. We found that enoxacin inhibited the growth and viability of human melanoma cell lines much stronger than a structurally related fluoroquinolone ofloxacin, which only weakly modulates miRNA processing. A microarray analysis identified a set of miRNAs significantly dysregulated in enoxacin-treated A375 melanoma cells. They had the potential to target multiple signaling pathways required for cancer cell growth, among them the RNA splicing. Recent studies showed that interfering with cellular splicing machinery can result in MdmX downregulation in cancer cells. We, therefore, hypothesized that enoxacin could, by modulating miRNAs targeting splicing machinery, activate p53 in melanoma cells overexpressing MdmX. We found that enoxacin and ciprofloxacin, a related fluoroquinolone capable of promoting microRNA processing, but not ofloxacin, strongly activated wild type p53-dependent transcription in A375 melanoma without causing significant DNA damage. On the molecular level, the drugs promoted MdmX exon 6 skipping, leading to a dose-dependent downregulation of MdmX. Not only in melanoma, but also in MCF7 breast carcinoma and A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells overexpressing MdmX. Together, our results suggest that some clinically approved fluoroquinolones could potentially be repurposed as activators of p53 tumor suppressor in cancers overexpressing Mdm

  1. Thermopriming Triggers Splicing Memory in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Yu

    2018-02-20

    Abiotic and biotic stresses limit crop productivity. Exposure to a non-lethal stress, referred to as priming, can allow plants to survive subsequent and otherwise lethal conditions; the priming effect persists even after a prolonged stress-free period. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying priming are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the molecular basis of heat shock memory and the role of priming in Arabidopsisthaliana. Comprehensive analysis of transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression and alternative splicing in primed and non-primed plants revealed that alternative splicing functions as a novel component of heat shock memory. We show that priming of plants with a non-lethal heat stress results in de-repression of splicing after a second exposure to heat stress. By contrast, non-primed plants showed significant repression of splicing. These observations link ‘splicing memory’ to the ability of plants to survive subsequent and otherwise lethal heat stress. This newly discovered priming-induced splicing memory may represent a general feature of heat stress responses in plants and other organisms as many of the key components of heat shock responses are conserved among eukaryotes. Furthermore, this finding could facilitate the development of novel approaches to improve plant survival under extreme heat stress.

  2. Involvement of Endocytosis and Alternative Splicing in the Formation of the Pathological Process in the Early Stages of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelya Kh. Alieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is the one of most widespread neurodegenerative pathologies. Because of the impossibility of studying the endogenous processes that occur in the brain of patients with PD in the presymptomatic stage, the mechanisms that trigger the disease remain unknown. Thus, the identification of the processes that play an important role in the early stages of the disease in these patients is extremely difficult. In this context, we performed a whole-transcriptome analysis of the peripheral blood of untreated patients with stage 1 PD (Hoehn-Yahr scale. We demonstrated a significant change in the levels of transcripts included in the large groups of processes associated with the functioning of the immune system and cellular transport. Moreover, a significant change in the splicing of genes involved in cellular-transport processes was shown in our study.

  3. Computational prediction of splicing regulatory elements shared by Tetrapoda organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churbanov, Alexander; Vořechovský, Igor; Hicks, Chindo

    2009-01-01

    Background Auxiliary splicing sequences play an important role in ensuring accurate and efficient splicing by promoting or repressing recognition of authentic splice sites. These cis-acting motifs have been termed splicing enhancers and silencers and are located both in introns and exons. They co-evolved into an intricate splicing code together with additional functional constraints, such as tissue-specific and alternative splicing patterns. We used orthologous exons extracted from the University of California Santa Cruz multiple genome alignments of human and 22 Tetrapoda organisms to predict candidate enhancers and silencers that have reproducible and statistically significant bias towards annotated exonic boundaries. Results A total of 2,546 Tetrapoda enhancers and silencers were clustered into 15 putative core motifs based on their Markov properties. Most of these elements have been identified previously, but 118 putative silencers and 260 enhancers (~15%) were novel. Examination of previously published experimental data for the presence of predicted elements showed that their mutations in 21/23 (91.3%) cases altered the splicing pattern as expected. Predicted intronic motifs flanking 3' and 5' splice sites had higher evolutionary conservation than other sequences within intronic flanks and the intronic enhancers were markedly differed between 3' and 5' intronic flanks. Conclusion Difference in intronic enhancers supporting 5' and 3' splice sites suggests an independent splicing commitment for neighboring exons. Increased evolutionary conservation for ISEs/ISSs within intronic flanks and effect of modulation of predicted elements on splicing suggest functional significance of found elements in splicing regulation. Most of the elements identified were shown to have direct implications in human splicing and therefore could be useful for building computational splicing models in biomedical research. PMID:19889216

  4. Computational prediction of splicing regulatory elements shared by Tetrapoda organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks Chindo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auxiliary splicing sequences play an important role in ensuring accurate and efficient splicing by promoting or repressing recognition of authentic splice sites. These cis-acting motifs have been termed splicing enhancers and silencers and are located both in introns and exons. They co-evolved into an intricate splicing code together with additional functional constraints, such as tissue-specific and alternative splicing patterns. We used orthologous exons extracted from the University of California Santa Cruz multiple genome alignments of human and 22 Tetrapoda organisms to predict candidate enhancers and silencers that have reproducible and statistically significant bias towards annotated exonic boundaries. Results A total of 2,546 Tetrapoda enhancers and silencers were clustered into 15 putative core motifs based on their Markov properties. Most of these elements have been identified previously, but 118 putative silencers and 260 enhancers (~15% were novel. Examination of previously published experimental data for the presence of predicted elements showed that their mutations in 21/23 (91.3% cases altered the splicing pattern as expected. Predicted intronic motifs flanking 3' and 5' splice sites had higher evolutionary conservation than other sequences within intronic flanks and the intronic enhancers were markedly differed between 3' and 5' intronic flanks. Conclusion Difference in intronic enhancers supporting 5' and 3' splice sites suggests an independent splicing commitment for neighboring exons. Increased evolutionary conservation for ISEs/ISSs within intronic flanks and effect of modulation of predicted elements on splicing suggest functional significance of found elements in splicing regulation. Most of the elements identified were shown to have direct implications in human splicing and therefore could be useful for building computational splicing models in biomedical research.

  5. Computational prediction of splicing regulatory elements shared by Tetrapoda organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churbanov, Alexander; Vorechovský, Igor; Hicks, Chindo

    2009-11-04

    Auxiliary splicing sequences play an important role in ensuring accurate and efficient splicing by promoting or repressing recognition of authentic splice sites. These cis-acting motifs have been termed splicing enhancers and silencers and are located both in introns and exons. They co-evolved into an intricate splicing code together with additional functional constraints, such as tissue-specific and alternative splicing patterns. We used orthologous exons extracted from the University of California Santa Cruz multiple genome alignments of human and 22 Tetrapoda organisms to predict candidate enhancers and silencers that have reproducible and statistically significant bias towards annotated exonic boundaries. A total of 2,546 Tetrapoda enhancers and silencers were clustered into 15 putative core motifs based on their Markov properties. Most of these elements have been identified previously, but 118 putative silencers and 260 enhancers (~15%) were novel. Examination of previously published experimental data for the presence of predicted elements showed that their mutations in 21/23 (91.3%) cases altered the splicing pattern as expected. Predicted intronic motifs flanking 3' and 5' splice sites had higher evolutionary conservation than other sequences within intronic flanks and the intronic enhancers were markedly differed between 3' and 5' intronic flanks. Difference in intronic enhancers supporting 5' and 3' splice sites suggests an independent splicing commitment for neighboring exons. Increased evolutionary conservation for ISEs/ISSs within intronic flanks and effect of modulation of predicted elements on splicing suggest functional significance of found elements in splicing regulation. Most of the elements identified were shown to have direct implications in human splicing and therefore could be useful for building computational splicing models in biomedical research.

  6. Genome-wide analysis, molecular cloning and expression profiling reveal tissue-specifically expressed, feedback-regulated, stress-responsive and alternatively spliced novel genes involved in gibberellin metabolism in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qing; Li, Caili; Li, Dongqiao; Lu, Shanfa

    2015-12-21

    , suggesting the importance of alternative splicing in regulating GA metabolism. The results show tissue-specifically expressed, feedback-regulated, stress-responsive and alternatively spliced novel genes and reveal multiple layer regulation of GA metabolism and crosstalk between gibberellin metabolism and tanshinone biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza.

  7. Deep sequence analysis of non-small cell lung cancer: Integrated analysis of gene expression, alternative splicing, and single nucleotide variations in lung adenocarcinomas with and without oncogenic KRAS mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna R Kalari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available KRAS mutations are highly prevalent in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, and tumors harboring these mutations tend to be aggressive and resistant to chemotherapy. We used next-generation sequencing technology to identify pathways that are specifically altered in lung tumors harboring a KRAS mutation. Paired-end RNA-sequencing of 15 primary lung adenocarcinoma tumors (8 harboring mutant KRAS and 7 with wild-type KRAS were performed. Sequences were mapped to the human genome, and genomic features, including differentially expressed genes, alternate splicing isoforms and single nucleotide variants, were determined for tumors with and without KRAS mutation using a variety of computational methods. Network analysis was carried out on genes showing differential expression (374 genes, alternate splicing (259 genes and SNV-related changes (65 genes in NSCLC tumors harboring a KRAS mutation. Genes exhibiting two or more connections from the lung adenocarcinoma network were used to carry out integrated pathway analysis. The most significant signaling pathways identified through this analysis were the NFkB, ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. A 27 gene mutant KRAS-specific sub network was extracted based on gene-gene connections within the integrated network, and interrogated for druggable targets. Our results confirm previous evidence that mutant KRAS tumors exhibit activated NFkB, ERK1/2 and AKT pathways and may be preferentially sensitive to target therapeutics toward these pathways. In addition, our analysis indicates novel, previously unappreciated links between mutant KRAS and the TNFR and PPARγ signaling pathways, suggesting that targeted PPARγ antagonists and TNFR inhibitors may be useful therapeutic strategies for treatment of mutant KRAS lung tumors. Our study is the first to integrate genomic features from RNA-Seq data from NSCLC and to define a first draft genomic landscape model that is unique to tumors with oncogenic KRAS mutations.

  8. Activation-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (Traf3) alternative splicing controls the noncanonical nuclear factor κB pathway and chemokine expression in human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Monika; Wilhelmi, Ilka; Schultz, Astrid-Solveig; Preussner, Marco; Heyd, Florian

    2014-05-09

    The noncanonical nuclear factor κB (ncNFκB) pathway regulates the expression of chemokines required for secondary lymphoid organ formation and thus plays a pivotal role in adaptive immunity. Whereas ncNFκB signaling has been well described in stromal cells and B cells, its role and regulation in T cells remain largely unexplored. ncNFκB activity critically depends on the upstream NFκB-inducing kinase (NIK). NIK expression is negatively regulated by the full-length isoform of TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (Traf3) as formation of a NIK-Traf3-Traf2 complex targets NIK for degradation. Here we show that T cell-specific and activation-dependent alternative splicing generates a Traf3 isoform lacking exon 8 (Traf3DE8) that, in contrast to the full-length protein, activates ncNFκB signaling. Traf3DE8 disrupts the NIK-Traf3-Traf2 complex and allows accumulation of NIK to initiate ncNFκB signaling in activated T cells. ncNFκB activity results in expression of several chemokines, among them B cell chemoattractant (CxCL13), both in a model T cell line and in primary human CD4(+) T cells. Because CxCL13 plays an important role in B cell migration and activation, our data suggest an involvement and provide a mechanistic basis for Traf3 alternative splicing and ncNFκB activation in contributing to T cell-dependent adaptive immunity.

  9. Differential splicing using whole-transcript microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Mark D

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The latest generation of Affymetrix microarrays are designed to interrogate expression over the entire length of every locus, thus giving the opportunity to study alternative splicing genome-wide. The Exon 1.0 ST (sense target platform, with versions for Human, Mouse and Rat, is designed primarily to probe every known or predicted exon. The smaller Gene 1.0 ST array is designed as an expression microarray but still interrogates expression with probes along the full length of each well-characterized transcript. We explore the possibility of using the Gene 1.0 ST platform to identify differential splicing events. Results We propose a strategy to score differential splicing by using the auxiliary information from fitting the statistical model, RMA (robust multichip analysis. RMA partitions the probe-level data into probe effects and expression levels, operating robustly so that if a small number of probes behave differently than the rest, they are downweighted in the fitting step. We argue that adjacent poorly fitting probes for a given sample can be evidence of differential splicing and have designed a statistic to search for this behaviour. Using a public tissue panel dataset, we show many examples of tissue-specific alternative splicing. Furthermore, we show that evidence for putative alternative splicing has a strong correspondence between the Gene 1.0 ST and Exon 1.0 ST platforms. Conclusion We propose a new approach, FIRMAGene, to search for differentially spliced genes using the Gene 1.0 ST platform. Such an analysis complements the search for differential expression. We validate the method by illustrating several known examples and we note some of the challenges in interpreting the probe-level data. Software implementing our methods is freely available as an R package.

  10. Expression of UGT2B7 is driven by two mutually exclusive promoters and alternative splicing in human tissues: changes from prenatal life to adulthood and in kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Vincent; Lévesque, Eric; Chen, Sylvia; Eap, Olivier; Joy, Melanie S; Ekström, Lena; Rane, Anders; Guillemette, Chantal

    2013-12-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) plays a major detoxification role in commonly prescribed drugs and endogenous lipophilic molecules. Additional exons and multiple alternative splicing events (ASEs) at the UGT2B7 locus were recently discovered. Novel and classical ASEs were quantified in 27 human tissues, as well as in fetal and tumoral tissues. The activity of the alternative UGT2B7 promoters was studied in cell lines. UGT2B7 expression is driven by an alternate promoter 1a associated with transcripts containing exon 1b, which is located ∼44 kb upstream of the known promoter 1 associated with transcripts containing exon 1 required for enzyme activity. The exon 1 was expressed most abundantly in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, whereas exon 1b was expressed predominantly in other extrahepatic tissues. Experimental evidence indicated endogenous translation that yields alternative UGT2B7s derived from the use of exon 1b are enzymatically inactive. Alternate 5' ASE predominates in fetal tissues (kidney, lung) and kidney tumor samples compared with normal adult kidney. These changes further correlate with reduced glucuronidation in neoplastic kidneys. This differential expression pattern was further confirmed using four liver and kidney cell lines and was consistent with the differential usage of alternate promoters in hepatic (promoter 1) and kidney cells (1a). UGT2B7 is characterized by two mutually exclusive exons 1, both flanked by a unique 5' promoter region. Data also indicated a switch toward functional enzyme upon maturation in the kidney and reversal of this process in neoplastic cells, considerably modifying the glucuronidation potential across human tissues and cells.

  11. Modulation of 5' splice site selection using tailed oligonucleotides carrying splicing signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elela Sherif

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the use of tailed oligonucleotides as a means of reprogramming alternative pre-mRNA splicing in vitro and in vivo. The tailed oligonucleotides that were used interfere with splicing because they contain a portion complementary to sequences immediately upstream of the target 5' splice site combined with a non-hybridizing 5' tail carrying binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. In the present study, we have tested the inhibitory activity of RNA oligonucleotides carrying different tail structures. Results We show that an oligonucleotide with a 5' tail containing the human β-globin branch site sequence inhibits the use of the 5' splice site of Bcl-xL, albeit less efficiently than a tail containing binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. A branch site-containing tail positioned at the 3' end of the oligonucleotide also elicited splicing inhibition but not as efficiently as a 5' tail. The interfering activity of a 3' tail was improved by adding a 5' splice site sequence next to the branch site sequence. A 3' tail carrying a Y-shaped branch structure promoted similar splicing interference. The inclusion of branch site or 5' splice site sequences in the Y-shaped 3' tail further improved splicing inhibition. Conclusion Our in vitro results indicate that a variety of tail architectures can be used to elicit splicing interference at low nanomolar concentrations, thereby broadening the scope and the potential impact of this antisense technology.

  12. Approaches to link RNA secondary structures with splicing regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plass, Mireya; Eyras, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, alternative splicing is usually regulated by protein factors, which bind to the pre-mRNA and affect the recognition of splicing signals. There is recent evidence that the secondary structure of the pre-mRNA may also play an important role in this process, either by facilitat...

  13. Pre-mRNA Splicing in Plants: In Vivo Functions of RNA-Binding Proteins Implicated in the Splicing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Meyer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher plants emerges as an important layer of regulation upon exposure to exogenous and endogenous cues. Accordingly, mutants defective in RNA-binding proteins predicted to function in the splicing process show severe phenotypic alterations. Among those are developmental defects, impaired responses to pathogen threat or abiotic stress factors, and misregulation of the circadian timing system. A suite of splicing factors has been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we summarize recent insights on how defects in these splicing factors impair plant performance.

  14. Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of KV10.1 Potassium Channels Modulate Channel Properties and Can Activate Cyclin-dependent Kinase in Xenopus Oocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Gomes, Fernanda; Romaniello, Vincenzo; Sánchez, Araceli; Weber, Claudia; Narayanan, Pratibha; Psol, Maryna; Pardo, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    KV10.1 is a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed selectively in the mammalian brain but also aberrantly in cancer cells. In this study we identified short splice variants of KV10.1 resulting from exon-skipping events (E65 and E70) in human brain and cancer cell lines. The presence of the variants was confirmed by Northern blot and RNase protection assays. Both variants completely lacked the transmembrane domains of the channel and produced cytoplasmic proteins without channel function. In a reconstituted system, both variants co-precipitated with the full-length channel and induced a robust down-regulation of KV10.1 current when co-expressed with the full-length form, but their effect was mechanistically different. E65 required a tetramerization domain and induced a reduction in the overall expression of full-length KV10.1, whereas E70 mainly affected its glycosylation pattern. E65 triggered the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases in Xenopus laevis oocytes, suggesting a role in cell cycle control. Our observations highlight the relevance of noncanonical functions for the oncogenicity of KV10.1, which need to be considered when ion channels are targeted for cancer therapy. PMID:26518875

  15. Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of KV10.1 Potassium Channels Modulate Channel Properties and Can Activate Cyclin-dependent Kinase in Xenopus Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Gomes, Fernanda; Romaniello, Vincenzo; Sánchez, Araceli; Weber, Claudia; Narayanan, Pratibha; Psol, Maryna; Pardo, Luis A

    2015-12-18

    KV10.1 is a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed selectively in the mammalian brain but also aberrantly in cancer cells. In this study we identified short splice variants of KV10.1 resulting from exon-skipping events (E65 and E70) in human brain and cancer cell lines. The presence of the variants was confirmed by Northern blot and RNase protection assays. Both variants completely lacked the transmembrane domains of the channel and produced cytoplasmic proteins without channel function. In a reconstituted system, both variants co-precipitated with the full-length channel and induced a robust down-regulation of KV10.1 current when co-expressed with the full-length form, but their effect was mechanistically different. E65 required a tetramerization domain and induced a reduction in the overall expression of full-length KV10.1, whereas E70 mainly affected its glycosylation pattern. E65 triggered the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases in Xenopus laevis oocytes, suggesting a role in cell cycle control. Our observations highlight the relevance of noncanonical functions for the oncogenicity of KV10.1, which need to be considered when ion channels are targeted for cancer therapy. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Structure of the human gene and two rat cDNAs encoding the alpha chain of GTP-binding regulatory protein Go: two different mRNAs are generated by alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, T; Toyama, R; Itoh, H; Kozasa, T; Matsuoka, M; Kaziro, Y

    1991-04-15

    Go is a specific class ("other") of signal-transducing heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) that is expressed in high levels in mammalian brain. We have cloned two different rat cDNAs encoding the alpha subunit of Go (Go alpha-1 and Go alpha-2) and a human Go alpha chromosomal gene. The human Go alpha gene spans more than 100 kilobases and contains 11 exons, including one noncoding exon in the 3' flanking region. The 5' flanking region is highly G + C-rich and contains five G.C boxes (Sp1 binding sites) but no TATA box. Exons 7 and 8 coding for amino acid residues 242-354 of Go alpha protein are duplicated (referred to as exons 7A, 7B, 8A, and 8B). It was found that exons 7A and 8A code for Go alpha-1, and 7B and 8B code for Go alpha-2. This indicates that two different Go alpha mRNAs may be generated by alternative splicing of a single Go alpha gene. The splice sites of the Go alpha-1 and Go alpha-2 genes are completely identical with those encoding human inhibitory G protein alpha subunits Gi2 alpha and Gi3 alpha [Itoh, H., Toyama, R., Kozasa, T., Tsukamoto, T., Matsuoka, M. & Kaziro, Y. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 6656-6664] and also transducin G protein alpha subunit Gt1 alpha [Raport, C. J., Dere, B. & Hurley, J. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 7122-7128]. Sequence homology and conservation of the exon-intron organization indicate that the genes coding for Go alpha, Gi2 alpha, Gi3 alpha, Gt1 alpha, and probably Gi1 alpha may be evolved from a common progenitor. Like Go alpha-1, Go alpha-2 is expressed mainly in brain.

  17. Spinal morphine but not ziconotide or gabapentin analgesia is affected by alternative splicing of voltage-gated calcium channel CaV2.2 pre-mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-Qiu; Andrade, Arturo; Lipscombe, Diane

    2013-12-26

    Presynaptic voltage-gated calcium Ca(V)2.2 channels play a privileged role in spinal level sensitization following peripheral nerve injury. Direct and indirect inhibitors of Ca(V)2.2 channel activity in spinal dorsal horn are analgesic in chronic pain states. Ca(V)2.2 channels represent a family of splice isoforms that are expressed in different combinations according to cell-type. A pair of mutually exclusive exons in the Ca(V)2.2 encoding Cacna1b gene, e37a and e37b, differentially influence morphine analgesia. In mice that lack exon e37a, which is enriched in nociceptors, the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal morphine against noxious thermal stimuli is reduced. Here we ask if sequences unique to e37a influence: the development of abnormal thermal and mechanical sensitivity associated with peripheral nerve injury; and the actions of two other classes of analgesics that owe part or all of their efficacy to Ca(V)2.2 channel inhibition. We find that: i) the analgesic efficacy of morphine, but not ziconotide or gabapentin, is reduced in mice lacking e37a, ii) the induction and maintenance of behaviors associated with sensitization that accompany peripheral nerve injury, do not require e37a-specific sequence, iii) intrathecal morphine, but not ziconotide or gabapentin analgesia to thermal stimuli is significantly lower in wild-type mice after peripheral nerve injury, iv) the analgesic efficacy of ziconotide and gabapentin to mechanical stimuli is reduced following nerve injury, and iv) intrathecal morphine analgesia to thermal stimuli in mice lacking e37a is not further reduced by peripheral nerve injury. Our findings show that the analgesic action of morphine, but not ziconotide or gabapentin, to thermal stimuli is linked to which Cacna1b exon, e37a or e37b, is selected during alternative pre-mR